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Sample records for early postmenopause observations

  1. Alendronate in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Weiss, S R; Rodriguez-Portales, J A

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect on bone mass of alendronate treatment for 5 yr and its withdrawal. Four hundred and forty-seven postmenopausal women with normal bone mass entered a 3-yr randomized trial followed by a 2-yr open label extension. Three hundred and eleven women completed the first 3 yr, and 263...... consented to continue and completed the extension. We are reporting data from groups using the dose of alendronate currently approved for osteoporosis prevention (5 mg) or from the group in which alendronate treatment was withdrawn: 52 women received alendronate (5 mg) for 5 yr (group I), 56 received 3 yr...

  2. Bone mineral content in early-postmenopausal and postmenopausal osteoporotic women: comparison of measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinbold, W.D.; Genant, H.K.; Reiser, U.J.; Harris, S.T.; Ettinger, B.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate associations among methods for noninvasive measurement of skeletal bone mass, we studied 40 healthy early postmenopausal women and 68 older postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Methods included single- and dual-energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) of the lumbar spine, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of the distal third of the radius, and combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the second metacarpal shaft. Lateral thoracolumbar radiography was performed, and a spinal fracture index was calculated. There was good correlation between QCT and DPA methods in early postmenopausal women and modest correlation in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Correlations between spinal measurements (QCT or DPA) and appendicular cortical measurements (SPA or CCT) were modest in healthy women and poor in osteoporotic women. Measurements resulting from one method are not predictive of those by another method for the individual patient. The strongest correlation with severity of vertebral fracture is provided by QCT; the weakest, by SPA. There was a high correlation between single- and dual-energy QCT results, indicating that errors due to vertebral fat are not substantial in these postmenopausal women. Single-energy QCT may be adequate and perhaps preferable for assessing postmenopausal women. The measurement of spinal trabecular bone density by QCT discriminates between osteoporotic women and younger healthy women with more sensitivity than measurements of spinal integral bone by DPA or of appendicular cortical bone by SPA or CCT

  3. [Evaluation of risk factors of falls in early postmenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, Eliana Aguiar Petri; Omodei, Michelle Sako; Cangussu, Luciana Mendes; Nahas-Neto, Jorge

    2013-11-01

    It was to evaluate the frequency and the risk factors of falls in early postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 358 women (age: 45-65 years and amenorrhea >12 months) with time since menopause fall was identified as an unexpected unintentional change in position which causes an individual to remain in a lower level in relation to the initial position. The history of self-reported falls during the previous 24 months, and clinical and anthropometric data (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)) and bone densitometric measures were analyzed. For statistical analysis, c² trend test and the logistic regression method (odds ratio (OR)) were used for the comparison between groups of women with and without falls. Of the 358 women, 48.0% (172/358) had a history of falls and 17.4% (30/172) had fractures. The fall occurred indoors (at home) in 58.7% (101/172). The mean age was 53.7 ± 6.5 years, time since menopause 5.8 ± 3.5 years, BMI 28.3 ± 4.6 kg/m² and WC 89.0 ± 11.4 cm. There were differences as the occurrence of smoking and diabetes, with greater frequency among fallers vs. non-fallers, 25.6 versus 16.1% and 12.8 versus 5.9%, respectively (prisk of falls in the presence of influential variables, it was observed that risk increased with current smoking status (OR 1.93; 95%CI 1.01-3.71), whereas other clinical and anthropometric variables did not influence this risk. In early postmenopausal women there was higher frequency of falls. Current smoking was clinical indicators of risk for falls. With the recognition of factors for falling, preventive measures become important, as the orientation of abolishing smoking.

  4. Total and regional body-composition changes in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Q; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille

    1994-01-01

    Total and regional body composition were measured in 373 early postmenopausal women aged 49-60 y by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to evaluate whether the changes in body composition in the early postmenopausal years are related to menopause itself or merely to age. Both fat mass and fat...

  5. Early postmenopausal diminution of forearm and spinal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, K; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille

    1995-01-01

    Diminution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and forearm was studied cross-sectionally in 363 women who were 6 months to 10 years postmenopausal. BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR-2000) in the lumbar spine, in both the supine lateral (LAT) and ante......Diminution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and forearm was studied cross-sectionally in 363 women who were 6 months to 10 years postmenopausal. BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR-2000) in the lumbar spine, in both the supine lateral (LAT......) and anteroposterior (AP) projections, and in the distal third of the forearm. The postmenopausal diminution of BMD was best described by an exponential fit. The initial rate of postmenopausal diminution of BMD was highest in the most trabecular sites (LAT > AP > forearm), but 10-year diminution was similar at all...

  6. Use of Gelatinized Maca (Lepidium Peruvianum) in Early Postmenopausal Women

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    Meissner, H. O.; Kapczynski, W.; Mscisz, A.; Lutomski, J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This double-blind, placebo-corrected clinical pilot study was aimed at assessing the use of hypocotyls of cruciferous Andean plant Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon), in alleviating symptoms of menopausal discomfort experienced by women in early post menopause as measured by profiles of serum hormones: Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH), Estrogen (E2) and Progesterone (PG) and as assessed by Greene’s Menopausal Index. Design: Study was conducted on 20 Caucasian healthy early-postmenopausal women volunteers during the three months period (Trial I) and on eight women during nine months period (Trial II). Hormone levels were determined in blood with a simultaneous assessment of menopausal index at the start of study, after one month use of placebo, and after two and eight months administration of 2g gelatinized Maca root powder (Maca-GO) in the form of two 500mg hard gel capsules, twice daily. Results: In comparison to placebo, after both, two and eight months administration of Maca-GO capsules to EPMW, level of FSH significantly (PMaca-GO treatment only. There was a significant (PMaca-GO when used in EPMW, depending on the length of use, was acting as a toner of hormonal processes as reflected by decrease in FSH and increased LH secretion, which stimulated production of both ovarian hormones, E2 and PG and resulted in a substantial reduction of menopausal discomfort felt by women participating in the study, with a distinctive placebo effect, thus, fully justifying further, more complex study on effectiveness of Maca-GO as a reliable alternative to HRT program. PMID:23674952

  7. Early Menarche and Ischemic Stroke Risk Among Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chen Hsieh

    2010-03-01

    Conclusion: Our study provides strong evidence that a significant joint protective effect was observed for patients who undergo early menarche, have longer estrogen exposure and no history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus on the risk of ischemic stroke.

  8. Relationship between oxidative stress and muscle mass loss in early postmenopause: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; García-Anaya, Oswaldo Daniel; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2018-04-09

    Endocrine changes due to menopause have been associated to oxidative stress and muscle mass loss. The study objective was to determine the relationship between both variables in early postmenopause. An exploratory, cross-sectional study was conducted in 107 pre- and postmenopausal women (aged 40-57 years). Levels of serum lipid peroxides and uric acid and enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as total plasma antioxidant capacity were measured as oxidative stress markers. Muscle mass using bioelectrical impedance and muscle strength using dynamometry were also measured. Muscle mass, skeletal muscle index, fat-free mass, and body mass index were calculated. More than 90% of participants were diagnosed with overweight or obesity. Postmenopausal women had lower values of muscle mass and strength markers, with a negative correlation between lipid peroxide level and skeletal muscle index (r= -0.326, p<.05), and a positive correlation between uric acid and skeletal muscle index (r=0.295, p<.05). A multivariate model including oxidative stress markers, age, and waist circumference showed lipid peroxide level to be the main contributor to explain the decrease in skeletal muscle mass in postmenopause, since for every 0.1μmol/l increase in lipid peroxide level, skeletal muscle index decreases by 3.03 units. Our findings suggest an association between increased oxidative stress and muscle mass loss in early postmenopause. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Postexercise nutrient intake enhances leg protein balance in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Esmarck, Birgitte; Suetta, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of nutrient administration after a session of resistance exercise on muscle protein kinetics in six healthy, early postmenopausal women, in a crossover design of random and double-blinded administration of protein and carbohydrate (PC) or placebo (NON). METH...

  10. Physical activity and coronary artery calcification in two cohorts of women representing early and late postmenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storti, Kristi L; Pettee Gabriel, Kelley K; Underwood, Darcy A; Kuller, Lewis H; Kriska, Andrea M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between physical activity (PA) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) among two cohorts of postmenopausal (PM) women representing early and late postmenopause. The cross-sectional relationship between PA and CAC was examined in 173 younger PM women (mean age ± SD, 56.8 ± 2.9 y) from the Women on the Move Through Activity and Nutrition (WOMAN) study and 121 older PM women (mean age ± SD, 73.9 ± 3.8 y) from the Walking Women Follow-up (WWF) study who had complete PA and CAC data. PA was measured objectively using a pedometer over a 7-day period in both cohorts. CAC was assessed using electron beam tomography. Descriptive statistics were used to describe median levels of PA and CAC, as well as proportions of detectable CAC (0 vs > 0). Fifty-seven percent of WOMAN study participants and 74% of WWF study participants had detectable CAC. The median (interquartile range) CAC score was 1.4 (0-23.3) for participants in the WOMAN study and 38.8 (0-264.4) among WWF study participants. Median (interquartile range) step counts were 6,447 (4,823-8,722) steps per day in the WOMAN study and 5,466 (3,610-7,576) steps per day for WWF study participants. Among WWF study participants, there was a statistically significant inverse association between pedometer steps and CAC (P for trend = 0.002); no association was found among WOMAN study participants. Among older PM women, higher levels of PA were associated with lower CAC. However, the relationship was not observed in PM women, likely due to the lower prevalence of CAC in this age group.

  11. Postmenopausal vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) is positively improved by topical hyaluronic acid application. A prospective, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origoni, M; Cimmino, C; Carminati, G; Iachini, E; Stefani, C; Girardelli, S; Salvatore, S; Candiani, M

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a topical vaginal preparation containing hyaluronic acid in controlling signs and symptoms correlated with postmenopausal vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA). A prospective, observational study has been performed at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Vita Salute San Raffaele University of Milan, Italy. Forty-six (46) consecutive postmenopausal women complaining of genital discomfort due to postmenopausal estrogen lack have been enrolled. All patients have been investigated by the use of the Vaginal Health Index (VHI) and of a Visual Analogic Scale (VAS) of symptoms at baseline and one month after the end of the study. The treatment protocol consisted of the administration of a hyaluronic acid-based liquid preparation for vaginal use (Justgin®, Just Pharma, Rome, Italy) three times a week, for a total of 8 weeks. Statistical analysis of VHI and VAS scores has been performed by the use of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for repeated values, assuming a p-value Hyaluronic acid topical approach with a liquid preparation for vaginal use (Justgin®, Just Pharma, Roma, Italy) to control signs and symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) in postmenopausal women demonstrated significant effectiveness both in terms of objective and subjective improvement.

  12. Relationship between fasting glucose, vitamin D and PTH in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    við Streym, Susanna; Rejnmark, Lars; Vestergaard, Peter

      Abstract Relationship between fasting glucose, vitamin D and PTH in early postmenopausal women Súsanna við Streym Thomsen (1), Lars Rejnmark (1), Peter Vestergaard (1), Christine Brot (2), Pia Eiken (3), Pernille Hermann (4) Leif Mosekilde (1). (1) Department of Medicine and Endocrinology C...... postmenopausal Caucasian women (n=2016) aged 45 to 58 years old. Measurements: Fasting blood glucose was measured after an overnight fast by standard laboratory methods. Serum levels of 25OHD were measured by a competitive assay using rachitic rat binding protein. The fat and lean mass was measured by DXA...... between fasting blood glucose and 25OHD and all studied indices. In a multivariate linear regression analyzing fasting blood glucose was significantly associated with BMI (b=0.038 ±0.007 (SE), 2p

  13. [China expert consensus on the management of dyslipidemia in postmenopausal patients with early-stage breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-23

    Estrogen has an impact on the type of lipoproteins and the blood lipid levels, thus protecting the cardiovascular system. Postmenopausal breast cancer patients suffer a significant decrease in estrogen levels due to both physiological changes and the use of drugs, and thus have a higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, strict lipid management is required for postmenopausal breast cancer patients receiving endocrine therapy. However, no guidelines have been developed in terms of lipid management and intervention for postmenopausal breast cancer patients. The Chinese expert group of multidisciplinary management of dyslipidemia in breast cancer patients with endocrine therapy, after deep investigation into the management of dyslipidemia in postmenopausal patients with early-stage breast cancer, has developed the China Expert Consensus on Dyslipidemia Management in Postmenopausal Patients with Early-stage Breast Cancer. The Consensus clearly defines the goals and measures of interventions for dyslipidemia, hoping to effectively reduce the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal breast cancer patients and further improve the long-term survival of the patients.

  14. Aromatase inhibitors, efficacy and metabolic risk in the treatment of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Gonnelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stefano Gonnelli1, Roberto Petrioli21Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrine-Metabolic Science and Biochemistry, University of Siena, Italy (Dir. R. Nuti.; 2Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, Medical Oncology Section, University of Siena, Italy (Dir. G. FranciniAbstract: The third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs, letrozole, anastrozole and exemestane, are becoming the first choice endocrine drugs for post-menopausal women with breast cancer, since they present greater efficacy when compared with tamoxifen in both adjuvant and metastatic setting. In particular, several large and well designed trials have suggested an important role for AIs in the adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer either in the upfront, sequential or extended adjuvant mode. Overall, AIs are associated with a small but significant improvement in disease free survival. The expanding use of AIs in the treatment of early breast cancer means that individual patients will be exposed to the agents for longer durations, making it increasingly important to establish their long-term safety. This review focused on the effects of AIs on bone metabolism, serum lipids and cardiovascular risk. AIs have adverse effects on bone turnover with a reduction of bone mineral density and an increase in the rate of fragility fractures. With respect to tamoxifen AIs present lower thrombotic risk and a less favorable impact on lipid profile, whereas the true effects on cardiovascular risk still remain to be clarified. An adequate monitoring of bone mineral density (BMD and lipid profile could be recommended for post-menopausal women candidate to AIs.Keywords: breast cancer, aromatase inhibitors, bone loss, lipids, cardiovascular risk

  15. Early Regenerative Modifications of Human Postmenopausal Atrophic Vaginal Mucosa Following Fractional CO2 Laser Treatment

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    Stefano Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postmenopausal women experience undesired symptoms that adversely affect their quality of life. In the recent years, a specific 12 - week fractional CO2 laser treatment has been introduced, with highly significant relief of symptoms. AIM: The aim of this paper is the identification of the early modifications of structural components of atrophic vaginal mucosa induced by laser irradiation, which is responsible for the restorative processes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated by microscopical, ultrastructural and biochemical methods the modifications of the structural components of postmenopausal atrophic vaginal mucosa tissues after 1 hour following a single fractional laser CO2 application. RESULTS: In one hour, the mucosal epithelium thickens, with the maturation of epithelial cells and desquamation at the epithelial surface. In the connective tissue, new papillae indenting the epithelium with newly formed vessels penetrating them, new thin fibrils of collagen III are also formed in a renewed turnover of components due to the increase of metalloproteinase - 2. Specific features of fibroblasts support stimulation of their activity responsible of the renewal of the extracellular matrix, with an increase of mechanical support as connective tissue and stimulation of growth and maturation to epithelium thanks to new vessels and related factors delivered. CONCLUSION: We found the activation of regenerative mechanisms expressed both in the connective tissue - with the formation of new vessels, new papillae, and new collagen - and in the epithelium with the associated thickening and desquamation of cells at the mucosal surface.

  16. Measurement of spinal or peripheral bone mass to estimate early postmenopausal bone loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riis, B.J.; Christiansen, C.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents data from 153 healthy, early postmenopausal women who were randomly allocated to two years of treatment with estrogen or placebo. Bone mineral content in the forearms was measured by single-photon absorptiometry, and bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and total-body bone mineral by dual-photon absorptiometry, before and after one and two years of treatment. At the end of the two years, there were highly significant differences of 6 to 7 percent between the estrogen and the placebo groups at all sites measured. The range of the changes of the spine measurement was twice that of the forearm and total-body measurements. It is concluded that measurement of the forearm by single-photon absorptiometry is superior to measurement of the spine by dual-photon absorptiometry both in clinical studies and in the individual patient for detecting estrogen-dependent bone loss and its treatment by estrogen replacement

  17. Bone changes occurring spontaneously and caused by estrogen in early postmenopausal women: a local generalized phenomenon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, C.; Gotfredsen, A.; Riis, B.J.; Hassager, C.

    1986-01-01

    Regional values of bone mineral content and bone mineral density were calculated from total body dual photon absorptiometry scans of 52 early postmenopausal women treated with estrogen for one year and of 52 similar women treated with placebo. The six regions were head, arms, chest, spine, pelvis, and legs. In addition, bone mineral density of the spine was calculated by dual photon absorptiometry and bone mineral content of the forearm by single photon absorptiometry, using separate special purpose scanners. All regions were unchanged after one year of treatment with estrogen, excluding the lumbar spine, for which values rose. Values for all regions except the lumbar spine fell significantly in the placebo group. The rates of loss ranged from 2 to 8%, with no significant differences between the regions. It is concluded that loss of bone in the early menopause is a generalized phenomenon, affecting all parts of the skeleton. Furthermore, estrogen prophylaxis for loss of bone is effective in all parts of the skeleton. Finally, it is suggested that the measurement of bone mineral content in the forearm be used for clinical follow up of bone changes, as this method is superior to others in the ratio of change to precision

  18. Leg vascular and skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic high-intensity exercise training are enhanced in the early postmenopausal phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Egelund, Jon; Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria

    2017-01-01

    the haemodynamic response to acute exercise in matched pre- and postmenopausal women before and after 12 weeks of aerobic high intensity exercise training. Twenty premenopausal and 16 early postmenopausal (3.1 ± 0.5 [mean ± SEM] years after final menstrual period) women only separated by 4 (50 ± 0 versus 54 ± 1...... receptor α (ERRα) were increased (P training in the postmenopausal women whereas only the levels of mitochondrial complex V, eNOS, and COX-2 were increased (P aerobic......Exercise training leads to favourable adaptations within skeletal muscle; however, this effect of exercise training may be blunted in postmenopausal women due to the loss of oestrogens. Furthermore, postmenopausal women may have an impaired vascular response to acute exercise. We examined...

  19. Observations of Early Optical Afterglows

    OpenAIRE

    Roming, Peter W. A.; Mason, Keith O.

    2006-01-01

    The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) has performed extensive follow-up on 71 Swift Burst Alert Telescope triggered gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in its first ten months of operations. In this paper, we discuss some of the UV and optical properties of UVOT detected afterglows such as XRF 050406, the bright GRB 050525A, the high redshift GRB 050730, the early flaring GRB 050801, and others. We also discuss some of the implications of why 75% of GRB afterglows observed by UVOT in less than ...

  20. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on bone quality in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paschalis, E P; Boskey, A L; Kassem, M

    2003-01-01

    HRT is an effective prophylaxis against postmenopausal bone loss. Infrared imaging of paired iliac crest biopsies obtained at baseline and after 2 years of HRT therapy demonstrate an effect on the mineral crystallinity and collagen cross-links that may affect bone quality. Several studies have de...

  1. Increased Brain Connectivity In Early Postmenopausal Women with Subjective Cognitive Impairment

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    Jennifer N Vega

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive changes after menopause are a common complaint, especially as the loss of estradiol at menopause has been hypothesized to contribute to the higher rates of dementia in women. To explore the neural processes related to subjective cognitive complaints, this study examined resting state functional connectivity in 31 postmenopausal women (aged 50-60 in relationship to cognitive complaints following menopause. A cognitive complaint index was calculated using responses to a 120-item questionnaire. Seed regions were identified for resting state brain networks important for higher-order cognitive processes and for areas that have shown differences in volume and functional activity associated with cognitive complaints in prior studies. Results indicated a positive correlation between the executive control network and cognitive complaint score, weaker negative functional connectivity within the frontal cortex, and stronger positive connectivity within the right middle temporal gyrus in postmenopausal women who report more cognitive complaints. While longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis, these data are consistent with previous findings suggesting that high levels of cognitive complaints may reflect changes in brain connectivity and may be a potential marker for the risk of late-life cognitive dysfunction in postmenopausal women with otherwise normal cognitive performance.

  2. Surgery Should Complement Endocrine Therapy for Elderly Postmenopausal Women with Hormone Receptor-Positive Early-Stage Breast Cancer

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    Olivier Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Endocrine therapy (ET is an integral part of breast cancer (BC treatment with surgical resection remaining the cornerstone of curative treatment. The objective of this study is to compare the survival of elderly postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early-stage BC treated with ET alone, without radiation or chemotherapy, versus ET plus surgery. Materials and Methods. This is a retrospective study based on a prospective database. The medical records of postmenopausal BC patients referred to the surgical oncology service of two hospitals during an 8-year period were reviewed. All patients were to receive ET for a minimum of four months before undergoing any surgery. Results. Fifty-one patients were included and divided in two groups, ET alone and ET plus surgery. At last follow-up in exclusive ET patients (n=28, 39% had stable disease or complete response, 22% had progressive disease, of which 18% died of breast cancer, and 39% died of other causes. In surgical patients (n=23, 78% were disease-free, 9% died of recurrent breast cancer, and 13% died of other causes. Conclusions. These results suggest that surgical resection is beneficial in this group and should be considered, even for patients previously deemed ineligible for surgery.

  3. Menopausal hormone therapy is associated with having high blood pressure in postmenopausal women: observational cohort study.

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    Chiu, Christine L; Lujic, Sanja; Thornton, Charlene; O'Loughlin, Aiden; Makris, Angela; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and cardiovascular risk remains controversial, with a number of studies advocating the use of MHT in reducing risk of cardiovascular diseases, while others have shown it to increase risk. The aim of this study was to determine the association between menopausal hormone therapy and high blood pressure. A total of 43,405 postmenopausal women were included in the study. Baseline data for these women were sourced from the 45 and Up Study, Australia, a large scale study of healthy ageing. These women reported being postmenopausal, having an intact uterus, and had not been diagnosed with high blood pressure prior to menopause. Odds ratios for the association between MHT use and having high blood pressure were estimated using logistic regression, stratified by age (high blood pressure: past menopausal hormone therapy use: high blood pressure, with the effect of hormone therapy use diminishing with increasing age. Menopausal hormone therapy use is associated with significantly higher odds of having high blood pressure, and the odds increase with increased duration of use. High blood pressure should be conveyed as a health risk for people considering MHT use.

  4. Observing the very early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhardt, Paul Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Cosmology is entering an historic epoch in which a dazzling array of new observations will decisively test our theories of the origin and evolution of the Universe. Many of the theoretical proposals have profound implications for our understanding of high-energy physics. This lecture series will review some of the leading ideas, especially the inflationary model of the universe, and explain the astrophysical and cosmological observations anticipated for the next decade that will be critical in determining their validity.

  5. Long-term efficacy and safety of anastrozole for adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharath Gangadhara

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sharath Gangadhara, Gianfilippo BertelliSouth West Wales Cancer Institute, Singleton Hospital, Swansea, UKAbstract: For more than 20 years, tamoxifen has been the gold standard for the adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone-responsive early breast cancer. However, recent randomized trials have shown efficacy and tolerability benefits with the third-generation aromatase inhibitor anastrozole, resulting in an increased use of this agent in the adjuvant setting. Data on anastrozole’s long-term efficacy and tolerability are therefore of interest in clinical practice and will be reviewed here, especially in the light of the 100-month analysis of the ATAC (Anastrozole, Tamoxifen Alone or in Combination trial.Keywords: anastrozole, aromatase inhibitors, breast cancer, adjuvant therapy 

  6. Endocrine effects of adjuvant letrozole compared with tamoxifen in hormone-responsive postmenopausal patients with early breast cancer: the HOBOE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Emanuela; Morabito, Alessandro; Di Rella, Francesca; Esposito, Giuseppe; Gravina, Adriano; Labonia, Vincenzo; Landi, Gabriella; Nuzzo, Francesco; Pacilio, Carmen; De Maio, Ermelinda; Di Maio, Massimo; Piccirillo, Maria Carmela; De Feo, Gianfranco; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; Botti, Gerardo; Chiodini, Paolo; Gallo, Ciro; Perrone, Francesco; de Matteis, Andrea

    2009-07-01

    PURPOSE We compared the endocrine effects of 6 and 12 months of adjuvant letrozole versus tamoxifen in postmenopausal patients with hormone-responsive early breast cancer within an ongoing phase III trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients were randomly assigned to receive tamoxifen, letrozole, or letrozole plus zoledronic acid. Serum values of estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), progesterone, and cortisol were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of treatment. For each hormone, changes from baseline at 6 and 12 months were compared between treatment groups, and differences over time for each group were analyzed. Results Hormonal data were available for 139 postmenopausal patients with a median age of 62 years, with 43 patients assigned to tamoxifen and 96 patients assigned to letrozole alone or combined with zoledronic acid. Baseline values were similar between the two groups for all hormones. Many significant changes were observed between drugs and for each drug over time. Namely, three hormones seemed significantly affected by one drug only: estradiol that decreased and progesterone that increased with letrozole and cortisol that increased with tamoxifen. Both drugs affected FSH (decreasing with tamoxifen and slightly increasing with letrozole), LH (decreasing more with tamoxifen than with letrozole), testosterone (slightly increasing with letrozole but not enough to differ from tamoxifen), and DHEA-S (increasing with both drugs but not differently between them). Zoledronic acid did not have significant impact on hormonal levels. CONCLUSION Adjuvant letrozole and tamoxifen result in significantly distinct endocrine effects. Such differences can explain the higher efficacy of letrozole as compared with tamoxifen.

  7. Alterations in Circulating miRNA Levels following Early-Stage Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Resection in Post-Menopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kodahl, Annette R; Zeuthen, Pernille; Binder, Harald

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) exhibit remarkable stability and may serve as biomarkers in several clinical cancer settings. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the levels of specific circulating miRNA following breast cancer surgery and evaluate whether these altera...... and could potentially be used to monitor whether all cancer cells have been removed at surgery and/or, subsequently, whether the patients develop recurrence.......INTRODUCTION: Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) exhibit remarkable stability and may serve as biomarkers in several clinical cancer settings. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the levels of specific circulating miRNA following breast cancer surgery and evaluate whether...... these alterations were also observed in an independent data set. METHODS: Global miRNA analysis was performed on prospectively collected serum samples from 24 post-menopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer before surgery and 3 weeks after tumor resection using global LNA...

  8. Body size accounts for most differences in bone density between Asian and Caucasian women. The EPIC (Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort) Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, P D; He, Y; Yates, A J

    1996-01-01

    We compared bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body (and subregions: arm, leg, and pelvis), hip, spine, lateral spine, wrist, and forearm among Caucasian and Asian women at four geographic centers (Honolulu, HI; Nottingham, UK; Portland, OR; Copenhagen, Denmark). Data were derived from...... the baseline examination of 1367 Caucasian and 162 Asian women enrolled in the 1609-subject Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort (EPIC) study. After adjusting for age, study site, years postmenopause, and years of estrogen use, BMD was approximately 4-6% lower (P Asian women at most...... skeletal sites, but there was no significant difference for wrist or forearm BMD. Adding height, lean body mass, fat mass, and/or quadriceps muscle strength to the regression models reduced the racial differences at most skeletal sites; after these additional adjustments, Asian women had significantly...

  9. The impact of endocrine therapy on sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women with early stage breast cancer: encouraging results from a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechette, Dominique; Paquet, Lise; Verma, Shailendra; Clemons, Mark; Wheatley-Price, Paul; Gertler, Stan Z; Song, Xinni; Graham, Nadine; Dent, Susan

    2013-08-01

    The goal of this project was to investigate the contentious issue of a possible effect of endocrine therapy (ET) on sexual dysfunction (SD) in postmenopausal early stage breast cancer survivors. To date, few studies have assessed sexual functioning prior to initiating ET and none have taken sexual distress into account when reporting the prevalence of ET-induced SD. We report the findings of a study on the change in SD (defined as experiencing sexual problems causing distress) during the first 6 months of ET usage. Between January 2009 and May 2011, 118 patients entered the study and 66 completed questionnaires prior to initiation of ET and after 6 months of use. Sexual functioning (SF) was evaluated with the female sexual function index while sexual distress was assessed with the female sexual distress scale (FSDS-R). Gynecological symptoms were measured with the FACT-B ES subscale. Over time, the level of gynecological symptoms increased (p problem (85 %) and the percentage who were sexually distressed (30 %) remained the same across time. Importantly, the change in the prevalence of SD between baseline (24 %) and 6 months (29 %) was not statistically significant. Women experiencing SD at baseline were more likely to experience SD after 6 months of ET usage (OR = 7.4, 95 % CI = 1.5-36.9) than women who had no SD prior to initiating ET. The observation that SF remained stable across time is encouraging news. However, longer follow-up and the inclusion of women who were premenopausal at diagnosis are needed to determine the potential influence of extended duration of ET (e.g., at least 5 years) on SD. Further studies, including assessing the impact of early identification of patients at risk of developing SD and timely intervention, are warranted.

  10. Postmenopausal osteoporosis: early screening of risk patients by spinal biphotonic absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatier, J.P.; Guaydier-Souquieres, G.; Loyau, G.

    1990-01-01

    With quantification techniques of the spinal bone condition, especially with spinal biphotonic absorptiometry, early screening of patients risking subsequent development of osteoporosis complicated with vertebral compression is possible. An investigation was conducted in Lower Normandy, in 386 women who had undergone menopause or an ovariectomy, with ages ranging between 40 and 56 years; 274 were in a peri-menopausal state. A curve of the bone mineral content according to age was previously established. From this curve, in semilogarithmic representation, each patient risk was assessed. This risk is considered as high in 30 p. cent of the patients, non existent in 52 p. cent and 18 p. cent are borderline. The percentage of high risk patients increases with the number of years since menopause. It is hoped that the incidence of osteoporosis will decrease with early screening and preventive therapeutic measures [fr

  11. Rationale and design of MUSIC OS-EU: an international observational study of the treatment of postmenopausal women for osteoporosis in Europe and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Ankita; Sen, Shuvayu; Adachi, Jonathan D; Adami, Silvano; Cortet, Bernard; Cooper, Alun L; Geusens, Piet; Mellström, Dan; Weaver, Jessica P; van den Bergh, Joop P; Nguyen, Allison M; Keown, Paul A; Leung, Albert T; Sajjan, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    The Medication Use Patterns, Treatment Satisfaction, and Inadequate Control of Osteoporosis Study (MUSIC OS-EU) was designed to better understand the rate and burden of gastrointestinal (GI) events on clinical and health care outcomes among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. MUSIC OS-EU is a prospective, multinational, observational cohort study of postmenopausal women ≥50 years of age diagnosed with osteoporosis and enrolled in physician clinics in six countries: France, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and Canada. The MUSIC OS-EU study has three components: (i) a physician survey to describe their management of osteoporotic patients with GI events; (ii) a retrospective chart survey to describe the receipt and type of osteoporosis medication prescribed; and (iii) a prospective cohort study including untreated and treated patients diagnosed with osteoporosis to investigate the rate of GI events and association with osteoporosis medication use patterns, health-related quality of life, treatment satisfaction and resource utilisation among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Physicians at 97 sites completed the physician questionnaire and data for 716 patients were abstracted for the retrospective chart review. Enrolment and the baseline data collection for the prospective cohort study were conducted between March 2012 and June 2013 for 292 untreated and 2,959 treated patients, of whom 684 were new users and 2,275 were experienced users of oral osteoporosis medications. The results of MUSIC OS-EU will illuminate the association of GI events with the management of osteoporosis and with patient-reported outcomes among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in Europe and Canada.

  12. Early postmenopausal phase is associated with reduced prostacyclin-induced vasodilation that is reversed by exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Egelund, Jon; Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria

    2016-01-01

    The postmenopausal phase is associated with an accelerated rate of rise in the prevalence of vascular dysfunction and hypertension; however, the mechanisms underlying these adverse vascular changes and whether exercise training can reverse the decline in vascular function remains unclear. We...... increased (Pphase is associated with a marked reduction in vascular function. Despite of a reduced sensitivity...

  13. [Sexual hormone and traditional Chinese patent medicine for early postmenopausal women: effect on quality of life and cost-utility analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling-Ling; Xu, Liang-Zhi; Liu, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Tang, Liu-Lin; Zhuang, Jing; Liu, Xiao-Xian; Qiao, Lin

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of Premarin and Kuntai capsule (a traditional Chinese patent medicine) on the quality of life (QOL) and their cost-utility in early postmenopausal women. Fifty-seven women with menopausal syndrome in the early postmenopausal stage were randomly allocated into Premarin group (0.3 mg/day and 0.6 mg/day alternately, n=29) and Kuntai group (4 g/day, n=28). The therapies lasted for one year and the patients were followed up every 3 months. The QOL of the patients was evaluated and the utility scores were obtained from rating scale to conduct a cost-utility analysis (CUA). At each follow-up examination, no significant difference was found in the QOL between the two groups (P>0.05). The QOL obviously increased after the 1-year-long therapy in both the groups, and Kuntai required longer treatment time than Premarin to take effect. The cost-utility ratio of Premarin and Kuntai were 13581.45 yuan/QALY (quality adjusted life year) and 25105.12 yuan/QALY, respectively. Both incremental cost analysis and sensitivity analysis showed that Kuntai was more costly than Premarin. The result of per-protocol analysis was consistent with that of intention-to-treat analysis. At early stage of menopause, the QOL of women with menopausal syndrome can be significantly improved by low-dose Premarin and Kuntai capsule, but the latter is more costly.

  14. Periodontal Disease and Incident Cancer Risk among Postmenopausal Women: Results from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwizu, Ngozi N; Marshall, James R; Moysich, Kirsten; Genco, Robert J; Hovey, Kathleen M; Mai, Xiaodan; LaMonte, Michael J; Freudenheim, Jo L; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2017-08-01

    Background: Periodontal pathogens have been isolated from precancerous and cancerous lesions and also shown to promote a procarcinogenic microenvironment. Few studies have examined periodontal disease as a risk factor for total cancer, and none have focused on older women. We examined whether periodontal disease is associated with incident cancer among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Methods: Our prospective cohort study comprised 65,869 women, ages 54 to 86 years. Periodontal disease information was obtained via self-report questionnaires administered between 1999 and 2003, whereas ascertainment of cancer outcomes occurred through September 2013, with a maximum follow-up period of 15 years. Physician-adjudicated incident total cancers were the main outcomes and site-specific cancers were secondary outcomes. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. All analyses were conducted two-sided. Results: During a mean follow-up of 8.32 years, 7,149 cancers were identified. Periodontal disease history was associated with increased total cancer risk (multivariable-adjusted HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.08-1.20); findings were similar in analyses limited to 34,097 never-smokers (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22). Associations were observed for breast (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23), lung (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.14-1.51), esophagus (HR, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.64-6.53), gallbladder (HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.01-2.95), and melanoma skin (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02-1.48) cancers. Stomach cancer was borderline (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 0.94-2.67). Conclusions: Periodontal disease increases risk of total cancer among older women, irrespective of smoking, and certain anatomic sites appear to be vulnerable. Impact: Our findings support the need for further understanding of the effect of periodontal disease on cancer outcomes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(8); 1255-65. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer

  15. Managing arthralgia in a postmenopausal woman taking an aromatase inhibitor for hormonesensitive early breast cancer: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, Jane; Bauer, Martina; Hadji, Peyman

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce the risk of recurrence, adjuvant treatment with an aromatase inhibitor (AI) is recommended for postmenopausal women following surgery for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. AIs are associated with improved disease-free survival compared with tamoxifen. The adverse events associated with AIs resemble those of menopause, such as bone density loss and musculoskeletal symptoms. We examine the case of a postmenopausal woman who was prescribed anastrozole, a nonsteroidal AI, as adjuvant therapy following surgery for estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive (ER and PgR+) breast cancer. A 58-year-old postmenopausal woman diagnosed with ER and PgR+ breast cancer was prescribed anastrozole as adjuvant therapy following a right-inferior quadrantectomy. After experiencing joint pain and stiffness, she was prescribed paracetamol and a topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. She was also counseled on nonpharmacological interventions. However, she continued to experience symptoms, and reported that she was not taking anastrozole regularly. The case study patient ultimately found relief by switching to letrozole, another aromatase inhibitor. This approach is supported by recent studies examining the benefits of switching strategies between aromatase inhibitors in order to relieve symptoms of arthralgia/myalgia. Both adherence and strategies for managing aromatase inhibitor-associated arthralgia are key to deriving maximal clinical benefit from AI therapy. Switching from one aromatase inhibitor to another may provide a viable option in managing adverse events and enhancing adherence to medication

  16. [Postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Adám

    2004-01-04

    Due to its incidence and clinical consequences osteoporosis followed by vertebral, hip, and forearm fractures represents an outstanding problem of nowadays' health care. Because of its high mortality rate hip fractures are of special interest. The number of fractures caused by postmenopausal osteoporosis increases with age. Costs of examinations and treatment of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and fractures are also increasing and represent a significant amount all over the world. Organization of Osteoporosis Centres in Hungary was founded in 1995 and has been since functioning, however, only the one-sixth of osteoporotic patients are treated. Several risk factors are known in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, first of all the lack of sufficient calcium and vitamin D intake, age, genetic factors, and circumstances known to predispose falling. Estrogen deficiency is the most likely cause of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteodensitometry by DEXA is the most important method to evaluate osteoporosis, since decrease in bone mineral density strongly correlates with fracture incidence. Physical, radiologic, and laboratory examination are also required at the first visit and during follow-up. The quantity of bone can hardly be influenced after the 35th year of age, thus prevention of osteoporosis has special significance: appropriate calcium and vitamin D supplementation, weight-bearing sports and physical activity can prevent fractures. According to the results from studies fulfilling the criteria of evidence-based medicine, first choice treatment of osteoporosis involves hormone replacement therapy, bisphosphonates, the tissue specific tibolone, raloxifen and calcitonin. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation are always necessary to be added to any antiporotic treatment. Other combinations of different antiporotic drugs are useless and make the treatment more expensive. Other treatments like massage, physiotherapy, hip-protecting pants, etc. as well as

  17. [Preliminary results of an open-label observational study evaluating the efficacy and safety of Prolia used in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershova, O B; Lesniak, O M; Belova, K Iu; Nazarova, A V; Manovitskaia, A V; Musaeva, T M; Musraev, R M; Nurlygaianov, R Z; Rozhinskaia, L Ia; Skripnikova, I A; Toroptsova, N V

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Denosumab (Prolia), a first-line osteoporosis (OP) medication that is a fully human monoclonal antibody to the receptor activator of nuclear factor xB ligand (RANKL), within an open-label observational study. Patients aged 50 years or older with postmenopausal OP, who were treated with Prolia in clinical practice, were examined. The concentrations of the bone resorption (BR) marker of C-terminal telopeptide and other laboratory indicators (total serum calcium, total alkaline phosphatase, and creatinine) were measured following 3 months. Adverse drug reactions were recorded. Three months after initiation of the investigation, there was a significant decrease in the BR marker C-terminal telopeptide (by 89%; p<0.0001). There were rare adverse reactions: hypocalcemia in 3 (5.9%) patients, arthralgias in 2 (3.9%), and eczema in 1 (1.9%). There were neither serious adverse events nor study withdrawal cases. The preliminary results of the open-label study of Prolia in postmenopausal OP suggest that the significantly lower BR activity determines the efficacy of this drug and its high safety.

  18. Comparison of bone densitometry of the phalanges, distal forearm and axial skeleton in early postmenopausal women participating in the EPIC Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Overgaard, K; Huang, C

    1996-01-01

    We present baseline bone densitometry from the Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort study (EPIC, sponsored by Merck, Sharp & Dohme) for the first time, in which 1609 women from England, Oregon, Hawaii and Denmark are participating to investigate the efficacy of daily oral alendronate...... forearm. In a random subgroup of 308 women, aged 45-60 years, on average 6 years since menopause (YSM), bone densitometry was measured once at baseline by RA of the phalanges besides the mandatory measurements by DXA. Bone densitometry was furthermore measured by SXA at the Danish site (89 women). Sixty......-eight of the women had duplicate measurements performed within 1-3 weeks to evaluate the short-term precision error (CV%). One hundred and one healthy premenopausal women, aged 25-48 years, were recruited at the Danish and Hawaiian sites to establish a reference group. The precision error was 1.5% for RA...

  19. Bone fractures among postmenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer treated with 5 years of letrozole or tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabaglio, M; Sun, Z; Price, K N

    2009-01-01

    of letrozole or tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial who received at least some study medication (median follow-up 60.3 months). Bone fracture information (grade, cause, site) was collected every 6 months during trial treatment. RESULTS: The incidence of bone fractures was higher among patients treated......BACKGROUND: To compare the incidence and timing of bone fractures in postmenopausal women treated with 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen or letrozole for endocrine-responsive early breast cancer in the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial. METHODS: We evaluated 4895 patients allocated to 5 years...... with letrozole [228 of 2448 women (9.3%)] versus tamoxifen [160 of 2447 women (6.5%)]. The wrist was the most common site of fracture in both treatment groups. Statistically significant risk factors for bone fractures during treatment included age, smoking history, osteoporosis at baseline, previous bone...

  20. Relation of estrogen receptor-alpha gene polymorphism and hormone replacement therapy to fall risk and muscle strength in early postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmén, Timo; Heikkinen, Anna-Mari; Mahonen, Anitta; Kröger, Heikki; Komulainen, Marja; Saarikoski, Seppo; Honkanen, Risto; Partanen, Juhani; Mäenpää, Pekka H

    2002-01-01

    Several factors may increase fracture risk, among them reduced bone mineral density (BMD), increased bone resorption, microarchitectural deterioration of bone, increased fall risk, and decreased muscle strength. We have previously reported that PvuII polymorphism of the estrogen receptor-alpha (ER alpha) gene is associated with bone loss rate, fracture risk, and response to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in early postmenopausal Finnish women. We studied the influence of the ER alpha genotype on fall risk and muscle strength in a 5-year randomized HRT trial of 331 early postmenopausal women (subgroup of the population-based OSTPRE study, Kuopio, Finland). A 5-year postal inquiry in May 1994 included questions on falls during the previous 12 months. Grip strength was measured with dynamometer. The ER alpha gene polymorphism was analysed using PCR and PvuII restriction enzyme digestion. RESULTS. In all, 97 out of the 331 women reported falls. Half of those (56%) were slip falls, mostly during the winter season. In the HRT group, the ER alpha genotype was associated with fall risk (P = 0.002, logistic regression). The risk of falls (RR) was higher in women with the PP genotype than in those with the Pp (RR = 5.26, 95% CI 1.98-13.94, P = 0.001) or the pp (RR = 3.84, 95% CI 1.46-10.12, P = 0.007) genotype. When the falls were divided into slip (environment-related) and non-slip (endogenous) falls, the non-slip falls were associated with the genotype (P = 0.004), but the slip falls were not so clearly (P = 0.061). When all falls and non-slip falls were adjusted to the number of chronic health disorders and the variable time-since-menopause, the difference between the genotypes persisted (P = 0.003 and P = 0.010, respectively). In the non-HRT group, the ER alpha genotype was not associated with fall risk. The baseline or the 5-year grip strength values were not influenced by the ER alpha genotype. In conclusion, ER alpha polymorphism is associated with fall risk

  1. Observations on early and delayed colostomy closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tade, A O; Salami, B A; Ayoade, B A

    2011-06-01

    Traditional treatment of a variety of colorectal pathologies had included a diverting colostomy that was closed eight or more weeks later during a readmission. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the outcomes of early colostomy closure and delayed colostomy closure in patients with temporary colostomies following traumatic and non-traumatic colorectal pathologies. In this study early colostomy closure was the closure of a colostomy within three weeks of its construction, while delayed colostomy closure referred to closure after 3 weeks. Complete records of the 37 adult patients who had temporary colostomy constructed and closed between Jan. 1997 December 2003 for various colorectal pathologies were studied. Fourteen patients had early colostomy closure while 23 had delayed closure. In the early colostomy closure group there were 10 men and 4 women. The mean age of the patients was 28yr with a range of 18-65yr. Colostomies were closed 9-18 days after initial colostomy construction. There was no mortality. Morbidity rate 28.6% (4 out of 14). There were two faecal fistulas (14.3%). Twenty-three patients had delayed colostomy closure 8 weeks to 18 months after initial colostomy construction. These were patients unfit for early surgery after initial colostomy construction because of carcinoma, significant weight loss, or sepsis. There was no mortality. Morbidity rate was 26.1%. There were 3 faecal fistulas (13.2%). Outcomes following early colostomy closure and delayed closure were comparable. Patients fit for surgery should have early closure whilst patients who may have compromised health should have delayed closure.

  2. Infrared observation of the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, T.

    1984-01-01

    The rocket observation of the near-infrared extragalactic background radiation and its influence on the cosmology are described. The furute plans to observe the near-infrared and far-infrared backgrounds are also presented. (author)

  3. Prognostic and predictive role of ESR1 status for postmenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer in the Danish cohort of the BIG 1-98 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlertsen, B; Aldridge, J; Nielsen, K V

    2012-01-01

    postmenopausal Danish women with early breast cancer randomly assigned to receive 5 years of letrozole, tamoxifen or a sequence of these agents in the Breast International Group 1-98 trial and who had ER ≥1% after central review. RESULTS: By FISH, 13.6% of patients had an ESR1-to-Centromere-6 (CEN-6) ratio ≥2...... (amplified), and 4.2% had ESR1-to-CEN-6 ratio...

  4. Assessment of bioelectrical activity of synergistic muscles during pelvic floor muscles activation in postmenopausal women with and without stress urinary incontinence: a preliminary observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptaszkowski K

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kuba Ptaszkowski,1 Małgorzata Paprocka-Borowicz,2 Lucyna Słupska,2 Janusz Bartnicki,1,3 Robert Dymarek,4 Joanna Rosińczuk,4 Jerzy Heimrath,5 Janusz Dembowski,6 Romuald Zdrojowy6 1Department of Obstetrics, 2Department of Clinical Biomechanics and Physiotherapy in Motor System Disorders, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Health Center Bitterfeld/Wolfen gGmbH, Bitterfeld-Wolfen, Germany; 4Department of Nervous System Diseases, 5Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Health Science, 6Department and Clinic of Urology, Faculty of Postgraduate Medical Training, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Objective: Muscles such as adductor magnus (AM, gluteus maximus (GM, rectus abdominis (RA, and abdominal external and internal oblique muscles are considered to play an important role in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI, and the relationship between contraction of these muscles and pelvic floor muscles (PFM has been established in previous studies. Synergistic muscle activation intensifies a woman’s ability to contract the PFM. In some cases, even for continent women, it is not possible to fully contract their PFM without involving the synergistic muscles. The primary aim of this study was to assess the surface electromyographic activity of synergistic muscles to PFM (SPFM during resting and functional PFM activation in postmenopausal women with and without SUI.Materials and methods: This study was a preliminary, prospective, cross-sectional observational study and included volunteers and patients who visited the Department and Clinic of Urology, University Hospital in Wroclaw, Poland. Forty-two patients participated in the study and were screened for eligibility criteria. Thirty participants satisfied the criteria and were categorized into two groups: women with SUI (n=16 and continent women (n=14. The bioelectrical activity of PFM and SPFM (AM, RA, GM was

  5. The Efficacy of Bisphosphonates in Preventing Aromatase Inhibitor Induced Bone Loss for Postmenopausal Women with Early Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooleriveetil Padikkal Anagha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aim to determine the efficacy of bisphosphonates in preventing aromatase inhibitor induced bone loss (AIBL in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. The secondary objective was to determine the safety of bisphosphonates. Materials and Methods. We searched electronic databases in a time period of 1995 January to 2013 June. Random effects meta-analytical models were used; between study heterogeneity and publication bias was assessed. Results. A total of six eligible studies reported the BMD T score of LS at 12 months and from that 3 trials of Zoledronic acid compared the change in BMD in immediate ZOL versus delayed ZOL done with subgroups like patients with normal BMD at baseline (OR = 5.402, 95% CI = 1.329–21.959, P value = 0.018 and osteopenic BMD at baseline (OR = 4.008, 95% CI = 2.249–7.143, P value = 0.0002. Both had a significant decrease in BMD that favoured the delayed ZOL; 3 trials of risedronate and ibandronate also had a significant decrease in BMD in AIs alone group. Immediate ZOL versus delayed ZOL also showed increased risk of getting an ADR in immediate group. Conclusion. Third generation bisphosphonates has an effect on BMD of patients who are on treatment of AIs in breast cancer. Furthermore, the patients treated with immediate ZOL had a significantly high risk of musculoskeletal ADR’s than patients with delayed ZOL.

  6. TV sonographic assessment in postmenopausal asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikouras, P; Galazios, G; Liberis, V; Bouzaki, A; Grapsas, X; Maroulis, G

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the usefulness of transvaginal sonography for the detection of endometrial disease in postmenopausal women without symptoms. The study involved 750 postmenopausal women aged 52-65 (mean 58.5). None of them were on hormone replacement therapy and all had had amenorrhea for more than two years. Transvaginal sonography was performed in 750 women. An endometrium of women) was not investigated further. The 627 cases of this group were reassessed one year later. In the remaining 123 postmenopausal women with suspicious endometrium > 5 mm, 19 endometrial polyps (7.13%), one cervical polyp with extension in the cavity (0.8%), 90 endometrial atrophies (73.17%), ten atrophic endometritis (8.13%), two simple hyperplasias (1.62%), and one hyperplasia with atypia (0.8%) were found. Transvaginal sonography is an efficient and acceptable noninvasive method for the early detection of endometrial pathology in postmenopausal asymptomatic women.

  7. Breastfeeding and postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Julia P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2003-06-01

    Bone loss associated with osteoporosis occurs with high frequency among the elderly and often results in debilitating fractures. A combination of lifestyle behaviors, genetic predisposition, and disease processes contributes to bone metabolism. Therefore, any discussion regarding bone health must address these factors. The impact of menopause on bone turnover has been generally well studied and characterized. Breastfeeding places significant stress on calcium metabolism and, as a consequence, directly influences bone metabolism. The most significant factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism are the duration and frequency of lactation, the return of menses, and pre-pregnancy weight. Although transient, lactation is associated with bone loss. As clinical guidelines and public health policies are being formulated, there is a compelling need for further investigation into the relationship of lactation, BMD, and subsequent risk of osteoporosis. Better understanding of this relationship will provide new opportunities for early intervention and ultimately help in the prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  8. Metabolic syndrome and its components in premenopausal and postmenopausal women: a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis on observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallajzadeh, Jamal; Khoramdad, Maliheh; Izadi, Neda; Karamzad, Nahid; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Ayubi, Erfan; Qorbani, Mostafa; Pakzad, Reza; Hasanzadeh, Amir; Sullman, Mark J M; Safiri, Saeid

    2018-05-21

    To perform a meta-analysis on the global prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in postmenopausal women. The meta-analysis also sought to measure the relationship menopause status has with MetS and its components. The Web of Science, Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, CINAHL, DOAJ, and Google Scholar were all searched using the relevant keywords. Articles published during the period 2004 to 2017 that met our inclusion criteria and reported the prevalence of MetS among premenopausal and postmenopausal women were included. In the presence of heterogeneity, random-effects models were used to pool the prevalence and odds ratios (ORs), as measures of association in cross-sectional and comparative cross-sectional studies, respectively. The prevalence of MetS among postmenopausal women (119 studies [n = 95,115]) and the OR comparing the prevalence of MetS among postmenopausal and premenopausal women (23 studies [n = 66,801]) were pooled separately. The pooled prevalence of MetS among postmenopausal women was found to be 37.17% (95% confidence interval [CI] 35.00%-39.31%), but varied from 13.60% (95% CI 13.55%-13.64%) to 46.00% (95% CI 1.90%-90.09%), depending upon the diagnostic criteria used. The overall pooled OR for MetS in postmenopausal women, compared with premenopausal women, was OR 3.54 (95% CI 2.92-4.30), but this ranged from OR 2.74 (95% CI 1.32-5.66) to OR 5.03 (95% CI 2.25-11.22), depending upon the criteria used. Furthermore, the odds of high fasting blood sugar (OR 3.51, 95% CI 2.11-5.83), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.03-2.03), high blood pressure (OR 3.95, 95% CI 2.01-7.78), high triglycerides (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.37-4.31), and high waist circumference (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.80-4.21) were all found to be higher in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. The prevalence of MetS is relatively high in postmenopausal women and was more prevalent among postmenopausal than premenopausal women. Menopausal hormone therapy

  9. Assessment of bioelectrical activity of synergistic muscles during pelvic floor muscles activation in postmenopausal women with and without stress urinary incontinence: a preliminary observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Słupska, Lucyna; Bartnicki, Janusz; Dymarek, Robert; Rosińczuk, Joanna; Heimrath, Jerzy; Dembowski, Janusz; Zdrojowy, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    Muscles such as adductor magnus (AM), gluteus maximus (GM), rectus abdominis (RA), and abdominal external and internal oblique muscles are considered to play an important role in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI), and the relationship between contraction of these muscles and pelvic floor muscles (PFM) has been established in previous studies. Synergistic muscle activation intensifies a woman's ability to contract the PFM. In some cases, even for continent women, it is not possible to fully contract their PFM without involving the synergistic muscles. The primary aim of this study was to assess the surface electromyographic activity of synergistic muscles to PFM (SPFM) during resting and functional PFM activation in postmenopausal women with and without SUI. This study was a preliminary, prospective, cross-sectional observational study and included volunteers and patients who visited the Department and Clinic of Urology, University Hospital in Wroclaw, Poland. Forty-two patients participated in the study and were screened for eligibility criteria. Thirty participants satisfied the criteria and were categorized into two groups: women with SUI (n=16) and continent women (n=14). The bioelectrical activity of PFM and SPFM (AM, RA, GM) was recorded with a surface electromyographic instrument in a standing position during resting and functional PFM activity. Bioelectrical activity of RA was significantly higher in the incontinent group than in the continent group. These results concern the RA activity during resting and functional PFM activity. The results for other muscles showed no significant difference in bioelectrical activity between groups. In women with SUI, during the isolated activation of PFM, an increased synergistic activity of RA muscle was observed; however, this activity was not observed in asymptomatic women. This may indicate the important accessory contribution of these muscles in the mechanism of continence.

  10. Comparison of quantitative ultrasound and dual X-ray absorptiometry in estrogen-treated early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H A; Jørgensen, N R; Jensen, J E

    2001-01-01

    Identifying individuals at risk of developing osteoporosis is important in order to initiate early treatment. Many new techniques have been proposed as alternatives for DXA-scanning. Some of these alternatives certainly have advantages, but none have so far been demonstrated to predict fractures ......, but it was unable to identify women with low BMD, although it might be able to identify persons not at risk of osteoporosis. Low QUS values should be followed by a regular DXA measurement to confirm the presence of osteoporosis.......Identifying individuals at risk of developing osteoporosis is important in order to initiate early treatment. Many new techniques have been proposed as alternatives for DXA-scanning. Some of these alternatives certainly have advantages, but none have so far been demonstrated to predict fractures...

  11. Proposed colour banded early warning observation charts for South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction of a colour banded observation chart should be combined with a clear communication strategy. The process should be used to change the organisational culture to be more proactive in initiating early intervention to reduce the burden of unintended complications. Keywords: Observation chart; Physiology; ...

  12. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (III) Clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to Maca in double blind, randomized, Placebo-controlled, crossover configuration, outpatient study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H O; Mscisz, A; Reich-Bilinska, H; Mrozikiewicz, P; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T; Kedzia, B; Lowicka, A; Barchia, I

    2006-12-01

    This is the second, conclusive part of the clinical study on clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to standardized doses of pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO). Total of 34 Caucasian women volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, four months outpatient crossover configuration Trial. After fulfilling the criteria of being early-postmenopausal: blood Estrogen (E230 IU/ml) at admission, they were randomly allocated to Placebo (P) and Maca-GO (M) treatments (2 groups of 11 participants each). Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day). At admission and follow-up monthly intervals, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, levels of gonadal, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal hormones, lipids and key minerals were measured. Bone markers were determined after four months M and P use in 12 participants. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene's Score (GMS) and Kupperman's Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly. Results and canonical variate technique was applied to GMS and KMI matrices. Two months application of Maca-GO stimulated (PMaca-GO noticeably increased bone density markers. In conclusion, Maca-GO applied to early-postmenopausal women (i) acted as a toner of hormonal processes along the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovarian axis, (ii) balanced hormone levels and (iii) relieved symptoms of menopausal discomfort, (hot flushes and night sweating in particular), thus, (iv) exhibited a distinctive function peculiar to adaptogens, providing an alternative non-hormonal plant option to reduce dependence on hormone therapy programs (HRT).

  13. Influence of treatment with alendronate on the speed of sound, an ultrasound parameter, of the calcaneus in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis: a clinical practice-based observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwamoto J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Jun Iwamoto,1 Tetsuya Takada,2 Yoshihiro Sato,3 Hideo Matsumoto11Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Hiyoshi Medical Clinic, Kanagawa, 3Department of Neurology, Mitate Hospital, Fukuoka, JapanPurpose: The influence of alendronate (ALN treatment on the quantitative ultrasound parameters of the calcaneus remains to be established in Japanese patients. The aim of the present clinical practice-based observational study was to examine the influence of ALN treatment for 1 year on the speed of sound (SOS of the calcaneus and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis.Patients and methods: Forty-five postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis who had received treatment with ALN for more than 1 year were enrolled in the study. The SOS and bone turnover markers were monitored over 1 year of ALN treatment.Results: The urinary levels of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase decreased significantly from the baseline values (–44.9% at 3 months and –22.2% at 12 months, respectively. The SOS increased modestly, but significantly, from the baseline value (0.6% at both 6 and 12 months. The percentage decrease in the urinary levels of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen at 3 months was significantly correlated with the percentage increase in the SOS only at 6 months (correlation coefficient, 0.299.Conclusion: The present study confirmed that ALN treatment suppressed bone turnover, producing a clinically significant increase in the SOS of the calcaneus in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis.Keywords: postmenopausal osteoporosis, quantitative ultrasound (QUS, SOS, bone turnover, biochemical markers

  14. Characterization of patients in the European Forsteo Observational Study (EFOS): postmenopausal women entering teriparatide treatment in a community setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajzbaum, Gerald; Jakob, Franz; Karras, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The European Forsteo Observational Study (EFOS) study was primarily designed to assess fracture incidence, degree of pain, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and compliance in women prescribed teriparatide in a community setting. This report describes the design of the study...... deformities and 91.7% were pre-treated with bisphosphonates. HRQoL, evaluated by the health state value (HSV) (median: 0.59, Q1; Q3: 0.08; 0.71) and visual analogue scale (VAS) (median 50.0, Q1; Q3: 35.0; 69.0) status of the European quality of life questionnaire (EQ-5D) was poor. Extreme problems were...

  15. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  16. Effects of high-intensity training on cardiovascular risk factors in pre- and postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria; Egelund, Jon; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2017-01-01

    and cardiovascular disease in late pre- and early postmenopausal women, matched by age and body composition, and investigate the effect of high-intensity training. METHODS: A 3-month high-intensity aerobic training intervention, involving healthy, non-obese, late pre- (n=40) and early postmenopausal (n=39) women....... A three month intervention of high-intensity aerobic training reduces risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease to a similar extent in late pre- and early postmenopausal women....... the postmenopausal women had higher total cholesterol (ptraining intervention reduced body weight (p

  17. Influence of parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level on pelvic floor muscles in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Larissa Ramalho Dantas; Torres, Vanessa Braga; Angelo, Priscylla Helouyse Melo; Eugênia de Oliveira, Maria Clara; Matias de Barros, Alef Cavalcanti; Viana, Elizabel de Souza Ramalho; Micussi, Maria Thereza de Albuquerque Barbosa Cabral

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level on pelvic floor muscles in postmenopausal women. [Subjects and Methods] This was an observational analytic cross-sectional study with a sample of 100 postmenopausal women, aged between 45 and 65 years, divided into three groups according to menopausal stage: hysterectomized and early and late postmenopause. Patients were assessed for sociodemographic and gyneco-obstetric factors and subjected to a muscle strength test and perineometry. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and multiple regression were applied. [Results] The results showed homogeneity in sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics. There was no difference in pelvic floor muscle function among the three groups. Type of delivery, parity and physical activity level showed no influence on muscle function. [Conclusion] The findings demonstrate that parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level had no influence on pelvic floor muscle pressure in postmenopausal women. One hypothesis to explain these results is the fact that the decline in muscle function in postmenopausal women is related to the female aging process.

  18. The association between pre-treatment occupational skill level and mood and symptom burden in early-stage, postmenopausal breast cancer survivors during the first year of anastrozole therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Bethany D; Sereika, Susan M; Rosenzweig, Margaret; McCue, Michael; Merriman, John D; Bender, Catherine M

    2016-08-01

    Previous research has explored occupational activity of breast cancer survivors but has not examined the influence of occupational level on symptoms prospectively. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between occupational classification and changes in mood and symptom burden for postmenopausal breast cancer survivors during the first year of anastrozole therapy. This was an exploratory secondary analysis in 49 postmenopausal women receiving anastrozole therapy for early-stage breast cancer. Participants reported their occupation at baseline and completed self-report questionnaires measuring mood and symptom burden at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Occupation was classified according to four major skill levels delineated by the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO). Breast cancer survivors employed at occupational skill levels 1 through 3 reported significantly higher depressive symptoms, fatigue, and total symptoms on average than those employed at ISCO skill level 4. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, this pattern remained for the musculoskeletal, vasomotor, and gastrointestinal symptom subscales. Breast cancer survivors employed at lower skill levels (i.e., ISCO 1-3) reported poorer mood and greater symptom burden than breast cancer survivors employed at a higher skill level (i.e., ISCO 4). Assessing baseline occupation of occupationally active breast cancer survivors may improve understanding of the association between types of occupations and mood and symptom trajectories and may inform development of interventions to mitigate symptom severity in order to help breast cancer survivors maintain optimal occupational function and adherence to therapy.

  19. Assessment of periodontal health status in postmenopausal women visiting dental hospital from in and around Meerut city: Cross-sectional observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Deepa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause are the different phases of a woman′s life which have a varied influence on oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production which affects their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels can be seen directly in the oral cavity leading to a few oral conditions and diseases seen more frequently during postmenopausal years. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess periodontal health status in postmenopausal women in and around Meerut city. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised ninety postmenopausal women. History of menopause was recorded, and the dental examinations were done by measuring the following parameters of periodontal health: plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI, bleeding on probing (BOP, pocket probing depth, and Russell′s periodontal index. The collected data were subjected to statistical analyses. Results and Conclusion: In the study group, mean age was 55 years, mean missing teeth were 10.3, mean duration of menopause was 9.23. Eleven percent females were completely edentulous, and 5 females had never brushed. Mean PI-s was 1.99, mean GI-s was 1.74, mean BOP was 52.85, and mean Russell′s periodontal index was 4.34. Eleven patients were at the initial stages of destructive periodontal disease, 34 had established destructive periodontal disease while thirty patients had the terminal periodontal disease. These findings suggest that females after menopause are at a risk of developing destructive periodontal disease if proper oral hygiene practices are not followed.

  20. Early Results from NICER Observations of Accreting Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Ozel, Feryal; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith C.; Bult, Peter; Cackett, Ed; Chenevez, Jerome; Fabian, Andy; Guillot, Sebastien; Guver, Tolga; Homan, Jeroen; Keek, Laurens; Lamb, Frederick; Ludlam, Renee; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Markwardt, Craig B.; Miller, Jon M.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Wolff, Michael T.

    2018-01-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) offers significant new capabilities for the study of accreting neuton stars relative to previous X-ray missions including large effective area, low background, and greatly improved low-energy response. The NICER Burst and Accretion Working Group has designed a 2 Ms observation program to study a number of phenomena in accreting neutron stars including type-I X-ray bursts, superbursts, accretion-powered pulsations, quasi-periodic oscillations, and accretion disk reflection spectra. We present some early results from the first six months of the NICER mission.

  1. Adjuvant letrozole versus tamoxifen according to centrally-assessed ERBB2 status for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer: supplementary results from the BIG 1-98 randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regan, M.M.; Lykkesfeldt, A.E.; Dell'Orto, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background The Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial (a randomised double-blind phase III trial) has shown that letrozole significantly improves disease-free survival (DFS) compared with tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer. Our aim was to establish...... whether the benefit of letrozole versus tamoxifen differs according to the ERBB2 status of tumours. Methods The BIG 1-98 trial consists of four treatment groups that compare 5 years of monotherapy with letrozole or tamoxifen, and sequential administration of one drug for 2 years followed by the other drug...... for 3 years. Our study includes data from the 4922 patients randomly assigned to the two monotherapy treatment groups (letrozole or tamoxifen for 5 years; 51 months median follow-up [range

  2. Aerological observations in the tropics in the early twentieth century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broennimann, Stefan; Stickler, Alexander [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research and Inst. of Geography

    2013-10-15

    In the first decades of the 20{sup th} century, aerological observations were for the first time performed in tropical regions. One of the most prominent endeavours in this respect was Arthur Berson's aerological expedition to East Africa. Although the main target was the East African monsoon circulation, the expedition provided also other insights that profoundly changed meteorology and climatology. Berson observed that the tropical tropopause was much higher and colder than that over midlatitudes. Moreover, westerly winds were observed in the lower stratosphere, apparently contradicting the high-altitude equatorial easterly winds that were known since the Krakatoa eruption ('Krakatoa easterlies'). The puzzle was only resolved five decades later with the discovery of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO). In this paper we briefly summarize the expedition of Berson and review the results in a historical context and in the light of the current research. In the second part of the paper we re-visit Berson's early aerological observations, which we have digitized. We compare the observed wind profiles with corresponding profiles extracted from the 'Twentieth Century Reanalysis', which provides global three-dimensional weather information back to 1871 based on an assimilation of sea-level and surface pressure data. The comparison shows a good agreement at the coast but less good agreement further inland, at the shore of Lake Victoria, where the circulation is more complex. These results demonstrate that Berson's observations are still valuable today as input to current reanalysis systems or for their validation. (orig.)

  3. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (II) Physiological and Symptomatic Responses of Early-Postmenopausal Women to Standardized doses of Maca in Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multi-Centre Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H O; Mscisz, A; Reich-Bilinska, H; Kapczynski, W; Mrozikiewicz, P; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T; Kedzia, B; Lowicka, A; Barchia, I

    2006-12-01

    This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-corrected, outpatient, multi-centre (five sites) clinical study, in which a total of 168 Caucasian early-postmenopausal women volunteers (age>49 years) participated after fulfilling the criteria: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) >30 IU/ml and estrogen (E2) Maca (Maca-GO) treatment, according to different monthly treatment sequences scheduled for each site. Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day) during three (Trial I; n=102) or four (Trial II; n=66) months study periods. At the baseline and follow- up monthly intervals, blood levels of FSH, E2, progesterone (PRG) and lutinizing hormone (LH), as well as serum cholesterol (CHOL), triglycerides (TRG), high- and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL) were measured. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene's Score (GMS) and Kupperman's Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly results in one model and Maca versus Placebo contrast in another model. A total of 124 women concluded the study. Maca-GO significantly stimulated production of E2 (PMaca-GO significantly reduced both frequency and severity of individual menopausal symptoms (hot flushes and night sweating in particular) resulting in significant (P<0.001) alleviation of KMI (from 22 to 10), thus, offering an attractive non-hormonal addition to the choices available to early-postmenopausal women in the form of a natural plant alternative to Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) - hence, reducing dependence on hormone therapy programs.

  4. Early Observations on the Performance of Windows Azure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach Hill

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant open issue in cloud computing is the real performance of the infrastructure. Few, if any, cloud providers or technologies offer quantitative performance guarantees. Regardless of the potential advantages of the cloud in comparison to enterprise-deployed applications, cloud infrastructures may ultimately fail if deployed applications cannot predictably meet behavioral requirements. In this paper, we present the results of comprehensive performance experiments we conducted on Windows Azure from October 2009 to February 2010. In general, we have observed good performance of the Windows Azure mechanisms, although the average 10 min VM startup time must be accounted for in application design. We also present performance and reliability observations and analysis from our deployment of a large-scale scientific application hosted on Azure, called ModisAzure, that show unusual and sporadic VM execution slowdown of over 4× in some cases and affected up to 16% of task executions at times. In addition to a detailed performance evaluation of Windows Azure, we provide recommendations for potential users of Windows Azure based on these early observations. Although the discussion and analysis is tailored to scientific applications, the results are broadly applicable to the range of existing and future applications running in Windows Azure.

  5. Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Adjuvant Letrozole Versus Anastrozole in Postmenopausal Patients With Hormone Receptor-Positive, Node-Positive Early Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Ian; Yardley, Denise; Burris, Howard

    2017-01-01

    receptor 2 status. The primary end point was 5-year disease-free survival (DFS), and the key secondary end points were overall survival and safety. Results A total of 4,136 patients were randomly assigned to receive either letrozole (n = 2,061) or anastrozole (n = 2,075). The final analysis was done at 709.......9% for all adverse events), hypertension (1.2% v 1.0%), hot flushes (0.8% v 0.4%), myalgia (0.8% v 0.7%), dyspnea (0.8% v 0.5%), and depression (0.8% v 0.6%). Conclusion Letrozole did not demonstrate significantly superior efficacy or safety compared with anastrozole in postmenopausal patients with HR...

  6. Medication Use Patterns, Treatment Satisfaction, and Inadequate Control of Osteoporosis Study in the Asia-Pacific Region (MUSIC OS-AP): Design of a multinational, prospective, observational study examining the impact of gastrointestinal events on osteoporosis management in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Ankita; Ebeling, Peter R; Lee, Mel S; Min, Yong-Ki; Mithal, Ambrish; Yang, Xiaoqin; Sajjan, Shiva

    2015-12-01

    The burden of osteoporosis in the Asia-Pacific region is not well characterized. The Medication Use Patterns, Treatment Satisfaction, and Inadequate Control of Osteoporosis Study in the Asia-Pacific Region (MUSIC OS-AP) was designed to better understand the association of gastrointestinal events with patient-reported outcomes in postmenopausal women of this region. MUSIC OS-AP is a prospective, multinational, observational cohort study of postmenopausal women ≥ 50 years of age diagnosed with osteoporosis. The study was conducted in five Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, New Zealand, Taiwan, Korea, and India. MUSIC OS-AP has three components: a physician questionnaire, a retrospective chart review, and a prospective cohort study. The physician questionnaire investigated the role of gastrointestinal events in physicians' pharmacologic management of osteoporosis. The retrospective chart review, also completed by physicians, recorded rate of osteoporosis treatment and the types of osteoporosis medications prescribed to osteoporosis patients. The prospective cohort study investigated the associations between gastrointestinal events and patient-reported outcomes among patients taking oral medications for osteoporosis as well as reasons for non-treatment in patients who remained untreated. The prospective cohort study enrolled two groups of patients: untreated, and treated with oral osteoporosis medications. Untreated patients completed only the baseline surveys, providing information on gastrointestinal event rates, quality of life, health care resource use, and reasons for non-treatment. Treated patients, who were either new to osteoporosis medication or continuing an ongoing medication course, completed surveys at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline. The evaluations recorded patient characteristics, gastrointestinal events, health-related and osteoporosis-specific quality of life, health care resource use, medication adherence, and satisfaction with

  7. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppurainen, Marjo; Rikkonen, Toni; Kivipelto, Miia; Soininen, Hilkka; Kröger, Heikki; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To explore the association between postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) and Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods: Twenty-year follow-up data from the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention study cohort were used. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to all women aged 47–56 years, residing in Kuopio Province starting in 1989 until 2009, every 5th year. Register-based information on HT prescriptions was available since 1995. Probable AD cases, based on DSM-IV and National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke–Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria, were identified from the special reimbursement register (1999–2009). The study population included 8,195 women (227 cases of incident AD). Results: Postmenopausal estrogen use was not associated with AD risk in register-based or self-reported data (hazard ratio/95% confidence interval 0.92/0.68–1.2, 0.99/0.75–1.3, respectively). Long-term self-reported postmenopausal HT was associated with reduced AD risk (0.53/0.31–0.91). Similar results were obtained with any dementia diagnosis in the hospital discharge register as an outcome. Conclusions: Our results do not provide strong evidence for a protective association between postmenopausal HT use and AD or dementia, although we observed a reduced AD risk among those with long-term self-reported HT use. PMID:28202700

  8. Pinworms and postmenopausal bleeding.

    OpenAIRE

    al-Rufaie, H K; Rix, G H; Pérez Clemente, M P; al-Shawaf, T

    1998-01-01

    The human pinworm Enterobius vermicularis is normally found within the human gastrointestinal tract. Pregnant females migrate out of their host's anus at night to lay their eggs perianally. As a consequence of this nocturnal migration some worms find their way into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract, producing irritative symptoms such as vulvovaginitis. A case of pinworm infestation of the uterus presented as postmenopausal bleeding.

  9. Determination of bone mineral content (BMC) by dual photon absorptiometry: Age-, sex-, and menopause-related changes in Bavaria and effect of estrogen replacement in early postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttermann, G.; Eiber, J.; Henning, J.; Utz, G.; Scheffel, H.; Pabst, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    Cortical (neck of femur) and trabecular bone mass (L2-4) have been determined repeatedly with DPA using GD 153 (NOVO Lab 22 a) in 545 female and 112 male pts with no evidence of bone diseases. Measured 'normal', (age- and sex-related average) BMC values differed significantly from those of US people determined by same equipment, i.e., were in average about 30% lower, but matched well with corresponding results from Belgium. BMC-area was found the most suitable parameter both for cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, since BMC-area is independent from height and weight. But there is still need to reduce the overlap and improve accuracy and reproducibility for making decisions after shorter intervals. Assessment of the individual mineral loss and fracture risk by comparing to average values, however, remains problematic due to the wide range of 'normal' BMC and in women additionally due to the variable onset of menopause. For estimations of the individual fracture risk of elderly pts BMC should not be normalized on age, because at the age of 65 half of the women had 'pathologic' values, i.e. were below the so called 'osteoporosis threshold'. Comparison of the individually measured postmenopausal BMC to average values of premenopausal women and to BMC values normalized to their menopausal age may be helpful approaches for overcoming these difficulties. Because of the lack of earlier individual data in most cases repeated BMC measurements are still required for assessment of demineralization speed. Preliminary results of estrogen replacement therapy with low doses of natural conjugated estrogen show good prevention of bone loss in healthy but not in ovarectomized women. (orig./MG)

  10. Artificially sweetened beverages, sugar-sweetened beverages, plain water, and incident diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women: the prospective Women's Health Initiative observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mengna; Quddus, Abdullah; Stinson, Lynda; Shikany, James M; Howard, Barbara V; Kutob, Randa M; Lu, Bing; Manson, JoAnn E; Eaton, Charles B

    2017-08-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), whereas the association with artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) is unclear. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the associations of ASB and SSB consumption with the risk of developing DM and the potential benefit of replacing SSBs with ASBs or water. Design: The national Women's Health Initiative recruited a large prospective cohort of postmenopausal women between 1993 and 1998. ASB, SSB, and water consumption was measured by lifestyle questionnaires, and DM was self-reported. Results: Of 64,850 women, 4675 developed diabetes over an average of 8.4 y of follow-up. ASBs and SSBs were both associated with an increased risk of DM with an HR of 1.21 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.36) comparing ASB consumption of ≥2 serving/d to never or <3 serving/mo, and an HR of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.17, 1.75) comparing SSB consumption of ≥2 serving/d to <1 serving/wk (1 serving = one 12-ounce can or 355 mL). Subgroup analysis found an increased risk of DM associated with ASBs only in the obese group. Modeling the substitution of SSBs with an equal amount of ASBs did not significantly reduce the risk of developing DM. However, statistically substituting 1 serving of ASBs with water was associated with a significant risk reduction of 5% (HR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.99), whereas substituting 1 serving of SSBs with water was associated with a risk reduction of 10% (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.95). Conclusions: ASBs were associated with a 21% increased risk of developing DM, approximately half the magnitude of SSBs (associated with a 43% increased risk). Replacing ASBs and SSBs with water could potentially reduce the risk. However, caution should be taken in interpreting these results as causal because both residual confounding and reverse causation could explain these results. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Observations of super early left ventricular remodeling experimental myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, C.G.; Jin, J.H.; Zhao, X.B.; Kang, C.S.; Liang, F.Y.; Yin, Z.M.; Liu, G.F.; Li, S.J.; Li, X.F.; Hu, G.; Qin, D.Z.; Song, L.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Ventricular remodeling is defined as the changes in the shape and size of the entire left ventricle after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Many investigators have shown that left ventricular remodeling is related to clinical outcomes, including mortality, that represent the natural history, of the heart failure syndrome. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that it is possible to observe super early left ventricular remodeling by 99mTc-MIBI myocardial imaging in the dog model of acute experimental myocardial infarction. Methods: Experimental subjects: Twenty-three healthy mongrel dogs (14-25 kg) of either sex were studied under general anesthesia (sodium pentobarbital, 30 mg/kg). The left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery was dissected and ligated between the first and second diagonal branches. Seven dogs died of ventricular fibrillation after the LAD coronary artery ligation. The 16 remaining dogs were divided into two groups: Group A (GA) received 99mTc-MIBI myocardial imaging (n=8): Group B (GB) received 99mTc-MIBI myocardial imaging combined with echocardiography (n=8). 99mTc-MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging :Static 99mTc-MIBI myocardial imaging was taken with ADAC Vertex Dual-head SPECT. 99mTc-MIBI kit was manufactured in Syncor, China. Each dog served as its own control, and was scanned by 99mTc-MIBI myocardial imaging and chocardiography at 48-72 hours before ligation. The mean time of the first acquisition was 21.87 ± 11.03 (14-48) minutes post-operatively in GA, 57.63±22.83 (30-99) minutes for 99mTc-MIBI imaging in GB, 26.00±15.07 (12-50) minutes for echocardiography in GB. Acquisition techniques for Gated SPECT: ECG synchronized data collection: R wave trigger, 8 Frames/Cardiac cycle. Images were gathered by rotating the detectors 180 degrees at 6 degrees per frame. Each frame took 40 seconds. The dog position was supine. The images were acquired and recorded for 6 hours following the LAD coronary artery ligation. After 6 hours

  12. What motivates early adolescents for school? A longitudinal analysis of associations between observed teaching and motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroet, Kim; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Minnaert, Alexander

    For many early adolescent students, motivation for school declines after their transition to secondary education. Increasingly, the decisive importance of teachers in shaping early adolescents' motivation is stressed; thus far, however, both longitudinal and observational studies on this topic have

  13. Learning by observation requires an early sleep window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Y.D.; Van der Helm, E.; Schoonheim, M.M.; Ridderikhoff, A.; van Someren, E.J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that sleep enhances memory for motor skills learned through practice. Motor skills can, however, also be learned through observation, a process possibly involving the mirror neuron system. We investigated whether motor skill enhancement through prior observation requires

  14. Peer Observation of Teaching: Reflections of an Early Career Academic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eri, Rajaraman

    2014-01-01

    Peer observation of teaching (POT) is a reciprocal process where a peer observes another's teaching (classroom, virtual, on-line or even teaching resource such as unit outlines, assignments). Peers then provide constructive feedbacks that would enable teaching professional development through the mirror of critical reflection by both the observer…

  15. Different patterns in the risk of newly developed fatty liver and lipid changes with tamoxifen versus aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: A propensity score-matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Namki; Yoon, Han Gyul; Seo, Da Hea; Park, Seho; Kim, Seung Il; Sohn, Joo Hyuk; Rhee, Yumie

    2017-09-01

    Management of metabolic complications of long-term adjuvant endocrine therapy in early breast cancer remained an unmet need. We aimed to compare the effects of tamoxifen (TMX) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) on the risk of fatty liver in conjunction with longitudinal changes in the serum lipid parameters. Among 1203 subjects who were taking adjuvant TMX or AI (anastrozole or letrozole) without fatty liver at baseline, those taking TMX or AI were 1:1 matched on the propensity score. The primary outcome was newly developed fatty liver detected on annual liver ultrasonography. Among 328 matched subjects (mean age 53.5 years, body mass index 22.9 kg/m 2 ), 62 cases of fatty liver in the TMX group and 41 cases in the AI group were detected in a total of 987.4 person-years. The incidence rate of fatty liver was higher in the TMX group than in the AI group (128.7 versus 81.1 per 1000 person-years, P = 0.021), particularly within the first 2 years of therapy. TMX was associated with an increased 5-year risk of newly developed fatty liver (adjusted hazard ratio 1.61, P = 0.030) compared with AI independent of obesity and cholesterol level. Subjects who developed fatty liver had higher triglycerides (TGs) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level at baseline than those without, which was sustained during follow-up despite the serum cholesterol-lowering effect of TMX. TMX independently increased the 5-year risk of newly developed fatty liver compared with AI in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. Our findings suggest the need for considering the risk of fatty liver as a different adverse event profile between AI and TMX, particularly in patients with obesity, high TGs and low HDL-C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biological characterization and selection criteria of adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer: experience from the Italian observational NEMESI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavarezza, Matteo; Marchetti, Paolo; Gori, Stefania; Carrozza, Francesco; Maiello, Evaristo; Giotta, Francesco; Dondi, Davide; Venturini, Marco; Mustacchi, Giorgio; Casadei Gardini, Andrea; Del Mastro, Lucia; De Matteis, Andrea; Riccardi, Ferdinando; Adamo, Vincenzo; Aitini, Enrico; Amoroso, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    International treatment guidelines recommend administration of adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer based on clinical, prognostic and predictive parameters. An observational study (NEMESI) was conducted in 63 Italian oncology centres in patients with early breast cancer. Age, performance status, concomitant disease, menopausal status, histology, tumor dimension (pT), axillary lymph node status (pN), grading (G), estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER and PgR), proliferative index (ki67 or MIB-1), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and type of adjuvant treatment were recorded. The primary objective of the study was to define parameters influencing the decision to prescribe adjuvant chemotherapy and the type of chemotherapy. Data for 1894 patients were available. 69.0% postmenopausal, 67.0% pT1, 22.3% pTmic/pT1a/pT1b, 61.0% pN0, 48.7% luminal A, 18.1% luminal B, 16.1% HER2 positive, 8.7% triple negative, 8.4% unknown. 57.8% received adjuvant chemotherapy: 38.1% of luminal A, 67.3% luminal B, 88.2% HER2-positive, 97.6% triple negative. Regimens administered: 9.1% CMF-like, 48.8% anthracyclines, 38.4% anthracyclines plus taxanes, 3.7% taxanes alone. Increasing pT/pN and, marginally, HER2-positive were associated with the prescription of anthracyclines plus taxanes. Suboptimal schedules (CMF-like or AC/EC or FEC-75) were prescribed in 37.3% receiving chemotherapy, even in HER2-positive and triple negative disease (36.5% and 34.0%, respectively). This study showed an overprescription of adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer, particularly referred to luminal A. pT, pN and, marginally, HER2 were the principal determinants for the choice of chemotherapy type. Suboptimal chemotherapy regimens were adopted in at least one third of HER2-positve and triple negative

  17. Postmenopausal symptoms in a group of rural Xhosa women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To describe the incidence and understanding of early postmenopausal symptoms in rural Xhosa women. Methods: After written informed consent, 137 women were interviewed within five years after natural menopause using the Greene Climacteric Scale. Body mass indices were calculated, and blood levels of ...

  18. Early Parent-infant Interactions; Are Health Visitors' Observations Reliable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ingeborg Hedegaard; Simonsen, Marianne; Trillingsgaard, Tea

    2014-01-01

    -infant relations, and there was no significant difference between the two groups according to intentions, self-efficacy, age, years educated and working part or full time. Certificated Marte Meo-therapists had significantly higher skills assessing mother- infant interactions and they scored significantly higher...... high intention and self-efficacy to work with parent-infant relation, professionals certified as Marte Meo-therapists are 8-12% superior in terms of observation skills and knowledge. Further research is needed to determinate whether the level of knowledge and observation skills is associated...

  19. Early NICER Observations of Magnetars and Young Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nynka, Melania

    2018-01-01

    Neutron star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) is an X-ray telescope attached to the International Space Station (ISS). Launched in June 2017, it is designed to precisely measure the masses and radii of neutron stars (NS) and probe NS equations of state. But its precision timing capabilities and large effective area uniquely position NICER for the study of magnetars. The NICER Magnetar & Magnetosphere (M&M) science working group focuses on studying highly-magnetized neutron stars, a diverse program that includes magnetars, high-B pulsars, rotation powered pulsars, and isolated neutron stars. Our ongoing campaign has already observed targets such as 4U 0142+61, a magnetar in outburst with coincident NuSTAR and Swift observations, the radio rotation powered Vela pulsar PSR B0833-45, and a transient magnetar XTE J1810-197. I will discuss the goals of the M&M program, spectral and temporal results from the observed targets, and an overview of upcoming observations.

  20. Association Between Perceived Social Support and Depression in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayon Najafabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The most common symptom in early menopausal women is depression. Depression is a type of chronic disease that impacts on postmenopausal women’s life. Social support plays a protective role for women and enables them to solve their life problems and thus, feel less depressed. Objectives We assessed depression as a chronic disease and evaluated the association between perceived social support and depression in postmenopausal women. Patients and Methods This correlation-analytic study was conducted on 321 postmenopausal women using 2-stage cluster sampling in Ahvaz in 2014. Data collecting instruments were comprised of a demographic questionnaire, a depression scale (Beck Depression Inventory-II, and a social support questionnaire (PRQ 85-Part 2. Data analysis was done using SPSS, version 20. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the relationship between perceived social support and depression, and the χ2 test was employed to assess the relationship between perceived social support and demographic characteristics. Results The Spearman correlation test revealed a significant reverse relationship between perceived social support and depression (r = -0.468; P = 0.001. There were significant relationships between perceived social support and some personal variables such as marital status, education level, and job status (P 0.05. Conclusions We found a reverse relationship between perceived social support and depression in postmenopausal women. Raising awareness in society apropos the relationship between social support and depression in postmenopausal women can enhance their quality of life.

  1. EARLY ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS OF A TYPE IIn SUPERNOVA (2007pk)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, T. A.; Roming, P. W. A.; Brown, P. J.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Oates, S. R.; Bayless, Amanda J.; Holland, S. T.; Immler, S.; Milne, P.

    2012-01-01

    We present some of the earliest UV observations of a Type IIn supernova (SN)—SN 2007pk, where UV and optical observations using Swift's Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope began 3 days after discovery or ∼5 days after shock breakout. The SN observations commence at approximately maximum light in the UV and u-band filters, suggesting that the UV light curve peaks begin very rapidly after the initial explosion, and subsequently exhibit a linear decay of 0.20, 0.21, 0.16 mag day –1 in the UVOT uvw2, uvm2, uvw1 (λ c = 1928, 2246, 2600 Å) filters. Meanwhile the b- and v-band light curves begin approximately seven days before v-band peak and exhibit a shallow rise followed by a subsequent decay. A series of optical/near-IR spectra taken with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at days 3-26 after discovery show spectra similar to that of the peculiar Type IIn 1998S. The emission from 2007pk falls below detection ∼20 days after discovery in the UV and 50 days in the optical, showing no sign of the long duration emission seen in other Type IIn SNe. We examine the physical and spectral characteristics of 2007pk and compare its UV light curve and decay rate with other Type II SNe.

  2. ANDROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY IN POSTMENOPAUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Meden Vrtovec

    2008-12-01

    Scientific studies and clinical experiences have not provided until now the answers to thequestion: »Whom to treat, when, why and for how long should androgens be used for HRTin postmenopausal women?«

  3. Early 2017 observations of TRAPPIST-1 with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Demory, B.-O.; de Wit, J.; Ingalls, J. G.; Agol, E.; Bolmont, E.; Burdanov, A.; Burgasser, A. J.; Carey, S. J.; Jehin, E.; Leconte, J.; Lederer, S.; Queloz, D.; Selsis, F.; Van Grootel, V.

    2018-04-01

    The recently detected TRAPPIST-1 planetary system, with its seven planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star, offers the first opportunity to perform comparative exoplanetology of temperate Earth-sized worlds. To further advance our understanding of these planets' compositions, energy budgets, and dynamics, we are carrying out an intensive photometric monitoring campaign of their transits with the Spitzer Space Telescope. In this context, we present 60 new transits of the TRAPPIST-1 planets observed with Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) in 2017 February and March. We combine these observations with previously published Spitzer transit photometry and perform a global analysis of the resulting extensive data set. This analysis refines the transit parameters and provides revised values for the planets' physical parameters, notably their radii, using updated properties for the star. As part of our study, we also measure precise transit timings that will be used in a companion paper to refine the planets' masses and compositions using the transit timing variations method. TRAPPIST-1 shows a very low level of low-frequency variability in the IRAC 4.5-μm band, with a photometric RMS of only 0.11 per cent at a 123-s cadence. We do not detect any evidence of a (quasi-)periodic signal related to stellar rotation. We also analyse the transit light curves individually, to search for possible variations in the transit parameters of each planet due to stellar variability, and find that the Spitzer transits of the planets are mostly immune to the effects of stellar variations. These results are encouraging for forthcoming transmission spectroscopy observations of the TRAPPIST-1 planets with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  4. Early Chandra X-ray Observations of Eta Carinae

    OpenAIRE

    Seward, F. D.; Butt, Y. M.; Karovska, M.; Schlegel, A. Prestwich. E. M.; Corcoran, M.

    2001-01-01

    Sub-arcsecond resolution Chandra observations of Eta Carinae reveal a 40 arcsec X 70 arcsec ring or partial shell of X-ray emission surrounding an unresolved, bright, central source. The spectrum of the central source is strongly absorbed and can be fit with a high-temperature thermal continuum and emission lines. The surrounding shell is well outside the optical/IR bipolar nebula and is coincident with the Outer Shell of Eta Carinae. The X-ray spectrum of the Shell is much softer than that o...

  5. Post-menopausal breast abscess.

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, G. C.; Naraynsingh, V.; Jankey, N.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty post-menopausal women with breast abscess were treated at Port of Spain General Hospital, Trinidad, between 1976 and 1980. In this age group, breast abscess can be confused with cancer due to a lack of inflammatory features. History and physical examination are often not helpful in differentiating an abscess from carcinoma. Although the usual treatment of an abscess is incision and drainage, in post-menopausal women, excision of the lesion is helpful for accurate histological diagnosis.

  6. Post-menopausal breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, G. C.; Naraynsingh, V.; Jankey, N.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty post-menopausal women with breast abscess were treated at Port of Spain General Hospital, Trinidad, between 1976 and 1980. In this age group, breast abscess can be confused with cancer due to a lack of inflammatory features. History and physical examination are often not helpful in differentiating an abscess from carcinoma. Although the usual treatment of an abscess is incision and drainage, in post-menopausal women, excision of the lesion is helpful for accurate histological diagnosis. PMID:3628144

  7. Health behaviors of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jasińska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI, may help establish a comprehensive diagnosis of women’s health, and thus select effective interventions. A systemic approach to menopause assumes that full fitness of women and good quality of their lives can be maintained not only by means of pharmacotherapy but also other forms of action, especially health education oriented towards changes in the lifestyle and promotion of healthy behaviors. The aim of this study is to perform a HBI-based assessment of women’s health behaviors in such categories as healthy eating habits (HEH, preventive behaviors (PB, positive mental attitudes (PMA, and health practices (HP. Material and methods: The study involved 151 healthy postmenopausal women. A research tool was a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI. Results: The surveyed women obtained 70% of the maximum score on average, which suggests a medium level of health behaviors in this group. The levels of health behaviors in the categories of positive mental attitudes and health practices significantly differed between older women and their younger counterparts (higher levels were observed among older respondents. There were also significant differences in the levels of healthy behaviors between women with secondary and higher education (those better educated declared healthy behaviors more often. There was no correlation between the level of health behaviors and the BMI of the surveyed women. Conclusions : Older women attached greater

  8. An EAS event observed in the early stage of development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, S. L. C.; Beggio, P. C.; de Carvalho, A. O.; Chinellato, J. A.; Mariano, A.; de Oliveira, R.; Shibuya, E. H.; Brazil-Japan Collaboration of Chacaltaya Emulsion Chamber Experiment

    2008-01-01

    Since 1969 the experiments of Brazil-Japan Collaboration showed the occurrence of a series of events, showing a region with a high concentration of electromagnetic particles, surrounded by isolated and/or groups of showers. These events were named "halo events" or "super-families". Currently, we have more than a dozen of such events. The first of them, due to its aspect, was named "Andromeda". We present here the main characteristics of a similar halo event, named C21S087I075. It has a halo region with many high energy showers in its border. Other small energy showers spread over the central and surrounding blocks (S088, S100, S101, I074). These isolated showers, classified as of hadronic or electromagnetic origin, present a fractional energy distribution compatible with that of a Centauro candidate event (C16S087I037), reported at this symposium [S.L.C. Barroso, P.C. Beggio, J.A. Chinellato, A.O. Carvalho, A. Mariano, R. Oliveira, E.H. Shibuya, in this issue of XIV ISVHECRI]. Moreover, the lateral distribution in the halo region is similar to that observed in other 3 halo events.

  9. Differential genetic basis for pre-menopausal and post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L M Herrera

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension affects 75% of post-menopausal women in the United States causing greater cardiovascular complications compared with age-matched men and pre-menopausal women. Hormone replacement and current anti-hypertensive therapies do not correct this post-menopausal increased risk suggesting a distinct pathogenic framework. We investigated the hypothesis that distinct genetic determinants might underlie susceptibility to salt sensitive hypertension in pre-menopausal and post-menopausal states. To determine whether distinct genetic loci contribute to post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension, we performed a genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTLs affecting blood pressure (BP in 16-month old post-menopausal F2 (Dahl S×R-intercross female rats characterized for blood pressure by radiotelemetry. Given identical environments and high salt challenge, post-menopausal BP levels were significantly higher than observed in pre-menopausal (post-menopausal versus pre-menopausal SBP, P<0.0001 and ovariectomized (post-menopausal versus ovariectomized SBP, P<0.001 F2-intercross female rats. We detected four significant to highly significant BP-QTLs (BP-pm1 on chromosome 13, LOD 3.78; BP-pm2 on chromosome 11, LOD 2.76; BP-pm3 on chromosome 2, LOD 2.61; BP-pm4 on chromosome 4, LOD 2.50 and two suggestive BP-QTLs (BP-pm5 on chromosome 15, LOD 2.37; BP-f1 on chromosome 5, LOD 1.65, four of which (BP-pm2, BP-pm3, BP-pm4, BP-pm5 were unique to this post-menopausal cohort. These data demonstrate distinct polygenic susceptibility underlying post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension providing a pathway towards the identification of mechanism-based therapy for post-menopausal hypertension and ensuing target-organ complications.

  10. Differential genetic basis for pre-menopausal and post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Victoria L M; Pasion, Khristine A; Moran, Ann Marie; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Essential hypertension affects 75% of post-menopausal women in the United States causing greater cardiovascular complications compared with age-matched men and pre-menopausal women. Hormone replacement and current anti-hypertensive therapies do not correct this post-menopausal increased risk suggesting a distinct pathogenic framework. We investigated the hypothesis that distinct genetic determinants might underlie susceptibility to salt sensitive hypertension in pre-menopausal and post-menopausal states. To determine whether distinct genetic loci contribute to post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension, we performed a genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting blood pressure (BP) in 16-month old post-menopausal F2 (Dahl S×R)-intercross female rats characterized for blood pressure by radiotelemetry. Given identical environments and high salt challenge, post-menopausal BP levels were significantly higher than observed in pre-menopausal (post-menopausal versus pre-menopausal SBP, P<0.0001) and ovariectomized (post-menopausal versus ovariectomized SBP, P<0.001) F2-intercross female rats. We detected four significant to highly significant BP-QTLs (BP-pm1 on chromosome 13, LOD 3.78; BP-pm2 on chromosome 11, LOD 2.76; BP-pm3 on chromosome 2, LOD 2.61; BP-pm4 on chromosome 4, LOD 2.50) and two suggestive BP-QTLs (BP-pm5 on chromosome 15, LOD 2.37; BP-f1 on chromosome 5, LOD 1.65), four of which (BP-pm2, BP-pm3, BP-pm4, BP-pm5) were unique to this post-menopausal cohort. These data demonstrate distinct polygenic susceptibility underlying post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension providing a pathway towards the identification of mechanism-based therapy for post-menopausal hypertension and ensuing target-organ complications.

  11. Impact of the pathogenetic type of postmenopause on the occurrence of tumors of the female reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Ashrafyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included patients observed and treated in Russian scientific centre of roentgenradiology Ministry of Health Russian Federation in the period from 1999 to 2010 (n = 405: including 111 postmenopausal women who are without anamnestic data on the presence of cancer at any site, and the group of patients with gynecological cancer in postmenopause in including 60 patients with endometrial cancer, 67 patients with malignant epithelial ovarian tumors, 87 observations of cervical cancer and 80 patients with vulva cancer. The average age of the patients was 58.6 ± 0.4 years. The study of bone mineral density, body mass index and the level of estrogen receptor localization in different cancers of the reproductive system. Formed by 4 different types of menopause that best reflects a combination of hormone and hormone receptor status. This separation makes it possible to plan more differentiated the hormone replacement therapy in postmenopause. Along with this, there is reasonable prospects for prevention and early diagnosis of hormone-dependent tumors of the female reproductive system.

  12. Medication Use Patterns, Treatment Satisfaction, and Inadequate Control of Osteoporosis Study in the Asia-Pacific Region (MUSIC OS-AP: Design of a multinational, prospective, observational study examining the impact of gastrointestinal events on osteoporosis management in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Modi

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The results of MUSIC OS-AP will highlight the association of gastrointestinal events with patient-reported outcomes among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and elucidate physicians' management of gastrointestinal events among this patient population in the Asia-Pacific region.

  13. Prevention of aromatase inhibitor-induced bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women: The BATMAN Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Anna J; Yee Yap, Saw; White, Karen; Beith, Jane; Abdi, Ehtesham; Broad, Adam; Sewak, Sanjeev; Lee, Chooi; Sambrook, Philip; Pocock, Nicholas; Henry, Margaret J; Yeow, Elaine G; Bell, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Postmenopausal women on aromatase inhibitors (AI) are at risk of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss (AIBL) and fractures. In 2005 Osteoporosis Australia proposed an algorithm for bisphosphonate intervention. Three hundred and three postmenopausal women with early breast cancer (EBC) were enrolled (osteoporotic, n=25; osteopaenic, n=146; normal bone mineral density (BMD), n=126). Weekly alendronate (70 mg) treatment efficacy as triggered by the algorithm in preventing bone loss was evaluated. All patients received anastrozole (1 mg daily), calcium and vitamin D. All osteoporotic patients received alendronate at baseline. Eleven out of the 146 (7.5%) osteopaenic patients commenced alendronate within 18 months of participation and eleven commenced after. One hundred and twenty four out of the 146 (84.9%) osteopaenic patients and all 126 with normal baseline BMD did not trigger the algorithm. At three years, lumbar spine mean BMD increased (15.6%, p<0.01) in the osteoporotic group. BMD in the osteopaenic group with early intervention significantly increased at three years (6.3%, p=0.02). No significant change was seen in the late intervention group. No change was observed in those with osteopaenia without alendronate. There was a significant drop in lumbar spine (-5.4%) and hip (-4.5%) mean BMD, in the normal BMD group, none of whom received alendronate. Fracture data will be presented. In postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive EBC, BMD improved over time when a bisphosphonate is administered with anastrozole in osteoporotic patients using an osteoporosis schedule. Subjects with normal baseline BMD experienced the greatest BMD loss, although none became osteoporotic.

  14. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory for observation of early photons from gamma ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, I. H.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the space project of Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) which will observe early optical photons from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a sub-second optical response, for the first time. The UFFO will probe the early optical rise of GRBs, opening a completely new frontier in GRB and trans...

  15. [Postmenopausal osteoporosis in obese women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmozherova, N V; Popov, A A

    2008-01-01

    assessment of frequency of obesity and comorbidities in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (OP). cross-sectional study included 243 postmenopausal symptomatic women with OP diagnosed by dual energy lumbar spine absorptiometry. normal body mass was found in 74 women (30.5%), 105 persons (43.2%) had overweight and 64 patients (26.3%) were obese. Obese OP patients had significantly higherfrequency of arterial hypertension, chronic heart failure, osteoarthritis and glucose metabolism disorders than those with normal body mass. Obese persons also had more severe menopausal symptoms than women with normal body mass. There was no difference in non-traumatic fractures between obese, overweight and slim patients. Thus, postmenopausal OP in obese women was associated with numerous comorbidities and more severe menopausal symptoms.

  16. Postmenopausal sex hormones in relation to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liedtke, S.; Schmidt, M.E.; Vrieling, A.; Lukanova, A.; Becker, S.; Kaaks, R.; Zaineddin, A.K.; Buck, K.; Benner, A.; Chang-Claude, J.; Steindorf, K.

    2012-01-01

    Being overweight or obese increases the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. A potential reason may be the frequently observed positive association of BMI with endogenous sex hormones and its negative association with sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The purpose of this study was to investigate

  17. Bone strength and its determinants in peri- and postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, F.; Ahmad, M.; Hasan, S.; Khurshid, R.

    2011-01-01

    Diminished bone strength increases the frequency of osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Weight and gonadal status are important determinants of bone mass in women. This study tried to find out the bone strength and its determinants in peri- and postmenopausal age groups of women. Methods: One hundred and twenty females with age range 25 - 66 years were included in the study. According to their age and menstrual status they were divided into premenopausal (30) peri menopausal (50) and postmenopausal (40). Body Mass Index (MBI) and bone related blood parameter, serum calcium, magnesium, inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and estradiol were estimated. Bone mineral density was taken by peripheral densitometer. Results: Blood chemical parameters were not significantly different in these groups. The p-value of serum estradiol was highly significant in peri- and postmenopausal groups. BMI was significantly high in postmenopausal as compared to pre and perimenopausal groups. Conclusion: Early menopause, low levels of oestrogen and BMI values can all affect the health of bones in elderly women. (author)

  18. Validating the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure in First and Third Grade Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Pakarinen, Eija; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Kikas, Eve; Muotka, Joona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2017-01-01

    The present study reports on the psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure (ECCOM) in Finnish and Estonian first and third grade classrooms. The observation data were collected from 91 first grade teachers and 70 third grade teachers. Teachers' curriculum goals, teaching experience and the classroom size were…

  19. Factors influencing endometrial thickness in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, S; Chaya, V; Rai, L; Ramachandran, A

    2014-07-01

    Cut-off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. To study the various factors influencing the ET in postmenopausal women. This was a prospective observational study. A total of 110 postmenopausal women underwent detailed history taking, clinical examination, and transvaginal scan for uterine volume and ovarian volume. The volumes were calculated by using ellipsoid formula: Width × thickness × height × 0.523. The variation in ET with respect to the influencing factors such as age, duration of menopause, parity, body mass index (BMI), medical illness like diabetes/hypertension, drugs like tamoxifen, presence of myoma, uterine volume, ovarian volume, and serum estradiol (in selected patients) were measured. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16, Chicago II, USA) to obtain mean, standard deviation (SD), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and inter quartile ranges. Comparison of means was carried out using analysis of variance. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 55.4 (6.91) years (95% CI, 54.1, 56.7). The mean (SD) age at menopause was 47.95 (3.90) years (95% CI, 47.2, 48.7) and the mean (SD) duration of menopause was 7.27 (6.65) years (95% CI, 6.01, 8.53). The mean (SD) ET was 3.8 (2.3) mm (95% CI, 3.36, 4.23). Medical illness like diabetes and hypertension did not alter the ET. ET increased as BMI increased and it was statistically significant. The presence of myoma increased uterine volume significantly and was associated with thick endometrial stripe. Similarly, whenever the ovaries were visualized and as the ovarian volume increased, there was an increase in ET. When ET was > 4 mm (n = 37), they were offered endocel, of which 16 agreed to undergo the procedure. None were found to have endometrial cancer. This study suggests that parity, BMI, presence of

  20. Relationship between parity and bone mass in postmenopausal women according to number of parities and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Behzad; Heidari, Parnaz; Nourooddini, Haj Ghorban; Hajian-Tilaki, Karim Ollah

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the impact of multiple pregnancies on postmenopausal bone mineral density (BMD). BMD at the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method. Diagnosis of osteoporosis (OP) was confirmed by World Health Organization criteria. Women were stratified according to number of parity as 7 parity groups as well as in age groups of or = 65 years. BMD values and frequency of OP were compared across the groups according to age. Multiple logistic regression analysis with calculation of adjusted odds ratio (OR) was used for association. A total of 264 women with mean age of 63 +/- 8.7 and mean menopausal duration of 15.8 +/- 10.2 years were studied. LS-OP and FN-OP were observed in 28% and 58.3% of women, respectively. There were significant differences in BMD values across different parity groups at both sites of LS and FN (p = 0.011 and p = 0.036, respectively). Parity 4-7 (vs. 7 significantly decreased LS-BMD and FN-BMD as compared with 0-7 parity (p = 0.006 and p = 0.009, respectively). Parity > 7 increased the risk of LS-OP by OR = 1.81 (95% CI 1.03-3.1, p = 0.037) and FN-OP by OR = 1.67 (95% CI 0.97-2.8, p = 0.063). In addition, women with high parity had lower BMD decline at LS and FN by age (> or = 65 vs. 7 is associated with spinal trabecular bone loss in younger postmenopausal women as well as an osteoprotective effect against age-related bone loss, which counteracts the early negative effect. Therefore, parity should not be considered as a risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  1. [Parity and menarche as risk factors of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Mexican women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Romo, Miguel Angel; Ramírez-Arriola, María Cleofas; Velasco-Chávez, José Fernando; Rivera-Martínez, José Guillermo; Nieva-de Jesús, Rafael Natividad; Valdez-Jiménez, Luis Alvaro

    2013-03-01

    At the moment the studies lead at world-wide level and even in our country have thrown discrepant results about the relation between osteoporosis, parity and age of menarche. To investigate the relation of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Mexican women with multiparity and age of menarche. A retrospective and analytical cross-sectional study, with a non-probabilistic sampling technique in women rightful claimants of the IMSS, San Luis Potosi. In all of them the bone mineral density was measured with X-ray dual absorptiometry in the distal forearm. Reproductive history and age of menarche were obtained by the addition of these items to the previously validated Albrand questionnaire. Women were divided into groups according to the number of pregnancies in: normal parity (0 to 3 childbirths) conformed by 112 patients (46%) and multiparity (> or = 4 pregnancies), 131 women (54%). In relation to menarche with an average of 12.98 years, from this number we divided them in: early menarche ( or = 13 yrs). 243 women were studied, with an average of age of 55.92, rank 31 to 80 years. Using the criteria of the World Health Organization, 18% of postmenopausal women had osteoporosis, 39% had osteopenia and 43% had bone normality. No association was found between the number of pregnancies and osteoporosis. Additionally we observed that the women who had four or more children were older than the other women, average 57.42 against 54.16. Also there was significant negative correlation (r = -0.43) between age and densitometry. We found that an age greater to 13 years in the appearance of the menarche was related to osteoporosis (OR 4.46, p: 0.035). In postmenopausal women a menarche older than 13 years is a risk factor for osteoporosis.

  2. Risk assessment for psychological disorders in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaria, Anuradha; Bharti, Rekha; Sharma, Manjula; Dewan, Rupali; Kapoor, Garima; Aggarwal, Abha; Batra, Achla; Batra, Aruna

    2013-12-01

    Psychological symptoms are common & bothersome in post menopausal women. Hence, screening these women for risk factors for psychological disorders is an important measure to improve their health. To study the risk assessment for psychological disorders in postmenopausal women Material & Methods: This was a prospective and observational study conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of a North Indian tertiary care hospital. It included a cross-section of 200 postmenopausal women attending gynecology OPD and menopausal clinic. Psychological symptoms were present in 32% postmenopausal women while sleep disturbance and decreased concentration were reported by nearly 34%. Irritability, nervousness and depression were the presenting complaints in 31.5%, 28.5% and 23.5% women respectively. Mild depression was present in 41.5%, whereas 3% women suffered from clinical (moderate to severe) depression. Depression was significantly associated with vasomotor symptoms (p=0.000), past history of depression (p=0.048) and psychosocial stressors (p=0.000). Women during postmenopausal years are at increased risk of psychological disorders; hence assessment of mental health and address of related issues should be an integral part of comprehensive evaluation of these women.

  3. Naturalistic Observations of Schoolyard Social Participation: Marker Variables for Socio-Emotional Functioning in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, Robert J.; Ooi, Laura L.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine links between observed social participation in the schoolyard and indices of socio-emotional functioning in early adolescence. Participants were children (N = 290) aged 9 to 12 years. Social participation (e.g., solitary play, dyadic interaction, group interaction) was assessed in the schoolyard during recess…

  4. Factors Associated with South Korean Early Childhood Educators' Observed Behavior Support Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Ha; Stormont, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This study was an exploratory study of 34 South Korean early childhood educators' strategies for addressing behavior problems in natural settings. Factors related to teachers' strategy implementation were also explored. Four specific teacher behaviors were observed: precorrection, behavioral-specific praise, redirection, and reprimand/punishment.…

  5. Observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts with the Lomonosov / UFFO-pathfinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, S.; Brandt, Søren; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    2014-01-01

    UFFO-pathfinder is a pioneering space mission to observe the early evolution of Gamma-ray Bursts using a fast slewing strategy. It consists of the Slewing Mirror Telescope, for rapid pointing at UV/optical wavelengths and the UFFO Burst Alert and Trigger Telescope. It has a total weight of ~ 20 k...

  6. Periodontal Status of Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur V. Melkumyan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the periodontal status in postmenopausal women with osteopenia and osteoporosis. Material and Methods: We examined 43 postmenopausal women aged from 55 to 74 years. Material assessment of bones in every patient was performed by means of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA from two points on the skeleton – part of the femur neck and between the first and fourth lumbar vertebrae. A lipid blood test was done for patients of both groups. All patients were divided into two groups (the 1st with osteopenia, and the 2nd with osteoporosis. All patients were subjected to an oral clinical examination: the periodontal examination was composed of Plaque Index (PI, Pocket Score (PS, and Papillary Bleeding Index (PBI. X-ray analysis was performed for every patient. Results: The results of the clinical periodontal examination demonstrated that the mean PBI in patients in the 1st group had no significant differences from the PBI in patients in the 2nd group. PI value and PS findings in patients with general osteoporosis also had no statistical differences from the same parameters in patients with osteopenia. Conclusion: Under the circumstances of these patients’ characteristics and within the limits of the present study, we concluded that there is no significant difference in the periodontal status of postmenopausal women with systemic osteopenia and with osteoporosis.

  7. Observing the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation: A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Gary; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics,of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales will reveal the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approx. 1100. The validity of inflationary models will be tested and, if agreement is found, accurate values for most of the key cosmological parameters will result. If disagreement is found, we will need to rethink our basic ideas about the physics of the early universe. I will present an overview of the physical processes at work in forming the anisotropy and discuss what we have already learned from current observations. I will conclude with a brief overview of the recently launched Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) mission which will observe the anisotropy over the full sky with 0.21 degree angular resolution. At the time of this meeting, MAP will have just arrived at the L2 Lagrange point, marking the start of its observing campaign. The MAP hardware is being produced by Goddard in partnership with Princeton University.

  8. EARLY OPTICAL OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS BY THE TAROT TELESCOPES: PERIOD 2001-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, A.; Boer, M.; Atteia, J. L.; Gendre, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Telescopes a Action Rapide pour les Objets Transitoires telescopes are two robotic observatories designed to observe the prompt optical emission counterpart and the early afterglow of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We present data acquired between 2001 and 2008 and discuss the properties of the optical emission of GRBs, noting various interesting results. The optical emission observed during the prompt GRB phase is rarely very bright: we estimate that 5%-20% of GRBs exhibit a bright optical flash (R < 14) during the prompt gamma-ray emission, and that more than 50% of the GRBs have an optical emission fainter than R = 15.5 when the gamma-ray emission is active. We study the apparent optical brightness distribution of GRBs at 1000 s showing that our observations confirm the distribution derived by other groups. The combination of these results with those obtained by other rapid slewing telescopes allows us to better characterize the early optical emission of GRBs and to emphasize the importance of very early multiwavelength GRB studies for the understanding of the physics of the ejecta.

  9. Early GRB optical and infrared afterglow observations with the 2-m robotic Liverpool Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomboc, A.; Ljubljana Univ., Ljubljana; Mundell, C.G.; Guidorzi, C.

    2005-01-01

    We present the first optical observations of a Gamma Ray Burst IGRB) afterglow using the 2-m robotic Liverpool Telescope (LT), which is owned and operated by Liverpool John Moores University and situated on La Palma. We briefly discuss the capabilities of LT and its suitability for rapid follow-up observations of early optical and infrared GRB light curves. In particular, the combination of aperture, site, instrumentation and rapid response (robotic over-ride mode aided by telescope's rapid slew and fully-opening enclosure) makes the LT ideal for investigating the nature of short bursts, optically-dark bursts, and GRB blast-wave physics in general. We briefly describe the LT's key position in the RoboNet-1.0 network of robotic telescopes. We present the LT observations of GRB041006 and use its gamma-ray properties to predict the time of the break in optical light curve, a prediction consistent with the observations

  10. Apoptosis in ovarian cells in postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laszczyńska

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a natural process which accompanies human ovary from the moment of birth until old age. While it is a well-known process at the reproductive age, it still needs to be thoroughly examined when referring to the postmenopausal age. The study involved 30 postmenopausal women who had their ovaries removed by laparotomy due to nonneoplastic diseases of the uterus. The women were divided into 3 groups depending on the time that had passed since the last menstruation. Group A consisted of women who had their last menstruation no more than 5 years earlier. In group B menopause occurred 5 to 10 years earlier. Group C was composed of patients who had the last menstruation over 10 years earlier. In all the patients concentrations of follitropin (FSH and estradiol (E2 in blood plasma were measured. Ovarian tissue was obtained during surgery. For morphological studies, ovaries were fixed in Bouin's solution and 4% formalin and embedded in paraffin. Morphological analysis was carried out after hematoxylin-eosin (H-E staining. For histochemical detection of apoptotic cells (in situ localization of fragment DNA, the TUNEL method was used. The expression of caspase-3 positive cells was determined immunohistochemically in paraffin-embedded specimens. Comparing to groups A and B, the ovaries in group C contained small number of corpora albicantia located in the medullary part as well as thinned blood vessels and few lymphatic vessels and nerves. In contrast to group A where the number of TUNEL-positive cells was high and caspase-3 expression was observed, no TUNEL-positive nuclei and caspase-3 expression were found in the examined ovaries of group C women.

  11. UFFO/ Lomonosov: The Payload for the Observation of Early Photons from Gamma Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, I. H.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Reglero, V.; Chen, P.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Jeong, S.; Bogomolov, V.; Brandt, S.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Chang, S.-H.; Chang, Y. Y.; Chen, C.-R.; Chen, C.-W.; Choi, H. S.; Connell, P.; Eyles, C.; Gaikov, G.; Garipov, G.; Huang, J.-J.; Huang, M.-H. A.; Jeong, H. M.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. B.; Kim, S.-W.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, J.; Lim, H.; Lin, C.-Y.; Liu, T.-C.; Nam, J. W.; Petrov, V.; Ripa, J.; Rodrigo, J. M.; Svertilov, S.; Wang, M.-Z.; Yashin, I.

    2018-02-01

    The payload of the UFFO (Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory)-pathfinder now onboard the Lomonosov spacecraft (hereafter UFFO/ Lomonosov) is a dedicated instrument for the observation of GRBs. Its primary aim is to capture the rise phase of the optical light curve, one of the least known aspects of GRBs. Fast response measurements of the optical emission of GRB will be made by a Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT), a key instrument of the payload, which will open a new frontier in transient studies by probing the early optical rise of GRBs with a response time in seconds for the first time. The SMT employs a rapidly slewing mirror to redirect the optical axis of the telescope to a GRB position prior determined by the UFFO Burst Alert Telescope (UBAT), the other onboard instrument, for the observation and imaging of X-rays. UFFO/Lomonosov was launched successfully from Vostochny, Russia on April 28, 2016, and will begin GRB observations after completion of functional checks of the Lomonosov spacecraft. The concept of early GRB photon measurements with UFFO was reported in 2012. In this article, we will report in detail the first mission, UFFO/Lomonosov, for the rapid response to GRB observations.

  12. NEAR REAL-TIME DETERMINATION OF EARTHQUAKE SOURCE PARAMETERS FOR TSUNAMI EARLY WARNING FROM GEODETIC OBSERVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Manneela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Exemplifying the tsunami source immediately after an earthquake is the most critical component of tsunami early warning, as not every earthquake generates a tsunami. After a major under sea earthquake, it is very important to determine whether or not it has actually triggered the deadly wave. The near real-time observations from near field networks such as strong motion and Global Positioning System (GPS allows rapid determination of fault geometry. Here we present a complete processing chain of Indian Tsunami Early Warning System (ITEWS, starting from acquisition of geodetic raw data, processing, inversion and simulating the situation as it would be at warning center during any major earthquake. We determine the earthquake moment magnitude and generate the centroid moment tensor solution using a novel approach which are the key elements for tsunami early warning. Though the well established seismic monitoring network, numerical modeling and dissemination system are currently capable to provide tsunami warnings to most of the countries in and around the Indian Ocean, the study highlights the critical role of geodetic observations in determination of tsunami source for high-quality forecasting.

  13. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endedijk, H M; Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Cillessen, A H N; Hunnius, S

    2017-04-01

    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is therefore considered important for social interaction. Still, to date, it is unknown whether interindividual differences in neural mirroring play a role in interpersonal coordination during different instances of social interaction. A relation between neural mirroring and interpersonal coordination has particularly relevant implications for early childhood, since successful early interaction with peers is predictive of a more favorable social development. We examined the relation between neural mirroring and children's interpersonal coordination during peer interaction using EEG and longitudinal behavioral data. Results showed that 4-year-old children with higher levels of motor system involvement during action observation (as indicated by lower beta-power) were more successful in early peer cooperation. This is the first evidence for a relation between motor system involvement during action observation and interpersonal coordination during other instances of social interaction. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in neural mirroring are related to interpersonal coordination and thus successful social interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Predictors for early introduction of solid food among Danish mothers and infants: an observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Foverskov, Else; Væth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    introduced to solid food. Full breastfeeding at five weeks was the most influential predictor for later introduction of solid food (OR = 2.52 CI: 1.93-3.28). Among infant factors male gender, increased gestational age at birth, and higher birth weight were found to be statistically significant predictors......BACKGROUND: Early introduction of complementary feeding may interfere with breastfeeding and the infant's self-controlled appetite resulting in increased growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate predictors for early introduction of solid food. METHODS: In an observational study...... Danish mothers filled in a self-administered questionnaire approximately six months after birth. The questionnaire included questions about factors related to the infant, the mother, attachment and feeding known to influence time for introduction of solid food. The study population consisted of 4503...

  15. Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Brohan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The current assessment that twentieth-century global temperature change is unusual in the context of the last thousand years relies on estimates of temperature changes from natural proxies (tree-rings, ice-cores, etc. and climate model simulations. Confidence in such estimates is limited by difficulties in calibrating the proxies and systematic differences between proxy reconstructions and model simulations. As the difference between the estimates extends into the relatively recent period of the early nineteenth century it is possible to compare them with a reliable instrumental estimate of the temperature change over that period, provided that enough early thermometer observations, covering a wide enough expanse of the world, can be collected.

    One organisation which systematically made observations and collected the results was the English East India Company (EEIC, and their archives have been preserved in the British Library. Inspection of those archives revealed 900 log-books of EEIC ships containing daily instrumental measurements of temperature and pressure, and subjective estimates of wind speed and direction, from voyages across the Atlantic and Indian Oceans between 1789 and 1834. Those records have been extracted and digitised, providing 273 000 new weather records offering an unprecedentedly detailed view of the weather and climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

    The new thermometer observations demonstrate that the large-scale temperature response to the Tambora eruption and the 1809 eruption was modest (perhaps 0.5 °C. This provides an out-of-sample validation for the proxy reconstructions – supporting their use for longer-term climate reconstructions. However, some of the climate model simulations in the CMIP5 ensemble show much larger volcanic effects than this – such simulations are unlikely to be accurate in this respect.

  16. UFFO/Lomonosov: The Payload for the Observation of Early Photons from Gamma Ray Bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, I. H.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Reglero, V.

    2018-01-01

    . Fast response measurements of the optical emission of GRB will be made by a Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT), a key instrument of the payload, which will open a new frontier in transient studies by probing the early optical rise of GRBs with a response time in seconds for the first time. The SMT employs...... a rapidly slewing mirror to redirect the optical axis of the telescope to a GRB position prior determined by the UFFO Burst Alert Telescope (UBAT), the other onboard instrument, for the observation and imaging of X-rays. UFFO/Lomonosov was launched successfully from Vostochny, Russia on April 28, 2016...

  17. Supernova 2008J: early time observations of a heavily reddened SN 2002ic-like transient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taddia, F.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Phillips, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We provide additional observational evidence that some Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) show signatures of circumstellar interaction (CSI) with hydrogen-rich material. Methods: Early phase optical and near-infrared (NIR) light curves and spectroscopy of SN 2008J obtained by the Carnegie Supernova...... that their CSI emissions are similarly robust. The high-resolution spectrum reveals narrow emission lines produced from un-shocked gas characterized by a wind velocity of ~50 km s-1. We conclude that SN 2008J best matches an explosion of a SN Ia that interacts with its CSM....

  18. Acute and short-term effects of caloric restriction on metabolic profile and brain activation in obese, postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsdottir, S; van Nieuwpoort, I C; van Bunderen, C C; de Ruiter, M B; Twisk, J W R; Deijen, J B; Veltman, D J; Drent, M L

    2016-11-01

    Early anthropometric and metabolic changes during a caloric-restricted diet in obese postmenopausal women and correlations between these factors with activity in brain areas involved in processing of visual food related stimuli were investigated. An 8-week prospective intervention study of 18 healthy postmenopausal women, with a body mass index of 30-35 kg m -2 . The first 2 weeks subjects were on an isocaloric diet and 4 weeks on a 1000 kcal restricted diet followed by 2 weeks on an isocaloric diet. Anthropometric and laboratory analyses were performed weekly during the isocaloric diet and three times a week during the caloric-restricted diet. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained before and after the caloric restriction in four separate sessions (fasting or sated). Generalized Estimating Equations analysis was used for data analysis. A mean weight loss of 4.2±0.5 kg (4.8%) and a 4.2±0.4 cm decline in waist circumference were achieved. In the first week of caloric restriction, triglyceride, leptin, resistin and adiponectin levels as well as systolic blood pressure decreased and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 levels increased. During and after weight loss, a significant increase in ghrelin levels was observed. Before weight loss, increased activation of the right amygdala was seen in response to food stimuli, and free fatty acids and glucose correlated with activity in various areas involved in food reward processing. After weight loss, fasting ghrelin and sated leptin levels correlated with activity in these areas. Already in the first week of caloric restriction in obese postmenopausal women, various favourable metabolic changes occur before clinically relevant weight loss is achieved. Activity in the amygdala region and correlations of metabolic factors with activity in brain areas involved in food reward processing differ substantially before and after weight loss.

  19. CT measurement of fat in pre- and post-menopausal women with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masanori; Ogura, Toshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Since breast cancer is the most common cancer among Japanese women, research leading to its prevention and early detection is important, and many studies have reported a relationship between this cancer and obesity. In addition, it has been reported that the risk of breast cancer posed by obesity differs between pre- and post-menopausal patients. In this study, we investigated the difference in the amount of body fat between pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer patients by measuring the areas of total, visceral, and subcutaneous fat on CT images acquired at the level of the umbilicus. The subjects were 136 women, comprising 63 with breast cancer (21 pre- and 42 post-menopausal) and 73 with other diseases (31 pre- and 42 post menopausal). We found that post-menopausal women with breast cancer had a significantly greater amount of fat than their pre-menopausal counterparts, presumably attributable to the action of estrogen. These results suggest that fat accumulation in post-menopausal women increases the risk of breast cancer. (author)

  20. Postmenopausal hypertension, abdominal obesity, apolipoprotein and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ali, Samir; Belfki-Benali, Hanen; Ahmed, Decy Ben; Haddad, Najet; Jmal, Awatef; Abdennebi, Monia; Romdhane, Habiba Ben

    This study aimed to evaluate the association of abdominal obesity, apolipoprotein and insulin resistance (IR) with the risk of hypertension in postmenopausal women. We analyzed a total of 242 women aged between 35 and 70 years. Blood pressure (BP), anthropometric indices, lipid profile, fasting glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and apolipoprotein concentrations were measured. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to assess IR. Hypertension was defined as a systolic BP (SBP) ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP (DBP) ≥90 mmHg or current treatment with antihypertensive drugs. Women with hypertension showed significantly higher mean values of age, SBP and DBP, waist circumference (WC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, HOMAIR and the apolipoprotein B (apoB). When analyses were done according to the menopausal status, higher prevalence of hypertension was observed in postmenopausal women (72.8% vs. 26.0%, p menopause (p = 0.008) were significantly associated with higher risk for hypertension. These results suggest that changes in WC, apoB and IR accompanying menopause lead to a greater prevalence of hypertension in postmenopausal women.

  1. Postmenopausal bleeding: causes and risk of genital tract malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawood, N.S.; Peter, K.; Ibrar, F.; Dawood, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) is bleeding occurring after 6-12 months of amenorrhea in a woman of age where the menopause can be expected. Objectives of this study were to ascertain various causes and prevalence of genital organ malignancy in patients presenting with postmenopausal bleeding. Methods: A prospective observational study carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi comprising of 167 consecutive cases presenting with postmenopausal bleeding one year after menopause. Women having undergone hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy, suffered trauma to the genital tract, having coagulation disorder or on anticoagulant or hormone replacement therapy were excluded. Detailed history was obtained and a thorough clinical examination was conducted. Data were entered into hospital computer database (Medix) system. Mean +- SD were calculated for age, percentage was calculated for types of histopathological findings. Results: The commonest cause of PMB was atrophic endometritis and vaginitis 33 (21.2%). Overall incidence of various genital tract malignancies was 25 (16.0%). Conclusion: The overall incidence of genital tract malignancies in patients presenting with PMB is high (16.0%), therefore, it needs to be taken seriously and requires prompt and thorough investigations. (author)

  2. Depression and anxiety in women with early breast cancer: five year observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Caroline; Cornelius, Victoria; Love, Sharon; Graham, Jill; Richards, Michael; Ramirez, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, depression and anxiety in women with early breast cancer in the five years after diagnosis. Design Observational cohort study. Setting NHS breast clinic, London. Participants 222 women with early breast cancer: 170 (77%) provided complete interview data up to either five years after diagnosis or recurrence. Main outcome measures Prevalence of clinically important depression and anxiety (structured psychiatric interview with standardised diagnostic criteria) and clinical and patient risk factors, including stressful life experiences (Bedford College life events and difficulties schedule). Results Nearly 50% of the women with early breast cancer had depression, anxiety, or both in the year after diagnosis, 25% in the second, third, and fourth years, and 15% in the fifth year. Point prevalence was 33% at diagnosis, falling to 15% after one year. 45% of those with recurrence experienced depression, anxiety, or both within three months of the diagnosis. Previous psychological treatment predicted depression, anxiety, or both in the period around diagnosis (one month before diagnosis to four months after diagnosis). Longer term depression and anxiety, were associated with previous psychological treatment, lack of an intimate confiding relationship, younger age, and severely stressful non-cancer life experiences. Clinical factors were not associated with depression and anxiety, at any time. Lack of intimate confiding support also predicted more protracted episodes of depression and anxiety. Conclusion Increased levels of depression, anxiety, or both in the first year after a diagnosis of early breast cancer highlight the need for dedicated service provision during this time. Psychological interventions for women with breast cancer who remain disease free should take account of the broader social context in which the cancer occurs, with a focus on improving social support. PMID:15695497

  3. Evaluation of the observation of breast glands condition in mammographic early detection programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleszczewska, J.; Zomer-Drozda, J.; Tarlowska, L.; Romejko, M.

    1993-01-01

    The results of mammography tests were evaluated for 542 female employees of higher schools during an observation continued over 1 to 7.5 years, and they were compared with the results of the first test. Among 22 cancers detected and confirmed by macroscopic examination, mammography result turned out to be false negative in 2 cases. A positive error occurred in 7 cases. Cancer developed during observation in 8 women, that is, in 4 women from the group of 365 who earlier had correct mammography results (1.1%) and another 4 in the group of 154 women originally showing benign changes in their breast glands (2.6%). This work confirms the importance of regular checkups in the mammographic early detection programme. (author)

  4. Nutritional risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olfa Berriche

    2016-07-26

    Jul 26, 2016 ... Received 12 February 2016; revised 26 March 2016; accepted 31 March 2016. Available online 26 ... greatly affects the health of postmenopausal women and is rec- ognized as a major ..... for public comment. Washington.

  5. Postmenopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or Oxytrol have helped women with urinary issues. Memory and Concentration Problems Issues with memory loss and ... the elevator. Dance to some of your favorite music. Or take the dog out for a long ...

  6. Enhancing Famine Early Warning Systems with Improved Forecasts, Satellite Observations and Hydrologic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J.; Thiaw, W. M.; Hoell, A.; Korecha, D.; McNally, A.; Shukla, S.; Arsenault, K. R.; Magadzire, T.; Novella, N.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Robjohn, M.; Pomposi, C.; Galu, G.; Rowland, J.; Budde, M. E.; Landsfeld, M. F.; Harrison, L.; Davenport, F.; Husak, G. J.; Endalkachew, E.

    2017-12-01

    Drought early warning science, in support of famine prevention, is a rapidly advancing field that is helping to save lives and livelihoods. In 2015-2017, a series of extreme droughts afflicted Ethiopia, Southern Africa, Eastern Africa in OND and Eastern Africa in MAM, pushing more than 50 million people into severe food insecurity. Improved drought forecasts and monitoring tools, however, helped motivate and target large and effective humanitarian responses. Here we describe new science being developed by a long-established early warning system - the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET). FEWS NET is a leading provider of early warning and analysis on food insecurity. FEWS NET research is advancing rapidly on several fronts, providing better climate forecasts and more effective drought monitoring tools that are being used to support enhanced famine early warning. We explore the philosophy and science underlying these successes, suggesting that a modal view of climate change can support enhanced seasonal prediction. Under this modal perspective, warming of the tropical oceans may interact with natural modes of variability, like the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, to enhance Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature gradients during both El Niño and La Niña-like climate states. Using empirical data and climate change simulations, we suggest that a sequence of droughts may commence in northern Ethiopia and Southern Africa with the advent of a moderate-to-strong El Niño, and then continue with La Niña/West Pacific related droughts in equatorial eastern East Africa. Scientifically, we show that a new hybrid statistical-dynamic precipitation forecast system, the FEWS NET Integrated Forecast System (FIFS), based on reformulations of the Global Ensemble Forecast System weather forecasts and National Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) seasonal climate predictions, can effectively anticipate recent East and Southern African drought events. Using cross-validation, we

  7. HYPERTENSION AND OSTEOPOROSIS IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Rašić Popović

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a frequent, chronic cardiovascular disease both in industrially developed and developing countries; its frequency ranges between 20 and 40 %. Although the prevalence of hypertension in women is lower than that in men, it reaches 70% to 80% in women above 70 years of age, and is a strong predictor of cardiovascular risk. Osteoporosis (OP is systematic skeletal disorder with lower bone mass and damages of bone tissue microarchitecture. The aim of this study was to ascertain the association between hypertension and osteoporosis as two mass noninfectious deceases.The examination involved three hundred postmenopausal women who came for densitometry inspection; none of them had some major cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular stroke and ischemic heart disease. From all of them were taken personal data, personal and familial case histories. The parameters used in the further analysis were: body mass, body height, waist circumference, blood pressure; laboratory analysis: cholesterol, HDL, LDL, glycemia, Ca and P in serum and Ca in urine. In addition, there was calculated a ten-year risk of cardiovascular event according to SCORE system, using tables for high risk; bone mineral density on Hologic Discovery QDR-C was shown as T score on the lumbar part of the spinal column. The patients were divided into tree groups based on the measures of bone density: the patients with osteoporosis - bone density with T score lower than 2.5 SD (100 patients; patients with osteopenia - T score from -1 to -2,5 SD (100, and control group of patients with normal bone density T score from +1 to -1 SD (100.The mean age of postmenopausal women (control group with normal bone density was 54.10±3.90 years; 56.63±4.76 years in the group with osteopenia (group II; and 60.14±3.55 years in the group of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.The analysis of variance (ANOVA and post hoc Dunett`s test showed that there were statistically

  8. Substorm observations in the early morning sector with Equator-S and Geotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nakamura

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from Equator-S and Geotail are used to study the dynamics of the plasma sheet observed during a substorm with multiple intensifications on 25 April 1998, when both spacecraft were located in the early morning sector (03–04 MLT at a radial distance of 10–11 RE. In association with the onset of a poleward expansion of the aurora and the westward electrojet in the premidnight and midnight sector, both satellites in the morning sector observed plasma sheet thinning and changes toward a more tail-like field configuration. During the subsequent poleward expansion in a wider local time sector (20–04 MLT, on the other hand, the magnetic field configuration at both satellites changed into a more dipolar configuration and both satellites encountered again the hot plasma sheet. High-speed plasma flows with velocities of up to 600 km/s and lasting 2–5 min were observed in the plasma sheet and near its boundary during this plasma sheet expansion. These high-speed flows included significant dawn-dusk flows and had a shear structure. They may have been produced by an induced electric field at the local dipolarization region and/or by an enhanced pressure gradient associated with the injection in the midnight plasma sheet.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; plasma sheet; storms and substorms

  9. Observing preschoolers' social-emotional behavior: structure, foundations, and prediction of early school success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Susanne A; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Thayer, Sara K; Mincic, Melissa S; Sirotkin, Yana S; Zinsser, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Social-emotional behavior of 352 3- and 4-year-olds attending private child-care and Head Start programs was observed using the Minnesota Preschool Affect Checklist, Revised (MPAC-R). Goals of the investigation included (a) using MPAC-R data to extract a shortened version, MPAC-R/S, comparing structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and stability of both versions; and, using the shortened measure, to examine (b) age, gender, and risk status differences in social-emotional behaviors; (c) contributions of emotion knowledge and executive function to social-emotional behaviors; and (d) contributions of social-emotional behaviors to early school adjustment and kindergarten academic success. Results show that reliability of MPAC-R/S was as good, or better, than the MPAC-R. MPAC-R/S structure, at both times of observation, included emotionally negative/aggressive, emotionally regulated/prosocial, and emotionally positive/productive behaviors; MPAC-R structure was similar but less replicable over time. Age, gender, and risk differences were found. Children's emotion knowledge contributed to later emotionally regulated/prosocial behavior. Finally, preschool emotionally negative/aggressive behaviors were associated with concurrent and kindergarten school success, and there was evidence of social-emotional behavior mediating relations between emotion knowledge or executive function, and school outcomes. The importance of portable, empirically supported observation measures of social-emotional behaviors is discussed along with possible applications, teacher utilization, and implementation barriers.

  10. Early Winter Sea Ice Dynamics in the Ross Sea from In Situ and Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksym, T.; Ackley, S. F.; Stammerjohn, S. E.; Tison, J. L.; Hoeppner, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Ross Sea sea ice cover is one of the few regions of the cryosphere that have been expanding in recent decades. However, 2017 saw a significantly delayed autumn ice advance and record low early winter sea ice extent. Understanding the causes and impacts of this variability has been hampered by a lack of in situ observations. A winter cruise into the Ross Sea in April-June 2017 provided some of the only in situ winter observations of sea ice processes in this region in almost 20 years. We present a first look at data from arrays of drifting buoys deployed in the ice pack and outflow from these polynyas, supplemented by a suite of high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. Additional observations included high-resolution sonar imagery of ice deformation features from an autonomous underwater vehicle, shipboard visual observations of sea ice properties, and in situ measurements of snow and thickness and structural properties. These data show that the delay in ice advance led to a thin, highly dynamic sea ice pack, with substantial ice production and export from the Ross Ice Shelf and Terra Nova Bay polynyas. Despite these high rates of ice production, the pack ice remained thin due to rapid export and northward drift. Compared to the only prior winter observations made in 1995 and 1998, the ice was thinner, with less ridging and snow cover, reflecting a younger ice cover. Granular ice was less prevalent than in these prior cruises, particularly in the outer pack, likely due to less snow ice formation and less pancake ice formation at the advancing ice edge. Despite rapid basal ice growth, the buoy data suggest that deformation may be the dominant mechanism for sea ice thickening in the pack once an initial ice cover forms.

  11. The observation of early childhood physical aggression: A psychometric study of the system for coding early physical aggression (SCEPA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, J.; Alink, L.R.A.; van Zeijl, J.; Stolk, M.N.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Juffer, F.; Koot, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the reliability and (convergent and discriminant) validity of an observational measure of physical aggression in toddlers and preschoolers, originally developed by Keenan and Shaw [1994]. The observation instrument is based on a developmental definition of aggression. Physical

  12. Chronic kidney disease in Chinese postmenopausal women: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CKD), there is ongoing uncertainty regarding the prevalence of CKD in postmenopausal women. This study was designed to investigate both CKD prevalence and related risk factors in a cohort of postmenopausal Chinese women. Materials and ...

  13. Uric acid is associated with inflammation, coronary microvascular dysfunction, and adverse outcomes in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Megha; Matteson, Eric L.; Herrmann, Joerg; Gulati, Rajiv; Rihal, Charanjit S.; Lerman, Lilach O.; Lerman, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Uric acid is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) in postmenopausal women but the association with inflammation and coronary microvascular endothelial dysfunction (CED) is not well-defined. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of serum uric acid (SUA), inflammatory markers and CED. In this prospective cohort study, serum uric acid, hsCRP levels, and neutrophil count were measured in 229 postmenopausal women who underwent diagnostic catheterization, were found to have no obstructive CAD and underwent coronary microvascular function testing, to measure coronary blood flow (CBF) response to intracoronary acetylcholine. The average age was 58 years (IQR 52, 66) years. Hypertension was present in 48%, type 2 diabetes mellitus in 5.6%, and hyperlipidemia in 61.8%. CED was diagnosed in 59% of postmenopausal women. Mean uric acid level was 4.7 ± 1.3 mg/dL. Postmenopausal women with CED had significantly higher SUA compared to patients without CED (4.9 ± 1.3 vs. 4.4 ± 1.3 mg/dL; p=0.02). There was a significant correlation between SUA and % change in CBF to acetylcholine (p=0.009), and this correlation persisted in multivariable analysis. SUA levels were significantly associated with increased neutrophil count (p=0.02) and hsCRP levels (p=0.006) among patients with CED, but not those without CED. Serum uric acid is associated with coronary microvascular endothelial dysfunction in postmenopausal women and may be related to inflammation. These findings link serum uric acid levels to early coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. PMID:27993955

  14. Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Launch and Early Mission Attitude Support Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracewell, D.; Glickman, J.; Hashmall, J.; Natanson, G.; Sedlak, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua satellite was successfully launched on May 4,2002. Aqua is the second in the series of EOS satellites. EOS is part of NASA s Earth Science Enterprise Program, whose goals are to advance the scientific understanding of the Earth system. Aqua is a three-axis stabilized, Earth-pointing spacecraft in a nearly circular, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics attitude team supported all phases of the launch and early mission. This paper presents the main results and lessons learned during this period, including: real-time attitude mode transition support, sensor calibration, onboard computer attitude validation, response to spacecraft emergencies, postlaunch attitude analyses, and anomaly resolution. In particular, Flight Dynamics support proved to be invaluable for successful Earth acquisition, fine-point mode transition, and recognition and correction of several anomalies, including support for the resolution of problems observed with the MODIS instrument.

  15. Assessment of postmenopausal women and significant risk factors for osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnatz, Peter F; Marakovits, Kimberly A; O'Sullivan, David M

    2010-09-01

    The assessment of osteoporosis risk factors can help guide early intervention. The objective of this study was to analyze numerous potential risk factors to see which were associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Women aged 49 or greater presenting for dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry bone scans were recruited from radiology sites in the Hartford, Connecticut, area between January 2007 and March 2009, inclusive. Information was collected regarding primary and secondary risk factors for osteoporosis development, as well as family history and history of pregnancy and breast-feeding. Survey results were subsequently correlated with each woman's dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan results. In a sample of 619 women, history of fracture (odds ratio [OR], 12.49), weight less than 127 pounds (OR, 3.50), and use of anticoagulants (OR, 5.40) increased the chance of developing osteoporosis. In contrast, multiparity (OR, 0.45) and history of breast-feeding (OR, 0.38) decreased the development of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. In women aged 49 to 54, breast-feeding was significantly protective, while low body mass index was most indicative of osteoporosis in women ages 55 to 64. Both previous fracture and low body mass index were associated with osteoporosis in women over age 64. The current results are consistent with other studies suggesting that previous fracture, low body weight, and use of anticoagulants increase the risk of osteoporosis. Our results also suggest that a history of pregnancy and breast-feeding protects against the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis, especially in women aged 49 to 54.

  16. Abundance patterns in the interstellar medium of early-type galaxies observed with Suzaku

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konami, Saori; Matsushita, Kyoko; Tamagawa, Toru; Nagino, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed 17 early-type galaxies, 13 ellipticals and 4 S0 galaxies, observed with Suzaku, and investigated metal abundances (O, Mg, Si, and Fe) and abundance ratios (O/Fe, Mg/Fe, and Si/Fe) in the interstellar medium (ISM). The emission from each on-source region, which is four times the effective radius, r e , is reproduced with one-temperature (1T) or two-temperature (2T) thermal plasma models as well as a multi-temperature model, using APEC plasma code version 2.0.1. The multi-temperature model gave almost the same abundances and abundance ratios with the 1T or 2T models. The weighted averages of the O, Mg, Si, and Fe abundances of all the sample galaxies derived from the multi-temperature model fits are 0.83 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.03, 0.80 ± 0.02, and 0.80 ± 0.02 solar, respectively, in solar units according to the solar abundance table by Lodders in 2003. These abundances show no significant dependence on the morphology and environment. The systematic differences in the derived metal abundances between versions 2.0.1 and 1.3.1 of the APEC plasma codes were investigated. The derived O and Mg abundances in the ISM agree with the stellar metallicity within an aperture with a radius of one r e derived from optical spectroscopy. From these results, we discuss the past and present Type Ia supernova rates and star formation histories in early-type galaxies.

  17. SHOCK BREAKOUT AND EARLY LIGHT CURVES OF TYPE II-P SUPERNOVAE OBSERVED WITH KEPLER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnavich, P. M.; Tucker, B. E.; Rest, A.; Shaya, E. J.; Olling, R. P.; Kasen, D; Villar, A.

    2016-01-01

    We discovered two transient events in the Kepler field with light curves that strongly suggest they are type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P). Using the fast cadence of the Kepler observations we precisely estimate the rise time to maximum for KSN2011a and KSN2011d as 10.5 ± 0.4 and 13.3 ± 0.4 rest-frame days, respectively. Based on fits to idealized analytic models, we find the progenitor radius of KSN2011a (280 ± 20 R ⊙ ) to be significantly smaller than that for KSN2011d (490 ± 20 R ⊙ ), but both have similar explosion energies of 2.0 ± 0.3 × 10 51 erg. The rising light curve of KSN2011d is an excellent match to that predicted by simple models of exploding red supergiants (RSG). However, the early rise of KSN2011a is faster than the models predict, possibly due to the supernova shock wave moving into pre-existing wind or mass-loss from the RSG. A mass-loss rate of 10 −4 M ⊙ yr −1 from the RSG can explain the fast rise without impacting the optical flux at maximum light or the shape of the post-maximum light curve. No shock breakout emission is seen in KSN2011a, but this is likely due to the circumstellar interaction suspected in the fast rising light curve. The early light curve of KSN2011d does show excess emission consistent with model predictions of a shock breakout. This is the first optical detection of a shock breakout from a SNe II-P

  18. Early rehospitalizations of frail elderly patients – the role of medications: a clinical, prospective, observational trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekerstad N

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Niklas Ekerstad,1,2 Kristoffer Bylin,3 Björn W Karlson3,4 1Department of Cardiology, NU (NÄL-Uddevalla Hospital Group, Trollhättan, 2Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis, Linköping University, Linköping, 3Department of Acute and Internal Medicine, NU (NÄL-Uddevalla Hospital Group, Trollhättan, 4Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Background and objective: Early readmissions of frail elderly patients after an episode of hospital care are common and constitute a crucial patient safety outcome. Our purpose was to study the impact of medications on such early rehospitalizations. Patients and methods: This is a clinical, prospective, observational study on rehospitalizations within 30 days after an acute hospital episode for frail patients over the age of 75 years. To identify adverse drug reactions (ADRs, underuse of evidence-based treatment and avoidability of rehospitalizations, the Naranjo score, the Hallas criteria and clinical judgment were used. Results: Of 390 evaluable patients, 96 (24.6% were rehospitalized. The most frequent symptoms and conditions were dyspnea (n = 25 and worsened general condition (n = 18. The most frequent diagnoses were heart failure (n = 17 and pneumonia/acute bronchitis (n = 13. By logistic regression analysis, independent risk predictors for rehospitalization were heart failure (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.1–3.1 and anemia (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3–4.0. The number of rehospitalizations due to probable ADRs was 13, of which two were assessed as avoidable. The number of rehospitalizations probably due to underuse of evidence-based drug treatment was 19, all of which were assessed as avoidable. The number of rehospitalizations not due to ADRs or underuse of evidence-based drug treatment was 64, of which none was assessed as avoidable. Conclusion: One out of four

  19. Running title: Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Tiras

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is characterized with low bone mass and deterioration of skeletal microarchitecture. It leads to a fragile bone and increased risk of fracture by minimal trauma. Today, osteoporotic fractures have become a major health concern. Therefore many different studies have been organized to enlighten basic pathology, and to investigate efficient therapeutic modalities. The change in the prescription attitudes in postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT increased the value of non-HRT therapies. The purpose of this review is to evaluate all therapeutic modalities which could be used in this setting by analyzing prospective randomized studies. By a general scope of view, the choice of treatment should be individualized with respect to age, risk factors,\tand concomitant disorders. In early menopause HRT can be used for women with severe vasomotor symptoms if there is no contraindication. Since no difference was noted between HRT and bisphosphonates, there is no need to combination regimens.\tAfter vasomotor symptoms are subsided, raloxifene can be used to the patients who have T score of below -2 without non-vertebral fracture. It is obvious that the most efficient therapies to prevent new osteoporotic fractures are bisphosphonates, strontium ranelate, and parathyroid hormone (PTH. PTH should not be used longer than 24 months. The first two large series showed that strontium ranelate prevents fractures very effectively. In addition the side effects of this unique medication is not higher than placebo which is one of the major advantage of it. Many series identified the important role of bisphosphonates in the prevention of osteoporosis related morbidities. Calcitonin has a role in patients having pain. Daily calcium and vitamin D supplement should be recommended to all patients, and diet and exercise programmes should be organized.

  20. Alterations in adhesion molecules, pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell-derived microparticles contribute to intima-media thickness and symptoms in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Vega, Nicté; Moreno-Frías, Carmen; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Menopause, the cessation of menses, occurs with estrogens decline, low-grade inflammation, and impaired endothelial function, contributing to atherosclerotic risk. Intima-media thickness (IMT) is an early subclinical biomarker of atherosclerosis. Inflammation may have a role on symptoms: hot flashes, anxiety, and depressive mood, which also are related to endothelial dysfunction, increased IMT and cardiovascular risk. In this study we compared several inflammatory markers in early vs. late postmenopausal women and studied the association of IMT and symptoms with these markers in the full sample. In a cross-sectional design including 60 women (53.1 ± 4.4 years old) at early and late postmenopause, we evaluated the expression of CD62L, ICAM-1, PSGL-1, CD11b, CD11c, and IL-8R on PBMC by flow cytometry. Serum soluble ICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sCD62E, sCD62P, CXCL8, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were quantified by ELISA. Plasma levels of microparticles (MPs) were determined by FACS. Finally, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was measured by ultrasound. We observed that ICAM-1 expression by lymphocytes and serum sVCAM-1 levels were augmented at late postmenopause. Late postmenopause women with severe hot flashes had increased expression of CD62L and IL-8R on neutrophils. By multivariate analysis, the carotid IMT was strongly associated with membrane-bound TNF-α, CD11b expression, Annexin V(+) CD3(+) MPs, LPS-induced NO production, HDL-cholesterol and age. Depressive mood was associated negatively with PSGL-1 and positively with LPS-induced NO. Finally, Log(AMH) levels were associated with carotid IMT, IL-8R expression and time since menopause. IMT and depressive mood were the main clinical features related to vascular inflammation. Aging, hormonal changes and obesity were also related to endothelial dysfunction. These findings provide further evidence for a link between estrogen deficiency and low-grade inflammation in endothelial impairment in mature women.

  1. Alterations in adhesion molecules, pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell-derived microparticles contribute to intima-media thickness and symptoms in postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicté Figueroa-Vega

    Full Text Available Menopause, the cessation of menses, occurs with estrogens decline, low-grade inflammation, and impaired endothelial function, contributing to atherosclerotic risk. Intima-media thickness (IMT is an early subclinical biomarker of atherosclerosis. Inflammation may have a role on symptoms: hot flashes, anxiety, and depressive mood, which also are related to endothelial dysfunction, increased IMT and cardiovascular risk. In this study we compared several inflammatory markers in early vs. late postmenopausal women and studied the association of IMT and symptoms with these markers in the full sample. In a cross-sectional design including 60 women (53.1 ± 4.4 years old at early and late postmenopause, we evaluated the expression of CD62L, ICAM-1, PSGL-1, CD11b, CD11c, and IL-8R on PBMC by flow cytometry. Serum soluble ICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sCD62E, sCD62P, CXCL8, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were quantified by ELISA. Plasma levels of microparticles (MPs were determined by FACS. Finally, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT was measured by ultrasound. We observed that ICAM-1 expression by lymphocytes and serum sVCAM-1 levels were augmented at late postmenopause. Late postmenopause women with severe hot flashes had increased expression of CD62L and IL-8R on neutrophils. By multivariate analysis, the carotid IMT was strongly associated with membrane-bound TNF-α, CD11b expression, Annexin V(+ CD3(+ MPs, LPS-induced NO production, HDL-cholesterol and age. Depressive mood was associated negatively with PSGL-1 and positively with LPS-induced NO. Finally, Log(AMH levels were associated with carotid IMT, IL-8R expression and time since menopause. IMT and depressive mood were the main clinical features related to vascular inflammation. Aging, hormonal changes and obesity were also related to endothelial dysfunction. These findings provide further evidence for a link between estrogen deficiency and low-grade inflammation in endothelial impairment in mature women.

  2. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Increases the Risk of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis by Stimulating Osteoclast Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to observe the changes in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal women, to research the relationship between FSH and postmenopausal osteoporosis, and to observe the effects of FSH on osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells.We analyzed 248 postmenopausal women with normal bone metabolism. A radioimmunoassay (RIA was used to detect serum FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, and estradiol (E2. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure forearm BMD. Then, we analyzed the age-related changes in serum FSH, LH and E2. Additionally, FSH serum concentrations were compared between a group of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and a control group. Osteoclasts were induced from RAW264.7 cells in vitro by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL, and these cells were treated with 0, 5, 10, and 20 ng/ml FSH. After the osteoclasts matured, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining was used to identify osteoclasts, and the mRNA expression levels of genes involved in osteoclastic phenotypes and function, such as receptor activator of NF-κB (Rank, Trap, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (Mmp-9 and Cathepsin K, were detected in different groups using real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction.1. FSH serum concentrations in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis increased notably compared with the control group. 2. RANKL induced RAW264.7 cell differentiation into mature osteoclasts in vitro. 3. FSH increased mRNA expression of genes involved in osteoclastic phenotypes and function, such as Rank, Trap, Mmp-9 and Cathepsin K, in a dose-dependent manner.The circulating concentration of FSH may play an important role in the acceleration of bone loss in postmenopausal women. FSH increases osteoclastogenesis in vitro.

  3. Early predictors of outcome after mild traumatic brain injury (UPFRONT): an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Naalt, Joukje; Timmerman, Marieke E; de Koning, Myrthe E; van der Horn, Harm J; Scheenen, Myrthe E; Jacobs, Bram; Hageman, Gerard; Yilmaz, Tansel; Roks, Gerwin; Spikman, Jacoba M

    2017-07-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounts for most cases of TBI, and many patients show incomplete long-term functional recovery. We aimed to create a prognostic model for functional outcome by combining demographics, injury severity, and psychological factors to identify patients at risk for incomplete recovery at 6 months. In particular, we investigated additional indicators of emotional distress and coping style at 2 weeks above early predictors measured at the emergency department. The UPFRONT study was an observational cohort study done at the emergency departments of three level-1 trauma centres in the Netherlands, which included patients with mTBI, defined by a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13-15 and either post-traumatic amnesia lasting less than 24 h or loss of consciousness for less than 30 min. Emergency department predictors were measured either on admission with mTBI-comprising injury severity (GCS score, post-traumatic amnesia, and CT abnormalities), demographics (age, gender, educational level, pre-injury mental health, and previous brain injury), and physical conditions (alcohol use on the day of injury, neck pain, headache, nausea, dizziness)-or at 2 weeks, when we obtained data on mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), emotional distress (Impact of Event Scale), coping (Utrecht Coping List), and post-traumatic complaints. The functional outcome was recovery, assessed at 6 months after injury with the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE). We dichotomised recovery into complete (GOSE=8) and incomplete (GOSE≤7) recovery. We used logistic regression analyses to assess the predictive value of patient information collected at the time of admission to an emergency department (eg, demographics, injury severity) alone, and combined with predictors of outcome collected at 2 weeks after injury (eg, emotional distress and coping). Between Jan 25, 2013, and Jan 6, 2015, data from 910 patients with mTBI were collected 2 weeks after injury; the final

  4. Does the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change Help Moving Forward in Measuring Change in Early Autism Intervention Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijl, Mirjam K. J.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Hendriks, Monica; De Korte, Manon W. P.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Oosterling, Iris J.

    2018-01-01

    The field of early autism research is in dire need of outcome measures that adequately reflect subtle changes in core autistic behaviors. This article compares the ability of a newly developed measure, the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC), and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) to detect changes in core…

  5. Can ultrasound abdomen help in early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus? an observational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Aamir, M.O.; Imdad, Z.U.H.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common disease. Similarly, ultrasound findings of fatty change and renal crystals are commonly seen on ultrasound. In the personal observation of the main author over the past so many years it was noticed that Diabetes Mellitus, Fatty liver and renal crystals all sit well together. This study tries to establish a relationship between diabetes mellitus renal echogenic foci and fatty liver. This study is first of its kind, as nobody has ever before investigated an association between the renal echogenic foci and fatty liver in relation to diabetes mellitus. Methods: This cross-sectional, observational study was conducted at Radiology Department Combined Military Hospital, Kohat From 2nd June 2013 to 30th May 2014. Three hundred patients were collected on the basis of having fatty liver and renal echogenic foci on ultrasound and three hundred more patients were collected who had no fatty liver or renal echogenic foci on ultrasound. Their labs were done for diabetes mellitus. Results: The patients having renal echogenic foci together with fatty liver had 83% positive rate of being diabetics, while patients with no fatty liver and no echogenic foci on ultrasonography had only 0.6% Positive rate of being diabetics. Conclusion: Our results provided the first demonstration of an association between renal echogenic foci together with fatty liver with the diabetes mellitus. Thus ultrasound examination of abdomen can be helpful in its early diagnosis if we make a protocol of doing fasting and random blood sugars in all those patients who have positive renal echogenic foci and fatty liver on their ultrasound examination. (author)

  6. Chronological observation in early radiation myelopathy of the cervical spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Saeko; Yoshida, Shoji; Soejima, Toshinori

    1993-01-01

    Gd-enhanced MR images of two patients with clinically and histopathologically diagnosed chronic progressive radiation myelitis (CPRM) were observed chronologically. One of them had had nasopharyngeal cancer and received radiotherapy at a dose of 100 Gy to the C1-2 level of the spinal cord. She developed CPRM 25 months after the termination of radiotherapy. The other had had malignant lymphoma originating from the tonsil and received chemoradiotherapy. The dose delivered to her cervical spinal cord was 40 Gy, and she developed CPRM 30 months later. Gd-enhanced MRI in the early phase revealed a small crescent-shaped nidus with or without a very small central nonenhanced area in both cases. Enhancement was not great. At that time, patients noticed only the inability to perceive pain and temperature or paresthesia in the opposite side. In a few months, MRI revealed a much more strongly enhanced and larger nidus with enlargement of a central nonenhanced area accompanied by long segmental cord enlargement. The patients' neurological symptoms had also progressed, with hemiparesis developing, for example. (author)

  7. Long-Term Exercise and Bone Mineral Density Changes in Postmenopausal Women--Are There Periods of Reduced Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; von Stengel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that physical exercise can prevent fractures in postmenopausal women. However, even with careful adaptation of the exercise program to subjects' changing bone, health, and fitness status, effectivity may still decrease over the time. This could be specifically the case where the limitations of higher age collide with the specification of the exercise program. Thus, the aim of this study was to monitor bone mineral density (BMD) changes over a 16-year period of supervised exercise. Our hypothesis was that BMD differences at lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) between exercisers (EG) and nontraining controls (CG) increased throughout the intervention with significant differences for each of the four 4-year observation periods. Sixty-seven (EG, n = 39 versus CG, n = 28) initially early-postmenopausal osteopenic women of the Erlangen Fitness and Osteoporosis Prevention Study (EFOPS) with complete BMD data sets for baseline (1998) and 4-, 8-, 12-, and 16-year follow-up were included in the analysis. The exercise protocol initially focused on a high-intensity strategy that addressed bone but increasingly shifted to a more comprehensive intervention. LS-BMD differences between the EG and CG continuously increased (year 4: 2.4% (95%- Confidence Interval 1.0% to 3.8%), year 8: 3.1% (1.6% to 4.7%), year 12: 3.9% (1.9% to 5.8), year 16: 4.5% (2.5% to 6.6%). Correspondingly, rising differences for FN-BMD (0.9% (-0.2% to 2.1%) versus 1.9% (0.4% to 3.3%) versus 2.0% (0.5% to 3.8%) versus 3.0% (1.0% to 5.0%)) were observed. However, in contrast to our hypothesis, group differences within the four 4-year periods were not consistently significant (LS, p = 0.001 to 0.097; FN, p = 0.026 to 0.673); further, BMD kinetics among the groups varied between LS and FN. Of particular importance, significant differences (p ≤ 0.030) for both regions were still found in the final period. We conclude that exercise-even when adapted for subjects' decreasing bone

  8. A-FABP Concentration Is More Strongly Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and the Occurrence of Metabolic Syndrome in Premenopausal Than in Postmenopausal Middle-Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stefanska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP and cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Additionally, we compared A-FABP with adipokines related to metabolic syndrome (MetS such as leptin and adiponectin. 94 premenopausal and 90 early postmenopausal middle-aged Caucasian women were subject to examinations. Postmenopausal women had higher A-FABP than premenopausal; this difference became insignificant after controlling for age. We found significantly higher correlation coefficients between A-FABP and TC/HDL-C ratio and number of MetS components in premenopausal women, compared to postmenopausal. Each 1 ng/dL increase in A-FABP concentration significantly increased the probability of occurrence of atherogenic lipid profile in premenopausal women, even after multivariate adjustment. All odds ratios became insignificant after controlling for BMI in postmenopausal women. A-FABP was more strongly associated with MetS than leptin and adiponectin in premenopausal women. Adiponectin concentration was a better biomarker for MetS after menopause. Our results suggest that the A-FABP is more strongly associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Higher values of A-FABP after menopause are mainly explained by the fact that postmenopausal women are older. Because of the limitation of study, these results should be interpreted with caution.

  9. Urinary tract infection in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Raul

    2011-12-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in women in general and in postmenopausal women in particular. Two groups of elderly women with recurrent UTI should be differentiated regarding age and general status: healthy, young postmenopausal women aged 50 to 70 years who are neither institutionalized or catheterized and elderly institutionalized women with or without a catheter. Bacteriuria occurs more often in elderly functionally impaired women, but in general it is asymptomatic. However, the risk factors associated with recurrent UTI in elderly women are not widely described. In a multivariate analysis it was found that urinary incontinence, a history of UTI before menopause, and nonsecretor status were strongly associated with recurrent UTI in young postmenopausal women. Another study described the incidence and risk factors of acute cystitis among nondiabetic and diabetic postmenopausal women. Independent predictors of infection included insulin-treated patients and a lifetime history of urinary infection. Borderline associations included a history of vaginal estrogen cream use in the past month, kidney stones, and asymptomatic bacteriuria at baseline. Another important factor in postmenopausal women is the potential role that estrogen deficiency plays in the development of bacteriuria. There are at least two studies showing a beneficial effect of estrogen in the management of recurrent bacteriuria in elderly women. One of these studies showed that vaginal estrogen cream reduced vaginal pH from 5.5±0.7 to 3.6±1.0, restored lactobacillus, and decreased new episodes of UTI. Another study reported similar results using an estriol vaginal ring. However, contradictory results are found in the literature. For example, additional studies found that the use of estriol-containing vaginal pessaries was less effective than oral nitrofurantoin macrocrystals in preventing UTI in postmenopausal women. Two other studies also did not find any

  10. Hα imaging observations of early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, G.; Consolandi, G.; Pedraglio, S.; Fossati, M.; Fumagalli, M.; Boselli, A.

    2018-03-01

    Context. The traditional knowledge of the mechanisms that brought to the formation and evolution of early type galaxies (ETG) in a hierarchical Universe was challenged by the unexpected finding by ATLAS3D that 86% ETGs show signs of a fast rotating disk at their interior, implying an origin common to most spiral galaxies, followed by a quenching phase, while only a minority of the most massive systems are slow rotators and were likely to be the products of merger events. Aims: Our aim is to improve our knowledge on the content and distribution of ionised hydrogen and their usage to form stars in a representative sample of ETGs for which the kinematics and detailed morphological classification were known from ATLAS3D. Methods: Using narrow-band filters centered on the redshifted Hα line along with a broad-band (r-Gunn) filter to recover the stellar continuum, we observed or collected existing imaging observations for 147 ETG (including members of the Virgo cluster), representative of the whole ATLAS3D survey. Results: 55 ETGs (37%) were detected in the Hα line above our detection threshold (HαEW ≤ -1 Å) and 21 harbour a strong source (HαEW ≤ -5 Å) . Conclusions: The strong Hα emitters appear associated with mostly low-mass (M* 1010 M⊙) S0 galaxies which contain conspicuous stellar and gaseous disks, harbouring significant star formation at their interior, including their nuclei. The weak Hα emitters are almost one order of magnitude more massive, contain gas-poor disks and harbour an AGN at their centers. Their emissivity is dominated by [NII] and does not imply star formation. The 92 undetected ETGs constitute the majority in our sample and are gas-free systems which lack a disk and exhibit passive spectra even in their nuclei. These pieces of evidence reinforce the conclusion of Cappellari (2016, ARA&A, 54, 597) that the evolution of ETGs followed the secular channel for the less massive systems and the dry merging channel for the most massive

  11. Bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, K.

    1988-02-01

    Studies of the bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis are essential, because the associated bone loss is inevitably due to the relative increase of bone resorption compared with bone formation. Measurement of the bone mineral content (BMC) in normal adults is assessed - partly on the uncorrected values and partly in proportion to the body muscle mass. The whole body retention (WBR) method is presented. The WBR and alternative urinary excretion (UE) methods used by the author are characterised and compared with the retention methods described in the literature. The representativity of WBR and UE for the estimation of bone turnover in normal subjects and patients with various bone metabolic diseases is discussed. The conclusion is that the modified retention methods used by the author have a satisfactory precision and accuracy in relation to the clinical studies carried out. The author's modification of the WBR method for determination of bone turnover and the alternative urinary excretion method (UE) consists in continuous scanning in the whole body count, using a gamma camera, and with the collimator a short distance from the volunteer. This procedure has the advantage of restricting the radioactive dose to 2 mCi (72 MBa). This is smaller by a factor of 5-10 than the dose used to measure WBR with equally simple counting equipment: With the author's procedure, using frontal counting, WBR is systematically underestimated by about 4 per cent point compared to the purely dorsal count, but since the frontal position is the most comfortable, requires a smaller radioactive dose, and the error is systematic, it is the preferred counting procedure. Correction of WBR and UE for bone mineral content is in principle a new parameter of bone turnover, whose improved accuracy increases the validity of the retention determinations. 136 refs. (EG)

  12. Observing and Assessing Young Children's Digital Play in the Early Years: Using the Digital Play Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Susan; Bird, Jo

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood education settings are characterized by the use of play-based learning and the assessment of children's play by teachers to promote further learning. A problem with technology use in early childhood settings is that little is known about how children learn to use technologies through play. This lack of knowledge makes it difficult…

  13. Reproductive factors affecting the bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ferda; Demirbag, Derya; Rodoplu, Meliha

    2005-03-01

    Osteoporosis has been defined as a metabolic bone disease characterized by a loss of bone mineral density (BMD) greater than 2.5 standard deviations below young adult peak bone mass or the presence of fracture. By considering that some factors related to female reproductive system might influence the ultimate risk of osteoporosis, we aimed to investigate if a relationship exists between the present BMD of postmenopausal women with their past and present reproductive characteristics. The present study focused on how BMD could be affected by the following factors in postmenopausal women, such as age at menarche, age at first pregnancy, the number of pregnancies and total breast-feeding time. We reviewed detailed demographic history of 303 postmenopausal women. According to the results of the present study, a negative correlation was found between the number of parities and BMD. The BMD values decreased as the number of pregnancies increased. When the BMD values for lumbar vertebrae 2 and Ward's triangle were investigated, it was observed that a significant difference exists between the women with no child birth and those with more than five parities. There was a significant relationship between age at first pregnancy and BMD values at the lumbar vertebrae 2 and Ward's triangle. Women who had five or more abortions were found to have significantly lower spine BMD values compared to women who had no abortions or women who had one or two abortions. These findings indicate that the increased risk of osteoporosis is associated with the increased number of pregnancies and abortions and higher age at first pregnancy.

  14. Modified relaxation technique for treating hypertension in Thai postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saensak S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Suprawita Saensak,1,2 Teraporn Vutyavanich,3 Woraluk Somboonporn,4 Manit Srisurapanont5 1Academic Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham, Thailand; 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University,Thailand; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Aim: To examine the effectiveness of a modified relaxation (MR technique in reducing blood pressure levels in Thai postmenopausal women with mild hypertension, compared with a control group who received health education. Methods: This is a 16-week, randomized, parallel, open-label, controlled trial in a menopausal clinic in a tertiary health care center in Northeastern Thailand. The intervention group received a 60-minute session of MR training and were encouraged to practice 15–20 minutes a day, at least 5 days a week. The control group received lifestyle education, including diet and exercise. The primary and secondary outcomes were systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP. Results: Of 432 participants, 215 and 217 were randomly allocated to the MR and control groups, respectively. Of those, 167 participants in the MR group and 175 participants in the control group completed the study. The SBP was significantly more reduced in the MR group, with a mean of 2.1 mmHg (P < 0.001. There was no significant difference between groups on the changed DBP. Conclusion: The MR technique may be effective in lowering SBP in Thai postmenopausal women visiting a menopause clinic. Its efficacy may be observed as soon as 4 weeks after start of treatment. Long-term and combined relaxation therapy and antihypertensive agents are warranted in a large cohort of this population. This trial is registered in clinicaltrials.gov (number

  15. Gemini Observations of Galaxies in Rich Early Environments (GOGREEN) I: survey description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Michael L.; Gilbank, David G.; Muzzin, Adam; Rudnick, Gregory; Cooper, Michael C.; Lidman, Chris; Biviano, Andrea; Demarco, Ricardo; McGee, Sean L.; Nantais, Julie B.; Noble, Allison; Old, Lyndsay; Wilson, Gillian; Yee, Howard K. C.; Bellhouse, Callum; Cerulo, Pierluigi; Chan, Jeffrey; Pintos-Castro, Irene; Simpson, Rane; van der Burg, Remco F. J.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Ziparo, Felicia; Alonso, María Victoria; Bower, Richard G.; De Lucia, Gabriella; Finoguenov, Alexis; Lambas, Diego Garcia; Muriel, Hernan; Parker, Laura C.; Rettura, Alessandro; Valotto, Carlos; Wetzel, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    We describe a new Large Program in progress on the Gemini North and South telescopes: Gemini Observations of Galaxies in Rich Early Environments (GOGREEN). This is an imaging and deep spectroscopic survey of 21 galaxy systems at 1 10 in halo mass. The scientific objectives include measuring the role of environment in the evolution of low-mass galaxies, and measuring the dynamics and stellar contents of their host haloes. The targets are selected from the SpARCS, SPT, COSMOS, and SXDS surveys, to be the evolutionary counterparts of today's clusters and groups. The new red-sensitive Hamamatsu detectors on GMOS, coupled with the nod-and-shuffle sky subtraction, allow simultaneous wavelength coverage over λ ˜ 0.6-1.05 μm, and this enables a homogeneous and statistically complete redshift survey of galaxies of all types. The spectroscopic sample targets galaxies with AB magnitudes z΄ < 24.25 and [3.6] μm < 22.5, and is therefore statistically complete for stellar masses M* ≳ 1010.3 M⊙, for all galaxy types and over the entire redshift range. Deep, multiwavelength imaging has been acquired over larger fields for most systems, spanning u through K, in addition to deep IRAC imaging at 3.6 μm. The spectroscopy is ˜50 per cent complete as of semester 17A, and we anticipate a final sample of ˜500 new cluster members. Combined with existing spectroscopy on the brighter galaxies from GCLASS, SPT, and other sources, GOGREEN will be a large legacy cluster and field galaxy sample at this redshift that spectroscopically covers a wide range in stellar mass, halo mass, and clustercentric radius.

  16. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WFC3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE: EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM INFRARED GRISM OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straughn, Amber N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kuntschner, Harald; Kuemmel, Martin; Walsh, Jeremy R.; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; O'Connell, Robert W.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Bond, Howard E.; Meurer, Gerhardt; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Balick, Bruce; Calzetti, Daniela; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.

    2011-01-01

    We present grism spectra of emission-line galaxies (ELGs) from 0.6 to 1.6 μm from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope. These new infrared grism data augment previous optical Advanced Camera for Surveys G800L 0.6-0.95 μm grism data in GOODS-South from the PEARS program, extending the wavelength coverage well past the G800L red cutoff. The Early Release Science (ERS) grism field was observed at a depth of two orbits per grism, yielding spectra of hundreds of faint objects, a subset of which is presented here. ELGs are studied via the Hα, [O III], and [O II] emission lines detected in the redshift ranges 0.2 ∼ B(F098M) ≅ 25 mag. Seventeen GOODS-South galaxies that previously only had photometric redshifts now have new grism-spectroscopic redshifts, in some cases with large corrections to the photometric redshifts (Δz ≅ 0.3-0.5). Additionally, one galaxy had no previously measured redshift but now has a secure grism-spectroscopic redshift, for a total of 18 new GOODS-South spectroscopic redshifts. The faintest source in our sample has a magnitude m AB(F098M) = 26.9 mag. The ERS grism data also reflect the expected trend of lower specific star formation rates for the highest mass galaxies in the sample as a function of redshift, consistent with downsizing and discovered previously from large surveys. These results demonstrate the remarkable efficiency and capability of the WFC3 NIR grisms for measuring galaxy properties to faint magnitudes and redshifts to z ∼> 2.

  17. Effects of topical bevacizumab application on early bleb failure after trabeculectomy: observational case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klos-Rola J

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Justyna Klos-Rola, Maria Tulidowicz-Bielak, Tomasz Zarnowski Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of topical bevacizumab on the formation and function of filtering blebs in eyes with early bleb failure after antiglaucoma surgery. Methods: Of all patients who underwent mitomycin-augmented trabeculectomy for glaucoma in the Department of Ophthalmology at the Medical University in Lublin, Poland, between March 2009 and March 2010, a total of 21 eyes from 20 patients with injected filtration bleb 9.8 ± 4.7 days after surgery were included in this observational case series. All patients were treated with standard steroid therapy and topical bevacizumab 5 mg/mL five times a day for 20.9 ± 9.8 days. Patients were followed up every other day, and a full eye examination was performed 14, 30, 60, and 180 days after initiation of treatment. Blebs were evaluated for vascularity by slit-lamp examination with concomitant photographic documentation and intraocular pressure measurement. Results: Elevated functional bleb with significantly reduced vascularity was present in 16 eyes, and was flat and nonfunctional in five eyes. Intraocular pressure in all eyes decreased from a mean of 26.6 ± 9.6 mmHg before surgery to 14.6 ± 7.7 mmHg and 15.8 ± 8.3 mmHg at 2 and 6 months after surgery, respectively. Filtration bleb leak was noted in three eyes while on treatment with bevacizumab. Conclusion: Topical application of bevacizumab might favor functional bleb formation after trabeculectomy in eyes with a high risk of failure. Keywords: glaucoma, trabeculectomy, bleb failure, bevacizumab

  18. The safety of a novel early mobilization protocol conducted by ICU physicians: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keibun Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous barriers to early mobilization (EM in a resource-limited intensive care unit (ICU without a specialized team or an EM culture, regarding patient stability while critically ill or in the presence of medical devices. We hypothesized that ICU physicians can overcome these barriers. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety of EM according to the Maebashi EM protocol conducted by ICU physicians. Methods This was a single-center prospective observational study. All consecutive patients with an unplanned emergency admission were included in this study, according to the exclusion criteria. The observation period was from June 2015 to June 2016. Data regarding adverse events, medical devices in place during rehabilitation, protocol adherence, and rehabilitation outcomes were collected. The primary outcome was safety. Results A total of 232 consecutively enrolled patients underwent 587 rehabilitation sessions. Thirteen adverse events occurred (2.2%; 95% confidence interval, 1.2–3.8% and no specific treatment was needed. There were no instances of dislodgement or obstruction of medical devices, tubes, or lines. The incidence of adverse events associated with mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO was 2.4 and 3.6%, respectively. Of 587 sessions, 387 (66% sessions were performed at the active rehabilitation level, including sitting out of the bed, active transfer to a chair, standing, marching, and ambulating. ICU physicians attended over 95% of these active rehabilitation sessions. Of all patients, 143 (62% got out of bed within 2 days (median 1.2 days; interquartile range 0.1–2.0. Conclusions EM according to the Maebashi EM protocol conducted by ICU physicians, without a specialized team or EM culture, was performed at a level of safety similar to previous studies performed by specialized teams, even with medical devices in place, including mechanical ventilation or ECMO

  19. Acute and short-term effects of caloric restriction on metabolic profile and brain activation in obese, postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakobsdottir, S.; van Nieuwpoort, I. C.; van Bunderen, C. C.; de Ruiter, M. B.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Deijen, J. B.; Veltman, D. J.; Drent, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Early anthropometric and metabolic changes during a caloric-restricted diet in obese postmenopausal women and correlations between these factors with activity in brain areas involved in processing of visual food related stimuli were investigated. An 8-week prospective intervention study of 18

  20. Acute and short term effects of caloric restriction on metabolic profile and brain activation in obese, postmenopausal women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakobsdottir, S.; van Nieuwpoort, I.C.; van Bunderen, C.C.; de Ruiter, M.B.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Deijen, J.B.; Veltman, D.J.; Drent, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Early anthropometric and metabolic changes during a caloric-restricted diet in obese postmenopausal women and correlations between these factors with activity in brain areas involved in processing of visual food related stimuli were investigated.SUBJECTS AND METHODS:An 8-week prospective

  1. Sexuality in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morokoff, Patricia J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews psychological and biological aspects of effects of menopause on sexuality. Discusses population studies revealing that postmenopausal status is associated with decline in some components of sexual functioning. Notes that little research has examined psychological response to menopause and its effect on sexual functioning. Research on…

  2. Lactulose stimulates calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Muijs, T.; Dokkum, W. van; Schaafsma, G.

    1999-01-01

    Animal studies have indicated that calcium absorption is increased by lactulose, a synthetic disaccharide. Therefore, the influence of lactulose on calcium absorption was measured in postmenopausal women who may benefit from the possible enhancing effect of lactulose on calcium absorption. Twelve

  3. Endometrial biopsy findings in postmenopausal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfraz, T.; Tariq, H.

    2007-01-01

    To study endometrial histopathology in women presenting with postmenopausal bleeding. A two-year study from January 2003 to December 2004 of 100 cases of postmenopausal bleeding was conducted at Combined Military Hospital, Sialkot. The histopathology of endometrial biopsy specimens was done to find out the causes of postmenopausal bleeding in these ladies. All these 100 patients had confirmed menopause and the average age was 55 years and above. The most common histopathological diagnosis was senile endometrial atrophy (27%), followed by simple cystic hyperplasia in (17%). Three cases of simple cystic hyperplasia had coexistent ovarian tumors. Glandular hyperplasia without atypia was seen in 6% and with atypia in 4%. Other causes were endometritis (13%), endometrial polyps (8%), proliferative phase endometrium (6%) and secretary phase endometrium (5%). Endometrial carcinoma was seen in (6%) cases, (8%) biopsy specimens were non-representative. Although senile endometrial atrophy was most commonly found in these ladies but a significant percentage of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer implies the need for investigating all cases of postmenopausal bleeding. Bimanual examination and pelvic ultrasonography should be combined with endometrial sampling so that rare pelvic pathologies may not be missed. (author)

  4. Factors Influencing Endometrial Thickness in Postmenopausal Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cut‑off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. Aim: To study the various factors influencing the ET in ...

  5. Immature ovarian teratoma in a postmenopausal woman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ornvold, K; Detlefsen, G U; Horn, T

    1987-01-01

    We report the first case of immature ovarian teratoma occurring after menopause in a 57-year-old, 3 years postmenopausal woman. Within one year after resection of the teratoma she developed peritoneal botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma, which probably originated from initially unrecognized rhabdomyoblasts...

  6. Acupuncture to Treat Sleep Disorders in Postmenopausal Women: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disorders are commonly observed among postmenopausal women, with negative effects on their quality of life. The search for complementary therapies for sleep disorders during postmenopausal period is of high importance, and acupuncture stands out as an appropriate possibility. The present review intended to systematically evaluate the available literature, compiling studies that have employed acupuncture as treatment to sleep disorders in postmenopausal women. A bibliographic search was performed in PubMed/Medline and Scopus. Articles which had acupuncture as intervention, sleep related measurements as outcomes, and postmenopausal women as target population were included and evaluated according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool and to the STRICTA guidelines. Out of 89 search results, 12 articles composed our final sample. A high heterogeneity was observed among these articles, which prevented us from performing a meta-analysis. Selected articles did not present high risk of bias and had a satisfactory compliance rate with STRICTA guidelines. In general, these studies presented improvements in sleep-related variables. Despite the overall positive effects, acupuncture still cannot be stated as a reliable treatment for sleep-related complaints, not due to inefficacy, but rather limited evidence. Nevertheless, results are promising and new comprehensive and controlled studies in the field are encouraged.

  7. Observed Effects of Vegetation Growth on Temperature in the Early Summer over the Northeast China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaxiang Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vegetation on temperature is an emerging topic in the climate science community. Existing studies have mostly examined the effects of vegetation on daytime temperature (Tmax, whereas this study investigates the effects on nighttime temperature (Tmin. Ground measurements from 53 sites across northeastern China (NEC from 1982 to 2006 show that early summer (June Tmax and Tmin increased at mean rates of approximately 0.61 °C/10 year and 0.67 °C/10 year, respectively. Over the same period, the satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI decreased by approximately 0.10 (accounting for 18% of the climatological NDVI for 1982–1991. It is highlighted that a larger increase in Tmax (Tmin co-occurred spatially with a larger (smaller decrease in NDVI. Deriving from such spatial co-occurrences, we found that the spatial variability of changes in Tmax (i.e., ΔTmax is negatively correlated with the spatial variability of changes in NDVI (i.e., ΔNDVI, while the spatial variability of changes in Tmin (i.e., ΔTmin is positively correlated (r2 = 0.10; p < 0.05 with that of ΔNDVI. Similarly, we detected significant positive correlations between the spatial variability of ΔNDVI and the change in surface latent heat flux (r2 = 0.16; p < 0.01 and in surface air specific humidity (r2 = 0.28; p < 0.001. These findings on the spatial co-occurrences suggest that the vegetation growth intensifies the atmospheric water vapor through evapotranspiration, which enhances the atmospheric downward longwave radiation and strengthens the greenhouse warming effects at night. Thereby, the positive correlation between ΔNDVI and ΔTmin is better understood. These results indicate that vegetation growth may not only exert effects on daytime temperature but also exert warming effects on nighttime temperature by increasing atmospheric water vapor and thus intensifying the local greenhouse effect. This study presents new observation evidence of the

  8. Evaluation Of Hormone Profile And Dexa Values in Premenopausal, Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Esen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in 130 women, between 44-55 ages, admitted to outpatient clinic of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department of Trakya University Medical Faculty in order to make. comparison of hormone profile and DEXA values of premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women . Three groups were allocated according to climacteric symptoms and menopause condition. Premenopausal group consisted of women who had regular menstruation and did not have any climacteric symptoms , perimenopausal group consisted of women who had menstruation disorder and climacteric symptoms within one year and postmenopausal group consisted of women who had last menstruation within more than one year and less than 5 years. Women who had prior osteoporosis diognosis and treatment, hormone replacement therapy, surgical menopause and menopause duration more than 5 years were excluded from the study. Age, body weight ,height, hormone profile including estradiol (E2, progesterone (P, follicule stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, parathyroid hormone (PTH, thyroid hormones (T3, T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and DEXA values representing bone mineral density (BMD of both groups were evaluated. In peri and postmenopausal groups, E2, P, FSH and LH values were significantly lower, while there was no significant difference for PTH and thyroid hormone levels comparing to premenopausal group. For DEXA values, T scores of L2-L4, L2, L3, L4, femur neck, trochanter, Wards and Z scores of femur neck, Wards area were significantly lower in peri and postmenopausal groups. It was demonstrated paralel to literature that BMD decreased in peri and early postmenopausal women associated with hormone profile changes, mainly lower E2.

  9. Does the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change help moving forward in measuring change in early autism intervention studies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijl, M.K.J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Hendriks, M.; Korte, M.W.P. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Oosterling, I.J.

    2018-01-01

    The field of early autism research is in dire need of outcome measures that adequately reflect subtle changes in core autistic behaviors. This article compares the ability of a newly developed measure, the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC), and the Autism Diagnostic

  10. Disability, fatigue, pain and their associates in early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis: the European Scleroderma Observational Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peytrignet, Sébastien; Denton, Christopher P; Lunt, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Our aim was to describe the burden of early dcSSc in terms of disability, fatigue and pain in the European Scleroderma Observational Study cohort, and to explore associated clinical features. Methods: Patients completed questionnaires at study entry, 12 and 24 months, including the HA...

  11. Simulated NASA Satellite Data Products for the NOAA Integrated Coral Reef Observation Network/Coral Reef Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Leland; Spruce, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    This RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment will demonstrate the use of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and LDCM (Landsat Data Continuity Mission) sensor data as significant input to the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) ICON/ CREWS (Integrated Coral Reef Observation System/Coral Reef Early Warning System). The project affects the Coastal Management Program Element of the Applied Sciences Program.

  12. Obesity as a protective factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albala, C; Yáñez, M; Devoto, E; Sostin, C; Zeballos, L; Santos, J L

    1996-11-01

    Obesity is considered a protective factor for osteoporosis improving bone mass and maintaining higher levels of estrogen during menopause. To determine the association of obesity with bone mineral density (BMD), and its relationship with sex hormone levels. A case-control study in Caucasian obese and non obese postmenopausal women. 113 obese and 50 non-obese postmenopausal women. BMD (dual-photon X-ray absorptiometry) at cervical femur. Ward's triangle, proximal radius and lumbar spine. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, total estrogen, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHA-S) and testosterone. Mean BMD at femoral sites were significantly higher in obese women (femoral neck: 0.849 +/- 0.124 g/cm2 vs 0.753 +/- 0.095 g/cm2, P obese women and 0.849 +/- 0.137 g/cm2 in non obese, P obese women was observed. Although total estrogen were similar in both groups, in obese women, SHBG was lower (68.6 +/- 26.84 nmol/l vs. 85.1 +/- 31.18 nmol/l, P obese (77.2 +/- 50.4 Ul/ml vs. 49.4 +/- 24.1 Ul/ml, P obese women and suggest that obesity exerts protection due to a decreased SHBG thus increasing free sex steroids. Besides, hyperinsulinemia may produce a decline in the production of IGFBG-1, leading to an increase of IGF-1, that may stimulate the proliferation of osteoblasts.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of depressive symptoms in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women at a gynecological clinic in Shanghai%上海某妇科门诊围绝经期及绝经后期妇女抑郁症状检出率及相关因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶晶; 仇剑崟; 顾红亮; 杨慧琳; 陈静; 王祖承

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hormonal fluctuations during the perimenopausal period are often associated with both physical and psychological symptoms so women are at high risk of depression during this period. However, the complex interaction of biopsychosociul factors in the development of depression during the menopause are not, as yet, fully known.Objective: Assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms and the risk factors for depressive symptoms in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women in Shanghai, China.Methods: 287 perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women 45-55 years of age were randomly selected from a gynecological clinic at a women's hospital in Shanghai. Respondents completed three questionnaires: a demographic profile questionnaire, Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Kupperman Menopausal Index(KMI).Results: The most frequent menopausal symptoms reported in the KMI by these respondents were hot flashes ( 84.0% ), arthralgia and myalgia ( 83.3% ), fatigue ( 81.5% ) and palpitations ( 74.9% ). Using the cutoff score of 5 on the BDI, 104 of the subjects ( 36.2%;95% CI = 30.6%- 41.8% )had clinically significant depressive symptoms. Compared to those without significant depressive symptoms,those with depressive symptoms were significantly less likely to have had breast-feed their children; more likely to have a family history of menopausal symptoms; more likely to be unmarried, divorced or widowed; and had a smaller mean household living space. After excluding the 4 items about depression, the mean(SD) adjusted total score of the 7 remaining items on the KMI was significantly higher in the depressed group [ 14.7( 6. 5) vs 11.6 (5.5); t = 4.11, P < 0. 001 ]. Four factors remained independently related to having clinically significant depressive symptom in the logistic regression analysis: family history of menopausal symptoms ( OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.15-5.12), high adjusted total KMI score (2.79, 1.49-5.26), no prior breastfeeding (2

  14. PAM50 Risk of Recurrence Score Predicts 10-Year Distant Recurrence in a Comprehensive Danish Cohort of Postmenopausal Women Allocated to 5 Years of Endocrine Therapy for Hormone Receptor–Positive Early Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lænkholm, Anne Vibeke; Jensen, M.B.; Eriksen, J O

    2018-01-01

    with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer treated with 5 years of endocrine therapy alone. Patients and Methods Using the population-based Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group database, follow-up data were collected on all patients diagnosed from 2000 through 2003 who, by nationwide guidelines, were...... treated with endocrine therapy for 5 years. Primary tumor blocks from 2,740 patients were tested with Prosigna and, after determination of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, data from 2,558 hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative samples were analyzed, including 1,395 node...

  15. Discovery of the optical counterpart and early optical observations of GRB 990712

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahu, K.C.; Vreesvijk, P.; Bakos, G.

    2000-01-01

    We present the discovery observations of the optical counterpart of the gamma-ray burst GRB 990712 taken 4.16 hr after the outburst and discuss its light curve observed in the V, R, and I bands during the first similar to 35 days after the outburst. The observed light curves were fitted with a po......We present the discovery observations of the optical counterpart of the gamma-ray burst GRB 990712 taken 4.16 hr after the outburst and discuss its light curve observed in the V, R, and I bands during the first similar to 35 days after the outburst. The observed light curves were fitted...

  16. An international study of the relationship between alcohol consumption and postmenopausal estradiol levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavaler, J S; Love, K; Van Thiel, D

    1991-01-01

    Because of the beneficial effect of estrogens on the risk of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, the factors which influence endogenous postmenopausal estrogen levels are of substantial importance. The major source of postmenopausal estrogen is the aromatization...

  17. Parenting and the Family Check-Up: Changes in Observed Parent-Child Interaction Following Early Childhood Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Gill, Anne; Dishion, Thomas; Winter, Charlotte; Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin

    2015-01-01

    Coercion theory posits a cyclical relationship between harsh and coercive parent-child interactions and problem behavior beginning in early childhood. As coercive interactions have been theorized and found to facilitate the development and growth of early conduct problems, early interventions often target parenting to prevent or reduce early disruptive problem behavior. This study utilizes direct observations of parent-child interactions from the Early Steps Multisite study (N = 731; 369 boys) to examine the effect of the Family Check-Up, a family-centered intervention program, on measures of parent-child positive engagement and coercion from age 2 through 5, as well as on childhood problem behavior at age 5. Results indicate that high levels of parent-child positive engagement were associated with less parent-child coercion the following year, but dyadic coercion was unrelated to future levels of positive engagement. In addition, families assigned to the Family Check-Up showed increased levels of positive engagement at ages 3 and 5, and the association between positive engagement at age 3 and child problem behavior at age 5 was mediated by reductions in parent-child coercion at age 4. These findings provide longitudinal confirmation that increasing positive engagement in parent-child interaction can reduce the likelihood of coercive family dynamics in early childhood and growth in problem behavior.

  18. Observed Gossip Moderates the Link between Anxious Withdrawal and Friendship Quality in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzer, Melissa M.; McDonald, Kristina L.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Schulz, Annie

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated whether gossip between best friends moderated the relation between anxious withdrawal and friendship quality in early adolescence, using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model ("APIM," Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) approach. Participants (n = 256) were 5th and 6th grade young adolescents (actors) and their best friends…

  19. An Early Inupiaq Occupation: Observations on a Thule House From Cape Espenberg, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Lauren E. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and interprets a well-preserved early Thule semi-subterranean dwelling from Cape Espenberg, Alaska. The house architecture is similar in many respects to other early Thule dwellings with a sub-rectangular main room, long sunken entrance tunnel, and associated kitchen area. However, the presence of narrow side benches and associated flooring differences adds significantly to the variability present in Thule house form. Radiocarbon dates indicate occupations spanning 1300 to 1450 cal CE. Wood analysis suggests that the house underwent at least one rebuilding episode, which seems to have extended the house occupation into the early 15th century. People acquired mostly small seals for their subsistence, but supplemented their diets in the spring and fall with migrating birds, fish, terrestrial mammals, and other marine mammals. This house represents a fairly typical early Thule coastal winter occupation, but careful excavation of a well-preserved house reveals interesting details in house form, wood use, and subsistence patterns.

  20. Disseminated intravascular coagulation or acute coagulopathy of trauma shock early after trauma? A prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Sorensen, Anne Marie; Perner, Anders

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: It is debated whether the early trauma induced coagulopathy (TIC) in severely injured patients reflects disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with a fibrinolytic phenotype, acute coagulopathy of trauma shock (ACoTS) or yet other entities. This study investigated the...

  1. The potential role of real-time geodetic observations in tsunami early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Tsunami warning systems (TWS) have the final goal to launch a reliable alert of an incoming dangerous tsunami to coastal population early enough to allow people to flee from the shore and coastal areas according to some evacuation plans. In the last decade, especially after the catastrophic 2004 Boxing Day tsunami in the Indian Ocean, much attention has been given to filling gaps in the existing TWSs (only covering the Pacific Ocean at that time) and to establishing new TWSs in ocean regions that were uncovered. Typically, TWSs operating today work only on earthquake-induced tsunamis. TWSs estimate quickly earthquake location and size by real-time processing seismic signals; on the basis of some pre-defined "static" procedures (either based on decision matrices or on pre-archived tsunami simulations), assess the tsunami alert level on a large regional scale and issue specific bulletins to a pre-selected recipients audience. Not unfrequently these procedures result in generic alert messages with little value. What usually operative TWSs do not do, is to compute earthquake focal mechanism, to calculate the co-seismic sea-floor displacement, to assess the initial tsunami conditions, to input these data into tsunami simulation models and to compute tsunami propagation up to the threatened coastal districts. This series of steps is considered nowadays too time consuming to provide the required timely alert. An equivalent series of steps could start from the same premises (earthquake focal parameters) and reach the same result (tsunami height at target coastal areas) by replacing the intermediate steps of real-time tsunami simulations with proper selection from a large archive of pre-computed tsunami scenarios. The advantage of real-time simulations and of archived scenarios selection is that estimates are tailored to the specific occurring tsunami and alert can be more detailed (less generic) and appropriate for local needs. Both these procedures are still at an

  2. EFFECT OF HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING ON ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mohamed Taha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postmenopausal hypertension is the most common risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As the exercises training conveys benefits of the setting of secondary prevention of hypertension. High intensity interval training (HIIT emerged as a new form of physical training and presents as therapeutic alternative to patients and health care professionals. This study aimed to investigate the effect of high intensity interval training on endothelial function in postmenopausal hypertension. Methods: Forty six mildly hypertensive postmenopausal women, their ages ranged from (45-55 years old, were randomly allocated to two groups: HIIT group (group-I; n=23 performed a high intensity interval training 3 times a week for 10 weeks at an intensity of (80-85% HR max for 40 minutes and control group (group-II; n=23 remains sedentary during this period. Serum nitric oxide (NO, vascular endothelial growth factor levels (VEGF and blood pressures were measured before and after intervention. Results: A significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values by 9.5% and 7 % respectively, was seen after high intensity interval training which was accompanied by increase in NO and VEGF levels by 43.3% and 15.2 % respectively, while no significant change observed in the control group. Conclusion: High intensity interval training had obvious benefits in improving plasma No, VEGF concentrations and controlling hypertension in postmenopausal women.

  3. Cardiovascular risk assessment with oxidised LDL measurement in postmenopausal women receiving intranasal estrogen replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdoglu, Mertihan; Yildirim, Mulazim; Kurdoglu, Zehra; Erdem, Ahmet; Erdem, Mehmet; Bilgihan, Ayse; Goktas, Bulent

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the effect of intranasal estrogen replacement therapy administered to postmenopausal women alone or in combination with progesterone on markers of cardiovascular risk. The study was conducted with 44 voluntary postmenopausal women. In group I (n = 15), the patients were treated with only intranasal estradiol (300 μg/day estradiol hemihydrate). In group II (n = 11), the patients received cyclic progesterone (200 mg/day micronized progesterone) for 12 days in each cycle in addition to continuous intranasal estradiol. Group III (n = 18) was the controls. Serum lipid profiles, oxidised low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and other markers of cardiovascular risk were assessed at baseline and at the 3rd month of the treatment. Lipid profile, LDL apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein a, homocysteine, oxidised LDL values and oxidised LDL/LDL cholesterol ratio were not observed to change after 3 months compared to baseline values within each group (p > 0.016). In comparison to changes between the groups after the treatment, only oxidised LDL levels and oxidised LDL/LDL cholesterol ratios of group II were increased compared to control group (p < 0.05). Intranasal estradiol alone did not appear to have an effect on markers of cardiovascular risk in healthy postmenopausal women. However, the addition of cyclic oral micronized progesterone to intranasal estradiol influenced the markers of cardiovascular risk negatively in comparison to non-users in healthy postmenopausal women.

  4. Sugar residues content and distribution in atrophic and hyperplastic postmenopausal human endometrium: lectin histochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheri, G; Bryk, S G; Taddei, G; Moncini, D; Noci, I

    1996-10-01

    A lectin histochemical study was performed to investigate the glycoconjugate saccharidic moieties of the human postmenopausal endometrium (14 atrophic and 15 hyperplastic). For this purpose a battery of seven horseradish peroxidase-conjugated lectins (PNA, SBA, DBA, WGA, ConA, LTA and UEA I) was used. No differences in lectin binding between atrophic and hyperplastic endometria were observed. This investigation allowed us to provide a basic picture of the oligosaccharidic distribution in postmenopausal endometria. The data on the saccharidic distribution at the postmenopausal endometria showed a large amount of sugar residues at all the investigated sites, i.e. the lining and glandular epithelium, the stroma and the vessels (capillary and large vessels). Furthermore, at the endometrial lining epithelium, at the glands and at the wall of the blood vessels of some postmenopausal women the presence of alpha-L-fucosyl residues which bind via alpha (1-6) linkage to penultimate glucosaminyl residues and/or difucosylated oligosaccharides was demonstrated for the first time.

  5. A different view on the checkerboard? Alterations in early and late visually evoked EEG potentials in Asperger observers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Kornmeier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asperger Autism is a lifelong psychiatric condition with highly circumscribed interests and routines, problems in social cognition, verbal and nonverbal communication, and also perceptual abnormalities with sensory hypersensitivity. To objectify both lower-level visual and cognitive alterations we looked for differences in visual event-related potentials (EEG between Asperger observers and matched controls while they observed simple checkerboard stimuli. METHODS: In a balanced oddball paradigm checkerboards of two checksizes (0.6° and 1.2° were presented with different frequencies. Participants counted the occurrence times of the rare fine or rare coarse checkerboards in different experimental conditions. We focused on early visual ERP differences as a function of checkerboard size and the classical P3b ERP component as an indicator of cognitive processing. RESULTS: We found an early (100-200 ms after stimulus onset occipital ERP effect of checkerboard size (dominant spatial frequency. This effect was weaker in the Asperger than in the control observers. Further a typical parietal/central oddball-P3b occurred at 500 ms with the rare checkerboards. The P3b showed a right-hemispheric lateralization, which was more prominent in Asperger than in control observers. DISCUSSION: The difference in the early occipital ERP effect between the two groups may be a physiological marker of differences in the processing of small visual details in Asperger observers compared to normal controls. The stronger lateralization of the P3b in Asperger observers may indicate a stronger involvement of the right-hemispheric network of bottom-up attention. The lateralization of the P3b signal might be a compensatory consequence of the compromised early checksize effect. Higher-level analytical information processing units may need to compensate for difficulties in low-level signal analysis.

  6. Dietary cyanogen exposure and early child neurodevelopment: An observational study from the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashala-Abotnes, Espérance; Sombo, Marie-Thérèse; Okitundu, Daniel L; Kunyu, Marcel; Bumoko Makila-Mabe, Guy; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Sikorskii, Alla; Banea, Jean-Pierre; Mumba Ngoyi, Dieudonné; Tshala-Katumbay, Désiré; Boivin, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Dietary cyanogen exposure from ingesting bitter (toxic) cassava as a main source of food in sub-Saharan Africa is related to neurological impairments in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored possible association with early child neurodevelopmental outcomes. We undertook a cross-sectional neurodevelopmental assessment of 12-48 month-old children using the Mullen Scale of Early Learning (MSEL) and the Gensini Gavito Scale (GGS). We used the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-10 (HSCL-10) and Goldberg Depression Anxiety Scale (GDAS) to screen for symptoms of maternal depression-anxiety. We used the cyanogen content in household cassava flour and urinary thiocyanate (SCN) as biomarkers of dietary cyanogen exposure. We employed multivariable generalized linear models (GLM) with Gamma link function to determine predictors of early child neurodevelopmental outcomes. The mean (SD) and median (IQR) of cyanogen content of cassava household flour were above the WHO cut-off points of 10 ppm (52.18 [32·79]) and 50 (30-50) ppm, respectively. Mean (SD) urinary levels of thiocyanate and median (IQR) were respectively 817·81 (474·59) and 688 (344-1032) μmole/l in mothers, and 617·49 (449·48) and 688 (344-688) μmole/l in children reflecting individual high levels as well as a community-wide cyanogenic exposure. The concentration of cyanide in cassava flour was significantly associated with early child neurodevelopment, motor development and cognitive ability as indicated by univariable linear regression (p child neurodevelopment remained the main predictors associated with the concentration of cyanide in cassava flour: coefficients of -0·08 to -.15 (p child linear growth, early child neurodevelopment, cognitive ability and motor development at both univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses coefficients of 1.44 to 7.31 (p early child neurodevelopment, cognitive abilities and motor development, even in the absence of clinically evident paralysis. There is a need for community

  7. Torsional oscillations and observed rotational period variations in early-type stars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krtička, J.; Mikulášek, Z.; Henry, G.W.; Kurfürst, P.; Karlický, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 464, č. 1 (2017), s. 933-939 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-01116S; GA ČR GAP209/12/0103 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : MHD * chemically peculiar stars * early-type stars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  8. Improvement of Bone-Sparing Effect of Soy Isoflavones by Pre- and Probiotics in Postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mathey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Phytoestrogens consumption is targeted as a possible way to achieve hormonal permeation in postmenopausal women. However, their health effect could depend on their bioavailability. Objectives As phytoestrogens bioavailability could be improved by modulating intestinal microflora, the present study was undertaken to investigate whether isoflavones and pre-or probiotics may improve bone markers. Design An intervention trial (2 months was carried out on 39 postmenopausal women receiving 100 mg of IF aglycon equivalents daily, incorporated in two jelly milk and two cereal bars. After the first month, the participants were randomised into three treatment groups: soy (control group, soy + fructooligosaccharides (prebiotics group and soy + yoghurt cultures (probiotics group. Results Level of isoflavone intake was associated with a significant increase in plasma isoflavone levels from baseline to day 15 which was maintained until day 60. Probiotics consumption was associated with increased plasma equol levels at day 60. A 5% increase of bone alkaline phosphatase was elicited on day 30, compared to initial values. Pre- or probiotics did not modulate this parameter. Urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion was slightly increased at day 60. Prebiotics and probiotics consumption improved this parameter. The effect of prebiotics was exacerbated in early compared to late postmenopausal women. Conclusion Addition of prebiotics or probiotics to a diet providing isoflavones is able to improve parameters of bone turnover in early menopause.

  9. Nutritional risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Olfa Berriche; Amrouche Chiraz; Rym Ben Othman; Hamdi Souheila; Ines Lahmer; Chaabani Wafa; Imen Sebai; Haifa Sfar; Feten Mahjoub; Henda Jamoussi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is a bone disease that combines both a decrease in bone density and its internal architecture changes. Nutrition is one of the major determinants of osteoporosis. Aim: The purpose of our study was to identify nutritional risk factors of osteoporosis of two groups of osteoporotic women and witnesses. Methods: We conducted a comparative cross-sectional study including 60 postmenopausal women and screening for osteoporosis by a bone densitometry, recruited the outp...

  10. Comparing guidelines for adjuvant endocrine therapy in postmenopausal women with breast cancer: a coming of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sunil; Jackisch, Christian

    2011-02-01

    Following surgery for early breast cancer, the standard of care for postmenopausal women is adjuvant therapy with any combination of radiation therapy, endocrine therapy, chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy. Clinicians rely on many tools, including guidelines, to make these treatment decisions. Such guidelines include the St Gallen consensus statement, the American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, as well as various regional and national guidelines. Recommendations may vary, because different methods and criteria were used to assess the strength of supporting data. This article provides an overview of global guidelines for the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer and points out the major differences. Ongoing changes are highlighted, particularly those regarding the adjuvant endocrine treatment of postmenopausal women with breast cancer. While previous guidelines recommended tamoxifen alone, all major guidelines now recommend using third-generation aromatase inhibitors either in sequence with tamoxifen or as upfront treatment.

  11. EARLY-TIME VLA OBSERVATIONS AND BROADBAND AFTERGLOW ANALYSIS OF THE FERMI/LAT DETECTED GRB 130907A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veres, Péter; Corsi, Alessandra; Frail, Dale A.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Perley, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of the hyper-energetic gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130907A, a Swift-discovered burst with early radio observations starting at ≈4 hr after the γ-ray trigger. GRB 130907A was also detected by the Fermi/LAT instrument and at late times showed a strong spectral evolution in X-rays. We focus on the early-time radio observations, especially at >10 GHz, to attempt to identify reverse shock signatures. While our radio follow-up of GRB 130907A ranks among the earliest observations of a GRB with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, we did not see an unambiguous signature of a reverse shock. While a model with both reverse and forward shock can correctly describe the observations, the data is not constraining enough to decide upon the presence of the reverse-shock component. We model the broadband data using a simple forward-shock synchrotron scenario with a transition from a wind environment to a constant density interstellar medium (ISM) in order to account for the observed features. Within the confines of this model, we also derive the underlying physical parameters of the fireball, which are within typical ranges except for the wind density parameter (A * ), which is higher than those for bursts with wind-ISM transition, but typical for the general population of bursts. We note the importance of early-time radio observations of the afterglow (and of well-sampled light curves) for unambiguously identifying the potential contribution of the reverse shock

  12. Functioning of active postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cristiane Binda

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The multiple aspects of disability in patients with osteoporosis require comprehensive tool for their assessment. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF is designed to describe the experience of such patients with theirs functioning. Objective: This study aimed to describe the functioning in a sample of active postmenopausal women with osteoporosis according to the brief ICF core set for osteoporosis. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among active community-dwelling older adults in a southern Brazilian city. Participants were enrolled by convenience sampling from a group conducting supervised aquatic and land-based exercises. Active postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were included. Thirty-two women (mean age 68.0 ± 5.1 years old participated in the evaluation. The brief ICF core set for osteoporosis was used to establish functional profiles. The categories were considered valid when ≥20% of participants showed some disability (according to ICF qualifiers. Results: No category showed a high level of disability, as >50% of women rated by qualifiers .3 or .4. Only the category e580 was considered by all participants as a facilitator. Conclusion: The brief ICF core set for osteoporosis results demonstrated that this classification system is representative to describe the functional profile of the sample. Active postmenopausal women with osteoporosis presented few impairments related to body functions and structures, activities and participation and environmental factors.

  13. Sixteen weeks of resistance training can decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome in healthy postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição MS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Miguel Soares Conceição,1 Valéria Bonganha,1 Felipe Cassaro Vechin,2 Ricardo Paes de Barros Berton,1 Manoel Emílio Lixandrão,1 Felipe Romano Damas Nogueira,1 Giovana Vergínia de Souza,1 Mara Patricia Traina Chacon-Mikahil,1 Cleiton Augusto Libardi2 1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Physical Education, State University of Campinas, Campinas, 2Laboratory of Neuromuscular Adaptation to Strength Training, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The postmenopausal phase has been considered an aggravating factor for developing metabolic syndrome. Notwithstanding, no studies have as yet investigated the effects of resistance training on metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify whether resistance training could reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Methods: Twenty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a resistance training protocol (n = 10, 53.40 ± 3.95 years, 64.58 ± 9.22 kg or a control group (n = 10, 53.0 ± 5.7 years, 64.03 ± 5.03 kg. In the resistance training protocol, ten exercises were performed, with 3 × 8–10 maximal repetitions three times per week, and the load was increased every week. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate specific metabolic syndrome Z-score, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood pressure, strength, and body composition. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The main results demonstrated a significant decrease of metabolic syndrome Z-score when the postmenopausal women performed resistance training (P = 0.0162. Moreover, we observed decreases in fasting blood glucose for the resistance training group (P = 0.001, and also significant improvements in lean body mass (P = 0.042, 2.46%, reduction of body fat percentage (P = 0.001, −6.75% and noticeable increases in

  14. Dietary inflammation potential and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in a German case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Isabell; Rudolph, Anja; Shivappa, Nitin; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Hébert, James R; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2015-08-01

    Unhealthy dietary habits can increase the risk for serious medical conditions, such as cancer, yet the association between diet and breast cancer remains unclear. We investigated whether individual diets based on their inflammatory potential are associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk by employing an energy-adjusted dietary inflammation index. In a German population-based case-control study, 2887 postmenopausal breast cancer patients (aged 50-74 years, first diagnosed between 2002 and 2005) and 5512 healthy age-matched controls provided information on dietary habits for the year prior to diagnosis (cases) or recruitment (controls) using a 176-items food frequency questionnaire. Associations between the energy-adjusted dietary inflammation index (E-DII) score (both as continuous variable and in quintiles) and risk for breast cancer were assessed using conditional logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders. No significant associations between the E-DII score and postmenopausal breast cancer risk were observed (adjusted OR Q5 vs Q1: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.86-1.17). Associations did not differ by estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status (ER + PR+: adjusted OR Q5 vs Q1: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.88-1.27; ER + or PR+: OR Q5 vs Q1: 1,07, 95% CI: 0.79-1.45; ER-PR-: OR Q5 vs Q1: 0.87 95% CI: 0.63-1.20). Our results regarding E-DII are consistent with previous studies reporting a lack of association between C-reactive protein, a marker of systemic inflammation, and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. The findings may reflect a real absence of association between dietary inflammatory potential and postmenopausal cancer risk or an underestimation of association due to recall bias. Further investigation is warranted in cohort studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An early warning system to forecast the close of the spring burning window from satellite-observed greenness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickell, Paul D; Coops, Nicholas C; Ferster, Colin J; Bater, Christopher W; Blouin, Karen D; Flannigan, Mike D; Zhang, Jinkai

    2017-10-27

    Spring represents the peak of human-caused wildfire events in populated boreal forests, resulting in catastrophic loss of property and human life. Human-caused wildfire risk is anticipated to increase in northern forests as fuels become drier, on average, under warming climate scenarios and as population density increases within formerly remote regions. We investigated springtime human-caused wildfire risk derived from satellite-observed vegetation greenness in the early part of the growing season, a period of increased ignition and wildfire spread potential from snow melt to vegetation green-up with the aim of developing an early warning wildfire risk system. The initial system was developed for 392,856 km 2 of forested lands with satellite observations available prior to the start of the official wildfire season and predicted peak human-caused wildfire activity with 10-day accuracy for 76% of wildfire-protected lands by March 22. The early warning system could have significant utility as a cost-effective solution for wildfire managers to prioritize the deployment of wildfire protection resources in wildfire-prone landscapes across boreal-dominated ecosystems of North America, Europe, and Russia using open access Earth observations.

  16. EXCESS OPTICAL ENHANCEMENT OBSERVED WITH ARCONS FOR EARLY CRAB GIANT PULSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strader, M. J.; Mazin, B. A.; Spiro Jaeger, G. V.; Gwinn, C. R.; Meeker, S. R.; Szypryt, P.; Van Eyken, J. C.; Marsden, D.; Walter, A. B.; Ulbricht, G. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Johnson, M. D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); O' Brien, K. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Stoughton, C. [Fermilab Center for Particle Astrophysics, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Bumble, B. [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    We observe an extraordinary link in the Crab pulsar between the enhancement of an optical pulse and the timing of the corresponding giant radio pulse. At optical through infrared wavelengths, our observations use the high time resolution of ARray Camera for Optical to Near-IR Spectrophotometry, a unique superconducting energy-resolving photon-counting array at the Palomar 200 inch telescope. At radio wavelengths, we observe with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope and the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument backend. We see an 11.3% ± 2.5% increase in peak optical flux for pulses that have an accompanying giant radio pulse arriving near the peak of the optical main pulse, in contrast to a 3.2% ± 0.5% increase when an accompanying giant radio pulse arrives soon after the optical peak. We also observe that the peak of the optical main pulse is 2.8% ± 0.8% enhanced when there is a giant radio pulse accompanying the optical interpulse. We observe no statistically significant spectral differences between optical pulses accompanied by and not accompanied by giant radio pulses. Our results extend previous observations of optical-radio correlation to the time and spectral domains. Our refined temporal correlation suggests that optical and radio emission are indeed causally linked, and the lack of spectral differences suggests that the same mechanism is responsible for all optical emission.

  17. EXCESS OPTICAL ENHANCEMENT OBSERVED WITH ARCONS FOR EARLY CRAB GIANT PULSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strader, M. J.; Mazin, B. A.; Spiro Jaeger, G. V.; Gwinn, C. R.; Meeker, S. R.; Szypryt, P.; Van Eyken, J. C.; Marsden, D.; Walter, A. B.; Ulbricht, G.; Johnson, M. D.; O'Brien, K.; Stoughton, C.; Bumble, B.

    2013-01-01

    We observe an extraordinary link in the Crab pulsar between the enhancement of an optical pulse and the timing of the corresponding giant radio pulse. At optical through infrared wavelengths, our observations use the high time resolution of ARray Camera for Optical to Near-IR Spectrophotometry, a unique superconducting energy-resolving photon-counting array at the Palomar 200 inch telescope. At radio wavelengths, we observe with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope and the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument backend. We see an 11.3% ± 2.5% increase in peak optical flux for pulses that have an accompanying giant radio pulse arriving near the peak of the optical main pulse, in contrast to a 3.2% ± 0.5% increase when an accompanying giant radio pulse arrives soon after the optical peak. We also observe that the peak of the optical main pulse is 2.8% ± 0.8% enhanced when there is a giant radio pulse accompanying the optical interpulse. We observe no statistically significant spectral differences between optical pulses accompanied by and not accompanied by giant radio pulses. Our results extend previous observations of optical-radio correlation to the time and spectral domains. Our refined temporal correlation suggests that optical and radio emission are indeed causally linked, and the lack of spectral differences suggests that the same mechanism is responsible for all optical emission

  18. Assessment of bone mineral density with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in pre-and post-menopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamat, M. R.; Rostampour, N.; Shanehsazzadeh, S.; Tavakoli, M. B.; Siavash, M.; Almasi, T.

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic disease that contributes substantially to decrease physical activity and decline in the quality of life. Osteoporosis can be diagnosed easily with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry equipment. The aim of this study was to investigate the magnitude of bone loss on proximal femur and lumbar spine in pre-and post-menopausal women from Isfahan Osteoporosis Diagnosis Center since 2005. Materials and Methods: Bone mineral density measurements using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry have been performed at Isfahan Osteoporosis Diagnosis Center. 185 pre-menopausal and 174 early post-menopausal women were selected randomly. A Norland XR46 system was used for the investigations. The student t-lest was done to find the difference between the T-scores of the femoral neck and lumbar spine in pre-and post-menopausal women. Results: Mean Bone mineral density for the femoral neck and lumbar spine in pre-menopausal women were 0.859 ± 0.136 and 1.012 ± 0.161 and in post-menopausal women were 0.816 ± 0.119 and 0.919 ± 0.140, respectively. Long-term Bone mineral density CVs of 1.0% and 1.2% for the lumbar spine and femoral neck were found, respectively. The differences between the femoral neck and lumbar spine for pre-and post-menopausal women were t = -9.02, P < 0.05 and t = -3.50, P < 0.05, respectively. Conclusion: In spite of, the reported lower Bone mineral density T-scores for the lumbar spine compared With the femoral neck for women, we found that the femoral neck had significantly lower T-score than lumbar spine for both pre-and post-menopausal women.

  19. TEST FUSION IN ADULT FORAMINIFERA: A REVIEW WITH NEW OBSERVATIONS OF AN EARLY EOCENE NUMMULITES SPECIMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferràndez-Cañadell, Carles; Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann; Wöger, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In foraminifera, so-called “double tests” usually arise due to abnormal growth originating mainly from twinning, but may also be caused by irregularities in the early chambers and by regeneration after test injury that modifies the direction of growth. A fourth cause of double tests has only rarely been reported: the fusion of the tests of two adult individuals. We studied an early Eocene Nummulites double test consisting of two adult individuals that fused after an extended period of independent growth. The specimen was studied using computed tomography with micrometric resolution (micro-CT) that allowed bi- and three-dimensional visualization of the internal structure. Before fusion each individual test had 30–36 chambers, which, by comparison with growth rates in recent nummulitids, implies at least three months of independent growth. After fusion, the compound test grew in two spirals that fused after about one whorl and then continued in a single spiral. To fuse their tests, either adult individuals have to be forced to do so or the allorecognition (ability to distinguish between self and another individual) mechanisms must fail. A possible explanation for the merged Nummulites tests in this study is forced fusion in attached individuals after surviving ingestion and digestion by a metazoan. Alternatively, environmental stress could lead to a failure of allorecognition mechanisms and/or foraminiferal motility. Once fused, subsequent growth seems to be determined mainly by the relative orientation of individual tests. In any case, the frequency in which adult fusion occurs remains unknown. PMID:26166916

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Early observations of M13 variables (Osborn,+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, W.; Barnard, E. E.

    2018-05-01

    In 1900 E.E. Barnard published 37 visual observations of Variable 2 (V2) in the globular cluster M13 made in 1899 and 1900. A review of Barnard's notebooks revealed he made many additional brightness estimates up to 1911, and he had also recorded the variations of V1 starting in 1904. These data provide the earliest-epoch light curves for these stars and thus are useful for studying their period changes. This paper presents Barnard's observations of the M13 variables along with their derived heliocentric Julian dates and approximate V magnitudes. These include 231 unpublished observations of V2 and 94 of V1. How these data will be of value for determining period changes by these stars is described. (5 data files).

  1. The Observed State of the Water Cycle in the Early Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, M.; Beaudoing, H. K.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Olson, W. S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Houser, P. R.; Adler, R.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Clayson, C. A.; Chambers, D.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This study quantifies mean annual and monthly fluxes of Earth's water cycle over continents and ocean basins during the first decade of the millennium. To the extent possible, the flux estimates are based on satellite measurements first and data-integrating models second. A careful accounting of uncertainty in the estimates is included. It is applied within a routine that enforces multiple water and energy budget constraints simultaneously in a variational framework in order to produce objectively determined optimized flux estimates. In the majority of cases, the observed annual surface and atmospheric water budgets over the continents and oceans close with much less than 10% residual. Observed residuals and optimized uncertainty estimates are considerably larger for monthly surface and atmospheric water budget closure, often nearing or exceeding 20% in North America, Eurasia, Australia and neighboring islands, and the Arctic and South Atlantic Oceans. The residuals in South America and Africa tend to be smaller, possibly because cold land processes are negligible. Fluxes were poorly observed over the Arctic Ocean, certain seas, Antarctica, and the Australasian and Indonesian islands, leading to reliance on atmospheric analysis estimates. Many of the satellite systems that contributed data have been or will soon be lost or replaced. Models that integrate ground-based and remote observations will be critical for ameliorating gaps and discontinuities in the data records caused by these transitions. Continued development of such models is essential for maximizing the value of the observations. Next-generation observing systems are the best hope for significantly improving global water budget accounting.

  2. Protein-containing nutrient supplementation following strength training enhances the effect on muscle mass, strength, and bone formation in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Olesen, Jens L; Matsumoto, Keitaro

    2008-01-01

    .0 +/- 1.4%); nutrient group: 0.953 +/- 0.051 to 0.978 +/- 0.043 g/mm(3) (3.8 +/- 3.4%)] when adjusted for age, body mass index, and BMD at inclusion. Bone formation displayed an interaction (P increased osteocalcin at 24 wk in the nutrient group. In conclusion, we report...... that nutrient supplementation results in superior improvements in muscle mass, muscle strength, femoral neck BMD, and bone formation during 24 wk of strength training. The observed differences following such a short intervention emphasize the significance of postexercise nutrient supply on musculoskeletal......We evaluated the response of various muscle and bone adaptation parameters with 24 wk of strength training in healthy, early postmenopausal women when a nutrient supplement (protein, carbohydrate, calcium, and vitamin D) or a placebo supplement (a minimum of energy) was ingested immediately...

  3. Protein-containing nutrient supplementation following strength training enhances the effect on muscle mass, strength, and bone formation in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Olesen, J.L.; Matsumoto, K.

    2008-01-01

    .4%); nutrient group: 0.953 ± 0.051 to 0.978 ± 0.043 g/mm3 (3.8 ± 3.4%)] when adjusted for age, body mass index, and BMD at inclusion. Bone formation displayed an interaction (P increased osteocalcin at 24 wk in the nutrient group. In conclusion, we report that nutrient supplementation...... results in superior improvements in muscle mass, muscle strength, femoral neck BMD, and bone formation during 24 wk of strength training. The observed differences following such a short intervention emphasize the significance of postexercise nutrient supply on musculoskeletal maintenance.......We evaluated the response of various muscle and bone adaptation parameters with 24 wk of strength training in healthy, early postmenopausal women when a nutrient supplement (protein, carbohydrate, calcium, and vitamin D) or a placebo supplement (a minimum of energy) was ingested immediately...

  4. Observation of the prompt and early afterglow of GRB 050904 by TAROT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeer, M.; Damerdji, Y.; Atteia, J. L.; Stratta, G.; Gendre, B.; Klotz, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present the recent observation of the very high redshift burst source GRB 050904 made by the TAROT robotized telescope. We have compared our data with the SWIFT XRT light curve to analyze the broad ban spectrum. We show that the luminosity and the behavior of this event is comparable with that of GRB 990123, suggesting the existence of very bright events. They can be detected at very high redshifts, even with small or moderate aperture telescopes, and they may constitute a powerful means for the exploration of the young universe. An update of the last TAROT observations performed as a response from SWIFT alerts is made

  5. Disseminated intravascular coagulation or acute coagulopathy of trauma shock early after trauma? A prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Sorensen, Anne Marie; Perner, Anders

    2011-01-01

    the prevalence of overt DIC and ACoTS in trauma patients and characterized these conditions based on their biomarker profiles. METHODS: Observational study at a single Level I Trauma Centre. Inclusion of 80 adult trauma patients ([greater than or equal to]18 years) who met criteria for full trauma team...

  6. Observing Preschoolers' Social-Emotional Behavior: Structure, Foundations, and Prediction of Early School Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Thayer, Sara K.; Mincic, Melissa S.; Sirotkin, Yana S.; Zinsser, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Social-emotional behavior of 352 3- and 4-year-olds attending private childcare and Head Start programs was observed using the Minnesota Preschool Affect Checklist, Revised (MPAC-R). Goals of the investigation included (a) using MPAC-R data to extract a shortened version, MPAC-R/S, comparing structure, internal consistency, test-retest…

  7. Cardiovascular consequences of hormone therapy in postmenopausal women: Messages to clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylikorkala, O; Mikkola, T

    2005-03-01

    Results from the recent randomized clinical trials indicating that hormone therapy (HT) does not provide cardiovascular protection, but potentially harm are in profound disagreement with the sound evidence from numerous observational and experimental studies. While the observational studies have mainly assessed symptomatic recently menopausal women, the randomized trials have studied symptomless elderly postmenopausal women with established coronary heart disease or various risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the recent trials have only revealed that HT does not provide secondary cardiovascular benefits. Since primary cardiovascular benefits of HT are rational but not yet proven in clinical trials, new studies are in demand. Until more data from recently menopausal symptomatic women are available, we need to base our decisions on existing evidence and good clinical practice. Although the potential of HT to provide cardiovascular benefits is decreased by advancing age and time since menopause, this should not preclude the use of individualized HT in younger postmenopausal women. (Reprod Med Biol 2005; 4 : 1- 6).

  8. Ionospheric detection of tsunami earthquakes: observation, modeling and ideas for future early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhipinti, G.; Manta, F.; Rolland, L.; Watada, S.; Makela, J. J.; Hill, E.; Astafieva, E.; Lognonne, P. H.

    2017-12-01

    Detection of ionospheric anomalies following the Sumatra and Tohoku earthquakes (e.g., Occhipinti 2015) demonstrated that ionosphere is sensitive to earthquake and tsunami propagation: ground and oceanic vertical displacement induces acoustic-gravity waves propagating within the neutral atmosphere and detectable in the ionosphere. Observations supported by modelling proved that ionospheric anomalies related to tsunamis are deterministic and reproducible by numerical modeling via the ocean/neutral-atmosphere/ionosphere coupling mechanism (Occhipinti et al., 2008). To prove that the tsunami signature in the ionosphere is routinely detected we show here perturbations of total electron content (TEC) measured by GPS and following tsunamigenic earthquakes from 2004 to 2011 (Rolland et al. 2010, Occhipinti et al., 2013), nominally, Sumatra (26 December, 2004 and 12 September, 2007), Chile (14 November, 2007), Samoa (29 September, 2009) and the recent Tohoku-Oki (11 Mars, 2011). Based on the observations close to the epicenter, mainly performed by GPS networks located in Sumatra, Chile and Japan, we highlight the TEC perturbation observed within the first 8 min after the seismic rupture. This perturbation contains information about the ground displacement, as well as the consequent sea surface displacement resulting in the tsunami. In addition to GNSS-TEC observations close to the epicenter, new exciting measurements in the far-field were performed by airglow measurement in Hawaii show the propagation of the internal gravity waves induced by the Tohoku tsunami (Occhipinti et al., 2011). This revolutionary imaging technique is today supported by two new observations of moderate tsunamis: Queen Charlotte (M: 7.7, 27 October, 2013) and Chile (M: 8.2, 16 September 2015). We finally detail here our recent work (Manta et al., 2017) on the case of tsunami alert failure following the Mw7.8 Mentawai event (25 October, 2010), and its twin tsunami alert response following the Mw7

  9. Adiposity, insulin and lipid metabolism in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, J A; Silva, K D R R; Wright, J W; Williams, C M

    2002-04-01

    postprandial (AUC) TAG with BMI (r=0.385) and Ssk (r=0.406). A significantly higher postprandial apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 response was observed in those women with high BMI (> 27 kg/m2). Fasting levels of NEFA were significantly and positively correlated with all measures of adiposity (except W/H). No association was found between cholesterol containing particles and any measure of adiposity. Hyperinsulinaemia associated with increasing body fat and central fat distribution is associated with normal glucose but not TAG or NEFA concentrations in postmenopausal women.

  10. Observations of the Early Evening Boundary-Layer Transition Using a Small Unmanned Aerial System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Timothy; Chilson, Phillip; Zielke, Brett; Fedorovich, Evgeni

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of the lower portion of the planetary boundary layer is investigated using the Small Multifunction Research and Teaching Sonde (SMARTSonde), an unmanned aerial vehicle developed at the University of Oklahoma. The study focuses on the lowest 200 m of the atmosphere, where the most noticeable thermodynamic changes occur during the day. Between October 2010 and February 2011, a series of flights was conducted during the evening hours on several days to examine the vertical structure of the lower boundary layer. Data from a nearby Oklahoma Mesonet tower was used to supplement the vertical profiles of temperature, humidity, and pressure, which were collected approximately every 30 min, starting 2 h before sunset and continuing until dusk. From the profiles, sensible and latent heat fluxes were estimated. These fluxes were used to diagnose the portion of the boundary layer that was most affected by the early evening transition. During the transition period, a shallow cool and moist layer near the ground was formed, and as the evening progressed the cooling affected an increasingly shallower layer just above the surface.

  11. Microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay (MODS for early diagnosis of tuberculosis in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Thi Minh Ha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available MODS is a novel liquid culture based technique that has been shown to be effective and rapid for early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. We evaluated the MODS assay for diagnosis of TB in children in Viet Nam. 217 consecutive samples including sputum (n = 132, gastric fluid (n = 50, CSF (n = 32 and pleural fluid (n = 3 collected from 96 children with suspected TB, were tested by smear, MODS and MGIT. When test results were aggregated by patient, the sensitivity and specificity of smear, MGIT and MODS against "clinical diagnosis" (confirmed and probable groups as the gold standard were 28.2% and 100%, 42.3% and 100%, 39.7% and 94.4%, respectively. The sensitivity of MGIT and MODS was not significantly different in this analysis (P = 0.5, but MGIT was more sensitive than MODS when analysed on the sample level using a marginal model (P = 0.03. The median time to detection of MODS and MGIT were 8 days and 13 days, respectively, and the time to detection was significantly shorter for MODS in samples where both tests were positive (P<0.001. An analysis of time-dependent sensitivity showed that the detection rates were significantly higher for MODS than for MGIT by day 7 or day 14 (P<0.001 and P = 0.04, respectively. MODS is a rapid and sensitive alternative method for the isolation of M.tuberculosis from children.

  12. Integrating observation and statistical forecasts over sub-Saharan Africa to support Famine Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Chris; Verdin, James P.; Husak, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Famine early warning in Africa presents unique challenges and rewards. Hydrologic extremes must be tracked and anticipated over complex and changing climate regimes. The successful anticipation and interpretation of hydrologic shocks can initiate effective government response, saving lives and softening the impacts of droughts and floods. While both monitoring and forecast technologies continue to advance, discontinuities between monitoring and forecast systems inhibit effective decision making. Monitoring systems typically rely on high resolution satellite remote-sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and rainfall imagery. Forecast systems provide information on a variety of scales and formats. Non-meteorologists are often unable or unwilling to connect the dots between these disparate sources of information. To mitigate these problem researchers at UCSB's Climate Hazard Group, NASA GIMMS and USGS/EROS are implementing a NASA-funded integrated decision support system that combines the monitoring of precipitation and NDVI with statistical one-to-three month forecasts. We present the monitoring/forecast system, assess its accuracy, and demonstrate its application in food insecure sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. Early formation of dental plaque on platic films. 1. Light microscopic observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönström, A; Attström, R; Egelberg, J

    1975-02-01

    In human subjects with healthy gingiva thin transparent plastic films were applied to the buccal surfaces of premolars in the upper and lower jaws. The films were left in place for peiods of 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 minutes. The presence of coccoid bacteria, leukocytes and epithelial cells was investigated in an area adjacent to the gingival margin. The results showed that by 15 minutes coccoid bacteria had become attached to the artificial tooth surface. The number of microorganisms gradually increased during the time of the study. Large numbers of cocci and the formation of micro-colonies were observed after 120 and 240 minutes. Increasing numbers of leukocytes and epithelial cells were also found during the period of observation.

  14. Early Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Observations of the Quasar 3C454.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A

    2009-05-07

    This is the first report of Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope observations of the quasar 3C 454.3, which has been undergoing pronounced long-term outbursts since 2000. The data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT), covering 2008 July 7-October 6, indicate strong, highly variable {gamma}-ray emission with an average flux of {approx} 3 x 10{sup -6} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, for energies > 100 MeV. The {gamma}-ray flux is variable, with strong, distinct, symmetrically-shaped flares for which the flux increases by a factor of several on a time scale of about three days. This variability indicates a compact emission region, and the requirement that the source is optically thin to pair-production implies relativistic beaming with Doppler factor {delta} > 8, consistent with the values inferred from VLBI observations of superluminal expansion ({delta} {approx} 25). The observed {gamma}-ray spectrum is not consistent with a simple power-law, but instead steepens strongly above {approx} 2 GeV, and is well described by a broken power-law with photon indices of {approx} 2.3 and {approx} 3.5 below and above the break, respectively. This is the first direct observation of a break in the spectrum of a high luminosity blazar above 100 MeV, and it is likely direct evidence for an intrinsic break in the energy distribution of the radiating particles. Alternatively, the spectral softening above 2GeV could be due to -ray absorption via photonphoton pair production on the soft X-ray photon field of the host AGN, but such an interpretation would require the dissipation region to be located very close ({approx}< 100 gravitational radii) to the black hole, which would be inconsistent with the X-ray spectrum of the source.

  15. Sophia Observation withdrawal Symptoms-Paediatric Delirium scale: A tool for early screening of delirium in the PICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ista, Erwin; Te Beest, Harma; van Rosmalen, Joost; de Hoog, Matthijs; Tibboel, Dick; van Beusekom, Babette; van Dijk, Monique

    2017-08-23

    Delirium in critically ill children is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder which has gained increased attention from clinicians. Early identification of delirium is essential for successful management. The Sophia Observation withdrawal Symptoms-Paediatric Delirium (SOS-PD) scale was developed to detect Paediatric Delirium (PD) at an early stage. The aim of this study was to determine the measurement properties of the PD component of the SOS-PD scale in critically ill children. A prospective, observational study was performed in patients aged 3 months or older and admitted for more than 48h. These patients were assessed with the SOS-PD scale three times a day. If the SOS-PD total score was 4 or higher in two consecutive observations, the child psychiatrist was consulted to assess the diagnosis of PD using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV criteria as the "gold standard". The child psychiatrist was blinded to outcomes of the SOS-PD. The interrater reliability of the SOS-PD between the care-giving nurse and a researcher was calculated with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). A total of 2088 assessments were performed in 146 children (median age 49 months; IQR 13-140). The ICC of 16 paired nurse-researcher observations was 0.90 (95% CI 0.70-0.96). We compared 63 diagnoses of the child psychiatrist versus SOS-PD assessments in 14 patients, in 13 of whom the diagnosis of PD was confirmed. The sensitivity was 96.8% (95% CI 80.4-99.5%) and the specificity was 92.0% (95% CI 59.7-98.9%). The SOS-PD scale shows promising validity for early screening of PD. Further evidence should be obtained from an international multicentre study. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of Estrogen Therapy on Lymphocyte Homeostasis and the Response to Seasonal Influenza Vaccine in Post-Menopausal Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Engelmann

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that changes in levels of ovarian steroids modulate severity of autoimmune disease and immune function in young adult women. These observations suggest that the loss of ovarian steroids associated with menopause could affect the age-related decline in immune function, known as immune senescence. Therefore, in this study, we determined the impact of menopause and estrogen therapy (ET on lymphocyte subset frequency as well as the immune response to seasonal influenza vaccine in three different groups: 1 young adult women (regular menstrual cycles, not on hormonal contraception; 2 post-menopausal (at least 2 years women who are not receiving any form of hormone therapy (HT and 3 post-menopausal hysterectomized women receiving ET. Although the numbers of circulating CD4 and CD20 B cells were reduced in the post-menopausal group receiving ET, we also detected a better preservation of naïve B cells, decreased CD4 T cell inflammatory cytokine production, and slightly lower circulating levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Following vaccination, young adult women generated more robust antibody and T cell responses than both post-menopausal groups. Despite similar vaccine responses between the two post-menopausal groups, we observed a direct correlation between plasma 17β estradiol (E2 levels and fold increase in IgG titers within the ET group. These findings suggest that ET affects immune homeostasis and that higher plasma E2 levels may enhance humoral responses in post-menopausal women.

  17. Hybrid Differential Evolution Optimisation for Earth Observation Satellite Scheduling with Time-Dependent Earliness-Tardiness Penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the order acceptance and scheduling (OAS problem with time-dependent earliness-tardiness penalties in a single agile earth observation satellite environment where orders are defined by their release dates, available processing time windows ranging from earliest start date to deadline, processing times, due dates, sequence-dependent setup times, and revenues. The objective is to maximise total revenue, where the revenue from an order is a piecewise linear function of its earliness and tardiness with reference to its due date. We formulate this problem as a mixed integer linear programming model and develop a novel hybrid differential evolution (DE algorithm under self-adaptation framework to solve this problem. Compared with classical DE, hybrid DE employs two mutation operations, scaling factor adaptation and crossover probability adaptation. Computational tests indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms classical DE in addition to two other variants of DE.

  18. Sugar residues content and distribution in atrophic and hyperplastic postmenopausal human endometrium: lectin histochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Gheri, G.; Gheri Bryk, S.; Taddei, G.; Moncini, D.; Noci, I.

    1996-01-01

    A lectin histochemical study was performed to investigate the glycoconjugate saccharidic moieties of the human postmenopausal endometrium (14 atrophic and 15 hyperplastic). For this purpose a battery of seven horseradish peroxidase-conjugated lectins (PNA, SBA, DBA, WGA, ConA, LTA and UEA I) was used. No differences in lectin binding between atrophic and hyperplastic endometria were observed. This investigation allowed us to provide a basic picture of the oligo...

  19. White noise from dark matter: 21 cm observations of early baryon collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, Kathryn M.; Hogan, Craig J.

    2007-01-01

    In concordance cosmology, dark matter density perturbations generated by inflation lead to nonlinear, virialized minihalos, into which baryons collapse at redshift z∼20. We survey here novel baryon evolution produced by a modification of the power spectrum from white noise density perturbations at scales below k∼10h Mpc -1 (the smallest scales currently measured with the Lyman-α forest). Exotic dark matter dynamics, such as would arise from scalar dark matter with a late phase transition (similar to an axion, but with lower mass), or primordial black hole dark matter, create such an amplification of small scale power. The dark matter produced in such a phase transition collapses into minihalos, with a size given by the dark matter mass within the horizon at the phase transition. If the mass of the initial minihalos is larger than ∼10 -3 M · , the modified power spectrum is found to cause widespread baryon collapse earlier than standard ΛCDM, leading to earlier gas heating. It also results in higher spin temperature of the baryons in the 21 cm line relative to ΛCDM at redshifts z>20 if the mass of the minihalo is larger than 1M · . It is estimated that experiments probing 21 cm radiation at high redshift will contribute a significant constraint on dark matter models of this type for initial minihalos larger than ∼10M · . These experiments may also detect (or rule out) primordial black holes as the dark matter in the window 30M · H 3 M · still left open by strong microlensing experiments and other astrophysical constraints. Early experiments reaching to z≅15 will constrain minihalos down to ∼10 3 M ·

  20. Early pack-off diagnosis in drilling using an adaptive observer and statistical change detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willersrud, Anders; Imsland, Lars; Blanke, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    in the well. A model-based adaptive observer is used to estimate these friction parameters as well as flow rates. Detecting changes to these estimates can then be used for pack-off diagnosis, which due to measurement noise is done using statistical change detection. Isolation of incident type and location...... is done using a multivariate generalized likelihood ratio test, determining the change direction of the estimated mean values. The method is tested on simulated data from the commercial high-fidelity multi-phase simulator OLGA, where three different pack-offs at different locations and with different...

  1. The influence of endogenous and exogenous sex hormones on systemic lupus erythematosus in pre- and postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna Grygiel-Górniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs mainly in women. Typically, symptoms appear within the first few years of adolescence, but currently an increase can be observed in the percentage of postmenopausal women with this condition. This is possibly due to the sophisticated treatment of the disease, which significantly improves the survival curve and prognosis. Genetic and environmental factors are involved in the development of SLE. Both regulation of the immune system and the activity of this disease are influenced by a variety of hormones, including: 17-estradiol, testosterone, prolactin, progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA. Early menarche, menstrual cyclicity, the total number of years characterized by ovulatory cycles and early menopause are correlated with the development of SLE. Because of the health risks, attempts are increasingly being made to evaluate the impact of exogenous hormones (especially those applied exogenously on the course of SLE. In particular, the role of estrogens is being highlighted, either endo- or exogenous, including oral contraceptives (OC, therapy used in the treatment of infertility, and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT. The purpose of this manuscript is the revision of the literature concerning the impact of both endo- and exogenous estrogens on the development of lupus, inducement of flares and any possible complications.

  2. The influence of endogenous and exogenous sex hormones on systemic lupus erythematosus in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygiel-Górniak, Bogna; Puszczewicz, Mariusz Jacek

    2014-09-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus) is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs mainly in women. Typically, symptoms appear within the first few years of adolescence, but currently an increase can be observed in the percentage of postmenopausal women with this condition. This is possibly due to the sophisticated treatment of the disease, which significantly improves the survival curve and prognosis. Genetic and environmental factors are involved in the development of SLE. Both regulation of the immune system and the activity of this disease are influenced by a variety of hormones, including: 17β-estradiol, testosterone, prolactin, progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Early menarche, menstrual cyclicity, the total number of years characterized by ovulatory cycles and early menopause are correlated with the development of SLE. Because of the health risks, attempts are increasingly being made to evaluate the impact of exogenous hormones (especially those applied exogenously) on the course of SLE. In particular, the role of estrogens is being highlighted, either endo- or exogenous, including oral contraceptives (OC), therapy used in the treatment of infertility, and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). The purpose of this manuscript is the revision of the literature concerning the impact of both endo- and exogenous estrogens on the development of lupus, inducement of flares and any possible complications.

  3. Alendronate for fracture prevention in postmenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Kathryn K; Kerley, Sara Shelton

    2008-09-01

    Osteoporosis is an abnormal reduction in bone mass and bone deterioration leading to increased fracture risk. Alendronate (Fosamax) belongs to the bisphosphonate class of drugs, which act to inhibit bone resorption by interfering with the activity of osteoclasts. To assess the effectiveness of alendronate in the primary and secondary prevention of osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women. The authors searched Central, Medline, and EMBASE for relevant randomized controlled trials published from 1966 to 2007. The authors undertook study selection and data abstraction in duplicate. The authors performed meta-analysis of fracture outcomes using relative risks, and a relative change greater than 15 percent was considered clinically important. The authors assessed study quality through reporting of allocation concealment, blinding, and withdrawals. Eleven trials representing 12,068 women were included in the review. Relative and absolute risk reductions for the 10-mg dose were as follows. For vertebral fractures, a 45 percent relative risk reduction was found (relative risk [RR] = 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45 to 0.67). This was significant for primary prevention, with a 45 percent relative risk reduction (RR = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.80) and 2 percent absolute risk reduction; and for secondary prevention, with 45 percent relative risk reduction (RR = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.69) and 6 percent absolute risk reduction. For nonvertebral fractures, a 16 percent relative risk reduction was found (RR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.94). This was significant for secondary prevention, with a 23 percent relative risk reduction (RR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.92) and a 2 percent absolute risk reduction, but not for primary prevention (RR = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.04). There was a 40 percent relative risk reduction in hip fractures (RR = 0.60; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.92), but only secondary prevention was significant, with a 53 percent relative risk reduction (RR = 0.47; 95% CI

  4. Genital tract malign ancies in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khursheed, F.; Jatoi, N.; Das, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The most common malignancy in women is breast carcinoma. The next common cancer is genital tract malignancies which constitute 14% of cancers in women. Objective of this study was to determine the type and frequency of genital tract malignancy in postmenopausal women and to find the age distribution of genital tract malignancies. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Department of Obstetrics ad Gynaecology Unit-II at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro. All postmenopausal women, admitted in the unit due to various pathologies (abdominal masses, bleeding P/V etc.) from January 2005 to December 2007 were included in the study. Clinical evaluation and investigations were done on all patients. Those women who had benign diseases were excluded from the study. Malignancy was confirmed from histopathology report of biopsy specimen. These women were divided into 3 age groups: group I 70 years. Results: Out of 265 postmenopausal women admitted in ward during the study period, malignancy was confirmed in 68 cases (25.66%). The type of malignancy was cervical carcinoma (41, 60.28%), ovarian carcinoma (11, 16.17%), endometrial carcinoma (8, 11.76%), vulval carcinoma (5, 7.35%) vaginal carcinoma (2, 2.94%), and leiomyosarcoma of uterus (1, 1.47%). Increased frequency of cervical and endometrial carcinomas were seen in Group-I cases, while vulval carcinoma was seen more commonly in Group-II cases ( p =0.004). Conclusion: A very high frequency of cervical carcinoma was seen in our patients. There is need for more public awareness to integrate routine Gynae-Pap screening. (author)

  5. Obesity and fractures in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaor, Melissa Orlandin; Pilbrow, Lesley; Tonkin, Carol; Parker, Richard A; Compston, Juliet

    2010-02-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a recognized risk factor for fragility fracture, whereas obesity is widely believed to be protective. As part of a clinical audit of guidance from the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), we have documented the prevalence of obesity and morbid obesity in postmenopausal women younger than 75 years of age presenting to our Fracture Liaison Service (FLS). Between January 2006 and December 2007, 1005 postmenopausal women aged less than 75 years with a low-trauma fracture were seen in the FLS. Of these women, 805 (80%) underwent assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and values for BMI were available in 799. The prevalence of obesity (BMI 30 to 34.9 kg/m(2)) and morbid obesity (BMI > or = 35 kg/m(2)) in this cohort was 19.3% and 8.4%, respectively. Normal BMD was reported in 59.1% of obese and 73.1% of morbidly obese women, and only 11.7% and 4.5%, respectively, had osteoporosis (p obesity in postmenopausal women presenting to the FLS with low-trauma fracture. Most of these women had normal BMD, as measured by DXA. Our findings have important public heath implications in view of the rapidly rising increase in obesity in many populations and emphasize the need for further studies to establish the pathogenesis of fractures in obese individuals and to determine appropriate preventive strategies. Copyright 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  6. ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY AND CLIMACTERIC DISORDERS IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

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    A. A. Kirichenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study efficacy and tolerability of antihypertensive therapy with enalapril (Berlipril®, Berlin-Chemie AG/Menarini Group and diltiazem (Altiazem® PP, Berlin-Chemie AG/Menarini Group in postmenopausal women with arterial hypertension (HT and climacteric disorders.Material and methods. 60 postmenopausal women (aged 56,8±3,9 y.o. with HT of 1-3 degrees were included into the study. They were split in two groups. Patients of the first group (30 people received enalapril (Berlipril® 20 mg/daily, patients of the second group (30 people – diltiazem (Altiazem® PP 180-360 mg/daily. Observation period was 6 months. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was performed before treatment and after 3 weeks, 1, 3 and 6 months of therapy. Climacteric syndrome severity and urodynamic disorders was estimated as well as psychic status according to score of depression and anxiety.Results. Office and ambulance blood pressure decreased after 6 months of therapy in all patients of both groups. A number of complaints on headache and giddiness reduced significantly. Severity of climacteric syndrome also decreased. Enalapril (Berlipril® monotherapy and especially combined therapy with hydrochlorothiazide led to aggravation of urodinamic disorders. On the contrary both monotherapy with diltiazem (Altiazem® PP or its combination with hydrochlorothiazide had positive effect on urodinamics. Both therapies reduced depression and anxiety levels significantly.Conclusion. All spectrum of pharmacology effects should be taken into account during antihypertensive therapy of patients with climacteric disorders.

  7. Fifty Years of Quasars From Early Observations and Ideas to Future Research

    CERN Document Server

    Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The 50th anniversary of the discovery of quasars in 1963 presents an interesting opportunity to ask questions about the current state of quasar research. Formatted as a series of interviews with noted researchers in the field, each of them asked to address a specific set of questions covering topics selected by the editors, this book deals with the historical development of quasar research and discusses how advances in instrumentation and computational capabilities have benefitted quasar astronomy and have changed our basic understanding of quasars. In the last part of the book the interviews address the current topic of the role of quasars in galaxy evolution. They summarise open issues in understanding active galactic nuclei and quasars and present an outlook regarding what future observational facilities both on the ground and in space might reveal. Its interview format, the fascinating topic of quasars and black holes, and the lively recollections and at times controversial views of the contributors make ...

  8. Prevalence of Depression in Postmenopausal Women

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    Afshari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Every woman during different stages of her growth faces various crises, and one of these crises, menopause, may create different problems. In modern societies, psychological disorders and particularly depression is one of the problems of menopausal women. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of depression in postmenopausal women referred to selected health centers of Ahvaz in 2014. Patients and Methods This study was cross-sectional study. In this study, 1280 postmenopausal women aged between 40 and 65 years old who were referred to selected health centers of Ahvaz in 2014 were randomly enrolled. Hamilton depression scale and demographic questionnaire were used for gathering information. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics and analytical statistics (Independent t test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation and logistic regression were carried out (CI 95%. Results The mean ± SD score of depression for the subjects was 9.37 ± 4.62. The results showed that 59.8% of the 1280 samples were depressed; in particular, 39.8% had mild depression, 16% moderate depression, and 4% severe depression. There is a significant and inverse relation between variables of age, exposure to cigarette smoking, and the relationship with their spouses and the level of their depression, so higher age, more exposure to smoking, and better relation with their husbands, lead to the less depression. The results showed that the level of education is associated with depression. The highest rate of depression was in illiterate women; the finding also showed that there is a relationship between income and the severity of depression (Regression Log. T test showed that the mean depression level of employed postmenopausal women is higher than housewives postmenopausal women, and this difference is statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusions A significant percentage of women in their menopause experience

  9. [Ibandronate in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Péter

    2008-10-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis affects 7-10% of the population of developed countries. During the past decade, a number of new therapeutical modalities have been made available. Among these, bisphosphonates mean the mainstay of medical treatment. Ibandronate belongs to the amino-bisphosphonate group of these drugs. Amino-bisphosphonates act via the mevalonate metabolic pathway, thus, inhibiting protein prenylation. Several clinical studies have shown a significant reduction in the fracture risk of osteoporotic patients treated with ibandronate. This compound can be administered orally once a month or intravenously once in every 3 months. Longer dosing intervals stimulate patient compliance, and consequently increase efficacy and cost effectiveness.

  10. Worse renal disease in postmenopausal F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross rats: detection of novel QTLs affecting hypertensive kidney disease.

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    Victoria L M Herrera

    Full Text Available The prevalence of hypertension increases after menopause with 75% of postmenopausal women developing hypertension in the United States, along with hypertensive end organ diseases. While human and animal model studies have indicated a protective role for estrogen against cardiovascular disease and glomerulosclerosis, clinical studies of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women have shown polar results with some improvement in hypertension but worsening of hypertensive kidney disease, or no effect at all. These observations suggest that the pathogenesis of postmenopausal hypertension and its target organ complications is more complex than projected, and that loss of endogenous estrogens induces epigenetic changes that alter genetic susceptibility to end-organ complications per se resulting in pathogenetic mechanisms beyond correction by hormone replacement. We studied postmenopausal-induced changes in renal disease and performed a total genome scan for quantitative trait loci (QTLs affecting kidney disease in postmenopausal 16m-old F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross female rats. We used glomerular injury score (GIS as quantitative trait. We compared QTLs amongst premenopausal, ovariectomized and postmenopausal F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross rats using identical phenotype characterization. Postmenopausal F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross rats exhibited increased hypertensive glomerulosclerosis (P<0.01 and equivalent levels of kidney disease when compared to premenopausal and ovariectomized F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross rats respectively. We detected three significant to highly significant GIS-QTLs (GIS-pm1 on chromosome 4, LOD 3.54; GIS-pm2 on chromosome 3, LOD 2.72; GIS-pm3 on chromosome 5, LOD 2.37 and two suggestive GIS-QTLs (GIS-pm4 on chromosome 2, LOD 1.70; GIS-pm5 on chromosome 7, LOD 1.28, all of which were unique to this postmenopausal population. Detection of increased renal disease phenotype in postmenopausal and ovariectomized subjects suggests a

  11. Worse renal disease in postmenopausal F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross rats: detection of novel QTLs affecting hypertensive kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Victoria L M; Pasion, Khristine A; Moran, Ann Marie; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension increases after menopause with 75% of postmenopausal women developing hypertension in the United States, along with hypertensive end organ diseases. While human and animal model studies have indicated a protective role for estrogen against cardiovascular disease and glomerulosclerosis, clinical studies of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women have shown polar results with some improvement in hypertension but worsening of hypertensive kidney disease, or no effect at all. These observations suggest that the pathogenesis of postmenopausal hypertension and its target organ complications is more complex than projected, and that loss of endogenous estrogens induces epigenetic changes that alter genetic susceptibility to end-organ complications per se resulting in pathogenetic mechanisms beyond correction by hormone replacement. We studied postmenopausal-induced changes in renal disease and performed a total genome scan for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting kidney disease in postmenopausal 16m-old F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross female rats. We used glomerular injury score (GIS) as quantitative trait. We compared QTLs amongst premenopausal, ovariectomized and postmenopausal F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross rats using identical phenotype characterization. Postmenopausal F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross rats exhibited increased hypertensive glomerulosclerosis (P<0.01) and equivalent levels of kidney disease when compared to premenopausal and ovariectomized F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross rats respectively. We detected three significant to highly significant GIS-QTLs (GIS-pm1 on chromosome 4, LOD 3.54; GIS-pm2 on chromosome 3, LOD 2.72; GIS-pm3 on chromosome 5, LOD 2.37) and two suggestive GIS-QTLs (GIS-pm4 on chromosome 2, LOD 1.70; GIS-pm5 on chromosome 7, LOD 1.28), all of which were unique to this postmenopausal population. Detection of increased renal disease phenotype in postmenopausal and ovariectomized subjects suggests a protective role of

  12. Small larvae in large rivers: observations on downstream movement of European grayling Thymallus thymallus during early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, C H A; Dokk, T; Haugen, T O; Kiffney, P M; Museth, J

    2017-06-01

    Behaviour of early life stages of the salmonid European grayling Thymallus thymallus was investigated by assessing the timing of larval downstream movement from spawning areas, the depth at which larvae moved and the distribution of juvenile fish during summer in two large connected river systems in Norway. Trapping of larvae moving downstream and electrofishing surveys revealed that T. thymallus larvae emerging from the spawning gravel moved downstream predominantly during the night, despite light levels sufficient for orientation in the high-latitude study area. Larvae moved in the water mostly at the bottom layer close to the substratum, while drifting debris was caught in all layers of the water column. Few young-of-the-year still resided close to the spawning areas in autumn, suggesting large-scale movement (several km). Together, these observations show that there may be a deliberate, active component to downstream movement of T. thymallus during early life stages. This research signifies the importance of longitudinal connectivity for T. thymallus in Nordic large river systems. Human alterations of flow regimes and the construction of reservoirs for hydropower may not only affect the movement of adult fish, but may already interfere with active movement behaviour of fish during early life stages. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Muscular strength measurements indicate bone mineral density loss in postmenopausal women

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    Zhou Z

    2013-10-01

    measurements were identified for different age groups. Age-appropriate testing mode can improve detection of osteoporotic fracture risk in early menopause by determining muscular strength reduction related to BMD loss. This may enable early initiation of preventative therapies. Keywords: osteoporosis, fracture, bone mineral density, postmenopausal, menopause, muscle strength, isokinetic, isometric

  14. Risk factors associated with early reintubation in trauma patients: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carlos V R; Daigle, Jacob B; Foulkrod, Kelli H; Brouillette, Brandee; Clark, Adam; Czysz, Clea; Martinez, Marnie; Cooper, Hassie

    2011-07-01

    After mechanical ventilation, extubation failure is associated with poor outcomes and prolonged hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stays. We hypothesize that specific and unique risk factors exist for failed extubation in trauma patients. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors in trauma patients. We performed an 18-month (January 2008-June 2009) prospective, cohort study of all adult (8 years or older) trauma patients admitted to the ICU who required mechanical ventilation. Failure of extubation was defined as reintubation within 24 hours of extubation. Patients who failed extubation (failed group) were compared with those who were successfully extubated (successful group) to identify independent risk factors for failed extubation. A total of 276 patients were 38 years old, 76% male, 84% sustained blunt trauma, with an mean Injury Severity Score = 21, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score = 7, and systolic blood pressure = 125 mm Hg. Indications for initial intubation included airway (4%), breathing (13%), circulation (2%), and neurologic disability (81%). A total of 17 patients (6%) failed extubation and failures occurred a mean of 15 hours after extubation. Independent risk factors to fail extubation included spine fracture, airway intubation, GCS at extubation, and delirium tremens. Patients who failed extubation spent more days in the ICU (11 vs. 6, p = 0.006) and hospital (19 vs. 11, p = 0.002). Mortality was 6% (n = 1) in the failed group and 0.4% (n = 1) in the successful extubation group. Independent risk factors for trauma patients to fail extubation include spine fracture, initial intubation for airway, GCS at extubation, and delirium tremens. Trauma patients with these four risk factors should be observed for 24 hours after extubation, because the mean time to failure was 15 hours. In addition, increased complications, extended need for mechanical ventilation, and prolonged ICU and hospital stays should be expected for trauma patients

  15. Research capacity and culture in podiatry: early observations within Queensland Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Research is a major driver of health care improvement and evidence-based practice is becoming the foundation of health care delivery. For health professions to develop within emerging models of health care delivery, it would seem imperative to develop and monitor the research capacity and evidence-based literacy of the health care workforce. This observational paper aims to report the research capacity levels of statewide populations of public-sector podiatrists at two different time points twelve-months apart. Methods The Research Capacity & Culture (RCC) survey was electronically distributed to all Queensland Health (Australia) employed podiatrists in January 2011 (n = 58) and January 2012 (n = 60). The RCC is a validated tool designed to measure indicators of research skill in health professionals. Participants rate skill levels against each individual, team and organisation statement on a 10-point scale (one = lowest, ten = highest). Chi-squared and Mann Whitney U tests were used to determine any differences between the results of the two survey samples. A minimum significance of p  6). Whereas, most reported their organisation’s skills to perform and support research at much higher levels (Median > 6). The 2012 survey respondents reported significantly higher skill ratings compared to the 2011 survey in individuals’ ability to secure research funding, submit ethics applications, and provide research advice, plus, in their organisation’s skills to support, fund, monitor, mentor and engage universities to partner their research (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study appears to report the research capacity levels of the largest populations of podiatrists published. The 2011 survey findings indicate podiatrists have similarly low research capacity skill levels to those reported in the allied health literature. The 2012 survey, compared to the 2011 survey, suggests podiatrists perceived higher skills and support to initiate

  16. Research capacity and culture in podiatry: early observations within Queensland Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazzarini Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research is a major driver of health care improvement and evidence-based practice is becoming the foundation of health care delivery. For health professions to develop within emerging models of health care delivery, it would seem imperative to develop and monitor the research capacity and evidence-based literacy of the health care workforce. This observational paper aims to report the research capacity levels of statewide populations of public-sector podiatrists at two different time points twelve-months apart. Methods The Research Capacity & Culture (RCC survey was electronically distributed to all Queensland Health (Australia employed podiatrists in January 2011 (n = 58 and January 2012 (n = 60. The RCC is a validated tool designed to measure indicators of research skill in health professionals. Participants rate skill levels against each individual, team and organisation statement on a 10-point scale (one = lowest, ten = highest. Chi-squared and Mann Whitney U tests were used to determine any differences between the results of the two survey samples. A minimum significance of p  Results Thirty-seven (64% podiatrists responded to the 2011 survey and 33 (55% the 2012 survey. The 2011 survey respondents reported low skill levels (Median  6. Whereas, most reported their organisation’s skills to perform and support research at much higher levels (Median > 6. The 2012 survey respondents reported significantly higher skill ratings compared to the 2011 survey in individuals’ ability to secure research funding, submit ethics applications, and provide research advice, plus, in their organisation’s skills to support, fund, monitor, mentor and engage universities to partner their research (p  Conclusions This study appears to report the research capacity levels of the largest populations of podiatrists published. The 2011 survey findings indicate podiatrists have similarly low research capacity skill

  17. Past oral contraceptive use and self-reported high blood pressure in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Christine L; Lind, Joanne M

    2015-01-31

    Studies have reported current hormonal contraceptive use is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including high blood pressure. The aim of this study was to determine the association between past hormonal contraception use and high blood pressure in Australian postmenopausal women. Women were recruited from the 45 and Up Study, an observational cross-sectional study, conducted from February 2006 to December 2009, NSW Australia. All of the variables used in this study were derived from self-reported data. These women reported being postmenopausal, having an intact uterus, and had given birth to one or more children. Odds ratios and 99% confidence intervals for the association between past hormonal contraceptive use and current treatment for high blood pressure, stratified by current age (high blood pressure, menopausal hormone therapy use, number of children, whether they breastfed, and age of menopause. A total of 34,289 women were included in the study. No association between past hormonal contraception use and odds of having high blood pressure were seen in any of the age groups (high blood pressure was observed. Past hormonal contraception use and duration of use is not associated with high blood pressure in postmenopausal women.

  18. Management of postmenopausal osteoporosis for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P; Lukert, B; Broy, S; Civitelli, R; Fleischmann, R; Gagel, R; Khosla, S; Lucas, M; Maricic, M; Pacifici, R; Recker, R; Sarran, H S; Short, B; Short, M J

    1998-01-01

    The shift in health care delivery from a subspecialty to primary care system has transferred the responsibility of preventing osteoporotic fractures from specialists in metabolic bone disease to the web of physicians--family practitioners, general internists, pediatricians, and gynecologists--who provide the bulk of primary care. The challenge for this group of physicians is to decrease the rising prevalence of osteoporotic hip and vertebral fractures while operating within the cost parameters. It is the goal of this brief summary to provide primary practitioners with focused guidelines for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis based on new and exciting developments. Prevention and treatment will change rapidly over the next decade and these advances will require changes in these recommendations. We identified patients at risk for osteoporosis and provided indications for bone mass measurement, criteria for diagnosis of osteoporosis, therapeutic interventions, and biochemical markers of the disease. Prevention and treatment are discussed, including hormone replacement therapy and use of calcitonin, sodium fluoride, bisphosphonates, and serum estrogen receptor modulators. Postmenopausal osteoporosis should no longer be an accepted process of aging. It is both preventable and treatable. Primary care physicians must proactively prevent and treat osteoporosis in their daily practice, and combination therapies are suggested.

  19. The effects of IL-6 and its receptors on bone loss in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xin; Yang Weiwen; Zhang Xueguang

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of IL-6 and its receptors on bone loss in healthy women, and to assess the pathogenesis of the postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. Methods: One hundred and thirty one healthy women aged 31-72 including 64 sexual maturity women aged 31-52 were enrolled in four groups and 67 postmenopausal women, the years of menopause from 1 month to 23 years, were also enrolled in four groups. The bone mass of the lumbar-spine and femur were measured using dual-energy X-rays absorptiometry; the serum E 2 , FSH, BGP by radioimmunoassay (RIA); the serum IL-6, sIL-6R, sgp 130 by ELISA; the serum AKP, calcium, phosphate by auto-biochemistry instrument. Results: The BMD of lumbar-spine and right femur decreased following increase of age and the duration of menopause. Significant positive correlation was observed between BMD and E 2 . The serum IL-6, sIL-6R, sgp 130 level was low, and stable before menopause. The level of IL-6, sIL-6R, sgp 130 increased with variation of age and the duration of menopause. Significant negative correlation was observed between IL-6, sIL-6R, sgp 130 and E 2 , BMD. Serum AKP and BGP level was higher in postmenopausal women than that in sexual maturity women. The serum calcium level increased significantly soon after menopausal, then decreased to the normal level. The serum phosphate level had no difference in these groups. Conclusion: The main cause of postmenopausal osteoporosis is the unbalance of the bone formation and resorption

  20. Minimal impact of adjuvant exemestane or tamoxifen treatment on mammographic breast density in postmenopausal breast cancer patients: A Dutch TEAM trial analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.H. van Nes; L.V. Beex (Louk); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); H. Putter (Hein); A. Sramek (Alexandr); S. Lardenoije (Susanne); M.D.-D.E. Carpentier (Marjolijn Duijm-D.E.); I. Van Rongen (Inge); J.W.R. Nortier (Johan W. R.); H.M. Zonderland (Harmine); C.J.H. van de Velde (Cornelis)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Mammographic breast density is one of the strongest independent risk factors for developing breast cancer. We examined the effect of exemestane and tamoxifen on breast density in Dutch postmenopausal early breast cancer patients participating in the Tamoxifen Exemestane

  1. Earth Observations for Early Detection of Agricultural Drought in Countries at Risk: Contributions of the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, J. P.; Rowland, J.; Senay, G. B.; Funk, C. C.; Budde, M. E.; Husak, G. J.; Jayanthi, H.

    2013-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations' Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) implementation plan emphasizes the information needs of countries at risk of food insecurity emergencies. Countries in this category are often vulnerable to disruption of agricultural production due to drought, while at the same time they lack well developed networks of in-situ observations to support early drought detection. Consequently, it is vital that Earth observations by satellites supplement those available from surface stations. The USGS, in its role as a FEWS NET implementing partner, has recently developed a number of new applications of satellite observations for this purpose. (1) In partnership with the University of California, Santa Barbara, a 30+ year time series of gridded precipitation estimates (CHIRPS) has been developed by blending NOAA GridSat B1 geostationary thermal infrared imagery with station observations using robust geostatistical methods. The core data set consists of pentadal (5-daily) accumulations from 1981-2013 at 0.05 degree spatial resolution between +/- 50 degrees latitude. Validation has been recently completed, and applications for gridded crop water balance calculations and mapping the Standardized Precipitation Index are in development. (2) Actual evapotranspiration (ETa) estimates using MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data at 1-km have been successfully demonstrated using the operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance model with 8-day composites from the LPDAAC. A new, next-day latency implementation using daily LST swath data from the NASA LANCE server is in development for all the crop growing regions of the world. This ETa processing chain follows in the footsteps of (3) the expedited production of MODIS 250-meter NDVI images every five days at USGS EROS, likewise using LANCE daily swath data as input since 2010. Coverage includes Africa, Central Asia, the Middle East, Central America, and the Caribbean. (4) A surface water point monitoring

  2. Left in limbo – Experiences and needs among postmenopausal women newly diagnosed with osteoporosis without preceding osteoporotic fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Pernille Ravn; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Søndergaard, Jens

    2018-01-01

    to participate in treatment decision-making and (3) needs of being able to take care of bone health. Conclusion and implications In general the women experienced as been left ‘in limbo’, and they requested targeted and tailored information about osteoporosis. In particular, they want information about dual...... more attention on the benefits of detecting early stage osteoporosis. The study highlights the call for new approaches to postmenopausal women newly diagnosed with osteoporosis without preceding fractures....

  3. What is the recurrence rate of postmenopausal bleeding in women who have a thin endometrium during a first episode of postmenopausal bleeding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, H. C.; Timmermans, A.; Opmeer, B. C.; Kruitwagen, R. F. M. P.; Dijkhuizen, F. P. H. L. J.; Kooi, G. S.; van de Weijer, P. H. M.; Mol, B. W. J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence and significance of recurrent postmenopausal bleeding among women diagnosed with an endometrial thickness <= 4 mm after a first episode of postmenopausal bleeding. Methods. Consecutive patients not using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) presenting with a first

  4. Screening for Circulating Tumour Cells Allows Early Detection of Cancer and Monitoring of Treatment Effectiveness: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin; Eng, Peter; Sali, Avni

    2017-08-27

    Background: Circulating-Tumour-Cells (CTC) provide a blood biomarker for early carcinogenesis, cancer progression and treatment effectiveness. An increase in CTCs is associated with cancer progression, a CTC decrease with cancer containment or remission. Several technologies have been developed to identify CTC, including the validated Isolation-by-Size-of-Epithelial-Tumour (ISET, Rarecells) technology, combining blood filtration and microscopy using standard histo-pathological criteria. Methods: This observational study compared CTC count to cancer status and cancer risk, by monitoring treatment effectiveness in cancer patients and by screening for CTC in asymptomatic patients with risk factors, including family history of cancer. Results: Between Sept-2014 and Dec-2016 we undertook 600 CTC tests (542 patients), including 50% screening requests of patients without cancer diagnosis but with risk factors. CTC were detected in all cancer patients (n=277, 100%), and in half of the asymptomatic patients screened (50%, 132 out-of 265 patients). Follow-up tests including scans, scheduled within 1-10 months of positive CTC tests, found early cancerous lesions in 20% of screened patients. In 50% of male patients with CTC and normal PSA (prostate-specific-antigen) levels, PSMA-PET scans revealed increased uptake in the prostate, indicative of early prostate cancer. Other types of cancers detected by CTC screening and subsequent scans included early breast, ovarian, lung, or renal cancer. Patients with CTC were advised on integrative approaches including immune-stimulating and anti-carcinogenic nutritional therapies. CTC repeat tests were available in 10% of patients with detected CTC (40 outof 409 patients, n=98 CTC tests) to assess treatment effectiveness, suggesting nutritional therapies to be beneficial in reducing CTC count. Conclusions: CTC screening provided a highly sensitive biomarker for the early detection of cancer, with higher CTC counts being associated with

  5. Uterine Sarcoma Presenting with Sepsis from Clostridium perfringens Endometritis in a Postmenopausal Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary J. Kao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic gram positive rod that is found in normal vaginal and cervical flora in 1–10% of healthy women. Uterine infection with Clostridium perfringens is seen rarely but is often related to underlying uterine pathology and can progress quickly to sepsis. Early recognition of sepsis, prompt treatment with antibiotics, and source control with surgical management allow for optimal chance of recovery. We present a case of a postmenopausal woman who presented with sepsis, vaginal bleeding, and back pain who was found to have Clostridium perfringens infection in the setting of undifferentiated uterine sarcoma.

  6. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF PASSIVE AND STAR-FORMING EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: AN INFRARED COLOR-COLOR SEQUENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temi, Pasquale; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the infrared properties of a large sample of early-type galaxies, comparing data from the Spitzer archive with Ks-band emission from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. While most representations of this data result in correlations with large scatter, we find a remarkably tight relation among colors formed by ratios of luminosities in Spitzer-Multiband Imaging Photometer bands (24, 70, and 160 μm) and the Ks band. Remarkably, this correlation among E and S0 galaxies follows that of nearby normal galaxies of all morphological types. In particular, the tight infrared color-color correlation for S0 galaxies alone follows that of the entire Hubble sequence of normal galaxies, roughly in order of galaxy type from ellipticals to spirals to irregulars. The specific star formation rate (SFR) of S0 galaxies estimated from the 24 μm luminosity increases with decreasing K-band luminosity (or stellar mass) from essentially zero, as with most massive ellipticals, to rates typical of irregular galaxies. Moreover, the luminosities of the many infrared-luminous S0 galaxies can significantly exceed those of the most luminous (presumably post-merger) E galaxies. SFRs in the most infrared-luminous S0 galaxies approach 1-10 solar masses per year. Consistently, with this picture we find that while most early-type galaxies populate an infrared red sequence, about 24% of the objects (mostly S0s) are in an infrared blue cloud together with late-type galaxies. For those early-type galaxies also observed at radio frequencies, we find that the far-infrared luminosities correlate with the mass of neutral and molecular hydrogen, but the scatter is large. This scatter suggests that the star formation may be intermittent or that similar S0 galaxies with cold gaseous disks of nearly equal mass can have varying radial column density distributions that alter the local and global SFRs.

  7. Clinicopathological Spectrum of Endometrial Changes in Peri-menopausal and Post-menopausal Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: A 2 Years Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Rajshri P; Dravid, N V; Suryawanshi, Kishor H; Gadre, Arundhati S; Bagale, Priya S; Ahire, Neelam

    2013-12-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is the Common presenting complaint in Gynaecology Outpatient Department in all age groups. It is due to the anovulatory cycles which are commonly seen in adolescent and peri-menopausal women. Abnormal uterine bleeding is caused by wide variety of organic or non-organic causes. Histopathological examination of endometrial sample remains the gold standard for diagnosis of endometrial pathology. To study the clinicopathological spectrum of endometrium in abnormal uterine bleeding in peri-menopausal and post-menopausal age groups. The study included prospective analysis of 119 cases of endometrial samples in patients of abnormal uterine bleeding above 40 years of age. The specimens were routinely processed and H&E stained slides were studied. Patients were categorized into peri-menopausal (40-49 years) and post-menopausal (> 50 years) age group. A total of 119 specimens of endometrium were analyzed. Maximum number (73.94%) of cases were from peri-menopausal age group. The most common presenting complaint was menorrhagia (48.86%) followed by post-menopausal bleeding (26.05%). In peri-menopausal age group proliferative endometrium (35.22%) was the predominant histopathological pattern followed by endometrial hyperplasia (23.86%). Atrophic endometrium (25.80%) was the most frequent finding followed by endometrial hyperplasia (19.35%) in post-menopausal age group. Three cases of endometrial carcinoma were reported in post-menopausal age group only. A thorough histopathological work up and clinical correlation is mandatory in cases of abnormal uterine bleeding above the age of 40 years to find out organic lesions. Careful screening can detect early cancer of endometrium which has excellent prognosis and it will help in further management.

  8. Vascular resistance of central retinal artery is reduced in postmenopausal women after use of estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Alice Fátima Melgaço; de Souza, Marco Aurélio Martins; Geber, Selmo

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of estrogen on the vascular resistance of the central retinal artery in postmenopausal women, compared with placebo, using transorbital ultrasound with Doppler velocimetry. We performed a prospective, randomized, triple-blinded placebo-controlled study. A total of 51 healthy postmenopausal women (follicle-stimulating hormone, >40 IU/L) with a mean (SD) age of 53.6 (4.8) years were studied. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups: placebo (n = 23) and estrogen (0.625 mg conjugated estrogens; n = 28). Transorbital Doppler velocimetric ultrasound was performed before and after treatment in sitting and supine positions. The mean age was similar in both groups. The pulsatility index of the central retinal arteries had a significant decrease after the use of estrogen, when women were evaluated in the sitting position. Women who received placebo did not show any difference in pulsatility index of the central retinal arteries after treatment. When the same comparison was done with participants in the supine position, no difference was observed in either group. Our study demonstrates that estrogen reduces the vascular resistance of the central retinal artery in postmenopausal women because of a vasodilatory effect.

  9. Vascular resistance of central retinal and ophthalmic arteries in postmenopausal women after use of tibolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Marco Aurélio Martins; de Souza, Bruno Martins; Geber, Selmo

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tibolone on vascular resistance of the central retinal and ophthalmic artery in postmenopausal women and to compare this effect with that of placebo using transorbital ultrasound with Doppler velocimetry. We performed a prospective randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. A total of 100 healthy postmenopausal women (follicle-stimulating hormone, >40 IU/L) younger than 65 years were studied. The participants were randomly allocated to two groups: placebo (n = 50) and tibolone (2.5 mg; n = 50). Transorbital Doppler velocimetric ultrasound was performed before treatment and 80 days after. The mean age was similar in both groups. Participants who received tibolone did not show any difference in pulsatility index, resistance index, and systole/diastole ratio of the central retinal and ophthalmic arteries after treatment. The same was observed in participants who received placebo. Our study demonstrates that tibolone administration to healthy postmenopausal women does not affect the resistance of small-caliber cerebral arteries.

  10. Effect of Moderate-Intensity Exercise on Inflammatory Markers Among Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Eduardo Federighi Baisi; Bonfim, Mariana Rotta; Turi, Bruna Camilo; Brondino, Nair Cristina Margarida; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz

    2017-06-01

    Declines in ovarian function in postmenopausal women may contribute to increase inflammatory cytokines, which can lead to chronic diseases. However, studies have shown that exercise interventions are important to manage inflammatory conditions. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the effect of exercise intervention on inflammatory markers among obese and postmenopausal women. 70 women composed the sample (Exercise group [EG; n = 35] and nonexercise group [nEG; n = 35]). IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 were the inflammatory markers analyzed. Exercise program was 20 weeks long and consisted of aerobic and neuromuscular training. Data about chronic diseases, medication use, dietary intake, body composition and biochemical variables were collected. EG showed significant reductions in body mass index, waist circumference and body fat percentage, as well as increased lean body mass. EG showed significant reductions in TNF-α and significant interaction between group and intervention time. Reductions in IL-10 were identified only in nEG. Substantial effect of exercise intervention was observed with increased ratio of IL-10/IL-6 and IL-10/TNF-α. Combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training was effective in reducing inflammation. Thus, implementation and maintenance of similar exercise programs can contribute to reduce chronic inflammation among obese postmenopausal women.

  11. Ruptured Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Ovary as a Cause of Acute Abdomen in Postmenopausal Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Oge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute abdomen with hemoperitoneum is a very rare entity in postmenopausal women due to gynecologic conditions. A 54-year-old, postmenopausal woman was brought to emergency department with severe abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed acute abdomen findings with 15 cm pelvic mass on the right adnexal region. Immediate exploratory laparotomy was performed. During laparotomy 1000 cc of bloodstained fluid, ruptured and actively bleeding large mass arising from right ovary was observed. Right salpingo-oopherectomy was performed in emergency conditions, and pathology report revealed an adult type of granulosa cell tumor. After this result, staging surgery was performed and patient was diagnosed as granulosa cell tumor stage 1 c. Cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin chemotherapy was given. Clinicians should be aware of granulosa cell tumors which may occur at any age and prone to rupture. Frozen section will be helpful in order to avoid incomplete surgeries especially in postmenopausal women presented with intra-abdominal bleeding.

  12. Dietary intake, physical activity and body mass index among postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya Ranasinghe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nutrition plays a vital role in the quality of life in postmenopausal women. Aim: The aim is to determine the dietary intake, physical activity, and assess the body mass index (BMI among postmenopausal women. Settings and Design: A community-based sample survey. Materials and Methods: The present study included 140 postmenopausal women (40–70 years from Udupi, Manipal areas of Karnataka. The study was carried out between July and December 2013. Sociodemographic data were collected using a questionnaire. Anthropometric data included height, weight, waist, and hip circumference. Dietary intake was determined using 24 h dietary recall. Physical activity information was collected. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. Paired t-test was performed to determine the dietary adequacy. Results: Obesity was 42.1% among the study participants. Increased WHR and waist circumference were 82.1% and 77.1%. Mean daily intake of calcium and saturated fatty acids were significantly higher than recommended dietary allowance (RDA (P < 0.001. Mean intake of energy, protein, carbohydrate, mono and poly unsaturated fatty acid, fiber and sodium were significantly lower than RDA (P < 0.001. Average daily intake of cereals, pulses, roots and tubers, meat and products, fats and oils, green leafy, and other vegetables were significantly (P < 0.001 lower than RDA. Intake of fruits, milk and milk products, and sugar was significantly higher (P < 0.001 than RDA. Only 37.1% of women performed moderate or active exercises regularly. Conclusions: Even though, nutrient and food group deficiencies were observed among postmenopausal women physical inactivity and effects of menopausal transition instigate increased BMI imposing a need to educate on nutrition and physical activity.

  13. Effect of aquatic resistance training on blood pressure and physical function of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Sattar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4    BACKGROUND: In postmenopausal women, the risk of having cardiac diseases, especially high blood pressure, is increased due to the decrease in secretion of estrogen. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks of aquatic resistance training on blood pressure and physical function of postmenopausal women.    METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, 24 postmenopausal women (age: 53-60 years, BMI= 29.23 ± 5.27kg/m2  ( were randomly divided into experimental (n = 14 and control (n = 10 groups. Women in the experimental group participated in an aquatic exercise program for 8 weeks (3 sessions per week in the deep parts of the pool. Training included walking and running in water with water dumbbells weighing 250 grams. Before and after the exercise period, the body composition, blood pressure, dynamic balance, and flexibility of the subjects were measured.    RESULTS: According to the T-score, the average systolic blood pressure in the experimental group significantly decreased (9.29% (P = 0.001. Dynamic balance and flexibility, respectively, significantly increased by 22.02% and 24.4% (P < 0.01. No significant changes were observed in body fat and weight.    CONCLUSION: Due to the positive effect of aquatic resistance training on blood pressure, dynamic balance, and flexibility these exercises are recommended for postmenopausal women.   Keywords: Menopausal Women, Blood Pressure, Flexibility, Aquatic Resistance Training  

  14. Dietary Energy Density and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Incidence in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Terryl J; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Shah, Roma; Flanders, W Dana; Wang, Ying; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2016-10-01

    Dietary energy density (ED) is a measure of diet quality that estimates the amount of energy per unit of food (kilocalories per gram) consumed. Low-ED diets are generally high in fiber and fruits and vegetables and low in fat. Dietary ED has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and other risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. We evaluated the associations of total dietary ED and energy-dense (high-ED) foods with postmenopausal breast cancer incidence. Analyses included 56,795 postmenopausal women from the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort with no previous history of breast or other cancers and who provided information on diet, lifestyle, and medical history in 1999. Multivariable-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate ratios (RRs and 95% CIs) were estimated for quintiles of total dietary ED and for the consumption of high-ED foods in Cox proportional hazards regression models. During a median follow-up of 11.7 y, 2509 invasive breast cancer cases were identified, including 1857 estrogen receptor-positive and 277 estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Median dietary ED was 1.5 kcal/g (IQR: 1.3-1.7 kcal/g). After adjusting for age, race, education, reproductive characteristics, and family history, high compared with low dietary ED was associated with a statistically significantly higher risk of breast cancer (RR for fifth quintile compared with first quintile: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.36; P-trend = 0.03). The association between the amount of high-ED foods consumed and breast cancer risk was not statistically significant. We observed no differences by estrogen receptor status or effect modification by BMI, age, or physical activity. These results suggest a modest positive association between total dietary ED and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Diagnostic utility of three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound for postmenopausal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ari; Lee, Ji Young; Chun, Sungwook; Kim, Heung Yeol

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the role of three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound (3D PD-US) to detect endometrial lesions in women with postmenopausal endometrial bleeding. In this prospective observational study, from January 2009 to November 2012, we recruited 225 postmenopausal women with postmenopausal uterine bleeding who met the study criteria. Women who had hematologic disease, chronic medical diseases, or nonuterine pelvic diseases were excluded. Prior to endometrial biopsy, the patients underwent a baseline transvaginal ultrasound screening. The vascular indices and endometrial volumes were calculated with 3D PD-US and compared with the endometrial histopathology. Among the endometrial histopathologic findings of 174 women, atrophic endometrium was the most common finding (30.5%). Endometrial malignancy was confirmed in 28 cases (16.1%), and endometrial hyperplasia was diagnosed in 17 cases (9.8%). The prevalence of endometrial cancer was high in patients who had endometrial thickness >9.5 mm (p < 0.001) and volume greater than 4.05 mL (p < 0.001). For the endometrial carcinoma only, the cutoff values of vascular index, flow index, and vascular flow index for predicting malignancy were 13.070, 12.610, and 3.764, respectively. For endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial thickness and vascular flow index were significant findings. Endometrial vasculature and volume can be obtained using 3D PD-US. The diagnostic usefulness of 3D PD-US for endometrial diseases is promising in women with postmenopausal endometrial bleeding. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Association of interleukin-1 beta (-511C/T) polymorphisms with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai-Hung Chao; Hsing-Ning Yu; Chi-Chuan Huang; Wen-Shen Liu; Ya-Wen Tsai; Wen-Tung Wu

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common disease of the elderly, in which genetic and clinical factors contribute to the disease phenotype. Since the production of interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been implicated in the bone mass and skeletal disorders, we investigated whether IL-1 system gene polymorphisms are associated with the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Taiwanese women.Osteoporosis is diagnosed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, which measures bone mineral density (BMD) at multiple skeletal sites. We studied the IL-1a (-889C/T), IL-1 (-511C/T) and the 86 base pair variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in intron 2 of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) gene in 117 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and 135 control subjects without a history of symptomatic osteoporosis. These gene polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymerase. Blood sugar and other risk factors were also determined.The frequencies of IL-1 (-511C/T) genotypes (P=.022, odds ratio=1.972) and alleles (P=.02, odds ratio=2.909) showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups. However, we did not find any statistically significant difference in IL-1 and IL-1ra polymorphisms (P>.05). We also observed a positive relationship between osteoporosis and cholesterol and a weak inverse relationship between blood sugar and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.These experimental results suggest that the pathogenesis of osteoporosis is associated with IL-1 (-511C/T) polymorphism in postmenopausal women. This polymorphism is an independent risk factor for osteoporosis (Author).

  17. Effect of Soy Milk Consumption on Quality of Life in Iranian Postmenopausal Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoreh Norrozi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To find out whether or not soy milk as a phytoestrogen product can improve the quality of life of the Iranian postmenopausal women.Participants of this randomized clinical trial were 57 healthy postmenopausal women. All eligible women were randomly divided into two groups of soy milk (SG and control (CG. Individuals in the SG (n = 34 received 500 ml soy milk including genistein (28.86 mg/dl and daidzein (8.25 mg/dl per day, while the participants in the CG (n = 23 received 500 ml low fat cow milk per day during 8 months. Both groups also took daily calcium-D capsules (500 mg calcium and 200 IU D3. The quality of life of all participants was examined twice (at the baseline and the end of the eighth month using the menopause-specific quality of life (MENQOL questionnaire.A total of 57 healthy postmenopausal women with a mean age of 52.13 (3.05 years were included in this study. Despite the significant but weak difference was observed between SG and CG in the sexual domain score (the mean of percent change: 0.46% vs. 33.94%, respectively; p = 0.031, while significant relationship was found between the soy milk consumption and improvement in the domains studied (vasomotor, psychosocial and physical.Overall our findings showed that soy milk does not improve the quality of life in postmenopausal women. But to achieve more reliable results, it is recommended further study to be done with a larger sample size, more prolonged, and with participants having severer vasomotor symptoms.

  18. Adiposity and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: Results from the UK Biobank prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenji; Key, Timothy J; Reeves, Gillian K

    2018-03-23

    Body size is an important modifiable risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. However, it remains unclear whether direct measures of fat mass are better indicators of risk than anthropometric measures, or whether central adiposity may contribute to risk beyond overall adiposity. We analyzed data from 162,691 postmenopausal women in UK Biobank followed from 2006 to 2014. Body size was measured by trained technicians. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression was used to estimate relative risks. Analyses were stratified by age at recruitment, region and socioeconomic status, and adjusted for family history of breast cancer, age at menarche, age at first birth, parity, age at menopause, previous hormone replacement therapy use, smoking, alcohol intake, height, physical activity and ethnicity. We observed 2,913 incident invasive breast cancers during a mean 5.7 years of follow-up. There was a continuous increase in risk of postmenopausal breast cancer with increasing adiposity, across all measures. The point estimate, comparing women in the top (median 37.6 kg) to bottom (median 17.6 kg) quartile of body fat mass was 1.70 (95% confidence interval 1.52-1.90). The magnitudes of the associations between per SD increase in BMI and body fat mass with breast cancer risk were similar, suggesting impedance measures of fat were not substantially better indicators of risk than anthropometric measures. After adjusting for body fat mass, the associations between anthropometric measures of central adiposity and breast cancer risk were attenuated. The magnitude of risk, across all measures of adiposity, was greater in women who had been postmenopausal for 12 or more years. © 2018 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  19. UBAT of UFFO/ Lomonosov: The X-Ray Space Telescope to Observe Early Photons from Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Reglero, V.; Connell, P.; Kim, M. B.; Lee, J.; Rodrigo, J. M.; Ripa, J.; Eyles, C.; Lim, H.; Gaikov, G.; Jeong, H.; Leonov, V.; Chen, P.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Nam, J. W.; Svertilov, S.; Yashin, I.; Garipov, G.; Huang, M.-H. A.; Huang, J.-J.; Kim, J. E.; Liu, T.-C.; Petrov, V.; Bogomolov, V.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Brandt, S.; Park, I. H.

    2018-02-01

    The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) Burst Alert and Trigger Telescope (UBAT) has been designed and built for the localization of transient X-ray sources such as Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). As one of main instruments in the UFFO payload onboard the Lomonosov satellite (hereafter UFFO/ Lomonosov), the UBAT's roles are to monitor the X-ray sky, to rapidly locate and track transient sources, and to trigger the slewing of a UV/optical telescope, namely Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT). The SMT, a pioneering application of rapid slewing mirror technology has a line of sight parallel to the UBAT, allowing us to measure the early UV/optical GRB counterpart and study the extremely early moments of GRB evolution. To detect X-rays, the UBAT utilizes a 191.1 cm2 scintillation detector composed of Yttrium Oxyorthosilicate (YSO) crystals, Multi-Anode Photomultiplier Tubes (MAPMTs), and associated electronics. To estimate a direction vector of a GRB source in its field of view, it employs the well-known coded aperture mask technique. All functions are written for implementation on a field programmable gate array to enable fast triggering and to run the device's imaging algorithms. The UFFO/ Lomonosov satellite was launched on April 28, 2016, and is now collecting GRB observation data. In this study, we describe the UBAT's design, fabrication, integration, and performance as a GRB X-ray trigger and localization telescope, both on the ground and in space.

  20. Dynamically observing the value of the changes of serum sex hormone levels of early pregnancy after drug-induced abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Honggang; Dong Hua; Gu Yan; Zhang Zuncheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the value of the changes of serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG), estradiol (E), progesterone (P) Levels of early pregnancy after drug-induced abortion dynamically. Methods: Assessing 55 women proved pregnant by urine or blood HCG retrospecticly, who had terminated their pregnancy by mifepristonr and misoprostol. Meanwhile the serum levels of β-HCG, E, P were monitored dynamically. Results: Among the 55 patients, the levels of β-HCG, E and P had significant decreased (t β-HCG =4.845, t E =7.655, t P =11.390, P E =9.089, P P =2.910, P<0.05). Conclusion: Detectint the serum hormone's levels after drug-induced abortion by chemiluminescent immunoassay, we can assess indirectly the value of administration of mifepristone and misoprostol, predict the prolonged vaginal bleeding after drug-induced abortion, and the outcome of the treatment, which determine wether need another curestage. (authors)

  1. [Parity and menarche as risk factors for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Romo, Miguel Angel; Ramírez-Arriola, Mariá Cleofás; Velasco-Chávez, José Fernando; Rivera-Martínez, José Guillermo; de Jesús, Rafael Natividad Nieva; Valdez-Jiménez, Luis Alvaro

    2014-02-01

    Worldwide studies, even in our country, have thrown discrepant results about the relation between osteoporosis, parity and age of menarche. To investigate the relation of osteoporosis in postmenopausal mexican women with multiparity and age of menarche. Transversal, retrospective and analytical study. Non-probabilistic sampling technique was performing with users women of the IMSS in San Luis Potosí. Reproductive history and age of menarche were obtained by the addition of these items to the previously validated Albrand questionnaire. Women were divided into groups according to the number of pregnancies in: normal parity (0 to 3 childbirths) conformed by 112 patients (46%) and multiparity (> or = 4 pregnancies), 131 women (54%). In relation to menarche with an average of 12.98 years, from this number we divided them in: early menarche (before the age of 13) and late menarche (at 13 years of age or after). It was measured bone mineral density with dual distal forearm x-ray absorptiometry to all patients. 243 women were studied, with an average of age of 55.92, rank 31 to 80 years. Using the criteria, of the World Health Organization, 18% of posmenopausal women had osteoporosis, 39% had osteopenia and 41% had bone normality. No association was found between the number of deeds and osteoporosis. Additionally we observed that the women who had 4 or more children were older than the other women. average 57.42 against 54.16. Also there was significant negative correlation (r = -0.43) between age and densitometry. In addition we found that an age greater to 13 years in the appearance of the menarche was related to osteoporosis (OR 4.46; p = 0.035). In posmenopausal women a menarche at the age of 13 years or after is a risk factor for osteoporosis.

  2. Habitual sleep quality and diurnal rhythms of salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianyi; Poole, Elizabeth M; Vetter, Celine; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Kubzansky, Laura D; Schernhammer, Eva; Rohleder, Nicolas; Hu, Frank B; Redline, Susan; Tworoger, Shelley S

    2017-10-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as a potential mechanism linking sleep and cardiometabolic disorders. However, the associations of two primary outputs of the HPA axis, cortisol and its antagonist dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), with sleep are less well studied. In the Nurses' Health Study II, 233 postmenopausal women provided five timed saliva samples over one day (immediately upon waking, 45min, 4h, and 10h after waking, and prior to going to sleep) to measure cortisol and DHEA. Of these, 209 completed assessment of their habitual sleep patterns using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). We used piecewise linear mixed models to compare cross-sectional associations of slopes reflecting diurnal cortisol and DHEA rhythms with overall sleep quality and with seven sub-components. Overall, we observed no differences in the diurnal patterns of cortisol or DHEA between good versus poor sleepers as assessed by the global PSQI score. However, longer sleep latency was associated with significantly reduced cortisol awakening rise (p=0.02). Poorer subjective sleep quality (p=0.02), shorter sleep duration (p=0.02), and lower sleep efficiency (p=0.03) were associated with slower rate of cortisol decline later in the day. Women reporting daytime dysfunction had a sharper cortisol decline early in the day (p=0.03) but a flattened decline later in the day (p=0.01). The differences in diurnal patterns of DHEA between good versus poor sleepers, though less pronounced, were similar in direction to those of cortisol. Self-reported sleep duration, efficiency, latency and daytime dysfunction were associated with altered diurnal rhythms of cortisol and, to a lesser extent, DHEA. These findings provide support for the interplay between sleep and the HPA axis that may contribute to cardiometabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J; Bostofte, E

    1994-01-01

    The menopause is defined as cessation of menstruation, ending the fertile period. The hormonal changes are a decrease in progesterone level, followed by a marked decrease in estrogen production. Symptoms associated with these hormonal changes may advocate for hormonal replacement therapy....... This review is based on the English-language literature on the effect of estrogen therapy and estrogen plus progestin therapy on postmenopausal women. The advantages of hormone replacement therapy are regulation of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, relief of hot flushes, and prevention of atrophic changes...... in the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe calcitonin...

  4. A depressed post-menopausal woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwak, Nancy; Dill, Curt

    2012-11-01

    Post-menopausal women are at significant risk for coronary artery disease, have increased rates of depression compared to their male counterparts, and often present atypically with coronary insufficiency. The symptoms of depression and coronary ischemia overlap greatly. Complaints like fatigue, body aches, and sleep disturbance reported by a depressed elderly woman may be cardiac related and need to be investigated seriously without physician bias. To ensure that clinicians are cautious when evaluating older women with a history of depression who are presenting with atypical complaints. A 61-year-old woman with history of depression presented to the Emergency Department with multiple complaints atypical for acute coronary syndrome. She had an immediate electrocardiogram and troponin-T Biosite point-of-care test (Biosite Incorporated, San Diego, CA) performed, which were positive for cardiac ischemia and myocardial infarction. The patient underwent immediate cardiac catheterization, which revealed occlusion of the mid left circumflex. After aspiration of thrombus and balloon dilatation of the site, a bare metal stent was deployed, restoring excellent flow. The patient did well medically but her depression worsened after the procedure and continues despite psychiatric intervention. For years there have been gender differences in medical treatment of coronary artery disease, and often women's complaints are not investigated aggressively. Post-menopausal women are at great risk for cardiac ischemia and depression, and their symptoms, which are often atypical, may not be diagnosed as anginal equivalents. In addition, depression is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and, if it occurs after myocardial infarction, may lead to poor quality of life and increased morbidity and mortality. Patients who have had a coronary event must be thoroughly evaluated for signs of depression and receive the necessary treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Age at menopause, reproductive history and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate VTE risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized HT assignment among postmenopausal women. Methods Using pooled data from the Women’s Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years with no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazard models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. Results During the follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 nonprocedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected and there was any significant association of VTE with age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to nonprocedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (pmenopause, those with early menopause (agemenopause (age>55 years) had a significant increased VTE risk (HR=1.8;95%CI:1.2–2.7 and HR=1.5;95%CI:1.0–2.4, respectively). Conclusion Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for nonprocedure-related VTE. PMID:23760439

  6. Observed trends of soil fauna in the Antarctic Dry Valleys: early signs of shifts predicted under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriuzzi, W S; Adams, B J; Barrett, J E; Virginia, R A; Wall, D H

    2018-02-01

    Long-term observations of ecological communities are necessary for generating and testing predictions of ecosystem responses to climate change. We investigated temporal trends and spatial patterns of soil fauna along similar environmental gradients in three sites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, spanning two distinct climatic phases: a decadal cooling trend from the early 1990s through the austral summer of February 2001, followed by a shift to the current trend of warming summers and more frequent discrete warming events. After February 2001, we observed a decline in the dominant species (the nematode Scottnema lindsayae) and increased abundance and expanded distribution of less common taxa (rotifers, tardigrades, and other nematode species). Such diverging responses have resulted in slightly greater evenness and spatial homogeneity of taxa. However, total abundance of soil fauna appears to be declining, as positive trends of the less common species so far have not compensated for the declining numbers of the dominant species. Interannual variation in the proportion of juveniles in the dominant species was consistent across sites, whereas trends in abundance varied more. Structural equation modeling supports the hypothesis that the observed biological trends arose from dissimilar responses by dominant and less common species to pulses of water availability resulting from enhanced ice melt. No direct effects of mean summer temperature were found, but there is evidence of indirect effects via its weak but significant positive relationship with soil moisture. Our findings show that combining an understanding of species responses to environmental change with long-term observations in the field can provide a context for validating and refining predictions of ecological trends in the abundance and diversity of soil fauna. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. The 3-D effects in the long-term solar wind speed rise observed by Voyager 2 in early 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, V. J.; Paularena, K. I.; Richardson, J. D.; Lazarus, A. J.; Belcher, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    In early 1994, Voyager 2 at 42-43 AU near heliolatitude 10 deg S observed over a period of approximately 100 days a remarkable sequence of quasi-recurrent stream fronts, wherein the background (ambient) speed rose steadily from approximately 450 to approximately 550 km/s while the mean period of the streams decreased from the usual 25 days down to approximately 20 days. A qualitative explanation for this effect can be derived from IMP observations, which show that the amplitude of the stream structure at 1 AU increased monotonically in late 1993, concurrent with major secular evolution in the corona. The reduction in period, then, amounts to a doppler shift due to the progressive overtaking of successively faster streams in the sequence. Attempts to model this process quantitatively with 1-D dynamic simulations falter on three accounts: (1) the reduction in period is overestimated, (2) the simulation predicts many more fronts surviving to 43 AU than are observed by Voyager; (3) the density variations are much too large. It is argued that inclusion of the 3-D geometry in the simulation would resolve most all these shortcomings. Using a series of calculations executed with 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D MHD models of hypothetical tilted-dipole flows, we show that: (1) the radial propagation velocities of 3-D fronts are less than those of 1-D or 2-D fronts, owing to the tilt of (and increased shearing across) the interaction surfaces hence the overtaking rate of successive streams is reduced; (2) in a tilted-dipole geometry, the reverse fronts should largely disappear from the equatorial plane by 43 AU, effectively halving the number of fronts to be observed (see companion paper on predominance of forward fronts at Voyager); and (3) the density enhancements would be much smaller than predicted by a 1-D model.

  8. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF POSTMENOPAUSAL BLEEDING IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Arora

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A woman is considered menopausal after 12 months of amenorrhea. The most feared symptom during menopause is postmenopausal bleeding which unless proved otherwise indicates genital malignancy. Objectives: To study Socio-demographic factors related to postmenopausal bleeding and to find time lapse between bleeding and reporting of these cases. Material and Methods: This cross sectional was done in the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Pt. J. N. M. Medical College & DR. B. R. Ambedkar Memorial, Hospital, Raipur (C. G. The participants were 146 women who came with the complaint of postmenopausal bleeding. A detailed, preceded, pre-tested, structured, close ended questionnaire was used to collect the data. By interviewing these women, information was collected about different demographic factors like age, socio-economic status, parity etc. The collected data was put in the master chart and analyzed. Results: The proportion of postmenopausal bleeding cases was 3.5% .Maximum cases(50% with postmenopausal bleeding were found in the age group of 45-54yrs . 60 % of patients were from rural areas and 62% were illiterate. 65% of the patients were grand multipara (Parity4. Most of the patients belonged to lower socioeconomic strata. Almost half (48% of patients presented after, more than 6 months since the first episode of bleeding . Conclusions: The proportion of postmenopausal bleeding is high, requiring immediate investigation. Lack of awareness led to very late presentation of most of the patients, so education at community level is required to reduce this time lapse for earlier diagnosis and management

  9. Early-type galaxies at intermediate redshift observed with Hubble space telescope WFC3: perspectives on recent star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, Michael J. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K. [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University 134, Shinchon-dong, Sudaemun-gu, Seoul 120-179 (Korea, Republic of); Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Kaviraj, Sugata [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Ryan, Russell E. Jr.; Koekemoer, Anton [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hathi, Nimish P. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM, UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Dopita, Michael A. [Research School of Physics and Astronomy, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2014-12-01

    We present an analysis of the stellar populations of 102 visually selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) with spectroscopic redshifts (0.35 ≲ z ≲ 1.5) from observations in the Early Release Science program with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We fit one- and two-component synthetic stellar models to the ETGs UV-optical-near-IR spectral energy distributions and find that a large fraction (∼40%) are likely to have experienced a minor (f{sub YC} ≲ 10% of stellar mass) burst of recent (t{sub YC} ≲ 1 Gyr) star formation. The measured age and mass fraction of the young stellar populations do not strongly trend with measurements of galaxy morphology. We note that massive (M > 10{sup 10.5} M {sub ☉}) recent star-forming ETGs appear to have larger sizes. Furthermore, high-mass, quiescent ETGs identified with likely companions populate a distinct region in the size-mass parameter space, in comparison with the distribution of massive ETGs with evidence of recent star formation (RSF). We conclude that both mechanisms of quenching star formation in disk-like ETGs and (gas-rich, minor) merger activity contribute to the formation of young stars and the size-mass evolution of intermediate redshift ETGs. The number of ETGs for which we have both HST WFC3 panchromatic (especially UV) imaging and spectroscopically confirmed redshifts is relatively small, therefore, a conclusion about the relative roles of both of these mechanisms remains an open question.

  10. RADAR study: protocol for an observational cohort study to identify early warning signals on the pathways to alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Tim; Swift, Wendy; Mewton, Louise; Kypri, Kypros; Lynskey, Michael T; Butterworth, Peter; Tibbetts, Joel; McCraw, Stacey; Upton, Emily

    2017-08-21

    Harmful alcohol consumption, particularly alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a worldwide health priority, contributing substantially to global morbidity and mortality. The peak age of onset of AUD is 18-24, thus a deeper understanding of the young adult experience is vital if we are to identify modifiable risk factors and intervene early in the developmental course of this disabling disorder. Critical unanswered questions include: How soon after drinking initiation do AUD symptoms begin to emerge? Which symptoms come first? Do the symptoms unfold in a predictable pattern? In what ways do the emerging symptoms interact with individual, peer, family and environmental risk factors to impact on the transition to disorder? The proposed RADAR study will examine the prospective development of AUD symptoms over the young adulthood (18-24) years. We will capitalise on an existing cohort of 1911 community-based adolescents who were recruited at age 13 and have completed a baseline and five annual follow-up assessments as part of an observational cohort study. We will interview these adolescents every 6 months between the ages of 19 and 23 to derive monthly histories of both alcohol use and AUD symptomatology, along with a comprehensive battery of risk and protective factor scales hypothesised to predict the emergence and course of AUD. The results of this study will inform the natural history of AUD and will be used to identify specific targets for prevention and early intervention of AUD. Ethical approval has already been granted for the study (UNSW HREC 10144). We will disseminate the results of the study through published manuscripts, conferences and seminar presentations. Data used in published manuscripts will be made available through a suitable online repository (eg, Dryad-datadryad.org). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  11. Identification of old tidal dwarfs near early-type galaxies from deep imaging and H I observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Pierre-Alain; Paudel, Sanjaya; McDermid, Richard M.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Serra, Paolo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Cappellari, Michele; Emsellem, Eric

    2014-05-01

    It has recently been proposed that the dwarf spheroidal galaxies located in the Local Group discs of satellites (DoSs) may be tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs) born in a major merger at least 5 Gyr ago. Whether TDGs can live that long is still poorly constrained by observations. As part of deep optical and H I surveys with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) MegaCam camera and Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope made within the ATLAS3D project, and follow-up spectroscopic observations with the Gemini-North telescope, we have discovered old TDG candidates around several early-type galaxies. At least one of them has an oxygen abundance close to solar, as expected for a tidal origin. This confirmed pre-enriched object is located within the gigantic, but very low surface brightness, tidal tail that emanates from the elliptical galaxy, NGC 5557. An age of 4 Gyr estimated from its SED fitting makes it the oldest securely identified TDG ever found so far. We investigated the structural and gaseous properties of the TDG and of a companion located in the same collisional debris, and thus most likely of tidal origin as well. Despite several Gyr of evolution close to their parent galaxies, they kept a large gas reservoir. Their central surface brightness is low and their effective radius much larger than that of typical dwarf galaxies of the same mass. This possibly provides us with criteria to identify tidal objects which can be more easily checked than the traditional ones requiring deep spectroscopic observations. In view of the above, we discuss the survival time of TDGs and question the tidal origin of the DoSs.

  12. Effect of estrogen/gestagen and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 therapy on bone formation in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, K.; Riis, B.; Christiansen, C.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of two different estrogen/gestagen regimens and 24R,25-(OH)2-cholecalciferol on bone formation was studied in a randomized trial with 144 healthy postmenopausal women. Urinary excretion (UE) of /sup 99m/technetium-diphosphonate and serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) was determined before and then once a year for 2 years of treatment. Both estimates of bone formation showed highly significant decreases (p less than .001) to normal premenopausal levels in women receiving unopposed 17 beta-estradiol or in a sequential combination with progestagen, whereas unchanged high values were found in the groups receiving 24R,25-(OH)2D3 and placebo. The data show that bone turnover increases in early postmenopausal women concomitantly with the loss of bone mass, and that hormonal substitutional therapy normalizes the total skeletal turnover as well as preventing bone loss

  13. Vegan diet and blood lipid profiles: a cross-sectional study of pre and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yee-Wen; Jian, Zhi-Hong; Chang, Hui-Chin; Nfor, Oswald Ndi; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Lung, Chia-Chi; Lin, Long-Yau; Ho, Chien-Chang; Chiang, Yi-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2014-04-08

    Vegan diet has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality, partly due to its effects on serum lipid profiles. Lipid profiles [high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG)] have not been fully elucidated either in pre and postmenopausal vegans or in ovo-lacto vegetarians. This study aimed to compare lipid profiles among vegans, ovo-lacto vegetarians and omnivores. Demographic data and lipid profiles were obtained from the 2002 Taiwanese Survey on Hypertension, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine factors significantly and independently associated with different categories of veganism and to estimate the β value of lipid profiles in the dietary types. A total of 2397 premenopausal and 1154 postmenopausal participants who did not receive lipid lowering drugs were enrolled. Premenopausal vegans had significantly lower HDL-C and higher TG, LDL-C/HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C compared with omnivores. For postmenopausal women, vegans had lower TC while ovo-lacto vegetarians were observed with low HDL-C when compared with omnivores. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that vegan and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets decreased HDL-C levels in premenopausal women (β = -7.63, p = 0.001 and β = -4.87, p = 0.001, respectively). There were significant associations between lower LDL-C and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets (β = -7.14, p = 0.008) and also between TG and vegan diet (β = 23.37, p = 0.008), compared with omnivorous diet. Post-menopausal women reported to have consumed either a vegan or an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet were at the risk of having low HDL-C unlike those that consumed omnivorous diets (β = -4.88, p = 0.015 and β = -4.48, p = 0.047). There were no significant changes in LDL-C in both pre and postmenopausal vegans. Vegan diet was

  14. Anthropometric and gynaecological history according to the socioeconomic status of postmenopausal women: poverty and the menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Manuel Carmen; Sosa, Manuel; Saavedra, Pedro; Gil-Antullano, Santiago Palacios; Castro, Rosa; Bonet, Mario; Travesí, Isabel; de Miguel, Emilio

    2010-03-01

    Less advantaged social classes usually have unhealthier lifestyles and have more difficult access to health resources. In this work we study the possible association between poverty and the prevalence of obesity and oophorectomy in a population of postmenopausal women. Cross-sectional observational study. To study in a population of postmenopausal women in poverty the possible differences in the prevalence of obesity and oophorectomy, and to compare some other gynaecological data: age at menarche, age at menopause, fertile years, number of pregnancies, breastfeeding and the use of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). All patients were interviewed personally. A questionnaire was used to find out about their lifestyles and the medication they were taking. Their medical records were reviewed to confirm the existence of some diseases. A complete physical examination was performed with every patient. Weight and height were measured with the patient dressed in light clothes. Blood was obtained in a fasting state in order to carry out some analyses. Poverty was defined according to the Spanish National Institute of Statistics criteria. We enrolled 1225 postmenopausal women; 449 (36.6%) were under the threshold of poverty, defined by the Spanish National Institute of Statistics. Postmenopausal women in poverty had higher body mass index (29.2 +/- 4.8 versus 27.0 +/- 4.7 kg/m(2) P poverty (44.2% versus 24.3%, P = 0.001). The prevalence of oophorectomy was also higher in women in poverty (32.7% versus 27.2%, P poverty had had a greater number of pregnancies (3 versus 2, P = 0.001). They also showed a higher rate of breastfeeding than women in medium and high social classes (65% versus 59%, P = 0.037). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in either the age of menopause or fertile years, nor in the use of HRT. Postmenopausal women in poverty have higher levels of obesity, and also a greater prevalence of oophorectomy than women of medium and

  15. Relationship between protein intake and dynapenia in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, M E; Barbat-Artigas, S; Dupontgand, S; Fex, A; Karelis, A D; Aubertin-Leheudre, M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between protein intake and dynapenia. A cross-sectional/observational study. Department of Kinanthropology at the University of Quebec at Montreal. Seventy-two non-frail postmenopausal women aged between 50 to 75 years were recruited. Body weight (BW), lean body mass (LBM; %) and skeletal muscle mass (bio-electrical impedancemetry analysis), maximum voluntary handgrip strength (using hand dynamometer), aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and dietary intake were measured. Women were divided according to dynapenia criteria. The strongest correlation between muscle strength and protein intake was observed when we express the amount of protein in g/d/BW. No differences for age, BMI, status of menopause, fat mass and VO2peak were observed between non-dynapenic, type I dynapenic and type II dynapenic women, independently of the criteria used. We observed significant differences in protein intake (g/d/BW) between non-dynapenic and type II dynapenic (p<0.01) as well as between type I dynapenic and type II dynapenic (p<0.01) when dynapenia was expressed in kg/BW and in kg/LBM, respectively. It should be noted that no differences in LBM between the three groups were observed when dynapenia was expressed in kg/BW and kg/LBM. Protein intake for all groups respected the RDA of 0.8 to 1.2 g/d/BW (non-dynapenic: 1.44/1.38; type I dynapenic: 1.30/1.33; type II dynapenic: 1.05/1.08 g/d/BW). Protein intake seems to play a role in the development of dynapenia particularly at the level of type II dynapenia. Therefore, an increase in the recommended daily allowance for protein intake may be warranted.

  16. Preliminary evidence of early bone resorption in a sheep model of acute burn injury: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Gordon L; Xie, Yixia; Qin, Yi-Xian; Lin, Liangjun; Hu, Minyi; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Bonewald, Lynda F

    2014-03-01

    nearly twice that of the controls. Moreover, whole blood ionized Ca measured at 3- to 6-h intervals over the first 24 h in both burn and control sheep showed a 6 % reduction versus baseline in the burned sheep with sheep model was previously used to demonstrate upregulation of the parathyroid calcium-sensing receptor within the timeframe of the present study. Because both early bone resorption, supported by this study, and calcium-sensing receptor upregulation, consistent with the observed reduction in blood ionized Ca, are mediated by proinflammatory cytokines that are present as part of the post-burn systemic inflammatory response, we may postulate that post-burn upregulation of the parathyroid calcium-sensing receptor may be an adaptive response to clear the blood of excess calcium liberated by cytokine-mediated bone resorption.

  17. Habitual cocoa intake reduces arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women regardless of intake frequency: a randomized parallel-group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto T

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Takanobu Okamoto,1 Ryota Kobayashi,1 Midori Natsume,2 Koichi Nakazato1 1Department of Exercise Physiology, Nippon Sport Science University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Food Sciences Research Laboratories, Meiji Co Ltd, Kanagawa, Japan Abstract: Arterial stiffness is substantially higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. Daily cocoa intake has been shown to reduce central arterial stiffness in health adults, regardless of age; however, the effect of cocoa-intake frequency on arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cocoa-intake frequency on arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women. A total of 26 postmenopausal women (mean age ± standard deviation 64±12 years were randomly assigned to two groups with different cocoa-intake frequencies: one group ingested 17 g of cocoa once daily except on Sundays (every-day group, n=13, and the other ingested 17 g of cocoa twice daily every other day (every-other-day group, n=13. These intake regimens were maintained in both groups for 12 weeks. Carotid–femoral pulse-wave velocity and femoral–ankle pulse-wave velocity were measured in both groups at baseline and again at the end of the 12-week study period. Compared to baseline, both pulse-wave velocities had significantly decreased after the 12-week study period in both groups (P<0.05. However, no significant difference in degree of change was observed between the two groups. Although this study did not include a sedentary control group, these results suggest that regardless of frequency, habitual cocoa intake reduces central and peripheral arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women. Keywords: flavanol-enriched cocoa, pulse-wave velocity, intake frequency, endothelin 1

  18. UV-DROPOUT GALAXIES IN THE GOODS-SOUTH FIELD FROM WFC3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathi, N. P.; Ryan, R. E.; Cohen, S. H.; Windhorst, R. A.; Rutkowski, M. J.; Yan, H.; McCarthy, P. J.; O'Connell, R. W.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Bond, H. E.; Balick, B.; Calzetti, D.; Disney, M. J.; Dopita, M. A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, D. N. B.; Holtzman, J. A.; Kimble, R. A.; Paresce, F.; Saha, A.

    2010-01-01

    We combine new high sensitivity ultraviolet (UV) imaging from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with existing deep HST/Advanced Camera for Surveys optical images from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) program to identify UV-dropouts, which are Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidates at z ≅ 1-3. These new HST/WFC3 observations were taken over 50 arcmin 2 in the GOODS-South field as a part of the Early Release Science program. The uniqueness of these new UV data is that they are observed in three UV/optical (WFC3 UVIS) channel filters (F225W, F275W, and F336W), which allows us to identify three different sets of UV-dropout samples. We apply Lyman break dropout selection criteria to identify F225W-, F275W-, and F336W-dropouts, which are z ≅ 1.7, 2.1, and 2.7 LBG candidates, respectively. We use multi-wavelength imaging combined with available spectroscopic and photometric redshifts to carefully access the validity of our UV-dropout candidates. Our results are as follows: (1) these WFC3 UVIS filters are very reliable in selecting LBGs with z ≅ 2.0, which helps to reduce the gap between the well-studied z ∼> 3 and z ∼ 0 regimes; (2) the combined number counts with average redshift z ≅ 2.2 agree very well with the observed change in the surface densities as a function of redshift when compared with the higher redshift LBG samples; and (3) the best-fit Schechter function parameters from the rest-frame UV luminosity functions at three different redshifts fit very well with the evolutionary trend of the characteristic absolute magnitude, M*, and the faint-end slope, α, as a function of redshift. This is the first study to illustrate the usefulness of the WFC3 UVIS channel observations to select z ∼< 3 LBGs. The addition of the new WFC3 on the HST has made it possible to uniformly select LBGs from z ≅ 1 to z ≅ 9 and significantly enhance our understanding of these galaxies using HST sensitivity and resolution.

  19. Postmenopausal Health and Disease from the Perspective of Evolutionary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Froehle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Menopause normally occurs between 45-55 years of age, marks the end of a woman’s reproductive lifespan, and is accompanied by a reduction in estrogen that has substantial physiological effects. The standard medical view is that these changes underlie high postmenopausal disease rates, defining menopause as an estrogen deficiency condition needing treatment. This view stems from the idea that extended postmenopausal longevity is a consequence of recent technological developments, such that women now outlive their evolutionarily-programmed physiological functional lifespan.Increasingly, however, researchers employing an evolutionary medicine framework have used data from comparative demography, comparative biology, and human behavioral ecology to challenge the mainstream medical view. Instead, these data suggest that a two-decade human postmenopausal lifespan is an evolved, species-typical trait that distinguishes humans from other primates, and has deep roots in our evolutionary past. This view rejects the inevitability of high rates of postmenopausal disease and the concept of menopause as pathology. Rather, high postmenopausal disease risk likely stems from specific lifestyle differences between industrialized societies and foraging societies of the type that dominated human evolutionary history. Women in industrialized societies tend to have higher estrogen levels during premenopausal life, and experience a greater reduction in estrogen across menopause than do women living in foraging societies, with potentially important physiological consequences. The anthropological approach to understanding postmenopausal disease risk reframes the postmenopausal lifespan as an integral period in the human life cycle, and offers alternative avenues for disease prevention by highlighting the importance of lifestyle effects on health.

  20. Chronological observation in early radiation myelopathy of the cervical spinal cord; Gadolinium-enhanced MRI findings in two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Saeko; Yoshida, Shoji; Soejima, Toshinori (Hyogo Medical Center for Adults, Akashi (Japan)) (and others)

    Gd-enhanced MR images of two patients with clinically and histopathologically diagnosed chronic progressive radiation myelitis (CPRM) were observed chronologically. One of them had had nasopharyngeal cancer and received radiotherapy at a dose of 100 Gy to the C1-2 level of the spinal cord. She developed CPRM 25 months after the termination of radiotherapy. The other had had malignant lymphoma originating from the tonsil and received chemoradiotherapy. The dose delivered to her cervical spinal cord was 40 Gy, and she developed CPRM 30 months later. Gd-enhanced MRI in the early phase revealed a small crescent-shaped nidus with or without a very small central nonenhanced area in both cases. Enhancement was not great. At that time, patients noticed only the inability to perceive pain and temperature or paresthesia in the opposite side. In a few months, MRI revealed a much more strongly enhanced and larger nidus with enlargement of a central nonenhanced area accompanied by long segmental cord enlargement. The patients' neurological symptoms had also progressed, with hemiparesis developing, for example. (author).

  1. [High prevalence of osteoporosis in asymptomatic postmenopausal Mapuche women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Lucía; Larenas, Gladys; Riedemann, Pablo

    2002-12-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for variations in the frequency of osteoporosis. Prevalence of osteoporosis in Mapuche women (native Chileans) is unknown. To assess the prevalence and risk factors for osteoporosis in Mapuche women. A random sample of 95 asymptomatic postmenopausal Mapuche females, stratified by age, was studied. Women with diseases or medications that could interfere with calcium metabolism were excluded. Spine and femoral neck bone mass density was determined using a Lunar DPX Alpha densitometer. Seventeen percent of women had normal bone mineral density in both spine and femoral neck. In the spine, 25.3% had a normal bone mineral density, 17.9% had osteopenia and 56.8% had osteoporosis. In the femoral neck, 34.7% had a normal bone mineral density, 57.9% had osteopenia, and 7.4% had osteoporosis. There was a positive correlation between bone mineral density and body mass index. Women with more than one hour per day of physical activity, had a significantly lower proportion of osteopenia or osteoporosis. No association between bone mineral density and parity or calcium intake, was observed. There is a high prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis among Mapuche women. Osteoporosis was associated with low body mass index.

  2. Serum biomarker profile associated with high bone turnover and BMD in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Siegel, Eric R; Achenbach, Sara J; Khosla, Sundeep; Suva, Larry J

    2008-07-01

    Early diagnosis of the onset of osteoporosis is key to the delivery of effective therapy. Biochemical markers of bone turnover provide a means of evaluating skeletal dynamics that complements static measurements of BMD by DXA. Conventional clinical measurements of bone turnover, primarily the estimation of collagen and its breakdown products in the blood or urine, lack both sensitivity and specificity as a reliable diagnostic tool. As a result, improved tests are needed to augment the use of BMD measurements as the principle diagnostic modality. In this study, the serum proteome of 58 postmenopausal women with high or low/normal bone turnover (training set) was analyzed by surface enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and a diagnostic fingerprint was identified using a variety of statistical and machine learning tools. The diagnostic fingerprint was validated in a separate distinct test set, consisting of serum samples from an additional 59 postmenopausal women obtained from the same Mayo cohort, with a gap of 2 yr. Specific protein peaks that discriminate between postmenopausal patients with high or low/normal bone turnover were identified and validated. Multiple supervised learning approaches were able to classify the level of bone turnover in the training set with 80% sensitivity and 100% specificity. In addition, the individual protein peaks were also significantly correlated with BMD measurements in these patients. Four of the major discriminatory peaks in the diagnostic profile were identified as fragments of interalpha-trypsin-inhibitor heavy chain H4 precursor (ITIH4), a plasma kallikrein-sensitive glycoprotein that is a component of the host response system. These data suggest that these serum protein fragments are the serum-borne reflection of the increased osteoclast activity, leading to the increased bone turnover that is associated with decreasing BMD and presumably an increased risk of fracture. In conjunction with the

  3. [Two compartment model of body composition and abdominal fat area in postmenopausal women - pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewska, Magdalena; Mioduszewska, Milena; Pańczyk, Mariusz; Kucharska, Alicja; Sińska, Beata; Dąbrowska-Bender, Marta; Michota-Katulska, Ewa; Zegan, Magdalena; Szabla, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Both menopausal period and aging have influence on body composition, increase of total body fat and visceral fat in particular. We should be aware that changes in body composition, mainly fat translocation to abdominal region, can occur without significant changes in body weight. Therefore quantitative abdominal fat assessment should be our aim. Body composition analysis based on two compartment model and abdominal fat area assessment in cross section. Subjects in postmenopausal period (41 women) were recruited for this study and divided into 2 groups: group 1 - women aged 45-56 years and group 2 - women aged 57-79 years. Body composition analysis and abdominal fat area assessment were conducted by using bioelectrical impedance method with BioScan 920 (Maltron int.) accordingly with standardized procedure. Women in early postmenopausal stage (Group 1) had statistically significant lower total body fat percentage in comparison with women in late postmenopausal period (Group 2) (41.09 ± 7.72% vs. 50.7 ± 9.88%, p=0.0021). Also women in group 1 were characterized by significant lower visceral fat area (VAT) as well as subcutaneous fat area (SAT) in comparison with group 2 (respectively VAT 119.25 ± 30.09 cm2 vs. 199.36 ± 87.38 cm2, p=0.0011; SAT 175.19 ±57.67 cm2 vs. 223.4±74.29 cm2, p=0.0336). According to VAT criteria (>120 cm2), 44% of women in group 1 and 80% in group 2 had excess of visceral fat. Both total body fat and intra-abdominal fat increased with age, independently of weight changes.

  4. Endogenous sex steroids and cardio- and cerebro-vascular disease in the postmenopausal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Theodora; Alevizaki, Maria

    2012-08-01

    Cardio- and cerebro-vascular diseases are two leading causes of death and long-term disability in postmenopausal women. The acute fall of estrogen in menopause is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The relative contribution of androgen to this risk is also being recognized. The use of more sensitive assays for estradiol measurement and the study of receptor and carrier protein gene polymorphisms have provided some new information on the clinical relevance of endogenous sex steroids. We provide an update on the role of endogenous sex steroids on cardio- and cerebro-vascular disease in the postmenopausal period. We performed a PubMed search using the terms 'endogenous estrogen', 'androgen', 'cardiovascular disease', 'cerebro-vascular disease', 'stroke', 'carotid artery disease', and 'subclinical atherosclerosis'. The majority of studies show a beneficial effect of endogenous estrogen on the vasculature; however, there are a few studies reporting the contrary. A significant body of literature has reported associations of endogenous estrogen and androgen with early markers of atherosclerosis and metabolic parameters. Data on the relevance of endogenous sex steroids in heart disease and stroke are inconclusive. Most studies support a beneficial role of endogenous estrogens and, probably, an adverse effect of androgens in the vasculature in postmenopausal women. However, the described associations may not always be considered as causal. It is possible that circulating estrogen might represent a marker of general health status or alternatively reflect the sum of endogenous androgens aromatized in the periphery. Elucidating the role of sex steroids in cardio- and cerebro-vascular disease remains an interesting field of future research.

  5. A-train CALIOP and MLS observations of early winter Antarctic polar stratospheric clouds and nitric acid in 2008

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    A. Lambert

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A-train Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS observations are used to investigate the development of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs and the gas-phase nitric acid distribution in the early 2008 Antarctic winter. Observational evidence of gravity-wave activity is provided by Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS radiances and infrared spectroscopic detection of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT in PSCs is obtained from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS. Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-5 DAS analyses are used to derive Lagrangian trajectories and to determine temperature-time histories of air parcels. We use CALIOP backscatter and depolarization measurements to classify PSCs and the MLS measurements to determine the corresponding gas-phase HNO3 as a function of temperature. For liquid PSCs the uptake of HNO3 follows the theoretical equilibrium curve for supercooled ternary solutions (STS, but at temperatures about 1 K lower as determined from GEOS-5. In the presence of solid phase PSCs, above the ice frost-point, the HNO3 depletion occurs over a wider range of temperatures (+2 to −7 K distributed about the NAT equilibrium curve. Rapid gas-phase HNO3 depletion is first seen by MLS from from 23–25 May 2008, consisting of a decrease in the volume mixing ratio from 14 ppbv (parts per billion by volume to 7 ppbv on the 46–32 hPa (hectopascal pressure levels and accompanied by a 2–3 ppbv increase by renitrification at the 68 hPa pressure level. The observed region of depleted HNO3 is substantially smaller than the region bounded by the NAT existence temperature threshold. Temperature-time histories of air parcels demonstrate that the depletion is more clearly correlated with prior exposure to temperatures a few kelvin above the frost-point. From the combined data we infer the presence

  6. Early pushing urge in labour and midwifery practice: a prospective observational study at an Italian maternity hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Sara E; Locatelli, Anna; Nespoli, Antonella

    2013-08-01

    to investigate the early pushing urge (EPU) incidence in one maternity unit and explore how it is managed by midwives. The relation to some obstetric outcomes was also observed but not analysed in depth. prospective observational study. Italian maternity hospital. 60 women (44 nullips and 16 multips) experiencing EPU during labour. the total EPU incidence percentage was 7.6%. The single midwives' incidences range had a very wide margin, noting an inverse proportion between the number of diagnoses of EPU and midwife's waiting time between urge to push and vaginal examination. Two care policies were adopted in relation to the phenomenon: the stop pushing technique (n=52/60) and the 'let the woman do what she feels' technique (n=8/60). In case of stop pushing techniques, midwives proposed several combined techniques (change of maternal position, blowing breath, vocalisation, use of the bath). The EPU diagnosis at less than 8cm of cervical dilatation was associated with more medical interventions. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were within the range of normal physiology. An association between the dilatation at EPU diagnosis and obstetric outcomes was observed, in particular the modality of childbirth and perineal outcomes. this paper contributes new knowledge to the body of literature around the EPU phenomenon during labour and midwifery practices adopted in response to it. Overall, it could be argued that EPU is a physiologic variation in labour if maternal and fetal conditions are good. Midwives might suggest techniques to woman to help her to stay with the pain, such as change of position, blowing breath, vocalisation and use of the bath. However, the impact of policies, guidelines and culture on midwifery practices of the specific setting are a limitation of the study because it is not representative of other similar maternity units. Thus, a larger scale work should be considered, including different units and settings. The optimal response to the phenomenon

  7. Prevalence of osteoporosis, vertebral fractures and hypovitaminosis D in postmenopausal women living in a rural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-de-Tejada Romero, María-Jesús; Navarro Rodríguez, María-del-Carmen; Saavedra Santana, Pedro; Quesada Gómez, José-Manuel; Jódar Gimeno, Esteban; Sosa Henríquez, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    First, to study the difference between two groups of postmenopausal women living in different population centres (rural vs urban) in the prevalence of osteoporosis, fragility fractures and factors which may influence them: hypovitaminosis D, bone mineral density, coexistence of other diseases which predispose to their appearance; secondly, to observe the influence of low socioeconomic status, categorised as poverty. 1229 postmenopausal women were studied, of whom 390 (31.7%), were living in rural areas and 839 (68.3%), in urban areas. Data regarding risk factors related to osteoporosis were obtained, and, among other biochemical measures, 25 hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone were determined. Bone densitometry was carried out in the lumbar spine and proximal femur, as well as lateral X-rays of the dorsal and lumbar spine. The women who lived in rural areas were older, shorter, heavier and had a higher body mass index than those from urban areas. Among the women from rural areas there was a higher prevalence of poverty, and higher levels of obesity, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus were observed, as well as a higher prevalence of densitometric osteoporosis. The rural women had lower values of bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and a higher prevalence of vertebral fractures and hypovitaminosis D. The variables which were associated independently with living in rural areas were poverty, obesity, vertebral fractures, BMD in the lumbar spine and levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D. In our study, postmenopausal women who live in rural populations have more poverty, lower values of vitamin D, lower BMD in the lumbar spine and a higher prevalence of vertebral fractures and of osteoporosis. The higher prevalence of obesity, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus observed in these women may be adjuvant factors, all fostered by their socioeconomic state of poverty. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Adolescent pregnancy is associated with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Geum Joon; Shin, Jung-Ho; Yi, Kyong Wook; Park, Hyun Tae; Kim, Tak; Hur, Jun Young; Kim, Sun Haeng

    2012-04-01

    Adolescence is a critical time of life to accumulate bone for peak bone mass. Factors that may interfere with bone mass accrual during this period may increase the risk of osteoporosis. Several studies have reported that pregnancy during adolescence has detrimental effects on bone mass measurements after pregnancy. However, less is known about how adolescent pregnancy affects bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis after menopause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between adolescent pregnancy and osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 719 postmenopausal women, all of whom were enrolled in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008. BMD was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Postmenopausal women with histories of adolescent pregnancy had lower BMD of the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine than did women without histories of adolescent pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that postmenopausal women with history of adolescent pregnancy were at increased risk of osteoporosis (odds ratio, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.12-4.30) compared with women without history of adolescent pregnancy after adjustments for age, body mass index, marital status, education level, household income, alcohol intake, smoking history, exercise, age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, hormone therapy use, intake of energy and calcium, and vitamin D level. Adolescent pregnancy may be a predictor of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

  9. Menopause and postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curhan, Sharon G; Eliassen, A Heather; Eavey, Roland D; Wang, Molin; Lin, Brian M; Curhan, Gary C

    2017-09-01

    Menopause may be a risk factor for hearing loss, and postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) has been proposed to slow hearing decline; however, there are no large prospective studies. We prospectively examined the independent relations between menopause and postmenopausal HT and risk of self-reported hearing loss. Prospective cohort study among 80,972 women in the Nurses' Health Study II, baseline age 27 to 44 years, followed from 1991 to 2013. Baseline and updated information was obtained from detailed validated biennial questionnaires. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to examine independent associations between menopausal status and postmenopausal HT and risk of hearing loss. After 1,410,928 person-years of follow-up, 18,558 cases of hearing loss were reported. There was no significant overall association between menopausal status, natural or surgical, and risk of hearing loss. Older age at natural menopause was associated with higher risk. The multivariable-adjusted relative risk of hearing loss among women who underwent natural menopause at age 50+ years compared with those aged less than 50 years was 1.10 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03, 1.17). Among postmenopausal women, oral HT (estrogen therapy or estrogen plus progestogen therapy) was associated with higher risk of hearing loss, and longer duration of use was associated with higher risk (P trend menopause and longer duration of postmenopausal HT are associated with higher risk of hearing loss.

  10. Lasofoxifene for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Michael Lewiecki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available E Michael LewieckiNew Mexico Clinical Research & Osteoporosis Center, Albuquerque, NM, USAAbstract: Lasofoxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (estrogen agonist/antagonist that has completed phase III trials to evaluate safety and efficacy for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and for the treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. In postmenopausal women with low or normal bone mineral density (BMD, lasofoxifene increased BMD at the lumbar spine and hip and reduced bone turnover markers compared with placebo. In women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, lasofoxifene increased BMD, reduced bone turnover markers, reduced the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures, and decreased the risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. In postmenopausal women with low bone mass, lasofoxifene improved the signs and symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy. Clinical trials show that lasofoxifene is generally well tolerated with mild to moderate adverse events that commonly resolve even with drug continuation. Lasofoxifene has been associated with an increase in the incidence of venous thromboembolic events, hot flushes, muscle spasm, and vaginal bleeding. It is approved for the treatment of postmenopausal women at increased risk for fracture in some countries and is in the regulatory review process in others.Keywords: osteoporosis, SERM, fracture, efficacy, safety, BMD, CP-336,156

  11. [Sedentarism and physical fitness in postmenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Silvia; Gómez-Cabello, Alba; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Casajús, José Antonio; Ara, Ignacio; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2013-01-01

    The aging process is accompanied by several changes, such as a decrease in physical fitness. To establish the relationship between a sedentary behavior (sit ≥4 hours/day) and physical fitness in 457 women aged 65 years or older. Physical fitness was evaluated by 8 adapted tests from "Senior Fitness Test" and "Eurofit Testing Battery". ANOVA was used to analyze differences between groups according to the hours of sitting and logistic regression analysis was used to study the association of the sedentary behavior with low fitness, using as reference the 20th percentile of the normative values in Spain (EXERNET Project). Sedentary women had lower balance, legs and arms strength, arms flexibility, walking speed and endurance (p < 0.05). In addition, those women who sat ≥4 hours/day had higher odds for having low fitness in most of the mentioned tests, regardless of the hours of walking (p < 0.05). Sitting for a long time has a negative influence on physical fitness among postmenopausal women independently of walking time. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of a MAST Exercise Program on Anthropometric Parameters, Physical Fitness, and Serum Lipid Levels in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trabka Bartosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine an influence of a mixed aerobic and strength training program (MAST on anthropometry, serum lipid levels, physical performance, and functional fitness in obese postmenopausal women. The MAST sessions were held three times per week, and the exercise program lasted for 10 weeks. The exercise group demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake, a waist/hip ratio, and strength of the upper and lower body. An increase in LDL-C levels was observed in the control group. A 10-week MAST program encompassing Nordic-walking as an aerobic component, and strength exercises, induces positive changes in functional fitness, HDL-C, LDL-C and a waist/hip ratio in obese postmenopausal women. The observed changes implicate an increase in a health-related quality of life among the women administered to the physical exercise program

  13. Brain urea increase is an early Huntington's disease pathogenic event observed in a prodromal transgenic sheep model and HD cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Renee R; Reid, Suzanne J; Brauning, Rudiger; Maclean, Paul; Mears, Emily R; Fourie, Imche; Patassini, Stefano; Cooper, Garth J S; Rudiger, Skye R; McLaughlan, Clive J; Verma, Paul J; Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Waldvogel, Henry J; Bawden, C Simon; Faull, Richard L M; Snell, Russell G

    2017-12-26

    The neurodegenerative disorder Huntington's disease (HD) is typically characterized by extensive loss of striatal neurons and the midlife onset of debilitating and progressive chorea, dementia, and psychological disturbance. HD is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the Huntingtin ( HTT ) gene, translating to an elongated glutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. The pathogenic mechanism resulting in cell dysfunction and death beyond the causative mutation is not well defined. To further delineate the early molecular events in HD, we performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) on striatal tissue from a cohort of 5-y-old OVT73 -line sheep expressing a human CAG-expansion HTT cDNA transgene. Our HD OVT73 sheep are a prodromal model and exhibit minimal pathology and no detectable neuronal loss. We identified significantly increased levels of the urea transporter SLC14A1 in the OVT73 striatum, along with other important osmotic regulators. Further investigation revealed elevated levels of the metabolite urea in the OVT73 striatum and cerebellum, consistent with our recently published observation of increased urea in postmortem human brain from HD cases. Extending that finding, we demonstrate that postmortem human brain urea levels are elevated in a larger cohort of HD cases, including those with low-level neuropathology (Vonsattel grade 0/1). This elevation indicates increased protein catabolism, possibly as an alternate energy source given the generalized metabolic defect in HD. Increased urea and ammonia levels due to dysregulation of the urea cycle are known to cause neurologic impairment. Taken together, our findings indicate that aberrant urea metabolism could be the primary biochemical disruption initiating neuropathogenesis in HD.

  14. Use of the Earth Observing One (EO-1) Satellite for the Namibia SensorWeb Flood Early Warning Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart; Cappelaere, Pat; Handy, Matthew; Policelli, Fritz; Katjizeu, McCloud; Van Langenhove, Guido; Aube, Guy; Saulnier, Jean-Francois; Sohlberg, Rob; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite was launched in November 2000 as a one year technology demonstration mission for a variety of space technologies. After the first year, it was used as a pathfinder for the creation of SensorWebs. A SensorWeb is the integration of variety of space, airborne and ground sensors into a loosely coupled collaborative sensor system that automatically provides useful data products. Typically, a SensorWeb is comprised of heterogeneous sensors tied together with a messaging architecture and web services. Disasters are the perfect arena to use SensorWebs. One SensorWeb pilot project that has been active since 2009 is the Namibia Early Flood Warning SensorWeb pilot project. The Pilot Project was established under the auspices of the Namibian Ministry of Agriculture Water and Forestry (MAWF)/Department of Water Affairs, the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS)/Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) and moderated by the United Nations Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER). The effort began by identifying and prototyping technologies which enabled the rapid gathering and dissemination of both space-based and ground sensor data and data products for the purpose of flood disaster management and water-borne disease management. This was followed by an international collaboration to build small portions of the identified system which was prototyped during that past few years during the flood seasons which occurred in the February through May timeframe of 2010 and 2011 with further prototyping to occur in 2012. The SensorWeb system features EO-1 data along with other data sets from such satellites as Radarsat, Terra and Aqua. Finally, the SensorWeb team also began to examine the socioeconomic component to determine the impact of the SensorWeb technology and how best to assist in the infusion of this technology in lesser affluent areas with low levels of basic

  15. Histological Pattern Of Endometrial Samples In Postmenopausal Women With Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeba, Farhat; Shaista; Khan, Bushra

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the most common clinical problems in gynaecological practice and is an indicator of various underlying disorders. An endometrial biopsy should be done in all women over 35 years with AUB to rule out endometrial cancer or pre-malignant lesion and to initiate treatment. However, wide range of histological patterns on endometrial biopsy offer a diagnostic challenge to practicing pathologists. The objective of this study was to determine histological patterns of endometrium in postmenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology, Benazir Bhutto Shaheed women and children teaching hospital, Abbottabad from 15/11/2014 to 14/05/2015. This study involved 110 postmenopausal women presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding. A written informed consent was obtained from every patient. The mean age of the patients was 61.60±6.17 years and the mean duration of AUB was 5.20±2.80 years. Most of the patients were para 6 (28.2%) and para 5 (28.2%) followed by para 4 (18.2%) and para 3 (17.3%) while only 8.2% were para 1. The most common histological pattern observed was complex hyperplasia without atypia (30.9%) followed by atrophic endometrium (24.5%), simple hyperplasia (23.6%), malignancy (12.7%), complex hyperplasia with atypia (4.5%) and benign endometrial polyp (3.6%). When stratified the data, there was no significant difference of histological patterns across various age groups (p=.673), duration of AUB (p=.064) and parity (p=.242). The most common histological pattern observed in postmenopausal women with AUB was complex hyperplasia without atypia (30.9%) followed by atrophic endometrium (24.5%), simple hyperplasia (23.6%), malignancy (12.7%), complex hyperplasia with atypia (4.5%) and benign endometrial polyp (3.6%).

  16. Relationship between dynapenia and cardiorespiratory functions in healthy postmenopausal women: novel clinical criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbat-Artigas, Seébastien; Dupontgand, Sophie; Fex, Annie; Karelis, Antony D; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène

    2011-04-01

    Muscle strength seems to be a better indicator of physical limitations than skeletal muscle mass is. The purpose of this study was to investigate, using a new developed clinical tool, the relationship between type I dynapenia and cardiorespiratory functions in postmenopausal women. Forty-six postmenopausal women were recruited and divided into two groups (dynapenic vs nondynapenic). Body composition (bioelectrical impedancemetry), muscle strength (dynamometer), cardiorespiratory functions (maximum oxygen consumption and forced expiratory volume in 1 second), resting energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry), and dietary intake (3-d dietary journal) were measured. Type I dynapenia was defined as less than 1.53 kg per skeletal muscle mass (kg) based on handgrip dynamometer. Significant differences were found between dynapenic (n=23) and nondynapenic (n=23) postmenopausal women for cardiorespiratory functions (maximum oxygen consumption, P=0.003; and forced expiratory volume in 1 second, P=0.046). We observed no differences between groups for age, age at menopause, use of hormone therapy, body mass index, waist circumference, fat mass, resting energy expenditure, and total energy intake, which are known to be potential confounders. No differences were observed for cardiorespiratory functions when our population was divided into sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic groups. Type I dynapenic women have significantly poorer cardiorespiratory functions that do nondynapenic women even if they presented the same skeletal muscle mass index. Thus, based on our results, dynapenia could potentially be used as a marker of cardiorespiratory functions. The clinical method developed to identify dynapenic women could be used by health professionals. © 2011 by The North American Menopause Society

  17. Pharmacotherapy of cardiovascular comorbidities in osteoporotic postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda V. Izmozherova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to assess tolerability and efficacy of cardiovascular comorbidities pharmacotherapy in osteoporotic postmenopausal women. Methods: cross-sectional study included 112 osteoporotic postmenopausal women aged from 49 to 85. Results: 95 persons (84.8% had indications for angiotensine-convertising enzyme inhibitors (ACEI prescription. Cough was associated with significantly higher odds of coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure and a trend to multiple bone fractures. Valsartan was initiated in 32 coughing patients. Target blood pressure level was reached in 15 women. In 15 cases blood pressure levels decreased by 30% of baseline level. Conclusion: efficacy of cardiovascular diseases in osteoporotic postmenopausal women treatment needs to be assessed in specially designed clinical trials.

  18. TV sonographic assessment in postmenopausal women with bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikouras, P; Liberis, V; Galazios, G; Grapsas, X; Kantari, P; Papageorgiou, S; Maroulis, G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the usefulness of transvaginal sonography for the detection of endometrial disease in postmenopausal women with bleeding. This study involved 275 postmenopausal women aged 47-81 years (median 62). None of them were on hormone replacement therapy and all had had amenorrhea for more than one year. Concerning the age of the study patients, we confirm that endometrial cancer occurs at any age, but more commonly in ages above 58 years. Transvaginal sonography was performed in all women. About 89.2% of malignant diseases were discovered in the study women whose endometrial thickness was above 4 mm, but we also found endometrial cancer in 10.2% of the cases in women whose endometrial thickness was below 4 mm. In postmenopausal symptomatic women premalignant or malignant causes of bleeding can not be excluded with just transvaginal ultrasound.

  19. Fractal dimension analysis in digital periapical radiographs: A diagnostic indicator of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathivanan Kavitha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the alveolar bone density by fractal dimension (FD analysis in radiovisiograph of postmenopausal women of mandibular posterior region and to correlate FD values with t-scores of quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus bone. Materials and Methods: This study, approved by the institutional review board, included 40 participants, aged 45–60 years divided into two groups. Twenty postmenopausal women with osteoporosis comprised group 1, and 20 postmenopausal women without osteoporosis comprised group 2 based on bone mineral density assessment of ultrasound of the calcaneus bone. Digital dental radiograph of mandibular first molar were obtained and used for assessing alveolar bone density by FD analysis and were correlated with t-scores of ultrasound of calcaneus bone. Results: The mean FD values were evaluated using SPSS 14 version software, and were found to be 1.738 and 1.867 for group 1 and group 2, respectively, which was statistically significant (P 0.05. Conclusion: FD analysis using direct digital periapical radiographs is a novel method, which can be used for early diagnosis of osteoporosis in the alveolar bone.

  20. Tailoring endocrine treatment for early breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontein, Duveken Berthe Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes several important aspects of adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-sensitive, early-stage breast cancer. In our ongoing efforts to tailor treatment so as to provide the best possible care to each of our patients, we studied the influence of various

  1. BONE MARKERS IN MONITORING OF ANTIRESORPTIVE THERAPY IN POSTMENOPAUSAL OSTEOPOROSIS PATIENTS

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    Tanja Džopalić

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of two modalities of antiosteoporotic therapy in postmenopausal women at the level of biochemical markers of bone turnover such as bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP and deoxypiridinoline (Dpd as well as bone mineral density (BMD. The study included 87 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis (OP. Group A consisted of 48 patients treated with alendronate (AL, whereas group B included 39 patients treated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT. BMD was measured by Lunar DPX 2000 device, on the lumbar spine and the femur, and bone markers (BM were measured by commercial ELISA assays. There was a statistically significant decrease in the levels of BALP and Dpd after 6 weeks and 8 months of both types of therapy compared to the level of these markers before therapy. There was a statistically significant increase of BMD on both locations after 8 months of both therapies. In addition, there was a statistically significantly higher degree of changes of Dpd values in the group treated with AL than in the group treated with HRT. On the other hand, the changes in the level of BALP were significantly higher in the group treated with HRT. We concluded that the early effect of the two studied antiosteoporotic medications can be monitored by changes in the levels of BM. Dpd as bone resorption marker proved to be a better indicator of the efficiency of applied medications compared to bone formation markers such as BALP.

  2. Cyproterone acetate, an alternative gestagen in postmenopausal estrogen/gestagen therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riis, B.J.; Jensen, J.; Christiansen, C.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy six healthy, early postmenopausal women (aged 45-54 years) were allocated to 2 years of treatment with a cyclic combination of 2 mg estradiol valerate (21 days) and 1 mg cyproterone acetate (11 days) or placebo. Sixty five women (86%) completed the study. In the hormone treated group there was a significant decrease in biochemical estimates of bone turnover (serum alkaline phosphatase, serum phosphate, fasting urinary calcium and hydroxyproline), whereas these values were unchanged placebo treated group. In the placebo group the bone mineral content in the forearms (measured by single photon absorptiometry) and the bone mineral content in the lumbar spine and in the total skeleton (measured by dual photon absorptiometry) decreased significantly and at the same magnitude (p < 0.001), whereas all bone mass measurements remained unchanged in the hormone treated group. From the present study it can be concluded that treatment with a cyclic combination of 2 mg estradiol valerate and 1 mg cyproterone acetate is effective as prophylaxis in postmenopausal osteoporosis

  3. Comparison of metabolic ratios of urinary estrogens between benign and malignant thyroid tumors in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Estrogen metabolism may be associated with the pathophysiological development of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods To evaluate the differential estrogen metabolism between benign and malignant PTCs, estrogen profiling by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was applied to urine samples from postmenopausal patients with 9 benign tumors and 18 malignant stage I and III/IV PTCs. Results The urinary concentration of 2-methoxyestradiol was significantly lower in the stage I malignant patients (3.5-fold; P 3.5-fold difference; P < 0.002). In particular, the estriol/16α-OH-estrone ratio differentiated between the benign and early-stage malignant patients (P < 0.01). Conclusions Increased 16α-hydroxylation and/or a decreased 2-/16α-ratio, as well increased reductive 17β-HSD, with regard to estrogen metabolism could provide potential biomarkers. The devised profiles could be useful for differentiating malignant thyroid carcinomas from benign adenomas in postmenopausal women. PMID:24156385

  4. Oral estradiol decreases plasma homocysteine, vitamin B6, and albumin in postmenopausal women but does not change the whole-body homocysteine remethylation and transmethylation flux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, R. G. V.; de Meer, K.; Kenemans, P.; Jakobs, C.; Kulik, W.; van der Mooren, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    Estrogens, both endogenous and exogenous, lower the fasting levels of the independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease homocysteine. The mechanism behind this observation remains unclear. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, 25 postmenopausal women with a screening

  5. HIV-1 persistence following extremely early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART during acute HIV-1 infection: An observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Henrich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is unknown if extremely early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART may lead to long-term ART-free HIV remission or cure. As a result, we studied 2 individuals recruited from a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP program who started prophylactic ART an estimated 10 days (Participant A; 54-year-old male and 12 days (Participant B; 31-year-old male after infection with peak plasma HIV RNA of 220 copies/mL and 3,343 copies/mL, respectively. Extensive testing of blood and tissue for HIV persistence was performed, and PrEP Participant A underwent analytical treatment interruption (ATI following 32 weeks of continuous ART.Colorectal and lymph node tissues, bone marrow, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF, plasma, and very large numbers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were obtained longitudinally from both participants and were studied for HIV persistence in several laboratories using molecular and culture-based detection methods, including a murine viral outgrowth assay (mVOA. Both participants initiated PrEP with tenofovir/emtricitabine during very early Fiebig stage I (detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA, antibody negative followed by 4-drug ART intensification. Following peak viral loads, both participants experienced full suppression of HIV-1 plasma viremia. Over the following 2 years, no further HIV could be detected in blood or tissue from PrEP Participant A despite extensive sampling from ileum, rectum, lymph nodes, bone marrow, CSF, circulating CD4+ T cell subsets, and plasma. No HIV was detected from tissues obtained from PrEP Participant B, but low-level HIV RNA or DNA was intermittently detected from various CD4+ T cell subsets. Over 500 million CD4+ T cells were assayed from both participants in a humanized mouse outgrowth assay. Three of 8 mice infused with CD4+ T cells from PrEP Participant B developed viremia (50 million input cells/surviving mouse, but only 1 of 10 mice infused with CD4+ T cells from PrEP Participant A (53 million input

  6. Influence of lifestyle factors on mammographic density in postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S Brand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Apart from hormone replacement therapy (HRT, little is known about lifestyle factors that influence breast density. METHODS: We examined the effect of smoking, alcohol and physical activity on mammographic density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire and percentage and area measures of mammographic density were measured using computer-assisted software. General linear models were used to assess the association between lifestyle factors and mammographic density and effect modification by body mass index (BMI and HRT was studied. RESULTS: Overall, alcohol intake was positively associated with percent mammographic density (P trend  = 0.07. This association was modified by HRT use (P interaction  = 0.06: increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing percent density in current HRT users (P trend  = 0.01 but not in non-current users (P trend  = 0.82. A similar interaction between alcohol and HRT was found for the absolute dense area, with a positive association being present in current HRT users only (P interaction  = 0.04. No differences in mammographic density were observed across categories of smoking and physical activity, neither overall nor in stratified analyses by BMI and HRT use. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing alcohol intake is associated with an increase in mammography density, whereas smoking and physical activity do not seem to influence density. The observed interaction between alcohol and HRT may pose an opportunity for HRT users to lower their mammographic density and breast cancer risk.

  7. Efficacy of early intervention of motor relearning program on post-stroke hemiplemia:A randomized controlled observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Xue; Liang Bai; Qingrong Guo; Chengrong Yang; Jie Lu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies believed that the effect of rehabilitation training within 6 months after stroke (early rehabilitation training) is usually unsatisfactory. The rehabilitation training when acute stroke is stabilized may be better for the recovery of limb function.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of the rehabilitation training of motor relearning program plus Bobath technique on the motor function of limbs, nerve function and activities of daily life (ADL) in patients with acute stroke hemiplegia.DESIGN: A randomized controlled observation.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Yaan People's Hospital.PARTICrPANTS: A total of 150 patients with acute post-stroke hemiplegia were selected from the Department of Neurology, Yaan People's Hospital from March 2000 to October 2002. The patients were all accorded with the diagnostic standards about stroke set by the Fifth National Academic Meeting for Cerebrovascular Disease (1996), confirmed by CT and MRI, and they were all informed with the interventions and the items of evaluation. The enrolled patients were randomly divided into training group (n=78) and control group (n=72) at admission. METHODS: ① Interventions: All the patients were given routine treatments for stroke, including managin blood pressure, maintaining the balance of hydrolyte and electrolure, reducing intracranial pressure by dehydration,and venous injection of citicoline, besides those in the training group received rehabilitation training by motor relearning program and Bobath technique. The rehabilitation training began after the vital signs became stable within 24 hours to 3 days after attack for the patients with cerebral infarction and 48 hours to 5 days after attack for those with cerebral hemorrhage respectively, three times a day in the morning, at noon and in the evening respectively, 30 minutes for each time, they were trained for 1 month. Lying position: The patients should keep the anti-spasm posture in the supine position

  8. Association between oxidative stress index and post-CPR early mortality in cardiac arrest patients: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Hasan; Türkdoğan, Kenan Ahmet; Zorlu, Ali; Aydın, Hüseyin; Kurt, Recep; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2015-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a series of lifesaving actions that improve the chance of survival following cardiac arrest (CA). Many clinical and laboratory parameters, such as the presence of asystole, out-of-hospital CPR, and duration of cardiac arrest, are associated with failed CPR in patients with CA. Asystole is a state of no cardiac electrical activity, along with the absence of contractions of the myocardium and absence of cardiac output. Oxidative stress index (OSI), which is the ratio of total oxidative status to total antioxidant status, increases by ischemia-reperfusion injury. We investigated whether OSI levels in patients with CA could predict early mortality after CPR. This study has a prospective observational cohort design. Five patients with a history of cancer, four patients who developed hemolysis in their blood, six patients who were transferred to our hospital from other hospitals, and six patients in whom blood samples for OSI could not be stored properly were excluded. Finally, a total of 90 in-hospital or out-of-hospital CA patients and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers as the control group were evaluated prospectively. The patients were classified according to the CPR response into a successful group (n=46) and a failed group (n=44). Comparisons between groups were performed using one-way ANOVA with post hoc analysis by Tukey's HSD or independent samples t-test and the Kruskal-Wallis tests or Mann- Whitney U test for normally and abnormally distributed data, respectively. Also, we used chi-square test, Spearman's correlation test, univariate and multible logistic regression analyses, and receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. OSI was 3.0±4.0, 5.6±4.3, and 8.7±3.8 in the control group, the successful CPR group, and the failed CPR group, respectively (pOSI on admission, ischemia-modified albumin, presence of asystole, mean duration of cardiac arrest, out-of-hospital CPR, pH, and potassium and sodium levels were

  9. Age of menopause and fracture risk in postmenopausal women randomized to calcium + vitamin D, hormone therapy, or the combination: results from the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Shannon D; Lehman, Amy; Nathan, Nisha K; Thomson, Cynthia A; Howard, Barbara V

    2017-04-01

    We previously reported that in the absence of hormone therapy (HT) or calcium/vitamin D (Ca/D) supplementation, earlier menopause age was associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk in healthy postmenopausal women. Treatment with HT and Ca/D is protective against fractures after menopause. In this analysis, we asked if the age of menopause onset alters fracture risk in healthy postmenopausal women receiving HT, Ca/D, or a combination. Hazard ratios (HRs) for any fracture among 21,711 healthy postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial, who were treated with HT, Ca/D, or HT + Ca/D, and who reported age of nonsurgical menopause of menopause menopause 40 to 49 or ≥50 years, regardless of treatment intervention (HR [95% CI]: menopause menopause menopause age (menopause ages. The effect of menopause age on fracture risk was not altered by any of the treatment interventions (HT, Ca/D, HT + Ca/D), suggesting that early age of menopause is an independent contributor to postmenopausal fracture risk.

  10. Prevalence of urogenital symptoms among Colombian indigenous postmenopausal women = Prevalencia de la sintomatología urogenital en mujeres indígenas colombianas enposmenopausia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez Vega, Jhonmer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Deterioration of life quality in postmenopausal women differs according to their ethnicity.Objective: To compare the frequency of urogenital symptoms and the deterioration of the urogenital dimension in indigenous postmenopausal women belonging to three different communities.Methods: By means of the Menopausal Rating Scale, 609 indigenous postmenopausal women, aged between 40-59 years, were studied: 161 (26.4% belonged to different Amazonic tribes, 297 (48.8% were Zenu and 151 (24.8%, Wayuu.Results: Scores in the urogenital dimension were as follows: 3.8 ± 3.2 in the Amazonic women; 6.2 ± 1.3 in the Zenu community, and 2.9 ± 2.6 among the Wayuu. The score for the whole group was 4.8 ± 2.7; all these scores are higher than those of other Colombian and Latinamerican populations. Total score in the MRS was 13.8 ± 8.2 (Amazonic women, 14.7 ± 2.5 (Zenu, and 10.0 ± 6.7 (Wayuu. In the whole group, 9.1% had severe symptoms concerning sexual problems, 48.0% had urinary incontinence, and 12.1% suffered from vaginal dryness. The urogenital dimension was altered in 42%.Conclusion: Indigenous postmenopausal Colombian women belonging to different communities have high prevalence and early appearance of symptoms related to the urogenital dimension. Half of the studied population, with average age 53 years, have urogenital deterioration.

  11. Vitamin C supplement intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk: interaction with dietary vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeau, Claire; Fournier, Agnès; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2016-07-01

    Experimental and epidemiologic studies have yielded conflicting results on the relation between vitamin C intake and breast cancer risk. We investigated the relation between vitamin C supplement intake and breast cancer risk while considering dietary vitamin C intake. Between 1995 and 2008, 2482 invasive breast cancer cases occurred in 57,403 postmenopausal women from the Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) prospective cohort during 581,085 person-years. We estimated vitamin C intake from foods with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire that was sent to subjects in 1993-1995 and vitamin C supplement use via questionnaires sent in 1995, 2000, 2002, and 2005. Multivariable HRs (95% CIs) for primary invasive breast cancer were estimated with the use of Cox regression models. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Vitamin C supplement use (ever compared with never) was not associated with breast cancer risk overall; it was associated with higher breast cancer risk in women in the fourth quartile of vitamin C intake from foods (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.67) but not in other quartiles of dietary vitamin C intake (P-interaction = 0.03). We observed that vitamin C supplement use was associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk in women with high vitamin C intake from foods. Our data suggest a potential U- or J-shaped relation between total vitamin C intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk that deserves further investigation. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Association between duration of reproductive lifespan and Framingham risk score in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Hyun; Sim, Mu Yul; Park, Sat Byul

    2015-12-01

    The benefit of estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women is still uncertain. Based upon extensive observational data, it was believed that estrogen was cardioprotective. The relationship between the period of exposure to endogenous estrogens and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has not been studied in Korean women. To assess associations between reproductive lifespan and CVD by using the Framingham risk score (FRS) in postmenopausal Korean women. This cross-sectional, population-based study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) for the five years 2008-2012,after adjustment for relevant variables using complex sample analysis and data weighting. Among 25,534 women, 1973 women were enrolled, after excluding those 80 years of age (n=6194), those with diabetes, CVD or cancer (n=491), those with unrecorded physical measurements (n=7335), those with menarche age ≤8 years or ≥20 years (n=6194), and premenopausal women (n=3347). The FRS tended to show a significant negative correlation with the reproductive lifespan (preproductive lifespan and FRS (adjusted relative risk [RR] for reproductive years [shortest lifespan group] compared with 28-33 reproductive years [moderate lifespan group], 1.2, p33 reproductive years [longest lifespan group] compared with 28-33 reproductive years [moderate lifespan group], -0.42, p=0.011). A longer reproductive lifespan is associated with a lower estimated risk of CVD in the next 10 years in postmenopausal women. This result suggests that estrogen has a long-term protective effect against CVD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of the phytoestrogen genistein on bone metabolism in osteopenic postmenopausal women: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Herbert; Minutoli, Letteria; Polito, Francesca; Bitto, Alessandra; Altavilla, Domenica; Atteritano, Marco; Gaudio, Agostino; Mazzaferro, Susanna; Frisina, Alessia; Frisina, Nicola; Lubrano, Carla; Bonaiuto, Michele; D'Anna, Rosario; Cannata, Maria Letizia; Corrado, Francesco; Adamo, Elena Bianca; Wilson, Steven; Squadrito, Francesco

    2007-06-19

    Observational studies and small trials of short duration suggest that the isoflavone phytoestrogen genistein reduces bone loss, but the evidence is not definitive. To assess the effects of genistein on bone metabolism in osteopenic postmenopausal women. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 3 university medical centers in Italy. 389 postmenopausal women with a bone mineral density (BMD) less than 0.795 g/cm2 at the femoral neck and no significant comorbid conditions. After a 4-week stabilization period during which participants received a low-soy, reduced-fat diet, participants were randomly assigned to receive placebo (n = 191) or 54 mg of genistein (n = 198) daily for 24 months. Both the genistein and placebo tablets contained calcium and vitamin D. The primary outcome was BMD at the anteroposterior lumbar spine and femoral neck at 24 months. Secondary outcomes were serum levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and insulin-like growth factor I, urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline, and endometrial thickness. Data on adverse events were also collected. At 24 months, BMD had increased in genistein recipients and decreased in placebo recipients at the anteroposterior lumbar spine (change, 0.049 g/cm2 [95% CI, 0.035 to 0.059] vs. -0.053 g/cm2 [CI, -0.058 to -0.035]; difference, 0.10 g/cm2 [CI, 0.08 to 0.12]; P power to evaluate adverse effects. Twenty-four months of treatment with genistein has positive effects on BMD in osteopenic postmenopausal women. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00355953.

  14. Comparison of raloxifene and bisphosphonates based on adherence and treatment satisfaction in postmenopausal Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasion, Ellewellyn G; Sivananthan, Shanmugam K; Kung, Annie Wai-Chee; Chen, Sung-Hsiung; Chen, Yen-Jen; Mirasol, Roberto; Tay, Boon Keng; Shah, Ghazanfar Ali; Khan, Mansoor Ali; Tam, Frances; Hall, Belinda J; Thiebaud, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated adherence with raloxifene therapy compared with daily bisphosphonate in Asian postmenopausal women at increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. In this 12-month observational study conducted in Asia (Hong Kong, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan), 984 postmenopausal women (aged 55 years or older) were treated with raloxifene 60 mg/day (n = 707; 72%) or daily bisphosphonate (alendronate 10 mg/day; n = 206; 21%, or risedronate 5 mg/day; n = 71; 7%) during their normal course of care. Patients were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Baseline characteristics (including age, race, education, menopausal status, and baseline fractures) were comparable between the raloxifene and bisphosphonate groups. More women on raloxifene completed the study compared with those on bisphosphonate (50.2% versus 37.5%; P < 0.001). Patients also took raloxifene for a longer period than bisphosphonate (median, 356 versus 348 days; P = 0.011). Compared with those taking bisphosphonate, significantly fewer patients taking raloxifene discontinued the study because of stopping treatment (5.7% versus 10.1%, P = 0.017) or changing treatment (2.8% versus 9.7%, P < 0.001). Inconvenient dosing was reported as a primary reason for discontinuation due to stopping or changing treatment in 19 (6.9%) bisphosphonate patients compared with 0 raloxifene patients. The percentage of patients who had consumed 80% or more of their study medication was similar for raloxifene patients (48-56 weeks; 95.2%) and bisphosphonate patients (48-56 weeks; 93.3%). More raloxifene patients responded that they were satisfied with their medication than bisphosphonate patients at 48-56 weeks (P = 0.002). We concluded that Asian postmenopausal women at increased risk of osteoporotic fractures showed a greater propensity to remain on raloxifene compared with bisphosphonate. The women on raloxifene exhibited lower discontinuation rates and higher treatment satisfaction.

  15. Effects of focal vibration on bone mineral density and motor performance of postmenopausal osteoporotic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, O; Botti, F M; Brunetti, A; Biscarini, A; Scarponi, A M; Filippi, G M; Pettorossi, V E

    2015-01-01

    This randomized double blind controlled study is aimed at determining the effect of repeated vibratory stimuli focally applied to the contracted quadriceps muscles (repeated muscle vibration=rMV) on bone mineral density, leg power and balance of postmenopausal osteoporotic women. The study has been conducted on 40 voluntary postmenopausal osteoporotic women, randomised at 2 groups for rMV treatment and for control. The treatment group underwent rMV (100Hz, 300-500 μm; three applications per day, each lasting 10-minutes, for 3 consecutive days) applied to voluntary contracted quadriceps (VC=vibrated and contracted group). The control group, received a sham stimulation on contracted quadriceps (NV=non vibrated group). Bone mineral density T-score of proximal femur of the participants, was evaluated in two weeks before and 360 days after intervention; body balance and explosive leg power were measured 1 day before, 30 days and 360 days after treatment. VC group T-score at one year didn't change significantly relative to baseline values (pretreatment: -2.61±0.11, post-treatment -2.62±0.13); conversely in NV subjects T-score decreased significantly from -2.64 ± 0.15 SD down to -2.99 ± 0.28 SD. A significant improvement of balance and explosive leg power was observed only in VC group at 30 and 360 days after the intervention. We conclude that rMV is a safe, short-lasting and non-invasive treatment that can significantly and persistently improve muscle performance and can effectively counteract progressive demineralisation in postmenopausal and osteoporotic women.

  16. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone turnover markers in Palestinian postmenopausal osteoporosis and normal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharroubi, Akram; Saba, Elias; Smoom, Riham; Bader, Khaldoun; Darwish, Hisham

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the association of vitamin D and bone markers with the development osteoporosis in Palestinian postmenopausal women. Even though vitamin D deficiency was very high for the recruited subjects, it was not associated with osteoporosis except for bones of the hip. Age and obesity were the strongest determining factors of the disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of bone mineral density (BMD) with serum vitamin D levels, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, obesity, and bone turnover markers in Palestinian postmenopausal women. Three hundred eighty-two postmenopausal women (≥45 years) were recruited from various women clinics for BMD assessment (131 women had osteoporosis and 251 were normal and served as controls). Blood samples were obtained for serum calcium, PTH, 25(OH)D, bone formation (N-terminal propeptide (PINP)), and bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX1)) markers. Women with osteoporosis had statistically significant lower mean weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and serum calcium (p osteoporosis decreased with increasing BMI (overweight OR = 0.11, p = 0.053; obese OR = 0.05, p = 0.007). There was no direct correlation between BMD and PTH, bone turnover markers, and vitamin D except at the lumbar spine. A negative correlation between BMD and age and a positive correlation with BMI were observed. The protective effect of obesity on osteoporosis was complicated by the effect of obesity on vitamin D and PTH.

  17. Genome-wide association study of circulating estradiol, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin in postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Prescott

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have successfully identified common genetic variants that contribute to breast cancer risk. Discovering additional variants has become difficult, as power to detect variants of weaker effect with present sample sizes is limited. An alternative approach is to look for variants associated with quantitative traits that in turn affect disease risk. As exposure to high circulating estradiol and testosterone, and low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG levels is implicated in breast cancer etiology, we conducted GWAS analyses of plasma estradiol, testosterone, and SHBG to identify new susceptibility alleles. Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS data from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, and Sisters in Breast Cancer Screening data were used to carry out primary meta-analyses among ~1600 postmenopausal women who were not taking postmenopausal hormones at blood draw. We observed a genome-wide significant association between SHBG levels and rs727428 (joint β = -0.126; joint P = 2.09 × 10(-16, downstream of the SHBG gene. No genome-wide significant associations were observed with estradiol or testosterone levels. Among variants that were suggestively associated with estradiol (P<10(-5, several were located at the CYP19A1 gene locus. Overall results were similar in secondary meta-analyses that included ~900 NHS current postmenopausal hormone users. No variant associated with estradiol, testosterone, or SHBG at P<10(-5 was associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk among CGEMS participants. Our results suggest that the small magnitude of difference in hormone levels associated with common genetic variants is likely insufficient to detectably contribute to breast cancer risk.

  18. Relationships between dog ownership and physical activity in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David O; Wertheim, Betsy C; Manson, JoAnn E; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Volpe, Stella L; Howard, Barbara V; Stefanick, Marcia L; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2015-01-01

    Positive associations between dog ownership and physical activity in older adults have been previously reported. The objective of this study was to examine cross-sectional associations between dog ownership and physical activity measures in a well-characterized, diverse sample of postmenopausal women. Analyses included 36,984 dog owners (mean age: 61.5years), and 115,645 non-dog owners (mean age: 63.9years) enrolled in a clinical trial or the observational study of the Women's Health Initiative between 1993 and 1998. Logistic regression models were used to test for associations between dog ownership and physical activity, adjusted for potential confounders. Owning a dog was associated with a higher likelihood of walking ≥150min/wk (Odds Ratio, 1.14; 95% Confidence Interval, 1.10-1.17) and a lower likelihood of being sedentary ≥8h/day (Odds Ratio, 0.86; 95% Confidence Interval, 0.83-0.89) as compared to not owning a dog. However, dog owners were less likely to meet ≥7.5MET-h/wk of total physical activity as compared to non-dog owners (Odds Ratio, 1.03; 95% Confidence Interval, 1.00-1.07). Dog ownership is associated with increased physical activity in older women, particularly among women living alone. Health promotion efforts aimed at older adults should highlight the benefits of regular dog walking for both dog owners and non-dog owners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of letrozole and tamoxifen alone and in sequence for postmenopausal women with steroid hormone receptor-positive breast cancer: the BIG 1-98 randomised clinical trial at 8·1 years median follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regan, Meredith M; Neven, Patrick; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer have persistent, long-term risk of breast-cancer recurrence and death. Therefore, trials assessing endocrine therapies for this patient population need extended follow-up. We present an update of efficacy outcomes in the Breast...

  20. Clinical assessment of peripheral perfusion to predict postoperative complications after major abdominal surgery early: A prospective observational study in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van Genderen (Michel); J. Paauwe (Jaap); J. de Jonge (Jeroen); R.J.P. van der Valk (Ralf); A.A.P. Lima (Alexandre ); J. Bakker (Jan); J. van Bommel (Jasper)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Altered peripheral perfusion is strongly associated with poor outcome in critically ill patients. We wanted to determine whether repeated assessments of peripheral perfusion during the days following surgery could help to early identify patients that are more likely to

  1. History of hot flashes and aortic calcification among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Kuller, Lewis H; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Matthews, Karen A

    2010-03-01

    Menopausal hot flashes are considered largely a quality-of-life issue. However, emerging research also links hot flashes to cardiovascular risk. In some investigations, this risk is particularly apparent among women using hormone therapy. The aim of this study was to determine whether a longer history of reported hot flashes over the study period was associated with greater aortic and coronary artery calcification. Interactions with hormone therapy use were examined in an exploratory fashion. Participants included 302 women participating in the Healthy Women Study, a longitudinal study of cardiovascular risk during perimenopause and postmenopause, which was initiated in 1983. Hot flashes (any/none) were assessed when women were 1, 2, 5, and 8 years postmenopausal. Electron beam tomography measures of coronary artery calcification and aortic calcification were completed in 1997-2004. Associations between the number of visits with report of hot flashes, divided by the number of visits attended, and aortic or coronary artery calcification (transformed) were examined in linear regression models. Interactions by hormone therapy use were evaluated. Among women using hormone therapy, a longer history of reported hot flashes was associated with increased aortic calcification, controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (b = 2.87, SE = 1.21, P history of hot flashes and coronary artery calcification. Among postmenopausal women using hormone therapy, a longer history of reported hot flashes measured prospectively was associated with increased aortic calcification, controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Hot flashes may signal adverse cardiovascular changes among certain postmenopausal women.

  2. Strontium ranelate for preventing and treating postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, S; Cranney, A; Wells, G A; Adachi, J D; Reginster, J Y

    2006-10-18

    Strontium ranelate is a new treatment for osteoporosis therefore, its benefits and harms need to be known. To determine the efficacy and safety of strontium ranelate for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We searched MEDLINE (1996 to March 2005), EMBASE (1996 to week 9 2005), the Cochrane Library (1996 to Issue 1 2005), reference lists of relevant articles and conference proceedings from the last two years. Additional data was sought from authors. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of at least one year duration comparing strontium ranelate versus placebo reporting fracture incidence, bone mineral density (BMD), health related quality of life or safety in postmenopausal women. Treatment (versus prevention) population was defined as women with prevalent vertebral fractures and/or lumbar spine BMD T score gastritis or death. Additional data suggests that the risk of vascular and nervous system side-effects is slightly increased with taking 2 g of strontium ranelate daily over three to four years. There is silver level evidence (www.cochranemsk.org) to support the efficacy of strontium ranelate for the reduction of fractures (vertebral and to a lesser extent non-vertebral) in postmenopausal osteoporotic women and an increase in BMD in postmenopausal women with/without osteoporosis. Diarrhea may occur however, adverse events leading to study withdrawal were not significantly increased with taking 2 g of strontium ranelate daily. Potential vascular and neurological side-effects need to be further explored.

  3. Interpregnancy interval as a risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin Ersoy, Gulcin; Giray, Burak; Subas, Seda; Simsek, Ersin; Sakin, Onder; Turhan, Omer Talip; Bulut, Sadullah

    2015-10-01

    Bone mass loss associated with pregnancy and lactation is usually regained in the postpartum period. However, it is not known whether the bone loss is completely recovered in women with a shortened interpregnancy interval (IPI). The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of IPI and gynecological history on postmenopausal osteoporosis. The study was conducted among 537 postmenopausal women who were divided into two groups in accordance with the osteoporosis status. Prior to bone densitometry, the patients were questioned about reproductive history. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure lumbar spinal, femur neck and total femoral bone mineral density. Association between IPI and postmenopausal osteoporosis was analyzed. The comparison of both groups according to the total duration of breastfeeding did not reveal a considerable variation (p=0.288). In the osteoporosis group the age and duration of menopause were found to be significantly higher (ppregnancy and IPI were notably lower in comparison to the controls group (posteoporosis (OR: 4.306; 95% CI, 1.684-11.01). This analysis confirmed that the occurrence of first pregnancy under 27 years of age conveyed a higher risk for osteoporosis, as well. Shortened IPI may have a detrimental effect on bone mineral density in postmenopausal age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Attitudes of postmenopausal women toward interactive video dance for exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzitari, Marco; Greenlee, Adam; Hess, Rachel; Perera, Subashan; Studenski, Stephanie A

    2009-08-01

    Although physical activity (PA) is universally recommended, most adults are not regular exercisers. Interactive video dance is a novel form of PA in widespread use among young adults, but interest among adults is not known. Postmenopausal women are an appropriate target for interventions to promote PA because they have an increased risk of health problems related to sedentary behavior. We explored perceived advantages and disadvantages of video dance as a personal exercise option in postmenopausal women. Forty sedentary postmenopausal women (mean age +/- SD 57 +/- 5 years), were oriented in eight small groups to interactive video dance, which uses a force-sensing pad with directional panels: the player steps on the panels in response to arrows scrolling on a screen, synchronized to music. Perceived advantages and disadvantages were elicited through a nominal group technique (NGT) process. Participants generated 113 advantages and 71 disadvantages. The most frequently cited advantages were "it's fun" and "improves coordination" (seven of eight groups), the fact that challenge encourages progress (five of eight groups), the potential for weight loss (four of eight groups), and the flexibility of exercise conditions (three of eight groups). Concerns were the potentially long and frustrating learning process, cost (six of eight groups), and possible technical issues (two of eight groups). The recreational nature of interactive dance exercise was widely appealing to postmenopausal women and might help promote adherence to PA. Initial support to learn basic technical and movement skills may be needed.

  5. Bone turnover biomarkers in obese postmenopausal Saudi women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus type-2 (T2DM) and osteoporosis are problems worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between T2DM and bone turnover in diabetic obese postmenopausal Saudi women. Subjects and Methods: The present study included total of 65 T2-DM obese ...

  6. Menopause, postmenopausal hormone use and risk of incident gout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Hak (Liesbeth); G.C. Curhan (Gary); F. Grodstein (Francine); H.K. Choi (Hyon)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To prospectively study the relation between menopause, postmenopausal hormone use and risk of gout, since female sex hormones have been postulated to decrease gout risk among women. Methods: In the Nurses' Health Study, the association between menopause, age at menopause,

  7. Androidal fat dominates in predicting cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that soy isoflavones would attenuate the anticipated increase in androidal fat mass in postmenopausal women during the 36-month treatment, and thereby favorably modify the circulating cardiometabolic risk factors: triacylglycerol, LDLC, HDL-C, glucose, insulin, uric acid, C-reactive ...

  8. Physical Activity and Pattern of Blood Pressure in Postmenopausal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hormonal changes during menopause have been attributed to hypertension-a common public health concern. This study investigated physical activity (PA) and pattern of blood pressure (BP) in postmenopausal women newly diagnosed with hypertension and referred for treatment at the medicine outpatient ...

  9. Exercise affects body composition but not weight in postmenopausal women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, M.J.; Schuit, A.J.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Monninkhof, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-month moderate-to-vigorous exercise program combining aerobic and muscle strength training on body composition among sedentary, postmenopausal women. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 189 sedentary

  10. An assessment of osteoporosis and low bone density in postmenopausal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, F.; Khurshid, R.

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of bone mineral density and other risk factors of osteoporosis in postmenopausal age group of Pakistani population and to compare them with premenopausal group. The risk factors of osteoporosis were studied both in premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. These risk factors can be exogenous or endogenous. Endogenous risk factors are aging, altered menstrual status, low bone mass, positive family history and oestrogen deficiency. Exogenous factors include lack of adequate nutrition (milk, calcium, vitamin D etc.) and lack of physical exercise. These risk factors were evaluated by taking history, recording height and weight, doing blood parameters and checking bone mineral density. Oestrogen level was carried out by the Eliza technique. Bone mass density was carried out by the bone heel densitometer. The data was analyzed statistically and the values of two groups were compared. The risk factors in postmenopausal group were low BMD, low oestrogen levels, poor intake of milk and calcium and lack of physical exercise. All women should get checked their BMD in this age group. Regular exercise and adequate calcium intake can still help in postmenopausal age group. (author)

  11. Estimating the effectiveness of early control measures through school absenteeism surveillance in observed outbreaks at rural schools in Hubei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yunzhou; Yang, Mei; Jiang, Hongbo; Wang, Ying; Yang, Wenwen; Zhang, Zhixia; Yan, Weirong; Diwan, Vinod K; Xu, Biao; Dong, Hengjin; Palm, Lars; Liu, Li; Nie, Shaofa

    2014-01-01

    School absenteeism is a common data source in syndromic surveillance, which allows for the detection of outbreaks at an early stage. Previous studies focused on its correlation with other data sources. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of control measures based on early warning signals from school absenteeism surveillance in rural Chinese schools. A school absenteeism surveillance system was established in all 17 primary schools in 3 adjacent towns in the Chinese region of Hubei. Three outbreaks (varicella, mumps, and influenza-like illness) were detected and controlled successfully from April 1, 2012, to January 15, 2014. An impulse susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered model was used to fit the epidemics of these three outbreaks. Moreover, it simulated the potential epidemics under interventions resulting from traditional surveillance signals. The effectiveness of the absenteeism-based control measures was evaluated by comparing the simulated datasets. The school absenteeism system generated 52 signals. Three outbreaks were verified through epidemiological investigation. Compared to traditional surveillance, the school absenteeism system generated simultaneous signals for the varicella outbreak, but 3 days in advance for the mumps outbreak and 2-4 days in advance for the influenza-like illness outbreak. The estimated excess protection rates of control measures based on early signals were 0.0%, 19.0-44.1%, and 29.0-37.0% for the three outbreaks, respectively. Although not all outbreak control measures can benefit from early signals through school absenteeism surveillance, the effectiveness of early signal-based interventions is obvious. School absenteeism surveillance plays an important role in reducing outbreak spread.

  12. Training of support afferentation in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Kholodina, N V; Nikolenko, E D; Payet, J

    2017-12-01

    We have recently shown a diminishing of the Menopause Index in old-aged women who underwent special training directed at the enhancement of support afferentation by increasing the plantar forefoot sensitivity (Bazanova et al., 2015). Based on these results we hypothesized, that purposeful training of support afferentation through stimulation of plantar graviceptors by Aikido practice will decrease excessive postural and psychoemotional tension not only in rest condition, but during cognitive and manual task performance too. Fluency of cognitive and motor task performance, EEG alpha power as an index of neuronal efficiency of cognitive control, amount of alpha power suppression as a visual activation measure and EMG power of forehead muscles as a sign of psychoemotional tension were compared in three groups of post-menopausal women: i) 8years training with forefeet support afferentation with Aikido practice (A), ii) 8years fitness training (F) and iii) no dedicated fitness training for past 8years (N). Simultaneous stabilometry, EEG, and frontal EMG recording were performed in sitting and standing up position in eyes closed and eyes open condition. Recording done at rest and while performing cognitive and finger motor tasks. We compared studied parameters between groups with one- and two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, followed by post hoc two-tailed unpaired t-tests. The fluency of tasks performance, EMG and alpha-EEG-activity displayed similar values in all groups in a sitting position. Center of pressure (CoP) sway length, velocity and energy demands for saving balance increased when standing up, more in group N than in groups F and A (all contrasts p values0.89). Post hoc t-tests showed increased fluency in standing in both Aikido (p0.77). Fluency in motor task and alpha EEG power decreased, but frontal EMG power increased in response to standing in untrained women (group N) and did not change in F group

  13. Early Observations of the Type Ia Supernova iPTF 16abc: A Case of Interaction with Nearby, Unbound Material and/or Strong Ejecta Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. A.; Cao, Y.; Piro, A. L.; Blagorodnova, N.; Bue, B. D.; Cenko, S. B.; Dhawan, S.; Ferretti, R.; Fox, O. D.; Fremling, C.; Goobar, A.; Howell, D. A.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Laher, R. R.; Lunnan, R.; Masci, F. J.; McCully, C.; Nugent, P. E.; Sollerman, J.; Taddia, F.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2018-01-01

    Early observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) provide a unique probe of their progenitor systems and explosion physics. Here we report the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) discovery of an extraordinarily young SN Ia, iPTF 16abc. By fitting a power law to our early light curve, we infer that first light for the SN, that is, when the SN could have first been detected by our survey, occurred only 0.15{+/- }0.070.15 days before our first detection. In the ∼24 hr after discovery, iPTF 16abc rose by ∼2 mag, featuring a near-linear rise in flux for ≳ 3 days. Early spectra show strong C II absorption, which disappears after ∼7 days. Unlike the extensively observed Type Ia SN 2011fe, the {(B-V)}0 colors of iPTF 16abc are blue and nearly constant in the days after explosion. We show that our early observations of iPTF 16abc cannot be explained by either SN shock breakout and the associated, subsequent cooling or the SN ejecta colliding with a stellar companion. Instead, we argue that the early characteristics of iPTF 16abc, including (i) the rapid, near-linear rise, (ii) the nonevolving blue colors, and (iii) the strong C II absorption, are the result of either ejecta interaction with nearby, unbound material or vigorous mixing of radioactive 56Ni in the SN ejecta, or a combination of the two. In the next few years, dozens of very young normal SNe Ia will be discovered, and observations similar to those presented here will constrain the white dwarf explosion mechanism.

  14. Endothelial function in postmenopausal women with nighttime systolic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Faye S; Hinderliter, Alan L; McFetridge-Durdle, Judith; Blumenthal, James A; Paine, Nicola J; Sherwood, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Hypertension becomes more prevalent in women during their postmenopausal years. Nighttime systolic blood pressure (SBP) is especially predictive of adverse cardiac events, and the relationship between rising nighttime SBP and cardiovascular risk increases more rapidly in women compared with men. The reasons for the prognostic significance of nighttime SBP are not completely known but may involve vascular endothelial dysfunction. The purposes of this study were to examine the relationship between nighttime SBP and endothelial function, as assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and to determine whether postmenopausal women with nighttime hypertension (SBP ≥120 mm Hg) evidenced greater endothelial dysfunction compared with women with normal nighttime SBP. One hundred postmenopausal women (mean [SD] age, 65.8 [7.5] y; mean [SD] body mass index, 28.3 [4.7] kg/m; hypertension, 47%; coronary artery disease, 51%; mean [SD] clinic SBP, 137 [17] mm Hg; mean [SD] clinic diastolic blood pressure, 67 [11] mm Hg; nighttime hypertension, 34 women) underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, actigraphy, and brachial artery FMD assessment. Multivariate regression models showed that higher nighttime SBP and larger baseline artery diameter were inversely related to FMD. Nighttime SBP and baseline artery diameter accounted for 23% of the variance in FMD. After adjustment for baseline artery diameter, women with nighttime hypertension had lower mean (SD) FMD than women with normal nighttime SBP (2.95% [0.65%] vs 5.52% [0.46%], P = 0.002). Nighttime hypertension is associated with reduced endothelial function in postmenopausal women. Research examining the therapeutic benefits of nighttime hypertension treatment on endothelial function and future cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women is warranted.

  15. Plasma leptin values in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, Hikmet; Bal, Serpil; Atay, Ayşenur; Koseoglu, Mehmet; Gurgan, Alev

    2013-08-01

    Obesity has a protective effect against osteoporosis and this effect has been attributed to a high body fat content. It has been shown that the leptin concentration is higher in obese patients. Leptin, the protein product of obesity gene, is a hormone produced in adipose tissue. Some studies suggest that endogenous leptin might influence bone metabolism in postmenopausal women. In this study, we investigated plasma leptin concentrations in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and also analyzed the relationship between plasma leptin levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in order to understand the potential role of leptin in maintaining bone mass. Forty-two postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and thirty seven age and BMI-matched healthy postmenopausal women were included in the study. The mean femoral neck BMD value in the patient group was significantly lower than that in the control group (0.691±0.1 g/cm2 and 0.863±0.1 g/cm2, respectively; p0.05). Plasma leptin levels were correlated with BMI in both groups (p<0.001 in the patient group and p=0.001 in controls). There was also a strong positive correlation between plasma leptin levels and %fat in both groups (p<0.001 in the patient group and p<0.001 in controls). But there was no correlation between plasma leptin levels and femoral neck BMD values in both groups. Our results do not support the hypothesis that leptin itself plays an important role in maintaining bone mass in postmenopausal women.

  16. [Efficiency of early diagnosis and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in industrial workers (prospective observation results)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, S V; Shpagina, L A; Kuznetsova, G V; Burganova, M R

    2011-01-01

    Examination of workers engaged into major industrial enterprises of Novosibirsk demonstrated high prevalence of bronchial obstruction in individuals contacting industrial aerosol. The workers with long length of service proved high level of tobacco addiction and marked psychologic dependence on smoking. Based on the data obtained, the authors specified a program for early diagnosis and prevention of occupational bronchitis among the workers of major industrial enterprises.

  17. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and early antiretroviral treatment among female sex workers in South Africa: Results from a prospective observational demonstration project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Eakle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Operational research is required to design delivery of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and early antiretroviral treatment (ART. This paper presents the primary analysis of programmatic data, as well as demographic, behavioural, and clinical data, from the TAPS Demonstration Project, which offered both interventions to female sex workers (FSWs at 2 urban clinic sites in South Africa.The TAPS study was conducted between 30 March 2015 and 30 June 2017, with the enrolment period ending on 31 July 2016. TAPS was a prospective observational cohort study with 2 groups receiving interventions delivered in existing service settings: (1 PrEP as part of combination prevention for HIV-negative FSWs and (2 early ART for HIV-positive FSWs. The main outcome was programme retention at 12 months of follow-up. Of the 947 FSWs initially seen in clinic, 692 were HIV tested. HIV prevalence was 49%. Among those returning to clinic after HIV testing and clinical screening, 93% of the women who were HIV-negative were confirmed as clinically eligible for PrEP (n = 224/241, and 41% (n = 110/270 of the women who were HIV-positive had CD4 counts within National Department of Health ART initiation guidelines at assessment. Of the remaining women who were HIV-positive, 93% were eligible for early ART (n = 148/160. From those eligible, 98% (n = 219/224 and 94% (n = 139/148 took up PrEP and early ART, respectively. At baseline, a substantial fraction of women had a steady partner, worked in brothels, and were born in Zimbabwe. Of those enrolled, 22% on PrEP (n = 49/219 and 60% on early ART (n = 83/139 were seen at 12 months; we observed high rates of loss to follow-up: 71% (n = 156/219 and 30% (n = 42/139 in the PrEP and early ART groups, respectively. Little change over time was reported in consistent condom use or the number of sexual partners in the last 7 days, with high levels of consistent condom use with clients and low use with steady partners in both study groups

  18. Serum vitamin D and the metabolic syndrome among osteoporotic postmenopausal female patients of a family practice clinic in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasein, Nada; Shroukh, Wejdan; Hijjawi, Razan

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency and the metabolic syndrome are two common health issues worldwide. The association between these two health problems is subject to debate. This study aims to investigate the association between vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency and the metabolic syndrome in a sample of osteoporotic postmenopausal women attending a family practice clinic in Amman-Jordan. This was an observational cross sectional study. It was carried out in the family practice clinic in Jordan University Hospital. The study included all postmenopausal osteoporotic women attending the clinic between June 2011 and May 2012, yielding a total of 326 subjects. The association between metabolic syndrome and serum vitamin D levels was investigated. Waist circumference, body mass index, triglycerides and fasting blood sugar were significantly higher among postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome, but HDL cholesterol was significantly lower (pmetabolic syndrome among all study participants was 42.9%. Triglycerides and LDL cholesterol were significantly higher among women deficiency or insufficiency (pmetabolic syndrome, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency was 50.7%. Findings of the current study suggest a lack of relationship between serum vitamin D and metabolic syndrome. However, a significant inverse relationship was found between serum vitamin D levels and both serum triglycerides and LDL levels.

  19. The negative correlation between thyrotropin receptor-stimulating antibodies and bone mineral density in postmenopausal patients with Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, Medea; Korinteli, Maka; Zerekidze, Tamar; Jikurauli, Nino; Shanava, Shorena; Tsagareli, Marina; Giorgadze, Elen

    2013-06-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder with various clinical manifestations. Thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs), the circulating autoantibodies specific to Graves' disease, are the cause for hyperthyroidism, the most prevalent abnormality. Hyperthyroidism leads to increased bone turnover and a negative bone balance. The aims of the present study were to determine the relationship between TRAbs and bone mineral density (BMD), to assess the extent of BMD change in patients with Graves' disease, and to determine the impact of conservative and surgical therapy on BMD. Fifty female postmenopausal patients with Graves' disease were chosen for this study. Twenty women had a recent diagnosis of Graves' disease, 30 women presented with a compensated disease state after either conservative or surgical treatment, and 30 healthy postmenopausal women served as controls. Thyroid parameters were measured, and BMD values were obtained by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scan.Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD and T-scores were significantly lower in newly diagnosed patients compared with the control group, but a difference was not observed between the treated and control groups. Statistical analysis revealed a strong and significant negative correlation between femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD and TRAb values.Both surgical and conservative therapies are effective for restoring BMD in postmenopausal patients with Graves' disease, and the increased level of TRAb can be a useful marker of bone density impairment.

  20. Comparison of parameters of bone profile and homocysteine in physically active and non-active postmenopausal females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Sundus; Lone, Khalid Parvez; Tariq, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Optimal physical activity is important in attaining a peak bone mass. Physically active women have better bone mineral density and reduce fracture risk as compared to females living a sedentary life. The objective of this study was to compare parameters of bone profile and serum homocysteine levels in physically active and non-active postmenopausal females. In this cross sectional study postmenopausal females between 50-70 years of age were recruited and divided into two groups: Physically inactive (n=133) performing light physical activity and Physically active (n=34) performing moderate physical activity. Physical activity (in metabolic equivalents), bone mineral density and serum homocysteine levels were assessed. Spearman's rho correlation was applied to observe correlations. Two independent sample t test and Mann Whitney U test were applied to compare groups. P-value ≤ 0.05 was taken statistically significant. Parameters of bone profile were significantly higher and serum homocysteine levels were significantly lower in postmenopausal females performing moderate physical activity as compared to females performing light physical activity. Homocysteine was not significantly related to T-score and Z-score in both groups. Improving physical activity could be beneficial for improving the quality of bone, decreasing fracture risk and decreasing serum homocysteine levels.

  1. Weight loss reduces breast ductal fluid estrogens in obese postmenopausal women: a single arm intervention pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpenter Catherine L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulation of excess body fat increases breast cancer risk after menopause. Whether the localized breast is differently influenced by adipose tissue compared to the rest of the body, has not been well studied. Our purpose was to demonstrate feasibility and preliminarily evaluate serum-based and localized breast biomarker changes resulting from a weight loss intervention among obese postmenopausal women. Methods We conducted a 12-week pilot controlled dietary and exercise intervention among healthy obese postmenopausal women, collected serum and breast ductal fluid before and after the intervention, and estimated the association with systemic and localized biomarker changes. We recruited 7 obese (mean body mass index = 33.6 kg/m2 postmenopausal women. We collected samples at baseline and the 12th week for: anthropometry; phlebotomy; dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (lean and fat mass; exercise fitness (maximum oxygen consumption (VO2Max; 1-repetition strength maximum; and breast ductal lavage. Results Changes from baseline occurred in body composition and exercise performance including fat mass loss (14% average drop, VO2Max (+36% increase and strength improvement (+26%. Breast ductal fluid markers declined from baseline with estradiol showing a 24% reduction and IL-6 a 20% reduction. We also observed serum biomarker reductions from baseline including leptin (36% decline, estrone sulfate (−10%, estradiol (−25%, and Il-6 (−33%. Conclusions Conduct of the diet and exercise intervention, collection of ductal fluid, and measurement of hormones and cytokines contained in the ductal fluid were all feasible. We preliminarily demonstrated estradiol and IL-6 reductions from baseline in both serum and breast ductal fluid among obese postmenopausal women who participated in the 12-week weight loss diet and exercise intervention.

  2. A Sustained Decline in Postmenopausal Hormone Use: Results From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Brian L.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Cronin, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Short-term declines in postmenopausal hormone use were observed following the Women’s Health Initiative trial results in 2002. While concerns about the trial’s generalizability have been expressed, long-term trends in hormone use in a nationally representative sample have not been reported. We sought to evaluate national trends in the prevalence of hormone use, and assess variation by type of formulation and patient characteristics. Methods We examined postmenopausal hormone use during 1999–2010 using cross-sectional data on 10,107 women aged 40 years and older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results In 1999–2000, the prevalence of oral postmenopausal hormone use was 22.4% (95% CI: 19.0, 25.8) overall, 16.8% (95% CI: 14.2, 19.3) for estrogen only, and 5.2% (95% CI: 3.6, 6.8) for estrogen plus progestin. A sharp decline in use of all formulations occurred in 2003–2004, when the overall prevalence dropped to 11.9% (95% CI: 9.6, 14.2). This decline was initially limited to non-Hispanic whites; use among non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics did not decline substantially until 2005–2006. Hormone use continued to decline through 2009–2010 across all patient demographic groups, with the current prevalence now at 4.7% (95% CI: 3.3, 6.1) overall, 2.9% (95% CI: 2.1, 3.7) for estrogen only, and 1.5% (95% CI: 0.5, 2.5) for estrogen plus progestin. Patient characteristics currently associated with hormone use include history of hysterectomy, non-Hispanic white race or ethnicity, and income. Conclusions Postmenopausal hormone use in the United States has declined in a sustained fashion to very low levels across a wide variety of patient subgroups. PMID:22914469

  3. Habitual aerobic exercise does not protect against micro- or macrovascular endothelial dysfunction in healthy estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R; Strahler, Talia R; Vorwald, Victoria M; Pierce, Gary L; Seals, Douglas R

    2017-01-01

    Aging causes micro- and macrovascular endothelial dysfunction, as assessed by endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD), which can be prevented and reversed by habitual aerobic exercise (AE) in men. However, in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women, whole forearm microvascular EDD has not been studied, and a beneficial effect of AE on macrovascular EDD has not been consistently shown. We assessed forearm blood flow in response to brachial artery infusions of acetylcholine (FBF ACh ), a measure of whole forearm microvascular EDD, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a measure of macrovascular EDD, in 12 premenopausal sedentary women (Pre-S; 24 ± 1 yr; V̇o 2max = 37.5 ± 1.6 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ), 25 estrogen-deficient postmenopausal sedentary women (Post-S; 62 ± 1 yr; V̇o 2max = 24.7 ± 0.9 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ), and 16 estrogen-deficient postmenopausal AE-trained women (Post-AE; 59 ± 1 yr; V̇o 2max = 40.4 ± 1.4 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ). FBF ACh was lower in Post-S and Post-AE compared with Pre-S women (135 ± 9 and 116 ± 17 vs. 193 ± 21 AUC, respectively, both P stress. This is the first study to demonstrate that habitual aerobic exercise may not protect against age/menopause-related whole forearm microvascular endothelial dysfunction in healthy nonobese estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women, consistent with recent findings regarding macrovascular endothelial function. This is in contrast to what is observed in healthy middle-aged and older aerobic exercise-trained men. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Effect of combined aerobic and resistance training in body composition of obese postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício E. Rossi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 16-week program of combined aerobic and resistance training on the body composition of postmenopausal women who are obese. The participants were divided into two groups: training group (TG, n = 37 and non-trained control group (CG, n = 18. The trunk fat, fat mass, percentage of fat mass and fat-free mass were estimated using DXA. Three nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were conducted. The training protocol consisted of 50 minutes of resistance training followed by 30 minutes of aerobic training. After the 16-week training program, differences were observed in trunk fat (CG= 0.064 x TG= -0.571 Kg; p-value = .020, fat mass (CG= -0.088 x TG= -1.037 Kg; p-value = .020 and fat-free mass (CG= -0.388 x TG= 1.049 Kg; p = .001. Therefore, a 16-week program of systematic combined aerobic and resistance training in obese postmenopausal women was effective in improving fat-free mass and decreasing both whole and abdominal adiposity.

  5. Relationship between bone mineral density and alcohol intake: A nationwide health survey analysis of postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Dong Jang

    Full Text Available Among a variety of relevant factors of osteoporosis, the association between alcohol intake and postmenopausal women's bone mineral density (BMD by using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was evaluated in this study.Among a total of 31,596 subjects, males, premenopausal women, participants without BMD data were excluded. Finally, a total number of subjects in the study was 3,312. The frequency and amount of alcohol intake were determined by self-reported questionnaires, and BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.Mean femoral BMD for light drinkers was statistically significantly greater than that for heavy drinkers and non-drinkers. We observed the characteristic trends for BMD by drinking frequency; the mean BMD gradually increased from non-drinkers to the participants who drank 2-3 times per week; these participants exhibited the highest BMD. Participants who drank alcohol greater than 4 times per week showed a lower BMD. In the risk factor analysis, the adjusted odds ratio for osteoporosis (at femoral neck was 1.68 in non-drinkers and 1.70 in heavy drinkers compared with light drinkers.Light alcohol intake (2-3 times per week and 1-2 or 5-6 glasses per occasion in South Korean postmenopausal women was related to high femoral BMD. Non-drinkers and heavy drinkers had approximately a 1.7-times greater risk for osteoporosis than light drinkers.

  6. Quantitative Sonographic Differences in Mid-Urethra between Postmenopausal Women with and without Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgan, Safak; Mantar, Ozge Piri; Okyay, Recep Emre; Gulekli, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate midurethral tissue characteristics in continent and stress urinary incontinent postmenopausal women by using transvaginal ultrasound gray-level histogram. Thirty-seven patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and 77 patients without SUI were evaluated. Vaginal ultrasound gray-level histograms were performed by 2 gynecologists blinded to patients' SUI statuses. The mean gray-level (MGL) of ultrasound gray-level histogram, representing the echogenicity of a region of interest, was measured in the anterior and posterior midurethral wall along a vertical ultrasound beam. The difference in MGL between anterior and posterior (AP difference) midurethra was calculated. The MGL value of SUI patients was found to be lower in posterior (p = 0.008) and higher in anterior midurethral region (p = 0.001) when compared with control group. In addition, the difference in MGL between anterior and posterior midurethra (AP difference) was found to be higher in SUI group (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis by logistic regression including confounding factors revealed that AP difference was independently associated with presence of SUI (adjusted OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.08-1.20, p < 0.001). Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was found to be high with intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.83 and 0.78, respectively. Postmenopausal SUI patients might have a distinct midurethral echogenicity pattern with the quantitative ultrasonography. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Early X-ray and radio observations of Nova Sco 2015 implicate strong shocks against a red giant wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T.; Linford, J.; Chomiuk, L.; Sokoloski, J.; Mukai, K.; Finzell, T.; Weston, J.; Rupen, M.; Mioduszewski, A.

    2015-02-01

    We report the first observations of Nova Sco 2015 (PNV J17032620-3504140) at X-ray, UV and radio wavelengths. The X-ray observations were carried out with the Swift satellite between 2015 February 15.5 and 16.3 UT (roughly 4 days after discovery) and resulted in a total exposure time with the XRT instrument of 4065 s.

  8. The applied observation of ultrasonography on before and after anti-early pregnancy with mifepristone (reports of 660 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qinglan; Li Yan; Li Julian; He Lihong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the clinical significance of ultrasonography on before and after anti-early pregnancy with mifepristone. Methods: 660 cases of premedical abortion were ultrasonic diagnosed to know the status of inner-uterus pregnancy and exclude the taboo of medical abortion; after-medical abortion ultrasonic were performed to find rudimental embryo in uterus, recuperation of uterus, etc. Results: 88.18% of cases are full abortion; 10.15% of cases are semi-abortion; 1.7% of cases are unsuccessful abortion. Conclusions: It is a quick and safe method to use ultrasonography before and after medical abortion. (authors)

  9. Prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Sri Harsha; Gallagher, J Christopher

    2014-07-01

    lines of therapy. First OPG was used as a therapy to block RANKL was initially successful but later antibodies against OPG developed and this line of treatment had to be discontinued. The next step was to develop a monoclonal antibody against RANKL and this proved to be highly effective in blocking bone resorption. It led to development of a drug Denosumab that successfully reduces fractures and is now one of the therapeutic options for osteoporosis treatment. On the anabolic side bone biology research showed that osteocytes produces sclerostin an inhibitor of the anabolic WNT signaling pathway. Recent development of a monoclonal antibody against sclerostin has shown remarkable anabolic activity in bone showing large increases in bone density and fracture trials are now underway. The newer treatments for osteoporosis are likely to be based on our understanding of bone biology and the design of new highly specific compounds with fewer side effects. This review summarizes the diagnosis of postmenopausal osteoporosis and various available non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies available for its management. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Menopause'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Age at menopause, reproductive history, and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Hormone Therapy clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, Joann E

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to investigate venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy, and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized hormone therapy (HT) assignment, among postmenopausal women. Using pooled data from the Women's Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years who had no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy, and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazards models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships, and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. During follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 non-procedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected, and there was not a significant association between VTE and age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy, or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to non-procedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (P menopause, those who had early menopause (age menopause (age >55 y) had a significantly increased VTE risk (hazard ratio [95% CI]: 1.8 [1.2-2.7] and 1.5 [1.0-2.4], respectively). Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for non-procedure-related VTE.

  11. Transoral laser resection or radiotherapy? Patient choice in the treatment of early laryngeal cancer: a prospective observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, T; Dawson, R; Sen, M; Makura, Z

    2017-06-01

    The choices made by patients offered treatment for early laryngeal cancer with radiotherapy or transoral laser resection were reviewed. A prospective review was conducted of all patients diagnosed and treated for early laryngeal carcinoma from December 2002 to September 2009 at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust. A total of 209 patients with tumour stage T1 or T2 laryngeal cancer were treated; each new patient suitable for radiotherapy or transoral laser resection was seen jointly by the clinical (radiation) oncologist and head and neck surgeon, and offered the choice of treatment. Of the patients, 47.4 per cent were given a choice between radiotherapy and transoral laser resection; 51.2 per cent were advised to have radiotherapy, and there were no records for the remaining 1.4 per cent. From those given the choice, 59.6 per cent chose transoral laser resection (p < 0.02 (t-test)) and 35.4 per cent chose radiotherapy. When given the choice, a statistically significant majority of patients choose transoral laser resection rather than radiotherapy.

  12. Frequency of endometrial carcinoma in patients with postmenopausal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, S.; Shaheen, M.; Rana, T.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) is defined as bleeding that occurs after 1 year of amenorrhea in a woman who is not receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT). About 10% of women with postmenopausal bleeding have a primary or secondary malignancy. Common malignancies among them are endometrial cancer (80%), cervical cancer or an ovarian tumour. Endometrial cancer is the second most common cancer associated with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. Ninety percent of patients have benign causes. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of endometrial carcinoma in patients with post-menopausal bleeding. Study Design: Descriptive case series study. Setting: Department of obstetrics and gynaecology, Lady Willingdon, Lahore. Duration of Study: This study was conducted over a period of six months from January, 1 2009 to June 30, 2009. Subjects and Methods: 50 cases with postmenopausal bleeding. Results: During the period of this study a total number of 50 consecutive patients who met inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Ages of the patients who presented with PMB ranged between 48 years and 80 years with a mean age of 59 years. Malignancy was found in 18 out of 50 cases (36%).Cases with endometrial CA were 14 out of 50 cases (28%) and CA cervix constituted 4 out of 50 cases (8%). Benign pathology was more frequent (64%). 13 of 50 cases (26%) had hyperplasia out of which 1 case (2%) was of atypical hyperplasia. Endometrial polyp was found in 4 of 50 cases (8%). 3 of 50 cases (6%) had chronic endometritis. 5 of 50 cases (10%) had chronic cervicitis. While 7 cases (14%) had postmenopausal bleeding due to decubitus ulcer of uterovaginal prolapse. Among malignancies (36%), endometrial cancer is the most frequent malignancy in women with postmenopausal bleeding with mean age of 65 years. Conclusion: In this study it was concluded that the majority of cases of PMB would be expected to be suffering from benign problems

  13. Prevalence of osteoporosis among postmenopausal females with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Maataoug, Mohamad A.; El-Desouki, Mahmoud I.; Othman, Saleh A.; Mattar, Essam H.; Babay, Zainab A.; Addar, Mohammad

    2004-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis among Saudi postmenopausal women with non-insulin dependent type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The study was carried out at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from February 2000 to September 2002. bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual x-ray absorptionmetry (DXA; Lunar Wisconsin), were performed in 104 postmenopausal Saudi women with T2DM and 101postmenopausal non-diabetic women (control). Bone mineral density was measured in gm/cm and both T-score and Z-score were measured but only T-score ws used for analysis based on World Health Organization criteria. Bone profile, 25(OH) Vitamin D, 1.25(OH) Vitamin D, parathyroid harmone and urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were measured in both patients and controls. Body fit fat measurement aruond the biceps muscles using Futrex (body compostion analyzer) were performed in patients and controls. Years postmenopausal, duration of diabetes mellitus, parity, exercise, sun exposure and milk consumption were also recorded. In the diabetic group, the mean spine BMD was 0.928 gm/cm (T-score=2.28 SD) and for femoral neck the mean BMD was 0.817 gm/cm (T-score=-1.21SD). In control group, the mean spine BMD was 1.036 gm/cm (T-score=-1.2) and mean femoral neck BMD was 0.914 gm/cm (T-score=-0.608). In the diabetic group, there was 16(16.64%)patients with normal BMD of the spine, 42 patients (43.68%) with ostopenia (mean T-score=-1.8SD) and 45 (46.8%) with osteoporosis (mean T-score=-3.3 SD). Osteoporosis is most common among Type2 postmenopausal females in this ethnic group. Since both groups are postmenopausal, having equal percentage of Vitamin D deficiency, multi-parity, non exposure sun, lack of excercise and negligible milk intake, one can conlude that low BMD can be attributed to DM in the absence of other cause of osteoporosis. (author)

  14. Menopausal age and sex hormones in postmenopausal women with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Gluud, C; Farholt, S

    1991-01-01

    In order to evaluate age at menopause and serum sex hormone profiles in postmenopausal women with stable chronic liver disease, six non-cirrhotic alcoholics, 13 with alcoholic cirrhosis, eight with non-alcoholic cirrhosis, and 46 healthy controls were studied. In all three groups, patients were...... and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHAS) (p less than 0.05). The observed changes may be a consequence of liver disease since similar changes were observed in patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease, but an additional effect of alcohol cannot be excluded....... significantly (p less than 0.05) younger at the time of natural menopause than controls. Compared to controls, non-cirrhotic alcoholic women had significantly (p less than 0.05) reduced levels of DHAS, significantly (p less than 0.05) more alcoholic cirrhotic women had detectable oestradiol concentrations...

  15. Usefulness of mammography in the diagnosis and management of breast disease in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamas, A.M.; Horwitz, R.I.; Peck, D.

    1984-01-01

    The clinical usefulness of mammography in postmenopausal women was evaluated by conducting a ''vertical'' analysis using indexes of sensitivity and specificity, and a separate ''horizontal'' analysis assessing the relationship between the mammographic test result and the occurrence of specific clinical management decisions. The patients included 105 women with breast cancer, 104 women with fibrocystic breast disease, and 103 women with clinically benign breasts. The study confirmed the generally accepted high values reported for the sensitivity and for the specificity of mammography as a test for breast cancer, while also helping to reconcile the widely varying indexes of test efficacy reported in some studies. The authors also observed that physicians' management decisions vary according to the mammographic interpretation, and include such distinctive clinical strategies as watchful expectancy (observe and follow), repeated mammograms, or breast biopsy. Future studies will need to determine reasons for specific management decisions, especially when they appear to contradict authoritative recommendations

  16. Rate of bone loss in postmenopausal and osteoporotic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloia, J.F.; Ross, P.; Vaswani, A.; Zanzi, I.; Cohn, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Regional and total bone mass were determined in three groups of women by photon absorptiometry of the distal radius [bone mineral content (BMC)] and total neutron activation analysis [total body calcium (TBCa)], respectively. There were three groups of patients: group A, osteoporotic women treated with a variety of pharmacologic agents; group B, osteoporotic women (controls) taking only calcium supplements; and group C, normal postmenopausal women. The mean TBCa and BMC were considerably higher in the postmenopausal women than in the osteoporotic women. The rate of change of bone mass in group C was -0.45%/yr and -0.9%/yr for the total skeleton and radius, respectively. Group B had no significant rate of loss, whereas group A demonstrated a significant increase in TBCa of 0.75%/yr with no change in the BMC of the radius. There were no significant between-subject correlations for the slopes (rates of change) of the two bone mineral measurements

  17. Recommendations for the management of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturdee, D W; Panay, N; Ulrich, Lian

    2010-01-01

    Unlike hot flushes and night sweats which resolve spontaneously in time, atrophic symptoms affecting the vagina and lower urinary tract are often progressive and frequently require treatment. The prevalence of vaginal dryness increases as a woman advances through the postmenopausal years, causing...... for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) over recent years that has suggested an increased risk of breast cancer, heart disease and stroke. But, regardless of whether these scares are justified, local treatment of vaginal atrophy is not associated with these possible risks of systemic HRT. Other reasons...... for the continued suffering in silence may be cultural and an understandable reluctance to discuss such matters, particularly with a male doctor, but the medical profession must also take much of the blame for failing to enquire of all postmenopausal women about the possibility of vaginal atrophic symptoms. Vaginal...

  18. Profile of teriparatide in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sikon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Sikon1, Pelin Batur21Cleveland Clinic Lerner COM, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2Cleveland Clinic Lerner COM, Cleveland Clinic Independence, Independence, OH, USAAbstract: One out of every 2 women within postmenopause are at risk of fracture due to osteoporosis. Fortunately, a growing arsenal of therapies is becoming available to treat this disease and prevent fracture. A new class of anabolic agents has emerged within the last decade that brought with it a new concept in osteoporosis therapy: building new stronger bone rather than simply inhibiting bone turnover. Evidence is accumulating to understand how to best utilize these new agents, and which patients benefit most. This article will review the effectiveness, risks, timing and clinical uses of teriparatide in postmenopausal osteoporosis.Keywords: osteoporosis, menopause, teriparatide

  19. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women: A rural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal R Tandon

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed alarmingly high prevalence of most of the conventional CVRFs, especially diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and other risk factors in postmenopausal women from rural areas.

  20. Initiation and early evolution of a Coronal Mass Ejection on May 13, 2009 from EUV and white-light observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, Anton; Kuzin, Sergey; Bogachev, Sergey; Ulyanov, Artyom

    In this talk we present results of the observations of a CME, which occurred on May 13, 2009. The most important feature of these observations is that the CME was observed from the very beginning stage (the solar surface) up to the distance of 15 solar radii (R_⊙). Below 2 R_⊙ we used the data from the TESIS EUV telescopes obtained in the Fe 171 Å and He 304 Å lines, and above 2 R_⊙ we used the observations of the LASCO C2 and C3 coronagraphs. Using data of these three instruments, we have studied the evolution of the CME in details. The CME had a curved trajectory -- its helio-latitude decreased with time. The mass ejection originated at a latitudes of about 50(°) and reached the ecliptic plane at a distance of 2.5 R_⊙ from the Sun’s center. The CME velocity and acceleration increased as the CME went away from the Sun. At the distance of 15 R_⊙ from the Sun’s center the CME had a velocity of 250 km/s and an acceleration of 5 m/s(2) . The CME was not associated with a flare, and didn’t have an impulsive acceleration phase. The mass ejection had U-shaped structure which was observed both in the 171 Å images and in white-light. The CME was formed at a distance of about 0.2 -- 0.5 R_⊙ from the Sun’s surface. Observations in the line 304 Å showed that the CME was associated with the erupting prominence, which was located in the lowest part of the U-shaped structure close to the X-point of the magnetic reconnection. The prominence disappeared at the height of 0.4 R_⊙ above the solar limb. Some aspects of these observations can’t be explained in the standard CME model, which predicts that the prominence should be located inside the U-shaped structure, and the CME should be associated with a flare and have an impulsive acceleration phase.

  1. The treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy with ovestin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kicovic, P.M.; Cortesprieto, J.; Milojevic, S.; Haspels, A.A.; Aljinovic, A.

    1980-01-01

    Seventy-four postmenopausal women presenting with vaginal atrophy were treated with either Ovestin® vaginal cream (Group A, 23 women: 1 mg/day E3; Group B, 30 women: 0.5 mg/day E3) or vaginal suppositories (Group C, 21 women: 0.5 mg/day E3), applied daily for 3 wk (A and B) or 2 wk (C) before

  2. Cytokines and T-lymphocyte subsets in healthy post-menopausal women: estrogen retards bone loss without affecting the release of IL-1 or IL-1ra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Bendtzen, Klaus; Beck-Nielsen, H

    1997-01-01

    resorptive cytokines and have also been linked with bone metabolism and the development of osteoporosis. Cytokine secretion from whole blood cell cultures was compared between two randomized groups of healthy early post-menopausal women (mean age 52.5 yrs, N = 91) and lymphocyte subsets were quantitated....... There was no association between cytokine release and bone mass or loss assessed over 2 yrs. The only exception was a weak estrogen-independent correlation between basal IL-1ra secretion and bone loss (r = -0.21, p loss...... cells may be important in the pathophysiology of post-menopausal bone loss. The possibility that IL-1ra acts as an independent bone-sparing factor unrelated to estrogen withdrawal warrants further investigation. In conclusion, ERT maintains bone without affecting the release of the IL-1 family...

  3. Probiotics and gut health in infants: A preliminary case-control observational study about early treatment with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Fornasero, Stefania; Ceratto, Simone; De Marco, Angela; Mandras, Narcisa; Roana, Janira; Tullio, Vivian; Amisano, Gabriella

    2015-12-07

    We performed this case-control observational study to evaluate the effects of early administration of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 on microbial composition in infants' gastrointestinal tract. Early fecal microbiota composition was analyzed by using selective and differential cultural methods. Genomic DNA from positive Escherichia coli and Cronobacter sakazakii colonies was extracted and DNA was processed by multiplex PCR assay. Fecal samples of 30 hospitalized infants who previously received probiotics and 30 not receiving probiotics were analyzed. We find that the two groups showed differences in gut microbial strains composition and richness. Infant treated with probiotics have a lower total anaerobic gram negative counts (p=0.03) and a higher total anaerobic gram-positive counts (p=0.02). Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci were significantly higher (p=0.04) in the control group. No significant differences were observed for total aerobic counts, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. C. sakazaki was found only in one infant recruited in the control group. Infants not previously treated with probiotics showed a higher colonization by diarrheagenic E. coli (EPEC) (p=0.04). Our findings enhanced our understanding of the effects of probiotics on gut health in pediatric subjects. Early administration of L. reuteri in infancy could improve gut health by reducing pathogens colonization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of microbiological diagnostics in urogenital infections in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Hunjak,

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish the percentage of infections in postmenopausal women with urinary symptoms which can be confirmed by microbiological analysis, the most common causative agents and whether the urethra and vagina in patients with cystitis are concurrently colonized by pathogenic microorganisms. Methods Laboratories of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health in Zagreb, in the period of two years, analyzed 245 samples taken from patients with urinary symptoms who had been postmenopausal at least for a year. Urine samples, as well as urethral and vaginal swabs were taken from each patient and tested for causative agents of urogenital infections, genital mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis.Results Cystitis was confirmed by microbiological analysis in 31.4% women, urethritis in 24.8%, and vaginitis in 15.1%. The most common causative agent of urethritis was Ureaplasma urealyticum, while Gardnerella vaginalis was the most common in vaginal infections. E. coli was concurrently isolated in urine, urethral and vaginal samples in 65.1% of patients with E. coli cystitis, while Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in urethral and vaginal samples in each patient with Streptococcus agalactiae cystitis.Conclusion Mucosal colonization of the urethra and vagina contributes to the incidence of cystitis in postmenopausal women. Microbiological diagnostics is necessary to distinguish between the symptoms of ageing of the urogenital system and infection, with a view to preventing unnecessary antibiotic therapy.

  5. Whole-body vibration exercise in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Weber-Rajek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The report of the World Health Organization (WHO of 2008 defines osteoporosis as a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is connected to the decrease in estrogens concentration as a result of malfunction of endocrine ovarian function. Low estrogens concentration causes increase in bone demineralization and results in osteoporosis. Physical activity, as a component of therapy of patients with osteoporosis, has been used for a long time now. One of the forms of safe physical activity is the vibration training. Training is to maintain a static position or execution of specific exercises involving the appropriate muscles on a vibrating platform, the mechanical vibrations are transmitted to the body of the patient. According to the piezoelectric theory, pressure induces bone formation in the electrical potential difference, which acts as a stimulant of the process of bone formation. Whole body vibration increases the level of growth hormone and testosterone in serum, preventing sarcopenia and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to review the literature on vibration exercise in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis based on the PubMed and Medline database. While searching the database, the following key words were used ‘postmenopausal osteoporosis’ and ‘whole-body vibration exercise’.

  6. Effect of hormone therapy on postural balance in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Barral, Ana Beatriz Cesar; Nahas, Eliana Aguiar Petri; Nahas-Neto, Jorge; Cangussu, Luciana Mendes; Buttros, Davi de Araujo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of hormone therapy (HT) on postural balance in postmenopausal women and its association with risk of falls. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 225 Brazilian postmenopausal women aged 45 to 75 years were included and divided into two groups: HT users (n = 102) and nonusers (n = 123). HT users were women who had continuously taken HT throughout the preceding 6 months, whereas nonusers received no such therapy during the same period. Women with amenorrhea for more than 12 months and aged 45 years or older were included. Those with neurological or musculoskeletal disorders, vestibulopathies, uncorrected visual deficit, or drug use that could affect balance were excluded. Histories of falls (previous 24 mo) as well as clinical and anthropometric characteristics were analyzed. Postural balance was assessed through stabilometry (computerized force platform), Romberg test, and crouching test. Statistical analysis included the median test, χ test, Spearman correlation coefficient, and logistic regression method (odds ratio). Women users of HT were younger (53.0 vs 57.0 y) and with a shorter time since menopause (5.5 vs 10.0 y) than nonusers (P Romberg test and fall rate (P > 0.05). In the crouching test, 47.1% of the participants showed an adequate level of muscle strength in lower limbs without differences between the groups (P > 0.05). Postmenopausal women using HT showed lower frequency of falls and a better performance in stabilometric parameters than did nonusers.

  7. Soy protein supplementation does not cause lymphocytopenia in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devareddy Latha

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health benefits of soy isoflavones have been widely investigated; however, there are some concerns as to whether soy isoflavones, similar to ipriflavone, a synthetic isoflavone, cause lymphocytopenia in postmenopausal women. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which 12-month supplementation of 25 g soy protein containing 60 mg isoflavones alters lymphocyte counts or other hematological parameters in postmenopausal women who were not on hormone replacement therapy. Methods Eighty-seven postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to receive either soy protein or an equivalent amount of control protein devoid of isoflavones. Fasting venous blood was collected at baseline and at the end of twelve month study period for complete blood count analyses. Results Between the two treatment groups, the percent changes in hematological parameters, including lymphocytes, were not different. While women consuming the soy supplement had an increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC and red cell distribution width index (RDW; a marker of reticulocytes, women consuming the control diet had higher percentage of only MCHC. Conclusion Overall, the results of the present study indicate that consumption of 25 g soy protein containing 60 mg isoflavones daily for one year does not cause lymphocytopenia.

  8. Drought Early Warning and Agro-Meteorological Risk Assessment using Earth Observation Rainfall Datasets and Crop Water Budget Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnavsky, E.

    2016-12-01

    The water resources satisfaction index (WRSI) model is widely used in drought early warning and food security analyses, as well as in agro-meteorological risk management through weather index-based insurance. Key driving data for the model is provided from satellite-based rainfall estimates such as ARC2 and TAMSAT over Africa and CHIRPS globally. We evaluate the performance of these rainfall datasets for detecting onset and cessation of rainfall and estimating crop production conditions for the WRSI model. We also examine the sensitivity of the WRSI model to different satellite-based rainfall products over maize growing regions in Tanzania. Our study considers planting scenarios for short-, medium-, and long-growing cycle maize, and we apply these for 'regular' and drought-resistant maize, as well as with two different methods for defining the start of season (SOS). Simulated maize production estimates are compared against available reported production figures at the national and sub-national (province) levels. Strengths and weaknesses of the driving rainfall data, insights into the role of the SOS definition method, and phenology-based crop yield coefficient and crop yield reduction functions are discussed in the context of space-time drought characteristics. We propose a way forward for selecting skilled rainfall datasets and discuss their implication for crop production monitoring and the design and structure of weather index-based insurance products as risk transfer mechanisms implemented across scales for smallholder farmers to national programmes.

  9. Clinical Observation on Termination of Early Pregnancy of 213 Cases after Caesarian Section with Repeated Use of Mifepristone and Misoprostol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高佩佩; 汪平

    1999-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety in women after caesarian section for termination of early pregnancies by treatment, or repeated treatment with mifepristone and misoprostot.Subjects and Methods A total of 213 pregnant women with amenorrhea of 34-69d after caesarian section who asked for medical abortion were recruited,including 63 cases undergoing their second medical abortion.A total amount of mi feprisstone of 150 mg given in separate doses(25 mg×4 and 50 mg at the first time)was administered orally within 3d, followed by misoprostot of 0.6 mg orally in the morning of d 3.Results The complete abortion rate was 92.5%,incomplete abortion was 4.7% and failure was 2.8%.Conclusion The sequential use of mifepristone and misoprostol could be successfully and repeatedly used for induced abortion in those women with a caesarian section histo-ry.Its efficacy was similar to that for ordinary population.Its safety and effec-tiveness were satisfactory.

  10. THE SIZE EVOLUTION OF PASSIVE GALAXIES: OBSERVATIONS FROM THE WIDE-FIELD CAMERA 3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE PROGRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, R. E. Jr.; McCarthy, P. J.; Cohen, S. H.; Rutkowski, M. J.; Mechtley, M. R.; Windhorst, R. A.; Yan, H.; Hathi, N. P.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Bond, H. E.; Bushouse, H.; O'Connell, R. W.; Balick, B.; Calzetti, D.; Crockett, R. M.; Disney, M.; Dopita, M. A.; Frogel, J. A.; Hall, D. N. B.; Holtzman, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present the size evolution of passively evolving galaxies at z ∼ 2 identified in Wide-Field Camera 3 imaging from the Early Release Science program. Our sample was constructed using an analog to the passive BzK galaxy selection criterion, which isolates galaxies with little or no ongoing star formation at z ∼> 1.5. We identify 30 galaxies in ∼40 arcmin 2 to H obs ∼ * ∼ 10 11 M ☉ ) undergo the strongest evolution from z ∼ 2 to the present. Parameterizing the size evolution as (1 + z) –α , we find a tentative scaling of α ≈ (– 0.6 ± 0.7) + (0.9 ± 0.4)log (M * /10 9 M ☉ ), where the relatively large uncertainties reflect the poor sampling in stellar mass due to the low numbers of high-redshift systems. We discuss the implications of this result for the redshift evolution of the M * -R e relation for red galaxies.

  11. Effects of a12-week endurance exercise program on adiposity and flexibility of Nigerian perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwumike, O O; Arowojolu, A O; Sanya, A O

    2011-12-20

    reduction occurred between baseline and end of 12th week mean values of WHR in PEMEG (0.86 ± 0.08 vs 0.71 ± 0.07)and POMEG groups (0.88± 0.06 vs0.77 ± 0.07) while significant increases were observed between baseline values and end of 12th week mean values of HTF in PEMEG (18.84 ± 4.23vs28.27± 3.82) and POMEG (19.51 ± 4.02vs25.97± 2.36) (pendurance exercise program is essential for perimenopausal and postmenopausal Nigerian women for improved central and abdominal adiposity as well as flexibility.

  12. Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopause - where we stand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Franić

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The findings of most relevant randomized clinical studies such as HERS, WHI and MWS, performed in the last decade have shown that hormonal replacement therapy (HRT users are at increased risk for the development of breast cancer, stroke and pulmonary edema. On the other hand they are at a lower risk for the development of large bowel cancer and for hip and vertebral fractures; the incidences of endometrial cancer and coronary heart disease have not been proved to be significantly affected by HRT. As for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, the findings of these studies differed from those provided by observational studies, it became an imperative to find the causes of these discrepancies. The major criticism of randomized clinical studies was aimed at the inclusion criteria, as the mean women’s age in HERS and in WHI study was 63 years. The women of that age may no longer be healthy, and are particularly exposed to cardiovascular diseases. In all studies the same type of HRT was used, i.e. conjugated equine estrogen alone or in combination with medroxyprogesterone acetate. In Europe, this combination is rarely prescribed; we do not prescribe it in Slovenia either. The same type of HRT used in randomized clinical studies was further criticized, the basic idea of HRT being an individual approach to each woman requiring HRT. For rather sensational and often misinterpreted findings of randomized studies, the largest menopause societies worldwide, the International Menopause Society (IMS, the European Menopause and Andropause Society (EMAS and the North American Menopause Society (NAMS, have revised the guidelines for HRT use in postmenopause. These guidelines have been adopted by the Slovene Menopause Society as well.Conclusions: The indications for HRT remain to be markedly expressed and severe climacteric symptoms, prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, urogenital syndrome and premature menopause. However, the

  13. Role of endocortical contouring methods on precision of HR-pQCT-derived cortical micro-architecture in postmenopausal women and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalilak, C E; Johnston, J D; Cooper, D M L; Olszynski, W P; Kontulainen, S A

    2016-02-01

    Precision errors of cortical bone micro-architecture from high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) ranged from 1 to 16 % and did not differ between automatic or manually modified endocortical contour methods in postmenopausal women or young adults. In postmenopausal women, manually modified contours led to generally higher cortical bone properties when compared to the automated method. First, the objective of the study was to define in vivo precision errors (coefficient of variation root mean square (CV%RMS)) and least significant change (LSC) for cortical bone micro-architecture using two endocortical contouring methods: automatic (AUTO) and manually modified (MOD) in two groups (postmenopausal women and young adults) from high-resolution pQCT (HR-pQCT) scans. Second, it was to compare precision errors and bone outcomes obtained with both methods within and between groups. Using HR-pQCT, we scanned twice the distal radius and tibia of 34 postmenopausal women (mean age ± SD 74 ± 7 years) and 30 young adults (27 ± 9 years). Cortical micro-architecture was determined using AUTO and MOD contour methods. CV%RMS and LSC were calculated. Repeated measures and multivariate ANOVA were used to compare mean CV% and bone outcomes between the methods within and between the groups. Significance was accepted at P young adults, postmenopausal women had better precision for radial cortical porosity (precision difference 9.3 %) and pore volume (7.5 %) with MOD. Young adults had better precision for cortical thickness (0.8 %, MOD) and tibial cortical density (0.2 %, AUTO). In postmenopausal women, MOD resulted in 0.2-54 % higher values for most cortical outcomes, as well as 6-8 % lower radial and tibial cortical BMD and 2 % lower tibial cortical thickness. Results suggest that AUTO and MOD endocortical contour methods provide comparable repeatability. In postmenopausal women, manual modification of endocortical contours led to

  14. Randomised controlled trial of effect of whole soy replacement diet on features of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-Min; Ho, Suzanne; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Chen, Yu-Ming; Woo, Jean; Wong, Samuel Yeung-Shan; He, Qiqiang; Xie, Yao Jie; Tse, Lap Ah; Chen, Bailing; Su, Xue-Fen; Lao, Xiang-Qian; Wong, Carmen; Chan, Ruth; Ling, Wen-Hua

    2016-09-27

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a public health problem in postmenopausal women. Whole soy foods are rich in unsaturated fats, high quality plant protein and various bioactive phytochemicals that may have a beneficial role in the management of MetS. The aim of the study is to examine the effect of whole soy replacement diet on the features of MetS among postmenopausal women. This will be a 12-month, randomised, single-blind, parallel controlled trial among 208 postmenopausal women at risk of MetS or with early MetS. After 4 weeks' run-in, subjects will be randomly allocated to one of two intervention groups, whole soy replacement group or control group, each for 12 months. Subjects in the whole soy group will be required to include four servings of whole soy foods (containing 25 g soy protein) into their daily diet iso-calorically, replacing red or processed meat and high fat dairy products. Subjects in the control group will remain on a usual diet. The outcome measures will include metabolic parameters as well as a 10-year risk for ischaemic cardiovascular disease. We hypothesise that the whole soy substitution diet will notably improve features of MetS in postmenopausal women at risk of MetS or with early MetS. The study will have both theoretical and practical significance. If proven effective, the application of the whole soy replacement diet model will be a safe, practical and economical strategy for MetS prevention and treatment. Ethics approval has been obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. The results will be disseminated via conference presentations and papers in academic peer reviewed journals. Data files will be deposited in an accessible repository. NCT02610322. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Observations of Energetic Particle Escape at the Magnetopause: Early Results from the MMS Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Anderson, B. J.; Westlake, J. H.; Sibeck, David Gary; Giles, Barbara L.; Pollock, C. J.; Turner, D. L.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Energetic (greater than tens of keV) magnetospheric particle escape into the magnetosheath occurs commonly, irrespective of conditions that engender reconnection and boundary-normal magnetic fields. A signature observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, simultaneous monohemispheric streaming of multiple species (electrons, H+, Hen+), is reported here as unexpectedly common in the dayside, dusk quadrant of the magnetosheath even though that region is thought to be drift-shadowed from energetic electrons. This signature is sometimes part of a pitch angle distribution evolving from symmetric in the magnetosphere, to asymmetric approaching the magnetopause, to monohemispheric streaming in the magnetosheath. While monohemispheric streaming in the magnetosheath may be possible without a boundary-normal magnetic field, the additional pitch angle depletion, particularly of electrons, on the magnetospheric side requires one. Observations of this signature in the dayside dusk sector imply that the static picture of magnetospheric drift-shadowing is inappropriate for energetic particle dynamics in the outer magnetosphere.

  16. EARLY RADIO AND X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE YOUNGEST NEARBY TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PTF 11kly (SN 2011fe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, S. R.; Carpenter, John; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Ofek, Eran O.; Fox, Derek B.; Quimby, Robert; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Cenko, S. Bradley; De Bruyn, A. G.; Kamble, Atish; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Van der Horst, Alexander J.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Sullivan, Mark; Maguire, Kate; Howell, D. Andrew; Nugent, Peter E.; Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    On 2011 August 24 (UT) the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) discovered PTF11kly (SN 2011fe), the youngest and most nearby Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in decades. We followed this event up in the radio (centimeter and millimeter bands) and X-ray bands, starting about a day after the estimated explosion time. We present our analysis of the radio and X-ray observations, yielding the tightest constraints yet placed on the pre-explosion mass-loss rate from the progenitor system of this supernova. We find a robust limit of M-dot ∼ -8 (w/100 km s -1 ) M sun yr -1 from sensitive X-ray non-detections, as well as a similar limit from radio data, which depends, however, on assumptions about microphysical parameters. We discuss our results in the context of single-degenerate models for SNe Ia and find that our observations modestly disfavor symbiotic progenitor models involving a red giant donor, but cannot constrain systems accreting from main-sequence or sub-giant stars, including the popular supersoft channel. In view of the proximity of PTF11kly and the sensitivity of our prompt observations, we would have to wait for a long time (a decade or longer) in order to more meaningfully probe the circumstellar matter of SNe Ia.

  17. DEEP CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF NGC 1404: CLUSTER PLASMA PHYSICS REVEALED BY AN INFALLING EARLY-TYPE GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yuanyuan; Kraft, Ralph P.; Nulsen, Paul; Forman, William R.; Randall, Scott W.; Jones, Christine; Machacek, Marie E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Roediger, Elke [E.A. Milne Centre for Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Hull, Hull, HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Churazov, Eugene, E-mail: yuanyuan.su@cfa.harvard.edu [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741, Garching (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    The intracluster medium (ICM), as a magnetized and highly ionized fluid, provides an ideal laboratory to study plasma physics under extreme conditions that cannot be achieved on Earth. NGC 1404 is a bright elliptical galaxy that is being gas stripped as it falls through the ICM of the Fornax Cluster. We use the new Chandra X-ray observations of NGC 1404 to study ICM microphysics. The interstellar medium of NGC 1404 is characterized by a sharp leading edge, 8 kpc from the Galaxy center, and a short downstream gaseous tail. Contact discontinuities are resolved on unprecedented spatial scales (0.″5 = 45 pc) due to the combination of the proximity of NGC 1404, the superb spatial resolution of Chandra , and the very deep (670 ks) exposure. At the leading edge, we observe sub-kiloparsec-scale eddies generated by Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) and put an upper limit of 5% Spitzer on the isotropic viscosity of the hot cluster plasma. We also observe mixing between the hot cluster gas and the cooler galaxy gas in the downstream stripped tail, which provides further evidence of a low viscosity plasma. The assumed ordered magnetic fields in the ICM ought to be smaller than 5 μ G to allow KHI to develop. The lack of an evident magnetic draping layer just outside the contact edge is consistent with such an upper limit.

  18. Limited cognitive benefits in Stage +2 postmenopausal women after 6 weeks of treatment with Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabagh, Sarah; Hartley, David E; File, Sandra E

    2005-03-01

    Gingko biloba has cognitive benefits both in populations suffering from dementia and after acute treatment in healthy volunteers, with some evidence indicating that those with poorer cognitive performance show greater benefit. We have previously found that 1 week of treatment with ginkgo improved attention, memory and mental flexibility in post-menopausal women, but the evidence for any beneficial effects of longer treatment is less well-established. The present study aimed to determine whether cognitive benefits, similar to those previously found after 1 week of treatment, would persist after 6 weeks of treatment, and whether those with poorer cognitive performance would benefit more. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind study, postmenopausal women (aged 51-67 years) were randomly allocated to receive a standardized extract of ginkgo (LI 1370, Lichtwer Pharma, Marlow, UK) (one capsule/day of 120 mg, n = 45) or matching placebo (n = 42) for 6 weeks. According to an established reproductive staging system, subjects were divided into those in the early (Stage +1; mean age 55 years) and late (Stage +2: mean age 61 years) stages of menopause. At baseline and after 6 weeks of treatment, subjects completed tests of mental flexibility, planning, memory and sustained attention, and ratings of mood, sleepiness, bodily and menopausal symptoms. The only significant effects of ginkgo were in the test of mental flexibility, in which there were significant menopausal stage-ginkgo interactions. This was because subjects in Stage +2 required fewer trials to complete the task and made fewer errors after ginkgo treatment, whereas those in Stage +1 showed no benefits. Subjects in Stage +2 had poorer performance at baseline compared to those in Stage +1 both in this task and the test of planning ability. The beneficial effects of ginkgo were limited to the test of mental flexibility and to those with poorer performance.

  19. Estrogen, vascular estrogen receptor and hormone therapy in postmenopausal vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Raouf A

    2013-12-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is less common in premenopausal women than men of the same age or postmenopausal women, suggesting vascular benefits of estrogen. Estrogen activates estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in endothelium and vascular smooth muscle (VSM), which trigger downstream signaling pathways and lead to genomic and non-genomic vascular effects such as vasodilation, decreased VSM contraction and growth and reduced vascular remodeling. However, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), such as the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS), have shown little vascular benefits and even adverse events with menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), likely due to factors related to the MHT used, ER profile, and RCT design. Some MHT forms, dose, combinations or route of administration may have inadequate vascular effects. Age-related changes in ER amount, distribution, integrity and post-ER signaling could alter the vascular response to MHT. The subject's age, preexisting CVD, and hormone environment could also reduce the effects of MHT. Further evaluation of natural and synthetic estrogens, phytoestrogens, and selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and the design of appropriate MHT combinations, dose, route and 'timing' could improve the effectiveness of conventional MHT and provide alternative therapies in the peri-menopausal period. Targeting ER using specific ER agonists, localized MHT delivery, and activation of specific post-ER signaling pathways could counter age-related changes in ER. Examination of the hormone environment and conditions associated with hormone imbalance such as polycystic ovary syndrome may reveal the causes of abnormal hormone-receptor interactions. Consideration of these factors in new RCTs such as the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) could enhance the vascular benefits of estrogen in postmenopausal CVD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship among panoramic radiography findings, biochemical markers of bone turnover and hip bone mineral density in the diagnosis of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johari Khatoonabad, M.; Aghamohammadzade, N.; Taghilu, H.; Esmaeili, F.; Jabbari Khamnei, H.

    2011-01-01

    Recent investigations have shown that panoramic radiography might be a useful tool in the early diagnosis of osteoporosis. In addition, bone turnover biochemical marker might be valuable in predicting osteoporosis and fracture risks in the elderly, especially in post-menopausal women. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship among the radio morphometric indices of the mandible, biochemical markers of the bone turnover and hip bone mineral density in a group of post-menopausal women. Patients and Methods: Evaluations of mandibular cortical width, mandibular cortical index, panoramic index and alveolar crest resorption ration (M/M ration) were carried out on panoramic radiographs of 140 post-menopausal women with an age range of 44-82 years. Hip bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method. Bone mineral density values were divided into three groups of normal (T score>-1.0), Osteopenic (T score, -2.5 to -1.0) and Osteoporotic (T score<-2.5). Serum alkaline phosphatase and 25(OH) D3 were measured. Results: A decrease in mandibular cortical width by 1 mm increases the likelihood of osteopenia or osteoporosis up to 40%, having taken into consideration the effect of menopause duration. A 1 mm decrease in mandibular cortical width increased the likelihood of moderate or severe erosion of the lower cortex of the mandible up to 28% by taking age into consideration. The results did not demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between bone turnover markers and mandibular radio morphometric indices. Conclusion: Panoramic radiography gives sufficient information to make an early diagnosis regarding osteoporosis in post-menopausal women. Panoramic radiographs may be valuable in the prevention of osteoporotic fractures in elderly women.

  1. Surfactant Need by Gestation for Very Preterm Babies Initiated on Early Nasal CPAP: A Danish Observational Multicentre Study of 6,628 Infants Born 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiingreen, Rikke; Greisen, Gorm; Ebbesen, Finn; Petersen, Jesper Padkær; Zachariassen, Gitte; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Mølholm Hansen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) as respiratory support for preterm infants is being advocated as an alternative to prophylactic surfactant and treatment with mechanical ventilation. A number of infants treated with early nCPAP do not need treatment with surfactant, but few studies provide data on this. Since the 1990s, the first approach to respiratory support to preterm infants in Denmark has been early nCPAP combined with surfactant administration by the INSURE method by which the infant is intubated and surfactant administration is followed by rapid extubation to nCPAP if possible. To investigate how often surfactant was administered in preterm infants with a gestational age below 34 weeks treated with early nCPAP as a first approach to respiratory support. An observational multicentre study including all inborn infants with a gestational age below 34 weeks admitted to 1 of the 4 level 3 neonatal intensive care units in Denmark in the period from 2000 to 2013. A total of 6,628 infants were included in this study. We found that surfactant was administered in 1,056 of 1,799 (59%; 95% CI: 57-61%), in 821 of 2,864 (29%; 95% CI: 27-31%), and in 132 of 1,796 (7%; 95% CI: 6-8%) of the infants with a gestational age from 24 to 27, 28 to 31, and 32 to 33 weeks and 6 days, respectively. A large proportion of preterm infants treated with early nCPAP as the first approach to respiratory support was never treated with surfactant. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. A review of myrmecophily in ant nest beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Paussinae): linking early observations with recent findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiselhardt, Stefanie F.; Peschke, Klaus; Nagel, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Myrmecophily provides various examples of how social structures can be overcome to exploit vast and well-protected resources. Ant nest beetles (Paussinae) are particularly well suited for ecological and evolutionary considerations in the context of association with ants because life habits within the subfamily range from free-living and predatory in basal taxa to obligatory myrmecophily in derived Paussini. Adult Paussini are accepted in the ant society, although parasitising the colony by preying on ant brood. Host species mainly belong to the ant families Myrmicinae and Formicinae, but at least several paussine genera are not host-specific. Morphological adaptations, such as special glands and associated tufts of hair (trichomes), characterise Paussini as typical myrmecophiles and lead to two different strategical types of body shape: while certain Paussini rely on the protective type with less exposed extremities, other genera access ant colonies using glandular secretions and trichomes (symphile type). We compare these adaptations with other taxonomic groups of insects by joining contemporary research and early sources and discuss the possibility of an attracting or appeasing effect of the secretion. Species that are ignored by their host ants might use chemical mimicry instead. Furthermore, vibrational signals may contribute to ant-beetle communication, and chemical signals have proven to play a role in host finding. The powerful defense chemistry of paussines as “bombardier beetles” is not used in contact with host ants. We attempt to trace the evolution of myrmecophily in paussines by reviewing important aspects of the association between paussine beetles and ants, i.e. morphological and potential chemical adaptations, life cycle, host specificity, alimentation, parasitism and sound production.

  3. THE SIZE EVOLUTION OF PASSIVE GALAXIES: OBSERVATIONS FROM THE WIDE-FIELD CAMERA 3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, R. E. Jr. [Physics Department, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); McCarthy, P. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Cohen, S. H.; Rutkowski, M. J.; Mechtley, M. R.; Windhorst, R. A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Yan, H. [Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Hathi, N. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Koekemoer, A. M.; Bond, H. E.; Bushouse, H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); O' Connell, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Crockett, R. M. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Disney, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Dopita, M. A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frogel, J. A. [Galaxies Unlimited, Lutherville, MD 21093 (United States); Hall, D. N. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Holtzman, J. A., E-mail: rryan@physics.ucdavis.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); and others

    2012-04-10

    We present the size evolution of passively evolving galaxies at z {approx} 2 identified in Wide-Field Camera 3 imaging from the Early Release Science program. Our sample was constructed using an analog to the passive BzK galaxy selection criterion, which isolates galaxies with little or no ongoing star formation at z {approx}> 1.5. We identify 30 galaxies in {approx}40 arcmin{sup 2} to H < 25 mag. By fitting the 10-band Hubble Space Telescope photometry from 0.22 {mu}m {approx}< {lambda}{sub obs} {approx}< 1.6 {mu}m with stellar population synthesis models, we simultaneously determine photometric redshift, stellar mass, and a bevy of other population parameters. Based on the six galaxies with published spectroscopic redshifts, we estimate a typical redshift uncertainty of {approx}0.033(1 + z). We determine effective radii from Sersic profile fits to the H-band image using an empirical point-spread function. By supplementing our data with published samples, we propose a mass-dependent size evolution model for passively evolving galaxies, where the most massive galaxies (M{sub *} {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }) undergo the strongest evolution from z {approx} 2 to the present. Parameterizing the size evolution as (1 + z){sup -{alpha}}, we find a tentative scaling of {alpha} Almost-Equal-To (- 0.6 {+-} 0.7) + (0.9 {+-} 0.4)log (M{sub *}/10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }), where the relatively large uncertainties reflect the poor sampling in stellar mass due to the low numbers of high-redshift systems. We discuss the implications of this result for the redshift evolution of the M{sub *}-R{sub e} relation for red galaxies.

  4. Systematic review of raloxifene in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or low bone mass (osteopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiwara S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Saeko Fujiwara,1 Etsuro Hamaya,2 Masayo Sato,2 Peita Graham-Clarke,3 Jennifer A Flynn,2 Russel Burge41Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Casualty Council, Hiroshima, Japan; 2Lilly Research Laboratories Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 3Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USAPurpose: To systematically review the literature describing the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of raloxifene for postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or low bone mass (osteopenia.Materials and methods: Medline via PubMed and Embase was systematically searched using prespecified terms. Retrieved publications were screened and included if they described randomized controlled trials or observational studies of postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or osteopenia treated with raloxifene and reported one or more outcome measures (change in bone mineral density [BMD]; fracture incidence; change in bone-turnover markers, hip structural geometry, or blood–lipid profile; occurrence of adverse events; and change in quality of life or pain. Excluded publications were case studies, editorials, letters to the editor, narrative reviews, or publications from non-peer-reviewed journals; multidrug, multicountry, or multidisease studies with no drug-, country-, or disease-level analysis; or studies of participants on dialysis.Results: Of the 292 publications retrieved, 15 publications (seven randomized controlled trials, eight observational studies were included for review. Overall findings were statistically significant increases in BMD of the lumbar spine (nine publications, but not the hip region (eight publications, a low incidence of vertebral fracture (three publications, decreases in markers of bone turnover (eleven publications, improved hip structural geometry (two publications, improved blood–lipid profiles (five publications, a low incidence of hot flushes

  5. Histological pattern of endometrial samples in post-menopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeba, F.; Shaista, A.; Khan, B.

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the most common clinical problems in gynaecological practice and is an indicator of various underlying disorders. An endometrial biopsy should be done in all women over 35 years with AUB to rule out endometrial cancer or pre-malignant lesion and to initiate treatment. However, wide range of histological patterns on endometrial biopsy offer a diagnostic challenge to practicing pathologists. The objective of this study was to determine histological patterns of endometrium in postmenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology, Benazir Bhutto Shaheed women and children teaching hospital, Abbottabad from 15/11/2014 to 14/05/2015. This study involved 110 postmenopausal women presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding. A written informed consent was obtained from every patient. Results: The mean age of the patients was 61.60+-6.17 years and the mean duration of AUB was 5.20+-2.80 years. Most of the patients were para 6 (28.2 percent) and para 5 (28.2 percent) followed by para 4 (18.2 percent) and para 3 (17.3 percent) while only 8.2 percent were para 1. The most common histological pattern observed was complex hyperplasia without atypia (30.9 percent) followed by atrophic endometrium (24.5 percent), simple hyperplasia (23.6 percent), malignancy (12.7 percent), complex hyperplasia with atypia (4.5 percent) and benign endometrial polyp (3.6 percent). When stratified the data, there was no significant difference of histological patterns across various age groups (p=.673), duration of AUB (p=.064) and parity (p=.242). Conclusion: The most common histological pattern observed in postmenopausal women with AUB was complex hyperplasia without atypia (30.9 percent) followed by atrophic endometrium (24.5 percent), simple hyperplasia (23.6 percent), malignancy (12.7 percent), complex hyperplasia with atypia (4.5 percent) and benign endometrial polyp

  6. Nitrate from Drinking Water and Diet and Bladder Cancer Among Postmenopausal Women in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rena R; Weyer, Peter J; DellaValle, Curt T; Inoue-Choi, Maki; Anderson, Kristin E; Cantor, Kenneth P; Krasner, Stuart; Robien, Kim; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Silverman, Debra T; Ward, Mary H

    2016-11-01

    Nitrate is a drinking water contaminant arising from agricultural sources, and it is a precursor in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds (NOC), which are possible bladder carcinogens. We investigated the ingestion of nitrate and nitrite from drinking water and diet and bladder cancer risk in women. We identified incident bladder cancers among a cohort of 34,708 postmenopausal women in Iowa (1986-2010). Dietary nitrate and nitrite intakes were estimated from a baseline food frequency questionnaire. Drinking water source and duration were assessed in a 1989 follow-up. For women using public water supplies (PWS) > 10 years (n = 15,577), we estimated average nitrate (NO3-N) and total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels and the number of years exceeding one-half the maximum contaminant level (NO3-N: 5 mg/L, TTHM: 40 μg/mL) from historical monitoring data. We computed hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and assessed nitrate interactions with TTHM and with modifiers of NOC formation (smoking, vitamin C). We identified 258 bladder cancer cases, including 130 among women > 10 years at their PWS. In multivariable-adjusted models, we observed nonsignificant associations among women in the highest versus lowest quartile of average drinking water nitrate concentration (HR = 1.48; 95% CI: 0.92, 2.40; ptrend = 0.11), and we found significant associations among those exposed ≥ 4 years to drinking water with > 5 mg/L NO3-N (HR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.47; ptrend = 0.03) compared with women having 0 years of comparable exposure. TTHM adjustment had little influence on associations, and we observed no modification by vitamin C intake. Relative to a common reference group of never smokers with the lowest nitrate exposures, associations were strongest for current smokers with the highest nitrate exposures (HR = 3.67; 95% CI: 1.43, 9.38 for average water NO3-N and HR = 3.48; 95% CI: 1.20, 10.06 and ≥ 4 years > 5 mg/L, respectively). Dietary nitrate and

  7. UBAT of UFFO/Lomonosov: The X-Ray Space Telescope to Observe Early Photons from Gamma-Ray Bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, S.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Reglero, V.

    2018-01-01

    . To estimate a direction vector of a GRB source in its field of view, it employs the well-known coded aperture mask technique. All functions are written for implementation on a field programmable gate array to enable fast triggering and to run the device’s imaging algorithms. The UFFO/Lomonosov satellite...... was launched on April 28, 2016, and is now collecting GRB observation data. In this study, we describe the UBAT’s design, fabrication, integration, and performance as a GRB X-ray trigger and localization telescope, both on the ground and in space....

  8. Adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlertsen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    With long-term follow-up, the DBCG 77B trial demonstrates that oral single-agent cyclophosphamide significantly reduces the risk of recurrence and mortality as compared with no systemic therapy in pre-menopausal patients with high-risk early breast cancer. DBCG 77B is the only randomised trial...... not was superior to classic CMF. A further reduction in breast cancer mortality appeared in the EBCTCG meta-analysis from the addition of a taxane to a standard AC, while the substitution of cycles or drugs with a taxane was not associated with a reduction in mortality. No apparent benefit was observed in an early...... analysis of the DBCG 82C evaluating the addition of CMF to tamoxifen in post-menopausal high-risk breast cancer patients. Apart from menopausal status, the two trials had identical selection criteria, and the differences in outcome warranted a long-term follow-up of the 82C trial. After ten years of follow...

  9. The “Artistic Image” Concept Applied to a Fugue at the Early Stage of Piano Practice: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Cláudio Barros

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an investigation on the concept of “artistic image of a musical composition” proposed by Heinrich Neuhaus (1888-1964 at the initial stage of learning a fugue by J.S. Bach. The data was gathered during the first practice session of six undergraduate piano majors learning a fugue, all from two public universities in southern Brazil. The concepts proposed by Neuhaus served as a parameter for an observational study of the students’ behavior and the technical-musical activities undertaken during their practice. The aim was to verify if the concept of artistic image had been used during practice and, if so, how it was established. We also examined the study strategies that helped comprehend the musical content, guiding the learning process and organization of practice. The results should assist in increasing our knowledge of the processes involving piano practice and the strategies linked to the concept of artistic image, stressing empirical observation as an important tool to validate theoretical concepts.

  10. Stress at the place of work and cognitive functions among women performing intellectual work during peri- and post-menopausal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujski, Mariusz; Pinkas, Jarosław; Juńczyk, Tomasz; Pawełczak-Barszczowska, Adrianna; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2017-10-06

    The analysis of the relationship between stress at work and results of cognitive functions amongst women, at peri- and post-menopausal age, performing intellectual work. The study group included women, aged 45-66 years old, employed as intellectual workers. Research instruments were: the Montreal Cognitive Assessment; computer tests of the CNS Vital Signs; the Subjective Work Characteristics Questionnaire, and a questionnaire designed by the author. The results were statistically analyzed. Nearly a half of respondents experienced high stress at the place of work; 1/3 - on the average level, on a low level - every fifth. The largest number of respondents experienced stress caused by social contacts. Among a half of the women, stress was caused by the lack of awards at work, followed by the lack of support. Slightly fewer of them experienced stress caused by the feeling of psychological load related to the complexity of work or the feeling of uncertainty caused by the organization of work. Every third woman experienced stress due to the sense of responsibility or the lack of control. The smallest number experienced stress caused by physical arduousness, the sense of threat and unpleasant working conditions. The examined women obtained the best results with respect to simple attention, the worst results - with respect to the reaction time. The results concerning the remaining 9 cognitive functions were ranked in the middle of the aforementioned results. The intensity of stress at work and factors which caused this stress, negatively correlated with simple attention of women in the early peri-menopausal period, while positively correlating with the psychomotor and processing speed of women in the late peri-menopausal period. Among the post-menopausal women, negative correlations were observed between the majority of cognitive functions and the intensity of stress at work, and the majority of factors which caused this stress. Cognitive functions of the examined women

  11. Optical observations of the Phoenicid meteor shower in 2014 and activity of comet 289P/Blanpain in the early 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yasunori; Nakamura, Takuji; Uehara, Satoshi; Sagayama, Toru; Toda, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    Optical observations of the Phoenicid meteor shower were made in North Carolina, USA, with seven video cameras and two digital cameras over a period of about 5 hr between 22:30 UT on 2014 December 1 and 04:00 UT on December 2. Activity of the Phoenicids was confirmed during this period, including the predicted maximum around 00 h UT on December 2. The activity level was not high, considering that 29 Phoenicid meteors and 109 non-Phoenicid meteors were detected. A gentle peak in the activity was recognized between 01:00 UT and 03:00 UT on December 2. The compact radiant of the Phoenicids agreed well with what was predicted. A comparison of the observed and predicted peak times, radiant position, bright meteors' dominance, and radiants' spread revealed that the observed meteors originated from the dust trails formed by comet 289P/Blanpain at the perihelion passage in the early 20th century. This indicates that the parent body of the Phoenicids, comet 289P/Blanpain, was still active as a comet in the early 20th century and provided meteoroids, although its activity level was significantly weaker than that at the beginning of the 19th century.

  12. EPISODIC ACCRETION AT EARLY STAGES OF EVOLUTION OF LOW-MASS STARS AND BROWN DWARFS: A SOLUTION FOR THE OBSERVED LUMINOSITY SPREAD IN H-R DIAGRAMS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraffe, I.; Chabrier, G.; Gallardo, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present evolutionary models for young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs taking into account episodic phases of accretion at early stages of the evolution, a scenario supported by recent large surveys of embedded protostars. An evolution including short episodes of vigorous accretion followed by longer quiescent phases can explain the observed luminosity spread in H-R diagrams of star-forming regions at ages of a few Myr, for objects ranging from a few Jupiter masses to a few tenths of a solar mass. The gravitational contraction of these accreting objects strongly departs from the standard Hayashi track at constant T eff . The best agreement with the observed luminosity scatter is obtained if most of the accretion shock energy is radiated away. The obtained luminosity spread at 1 Myr in the H-R diagram is equivalent to what can be misinterpreted as an ∼10 Myr age spread for non-accreting objects. We also predict a significant spread in radius at a given T eff , as suggested by recent observations. These calculations bear important consequences for our understanding of star formation and early stages of evolution and on the determination of the initial mass function for young (≤ a few Myr) clusters. Our results also show that the concept of a stellar birthline for low-mass objects has no valid support.

  13. High prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in Brazilian postmenopausal women with low and intermediate risk by Framingham score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petisco, Ana Claudia Gomes Pereira; Assef, Jorge Eduardo; de Jesus, Carlos Alberto; Saleh, Mohamed Hassan; Barbosa, Jose Eduardo Martins; Costa de Souza Le Bihan, David; Pinto, Ibraim Masciarelli França; Rolim Fernandes Fontes Pedra, Simone; Barretto, Rodrigo Bellio de Mattos; Sousa, Amanda Guerra de Moraes Rego

    2017-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality among women in several countries. Early detection of subclinical atherosclerosis (SA) could enable the adoption of preventive measures to avoid cardiovascular events. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of SA in Brazilian asymptomatic postmenopausal women in Framingham Risk Score (FRS) low and intermediate groups. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) scans were performed in 138 asymptomatic postmenopausal women (56.1 ± 4.9 years of age) to survey for coronary artery and aortic calcification (CT scan) and assess carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and identify carotid plaques (US). The mean FRS was 2.64 ± 2.13 %. The prevalence of increased CIMT, carotid plaques, increased CIMT and/or plaques, coronary artery calcification (CAC) >0 and aortic calcification (AC) were, respectively, 45.7, 37.7, 62.3, 23.9 and 45.7 %. Normal imaging tests were found in 22.4 %. SA, defined as at least one abnormal imaging test, was associated with age, FRS, waist-to-rip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HDL-c and ApoA1 levels, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio. In logistic regression, SA was associated with higher age (OR 1.108, 95 % CI 1.010-1.215, p = 0.029) and lower ApoA1 levels (OR 0.979, 95 % CI 0.960-0.998, p = 0.029). SA was prevalent in Brazilian postmenopausal women with low and intermediate risk groups (FRS) and was associated with higher age and lower levels of ApoA1. Carotid atherosclerosis was the most common presentation of SA in this group.

  14. Increase in Fracture Risk Following Unintentional Weight Loss in Postmenopausal Women: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compston, Juliet E.; Wyman, A; FitzGerald, Gordon; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Greenspan, Susan L.; Hooven, Frederick H.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; March, Lyn; Coen Netelenbos, J.; Nieves, Jeri W.; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G.; Siris, Ethel S.; Silverman, Stuart; Watts, Nelson B.; Anderson, Frederick A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased fracture risk has been associated with weight loss in postmenopausal women but the time course over which this occurs has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb (4.5 kg) in postmenopausal women on fracture risk at multiple sites up to 5 years following weight loss. Using data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) we analyzed the relationships between self-reported unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb at baseline, year 2, or year 3 and incident clinical fracture in the years following weight loss. Complete data were available in 40,179 women (mean age ± SD 68 ± 8.3 years). Five-year cumulative fracture rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and adjusted hazard ratios for weight loss as a time-varying covariate were calculated from Cox multiple regression models. Unintentional weight loss at baseline was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture of the clavicle, wrist, spine, rib, hip, and pelvis for up to 5 years following weight loss. Adjusted hazard ratios showed a significant association between unintentional weight loss and fracture of the hip, spine, and clavicle within 1 year of weight loss, and these associations were still present at 5 years. These findings demonstrate increased fracture risk at several sites after unintentional weight loss in postmenopausal women. This increase is seen as early as 1 year following weight loss, emphasizing the need for prompt fracture risk assessment and appropriate management to reduce fracture risk in this population. PMID:26861139

  15. Protective effects of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus against hepatic steatosis in ovariectomized mice as a model of postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Kanaya

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD includes various hepatic pathologies ranging from hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Estrogen provides a protective effect on the development of NAFLD in women. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher risk of developing NAFLD. Hepatic steatosis is an early stage of fatty liver disease. Steatosis can develop to the aggressive stages (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Currently, there is no specific drug to prevent/treat these liver diseases. In this study, we found that white button mushroom (WBM, Agaricus Bisporus, has protective effects against liver steatosis in ovariectomized (OVX mice (a model of postmenopausal women. OVX mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with WBM powder. We found that dietary WBM intake significantly lowered liver weight and hepatic injury markers in OVX mice. Pathological examination of liver tissue showed less fat accumulation in the livers of mice on WBM diet; moreover, these animals had improved glucose clearance ability. Microarray analysis revealed that genes related to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, particularly the genes for fatty acid synthetase (Fas and fatty acid elongase 6 (Elovl6, were down-regulated in the liver of mushroom-fed mice. In vitro mechanistic studies using the HepG2 cell line showed that down-regulation of the expression of FAS and ELOVL6 by WBM extract was through inhibition of Liver X receptor (LXR signaling and its downstream transcriptional factor SREBP1c. These results suggest that WBM is protective against hepatic steatosis and NAFLD in OVX mice as a model for postmenopausal women.

  16. Nearby Supernova Factory Observations of SN 2006D: On SporadicCarbon Signatures in Early Type Ia Supernova Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.C.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey,S.; Baltay, C.; Baron, E.; Bauer, A.; Buton, C.; Bongard, S.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.; Gilles, S.; Kessler, R.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Parrent, J.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigaudier, G.; Runge, K.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Wang, L.; Weaver, B.A.

    2006-10-12

    We present four spectra of the Type Ia supernova SN Ia 2006Dextending from -7 to +13 days with respect to B-band maximum. The spectrainclude the strongest signature of unburned material at photosphericvelocities observed in a SN Ia to date. The earliest spectrum exhibits CII absorption features below 14,000 km/s, including a distinctive C IIlambda 6580 absorption feature. The carbon signatures dissipate as the SNapproaches peak brightness. In addition to discussing implications ofphotospheric-velocity carbon for white dwarf explosion models, we outlinesome factors that may influence the frequency of its detection before andaround peak brightness. Two effects are explored in this regard,including depopulation of the C II optical levels by non-LTE effects, andline-of-sight effects resulting from a clumpy distribution of unburnedmaterial with low volume-filling factor.

  17. Cassini ISS Observations Of The Early Stages Of The Formation Of Titan's South Polar Hood And Vortex In 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert A.; Del Genio, A.; Perry, J.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Turtle, E. P.; Porco, C.; Ovanessian, A.

    2012-10-01

    Northern spring equinox on Titan occurred on August 11, 2009. In March of 2012 the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) on the Cassini spacecraft saw the first evidence for the formation of a polar hood in the atmosphere above Titan’s south pole. Views of the limb showed an optical thickening primarily at about 360 km altitude across a few degrees of latitude centered on the pole. Images of Titan in front of Saturn provide a nearly direct measure of the line-of-sight optical depth as a function of latitude and altitude from about 250 km and higher. Two or more distinct layers are seen, both near the pole and at other latitudes. The highest of these, near 360 km altitude, hosts the embryonic polar hood. On June 27, 2012 ISS observed the pole from high latitude. These images show a distinct and unusual cloudy patch, elongated and not centered on the pole and with an elevated perimeter. The morphology and color indicate an unfamiliar (for Titan) composition and dynamical regime. The interior of the feature consists of concentrations of cloud/haze organized on spatial scales of tens of kilometers. Its morphology is reminiscent of the open cellular convection sometimes seen in the atmospheric boundary layer over Earth’s oceans under conditions of large-scale subsidence. Unlike Earth, where such convection is forced by large surface heat fluxes or the onset of drizzle, convection at 360 km on Titan is more likely to be driven from above by radiative cooling. During the 9 hours we observed Titan, this feature completed a little over one rotation around the pole, providing direct evidence for a polar vortex rotating at a rate roughly consistent with angular-momentum-conserving flow for air displaced from the equator. Part of this work was performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  18. Dietary acrylamide intake and estrogen and progesterone receptor-defined postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Grete S; Hogervorst, Janneke G F; Schouten, Leo J

    2010-01-01

    and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer stratified by estrogen and progesterone receptor status. This study was embedded within the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer, which was initiated in 1986 enrolling 62,573 women aged 55-69 years at baseline. After 13.3 years of follow-up, 2225 incident...... breast cancer cases were ascertained, with hormone receptor status information for 43%. Cox proportional hazards analysis was applied to determine hazard ratios in quintiles of dietary acrylamide intake stratifying on estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and smoking status....... No association was observed for overall breast cancer or receptor-negative breast cancer risk, irrespective of smoking status. A statistically non-significantly increased risk of ER positive, PR positive and joint receptor-positive breast cancer was found in never-smoking women. The multivariable-adjusted hazard...

  19. Understanding the relation between socioeconomic position and inflammation in post-menopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; De Roos, Anneclaire

    2017-01-01

    % CI as percentage change −12, −4), 5% [95% CI (−8, −2) and 4% (95% CI − 7, −1)] lower levels of CRP, respectively. The inverse association between education and CRP was explained by the effect of education on income and occupational prestige. The effect of occupational prestige on CRP was independent...... of education, income and occupational prestige on C-reactive protein (CRP) and to describe the relationship between these markers and CRP. Methods: The study was based on 2026 post-menopausal women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative-Observational Study. Occupational prestige was determined by linking...... a text description of longest held occupation with a social status item from the Occupational Information Network. Path analysis was employed to estimate direct and mediated effects. Results: The study suggests that higher levels of education, income, and occupational prestige are associated with 8% (95...

  20. Seasonal changes in vitamin D status and bone turnover in healthy Irish postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, T.R.; McCarthy, D.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effect of season on biochemical markers of bone turnover in 51-to 75-year-old Irish women and to investigate whether such changes are related to vitamin D status. Design: Longitudinal observational study. Setting: Cork, Ireland (52 degrees N). Subjects: 76 apparently...... healthy, free-living postmenopausal women (aged 51-75 years), not taking any medication and free from any condition likely to affect vitamin D status or calcium/bone metabolism. Results: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] showed a clear seasonal variation with significantly higher (p ... during late summer than late winter. Both urinary pyridinoline (Ur-Pyr) (p women into those with S-25(OH)D levels...

  1. Observations of an early Agulhas current retroflection event in 2001: a temporary cessation of inter-ocean exchange south of Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Aken, HM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available -1 Deep-Sea Research Part 1: Oceanographic Research Papers February 2013/Vol. 72, pp 1-8 Observations of an early Agulhas current retroflection event in 2001: A temporary cessation of inter-ocean exchange south of Africa? H.M. van Akena,*, J.R.E.... Lutjeharms b, M. Rouault b,c, C. Whittle d,b, W.P.M. de Ruijter e aNIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, PO Box 59, Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands bDepartment of Oceanography, Mare Institute, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South...

  2. Vitamin D status is associated with anxiety levels in postmenopausal women evaluated for osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Martino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D status has been previously associated with a wide range of acute and chronic diseases. The nervous system express vitamin D receptors and thus vitamin D may be involved in mental health. Poor data exist about the correlation between vitamin D and anxiety levels.Our aim was to investigate the association of vitamin D status with anxiety severity. A group of 177 postmenopausal women (mean age 65.5±8.22 yr. referring to an outpatients clinic for the prevention of osteoporosis were evaluated. Severity of perceived anxiety symptoms was measured by the Hamilton Anxiety rating scale (HAMA. Depression levels were also evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory-second edition scale (BDI-II.  25(OHD serum levels, indicative of vitamin D status, were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. 25(OHD levels were significantly related HAMA-score (r=-0.15, p=0.04; particularly a deep association was observed between 25(OHD levels and somatic symptoms (r=-0.195, p=0.009. HAMA score was associated with BDI-II score (r=0.487, p=<0.001; HAMA psychic symptom score was also related with age and time since menopause (r=0.149, p=0.039 and r=0.222, p=0.003, respectively. At a multiple regression analysis, after correcting for age and depression levels, 25(OHD was predictive of HAMA score (β =-0,05961, p= 0.02, SE=-2.206, but the strength of association was lost further correcting for time since menopause.  In conclusion, in a setting of postmenopausal women, we observed a significant association between anxiety levels and serum 25(OHD concentrations irrespective of age and depression levels.

  3. Association of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin d concentrations and pathogenic oral bacteria in postmenopausal females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Michelle W; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Ram, Pavani K; LaMonte, Michael J; Hovey, Kathleen M; Genco, Robert J; Andrews, Christopher A; Millen, Amy E

    2014-07-01

    Previous findings of an association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and periodontal disease may be partially explained by the antimicrobial properties of vitamin D. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no study has investigated the association between 25(OH)D and pathogenic oral bacteria, a putative cause of periodontal disease. The association between plasma 25(OH)D concentrations and pathogenic oral bacteria was examined among postmenopausal females in the Buffalo Osteoporosis and Periodontal Disease Study (1997 to 2000), an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Subgingival plaque samples were assessed using immunofluorescence for the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, and Campylobacter rectus. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for prevalent bacteria by quintile (Q) of 25(OH)D concentrations, adjusting for age and body mass index. Of the 855 participants, 288 (34%) had deficient/inadequate (bacteria. No significant association was found between 25(OH)D and presence of any of these bacteria (adjusted OR for high [Q5] compared to low [Q1] 25(OH)D = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.61 to 1.50; P for trend = 0.50). Inverse, although not statistically significant, associations were found between 25(OH)D and more than one species of pathogenic bacteria (adjusted OR for adequate compared to deficient/inadequate 25(OH)D = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.60 to 1.19). No association was observed between pathogenic oral bacteria and 25(OH)D concentrations in postmenopausal females. This may be attributable to the species of bacteria assessed, small effect size, or a true absence of an association.

  4. Impact of Pre-Pregnancy BMI on B Vitamin and Inflammatory Status in Early Pregnancy: An Observational Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Bjørke-Monsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition and inflammation have been suggested as mediators in the development of various adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity. We have investigated the relation between pre-pregnancy BMI, B vitamin status, and inflammatory markers in a group of healthy pregnant women. Cobalamin, folate, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, and riboflavin; and the metabolic markers homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio (HK/XA; and markers of cellular inflammation, neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR were determined in pregnancy week 18 and related to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, in 2797 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely related to folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP, and riboflavin (p < 0.001, and associated with increased neopterin and KTR levels (p < 0.001. Inflammation seemed to be an independent predictor of low vitamin B6 status, as verified by low PLP and high HK/XA ratio. A high pre-pregnancy BMI is a risk factor for low B vitamin status and increased cellular inflammation. As an optimal micronutrient status is vital for normal fetal development, the observed lower B vitamin levels may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity and B vitamin status should be assessed in women with high BMI before they get pregnant.

  5. Sexual dysfunction in the peri- and postmenopause. Status of incidence, pharmacological treatment and possible risks. A secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Nina; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Giraldi, Annamaria Elena

    2006-01-01

    of randomized, controlled trials have been conducted and evidence suggests that systemic hormone therapy with estrogen, estrogen/progesterone, estrogen/testosterone and tibolone have a positive impact on sexual dysfunction during the peri- and postmenopause. Further, there is evidence that treatment with local...... not yet been fully investigated. A positive effect of sildenafil has been observed in a limited group of women; those with arousal problems but with no desire problems. The results suggest an intensified focus on new pharmaceutical products for the treatment of female sexual dysfunction...

  6. Educational Differences in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer - Quantifying Indirect Effects through Health Behaviors, Body Mass Index and Reproductive Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise

    2013-01-01

    Studying mechanisms underlying social inequality in postmenopausal breast cancer is important in order to develop prevention strategies. Standard methods for investigating indirect effects, by comparing crude models to adjusted, are often biased. We applied a new method enabling the decomposition......-years at risk. Of these, 26% (95% CI 14%-69%) could be attributed to alcohol consumption. Similar effects were observed for age at first birth (32%; 95% CI 10%-257%), parity (19%; 95%CI 10%-45%), and hormone therapy use (10%; 95% CI 6%-18%). Educational level modified the effect of physical activity on breast...

  7. Endometrial safety of ultra-low-dose Vagifem 10 microg in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, L S G; Naessen, T; Elia, D

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the endometrial safety of a 10 microg estradiol vaginal tablet in the treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women.......The objective of the study was to evaluate the endometrial safety of a 10 microg estradiol vaginal tablet in the treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women....

  8. Acute and long-term estradiol kinetics in smoking postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, N H; Jørgensen, H L; Christiansen, C

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to study 2-h estrogen kinetics in smoking versus non-smoking postmenopausal women receiving estrogen therapy. Moreover, we wished to study estrogen concentrations over 2 years in smokers using ten or fewer cigarettes daily versus non-smokers in postmenopausal women on estrogen treatment....

  9. Phyto-oestrogen excretion and rate of bone loss in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Morton, M.S.; Brüggemann-Rotgans, I.E.M.; Beresteijn, E.C.H. van

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The hypothesis was tested that the rate of postmenopausal bone loss is inversely associated with long-term urinary excretion of phyto-oestrogens, as a marker of habitual dietary intake. Design: Secondary analysis of a 10-year follow-up study (1979-1989) among postmenopausal women in the

  10. Urinary endogenous sex hormone levels and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onland-Moret, N.C.; Kaaks, R.; Noord, P.A.H. van; Rinaldi, S.; Key, T.; Grobbee, D.E.; Peeters, P.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    To assess the relation between urinary endogenous sex steroid levels and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, a nested case–cohort study was conducted within a large cohort (the DOM cohort) in the Netherlands (n¼9 349). Until the end of follow-up (1 January 1996), 397 postmenopausal breast

  11. Moderate alcohol consumption and 24-hour urinary levels of melatonin in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low overnight urinary melatonin metabolite concentrations have been associated with increased risk for breast cancer among postmenopausal women. The Postmenopausal Women's Alcohol Study was a controlled feeding study to test the effects of low to moderate alcohol intake on potential risk factors for...

  12. THE RESOLVED STELLAR POPULATION IN 50 REGIONS OF M83 FROM HST/WFC3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwihyun; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Whitmore, Bradley C.; Mutchler, Max; Bond, Howard E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chandar, Rupali [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Saha, Abhijit [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States); Kaleida, Catherine C. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, La Serena (Chile); Calzetti, Daniela [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); O' Connell, Robert W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Balick, Bruce [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Carollo, Marcella [Department of Physics, ETH-Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland); Disney, Michael J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Dopita, Michael A. [Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frogel, Jay A. [Galaxies Unlimited, 1 Tremblant Court, Lutherville, MD 21093 (United States); Hall, Donald N. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Holtzman, Jon A. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Kimble, Randy A. [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McCarthy, Patrick J., E-mail: hwihyun.kim@asu.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101-1292 (United States); and others

    2012-07-01

    We present a multi-wavelength photometric study of {approx}15,000 resolved stars in the nearby spiral galaxy M83 (NGC 5236, D = 4.61 Mpc) based on Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 observations using four filters: F336W, F438W, F555W, and F814W. We select 50 regions (an average size of 260 pc by 280 pc) in the spiral arm and inter-arm areas of M83 and determine the age distribution of the luminous stellar populations in each region. This is accomplished by correcting for extinction toward each individual star by comparing its colors with predictions from stellar isochrones. We compare the resulting luminosity-weighted mean ages of the luminous stars in the 50 regions with those determined from several independent methods, including the number ratio of red-to-blue supergiants, morphological appearance of the regions, surface brightness fluctuations, and the ages of clusters in the regions. We find reasonably good agreement between these methods. We also find that young stars are much more likely to be found in concentrated aggregates along spiral arms, while older stars are more dispersed. These results are consistent with the scenario that star formation is associated with the spiral arms, and stars form primarily in star clusters and then disperse on short timescales to form the field population. The locations of Wolf-Rayet stars are found to correlate with the positions of many of the youngest regions, providing additional support for our ability to accurately estimate ages. We address the effects of spatial resolution on the measured colors, magnitudes, and age estimates. While individual stars can occasionally show measurable differences in the colors and magnitudes, the age estimates for entire regions are only slightly affected.

  13. The Resolved Stellar Population in 50 Regions of M83 from HST/WFC3 Early Release Science Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwihyun; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Chandar, Rupali; Saha, Abhijit; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Mutchler, Max; Cohen, Seth H.; Calzetti, Daniela; O’Connell, Robert W.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength photometric study of approximately 15,000 resolved stars in the nearby spiral galaxy M83 (NGC 5236, D = 4.61 Mpc) based on Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 observations using four filters: F336W, F438W, F555W, and F814W. We select 50 regions (an average size of 260 pc by 280 pc) in the spiral arm and inter-arm areas of M83 and determine the age distribution of the luminous stellar populations in each region. This is accomplished by correcting for extinction toward each individual star by comparing its colors with predictions from stellar isochrones.We compare the resulting luminosity-weighted mean ages of the luminous stars in the 50 regions with those determined from several independent methods, including the number ratio of red-to-blue supergiants, morphological appearance of the regions, surface brightness fluctuations, and the ages of clusters in the regions. We find reasonably good agreement between these methods. We also find that young stars are much more likely to be found in concentrated aggregates along spiral arms, while older stars are more dispersed. These results are consistent with the scenario that star formation is associated with the spiral arms, and stars form primarily in star clusters and then disperse on short timescales to form the field population. The locations ofWolf-Rayet stars are found to correlate with the positions of many of the youngest regions, providing additional support for our ability to accurately estimate ages. We address the effects of spatial resolution on the measured colors, magnitudes, and age estimates. While individual stars can occasionally show measurable differences in the colors and magnitudes, the age estimates for entire regions are only slightly affected.

  14. THE RESOLVED STELLAR POPULATION IN 50 REGIONS OF M83 FROM HST/WFC3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hwihyun; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Mutchler, Max; Bond, Howard E.; Chandar, Rupali; Saha, Abhijit; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Calzetti, Daniela; O'Connell, Robert W.; Balick, Bruce; Carollo, Marcella; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength photometric study of ∼15,000 resolved stars in the nearby spiral galaxy M83 (NGC 5236, D = 4.61 Mpc) based on Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 observations using four filters: F336W, F438W, F555W, and F814W. We select 50 regions (an average size of 260 pc by 280 pc) in the spiral arm and inter-arm areas of M83 and determine the age distribution of the luminous stellar populations in each region. This is accomplished by correcting for extinction toward each individual star by comparing its colors with predictions from stellar isochrones. We compare the resulting luminosity-weighted mean ages of the luminous stars in the 50 regions with those determined from several independent methods, including the number ratio of red-to-blue supergiants, morphological appearance of the regions, surface brightness fluctuations, and the ages of clusters in the regions. We find reasonably good agreement between these methods. We also find that young stars are much more likely to be found in concentrated aggregates along spiral arms, while older stars are more dispersed. These results are consistent with the scenario that star formation is associated with the spiral arms, and stars form primarily in star clusters and then disperse on short timescales to form the field population. The locations of Wolf-Rayet stars are found to correlate with the positions of many of the youngest regions, providing additional support for our ability to accurately estimate ages. We address the effects of spatial resolution on the measured colors, magnitudes, and age estimates. While individual stars can occasionally show measurable differences in the colors and magnitudes, the age estimates for entire regions are only slightly affected.

  15. WEAK AND COMPACT RADIO EMISSION IN EARLY HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS. I. VLA OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosero, V.; Hofner, P. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy Pl., Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Claussen, M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Rd., Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S.; Carrasco-González, C.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Loinard, L. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58090, México (Mexico); Cesaroni, R. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Araya, E. D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F. [Max-Planck-Institute für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ellingsen, S. P. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)

    2016-12-01

    We present a high-sensitivity radio continuum survey at 6 and 1.3 cm using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array toward a sample of 58 high-mass star-forming regions. Our sample was chosen from dust clumps within infrared dark clouds with and without IR sources (CMC–IRs and CMCs, respectively), and hot molecular cores (HMCs), with no previous, or relatively weak radio continuum detection at the 1 mJy level. Due to the improvement in the continuum sensitivity of the Very Large Array, this survey achieved map rms levels of ∼3–10  μ Jy beam{sup −1} at sub-arcsecond angular resolution. We extracted 70 continuum sources associated with 1.2 mm dust clumps. Most sources are weak, compact, and prime candidates for high-mass protostars. Detection rates of radio sources associated with the millimeter dust clumps for CMCs, CMC–IRs, and HMCs are 6%, 53%, and 100%, respectively. This result is consistent with increasing high-mass star formation activity from CMCs to HMCs. The radio sources located within HMCs and CMC–IRs occur close to the dust clump centers, with a median offset from it of 12,000 au and 4000 au, respectively. We calculated 5–25 GHz spectral indices using power-law fits and obtained a median value of 0.5 (i.e., flux increasing with frequency), suggestive of thermal emission from ionized jets. In this paper we describe the sample, observations, and detections. The analysis and discussion will be presented in Paper II.

  16. A prospective observational study of early fetal growth velocity and its association with birth weight, gestational age at delivery, preeclampsia, and perinatal mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudeva, Akhila, E-mail: akhilavasudeva@gmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104, Karnataka State (India); Abraham, Anu Annie, E-mail: anuannieabraham@yahoo.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104, Karnataka State (India); Kamath, Asha, E-mail: aashakamat@gmail.com [Department of Community Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, A Constituent College of Manipal University (India)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: We aimed to measure early fetal growth velocity and to correlate this with the birth weight, gestational age at delivery, and with the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes specifically preeclampsia and perinatal mortality. Methods: A data based prospective observational study, wherein sonographic biometry data and specific pregnancy outcome related data were collected from pregnant women's records, starting soon after their first antenatal visit. Early fetal growth velocity was measured using BPD growth between 11 and 14 weeks scan and anomaly scan and standardizing this by Z scoring. Results: Out of 607 fetuses, 41 (6.7%) were slow growing, 531 (87.4%) normally growing, and 35 (5.7%) fast growing (Z scoring <10th{sup ,} 10–90th, and >90th percentiles respectively). As fetal growth velocity increased, the mean birth weight decreased from 2958.7 ± 388.9 (<10th centile), 2742.1 ± 576.6 (10–90th centile), to 2339.3 ± 729.4 (>90th centile); and gestational age at delivery decreased from 38.5 ± 1.3 (<10th centile), 37.5 ± 2.1 (10–90th centile), to 36.4 ± 2.2 (>90th centile), and both these trends were statistically significant (p < 0.001).Faster growing fetuses had a higher risk of preterm delivery(spontaneous + indicated) compared to other 2 groups [OR 4.42 (2.18,8.98)], and slower growing fetuses had a higher risk of postdated deliveries compared to other 2 groups [OR 3.042 (1.44, 6.45)].We found no significant association between early fetal growth velocity and incidence of small for gestational age at birth/low birth weight at term, preeclampsia, and perinatal mortality. Conclusions: Early fetal growth velocity between first and second trimesters, may be one of the important factors influencing ultimate birthweight and gestational age at delivery.

  17. A prospective observational study of early fetal growth velocity and its association with birth weight, gestational age at delivery, preeclampsia, and perinatal mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudeva, Akhila; Abraham, Anu Annie; Kamath, Asha

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to measure early fetal growth velocity and to correlate this with the birth weight, gestational age at delivery, and with the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes specifically preeclampsia and perinatal mortality. Methods: A data based prospective observational study, wherein sonographic biometry data and specific pregnancy outcome related data were collected from pregnant women's records, starting soon after their first antenatal visit. Early fetal growth velocity was measured using BPD growth between 11 and 14 weeks scan and anomaly scan and standardizing this by Z scoring. Results: Out of 607 fetuses, 41 (6.7%) were slow growing, 531 (87.4%) normally growing, and 35 (5.7%) fast growing (Z scoring <10th , 10–90th, and >90th percentiles respectively). As fetal growth velocity increased, the mean birth weight decreased from 2958.7 ± 388.9 (<10th centile), 2742.1 ± 576.6 (10–90th centile), to 2339.3 ± 729.4 (>90th centile); and gestational age at delivery decreased from 38.5 ± 1.3 (<10th centile), 37.5 ± 2.1 (10–90th centile), to 36.4 ± 2.2 (>90th centile), and both these trends were statistically significant (p < 0.001).Faster growing fetuses had a higher risk of preterm delivery(spontaneous + indicated) compared to other 2 groups [OR 4.42 (2.18,8.98)], and slower growing fetuses had a higher risk of postdated deliveries compared to other 2 groups [OR 3.042 (1.44, 6.45)].We found no significant association between early fetal growth velocity and incidence of small for gestational age at birth/low birth weight at term, preeclampsia, and perinatal mortality. Conclusions: Early fetal growth velocity between first and second trimesters, may be one of the important factors influencing ultimate birthweight and gestational age at delivery

  18. Early skin-to-skin contact between healthy late preterm infants and their parents: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyqvist, Kerstin H; Rosenblad, Andreas; Volgsten, Helena; Funkquist, Eva-Lotta; Mattsson, Elisabet

    2017-01-01

    Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) is an important factor to consider in the care of late preterm infants (born between 34 0/7 and 36 6/7 completed weeks of gestation). The literature suggests that SSC between preterm infants and their mothers facilitates breastfeeding. However, more studies are needed to explore potential dose-response effects between SSC and breastfeeding as well as studies that explicitly investigate SSC by fathers among late preterm infants. The aim was to investigate the duration of healthy late preterm infants' SSC with the mother and father, respectively, during the first 48 h after birth and the associations with breastfeeding (exclusive/partial at discharged), clinical and demographic variables. This was an observational cohort study in which parents to healthy late preterm infants, born between 34 5/7 and 36 6/7 completed weeks of gestation, recorded duration of SSC provided by mother and father, respectively. Demographic and clinical variables were retrieved from the medical records and were used as predictors. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between the predictors and the outcome, SSC (hours), separately for mothers and fathers. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) time per day spent with SSC with mothers ( n  = 64) and fathers ( n  = 64), was 14.7 (5.6) and 4.4 (3.3) hours during the first day (24 h) after birth and 9.2 (7.1) and 3.1 (3.3) hours during the second day (24 h), respectively. Regarding SSC with mothers, no variable was significantly associated with SSC during the first day, while the mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) time of SSC during the second day was 6.9 (1.4-12.4) hours shorter for each additional kg of birthweight ( p  = 0.014). Concerning SSC with fathers, the mean (95% CI) time of SSC during the first day was 2.1 (0.4-3.7) hours longer for infants born at night ( p  = 0.015), 1.7 (0.1-3.2) hours longer for boys ( p  = 0.033), 3.2 (1.2-5.2) hours longer for infants born by

  19. Early skin-to-skin contact between healthy late preterm infants and their parents: an observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin H. Nyqvist

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Skin-to-skin contact (SSC is an important factor to consider in the care of late preterm infants (born between 34 0/7 and 36 6/7 completed weeks of gestation. The literature suggests that SSC between preterm infants and their mothers facilitates breastfeeding. However, more studies are needed to explore potential dose-response effects between SSC and breastfeeding as well as studies that explicitly investigate SSC by fathers among late preterm infants. The aim was to investigate the duration of healthy late preterm infants’ SSC with the mother and father, respectively, during the first 48 h after birth and the associations with breastfeeding (exclusive/partial at discharged, clinical and demographic variables. Methods This was an observational cohort study in which parents to healthy late preterm infants, born between 34 5/7 and 36 6/7 completed weeks of gestation, recorded duration of SSC provided by mother and father, respectively. Demographic and clinical variables were retrieved from the medical records and were used as predictors. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between the predictors and the outcome, SSC (hours, separately for mothers and fathers. Results The mean (standard deviation [SD] time per day spent with SSC with mothers (n = 64 and fathers (n = 64, was 14.7 (5.6 and 4.4 (3.3 hours during the first day (24 h after birth and 9.2 (7.1 and 3.1 (3.3 hours during the second day (24 h, respectively. Regarding SSC with mothers, no variable was significantly associated with SSC during the first day, while the mean (95% confidence interval [CI] time of SSC during the second day was 6.9 (1.4–12.4 hours shorter for each additional kg of birthweight (p = 0.014. Concerning SSC with fathers, the mean (95% CI time of SSC during the first day was 2.1 (0.4–3.7 hours longer for infants born at night (p = 0.015, 1.7 (0.1–3.2 hours longer for boys (p = 0.033, 3.2 (1.2–5.2 hours

  20. The effects of moderate alcohol supplementation on estrone sulfate and DHEAS in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albanes Demetrius

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption (15 g/d, 30 g/d for 8 weeks resulted in significantly increased levels of serum estrone sulfate and DHEAS in 51 postmenopausal women in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. We now report on the relationships between serum estrone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS levels after 4 weeks of moderate alcohol supplementation, and compare the results to the 8 weeks data to elucidate time-to-effect differences. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 51 consumed 0 (placebo, 15 (1 drink, and 30 (2 drinks g alcohol (ethanol/ day for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, at 4 weeks and at 8 weeks. Changes in estrone sulfate and DHEAS levels from placebo to 15 g and 30 g alcohol per day were estimated using linear mixed models. Results and Discussion At week 4, compared to the placebo, estrone sulfate increased an average 6.9% (P = 0.24 when the women consumed 15 g of alcohol per day, and 22.2% (P = 0.0006 when they consumed 30 g alcohol per day. DHEAS concentrations also increased significantly by an average of 8.0% (P Conclusions These data indicate that the hormonal effects due to moderate alcohol consumption are seen early, within 4 weeks of initiation of ingestion.

  1. "Stain in life": The meaning of urinary incontinence in the context of Muslim postmenopausal women through hermeneutic phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Pakgohar, Minoo; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Dastjerdi, Marzieh Vahid

    2015-01-01

    UI is a worldwide chronic condition among postmenopausal women. Little is known about the meaning of lived experiences of urinary incontinence of these women's viewpoints in their context. The aim of this study was to illuminate the experience of Muslim community-dwelling postmenopausal women who were living with urinary incontinence (UI). Seventeen women with UI (range: 52-68 years) who had experienced it for more than ten years were interviewed. A phenomenological hermeneutic method was used to analyze and interpret the interview texts. The women's experiences of living with urinary incontinence have been presented in terms of three main themes: disruption of normal functioning, self-imposed restriction, and feelings of despair. Disruption of normal functioning meant emotional, spiritual, physical, and daily life disruption. Self-imposed restriction meant suppression of delights and needs and avoidance of social interactions. Feelings of despair referred to predictions of a bad and dark future of living with urinary incontinence, ambiguity, and hopelessness. The meaning of living with UI has been considered a 'stain in life'. Health care providers should be familiar with the different manifestations of urinary incontinence for early diagnosis and prevention of the negative effects of this condition to improve quality of life. In addition, symbolic interactionism theory can help health care providers to understand the meaning of urinary incontinence for women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Arterial function of carotid and brachial arteries in postmenopausal vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su T

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ta-Chen Su1, Pao-Ling Torng2, Jiann-Shing Jeng3, Ming-Fong Chen1, Chiau-Suong Liau1,41Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, 4Cardiovascular Center, Taipei Buddist Tzu-Chi Hospital, Hsin-Dian, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: Vegetarianism is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies of arterial function in vegetarians are limited.Methods: This study investigated arterial function in vegetarianism by comparing 49 healthy postmenopausal vegetarians with 41 age-matched omnivores. The arterial function of the common carotid artery was assessed by carotid duplex, while the pulse dynamics method was used to measure brachial artery distensibility (BAD, compliance (BAC, and resistance (BAR. Fasting blood levels of glucose, lipids, lipoprotein (a, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 were also measured.Results: Vegetarians had significantly lower serum cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and glucose compared with omnivores. They also had lower vitamin B12 but higher homocysteine levels. Serum levels of lipoprotein (a and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were no different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD between the two groups even after adjustment for associated covariates. However, BAR was significantly lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and pulse pressure were two important determinants of carotid beta stiffness index and BAD. Vegetarianism is not associated with better arterial elasticity.Conclusion: Apparently healthy postmenopausal vegetarians are not significantly better in terms of carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD, but have significantly decreased BAR than

  3. Vitamin D status in healthy postmenopausal Iranian women

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    Mitra Niafar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: There are few epidemiologic studies on vitamin D status of postmenopausal women in the Middle East countries. This study aimed to investigate the 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in  ostmenopausal women living in the north-west of Iran.
    • METHODS: Using the records of the local household registry, 300 cases were enrolled by simple random sampling. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were determined by fully automated chemiluminescent  mmunoassay. In addition, the study included survey questions regarding age, body weight and height, use of supplements and skin protection agents and clinical and reproductive histories.
    • RESULT: Our cases had the mean age of 63.41 ± 4.64 years with menopause duration of 16.79 ± 6.15 years. Median and interquartile 25-75 range of vitamin D were 14.20 ng/ml and 7-37.2 ng/ml  espectively. We found hypovitaminosis D [25(OH D < 10 ng/ml] in 38.3% of our cases. Serum 25(OH D concentrations were not  ignificantly correlated with age or BMI.
    • CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that 25(OH D levels in postmenopausal women of north-west Iran are low. Studies to elucidate and assess the dietary intake of vitamin D in elderly women of this region can be of further benefit.
    • KEYWORDS: Vitamin D Deficiency, Dietary Supplement, Postmenopausal Period, Middle East, Iran.

  4. Conservative approach to preneoplastic cervical lesions in postmenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrano, Giuseppe; Aleandri, Vincenzo; Ciolli, Paola; Scardamaglia, Paola; Pacchiarotti, Arianna; Verrico, Monica; Carboni, Simona; Corosu, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the recurrence rate of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in postmenopausal women previously submitted to laser CO2 conization and the role of persistent oncogenic HPV types. Fifty-five patients with a cytological diagnosis of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were triaged with a standard colposcopy. Hormonal replacement therapy was considered as significative in influencing cervical trophism. Vaginal smears for microbiological examination were obtained. H-R HPV test was performed by PCR. The follow-up checks including cytology, colposcopy and HVP test were performed for a minimum of 5 years. Histological analysis revealed 19 CIN2 (cervical intraepithelial lesions) and 36 CIN3 lesions. The cumulative failure rate at first treatment was 14%. HPV test was positive for HPV 16 type in all patients. Forty-two patients during the follow up checks resulted negative to cytology, colposcopy and HR HPV test. At the one-year follow-up check, 7 patients revealed normal cytological and abnormal colposcopical findings and persistent positive HR HPV test. At the five-year follow-up check, 14 patients with a normal cytological smear had a recurrence of CIN2/3 and positive HR HPV test. In postmenopause, the correct management of H-R squamous intraepithelial lesions is still debated. However, a satisfactory follow-up is the main requirement for the conservative management. HPV typing in the follow-up is important to detect persistent types to identify women at risk of developing cervical abnormalities. The incidence of cervical neoplasia does not decrease with increasing age. Since HPV positivity predicted subsequent infection, testing postmenopausal patients for the virus may be a cost-effective method of disease prevention.

  5. Caffeine, postmenopausal estrogen, and risk of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascherio, A; Chen, H; Schwarzschild, M A; Zhang, S M; Colditz, G A; Speizer, F E

    2003-03-11

    Men who regularly consume caffeinated drinks have a lower risk of PD than do nondrinkers, but this relation has not been found in women. Because this sex difference could be due to hormonal effects, the authors examined prospectively the risk of PD according to use of postmenopausal hormones and caffeine intake among participants in the Nurses' Health Study. The study population comprised 77,713 women free of PD, stroke, or cancer at baseline, who were postmenopausal at baseline or reached menopause before the end of the study. During 18 years of follow-up the authors documented 154 cases of PD. Overall, the risk of PD was similar in women using hormones and women who never used hormones (relative risk 1.02, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.52). Use of hormones, however, was associated with a reduced risk of PD among women with low caffeine consumption (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.17), and with increased risk among women with high caffeine consumption (RR 2.44, 95% CI 0.75 to 7.86; p for interaction = 0.01). Among hormone users, women consuming six or more cups of coffee per day had a fourfold higher risk of PD (RR 3.92, 95% CI 1.49 to 10.34; p = 0.006) than did women who never drink coffee. These results suggest that caffeine reduces the risk of PD among women who do not use postmenopausal hormones, but increases risk among hormone users. Clinical trials of caffeine or estrogens in women should avoid the combined use of these agents.

  6. Effects of vitamin K in postmenopausal women: mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralp, Onur; Erel, Cemal Tamer

    2014-03-01

    Possible benefits of vitamin K on bone health, fracture risk, markers of bone formation and resorption, cardiovascular health, and cancer risk in postmenopausal women have been investigated for over three decades; yet there is no clear evidence-based universal recommendation for its use. Interventional studies showed that vitamin K1 provided significant improvement in undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) levels in postmenopausal women with normal bone mineral density (BMD); however, there are inconsistent results in women with low BMD. There is no study showing any improvement in bone-alkaline-phosphatase (BAP), n-telopeptide of type-1 collagen (NTX), 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, and urinary markers. Improvement in BMD could not be shown in the majority of the studies; there is no interventional study evaluating the fracture risk. Studies evaluating the isolated effects of menatetrenone (MK-4) showed significant improvement in osteocalcin (OC); however, there are inconsistent results on BAP, NTX, and urinary markers. BMD was found to be significantly increased in the majority of studies. The fracture risk was assessed in three studies, which showed decreased fracture risk to some extent. Although there are proven beneficial effects on some of the bone formation markers, there is not enough evidence-based data to support a role for vitamin K supplementation in osteoporosis prevention among healthy, postmenopausal women receiving vitamin D and calcium supplementation. Interventional studies investigating the isolated role of vitamin K on cardiovascular health are required. Longterm clinical trials are required to evaluate the effect of vitamin K on gynecological cancers. MK-4 seems safe even at doses as high as 45 mg/day. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Age at First Childbirth and Hypertension in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangshin

    2017-05-01

    Whether age at first childbirth has an effect on hypertension incidence is unclear. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between age at first childbirth and hypertension and to examine whether degree of obesity, measured as body mass index, mediates age at first childbirth-related hypertension in postmenopausal women. This study analyzed 4779 postmenopausal women data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate relationship between age at first childbirth and hypertension. Mediation analysis was performed to examine the contribution of body mass index to age at first childbirth-related hypertension. Mean of participants' age at first childbirth and current age were 23.8 and 63.4 years, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension was 51.1%. Age at first childbirth was significantly associated with the prevalence of hypertension (odds ratio, 0.963; 95% confidence interval, 0.930-0.998; P =0.036). Women with age at first childbirth ≤19 years had significantly higher risk of hypertension (odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.23; P =0.004) compared with those >19 years. Multivariable-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was significantly lower in women who delivered the first infant at 20 to 24 (45.5%), 25 to 29 (46.1%), and ≥30 (39.9%) years compared with those at ≤19 years (58.4%). Body mass index completely mediated age at first childbirth-hypertension relationship (indirect effect: odds ratio, 0.992; 95% confidence interval, 0.987-0.998; P =0.008). Age at first childbirth was significantly associated with hypertension in postmenopausal women. Body mass index mediated the effects of age at first childbirth on hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. The prevalence of sexual activity, and sexual dysfunction and behaviours in postmenopausal woman in Poland

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    Kamila B. Czajkowska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the aging of the population, there is limited data available about sexual life and behaviours among of postmenopausal and late postmenopausal women. Aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of sexual dysfunction, behaviours, and preferences in the Polish population in 2015. Material and methods: This observational survey study involved 538 women, of whom 220 were over 50 years old. The main focus was on the differences and changes between older age groups, mainly 50-59 years and over 60 years. Results : For 80.9% of the women above 50 years old, sex played at least a moderately important role in life. Sex was definitely important and very important for 40.45% of them. Most women over 50 years old (65.5% were sexually active. Regardless of age, the respondents were more likely to have sexual intercourse several times a month. Less than half of the women over 50 years old (42.7% realised their sexual fantasies. Women in the group of 50-59 years old statistically less often than younger women declared that the frequency of intercourse they had was too small. There was a statistical tendency showing that women up to 49 years old declared more sexual problems than older women. Women over 50 years old reported fewer problems in comparison to younger women, e.g. less often they claimed that sex is not pleasurable (p = 0.064. Conclusions : The prevalence of sexual activity declines with age, yet a substantial number of woman engage in vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and masturbation even past the seventh decade of life.

  9. The effect of carbohydrates in milk on the absorption of calcium by postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuette, S.A.; Yasillo, N.J.; Thompson, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the presence of carbohydrate in milk, either lactose or its hydrolysis products, enhance the bioavailability of calcium (Ca) in milk. Two studies were performed. In study A, fractional Ca absorption was measured in 11 lactose-tolerant postmenopausal women after an oral dose of 47 Ca-equilibrated milk formula containing no carbohydrate (NOCHO), lactose (LACTOSE), or an equivalent amount of glucose plus galactose (SUGAR); all participated in three absorption studies in random order. The NOCHO formula contained 10.0 g protein and 217 mg Ca from a combination of milk mineral and protein isolates; the LACTOSE and SUGAR formulae contained in addition 12 g lactose or 6 g glucose plus 6 g galactose, respectively. In study B, fractional Ca absorption was measured in five postmenopausal women after an oral dose of 47 Ca-equilibrated skim milk (217 mg Ca) and lactase-treated milk, each with sufficient carbohydrate added to equal 12 g. For both studies, the increase in forearm radioactivity 4 and 8 hours after oral 47 Ca administration relative to the increase observed after IV administration was used to estimate fractional Ca absorption. The addition of lactose but not glucose plus galactose to the NOCHO formula enhanced Ca absorption (p less than 0.05). Fractional absorption at 4 hours was 0.386 from the LACTOSE formula compared with 0.310 for both the NOCHO and SUGAR formulae. Those individuals with the lowest absorption in the absence of carbohydrate had the greatest increase with lactose. In contrast, Ca absorption was the same from skim milk as from lactase-treated skim milk (study B)

  10. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

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    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  11. Association of Obesity with Forearm Fractures, Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Risk (FRAX® During Postmenopausal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Mesci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association among obesity with bone mineral density (BMD and subsequent fracture risk among postmenopausal women with a previous forearm fracture. Materials and Methods: The study enrolled obese (n=40 and normal-weight (n=40 postmenopausal women who had a previous forearm fracture. BMD measurements were obtained using a GE-LUNAR DPX dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan for all subjects. FRAX® fracture risk scores were calculated taking into account former fractures and current risk factors of the subjects. Both groups were compared with respect to their BMD values, T scores, FRAX® risk scores and frequency of previous fractures. Results: No difference was observed between groups with regard to mean age, mean age of menopause onset and mean serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels (p>0.05 for all. Statistically, obese patients showed highly significantly greater mean BMD values at lumbar spine (L1-L4 and femoral neck in comparison to subjects with normal body weight (p=0.000 for all. Obese patients had a lower 10-year probability of a major osteoporotic fracture on average as determined by FRAX® fracture risk score compared to that in normal-weight subjects (p<0.05. Also, obese group had a lower 10-year probability of a hip fracture versus normal-weight subjects (p<0.01. Both groups were found to have a similar frequency of previous fractures. Conclusion: Although obese patients in this study had greater BMD values and lower FRAX® risk scores, the probability of subsequent fractures predicted for the obese group was not lower when compared to that predicted for normal-weight group. It should be kept in mind that obesity may not necessarily be protective against fractures and treatment algorithms based solely on BMD might be inadequate to predict future fracture risk.

  12. Accounting for individualized competing mortality risks in estimating postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberg, Mara A.; Li, Vicky W.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Davis, Roger B.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; McCarthy, Ellen P.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Ngo, Long H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Accurate risk assessment is necessary for decision-making around breast cancer prevention. We aimed to develop a breast cancer prediction model for postmenopausal women that would take into account their individualized competing risk of non-breast cancer death. Methods We included 73,066 women who completed the 2004 Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) questionnaire (all ≥57 years) and followed participants until May 2014. We considered 17 breast cancer risk factors (health behaviors, demographics, family history, reproductive factors), 7 risk factors for non-breast cancer death (comorbidities, functional dependency), and mammography use. We used competing risk regression to identify factors independently associated with breast cancer. We validated the final model by examining calibration (expected-to-observed ratio of breast cancer incidence, E/O) and discrimination (c-statistic) using 74,887 subjects from the Women’s Health Initiative Extension Study (WHI-ES; all were ≥55 years and followed for 5 years). Results Within 5 years, 1.8% of NHS participants were diagnosed with breast cancer (vs. 2.0% in WHI-ES, p=0.02) and 6.6% experienced non-breast cancer death (vs. 5.2% in WHI-ES, prisk factors, 5 comorbidities, functional dependency, and mammography use. The model’s c-statistic was 0.61 (95% CI [0.60–0.63]) in NHS and 0.57 (0.55–0.58) in WHI-ES. On average our model under predicted breast cancer in WHI-ES (E/O 0.92 [0.88–0.97]). Conclusions We developed a novel prediction model that factors in postmenopausal women’s individualized competing risks of non-breast cancer death when estimating breast cancer risk. PMID:27770283

  13. High-intensity interval training reduces abdominal fat mass in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, F; Rousset, S; Pereira, B; Traore, A; de Pradel Del Amaze, P; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Boisseau, N

    2016-12-01

    This study compared the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) for 16 weeks on whole-body and abdominal fat mass (FM) in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Seventeen women (69±1 years; BMI: 31±1kg.m -2 ) were randomly assigned to either a HIIT [60×(8s at 77-85% HR max , 12s of active recovery)] or MICT (40min at 55-60% of their individual HRR) cycling program for 16 weeks, 2 days/week. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure whole-body and regional FM content, including abdominal adiposity and visceral adipose tissue. Plasma cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, glucose and HbA 1c levels were measured. Levels of nutritional intake and physical activity were evaluated by 7-day self-reports. Dietary energy (caloric) intake, physical activity level and total body mass did not vary in either group from the beginning to the end of the training intervention. Overall, total FM decreased and total fat-free mass significantly increased over time (by around 2-3%). Total FM reduction at the end of the intervention was not significantly different between groups. However, significant loss of total abdominal (-8.3±2.2%) and visceral (-24.2±7.7%) FM was observed only with HIIT. Time effects were noted for HbA 1c and total cholesterol/HDL ratio. With no concomitant caloric restriction, an HIIT program in postmenopausal women with T2D (twice a week for 16 weeks) appeared to be more effective for reducing central obesity than MICT, and could be proposed as an alternative exercise training program for this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Is BMI a valid measure of obesity in postmenopausal women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banack, Hailey R; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Hovey, Kathleen M; Stokes, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is a widely used indicator of obesity status in clinical settings and population health research. However, there are concerns about the validity of BMI as a measure of obesity in postmenopausal women. Unlike BMI, which is an indirect measure of obesity and does not distinguish lean from fat mass, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) provides a direct measure of body fat and is considered a gold standard of adiposity measurement. The goal of this study is to examine the validity of using BMI to identify obesity in postmenopausal women relative to total body fat percent measured by DXA scan. Data from 1,329 postmenopausal women participating in the Buffalo OsteoPerio Study were used in this analysis. At baseline, women ranged in age from 53 to 85 years. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m and body fat percent (BF%) greater than 35%, 38%, or 40%. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value to evaluate the validity of BMI-defined obesity relative BF%. We further explored the validity of BMI relative to BF% using graphical tools, such as scatterplots and receiver-operating characteristic curves. Youden's J index was used to determine the empirical optimal BMI cut-point for each level of BF% defined obesity. The sensitivity of BMI-defined obesity was 32.4% for 35% body fat, 44.6% for 38% body fat, and 55.2% for 40% body fat. Corresponding specificity values were 99.3%, 97.1%, and 94.6%, respectively. The empirical optimal BMI cut-point to define obesity is 24.9 kg/m for 35% BF, 26.49 kg/m for 38% BF, and 27.05 kg/m for 40% BF according to the Youden's index. Results demonstrate that a BMI cut-point of 30 kg/m does not appear to be an appropriate indicator of true obesity status in postmenopausal women. Empirical estimates of the validity of BMI from this study may be used by other investigators to account for BMI-related misclassification in older women.

  15. Postmenopausal Estrogen Therapy and Risk of Gallstone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Maja Hellfritzsch; Erichsen, Rune; Frøslev, Trine

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Female gender and increasing age are key risk factors for gallstone disease; therefore, postmenopausal women are at high risk. Estrogen increases cholesterol saturation of bile and may further increase gallstone risk, but population-based evidence is sparse. OBJECTIVE: Our objective......, and parity. RESULTS: We identified 16,386 cases with gallstone disease and 163,860 controls. A total of 1,425 cases (8.7 %) and 8,930 controls (5.4 %) were current estrogen users, yielding an adjusted OR for gallstone disease of 1.74 (95 % CI 1.64-1.85) compared with non-users. The corresponding adjusted...

  16. Exercise and smoking habits among Swedish postmenopausal women.

    OpenAIRE

    Frisk, J; Brynhildsen, J; Ivarsson, T; Persson, P; Hammar, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess exercise habits and their relation to smoking habits and social and medical factors in postmenopausal women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a questionnaire to all 1324 55-56 year old women in Linköping, Sweden. RESULTS: Response rate was 85%. About a third of the women took part in some kind of quite strenuous exercise for at least one hour a week. After a quarter worked out once a week; fewer did swimming and jogging. One in four women smoked. Women who used hormo...

  17. Conjugated Linoleic Acids Reduce Body Fat in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Toubro, S.

    2009-01-01

    -ray absorptiometry, changes in serum insulin and glucose concentrations, and adipose tissue (AT) gene expression in humans. In a double-blind, parallel, 16-wk intervention, we randomized 81 healthy postmenopausal women to 1) 5.5 g/d of 40/40% of cis9, trans11-CLA (c9, t11-CLA) and trans10, cis12-CLA (t10, c12-CLA...... in the control group (P women and greater serum insulin concentrations in the highest waist circumference tertile. Future research is needed to confirm the insulin desensitizing...

  18. The Validation of Macro and Micro Observations of Parent-Child Dynamics Using the Relationship Affect Coding System in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J; Mun, Chung Jung; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Kim, Hanjoe; Shaw, Daniel S; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N; Peterson, Jenene

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the validity of micro social observations and macro ratings of parent-child interaction in early to middle childhood. Seven hundred and thirty-one families representing multiple ethnic groups were recruited and screened as at risk in the context of Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) Nutritional Supplement service settings. Families were randomly assigned to the Family Checkup (FCU) intervention or the control condition at age 2 and videotaped in structured interactions in the home at ages 2, 3, 4, and 5. Parent-child interaction videotapes were micro-coded using the Relationship Affect Coding System (RACS) that captures the duration of two mutual dyadic states: positive engagement and coercion. Macro ratings of parenting skills were collected after coding the videotapes to assess parent use of positive behavior support and limit setting skills (or lack thereof). Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the measurement model of macro ratings of limit setting and positive behavior support was not supported by the data, and thus, were excluded from further analyses. However, there was moderate stability in the families' micro social dynamics across early childhood and it showed significant improvements as a function of random assignment to the FCU. Moreover, parent-child dynamics were predictive of chronic behavior problems as rated by parents in middle childhood, but not emotional problems. We conclude with a discussion of the validity of the RACS and on methodological advantages of micro social coding over the statistical limitations of macro rating observations. Future directions are discussed for observation research in prevention science.

  19. Initiation and early evolution of the coronal mass ejection on 2009 May 13 from extreme-ultraviolet and white-light observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reva, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Bogachev, S. A.; Kuzin, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of the observations of a coronal mass ejection (CME) that occurred on 2009 May 13. The most important feature of these observations is that the CME was observed from the very early stage (the solar surface) up to a distance of 15 solar radii (R ☉ ). Below 2 R ☉ , we used the data from the TESIS extreme-ultraviolet telescopes obtained in the Fe 171 Å and He 304 Å lines, and above 2 R ☉ , we used the observations of the LASCO C2 and C3 coronagraphs. The CME was formed at a distance of 0.2-0.5R ☉ from the Sun's surface as a U-shaped structure, which was observed both in the 171 Å images and in the white light. Observations in the He 304 Å line showed that the CME was associated with an erupting prominence, which was not located above—as the standard model predicts—but rather in the lowest part of the U-shaped structure close to the magnetic X point. The prominence location can be explained with the CME breakout model. Estimates showed that CME mass increased with time. The CME trajectory was curved—its heliolatitude decreased with time. The CME started at a latitude of 50° and reached the ecliptic plane at distances of 2.5 R ☉ . The CME kinematics can be divided into three phases: initial acceleration, main acceleration, and propagation with constant velocity. After the CME, onset GOES registered a sub-A-class flare.

  20. Initiation and Early Evolution of the Coronal Mass Ejection on 2009 May 13 from Extreme-ultraviolet and White-light Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Bogachev, S. A.; Kuzin, S. V.

    2014-10-01

    We present the results of the observations of a coronal mass ejection (CME) that occurred on 2009 May 13. The most important feature of these observations is that the CME was observed from the very early stage (the solar surface) up to a distance of 15 solar radii (R ⊙). Below 2 R ⊙, we used the data from the TESIS extreme-ultraviolet telescopes obtained in the Fe 171 Å and He 304 Å lines, and above 2 R ⊙, we used the observations of the LASCO C2 and C3 coronagraphs. The CME was formed at a distance of 0.2-0.5R ⊙ from the Sun's surface as a U-shaped structure, which was observed both in the 171 Å images and in the white light. Observations in the He 304 Å line showed that the CME was associated with an erupting prominence, which was not located above—as the standard model predicts—but rather in the lowest part of the U-shaped structure close to the magnetic X point. The prominence location can be explained with the CME breakout model. Estimates showed that CME mass increased with time. The CME trajectory was curved—its heliolatitude decreased with time. The CME started at a latitude of 50° and reached the ecliptic plane at distances of 2.5 R ⊙. The CME kinematics can be divided into three phases: initial acceleration, main acceleration, and propagation with constant velocity. After the CME, onset GOES registered a sub-A-class flare.

  1. Initiation and early evolution of the coronal mass ejection on 2009 May 13 from extreme-ultraviolet and white-light observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reva, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Bogachev, S. A.; Kuzin, S. V., E-mail: reva.antoine@gmail.com [Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 53 Leninskij Prospekt, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-01

    We present the results of the observations of a coronal mass ejection (CME) that occurred on 2009 May 13. The most important feature of these observations is that the CME was observed from the very early stage (the solar surface) up to a distance of 15 solar radii (R {sub ☉}). Below 2 R {sub ☉}, we used the data from the TESIS extreme-ultraviolet telescopes obtained in the Fe 171 Å and He 304 Å lines, and above 2 R {sub ☉}, we used the observations of the LASCO C2 and C3 coronagraphs. The CME was formed at a distance of 0.2-0.5R {sub ☉} from the Sun's surface as a U-shaped structure, which was observed both in the 171 Å images and in the white light. Observations in the He 304 Å line showed that the CME was associated with an erupting prominence, which was not located above—as the standard model predicts—but rather in the lowest part of the U-shaped structure close to the magnetic X point. The prominence location can be explained with the CME breakout model. Estimates showed that CME mass increased with time. The CME trajectory was curved—its heliolatitude decreased with time. The CME started at a latitude of 50° and reached the ecliptic plane at distances of 2.5 R {sub ☉}. The CME kinematics can be divided into three phases: initial acceleration, main acceleration, and propagation with constant velocity. After the CME, onset GOES registered a sub-A-class flare.

  2. Age of Menopause and Fracture Risk in Post-Menopausal Women Randomized to Calcium + Vitamin D, Hormone Therapy, or the combination: Results from the Women’s Health Initiative Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Shannon D.; Lehman, Amy; Nathan, Nisha K.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Howard, Barbara V.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We previously reported that in the absence of hormone therapy (HT) or calcium/vitamin D (Ca/D) supplementation, earlier menopause age was associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk in healthy post-menopausal women. Treatment with HT and Ca/D are protective against fractures after menopause. In this analysis, we asked if age of menopause onset alters fracture risk in healthy post-menopausal women receiving HT, Ca/Vit D, or the combination. METHODS Hazard ratios (HR) for any fracture among 21,711 healthy post-menopausal women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative Clinical Trial (WHI-CT), who were treated with HT, Ca/Vit D, or HT + Ca/D, and who reported age of non-surgical menopause of menopause menopause 40-49 or ≥50, regardless of treatment intervention [HR (95% CI): menopause menopause menopause age (menopause ages. The effect of menopause age on fracture risk was not altered by any of the treatment interventions (HT, Ca/D, HT+Ca/D), suggesting that early age of menopause is an independent contributor to postmenopausal fracture risk. PMID:27801706

  3. Perioperative echocardiography-derived right ventricle function parameters and early outcomes after tetralogy of Fallot repair in mid-childhood: a single-center, prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Ravi; Puri, Goverdhan Dutt; Jayant, Aveek; Thingnam, Shyam Kumar Singh; Singh, Rana Sandip; Rohit, Manoj Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function alterations are invariably present in all patients after tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair. Unlike the developed world where most of the patients with TOF are corrected in infancy, average age of presentation and thus surgery for these patients in the developing world may be higher. We aimed to study the correlation between RV function parameters such as tricuspid annular peak systolic excursion (TAPSE), fractional area change (FAC), and tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity (S') with early outcome variables after intracardiac repair for TOF. Fifty patients with a preoperative diagnosis of tetralogy of Fallot scheduled for corrective surgery were included in this single-center, prospective observational study. A preoperative transthoracic echocardiogram was performed to measure RV function parameters (FAC0, TAPSE0, S'0). Transthoracic echocardiography was repeated postoperatively to measure FAC1, TAPSE1, S'1 (day 1) and FAC2, TAPSE2, and S'2 (day 3). The relationship between preoperative and postoperative RV function parameters with in-hospital mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit stay was studied. The median age of patients was 6 years (range 1-14 years). Multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis showed RV FAC as best predictor of clinical outcome. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for postoperative RV function parameters, that is, FAC, TAPSE, and S' to predict early or delayed recovery was 0.944, 0.875, and 0.655, respectively. Among the RV function parameters studied, RV FAC best predicted the early outcome variables after TOF repair, followed by TAPSE while lateral tricuspid annular velocity S' being the least predictive. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effect of early supplemental parenteral nutrition in the paediatric ICU: a preplanned observational study of post-randomisation treatments in the PEPaNIC trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Verbruggen, Sascha; Casaer, Michaël P; Gunst, Jan; Wouters, Pieter J; Hanot, Jan; Guerra, Gonzalo Garcia; Vlasselaers, Dirk; Joosten, Koen; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2017-06-01

    Large randomised controlled trials have shown that early supplemental parenteral nutrition in patients admitted to adult and paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) is harmful. Overdosing of energy with too little protein was suggested as a potential reason for this. This study analysed which macronutrient was associated with harm caused by early supplemental parenteral nutrition in the Paediatric Early versus Late Parenteral Nutrition In Critical Illness (PEPaNIC) randomised trial. Patients in the initial randomised controlled trial were randomly assigned to receive suppplemental parenteral nutrition (PN) within 24 h of PICU admission (early PN) or to receive such PN after 1 week (late PN) when enteral nutrition was insufficient. In this post-randomisation, observational study, doses of glucose, lipids, and aminoacids administered during the first 7 days of PICU stay were expressed as % of reference doses from published clinical guidelines for age and weight. Independent associations between average macronutrient doses up to each of the first 7 days and likelihood of acquiring an infection in the PICU, of earlier live weaning from mechanical ventilation, and of earlier live PICU discharge were investigated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses. The three macronutrients were included in the analysis simultaneously and baseline risk factors were adjusted for. From June 18, 2012, to July 27, 2015, 7519 children aged between newborn and 17 years were assessed for eligibility. 6079 patients were excluded, and 1440 children were randomly assigned to receive either early PN (n=723) or late PN (n=717). With increasing doses of aminoacids, the likelihood of acquiring a new infection was higher (adjusted hazard ratios [HRs] per 10% increase between 1·043-1·134 for days 1-5, p≤0·029), while the likelihood of earlier live weaning from mechanical ventilation was lower (HRs 0·950-0·975 days 3-7, p≤0·045), and the likelihood of earlier live PICU

  5. Serum Trace Elements and Electrolytes Are Associated with Fasting Plasma Glucose and HbA1c in Postmenopausal Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalnaya, Margarita G; Skalny, Anatoly V; Yurasov, Vasily V; Demidov, Vasily A; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Radysh, Ivan V; Tinkov, Alexey A

    2017-05-01

    The primary aim of the research was to assess the level of trace elements and electrolytes in serum of postmenopausal diabetic women. Sixty-four postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and 64 age- and body mass index-matched controls were examined. Serum trace elements were assessed using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) levels were evaluated using Randox kits. The obtained data demonstrate that DM2 patients were characterized by 42 and 34 % higher FPG and HbA 1c levels, respectively (p women was increased by 10 and 15 % in comparison to the respective control values (p = 0.002 and DM2 pathogenesis. Further studies are required to assess the intimate mechanisms of the observed differences.

  6. Weight, height, body mass index and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahdaninia Mariam

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women in Iran have a relatively high body mass index. To investigate whether the condition contributes to excess breast cancer cases, a case-control study was conducted to assess the relationships between anthropometric variables and breast cancer risk in Tehran, Iran. Methods All incident cases of breast cancer in the Iranian Centre for Breast Cancer (ICBC were identified through the case records. Eligible cases were all postmenopausal women with histological confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer during 1996 to year 2000. Controls were randomly selected postmenopausal women attending the ICBC for clinical breast examination during the same period. The body mass index (BMI was calculated based on weights and heights as measured by the ICBC nursing staff. Both tests for trend and logistic regression analysis were performed to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals as measures of relative risk. Results In all, 116 breast cancer cases and 116 controls were studied. There were no significant differences between cases and control with regard to most independent variables studied. However, a significant difference was observed between cases and controls indicating that the mean BMI was higher in cases as compared to controls (P = 0.004. Performing logistic regression analysis while controlling for age, age at menopause, family history of breast cancer and parity, the results showed that women with a BMI in the obese range had a three fold increased risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR = 3.21, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.15–8.47]. Conclusion The results suggest that obesity in postmenopausal women could increase risk of breast cancer and it merits further investigation in populations such as Iran where it seems that many women are short in height, and have a relatively high body mass index.

  7. Exogenous estrogen as mediator of racial differences in bioactive insulin-like growth factor-I levels among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Su Yon; Vitolins, Mara Z; Paskett, Electra D; Chang, Shine

    2015-04-01

    The role of exogenous estrogen use in racial differences in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels which affect cancer risk is unclear. We investigated whether the relationship between race and circulating bioactive IGF-I proteins was mediated by exogenous estrogen and the extent to which exogenous estrogen influenced the race-IGF-I relationship in postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study included 636 white and 133 African American postmenopausal women enrolled in an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. To assess exogenous estrogen use (nonusers [n = 262] vs users [n = 507]) as a mediator of the race-IGF-I relationship, we used the Baron-Kenny method and an estimation of the proportional change in the odd ratios for IGF-I levels on race plus a bootstrapping test for the significance of the mediation effect. Compared with white women, African American women were more likely to have high IGF-I levels and less likely to use exogenous estrogen. After accounting for race, estrogen nonusers had higher IGF-I levels than estrogen users did. Among oral contraceptive ever users, exogenous estrogen had a strong mediation effect (67%; p = .018) in the race-IGF-I relationship. In the women with a history of hypertension, exogenous estrogen explained racial differences in IGF-I levels to a modest degree (23%; p = .029). Exogenous estrogen use has a potentially important role in disparities in IGF-I bioactivity between postmenopausal African American and white women. A history of oral contraceptive use and hypertension may be part of the interconnected hormonal pathways related to racial differences in IGF-I levels. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Association between Bone Turnover, Micronutrient Intake, and Blood Lead Levels in Pre-and Postmenopausal Women, NHANES 1999–2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Leila W.; Cromer, Barbara A.; Panneerselvamm, Ashok

    2010-01-01

    Background Blood lead levels (BLLs) have been shown to increase during periods of high bone turnover such as pregnancy and menopause. Objectives We examined the associations between bone turnover and micronutrient intake with BLLs in women 20–85 years of age (n = 2,671) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2002. Methods Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx) were measured as markers of bone formation and resorption, respectively. Lead was quantified in whole blood. The association between tertiles of BAP and NTx, and BLLs was examined using linear regression with natural log-transformed BLLs as the dependent variable and interpreted as the percent difference in geometric mean BLLs. Results In adjusted analyses, mean BLLs among postmenopausal women in the upper tertiles of NTx and BAP were 34% [95% confidence interval (CI), 23%–45%] and 30% (95% CI, 17%–43%) higher than BLLs among women in the lowest tertiles of NTx and BAP, respectively. These associations were weaker, but remained statistically significant, among premenopausal women (NTx: 10%; 95% CI, 0.60%–19%; BAP: 14%; 95% CI, 6%–22%). Within tertiles of NTx and BAP, calcium intake above the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), compared with below the DRI, was associated with lower mean BLLs among postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women, although most of the associations were not statistically significant. We observed similar associations for vitamin D supplement use. Conclusions Bone resorption and bone formation were associated with a significant increase in BLLs among pre-and postmenopausal women. PMID:20688594

  9. Association between bone turnover, micronutrient intake, and blood lead levels in pre- and postmenopausal women, NHANES 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Leila W; Cromer, Barbara A; Panneerselvamm, Ashok

    2010-11-01

    Blood lead levels (BLLs) have been shown to increase during periods of high bone turnover such as pregnancy and menopause. We examined the associations between bone turnover and micronutrient intake with BLLs in women 20-85 years of age (n = 2,671) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx) were measured as markers of bone formation and resorption, respectively. Lead was quantified in whole blood. The association between tertiles of BAP and NTx, and BLLs was examined using linear regression with natural log transformed BLLs as the dependent variable and interpreted as the percent difference in geometric mean BLLs. In adjusted analyses, mean BLLs among postmenopausal women in the upper tertiles of NTx and BAP were 34% [95% confidence interval (CI), 23%-45%] and 30% (95% CI, 17%-43%) higher than BLLs among women in the lowest tertiles of NTx and BAP, respectively. These associations were weaker, but remained statistically significant, among premenopausal women (NTx: 10%; 95% CI, 0.60%-19%; BAP: 14%; 95% CI, 6%-22%). Within tertiles of NTx and BAP, calcium intake above the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), compared with below the DRI, was associated with lower mean BLLs among postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women, although most of the associations were not statistically significant. We observed similar associations for vitamin D supplement use. Bone resorption and bone formation were associated with a significant increase in BLLs among pre- and postmenopausal women.

  10. INFLUENCE OF HOMOCYSTEINE AND VERTEBRAL FRACTURES ON PREVALENT ABDOMINAL AORTIC CALCIFICATION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN - A MULTICENTRIC CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad GHOZLANI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main of this study was to examine the relationship between plasma homocysteine (Hcy, asymptomatic osteoporotic vertebral fractures (VFs using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA and prevalent abdominal aortic calcification (AAC in Moroccan postmenopausal women. The study cohort consisted of 188 consecutive postmenopausal women with no prior known diagnosis of osteoporosis or taking medication interfering with bone metabolism. Mean age, weight, height, body mass index and plasma homocysteine were determined. Lateral VFA images and scans of the lumbar spine and proximal femur were obtained using a Lunar Prodigy Vision densitometer (GE Healthcare Inc., Waukesha, WI. VFs were defined using a combination of Genant’s semiquantitative approach and morphometry. VFA images were also scored for prevalent AAC using a validated 24 point scale. Fifty-eight (30.9% patients had densitometric osteoporosis. VFs were identified using VFA in 76 (40.4% patients: 61 women had grade 1 VFs and 15 had grade 2 or 3 VFs. One hundred twenty nine women (68.6% did not have any detectable AAC, whereas the prevalence of significant atherosclerotic burden defined as AAC score of 5 or higher, was 13.8%. A significant positive correlation between AAC score and homocysteine was observed. Women with extended AAC, were older, had a lower weight, BMI and BMD, higher homocysteine levels and more prevalent VFs than women without extended AAC. Multiple regression analysis showed that the presence of extended AAC was significantly associated with Age and grade 2/3 VFs and not independently associated with homocysteine levels.This study did not confirm that homocysteine is important determinant of extended AAC in postmenopausal women. However, this significant atherosclerotic marker is independently associated with VFs regardless of age. 

  11. Searching for polycystic ovary syndrome in postmenopausal women: evidence of a dose-effect association with prevalent cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, Andrew J; von Mühlen, Denise; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) in older postmenopausal women. Cross-sectional study of community-dwelling non-estrogen-using postmenopausal-white women (N=713; mean+/-SD age, 73.8+/-7.9 years; mean body mass index, 24.0+/-3.5 kg/m) participating in the Rancho Bernardo Study. A putative PCOS phenotype was defined as the presence of three or more of the following features: (1) recalled history of irregular menses, (2) symptomatic premenopausal hyperandrogenism or biochemical evidence of current biochemical hyperandrogenism, (3) history of infertility or miscarriage, (4) central obesity, or (5) insulin resistance. Atherosclerotic CVD was determined from clinical history, electrocardiography, and structured interviews using validated techniques. The analysis was stratified by diabetes status, ascertained from medical history or 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests. The PCOS phenotype was present in 9.3% of the entire cohort and 5.8% of nondiabetic women. The prevalence of CVD was similar between women with the phenotype and unaffected women (27.3% vs 24.4%). Among women with intact ovaries and no diabetes, there was a stepwise graded association between an increasing number of features of the PCOS phenotype (ie, none to three or more) and prevalent CVD (P=0.02). A similar association was also observed for coronary heart disease alone (P=0.03). Among nondiabetic postmenopausal women with intact ovaries, prevalent atherosclerotic CVD is associated with features of a putative PCOS phenotype. This finding supports the thesis that PCOS increases the risk of atherosclerotic CVD after menopause.

  12. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D.; Gutai, J.P.; Powell, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks

  13. Transvaginal sonographic appearance of cystic adnexal masses in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyeun Cha; Lee, Myung Sook

    2000-01-01

    To Analyze the transvaginal ultrasonographic(TVUS)findings of the cystic adnexal masses in postmenopausal women for differentiation of benign and malignant masses. We retrospectively reviewed the TVUS images of surgically proven 142 cystic adnexal masses in 125 patients. The masses were classified according to the pathologic findings. The size, the internal echogenicity, the internal septation, the external wall of the masses on US were analyzed and scored using Multicenter scoring system. Serum CA-125 concentration was also recorded. At surgery of 142 masses, 125 benign (88%), and 17 borderline/malignant masses (12%) were found. Among 125 benign masses, 88 masses were larger than 5 cm, 125 had smooth external wall, 109 had absence or thin internal septation, and 107 had anechoic or homogenous low internal echogenicity. Of the 17 borderline/malignant masses, there were 17 masses larger than 5 cm, 2 with smooth external wall, 12 without or with thin internal septation, and 7 with anechoic or homogenous low internal echogenicity. Multicenter score was below 8 in all benign masses, and in 4 borderline/malignant masses. Serum CA-125 concentration with normal range was in 90 patients with benign masses, and in 2 patients with borderline/malignant masses. Cystic adnexal masses with smooth external wall and internal septation, internal echogenic portion less than 10%, score below 8 on TVUS would be diagnosed as benign masses in postmenopausal women with normal serum CA-125 concentration.

  14. Chocolate intake and diabetes risk in postmenopausal American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J A; Manson, J E; Tinker, L; Neuhouser, M L; Garcia, L; Vitolins, M Z; Phillips, L S

    2017-09-01

    Recent long-term prospective cohort studies found inverse associations between chocolate consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes, but provided conflicting evidence on the nature of the association among women. To assess this association in a large cohort of American women. Multivariable Cox regression was used with the data from 92 678 postmenopausal women in the prospective Women's Health Initiative study. Chocolate intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Incidence of type 2 diabetes was determined by self-report of the first treatment with oral medication or insulin. Among women free of diabetes at baseline, there were 10 804 cases, representing an incidence rate of 11.7% during 13.1 years and 1 164 498 person-years of follow-up. There was no significant linear association between long-term chocolate intake and type 2 diabetes risk, but there was significantly reduced risk at moderate levels of intake. Compared to women who ate 1 oz. of chocolate chocolate consumption and type 2 diabetes at moderate levels of consumption in two subgroups of postmenopausal women in the Women's Health initiative cohort.

  15. Sex hormones in postmenopausal women with primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Christensen, E

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate serum sex hormone profiles in nonalcoholic postmenopausal women with liver disease, 25 women with primary biliary cirrhosis (11 in cirrhotic stage) and 46 healthy controls were studied. The patients had significantly (p less than 0.05) elevated serum concentrations of estrone and andr......To evaluate serum sex hormone profiles in nonalcoholic postmenopausal women with liver disease, 25 women with primary biliary cirrhosis (11 in cirrhotic stage) and 46 healthy controls were studied. The patients had significantly (p less than 0.05) elevated serum concentrations of estrone...... and androstenedione and significantly (p less than 0.05) lower concentrations of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone compared with the 46 controls. Serum concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin, testosterone, non-sex hormone binding globulin-bound testosterone...... and non-protein-bound testosterone did not differ significantly (p greater than 0.05) between primary biliary cirrhosis patients and controls. Patients in the cirrhotic stage had significantly (p less than 0.05) higher concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin than did controls. Patients...

  16. CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN RECEIVING EXOGENOUS TESTOSTERONE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Mandi D; Noble, Jason A; Peyman, Gholam A

    2017-01-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSR) is a serous detachment of the neurosensory retina commonly associated with male sex, Type-A personality and corticosteroid use. Exogenous administration of androgens and development of CSR in men has been reported. Only one case of CSR in a postmenopausal woman receiving exogenous androgen therapy has been reported. The authors describe three cases of chronic CSR in postmenopausal women receiving exogenous testosterone therapy. Diagnosis was based on characteristic clinical, fluorescein angiographic, and optical coherence tomography findings. The three women were being treated with exogenous testosterone and progesterone therapy for symptoms of menopause and libido loss. Average age at presentation was 54.7 years (53-56 years), average duration of exogenous androgen use was 61 months (36-87 months), with average 19.7-month follow-up. Resolution of symptoms seemed correlated with cessation of androgen use despite treatment with oscillatory photodynamic therapy and intravitreal pharmacotherapy with antivascular endothelial growth factor agents. Exogenous testosterone is increasingly prescribed for menopausal symptoms and libido loss. Treatment with oscillatory photodynamic therapy, supplemental bevacizumab intravitreal pharmacotherapy, and cessation of exogenous androgen therapy was successful in three cases of chronic, therapy-resistant CSR. Ophthalmologists should inquire about androgen usage in patients who present with CSR, especially in the setting of therapy resistance.

  17. Calcium in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis: EMAS clinical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Antonio; Chedraui, Peter; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Lopes, Patrice; Mishra, Gita; Mueck, Alfred; Senturk, Levent M; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C; Stute, Petra; Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Rees, Margaret; Lambrinoudaki, Irene

    2018-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a highly prevalent disease. Prevention through lifestyle measures includes an adequate calcium intake. Despite the guidance provided by scientific societies and governmental bodies worldwide, many issues remain unresolved. To provide evidence regarding the impact of calcium intake on the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis and critically appraise current guidelines. Literature review and consensus of expert opinion. The recommended daily intake of calcium varies between 700 and 1200mg of elemental calcium, depending on the endorsing source. Although calcium can be derived either from the diet or supplements, the former source is preferred. Intake below the recommended amount may increase fragility fracture risk; however, there is no consistent evidence that calcium supplementation at, or above, recommended levels reduces risk. The addition of vitamin D may minimally reduce fractures, mainly among institutionalised people. Excessive intake of calcium, defined as higher than 2000mg/day, can be potentially harmful. Some studies demonstrated harm even at lower dosages. An increased risk for cardiovascular events, urolithiasis and even fractures has been found in association with excessive calcium intake, but this issue remains unresolved. In conclusion, an adequate intake of calcium is recommended for general bone health. Excessive calcium intake seems of no benefit, and could possibly be harmful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women with the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the commonest endocrine disorders, affecting 5-10% of the female population of reproductive age. "Classic" PCOS is characterized by clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism and oligo-ovulation. According to the 2003 Rotterdam criteria, two additional phenotypes are recognized: (1) the ovulatory patient with androgen excess and polycystic ovarian morphology and (2) the anovulatory patient with polycystic ovarian morphology without androgen excess. PCOS is associated with an adverse cardiometabolic profile, consisting of increased total or central adiposity, increased blood pressure, a pro-atherogenic lipid profile, increased inflammatory markers, insulin resistance and abnormal glucose metabolism. Furthermore, the incidence of overt or gestational diabetes mellitus, as well as of preeclampsia is significantly higher in PCOS patients. Among the various PCOS phenotypes, those with evidence of androgen excess have the highest burden of cardiovascular risk. Studies evaluating the incidence of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women with PCOS are extremely sparse. The available data so far indicate that coronary heart disease, as well as cerebrovascular disease is more common in postmenopausal PCOS patients. Persisting high androgen levels through the menopause, obesity and maturity onset diabetes mellitus are proposed as the main mechanisms accounting for the increased risk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bone mass regulation of leptin and postmenopausal osteoporosis with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legiran, Siswo; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2012-09-01

    Leptin has been known to play a role in weight regulation through food intake and energy expenditure. Leptin also has an important role in bone metabolism. The role of leptin is determined by leptin receptors, either central or peripheral to the bones. We discuss the role of leptin on bone and molecular genetics of osteoporosis in postmenopausal obese women. The role of leptin in bone preserves bone mineral density (BMD) through increased OPG levels leading to bind RANKL, resulting in reducing osteoclast activity. The estrogen role on bone is also mediated by RANKL and OPG. In postmenopausal women who have estrogen deficiency, it increases the rate of RANKL, which increases osteoclastogenesis. Obese individuals who have a high level of leptin will be effected by bone protection. There are similarities in the mechanism between estrogen and leptin in influencing the process of bone remodeling. It may be considered that the role of estrogen can be replaced by leptin. Molecular genetic aspects that play a role in bone remodeling, such as leptin, leptin receptors, cytokines (e.g. RANK, RANKL, and OPG), require further study to be useful, especially regarding osteoporosis therapy based on genetic analysis.

  20. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Gutai, J.P. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (USA)); Powell, J.G. (East Carolina School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (USA))

    1989-06-01

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks.

  1. The thyroid gland in postmenopausal women: physiology and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gietka-Czernel, Małgorzata

    2017-06-01

    The incidence of most thyroid diseases: hypothyroidism, nodular goitre, and cancer is highest among postmenopausal and elderly women. The diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction in this group of patients is difficult because the symptoms can be nonspecific or common with menopausal and ageing complaints. In the interpretation of thyroid function tests the physiological changes in secretion and metabolism of thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid hormones must be considered, as well as the influence of comorbidities. Unrecognised thyroid dysfunction leads to increased: cardiovascular risk, bone fractures, cognitive impairment, depression, and mortality. Therapy of thyroid dysfunction is different in postmenopausal and elderly women than in young people; hypothyroidism should be treated with caution, because high doses of L-thyroxine can lead to cardiac arrhythmias and increased bone turnover, and hyperthyroidism should be preferentially treated with radioiodine. Thyroid status beneficially influencing longevity relates to low thyroid function. Thyroid nodules and cancer often affect women over 50 years old; the diagnostic and therapeutic approach is the same as in the general population, but the surgical risk and cancer prognosis is worse than in young patients.

  2. Carotid intima-media thickness and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothornwit, J; Somboonporn, W; Soontrapa, S; Kaewrudee, S; Wongwiwatchai, J; Soontrapa, S

    2018-03-09

    To explore the difference in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) between postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis and the risk of elevated CIMT and plaque presentation. A cross-sectional study was conducted including 46 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and 45 non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women. CIMT was measured using B-mode ultrasound. There was no statistically significant difference in mean CIMT between postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and those without osteoporosis (p > 0.05). Risk for elevated CIMT in the osteoporosis group was comparable to that of the non-osteoporosis group (adjusted odds ratio = 0.844; 95% confidence interval 0.11-6.45). The risk for the presence of plaque was three times higher in osteoporotic women than in normal individuals. However, after adjusting for age and underlying diseases that would predispose the women to cardiovascular disease, there was no significant difference in terms of presence of plaque between the two groups (adjusted odds ratio = 0.844; 95% confidence interval 0.11-6.45). There was no difference in mean CIMT between postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis. Risk of elevated CIMT in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis was comparable to that of postmenopausal women without osteoporosis. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the presence of plaque.

  3. Correlation between bone mineral density and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postmenopausal osteoporosis affects large fraction of elderly women. Oxidative stress (OS appears to be involved in its pathogenesis. The scarcity of human studies focusing on the correlation between bone mineral density (BMD and OS in postmenopausal women has prompted us to study on this issue. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study in 95 subjects, between 21-65 years of age, including postmenopausal osteoporotic females (n = 35, healthy postmenopausal females (n = 30 and healthy females in reproductive age group (n = 30. We measured serum antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and total antioxidant power (TAP. BMD was obtained at lumbar spine and femur neck by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Osteoporosis was considered when subjects had a BMD of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean value for young adults. Results: Serum GPx, SOD, catalase and TAP level were found significantly lower in osteoporotic postmenopausal group as compared to healthy postmenopausal women and women in healthy reproductive age group healthy reproductive women (P 0.005. Conclusion: These findings support that oxidative stress plays an important role in pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We did not find any significant association between BMD and serum level of antioxidants (P > 0.05. The failure to detect this association does not preclude the role of OS in osteoporosis because OS is complex and dynamic process.

  4. Ascorbic acid selectively improves large elastic artery compliance in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Kerrie L; Gavin, Kathleen M; Plum, Angela E; Seals, Douglas R

    2005-06-01

    The compliance of large elastic arteries in the cardiothoracic region decreases with advancing age/menopause and plays an important role in the increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. We determined whether oxidative stress contributes to the reduced large elastic artery compliance of postmenopausal women. Carotid artery compliance was measured during acute intravenous infusions of saline (baseline control) and supraphysiological doses of the potent antioxidant ascorbic acid in premenopausal (n=10; 23+/-1; mean+/-SE) and estrogen-deficient postmenopausal (n=21; 55+/-1 years) healthy sedentary women. Carotid artery compliance was 56% lower in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women during baseline control (PAscorbic acid infusion increased carotid artery compliance by 26% in postmenopausal women (1.11+/-0.07 to 1.38+/-0.08 mm2/mm Hgx10(-1); Pascorbic acid. In the pooled population, the change in arterial compliance with ascorbic acid correlated with baseline waist-to-hip ratio (r=0.56; P=0.001), plasma norepinephrine (r=0.58; P=0.001), and LDL cholesterol (r=0.54; P=0.001). These results suggest that oxidative stress may be an important mechanism contributing to the reduced large elastic artery compliance of sedentary, estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women. Increased abdominal fat storage, sympathetic nervous system activity, and LDL cholesterol may be mechanistically involved in oxidative stress-associated suppression of arterial compliance in postmenopausal women.

  5. Disparities of time trends and birth cohort effects on invasive breast cancer incidence in Shanghai and Hong Kong pre- and post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Tse, Lap Ah; Chan, Wing-Cheong; Kwok, Carol Chi-Hei; Leung, Siu-Lan; Wu, Cherry; Mang, Oscar Wai-Kong; Ngan, Roger Kai-Cheong; Li, Mengjie; Yu, Wai-Cho; Tsang, Koon-Ho; Law, Sze-Hong; Miao, Xiaoping; Wu, Chunxiao; Zheng, Ying; Wu, Fan; Yang, Xiaohong R; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun

    2017-05-23

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer morbidity among Shanghai and Hong Kong women, which contributes to 20-25% of new female cancer incidents. This study aimed to describe the temporal trend of breast cancer and interpret the potential effects on the observed secular trends. Cancer incident data were obtained from the cancer registries. Age-standardized incidence rate was computed by the direct method using the World population of 2000. Average annual percentage change (AAPC) in incidence rate was estimated by the Joinpoint regression. Age, period and cohort effects were assessed by using a log-linear model with Poisson regression. During 1976-2009, an increasing trend of breast cancer incidence was observed, with an AAPC of 1.73 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.54-1.92)] for women in Hong Kong and 2.83 (95% CI, 2.26-3.40) in Shanghai. Greater upward trends were revealed in Shanghai women aged 50 years old or above (AAPC = 3.09; 95% CI, 1.48-4.73). Using age at 50 years old as cut-point, strong birth cohort effects were shown in both pre- and post-menopausal women, though a more remarkable effect was suggested in Shanghai post-menopausal women. No evidence for a period effect was indicated. Incidence rate of breast cancer has been more speedy in Shanghai post-menopausal women than that of the Hong Kong women over the past 30 years. Decreased birth rate and increasing environmental exposures (e.g., light-at-night) over successive generations may have constituted major impacts on the birth cohort effects, especially for the post-menopausal breast cancer; further analytic studies are warranted.

  6. The Diaper Change Play: Validation of a New Observational Assessment Tool for Early Triadic Family Interactions in the First Month Postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Rime

    2018-04-01

    observational setting, able to assess the development of the early family triadic functioning. The DCP and the FAAS-DCP offer to both clinicians and researchers a way to improve the understanding of the establishment of early family functioning as well as to study the young infant’s triangular capacity. Perspectives for future research will be discussed.

  7. A dietary pattern based on estrogen metabolism is associated with breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinter, Mark A; McLain, Alexander C; Merchant, Anwar T; Sandler, Dale P; Steck, Susan E

    2018-03-25

    Increased exposure to estrogen is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer, and dietary factors can influence estrogen metabolism. However, studies of diet and breast cancer have been inconclusive. We developed a dietary pattern associated with levels of unconjugated estradiol and the ratio of 2- and 16-hydroxylated estrogen metabolites in a subsample of Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Screening