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Sample records for early oxygenation improvement

  1. Postoperative inspiratory muscle training in addition to breathing exercises and early mobilization improves oxygenation in high-risk patients after lung cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocki, Barbara Cristina; Andreasen, Jan Jesper; Langer, Daniel; Souza, Domingos Savio R; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2016-05-01

    The aim was to investigate whether 2 weeks of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) could preserve respiratory muscle strength in high-risk patients referred for pulmonary resection on the suspicion of or confirmed lung cancer. Secondarily, we investigated the effect of the intervention on the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications. The study was a single-centre, parallel-group, randomized trial with assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis. The intervention group (IG, n = 34) underwent 2 weeks of postoperative IMT twice daily with 2 × 30 breaths on a target intensity of 30% of maximal inspiratory pressure, in addition to standard postoperative physiotherapy. Standard physiotherapy in the control group (CG, n = 34) consisted of breathing exercises, coughing techniques and early mobilization. We measured respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory/expiratory pressure, MIP/MEP), functional performance (6-min walk test), spirometry and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), assessed the day before surgery and again 3-5 days and 2 weeks postoperatively. Postoperative pulmonary complications were evaluated 2 weeks after surgery. The mean age was 70 ± 8 years and 57.5% were males. Thoracotomy was performed in 48.5% (n = 33) of cases. No effect of the intervention was found regarding MIP, MEP, lung volumes or functional performance at any time point. The overall incidence of pneumonia was 13% (n = 9), with no significant difference between groups [IG 6% (n = 2), CG 21% (n = 7), P = 0.14]. An improved SpO2 was found in the IG on the third and fourth postoperative days (Day 3: IG 93.8 ± 3.4 vs CG 91.9 ± 4.1%, P = 0.058; Day 4: IG 93.5 ± 3.5 vs CG 91 ± 3.9%, P = 0.02). We found no association between surgical procedure (thoracotomy versus thoracoscopy) and respiratory muscle strength, which was recovered in both groups 2 weeks after surgery. Two weeks of additional postoperative IMT, compared with standard physiotherapy alone, did not preserve

  2. Deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure at a higher rate improve oxygenation in the early period after cardiac surgery--a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urell, Charlotte; Emtner, Margareta; Hedenström, Hans; Tenling, Arne; Breidenskog, Marie; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2011-07-01

    In addition to early mobilisation, a variety of breathing exercises are used to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery. The optimal duration of the treatment is not well evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 30 versus 10 deep breaths hourly, while awake, with positive expiratory pressure on oxygenation and pulmonary function the first days after cardiac surgery. A total of 181 patients, undergoing cardiac surgery, were randomised into a treatment group, performing 30 deep breaths hourly the first postoperative days, or into a control group performing 10 deep breaths hourly. The main outcome measurement arterial blood gases and the secondary outcome pulmonary function, evaluated with spirometry, were determined on the second postoperative day. Preoperatively, both study groups were similar in terms of age, SpO(2), forced expiratory volume in 1s and New York Heart Association classification. On the second postoperative day, arterial oxygen tension (PaO(2)) was 8.9 ± 1.7 kPa in the treatment group and 8.1 ± 1.4 kPa in the control group (p = 0.004). Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) was 92.7 ± 3.7% in the treatment group and 91.1 ± 3.8% in the control group (p = 0.016). There were no differences in measured lung function between the groups or in compliance to the breathing exercises. Compliance was 65% of possible breathing sessions. A significantly increased oxygenation was found in patients performing 30 deep breaths the first two postoperative days compared with control patients performing 10 deep breaths hourly. These results support the implementation of a higher rate of deep breathing exercises in the initial phase after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gradually Increased Oxygen Administration Improved Oxygenation and Mitigated Oxidative Stress after Resuscitation from Severe Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Yin, Yujing; You, Guoxing; Chen, Gan; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Jingxiang; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Lian; Zhou, Hong

    2015-11-01

    The optimal oxygen administration strategy during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock (HS) is still controversial. Improving oxygenation and mitigating oxidative stress simultaneously seem to be contradictory goals. To maximize oxygen delivery while minimizing oxidative damage, the authors proposed the notion of gradually increased oxygen administration (GIOA), which entails making the arterial blood hypoxemic early in resuscitation and subsequently gradually increasing to hyperoxic, and compared its effects with normoxic resuscitation, hyperoxic resuscitation, and hypoxemic resuscitation in severe HS. Rats were subjected to HS, and on resuscitation, the rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 8): the normoxic, the hyperoxic, the hypoxemic, and the GIOA groups. Rats were observed for an additional 1 h. Hemodynamics, acid-base status, oxygenation, and oxidative injury were observed and evaluated. Central venous oxygen saturation promptly recovered only in the hyperoxic and the GIOA groups, and the liver tissue partial pressure of oxygen was highest in the GIOA group after resuscitation. Oxidative stress in GIOA group was significantly reduced compared with the hyperoxic group as indicated by the reduced malondialdehyde content, increased catalase activity, and the lower histologic injury scores in the liver. In addition, the tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 expressions in the liver were markedly decreased in the GIOA group than in the hyperoxic and normoxic groups as shown by the immunohistochemical staining. GIOA improved systemic/tissue oxygenation and mitigated oxidative stress simultaneously after resuscitation from severe HS. GIOA may be a promising strategy to improve resuscitation from HS and deserves further investigation.

  4. Tracking Early Jurassic marine (de)oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Them, T. R., II; Caruthers, A. H.; Gill, B. C.; Gröcke, D. R.; Marroquín, S. M.; Owens, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    It has been suggested that the carbon cycle was perturbed during the Toarcian OAE (T-OAE) as observed in the carbon isotope record, and more recently other elemental cycles (e.g., Hg, Mo, Os, S). The most widely accepted hypothesis focuses on the emplacement of the Karoo-Ferrar large igneous province, outgassing of greenhouse gases, and subsequent feedbacks in the Earth system, which caused severe environmental change and biological turnover. Feedbacks to elevated atmospheric pCO2 include enhanced weathering rates, dissociation of methane clathrates, increased terrestrial methanogenesis, and widespread marine anoxia. The sequence of events related to the development and duration of marine anoxia are not well constrained for this time interval due to a lack of open-ocean geochemical records. In order to reconstruct the timing of marine deoxygenation during the Early Jurassic T-OAE, we have utilized thallium isotopes, a novel geochemical proxy from multiple anoxic basins in North America and Germany. Three sites representing a basin transect from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, and one site from the South German Basin, were chosen to reconstruct the thallium isotopic composition (ɛ205Tl) of the ocean. The ɛ205Tl composition of sediments deposited under anoxic and euxinic water columns records the global seawater ɛ205Tl composition, a function of the amount of manganese oxides that are precipitated. Increased geographic extent of marine anoxia will cause a decrease in manganese oxide precipitation and perturb the thallium system. Importantly, the inputs of thallium are nearly identical, thus changes in these fluxes cannot drive the observed perturbation. Our new Early Jurassic ɛ205Tl records suggest that the onset of marine deoxygenation occurred concurrently with Karoo-Ferrar magmatism in the late Pliensbachian and continued until after the T-OAE. These new data support a Karoo-Ferrar trigger of the T-OAE. However, thallium isotopes also suggest that

  5. Early Cambrian oxygen minimum zone-like conditions at Chengjiang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammarlund, Emma U.; Gaines, Robert R.; Prokopenko, Maria G.

    2017-01-01

    in early Cambrian marine settings and the relationship of those conditions to early metazoan ecosystems is still emerging. Here, we report multi-proxy geochemical data from two drill cores through the early Cambrian (Series 2) Yu’anshan Formation of Yunnan, China. Results reveal dynamic water...... oxygen-minimum zones. The oxygenated benthic environments in which the Chengjiang biota thrived were proximal to, but sharply separated from, the open ocean by a persistent anoxic water mass that occupied a portion of the outer shelf. Oxygen depletion in the lower water column developed dynamically...

  6. Evolving Oxygen Landscape of the Early Atmosphere and Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, T. W.; Reinhard, C. T.; Planavsky, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    The past decade has witnessed remarkable advances in our understanding of oxygen on the early Earth, and a new framework, the topic of this presentation, is now in place to address the controls on spatiotemporal distributions of oxygen and their potential relationships to deep-Earth processes. Recent challenges to the Archean biomarker record have put an added burden on inorganic geochemistry to fingerprint and quantify the early production, accumulation, and variation of biospheric oxygen. Fortunately, a wide variety of techniques now point convincingly to photosynthetic oxygen production and dynamic accumulation well before the canonical Great Oxidation Event (GOE). Recent modeling of sulfur recycling over this interval allows for transient oxygen accumulation in the atmosphere without the disappearance of non-mass-dependent (NMD) sulfur isotope anomalies from the stratigraphic record and further allows for persistent accumulation in the atmosphere well before the permanent disappearance of NMD signals. This recent work suggests that the initial rise of oxygen may have occurred in fits and starts rather than a single step, and that once permanently present in the atmosphere, oxygen likely rose to high levels and then plummeted, in phase with the Paleoproterozoic Lomagundi positive carbon isotope excursion. More than a billion years of oxygen-free conditions in the deep ocean followed and set a challenging course for life, including limited abundances and diversity of eukaryotic organisms. Despite this widespread anoxia, sulfidic (euxinic) conditions were likely limited to productive ocean margins. Nevertheless, euxinia was sufficiently widespread to impact redox-dependent nutrient relationships, particularly the availability of bioessential trace metals critical in the nitrogen cycle, which spawned feedbacks that likely maintained oxygen at very low levels in the ocean and atmosphere and delayed the arrival of animals. Then, in the mid, pre-glacial Neoproterozoic

  7. Kinetic therapy improves oxygenation in critically ill pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Theresa Ryan; Lin, Richard; Francis, Barbara A; Hales, Roberta L; Colborn, Shawn; Napoli, Linda A; Helfaer, Mark A

    2005-07-01

    To compare changes in oxygenation after manual turning and percussion (standard therapy) and after automated rotation and percussion (kinetic therapy). Randomized crossover trial. General and cardiac pediatric intensive care units. Intubated and mechanically ventilated pediatric patients who had an arterial catheter and no contraindications to using a PediDyne bed. Patients were placed on a PediDyne bed (Kinetic Concepts) and received 18 hrs blocks of standard and kinetic therapy in an order determined by randomization. Arterial blood gases were measured every 2 hrs during each phase of therapy. Oxygenation index and arterial-alveolar oxygen tension difference [P(A-a)O(2)] were calculated. Indexes calculated at baseline and after each 18-hr phase of therapy were analyzed. Fifty patients were enrolled. Data from 15 patients were either not collected or not used due to reasons that included violation of protocol and inability to tolerate the therapies in the study. Indexes of oxygenation were not normally distributed and were compared using Wilcoxon signed rank testing. Both therapies led to improvements in oxygenation, but only those from kinetic therapy achieved statistical significance. In patients receiving kinetic therapy first, median oxygenation index decreased from 7.4 to 6.19 (p = .015). The median P(A-a)O(2) decreased from 165.2 to 126.4 (p = .023). There were continued improvements in oxygenation after the subsequent period of standard therapy, with the median oxygenation index decreasing to 5.52 and median P(A-a)O(2) decreasing to 116.0, but these changes were not significant (p = .365 and .121, respectively). When standard therapy was first, the median oxygenation index decreased from 8.83 to 8.71 and the median P(a-a)o(2) decreased from 195.4 to 186.6. Neither change was significant. Median oxygenation index after the subsequent period of kinetic therapy was significantly lower (7.91, p = .044) and median P(A-a)O(2) trended lower (143.4, p = .077

  8. Magma Ocean Depth and Oxygen Fugacity in the Early Earth--Implications for Biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    A large class of elements, referred to as the siderophile (iron-loving) elements, in the Earth's mantle can be explained by an early deep magma ocean on the early Earth in which the mantle equilibrated with metallic liquid (core liquid). This stage would have affected the distribution of some of the classic volatile elements that are also essential ingredients for life and biochemistry - H, C, S, and N. Estimates are made of the H, C, S, and N contents of Earth's early mantle after core formation, considering the effects of variable temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and composition on their partitioning. Assessment is made of whether additional, exogenous, sources are required to explain the observed mantle concentrations, and areas are identified where additional data and experimentation would lead to an improved understanding of this phase of Earth's history.

  9. Oxygen uptake rate (OUR) control strategy for improving avermectin B

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glucose metabolism plays a crucial role in the process of avermectin B1a biosynthesis. Controlling glucose feeding based on oxygen uptake rate (OUR) was established to improve the efficiency of avermectin B1a production. The result showed that avermectin B1a production was greatly enhanced by OUR control strategy.

  10. Improved arterial blood oxygenation following intravenous infusion of cold supersaturated dissolved oxygen solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Daniel J; Gentile, Michael A; Riggs, John H; Cheifetz, Ira M

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary goals of critical care medicine is to support adequate gas exchange without iatrogenic sequelae. An emerging method of delivering supplemental oxygen is intravenously rather than via the traditional inhalation route. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gas-exchange effects of infusing cold intravenous (IV) fluids containing very high partial pressures of dissolved oxygen (>760 mm Hg) in a porcine model. Juvenile swines were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Each animal received an infusion of cold (13 °C) Ringer's lactate solution (30 mL/kg/hour), which had been supersaturated with dissolved oxygen gas (39.7 mg/L dissolved oxygen, 992 mm Hg, 30.5 mL/L). Arterial blood gases and physiologic measurements were repeated at 15-minute intervals during a 60-minute IV infusion of the supersaturated dissolved oxygen solution. Each animal served as its own control. Five swines (12.9 ± 0.9 kg) were studied. Following the 60-minute infusion, there were significant increases in PaO2 and SaO2 (P < 0.05) and a significant decrease in PaCO2 (P < 0.05), with a corresponding normalization in arterial blood pH. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in core body temperature (P < 0.05) when compared to the baseline preinfusion state. A cold, supersaturated dissolved oxygen solution may be intravenously administered to improve arterial blood oxygenation and ventilation parameters and induce a mild therapeutic hypothermia in a porcine model.

  11. Correction of Pulmonary Oxygenizing Dysfunction in the Early Activation of Cardiosurgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kozlov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to justify a comprehensive approach to preventing and correcting pulmonary oxygenizing dysfunction requiring prolonged artificial ventilation in patients operated on under extracorporeal circulation for coronary heart disease. Subjects and methods. One hundred and twenty-three patients aged 55±0.6 years were examined. The study excluded patients with a complicated course of operations (perioperative myocardial infarction, acute cardiovascular insufficiency, hemorrhage, and long extracorporeal circulation. Stimulating spirometry was initiated 2 days before surgery. An alveolar opening maneuver was performed using a continuous dynamic thoracopulmonary compliance monitoring. The parameters of lung oxygenizing function and biomechanics were analyzed. Results. In 78% of the patients, preoperative inspiratory lung capacity was 5—30% lower than the age-related normal values. After extracorporeal circulation, pulmonary oxygenizing dysfunction was diagnosed in 40.9% of cases; at the same time PaO2/FiO2 was associated with an intrapulmonary shunt fraction (Qs/St (r=-0.53; p=0.002 and Qs/Qt was related to static thoracopulmonary compliance (Cst (r=-0.39; p=0.03. Preoperative stimulating spirometry provided a considerable increase in intraoperative PaO2/FiO2 values (p<0.05; improved Cst and decreased Qs/Qt. After extracorporeal circulation, the incidence of pulmonary oxygenizing dysfunction was decreased by more than twice (p<0.05. Patients with relative arterial hypoxemia showed a noticeable relationship to the magnitudes of a reduction in Cst and a rise in Qs/Qt (r=0.72; p=0.008, which served as the basis for applying the alveolar opening maneuver. This type of lung support corrected arterial hypoxemia in 67% of cases. Conclusion. In car-diosurgical patients with coronary heart disease, effective prophylaxis and correction of relative arterial hypoxemia caused by the interrelated impairments of pulmonary biomechanical properties and

  12. National Quality Improvement Center on Early Childhood

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    Browne, Charlyn Harper

    2014-01-01

    The national Quality Improvement Center on early Childhood (QIC-eC) funded four research and demonstration projects that tested child maltreatment prevention approaches. The projects were guided by several key perspectives: the importance of increasing protective factors in addition to decreasing risk factors in child maltreatment prevention…

  13. Cerebral oxygen metabolism in patients with early Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per; Cumming, Paul; Østergaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    ) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) PET scans from PD patients and healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine early-stage PD patients and 15 healthy age-matched controls underwent PET scans for quantitative mapping of CMRO(2) and CBF. Between-group differences were evaluated for absolute data and intensity...... in spatially contiguous cortical regions in early PD, and support the hypothesis that ETC dysfunction could be a primary pathogenic mechanism in early PD....

  14. Renal Blood Flow, Glomerular Filtration Rate, and Renal Oxygenation in Early Clinical Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skytte Larsson, Jenny; Krumbholz, Vitus; Enskog, Anders; Bragadottir, Gudrun; Redfors, Bengt; Ricksten, Sven-Erik

    2018-06-01

    Data on renal hemodynamics, function, and oxygenation in early clinical septic shock are lacking. We therefore measured renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, renal oxygen consumption, and oxygenation in patients with early septic shock. Prospective comparative study. General and cardiothoracic ICUs. Patients with norepinephrine-dependent early septic shock (n = 8) were studied within 24 hours after arrival in the ICU and compared with postcardiac surgery patients without acute kidney injury (comparator group, n = 58). None. Data on systemic hemodynamics and renal variables were obtained during two 30-minute periods. Renal blood flow was measured by the infusion clearance of para-aminohippuric acid, corrected for renal extraction of para-aminohippuric acid. Renal filtration fraction was measured by renal extraction of chromium-51 labeled EDTA. Renal oxygenation was estimated from renal oxygen extraction. Renal oxygen delivery (-24%; p = 0.037) and the renal blood flow-to-cardiac index ratio (-21%; p = 0.018) were lower, renal vascular resistance was higher (26%; p = 0.027), whereas renal blood flow tended to be lower (-19%; p = 0.068) in the septic group. Glomerular filtration rate (-32%; p = 0.006) and renal sodium reabsorption (-29%; p = 0.014) were both lower in the septic group. Neither renal filtration fraction nor renal oxygen consumption differed significantly between groups. Renal oxygen extraction was significantly higher in the septic group (28%; p = 0.022). In the septic group, markers of tubular injury were elevated. In early clinical septic shock, renal function was lower, which was accompanied by renal vasoconstriction, a lower renal oxygen delivery, impaired renal oxygenation, and tubular sodium reabsorption at a high oxygen cost compared with controls.

  15. Effect of early rehabilitation training on oxygen free radical generation and nerve injury in patients with cerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Shu Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of early rehabilitation training combined with edaravone on oxygen free radical generation and nerve injury in patients with cerebral hemorrhage. Methods: A total of 56 patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage who were treated in Zigong Third People’s Hospital between July 2014 and March 2017 were selected and randomly divided into early rehabilitation group and routine rehabilitation group, the early rehabilitation group began the rehabilitation training 2 d after cerebral hemorrhage condition was stabilized, and routine rehabilitation group began the rehabilitation training 14 d after cerebral hemorrhage. Serum contents of oxygen free radicals, nerve injury markers and neurotrophic molecules were detected 28 d and 56 d after cerebral hemorrhage. Results: 28 d and 56 d after cerebral hemorrhage, serum MDA, AOPP, 8-OHdG, GFAP, NSE, Tf, Ft and S100B levels of early rehabilitation group were significantly lower than those of routine rehabilitation group while BDNF, NGF, NTF-α and IGF-I levels were significantly higher than those of routine rehabilitation group. Conclusion: Early rehabilitation training combined with edaravone for cerebral hemorrhage can inhibit the oxygen free radical generation, reduce the degree of nerve injury and improve the neurotrophic state.

  16. Lower early postnatal oxygen saturation target and risk of ductus arteriosus closure failure.

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    Inomata, Kei; Taniguchi, Shinji; Yonemoto, Hiroki; Inoue, Takeshi; Kawase, Akihiko; Kondo, Yuichi

    2016-11-01

    Early postnatal hyperoxia is a major risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely premature infants. To reduce the occurrence of ROP, we adopted a lower early postnatal oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) target range (85-92%) from April 2011. Lower SpO 2 target range, however, may lead to hypoxemia and an increase in the risk of ductus arteriosus (DA) closure failure. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether a lower SpO 2 target range, during the early postnatal stage, increases the risk of DA closure failure. Infants born at closure failure in period 2 (21%) was significantly higher than that in period 1 (1%). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the lower oxygen saturation target range was an independent risk factor for DA closure failure. Lower early postnatal oxygen saturation target range increases the risk of DA closure failure. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  17. Reactive Oxygen Species on the Early Earth and Survival of Bacteria

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    Balk, Melikea; Mason, Paul; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Smidt, Hauke; Freund, Friedemann; Rothschild, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    An oxygen-rich atmosphere appears to have been a prerequisite for complex, multicellular life to evolve on Earth and possibly elsewhere in the Universe. However it remains unclear how free oxygen first became available on the early Earth. A potentially important, and as yet poorly constrained pathway, is the production of oxygen through the weathering of rocks and release into the near-surface environment. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), as precursors to molecular oxygen, are a key step in this process, and may have had a decisive impact on the evolution of life, present and past. ROS are generated from minerals in igneous rocks during hydrolysis of peroxy defects, which consist of pairs of oxygen anions oxidized to the valence state -1 and during (bio) transformations of iron sulphide minerals. ROS are produced and consumed by intracellular and extracellular reactions of Fe, Mn, C, N, and S species. We propose that, despite an overall reducing or neutral oxidation state of the macroenvironment and the absence of free O2 in the atmosphere, organisms on the early Earth had to cope with ROS in their microenvironments. They were thus under evolutionary pressure to develop enzymatic and other defences against the potentially dangerous, even lethal effects of oxygen and its derived ROS. Conversely it appears that microorganisms learned to take advantage of the enormous reactive potential and energy gain provided by nascent oxygen. We investigate how oxygen might be released through weathering. We test microorganisms in contact with rock surfaces and iron sulphides. We model bacteria such as Deionococcus radiodurans and Desulfotomaculum, Moorella and Bacillus species for their ability to grow or survive in the presence of ROS. We examine how early Life might have adapted to oxygen.

  18. Oxygenation of a rodent adenocarcinoma is improved by darbepoetin alfa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, J.P.; Snyder, S.A.; Zhao, Y.; Peltz, C.; Brizel, D.M.; Dewhirst, M.W.; Blackwell, K.L.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Tumor hypoxia, particularly in anemia, increases the risk of distant metastases and decreases survival. However, the benefits of stimulating erythropoiesis to supraphysiological levels are unclear. This study examines the effect of darbepoetin alfa (DEPA) on tumor oxygenation and the response to therapeutic radiation (XRT) in rats with initially normal hematocrit. R3230 adenocarcinoma was transplanted into the flank of female Fisher 344 rats. Starting on Day 4 post transplant, the rats received DEPA 3 μg/kg or normal saline sc tiw. At 3 weeks post transplant, pO2 was measured and the tumor excised, or the tumor was irradiated. pO2 was determined using an optical microprobe. In histologic studies, rats were injected with pimonidazole prior to sacrifice, and the tumors excised and stained with an antibody to pimonidazole (PIMO). Extent/intensity of staining was assessed by 3 observers and averaged to yield an IHC score. Rats ± DEPA with tumors 7 -12mm diameter were randomised to receive 32 Gy in 4 bid doses or sham irradiation. Tumor diameters in the 4 groups (±DEPA x ±XRT, total n=41) were measured by calipers. Failure was defined by the tumor reaching 15mm in diameter and used to generate Kaplan-Meier curves. Hematocrit at transplant averaged 45% (n=104) versus 67% in the DEPA-treated rats (n=18, p<0.0001) and 44% in the control animals (n=21.) Median pO2 in the DEPA-treated rats vs. controls did not differ significantly (17 vs. 13 mm Hg, p=0.10.) However, the fraction of tumor pO2 measurements <10mm Hg in the DEPA-treated rats was lower (21% vs. 37%, p=0.046.) IHC score was also less in the DEPA group (p=0.03.) XRT significantly improved failure-free survival (p<0.0001.) While the addition of DEPA to either the XRT or control groups did not significantly increase survival, the trend in both cases favored the DEPA-treated groups. In this tumor, treatment with DEPA improves oxygenation. However, no significant enhancement in radioesponsiveness by DEPA

  19. Improving Communication Skills in Early Career Scientists

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    Saia, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    The AGU fall meeting is a time for scientists to share what we have been hard at work on for the past year, to share our trials and tribulations, and of course, to share our science (we hope inspirational). In addition to sharing, the AGU fall meeting is also about collaboration as it brings old and new colleagues together from diverse communities across the planet. By sharing our ideas and findings, we build new relationships with the potential to cross boundaries and solve complex and pressing environmental issues. With ever emerging and intensifying water scarcity, extreme weather, and water quality issues across the plant, it is especially important that scientists like us share our ideas and work together to put these ideas into action. My vision of the future of water sciences embraces this fact. I believe that better training is needed to help early career scientists, like myself, build connections within and outside of our fields. First and foremost, more advanced training in effective storytelling concepts and themes may improve our ability to provide context for our research. Second, training in the production of video for internet-based media (e.g. YouTube) may help us bring our research to audiences in a more personalized way. Third, opportunities to practice presenting at highly visible public events such as the AGU fall meeting, will serve to prepare early career scientists for a variety of audiences. We hope this session, ';Water Sciences Pop-Ups', will provide the first steps to encourage and train early career scientists as they share and collaborate with scientists and non-scientists around the world.

  20. An improved solution of first order kinetics for biochemical oxygen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper evaluated selected Biochemical Oxygen Demand first order kinetics methods. Domesticinstitutional wastewaters were collected twice in a month for three months from the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife waste stabilization ponds. Biochemical Oxygen Demand concentrations at different days were determined ...

  1. Emotion improves and impairs early vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Bruno R; Zeelenberg, René

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies indicate that emotion enhances early vision, but the generality of this finding remains unknown. Do the benefits of emotion extend to all basic aspects of vision, or are they limited in scope? Our results show that the brief presentation of a fearful face, compared with a neutral face, enhances sensitivity for the orientation of subsequently presented low-spatial-frequency stimuli, but diminishes orientation sensitivity for high-spatial-frequency stimuli. This is the first demonstration that emotion not only improves but also impairs low-level vision. The selective low-spatial-frequency benefits are consistent with the idea that emotion enhances magnocellular processing. Additionally, we suggest that the high-spatial-frequency deficits are due to inhibitory interactions between magnocellular and parvocellular pathways. Our results suggest an emotion-induced trade-off in visual processing, rather than a general improvement. This trade-off may benefit perceptual dimensions that are relevant for survival at the expense of those that are less relevant.

  2. an improved solution of first order kinetics for biochemical oxygen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Accuracies of these methods were evaluated using relative error, Akaike ... Keywords: Wastewater, Environmental Engineering, Biochemical Oxygen Demand Kinetic Parameters,. Statistical ... evaluating organic pollution level and quality of wastewaters. ... compounds ...... method can be applied on electronic devices, and.

  3. Improvement of Brain Tissue Oxygenation by Inhalation of Carbogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashkanian, M.; Borghammer, P.; Gjedde, A.

    2008-01-01

    tomography (PET) to measure CBF and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)) during inhalation of test gases (O(2), CO(2), carbogen and atmospheric air) in 10 healthy volunteers. Arterial blood gases were recorded during administration of each gas. The data were analyzed with volume-of-interest and voxel...... is sufficient for optimal oxygenation of healthy brain tissue, whereas carbogen induces concomitant increases of CBF and Sa(O2)....

  4. New Views on the Early Evolution of Oxygen in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolo, R.; Israelian, G.; García López, R. J.

    We have performed a detailed oxygen abundance analysis of 23 metal-poor (-3.0 Abia & Rebolo 1989; Tomkin et al. 1992; Cavallo, Pilachowski, & Rebolo 1997). Contrary to the previously accepted picture, our oxygen abundances, derived from low-excitation OH lines, agree well with those derived from high-excitation lines of the triplet. For nine stars in common with Tomkin et al. we obtain a mean difference of 0.00 plus or minus 0.11dex with respect to the abundances determined from the triplet using the same stellar parameters and model photospheres. Our new results show a smooth extension of the Edvardsson et al.'s (1993) [O/Fe] versus metallicity curve to much lower abundances. The oxygen abundances of unevolved stars when compared with values in the literature for giants of similar metallicity imply that the latter may have suffered a process of oxygen depletion. It appears that unevolved metal-poor stars are better tracers of the early chemical evolution of the Galaxy. The extrapolation of our results to very low metallicities indicates that the ratio of oxygen to iron emerging from the first Type II SNe in the early Galaxy was indeed close to unity. The higher [O/Fe] ratios we find in dwarfs has an impact on the age determination of globular clusters, and suggest that current age estimates have to be reduced by about 1-2 Gyr.

  5. Environmental oxygen conditions during the origin and early evolution of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towe, Kenneth M.

    The well-known sensitivity of proteins and nucleic acids to UV-radiation requires that some internally consistent protection scenario be envisioned for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth. Although a variety of ozone-surrogates has been proposed, the available biochemical, geochemical and geological evidence best supports the conclusion that free oxygen was available at levels capable of providing at least a moderate ozone screen. Levels of oxygen near 1-2% of the present atmospheric level are consistent with such a screen, and with: (1) the biochemical needs of early procaryotes considered phylogenetically more primitive than the oxygen-producing Cyanobacteria; (2) the rare-earth element data from the oxide facies of the 3.8 Byr-old Isua banded-iron formations; (3) the nature and phylogenetic distribution of superoxide dismutases; (4) the need for aerobic recycling of early photosynthetic productivity dictated by the distribution of ancient sedimentary iron and organic carbon; (5) the incompatibility of dissolved reduced sulfur (to support anoxygenic photosynthesis) and ferrous iron (to support banded iron-formations) in the surface waters of the world oceans; and (6) the comparative oxygen and UV-sensitivities of modern procaryotes.

  6. Photoluminescence due to early stage of oxygen precipitation in multicrystalline Si for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Fumito; Tajima, Michio; Ogura, Atsushi

    2017-07-01

    To analyze the early stage of oxygen precipitation in n-type multicrytalline Si, the spectral change of photoluminescence (PL) induced by thermal treatment at 450-650 °C was investigated in relation to the changes in excess donor and interstitial oxygen concentrations. We observed the characteristic PL bands in the near-band-edge region and sharp lines in the deep-level region in correspondence with the generation of thermal donors and new donors. The observed PL spectral variation is essentially the same as that in Czochralski-grown Si annealed at 450-650 °C.

  7. Improved sample capsule for determination of oxygen in hemolyzed blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Sample capsule for determination of oxygen in hemolyzed blood consists of a measured section of polytetrafluoroethylene tubing equipped at each end with a connector and a stopcock valve. This method eliminates errors from air entrainment or from the use of mercury or syringe lubricant.

  8. Acetazolamide improves cerebral oxygenation during exercise at high altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuyk, J.; Bos, J. van den; Terhell, K.; Bos, R. de; Vletter, A.; Valk, P.; Beuzekom, M. van; Kleef, J. van; Dahan, A.

    2006-01-01

    Acute mountain sickness is thought to be triggered by cerebral hypoxemia and be prevented by acetazolamide (Actz). The effect of Actz on cerebral oxygenation at altitude remains unknown. In 16 members of the 2005 Dutch Cho Oyu (8201 m, Tibet) expedition, the influence of Actz and exercise (750 mg PO

  9. Improvement of AD Biosynthesis Response to Enhanced Oxygen Transfer by Oxygen Vectors in Mycobacterium neoaurum TCCC 11979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Liqiu; Shen, Yanbing; Gao, Tian; Luo, Jianmei; Wang, Min

    2017-08-01

    In steroid biotransformation, soybean oil can improve the productivity of steroids by increasing substrate solubility and strengthen the cell membrane permeability. However, little is known of its role as oxygen carrier and its mechanism of promoting the steroid biotransformation. In this work, soybean oil used as oxygen vector for the enhancement of androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (AD) production by Mycobacterium neoaurum TCCC 11979 (MNR) was investigated. Upon the addition of 16% (v/v) soybean oil, the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (K L a) value increased by 44%, and the peak molar yield of AD (55.76%) was achieved. Analysis of intracellular cofactor levels showed high NAD + , ATP level, and a low NADH/NAD + ratio. Meanwhile, the two key enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, namely, isocitrate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, were upregulated after incubation with soybean oil. These enhancements induced by the increasing of oxygen supply showed positive effects on phytosterol (PS) bioconversion. Results could contribute to the understanding of effects of soybean oil as oxygen vector on steroid biotransformation and provided a convenient method for enhancing the efficiency of aerobic steroid biocatalysis.

  10. Improved Internal Reference Oxygen Sensors with Composite Ceramic Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qiang; Jacobsen, Torben; Hansen, Karin Vels

    2012-01-01

    Potentiometric oxygen sensors with an internal reference electrode, which uses the equilibrium pO2 of the binary mixture of Ni/NiO as the reference, are demonstrated. The cells employ Pt or composite ceramics as the sensing electrode. The cells are fabricated by a flexible and potentially low cost...... and performance are highly reproducible. The composite ceramics, based on strontium doped manganite and yttria doped zirconia, are proven superior over Pt to serve as the electrode material....

  11. Improving early childhood development and well-being in refugee ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving early childhood development and well-being in refugee and other marginalized countries. Early childhood development research has traditionally focused on single-intervention initiatives and non-refugee populations. This project will generate evidence to support effective, integrated and scalable early childhood ...

  12. Modulation of the tumor vasculature and oxygenation to improve therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemann, Dietmar W; Horsman, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is increasingly recognized as a major factor influencing the success of therapeutic treatments and has become a key focus for cancer research. The progressive growth of a tumor results in an inability of normal tissue blood vessels to oxygenate and provide sufficient...... important are the functional consequences experienced by the tumor cells residing in such environments: adaptation to hypoxia, cell quiescence, modulation of transporters and critical signaling molecules, immune escape, and enhanced metastatic potential. Together these factors lead to therapeutic barriers...

  13. The Role of Staff in Quality Improvement in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Margaret; Waniganayake, Manjula

    2015-01-01

    There is international recognition of the importance of high quality services for young children with a consensus that three pillars contribute to quality improvement: adult: child ratios, staff qualifications and group size. In Australia over the past 5 years, early childhood policy has attempted to drive improvements in early childhood service…

  14. Improved Internal Reference Oxygen Sensors Using Composite Oxides as Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qiang

    The thesis describes the research on and development of an internal reference oxygen sensor (IROS). The IROS is potentiometric and uses the equilibrium pO2of the binary mixture of Ni/NiO as the reference pO2. The sensing electrode of the IROS are made from metallic Pt or the composite of (La0.75S...... the application of IROSes are provided. Based on the concepts and fundamentals of the IROS, internal reference sensors that detect other gas species such as hydrogen, chlorine and bromine may be developed.......The thesis describes the research on and development of an internal reference oxygen sensor (IROS). The IROS is potentiometric and uses the equilibrium pO2of the binary mixture of Ni/NiO as the reference pO2. The sensing electrode of the IROS are made from metallic Pt or the composite of (La0.75Sr0...... from 8YSZ is evaluated quantitatively and figures that may be used to design the depletion period of an IROS due to the electronic leak of 8YSZ are provided. One dimensional numerical simulations are performed to study the variation in cell voltage during the process of gas mixing, and the asymmetric...

  15. Early non-destructive biofouling detection and spatial distribution: Application of oxygen sensing optodes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Nadia

    2015-06-11

    Biofouling is a serious problem in reverse osmosis/nanofiltration (RO/NF) applications, reducing membrane performance. Early detection of biofouling plays an essential role in an adequate anti-biofouling strategy. Presently, fouling of membrane filtration systems is mainly determined by measuring changes in pressure drop, which is not exclusively linked to biofouling. Non-destructive imaging of oxygen concentrations (i) is specific for biological activity of biofilms and (ii) may enable earlier detection of biofilm accumulation than pressure drop. The objective of this study was to test whether transparent luminescent planar O2 optodes, in combination with a simple imaging system, can be used for early non-destructive biofouling detection. This biofouling detection is done by mapping the two-dimensional distribution of O2 concentrations and O2 decrease rates inside a membrane fouling simulator (MFS). Results show that at an early stage, biofouling development was detected by the oxygen sensing optodes while no significant increase in pressure drop was yet observed. Additionally, optodes could detect spatial heterogeneities in biofouling distribution at a micro scale. Biofilm development started mainly at the feed spacer crossings. The spatial and quantitative information on biological activity will lead to better understanding of the biofouling processes, contributing to the development of more effective biofouling control strategies.

  16. Case Report: Improved Homonymous Hemianopia with Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-29

    in the visual fields was noted at 13 treatments, but approximately 50% improvement was demonstrated in the right eye after 30 treatments with less...significant objective improvement of a fixed neurologic deficit following an ischemic brain injury. Various hypotheses exist regarding the recovery of

  17. Dual effect of fetal bovine serum on early development depends on stage-specific reactive oxygen species demands in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Eun Mun

    Full Text Available Despite the application of numerous supplements to improve in vitro culture (IVC conditions of mammalian cells, studies regarding the effect of fetal bovine serum (FBS on mammalian early embryogenesis, particularly in relation to redox homeostasis, are lacking. Herein, we demonstrated that early development of in vitro-produced (IVP porcine embryos highly depends on the combination of FBS supplementation timing and embryonic reactive oxygen species (ROS requirements. Interestingly, FBS significantly reduced intracellular ROS levels in parthenogenetically activated (PA embryos regardless of the developmental stage. However, the beneficial effect of FBS on early embryogenesis was found only during the late phase (IVC 4-6 days treatment group. In particular, developmental competence parameters, such as blastocyst formation rate, cellular survival, total cell number and trophectoderm proportion, were markedly increased by FBS supplementation during the late IVC phase. In addition, treatment with FBS elevated antioxidant transcript levels during the late IVC phase. In contrast, supplementation with FBS during the entire period (1-6 days or during the early IVC phase (1-2 days greatly impaired the developmental parameters. Consistent with the results from PA embryos, the developmental competence of in vitro fertilization (IVF or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT embryos were markedly improved by treatment with FBS during the late IVC phase. Moreover, the embryonic stage-specific effects of FBS were reversed by the addition of an oxidant and were mimicked by treatment with an antioxidant. These findings may increase our understanding of redox-dependent early embryogenesis and contribute to the large-scale production of high-quality IVP embryos.

  18. Improved Motion Estimation Using Early Zero-Block Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We incorporate the early zero-block detection technique into the UMHexagonS algorithm, which has already been adopted in H.264/AVC JM reference software, to speed up the motion estimation process. A nearly sufficient condition is derived for early zero-block detection. Although the conventional early zero-block detection method can achieve significant improvement in computation reduction, the PSNR loss, to whatever extent, is not negligible especially for high quantization parameter (QP or low bit-rate coding. This paper modifies the UMHexagonS algorithm with the early zero-block detection technique to improve its coding performance. The experimental results reveal that the improved UMHexagonS algorithm greatly reduces computation while maintaining very high coding efficiency.

  19. Oxygen bridges between NiO nanosheets and graphene for improvement of lithium storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangmin; Wang, Da-Wei; Yin, Li-Chang; Li, Na; Li, Feng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2012-04-24

    Graphene has been widely used to dramatically improve the capacity, rate capability, and cycling performance of nearly any electrode material for batteries. However, the binding between graphene and these electrode materials has not been clearly elucidated. Here we report oxygen bridges between graphene with oxygen functional groups and NiO from analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy and confirm the conformation of oxygen bridges by the first-principles calculations. We found that NiO nanosheets (NiO NSs) are bonded strongly to graphene through oxygen bridges. The oxygen bridges mainly originate from the pinning of hydroxyl/epoxy groups from graphene on the Ni atoms of NiO NSs. The calculated adsorption energies (1.37 and 1.84 eV for graphene with hydroxyl and epoxy) of a Ni adatom on oxygenated graphene by binding with oxygen are comparable with that on graphene (1.26 eV). However, the calculated diffusion barriers of the Ni adatom on the oxygenated graphene surface (2.23 and 1.69 eV for graphene with hydroxyl and epoxy) are much larger than that on the graphene (0.19 eV). Therefore, the NiO NS is anchored strongly on the graphene through a C-O-Ni bridge, which allows a high reversible capacity and excellent rate performance. The easy binding/difficult dissociating characteristic of Ni adatoms on the oxygenated graphene facilitates fast electron hopping from graphene to NiO and thus the reversible lithiation and delithiation of NiO. We believe that the understanding of this oxygen bridge between graphene and NiO will lead to the development of other high-performance electrode materials.

  20. OXYGEN METALLICITY DETERMINATIONS FROM OPTICAL EMISSION LINES IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athey, Alex E.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2009-01-01

    We measured the oxygen abundances of the warm (T ∼ 10 4 K) phase of gas in seven early-type galaxies through long-slit observations. A template spectra was constructed from galaxies void of warm gas and subtracted from the emission-line galaxies, allowing for a clean measurement of the nebular lines. The ratios of the emission lines are consistent with photoionization, which likely originates from the ultraviolet flux of postasymototic giant branch stars. We employ H II region photoionization models to determine a mean oxygen metallicity of 1.01 ± 0.50 solar for the warm interstellar medium (ISM) in this sample. This warm ISM 0.5-1.5 solar metallicity is consistent with modern determinations of the metallicity in the hot (T ∼ 10 6 -10 7 K) ISM and the upper range of this warm ISM metallicity is consistent with stellar population metallicity determinations. A solar metallicity of the warm ISM favors an internal origin for the warm ISM such as asymptotic giant branch mass loss within the galaxy.

  1. Carbon 13 and oxygen 18 isotope record of the early eocene nammal formation, salt range, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazi, S.; Sajid, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The Nammal Formation is the lowermost unit of the Early Eocene succession in the Salt Range, Pakistan. It is well exposed throughout the Salt Range. The Nammal Formation having 30 to 35 meters thickness is predominantly composed of nodular limestone interbedded with marl and shale. The present study was focussed on stable carbon 13 and oxygen 18 isotopic analysis based on data from two stratigraphically important sections. The samples from the Nilawahan section provided with the delta 13C values varied between 1.34 to -1.56 (VPDB) and values of delta 18O fluctuated between -4.47 to -6.59 (VPDB). Likewise the sample analysis of BadshahPur section exhibited that the delta 13C values changes from 1.09 to -1.65 (VPDB) and delta 18O values range from -4.17 to -6.85 (VPDB). The isotopic records of carbon 13 and oxygen 18 indicated the shallow marine deposition of the Nammal Formation under tropical conditions. It highlighted the palaeo climatic and diagenetic conditions of the Nammal Formation at the time of deposition in the Salt Range region. (author)

  2. Improved thrombogenicity on oxygen etched Ti6Al4V surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, Nicholas A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Smith, Barbara S. [School of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Williams, John D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Popat, Ketul C., E-mail: ketul.popat@colostate.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); School of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Thrombus formation on blood contacting biomaterials continues to be a key factor in initiating a critical mode of failure in implantable devices, requiring immediate attention. In the interest of evaluating a solution for one of the most widely used biomaterials, titanium and its alloys, this study focuses on the use of a novel surface oxidation treatment to improve the blood compatibility. This study examines the possibility of using oblique angle ion etching to produce a high quality oxide layer that enhances blood compatibility on medical grade titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of these oxygen-rich surfaces confirmed the presence of TiO{sub 2} peaks and also indicated increased surface oxidation as well as a reduction in surface defects. After 2 h of contact with whole human plasma, the oxygen etched substrates demonstrated a reduction in both platelet adhesion and activation as compared to bare titanium substrates. The whole blood clotting behavior was evaluated for up to 45 min, showing a significant decrease in clot formation on oxygen etched substrates. Finally, a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) total protein assay and XPS were used to evaluate the degree of key blood serum protein (fibrinogen, albumin, immunoglobulin G) adsorption on the substrates. The results showed similar protein levels for both the oxygen etched and control substrates. These results indicate that oblique angle oxygen etching may be a promising method to increase the thrombogenicity of Ti6Al4V. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oblique angle oxygen ion etching creates a high quality, uniform oxide surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen etched substrates showed fewer adhered platelets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Platelet activation was reduced by the improved oxide surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen etched substrates exhibited increased whole blood clotting times. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Although clotting reductions were

  3. Improved thrombogenicity on oxygen etched Ti6Al4V surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, Nicholas A.; Smith, Barbara S.; Williams, John D.; Popat, Ketul C.

    2012-01-01

    Thrombus formation on blood contacting biomaterials continues to be a key factor in initiating a critical mode of failure in implantable devices, requiring immediate attention. In the interest of evaluating a solution for one of the most widely used biomaterials, titanium and its alloys, this study focuses on the use of a novel surface oxidation treatment to improve the blood compatibility. This study examines the possibility of using oblique angle ion etching to produce a high quality oxide layer that enhances blood compatibility on medical grade titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of these oxygen-rich surfaces confirmed the presence of TiO 2 peaks and also indicated increased surface oxidation as well as a reduction in surface defects. After 2 h of contact with whole human plasma, the oxygen etched substrates demonstrated a reduction in both platelet adhesion and activation as compared to bare titanium substrates. The whole blood clotting behavior was evaluated for up to 45 min, showing a significant decrease in clot formation on oxygen etched substrates. Finally, a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) total protein assay and XPS were used to evaluate the degree of key blood serum protein (fibrinogen, albumin, immunoglobulin G) adsorption on the substrates. The results showed similar protein levels for both the oxygen etched and control substrates. These results indicate that oblique angle oxygen etching may be a promising method to increase the thrombogenicity of Ti6Al4V. - Highlights: ►Oblique angle oxygen ion etching creates a high quality, uniform oxide surface. ►Oxygen etched substrates showed fewer adhered platelets. ►Platelet activation was reduced by the improved oxide surface. ►Oxygen etched substrates exhibited increased whole blood clotting times. ►Although clotting reductions were seen, protein adsorption remained similar.

  4. Perceptual learning as improved probabilistic inference in early sensory areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejjanki, Vikranth R; Beck, Jeffrey M; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Pouget, Alexandre

    2011-05-01

    Extensive training on simple tasks such as fine orientation discrimination results in large improvements in performance, a form of learning known as perceptual learning. Previous models have argued that perceptual learning is due to either sharpening and amplification of tuning curves in early visual areas or to improved probabilistic inference in later visual areas (at the decision stage). However, early theories are inconsistent with the conclusions of psychophysical experiments manipulating external noise, whereas late theories cannot explain the changes in neural responses that have been reported in cortical areas V1 and V4. Here we show that we can capture both the neurophysiological and behavioral aspects of perceptual learning by altering only the feedforward connectivity in a recurrent network of spiking neurons so as to improve probabilistic inference in early visual areas. The resulting network shows modest changes in tuning curves, in line with neurophysiological reports, along with a marked reduction in the amplitude of pairwise noise correlations.

  5. Oxygen consumption rate and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in early developmental stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomšić, Sanja; Stanković, Suzana; Lucu, Čedomil

    2011-09-01

    Changes in oxygen consumption rate and Na+/K+-ATPase activity during early development were studied in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus Lam. The oxygen consumption rate increased from 0.12 μmol O2 mg protein-1 h-1 in unfertilized eggs to 0.38 μmol O2 mg protein-1 h-1 25 min after fertilization. Specific activity of the Na+/K+-ATPase was significantly stimulated after fertilization, ranging up to 1.07 μmol Pi h-1 mg protein-1 in the late blastula stage and slightly lower values in the early and late pluteus stages.

  6. THE SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT OF A PERIPHERAL VENO-VENOUS EXTRACORPOREAL MEMBRANE OXYGENATION FOR SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE IN THE EARLY PERIOD AFTER ADULT LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Poptsov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: of our clinical study was to present own experience of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO for the treatment of an adult patient (female, 28 yrs, 150 cm, 35 kg with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in the early period after liver transplantation against satisfactory liver graft function. Materials and methods. Double-lumen cannula 22 F was placed percutaneously in the right internal jugular vein. The ext- racorporeal contour reduced in length and the polymethylpeptene oxygenator (priming volume 175 ml were also. Results. In 1 hour after the beginning of VV ECMO, we registered the noted improvement of arterial blood gas and acid-base balance (regress of respiratory acidosis, improvement of arterial oxygenation which allowed us to use the «protective» mode of mechanical ventilation. Improvement of gas exchange and regress of clinical and radiological manifestations of ARDS allowed for VV ECMO weaning and decannulation on day 7. The patient was discharged from ICU and then from our Centre to a homestay respectively on the 9th and 16th day after VV ECMO weaning with the satisfactory liver graft and lungs function. Conclusion. VV ECMO can be successfully applied to correct the life-threatening acute respiratory failure in the early period after liver transplantation. 

  7. Early adaptation to oxygen is key to the industrially important traits of Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris during milk fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretenet, Marina; Le Gall, Gwenaëlle; Wegmann, Udo; Even, Sergine; Shearman, Claire; Stentz, Régis; Jeanson, Sophie

    2014-12-03

    Lactococcus lactis is the most used species in the dairy industry. Its ability to adapt to technological stresses, such as oxidative stress encountered during stirring in the first stages of the cheese-making process, is a key factor to measure its technological performance. This study aimed to understand the response to oxidative stress of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 at the transcriptional and metabolic levels in relation to acidification kinetics and growth conditions, especially at an early stage of growth. For those purposes, conditions of hyper-oxygenation were initially fixed for the fermentation. Kinetics of growth and acidification were not affected by the presence of oxygen, indicating a high resistance to oxygen of the L. lactis MG1363 strain. Its resistance was explained by an efficient consumption of oxygen within the first 4 hours of culture, leading to a drop of the redox potential. The efficient consumption of oxygen by the L. lactis MG1363 strain was supported by a coherent and early adaptation to oxygen after 1 hour of culture at both gene expression and metabolic levels. In oxygen metabolism, the over-expression of all the genes of the nrd (ribonucleotide reductases) operon or fhu (ferrichrome ABC transports) genes was particularly significant. In carbon metabolism, the presence of oxygen led to an early shift at the gene level in the pyruvate pathway towards the acetate/2,3-butanediol pathway confirmed by the kinetics of metabolite production. Finally, the MG1363 strain was no longer able to consume oxygen in the stationary growth phase, leading to a drastic loss of culturability as a consequence of cumulative stresses and the absence of gene adaptation at this stage. Combining metabolic and transcriptomic profiling, together with oxygen consumption kinetics, yielded new insights into the whole genome adaptation of L. lactis to initial oxidative stress. An early and transitional adaptation to oxidative stress was revealed for L

  8. Pharmacologic Interventions to Improve Splanchnic Oxygenation During Ventilation with Positive End-Expiratory Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fournell, A.; Scheeren, T. W. L.; Picker, O.; Schwarte, L. A.; Wolf, M; Bucher, HU; Rudin, M; VanHuffel, S; Wolf, U; Bruley, DF; Harrison, DK

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is an indispensable tool in the management of respiratory failure to preserve or improve lung function and systemic oxygenation. However, PEEP per se may also, as has been shown in experimental animals, impair regional

  9. Effect of oxygen plasma treatment on adhesion improvement of Au deposited on Pa-c substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Hoon; Hwang, Kyo Seon; Kim, Tae Song; Seong, Jin Wook; Yoon, Ki Hyun; Ahn, Sae Young

    2004-01-01

    Adhesion of gold on parylene C (Pa-c) is a major hurdle in achieving reliable and durable performance for biosensor application due to the hydrophobicity of Pa-c. It is, therefore, imperative to put efforts to improve adhesion between Au and Pa-c. In this reseach, oxygen plasma treatment for adhesion improvement was performed on Pa-c surfaces at various plasma powers and times. To analyze the relation of surface energy and roughness to adhesion promotion, we used several techniques such as contact-angle, surface-energy, surface-roughness, and adhesion analyses. As the oxygen plasma power and time were increased, the surface roughness of Pa-c increased. Also, Au films had larger and more uniform grain sizes as the oxygen plasma power and time were increased. Untreated surfaces revealed a contact angle of 108 .deg. , but the contact angle drastically decreased in the initial stage of oxygen plasma treatment and slowly decreased with increasing power and time to values of 27.3 and 34, respectively. From the adhesion analysis, adhesion was improved as the plasma power or time was increased. The improvement of adhesion is related to an increase in roughness as well as carbonyl groups.

  10. Improved Intratumoral Oxygenation Through Vascular Normalization Increases Glioma Sensitivity to Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGee, Mackenzie C.; Hamner, J. Blair; Williams, Regan F.; Rosati, Shannon F.; Sims, Thomas L.; Ng, Catherine Y.; Gaber, M. Waleed; Calabrese, Christopher; Wu Jianrong; Nathwani, Amit C.; Duntsch, Christopher; Merchant, Thomas E.; Davidoff, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Ionizing radiation, an important component of glioma therapy, is critically dependent on tumor oxygenation. However, gliomas are notable for areas of necrosis and hypoxia, which foster radioresistance. We hypothesized that pharmacologic manipulation of the typically dysfunctional tumor vasculature would improve intratumoral oxygenation and, thus, the antiglioma efficacy of ionizing radiation. Methods and Materials: Orthotopic U87 xenografts were treated with either continuous interferon-β (IFN-β) or bevacizumab, alone, or combined with cranial irradiation (RT). Tumor growth was assessed by quantitative bioluminescence imaging; the tumor vasculature using immunohistochemical staining, and tumor oxygenation using hypoxyprobe staining. Results: Both IFN-β and bevaziumab profoundly affected the tumor vasculature, albeit with different cellular phenotypes. IFN-β caused a doubling in the percentage of area of perivascular cell staining, and bevacizumab caused a rapid decrease in the percentage of area of endothelial cell staining. However, both agents increased intratumoral oxygenation, although with bevacizumab, the effect was transient, being lost by 5 days. Administration of IFN-β or bevacizumab before RT was significantly more effective than any of the three modalities as monotherapy or when RT was administered concomitantly with IFN-β or bevacizumab or 5 days after bevacizumab. Conclusion: Bevacizumab and continuous delivery of IFN-β each induced significant changes in glioma vascular physiology, improving intratumoral oxygenation and enhancing the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation. Additional investigation into the use and timing of these and other agents that modify the vascular phenotype, combined with RT, is warranted to optimize cytotoxic activity.

  11. iPads: Improving Numeracy Learning in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Peta

    2013-01-01

    The concept of mobile technologies is now an emergency theme in educational research, yet the playing of these edutainment applications and their impact on early childhood learning needs to be fully explored. This study highlights current research and explores how iPads improve student learning. It also examines how the introduction of iPads,…

  12. Super Oxygen and Improved Water Vapor Barrier of Polypropylene Film with Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Nanocoatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yixuan; Tzeng, Ping; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2016-06-01

    Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) is widely used in packaging. Although its orientation increases mechanical strength and clarity, BOPP suffers from a high oxygen transmission rate (OTR). Multilayer thin films are deposited from water using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. Polyethylenimine (PEI) is combined with either poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) or vermiculite (VMT) clay to impart high oxygen barrier. A 30-bilayer PEI/VMT nanocoating (226 nm thick) improves the OTR of 17.8 μm thick BOPP by more than 30X, rivaling most inorganic coatings. PEI/PAA multilayers achieve comparable barrier with only 12 bilayers due to greater thickness, but these films exhibit increased oxygen permeability at high humidity. The PEI/VMT coatings actually exhibit improved oxygen barrier at high humidity (and also improve moisture barrier by more than 40%). This high barrier BOPP meets the criteria for sensitive food and some electronics packaging applications. Additionally, this water-based coating technology is cost effective and provides an opportunity to produce high barrier polypropylene film on an industrial scale. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Oxygen restriction as challenge test reveals early high-fat-diet-induced changes in glucose and lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorde, L.P.M.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Derous, D.; Stelt, van der I.; Masania, J.; Rabbani, N.; Thornalley, P.J.; Keijer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Challenge tests stress homeostasis and may reveal deviations in health that remain masked under unchallenged conditions. Ideally, challenge tests are non-invasive and applicable in an early phase of an animal experiment. Oxygen restriction (OxR; based on ambient, mild normobaric hypoxia) is a

  14. Using oxygen plasma treatment to improve the performance of electrodes for capacitive water deionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojati-Talemi, Pejman; Zou, Linda; Fabretto, Manrico; Short, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    An oxygen plasma treatment was employed to modify the surface of carbon electrodes used in capacitive deionization (CDI). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of samples showed that oxygen plasma is mainly attaching oxygenated groups on the PTFE binder used in these electrodes. By functionalizing the binder it can increase the hydrophilicity of the electrode surface and increase the available specific surface area. 2.5 min of plasma treatment resulted in the largest improvement of CDI performance of electrodes. Thermodynamic study of CDI performance showed that the modified electrodes followed Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms resulting from the increased interaction between the enhanced electrodes and water. The kinetic study showed that the CDI process followed a pseudo-first order adsorption kinetics. The calculated adsorption rate constants suggested that plasma modification can accelerate ion adsorption of electrodes

  15. Odour discrimination and identification are improved in early blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Isabel; Plaza, Paula; Rombaux, Philippe; De Volder, Anne G; Renier, Laurent

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies showed that early blind humans develop superior abilities in the use of their remaining senses, hypothetically due to a functional reorganization of the deprived visual brain areas. While auditory and tactile functions have been investigated for long, little is known about the effects of early visual deprivation on olfactory processing. However, blind humans make an extensive use of olfactory information in their daily life. Here we investigated olfactory discrimination and identification abilities in early blind subjects and age-matched sighted controls. Three levels of cuing were used in the identification task, i.e., free-identification (no cue), categorization (semantic cues) and multiple choice (semantic and phonological cues). Early blind subjects significantly outperformed the controls in odour discrimination, free-identification and categorization. In addition, the larger group difference was observed in the free-identification as compared to the categorization and the multiple choice conditions. This indicated that a better access to the semantic information from odour perception accounted for part of the improved olfactory performances in odour identification in the blind. We concluded that early blind subjects have both improved perceptual abilities and a better access to the information stored in semantic memory than sighted subjects.

  16. Using an energized oxygen micro-jet for improved graphene etching by focused electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Songkil; Henry, Mathias [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Fedorov, Andrei G., E-mail: agf@gatech.edu [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-12-07

    We report on an improved Focused Electron Beam Induced Etching (FEBIE) process, which exploits heated oxygen delivery via a continuous supersonic micro-jet resulting in faster graphene patterning and better etch feature definition. Positioning a micro-jet in close proximity to a graphene surface with minimal jet spreading due to a continuous regime of gas flow at the exit of the 10 μm inner diameter capillary allows for focused exposure of the surface to reactive oxygen at high mass flux and impingement energy of a supersonic gas stream localized to a small etching area exposed to electron beam. These unique benefits of focused supersonic oxygen delivery to the surface enable a dramatic increase in the etch rate of graphene with no parasitic carbon “halo” deposition due to secondary electrons from backscattered electrons (BSE) in the area surrounding the etched regions. Increase of jet temperature via local nozzle heating provides means for enhancing kinetic energy of impinging oxygen molecules, which further speed up the etch, thus minimizing the beam exposure time and required electron dose, before parasitic carbon film deposition due to BSE mediated decomposition of adsorbed hydrocarbon contaminants has a measurable impact on quality of graphene etched features. Interplay of different physical mechanisms underlying an oxygen micro-jet assisted FEBIE process is discussed with support from experimental observations.

  17. Using an energized oxygen micro-jet for improved graphene etching by focused electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Songkil; Henry, Mathias; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2015-01-01

    We report on an improved Focused Electron Beam Induced Etching (FEBIE) process, which exploits heated oxygen delivery via a continuous supersonic micro-jet resulting in faster graphene patterning and better etch feature definition. Positioning a micro-jet in close proximity to a graphene surface with minimal jet spreading due to a continuous regime of gas flow at the exit of the 10 μm inner diameter capillary allows for focused exposure of the surface to reactive oxygen at high mass flux and impingement energy of a supersonic gas stream localized to a small etching area exposed to electron beam. These unique benefits of focused supersonic oxygen delivery to the surface enable a dramatic increase in the etch rate of graphene with no parasitic carbon “halo” deposition due to secondary electrons from backscattered electrons (BSE) in the area surrounding the etched regions. Increase of jet temperature via local nozzle heating provides means for enhancing kinetic energy of impinging oxygen molecules, which further speed up the etch, thus minimizing the beam exposure time and required electron dose, before parasitic carbon film deposition due to BSE mediated decomposition of adsorbed hydrocarbon contaminants has a measurable impact on quality of graphene etched features. Interplay of different physical mechanisms underlying an oxygen micro-jet assisted FEBIE process is discussed with support from experimental observations

  18. Using an energized oxygen micro-jet for improved graphene etching by focused electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Songkil; Henry, Mathias; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2015-12-01

    We report on an improved Focused Electron Beam Induced Etching (FEBIE) process, which exploits heated oxygen delivery via a continuous supersonic micro-jet resulting in faster graphene patterning and better etch feature definition. Positioning a micro-jet in close proximity to a graphene surface with minimal jet spreading due to a continuous regime of gas flow at the exit of the 10 μm inner diameter capillary allows for focused exposure of the surface to reactive oxygen at high mass flux and impingement energy of a supersonic gas stream localized to a small etching area exposed to electron beam. These unique benefits of focused supersonic oxygen delivery to the surface enable a dramatic increase in the etch rate of graphene with no parasitic carbon "halo" deposition due to secondary electrons from backscattered electrons (BSE) in the area surrounding the etched regions. Increase of jet temperature via local nozzle heating provides means for enhancing kinetic energy of impinging oxygen molecules, which further speed up the etch, thus minimizing the beam exposure time and required electron dose, before parasitic carbon film deposition due to BSE mediated decomposition of adsorbed hydrocarbon contaminants has a measurable impact on quality of graphene etched features. Interplay of different physical mechanisms underlying an oxygen micro-jet assisted FEBIE process is discussed with support from experimental observations.

  19. Oxygen plasma treatments of jute fibers in improving the mechanical properties of jute/HDPE composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, 35100, Izmir (Turkey); Erden, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ege University, 35100, Izmir (Turkey); Guelec, H.A. [Department of Food Engineering, Yuzuncu Yil University, 65250, Van (Turkey); Seki, Y., E-mail: yoldas.seki@deu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Dokuz Eylul University, 35160, Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Sarikanat, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ege University, 35100, Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} To improve mechanical properties of jute/HDPE composites, jute fabric was subjected to oxygen plasma treatment. {yields} LF and RF plasma systems at different plasma powers were used for treatment. {yields} In LF system, interlaminar shear strength, tensile and flexure strengths showed a tendency to increase at plasma powers of 30 and 60 W. - Abstract: The surfaces of jute fabrics have been oxygen plasma treated using low frequency (LF) and radio frequency (RF) plasma systems at different plasma powers (30, 60, and 90 W) for 15 min to improve the mechanical properties of jute fiber/HDPE (high density polyethylene) composites. The effect of oxygen plasma treatment on the functional groups of jute fibers was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Effects of oxygen plasma treatments on the mechanical properties of jute fiber/HDPE composites were investigated by means of tensile, flexure, and short-beam shear tests. Surface morphology of the fractured surfaces of composites was observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When RF plasma system was used, the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) values of the composites increased with increasing plasma power. Similarly, in LF plasma system, ILSS values showed a tendency to increase at plasma powers of 30 and 60 W. However, increasing of plasma power to 90 W decreased the ILSS value of jute/HDPE composite. Also, tensile and flexure strengths of the composites showed similar trends.

  20. Oxygen plasma treatments of jute fibers in improving the mechanical properties of jute/HDPE composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sever, K.; Erden, S.; Guelec, H.A.; Seki, Y.; Sarikanat, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → To improve mechanical properties of jute/HDPE composites, jute fabric was subjected to oxygen plasma treatment. → LF and RF plasma systems at different plasma powers were used for treatment. → In LF system, interlaminar shear strength, tensile and flexure strengths showed a tendency to increase at plasma powers of 30 and 60 W. - Abstract: The surfaces of jute fabrics have been oxygen plasma treated using low frequency (LF) and radio frequency (RF) plasma systems at different plasma powers (30, 60, and 90 W) for 15 min to improve the mechanical properties of jute fiber/HDPE (high density polyethylene) composites. The effect of oxygen plasma treatment on the functional groups of jute fibers was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Effects of oxygen plasma treatments on the mechanical properties of jute fiber/HDPE composites were investigated by means of tensile, flexure, and short-beam shear tests. Surface morphology of the fractured surfaces of composites was observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When RF plasma system was used, the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) values of the composites increased with increasing plasma power. Similarly, in LF plasma system, ILSS values showed a tendency to increase at plasma powers of 30 and 60 W. However, increasing of plasma power to 90 W decreased the ILSS value of jute/HDPE composite. Also, tensile and flexure strengths of the composites showed similar trends.

  1. Improvements in diagnostic tools for early detection of psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Salvatore; Palazzi, Carlo; Gilio, Michele; Leccese, Pietro; Padula, Angela; Olivieri, Ignazio

    2016-11-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a wide clinical spectrum. The early diagnosis of PsA is currently a challenging topic. Areas covered: The literature was extensively reviewed for studies addressing the topic area "diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis". This review will summarize improvements in diagnostic tools, especially referral to the rheumatologist, the role of patient history and clinical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging techniques in getting an early and correct diagnosis of PsA. Expert commentary: Due to the heterogeneity of its expression, PsA may be easily either overdiagnosed or underdiagnosed. A diagnosis of PsA should be taken into account every time a patient with psoriasis or a family history of psoriasis shows peripheral arthritis, especially if oligoarticular or involving the distal interphalangeal joints, enthesitis or dactylitis. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography are useful for diagnosing PsA early, particularly when isolated enthesitis or inflammatory spinal pain occur.

  2. Improving early cycle economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuten, Lotte M G; Ramsey, Scott D

    2014-08-01

    The rapidly increasing range and expense of new diagnostics, compels consideration of a different, more proactive approach to health economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies. Early cycle economic evaluation is a decision analytic approach to evaluate technologies in development so as to increase the return on investment as well as patient and societal impact. This paper describes examples of 'early cycle economic evaluations' as applied to diagnostic technologies and highlights challenges in its real-time application. It shows that especially in the field of diagnostics, with rapid technological developments and a changing regulatory climate, early cycle economic evaluation can have a guiding role to improve the efficiency of the diagnostics innovation process. In the next five years the attention will move beyond the methodological and analytic challenges of early cycle economic evaluation towards the challenge of effectively applying it to improve diagnostic research and development and patient value. Future work in this area should therefore be 'strong on principles and soft on metrics', that is, the metrics that resonate most clearly with the various decision makers in this field.

  3. Improved stability of OLEDs with mild oxygen plasma treated PEDOT:PSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yunfei; Yuan Yongbo; Cao Lingfang; Zhang Jie; Pang Hongqi; Lian Jiarong; Zhou Xiang

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate improved stability of OLEDs with mild oxygen plasma-treated poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as anode buffer layer. The devices with treated PEDOT:PSS layer exhibited dramatically enhanced lifetime by a factor of 9 compared to the control devices. We investigated the substantial changes in surface morphology of PEDOT:PSS layer after the mild oxygen plasma treatment by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We found that the appropriate treatment can form uniformly distributed nano scaled hillocks/islands on the surface of PEDOT:PSS layer, which possibly result in improved contact to hole transport layer and thus enhanced lifetime of the devices

  4. Improvement of native rices for earliness through chemical mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevappa, M.; Kumara Swamy, S.; Ikehashi, H.; Coffman, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Dry seeds of the cultivar Intan from Karnataka, India were treated with ethyleneimine at 0.2% and 0.4% concentrations for 1 hour and 3 hours to induce early maturity without affecting resistance to blast and ratoonability. The germination percentage with seeds and spikelet fertility in M 1 plants showed correlation and was useful in identifying optimal treatment for future experiments. Single panicles selected from the treatment 0.4%-3 hours produced progenies for further screening. Screening of M 2 families in natural long day length in the 1979 dry season facilitated selection of early maturing photo-period insensitive types from Intan mutations (IR 29385). The early maturing mutants grown in the wet season as M 3 plant progenies, bred true for earliness, matured about 20 days earlier than the parents, even with short day length. Mutants had reduced plant height with not much change in panicle length, grain features, spikelet number and fertility with panicle. Among the mutants selected, Intan mutant 1 performed very well under subnormal and normal fertilizer application. It yielded 1.10% higher than the checks and parent variety in addition to being itself early by about 20 days. If ethyleneimine is specific in altering culm length, it should be emphasized as a future tool in the improvement of specifically adapted traditional varieties. (author)

  5. High intensity aerobic interval training improves peak oxygen consumption in patients with metabolic syndrome: CAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Espinoza Salinas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A number of cardiovascular risk factors characterizes the metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance (IR, low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides. The aforementioned risk factors lead to elevated levels of abdominal adipose tissue, resulting in oxygen consumption deficiency. Purpose To verify the validity and applicability of using high intensity interval training (HIIT in subjects with metabolic syndrome and to answer the following question: Can HIIT improve peak oxygen consumption? Method The systematic review "Effects of aerobic interval training on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in individuals with cardiometabolic disorders" was analyzed. Results Data suggests high intensity aerobic interval training increases peak oxygen consumption by a standardized mean difference of 3.60 mL/kg-1/min-1 (95% confidence interval, 0.28-4.91. Conclusion In spite of the methodological shortcomings of the primary studies included in the systematic review, we reasonably conclude that implementation of high intensity aerobic interval training in subjects with metabolic syndrome, leads to increases in peak oxygen consumption.

  6. Neuroprotection of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in sub-acute traumatic brain injury: not by immediately improving cerebral oxygen saturation and oxygen partial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bao-Chun; Liu, Li-Jun; Liu, Bing

    2016-09-01

    Although hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy can promote the recovery of neural function in patients who have suffered traumatic brain injury (TBI), the underlying mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that hyperbaric oxygen treatment plays a neuroprotective role in TBI by increasing regional transcranial oxygen saturation (rSO 2 ) and oxygen partial pressure (PaO 2 ). To test this idea, we compared two groups: a control group with 20 healthy people and a treatment group with 40 TBI patients. The 40 patients were given 100% oxygen of HBO for 90 minutes. Changes in rSO 2 were measured. The controls were also examined for rSO 2 and PaO 2 , but received no treatment. rSO 2 levels in the patients did not differ significantly after treatment, but levels before and after treatment were significantly lower than those in the control group. PaO 2 levels were significantly decreased after the 30-minute HBO treatment. Our findings suggest that there is a disorder of oxygen metabolism in patients with sub-acute TBI. HBO does not immediately affect cerebral oxygen metabolism, and the underlying mechanism still needs to be studied in depth.

  7. Long-term oxygen therapy for COPD. Improving longevity and quality of life in hypoxemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weg, J G; Haas, C F

    1998-04-01

    Long-term oxygen therapy can increase life expectancy in hypoxemic patients with COPD. Accurate identification of hypoxemia requires arterial blood gas measurements. Pulse oximetry can be used to measure trends in oxygenation, oxygen needs, and oxygen requirements during exercise and sleep. A detailed oxygen prescription indicates: (1) the oxygen dose (L/min), (2) the number of hours per day that oxygen therapy is required, (3) the dose required during exercise, (4) the oxygen supply system: concentrator, compressed gas cylinder, or liquid oxygen reservoir, and (5) the delivery device: nasal cannula, demand-flow device, reservoir cannula, or transtracheal oxygen catheter.

  8. Oxygen Isotopes in Early Solar System Materials: A Perspective Based on Microbeam Analyses of Chondrules from CV Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. H.; Leshin, L. A.; Guan, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Some of the biggest challenges to understanding the early history of the solar system include determining the distribution of oxygen isotopes amongst materials that existed in the solar nebula, and interpreting the processes that might have resulted in the observed isotopic distributions. Oxygen isotope ratios in any individual mineral grain from a chondritic meteorite may be the cumulative product of a variety of processes, including stellar nucleosynthetic events, gas/solid interactions in the molecular cloud, mixing of independent isotopic reservoirs in the nebula, mass-independent processing in the nebula, and mass-dependent fractionation effects in various environments. It is not possible to unravel this complex isotopic record unless the distribution of oxygen isotope ratios in chondritic materials is fully understood.

  9. Early Growth of Improved Acacia mangium at Different Planting Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nirsatmanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrating tree improvement into silvicultural practices is essential in forest plantation. Concerning this fact, Acacia mangium spacing trial planted using genetically improved seed was established in West Java. This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of ages and planting density on early growth of improved seed A. mangium in the spacing trial. Improved seed from 2 seed orchards (SSO-5 and SSO-20 and a control of unimproved seed from seed stand (SS-7 were tested together in spacing 3 × 3 m and 2 × 2 m. Height, diameter, stem volume, and stand volume were observed at 3 ages. The results showed that improved seed consistently outperformed to unimproved seed. Ages were highly significant for all traits, but the significant difference varied among traits and seed sources for planting density and the interactions. High density performed better growth than low density at first year, and they were varied in subsequent ages depending on traits and seed sources. Improved seed from less intensity selection orchard was less tolerance to high density than that from high intensity selection orchard, but the tolerance was reversed in low density. Improved seed A. mangium from different level of genetic selection has responded differently in behavior to the changes of planting density.

  10. Oxygenated fixation demonstrates novel and improved ultrastructural features of the human endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of the present study is to describe in detail the ultrastructure of the human endolymphatic sac using a new and improved method of fixation as well as a refined surgical approach in obtaining specimens. STUDY DESIGN: Transmission electron microscopy of the human...... epithelial cell lining in all 18 specimens. In general, we found very well-preserved specimens with well-defined intracellular structures. In contrast to the results in former studies, a minimum of fixation artifacts was observed in the present study. Three different cell types were observed...... endolymphatic sac, employing an oxygenated fixative. METHODS: Eighteen tissue samples of the human endolymphatic sac were obtained during surgery for vestibular schwannoma using the translabyrinthine approach. The specimens were fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde in an oxygenated fluorocarbon blood substitute vehicle...

  11. Improving the Accuracy of Predicting Maximal Oxygen Consumption (VO2pk)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Meghan E.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Feiveson, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Maximal oxygen (VO2pk) is the maximum amount of oxygen that the body can use during intense exercise and is used for benchmarking endurance exercise capacity. The most accurate method to determineVO2pk requires continuous measurements of ventilation and gas exchange during an exercise test to maximal effort, which necessitates expensive equipment, a trained staff, and time to set-up the equipment. For astronauts, accurate VO2pk measures are important to assess mission critical task performance capabilities and to prescribe exercise intensities to optimize performance. Currently, astronauts perform submaximal exercise tests during flight to predict VO2pk; however, while submaximal VO2pk prediction equations provide reliable estimates of mean VO2pk for populations, they can be unacceptably inaccurate for a given individual. The error in current predictions and logistical limitations of measuring VO2pk, particularly during spaceflight, highlights the need for improved estimation methods.

  12. Improvements of existing early warning system in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomisa, T.

    2000-01-01

    The gamma radiation early warning system in Croatia was established in 1993. The first configuration contained 3 measuring stations connected to the monitoring center and up today the system is expanded with 5 additional locations. Each location is equipped with the MFM202 gamma-monitor and additional equipment that is not unique for all locations. This difference in remote equipment configuration caused by different communication medium used, is the reason to improve existing system trough equipment unification introducing PLC unit in the standard configuration. Such configuration enables additional functions such as automatic alerting and collecting meteorological data. (author)

  13. Early kidney allograft loss - is there scope for improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Paolo

    2018-02-17

    Increased longevity matching using Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI) to optimize long-term kidney allograft survival has been central to the effort of appropriate allocation of deceased donor kidneys. The data by Helenterä and co-workers in this issue, who looked at predictors of early allograft loss, should prompt an analysis of whether predictors of short-term graft survival can improve KDPI-based decisions when considering whether to accept or decline a deceased donor kidney offer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Polydeoxyribonucleotide Improves Peripheral Tissue Oxygenation and Accelerates Angiogenesis in Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoyoung Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN is known to have anti-inflammatory and angiogenic effects and to accelerate wound healing. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PDRN could improve peripheral tissue oxygenation and angiogenesis in diabetic foot ulcers. Methods This was a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. Twenty patients with a non-healing diabetic foot ulcer were randomly distributed into a control group (n=10 and a PDRN group (n=10. Initial surgical debridement and secondary surgical procedures such as a split-thickness skin graft, primary closure, or local flap were performed. Between the initial surgical debridement and secondary surgical procedures, 0.9% normal saline (3 mL or PDRN was injected for 2 weeks by the intramuscular (1 ampule, 3 mL, 5.625 mg, 5 days per week and perilesional routes (1 ampule, 3 mL, 5.625 mg, 2 days per week. Transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcPO2 was evaluated using the Periflux System 5000 with TcPO2/CO2 unit 5040 before the injections and on days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 after the start of the injections. A pathologic review (hematoxylin and eosin stain of the debrided specimens was conducted by a pathologist, and vessel density (average number of vessels per visual field was calculated. Results Compared with the control group, the PDRN-treated group showed improvements in peripheral tissue oxygenation on day 7 (P<0.01, day 14 (P<0.001, and day 28 (P<0.001. The pathologic review of the specimens from the PDRN group showed increased angiogenesis and improved inflammation compared with the control group. No statistically significant difference was found between the control group and the PDRN group in terms of vessel density (P=0.094. Complete healing was achieved in every patient. Conclusions In this study, PDRN improved peripheral tissue oxygenation. Moreover, PDRN is thought to be effective in improving inflammation and angiogenesis in diabetic foot ulcers.

  15. Improved electrochemical performances of oxygen plasma treated LiMn2O4 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C C; Chiu, K-F; Lin, K M; Lin, H C; Yang, C-R; Wang, F M

    2007-01-01

    LiMn 2 O 4 spinel thin films were deposited by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering followed by annealing at 600 0 C in air.The films were then post-treated with an rf driven oxygen plasma. The crystallization and surface morphology of LiMn 2 O 4 thin films were seen to change with rf power. The treated samples were tested under harsh conditions such as deep discharge to 1.5 V and cycling at elevated temperature of 60 0 C to verify the electrochemical performances of LiMn 2 O 4 cathodes. The oxygen plasma treatments improved the electrochemical properties of LiMn 2 O 4 thin films significantly. As the cells were cycled in the range of 4.5-2.0 V at 60 0 C, the samples treated at a proper rf power of 50 W exhibited an initial capacity greater than ∼400 mAh g -1 with reasonable cycling stability. The results were attributed to the change of morphology and the formation of a surface layer induced by the oxygen plasma irradiation

  16. Improved surface corrosion resistance of WE43 magnesium alloy by dual titanium and oxygen ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Ying [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wu, Guosong; Lu, Qiuyuan [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wu, Jun [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Xu, Ruizhen [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yeung, Kelvin W.K., E-mail: wkkyeung@hku.hk [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Chu, Paul K., E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-02-01

    Magnesium alloys are potential biodegradable materials and have attracted much attention due to their outstanding biological performance and mechanical properties. However, their rapid degradation inside the human body cannot meet clinical needs. In order to improve the corrosion resistance, dual titanium and oxygen ion implantation is performed to modify the surface of the WE43 magnesium alloy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to characterize the microstructures in the near surface layer and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization, and immersion tests are employed to investigate the corrosion resistance of the implanted alloys in simulated body fluids. The results indicate that dual titanium and oxygen ion implantation produces a TiO{sub 2}-containing surface film which significantly enhances the corrosion resistance of WE43 magnesium alloy. Our data suggest a simple and practical means to improve the corrosion resistance of degradable magnesium alloys. - Highlights: ► Surface modification of WE43 magnesium alloy using dual ion implantation ► Dual Ti and O ion implantation produces a homogeneous TiO{sub 2}-containing surface film ► Significant improvement of the alloy corrosion resistance after the dual ion implantation.

  17. Statewide Quality Improvement Initiative to Reduce Early Elective Deliveries and Improve Birth Registry Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Heather C; King, Eileen; White, Beth E; Ford, Susan E; Fuller, Sandra; Krew, Michael A; Marcotte, Michael P; Iams, Jay D; Bailit, Jennifer L; Bouchard, Jo M; Friar, Kelly; Lannon, Carole M

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the success of a quality improvement initiative to reduce early elective deliveries at less than 39 weeks of gestation and improve birth registry data accuracy rapidly and at scale in Ohio. Between February 2013 and March 2014, participating hospitals were involved in a quality improvement initiative to reduce early elective deliveries at less than 39 weeks of gestation and improve birth registry data. This initiative was designed as a learning collaborative model (group webinars and a single face-to-face meeting) and included individual quality improvement coaching. It was implemented using a stepped wedge design with hospitals divided into three balanced groups (waves) participating in the initiative sequentially. Birth registry data were used to assess hospital rates of nonmedically indicated inductions at less than 39 weeks of gestation. Comparisons were made between groups participating and those not participating in the initiative at two time points. To measure birth registry accuracy, hospitals conducted monthly audits comparing birth registry data with the medical record. Associations were assessed using generalized linear repeated measures models accounting for time effects. Seventy of 72 (97%) eligible hospitals participated. Based on birth registry data, nonmedically indicated inductions at less than 39 weeks of gestation declined in all groups with implementation (wave 1: 6.2-3.2%, Pinitiative, they saw significant decreases in rates of early elective deliveries as compared with wave 3 (control; P=.018). All waves had significant improvement in birth registry accuracy (wave 1: 80-90%, P=.017; wave 2: 80-100%, P=.002; wave 3: 75-100%, Pinitiative enabled statewide spread of change strategies to decrease early elective deliveries and improve birth registry accuracy over 14 months and could be used for rapid dissemination of other evidence-based obstetric care practices across states or hospital systems.

  18. Couple Therapy with Veterans: Early Improvements and Predictors of Early Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Melanie S; Bhatia, Vickie; Baddeley, Jenna L; Al-Jabari, Rawya; Libet, Julian

    2017-07-28

    Family services within Veterans Affairs Medical Centers fulfill an important role in addressing relationship distress among Veterans, which is highly prevalent and comorbid with psychopathology. However, even for evidence-based couple therapies, effectiveness is weaker compared to controlled studies, maybe because many Veteran couples drop out early and do not reach the "active" treatment stage after the 3-4 session assessment. In order to improve outcomes, it is critical to identify couples at high risk for early dropout, and understand whether couples may benefit from the assessment as an intervention. The current study examined (a) demographics, treatment delivery mode, relationship satisfaction, and psychological symptoms as predictors of dropout during and immediately following the assessment phase, and (b) changes in relationship satisfaction during assessment. 174 couples completed questionnaires during routine intake procedures. The main analyses focused on 140 male Veterans and their female civilian partners; 36.43% dropped out during the assessment phase and 24.74% of the remaining couples immediately following the first treatment session. More severe depressive symptoms in non-Veteran partners were associated with dropout during assessment. Relationship satisfaction improved significantly during the assessment phase for couples who did not drop out, with larger gains for non-Veteran partners. No demographics or treatment delivery mode were associated with dropout. Although more research is needed on engaging couples at risk for early dropout and maximizing early benefits, the findings suggest that clinicians should attend to the civilian partner's and Veteran's depressive symptoms at intake and consider the assessment part of active treatment. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  19. Oxygen-tension measurements - The first step towards prevention and early detection of anastomotic leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanase, D.; French, P.J.; Komen, N.; Kleinrensink, G.J.; Jeekel, J.; Lange, J.F.; Draaijer, A.

    2007-01-01

    Many patients still die every year as a result of anastomotic leakage after surgery. The medical world needs an objective aid to detect leakage during surgery and during the critical recovery period. We propose a miniature measurement system to detect adequate tissue oxygenation pre- and

  20. An efficient optimization method to improve the measuring accuracy of oxygen saturation by using triangular wave optical signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Yu, Yue; Zhang, Cui; Lin, Ling

    2017-09-01

    The oxygen saturation is one of the important parameters to evaluate human health. This paper presents an efficient optimization method that can improve the accuracy of oxygen saturation measurement, which employs an optical frequency division triangular wave signal as the excitation signal to obtain dynamic spectrum and calculate oxygen saturation. In comparison to the traditional method measured RMSE (root mean square error) of SpO2 which is 0.1705, this proposed method significantly reduced the measured RMSE which is 0.0965. It is notable that the accuracy of oxygen saturation measurement has been improved significantly. The method can simplify the circuit and bring down the demand of elements. Furthermore, it has a great reference value on improving the signal to noise ratio of other physiological signals.

  1. Improvement of Oxygenation in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome With High-Volume Continuous Veno-venous Hemofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenmin; Hong, Jie; Zeng, Qiyi; Tao, Jianping; Chen, Feiyan; Dang, Run; Liang, Yufeng; Wu, Zhiyuan; Yang, Yiyu

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy and therapeutic mechanisms of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for improvement of oxygenation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remain controversial. These questions were addressed by retrospective analysis of severe ARDS patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit of our hospital from 2009 to 2015 who received high-volume continuous veno-venous hemofiltration during mechanical ventilation. There was a significant improvement in partial oxygen pressure/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) 24 hours after CRRT onset compared with baseline (median change = 51.5; range = -19 to 450.5; P Improvement in oxygenation is likely related to both restoration of fluid balance and clearance of inflammatory mediators.

  2. Pump Early, Pump Often: A Continuous Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Diane L; Froh, Elizabeth B; Schwarz, Jessica; Houng, Kathy; Brewster, Isabel; Myers, Carey; Prince, Judy; Olkkola, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Research demonstrates that although many mothers initiate pumping for their critically ill children, few women are successful at maintaining milk supply throughout their infants' entire hospital stay. At the Garbose Family Special Delivery Unit (SDU) at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, we care for mothers who have critically ill infants born with complex cardiac and congenital anomalies. Human milk is viewed as a medical intervention at our institution. Therefore, nurses on the SDU wanted to ensure best practice in terms of pumping initiation. This article describes a continuous quality improvement project that ensured mothers pumped early and often. Childbirth educators can play a key role in preparing mothers who are anticipating an infant who will require hospitalization immediately post-birth.

  3. Blood transfusion in preterm infants improves intestinal tissue oxygenation without alteration in blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, J; Leung, T S; Aladangady, N

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the splanchnic blood flow velocity and oximetry response to blood transfusion in preterm infants according to postnatal age. Preterm infants receiving blood transfusion were recruited to three groups: 1-7 (group 1; n = 20), 8-28 (group 2; n = 21) and ≥29 days of life (group 3; n = 18). Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) peak systolic (PSV) and diastolic velocities were measured 30-60 min pre- and post-transfusion using Doppler ultrasound scan. Splanchnic tissue haemoglobin index (sTHI), tissue oxygenation index (sTOI) and fractional tissue oxygen extraction (sFTOE) were measured from 15-20 min before to post-transfusion using near-infrared spectroscopy. The mean pretransfusion Hb in group 1, 2 and 3 was 11, 10 and 9 g/dl, respectively. The mean (SD) pretransfusion SMA PSV in group 1, 2 and 3 was 0·63 (0·32), 0·81 (0·33) and 0·97 (0·40) m/s, respectively, and this did not change significantly following transfusion. The mean (SD) pretransfusion sTOI in group 1, 2 and 3 was 36·7 (19·3), 44·6 (10·4) and 41·3 (10·4)%, respectively. The sTHI and sTOI increased (P transfusion in all groups. On multivariate analysis, changes in SMA PSV and sTOI following blood transfusion were not associated with PDA, feeding, pretransfusion Hb and mean blood pressure. Pretransfusion baseline splanchnic tissue oximetry and blood flow velocity varied with postnatal age. Blood transfusion improved intestinal tissue oxygenation without altering mesenteric blood flow velocity irrespective of postnatal ages. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  4. Acetazolamide during acute hypoxia improves tissue oxygenation in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang; Smith, Zachary M; Buxton, Richard B; Swenson, Erik R; Dubowitz, David J

    2015-12-15

    Low doses of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide provides accelerated acclimatization to high-altitude hypoxia and prevention of cerebral and other symptoms of acute mountain sickness. We previously observed increases in cerebral O2 metabolism (CMRO2 ) during hypoxia. In this study, we investigate whether low-dose oral acetazolamide (250 mg) reduces this elevated CMRO2 and in turn might improve cerebral tissue oxygenation (PtiO2 ) during acute hypoxia. Six normal human subjects were exposed to 6 h of normobaric hypoxia with and without acetazolamide prophylaxis. We determined CMRO2 and cerebral PtiO2 from MRI measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral venous O2 saturation. During normoxia, low-dose acetazolamide resulted in no significant change in CBF, CMRO2 , or PtiO2 . During hypoxia, we observed increases in CBF [48.5 (SD 12.4) (normoxia) to 65.5 (20.4) ml·100 ml(-1)·min(-1) (hypoxia), P effect was improved cerebral tissue PtiO2 during acute hypoxia [11.4 (2.7) (hypoxia) to 16.5 (3.0) mmHg (hypoxia + acetazolamide), P effect, low-dose acetazolamide is effective at the capillary endothelium, and we hypothesize that local interruption in cerebral CO2 excretion accounts for the improvements in CMRO2 and ultimately in cerebral tissue oxygenation during hypoxia. This study suggests a potentially pivotal role of cerebral CO2 and pH in modulating CMRO2 and PtiO2 during acute hypoxia. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Oxygen as a driver of early arthropod micro-benthos evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Williams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We examine the physiological and lifestyle adaptations which facilitated the emergence of ostracods as the numerically dominant Phanerozoic bivalve arthropod micro-benthos. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The PO(2 of modern normoxic seawater is 21 kPa (air-equilibrated water, a level that would cause cellular damage if found in the tissues of ostracods and much other marine fauna. The PO(2 of most aquatic breathers at the cellular level is much lower, between 1 and 3 kPa. Ostracods avoid oxygen toxicity by migrating to waters which are hypoxic, or by developing metabolisms which generate high consumption of O(2. Interrogation of the Cambrian record of bivalve arthropod micro-benthos suggests a strong control on ecosystem evolution exerted by changing seawater O(2 levels. The PO(2 of air-equilibrated Cambrian-seawater is predicted to have varied between 10 and 30 kPa. Three groups of marine shelf-dwelling bivalve arthropods adopted different responses to Cambrian seawater O(2. Bradoriida evolved cardiovascular systems that favoured colonization of oxygenated marine waters. Their biodiversity declined during intervals associated with black shale deposition and marine shelf anoxia and their diversity may also have been curtailed by elevated late Cambrian (Furongian oxygen-levels that increased the PO(2 gradient between seawater and bradoriid tissues. Phosphatocopida responded to Cambrian anoxia differently, reaching their peak during widespread seabed dysoxia of the SPICE event. They lacked a cardiovascular system and appear to have been adapted to seawater hypoxia. As latest Cambrian marine shelf waters became well oxygenated, phosphatocopids went extinct. Changing seawater oxygen-levels and the demise of much of the seabed bradoriid micro-benthos favoured a third group of arthropod micro-benthos, the ostracods. These animals adopted lifestyles that made them tolerant of changes in seawater O(2. Ostracods became the numerically

  6. Triiodothyronine facilitates weaning from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation by improved mitochondrial substrate utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, Matthew D; Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly Priddy, Colleen M; Ledee, Dolena R; Xu, Chun; Des Rosiers, Christine; Isern, Nancy; Portman, Michael A

    2014-03-20

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides a bridge to recovery after myocardial injury in infants and children, yet morbidity and mortality remain high. Weaning from the circuit requires adequate cardiac contractile function, which can be impaired by metabolic disturbances induced either by ischemia-reperfusion and/or by ECMO. We tested the hypothesis that although ECMO partially ameliorates metabolic abnormalities induced by ischemia-reperfusion, these abnormalities persist or recur with weaning. We also determined if thyroid hormone supplementation (triiodothyronine) during ECMO improves oxidative metabolism and cardiac function. Neonatal piglets underwent transient coronary ischemia to induce cardiac injury then were separated into 4 groups based on loading status. Piglets without coronary ischemia served as controls. We infused into the left coronary artery [2-(13)C]pyruvate and [(13)C6, (15)N]l-leucine to evaluate oxidative metabolism by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance methods. ECMO improved survival, increased oxidative substrate contribution through pyruvate dehydrogenase, reduced succinate and fumarate accumulation, and ameliorated ATP depletion induced by ischemia. The functional and metabolic benefit of ECMO was lost with weaning, yet triiodothyronine supplementation during ECMO restored function, increased relative pyruvate dehydrogenase flux, reduced succinate and fumarate, and preserved ATP stores. Although ECMO provides metabolic rest by decreasing energy demand, metabolic impairments persist, and are exacerbated with weaning. Treating ECMO-induced thyroid depression with triiodothyronine improves substrate flux, myocardial oxidative capacity and cardiac contractile function. This translational model suggests that metabolic targeting can improve weaning.

  7. Laser Doppler imaging, thermographic imaging, and tissue oxygen saturation measurements detect early skin reactions during breast radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, David K.; Harrison, Eileen M.; Newton, David J.; Windsor, Phyllis M.

    2001-05-01

    A range of acute skin reactions, ranging from mild erythema to moist desquamation, can be seen in patients receiving standard fractionated radiotherapy to the breast for conservation therapy of breast carcinoma. In a number of cases these reactions can cause considerable discomfort and seriously affect the patient's quality of life. In previous studies we have used the techniques of laser Doppler imaging, digital thermographic imaging and lightguide spectrophotometry to study oxygen supply and blood flow in inflammatory reactions induced experimentally in forearm skin. The present study is an attempt to use the same techniques to investigate whether any or all of them can detect changes in breast skin very early on in the course of radiotherapy treatment. A further aim of the longer term study is to investigate to what extent these early changes may be able to predict the occurrence later of severe acute or delayed reactions.

  8. Posttransplant oxygen inhalation improves the outcome of subcutaneous islet transplantation: A promising clinical alternative to the conventional intrahepatic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, H; Rawson, J; Barriga, A; Gonzalez, N; Mendez, D; Li, J; Omori, K; Kandeel, F; Mullen, Y

    2018-04-01

    Subcutaneous tissue is a promising site for islet transplantation, due to its large area and accessibility, which allows minimally invasive procedures for transplantation, graft monitoring, and removal of malignancies as needed. However, relative to the conventional intrahepatic transplantation site, the subcutaneous site requires a large number of islets to achieve engraftment success and diabetes reversal, due to hypoxia and low vascularity. We report that the efficiency of subcutaneous islet transplantation in a Lewis rat model is significantly improved by treating recipients with inhaled 50% oxygen, in conjunction with prevascularization of the graft bed by agarose-basic fibroblast growth factor. Administration of 50% oxygen increased oxygen tension in the subcutaneous site to 140 mm Hg, compared to 45 mm Hg under ambient air. In vitro, islets cultured under 140 mm Hg oxygen showed reduced central necrosis and increased insulin release, compared to those maintained in 45 mm Hg oxygen. Six hundred syngeneic islets subcutaneously transplanted into the prevascularized graft bed reversed diabetes when combined with postoperative 50% oxygen inhalation for 3 days, a number comparable to that required for intrahepatic transplantation; in the absence of oxygen treatment, diabetes was not reversed. Thus, we show oxygen inhalation to be a simple and promising approach to successfully establishing subcutaneous islet transplantation. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  9. A Permselective CeOx Coating Improves the Stability of Oxygen Evolution Electrocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Obata, Keisuke

    2017-12-05

    Highly active NiFeOx electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) suffer gradual deactivation with time due to the loss of Fe species from the active sites into solution during catalysis. Here, we describe the anodic deposition of a CeOx layer that prevents the loss of such Fe species from the OER catalysts, achieving a highly stable performance. The CeOx layer does not affect the OER activity of the catalyst underneath but exhibits unique permselectivity, allowing the permeation of OH- and O2 through while preventing the diffusion of redox ions through the layer to function as a selective O2-evolving electrode. The use of such permselective protective layer provides a new strategy for improving the durability of electrocatalysts.

  10. A Permselective CeOx Coating Improves the Stability of Oxygen Evolution Electrocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Obata, Keisuke; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Highly active NiFeOx electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) suffer gradual deactivation with time due to the loss of Fe species from the active sites into solution during catalysis. Here, we describe the anodic deposition of a CeOx layer that prevents the loss of such Fe species from the OER catalysts, achieving a highly stable performance. The CeOx layer does not affect the OER activity of the catalyst underneath but exhibits unique permselectivity, allowing the permeation of OH- and O2 through while preventing the diffusion of redox ions through the layer to function as a selective O2-evolving electrode. The use of such permselective protective layer provides a new strategy for improving the durability of electrocatalysts.

  11. A permselective CeO{sub x} coating to improve the stability of oxygen evolution electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obata, Keisuke; Takanabe, Kazuhiro [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), KAUST Catalysis Center (KCC) and Physical Sciences and Engineering Division PSE, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2018-02-05

    Highly active NiFeO{sub x} electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) suffer gradual deactivation with time owing to the loss of Fe species from the active sites into solution during catalysis. The anodic deposition of a CeO{sub x} layer prevents the loss of such Fe species from the OER catalysts, achieving a highly stable performance. The CeO{sub x} layer does not affect the OER activity of the catalyst underneath but exhibits unique permselectivity, allowing the permeation of OH{sup -} and O{sub 2} through while preventing the diffusion of redox ions through the layer to function as a selective O{sub 2}-evolving electrode. The use of such a permselective protective layer provides a new strategy for improving the durability of electrocatalysts. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Taurine Supplementation Improves Functional Capacity, Myocardial Oxygen Consumption, and Electrical Activity in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Dabidi Roshan, Valiollah; Ashourpore, Eadeh

    2017-07-04

    Taurine is an amino acid found abundantly in the heart in very high concentrations. It is assumed that taurine contributes to several physiological functions of mammalian cells, such as osmoregulation, anti-inflammation, membrane stabilization, ion transport modulation, and regulation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial protein synthesis. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of taurine supplementation on functional capacity, myocardial oxygen consumption, and electrical activity in patients with heart failure. In a double-blind and randomly designed study, 16 patients with heart failure were assigned to two groups: taurine (TG, n = 8) and placebo (PG, n = 8). TG received 500-mg taurine supplementation three times per day for two weeks. Significant decrease in the values of Q-T segments (p heart failure patients. Together, these findings support the view that taurine improves cardiac function and functional capacity in patients with heart failure. This idea warrants further study.

  13. Ibudilast may improve attention during early abstinence from methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birath, J Brandon; Briones, Marisa; Amaya, Stephanie; Shoptaw, Steven; Swanson, Aimee-Noelle; Tsuang, John; Furst, Benjamin; Heinzerling, Keith; Obermeit, Lisa; Maes, Lauryn; McKay, Charles; Wright, Matthew J

    2017-09-01

    Inattention is a deficit related to instilling abstinence from methamphetamine (MA) dependence. This study aimed to determine whether ibudilast (IB; 50mg bid) improves attentional abilities compared to placebo during early abstinence from MA dependence. Attention was assessed in 11 MA-dependent non-treatment seeking participants in a phase IB safety-interaction trial. The Conners' Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II), a measure of sustained attention and response inhibition, was administered at baseline and on day 22, 48h post a MA challenge under placebo (P; n=6) or IB 50mg bid (n=5). Group differences were compared using Mann-Whitney U Tests. Groups were similar at baseline in premorbid intellectual functioning, attention deficit hyperactivity symptom scores, impulsivity ratings, and education level, but differed in age. Demographically corrected T-scores for CPT-II performances were utilized. Although no group differences in sustained attention existed at baseline, at follow-up, the IB group (Mdn=44.4) showed reduced variability in response times compared with the P group (Mdn=69.9), U=0.00, z=-2.74, p=.006, r=.83. The IB group (Mdn=45.8) also gave fewer perseverative responses than the P group (Mdn=67.0), U=2.00, z=-2.50, p=.01, r=.75. No other significant differences were observed. Findings suggest that IB may have a protective effect on sustained attention during early abstinence from MA dependence. This may guide thinking about mechanism of action should IB demonstrate efficacy as a treatment for MA dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Triiodothyronine activates lactate oxidation without impairing fatty acid oxidation and improves weaning from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R; Xu, Chun; Kajimoto, Hidemi; Isern, Nancy G; Portman, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides a rescue for children with severe cardiac failure. It has previously been shown that triiodothyronine (T3) improves cardiac function by modulating pyruvate oxidation during weaning. This study focused on fatty acid (FA) metabolism modulated by T3 for weaning from ECMO after cardiac injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nineteen immature piglets (9.1-15.3 kg) were separated into 3 groups with ECMO (6.5 h) and wean: normal circulation (Group-C); transient coronary occlusion (10 min) for ischemia-reperfusion (IR) followed by ECMO (Group-IR); and IR with T3 supplementation (Group-IR-T3). 13-Carbon ((13)C)-labeled lactate, medium-chain and long-chain FAs, was infused as oxidative substrates. Substrate fractional contribution (FC) to the citric acid cycle was analyzed by(13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance. ECMO depressed circulating T3 levels to 40% of the baseline at 4 h and were restored in Group-IR-T3. Group-IR decreased cardiac power, which was not fully restorable and 2 pigs were lost because of weaning failure. Group-IR also depressed FC-lactate, while the excellent contractile function and energy efficiency in Group-IR-T3 occurred along with a marked FC-lactate increase and [adenosine triphosphate]/[adenosine diphosphate] without either decreasing FC-FAs or elevating myocardial oxygen consumption over Group-C or -IR. T3 releases inhibition of lactate oxidation following IR injury without impairing FA oxidation. These findings indicate that T3 depression during ECMO is maladaptive, and that restoring levels improves metabolic flux and enhances contractile function during weaning.

  15. Improving Early Numeracy of Young Children with Special Education Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Luit, Johannes E. H.; Schopman, Esther A.

    2000-01-01

    Sixty-two students from special needs kindergartens were given early mathematics intervention. The early numeracy program was developed for children with disabilities and early numeracy difficulties by basing instruction on perceptual gestalt theory. Children performed better at posttest than controls but failed to transfer their knowledge to…

  16. Improvement of Surface Wettability and Hydrophilization of Poly-paraphenylene benzobisoxazole Fiber with Fibrillation Combined Oxygen Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new surface modification method fibrillation combined with oxygen plasma treatment to improve the wettability and hydrophily of PBO fiber was studied in this paper. The surface chemical structure and morphology of PBO fiber were characterized by the methods of FTIR, XPS and SEM. The wettability and hydrophlic characters changes on the surface were evaluated by the dynamic contact angle system and image analysis. The results show that the increase surface roughness by fibrillation could improve the wettability. Fibrillation combined oxygen plasma treatment has a better effect than oxygen plasma treatment to improve the wettability and hdyrophlization of PBO fiber. The specific area of PBO fiber increased to 10.7 m2/g from 0.7 m2/g, contact angle decreased to 43.2° from 84.4° and WRV increased to 208.4% from 13.7%. The modified fibers have a good dispersion in water for hydrophilization improvement.

  17. The effects of swimming exercise and dissolved oxygen on growth performance, fin condition and precocious maturation of early-rearing Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Thomas; Summerfelt, Steven T.; Mazik, Patricia M.; Good, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Swimming exercise, typically measured in body-lengths per second (BL/s), and dissolved oxygen (DO), are important environmental variables in fish culture. While there is an obvious physiological association between these two parameters, their interaction has not been adequately studied in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Because exercise and DO are variables that can be easily manipulated in modern aquaculture systems, we sought to assess the impact of these parameters, alone and in combination, on the performance, health and welfare of juvenile Atlantic salmon. In our study, Atlantic salmon fry were stocked into 12 circular 0.5 m3 tanks in a flow-through system and exposed to either high (1.5–2 BL/s) or low (salmon early rearing can result in improved growth performance and a lower incidence of precocious parr.

  18. Assessment of early renal allograft dysfunction with blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Yoon [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Kyo, E-mail: chankyokim@skku.edu [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung Kwan [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ju; Lee, Sanghoon [Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Wooseong [Department of Nephrology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • R2* and ADC in renal allografts are moderately correlated with eGFR. • R2* and ADC are lower in early allograft dysfunction than normal allograft function. • No significant difference between AR and ATN was found in both R2* and ADC. - Abstract: Purpose: To investigate blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3 T for assessment of early renal allograft dysfunction. Materials and methods: 34 patients with a renal allograft (early dysfunction, 24; normal, 10) were prospectively enrolled. BOLD MRI and DWI were performed at 3 T. R2* and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured in cortex and medulla of the allografts. Correlation between R2* or ADC values and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was investigated. R2* or ADC values were compared among acute rejection (AR), acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and normal function. Results: In all renal allografts, cortical or medullary R2* and ADC values were moderately correlated with eGFR (P < 0.05). Early dysfunction group showed lower R2* and ADC values than normal function group (P < 0.05). AR or ATN had lower R2* values than normal allografts (P < 0.05), and ARs had lower cortical ADC values than normal allografts (P < 0.05). No significant difference of R2* or ADC values was found between AR and ATN (P > 0.05). Conclusion: BOLD MRI and DWI at 3 T may demonstrate early functional state of renal allografts, but may be limited in characterizing a cause of early renal allograft dysfunction. Further studies are needed.

  19. The terrestrial hydro-climate of the Early Eocene: insights from the oxygen and clumped isotope composition of pedogenic siderite

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, J.; Fernandez, A.; Müller, I.; White, T. S.; Bernasconi, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Early Eocene (56 Ma) is the youngest period of Earth's history when CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere (600-1500 ppm) reached levels close to those predicted for future emission scenarios. Proxy-based climate reconstructions from this interval can therefore be used to gain insights on effects that anthropogenic emissions might have on the climate system. So far, Early Eocene climatic data is limited to the oceans, where proxies for temperature are abundant and relatively well understood. However, in order to get a complete picture of the Early Eocene climate, temperature and rainfall reconstructions on the continental paleo-surface are needed. Here, we present clumped and stable oxygen isotope measurements of siderite samples collected along a North-South transect in the North American Continent. These siderites formed in kaolinitic soils that developed globally under the extremely wet and warm conditions of the Early Eocene. They provide a record of both soil temperature and the δ18O composition of meteoric water, which can be used to unravel the regional paleo-precipitation rate. Both parameters were estimated using an elaborate in-house calibration constructed with synthetic siderite precipitated in the presence or absence of iron reducing bacteria. Measurements of δD on plant-derived N-alkanes present within the same soils align well with our δ18Owater data, confirming an Early Eocene meteoric water line similar to the present day. We provide an estimate of the meridional temperature gradient during the Early Eocene and offer constraints on the boundary conditions of the Earth's hydrologic cycle under high pCO2.

  20. CO self-shielding as the origin of oxygen isotope anomalies in the early solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, J R; Young, E D

    2005-05-19

    The abundances of oxygen isotopes in the most refractory mineral phases (calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions, CAIs) in meteorites have hitherto defied explanation. Most processes fractionate isotopes by nuclear mass; that is, 18O is twice as fractionated as 17O, relative to 16O. In CAIs 17O and 18O are nearly equally fractionated, implying a fundamentally different mechanism. The CAI data were originally interpreted as evidence for supernova input of pure 16O into the solar nebula, but the lack of a similar isotope trend in other elements argues against this explanation. A symmetry-dependent fractionation mechanism may have occurred in the inner solar nebula, but experimental evidence is lacking. Isotope-selective photodissociation of CO in the innermost solar nebula might explain the CAI data, but the high temperatures in this region would have rapidly erased the signature. Here we report time-dependent calculations of CO photodissociation in the cooler surface region of a turbulent nebula. If the surface were irradiated by a far-ultraviolet flux approximately 10(3) times that of the local interstellar medium (for example, owing to an O or B star within approximately 1 pc of the protosun), then substantial fractionation of the oxygen isotopes was possible on a timescale of approximately 10(5) years. We predict that similarly irradiated protoplanetary disks will have H2O enriched in 17O and 18O by several tens of per cent relative to CO.

  1. Early sepsis does not stimulate reactive oxygen species production and does not reduce cardiac function despite an increased inflammation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Thibault; Charrier, Alice; Moreau, Clarisse; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle; Mourmoura, Evangelia; Rigaudière, Jean-Paul; Pitois, Elodie; Bouvier, Damien; Sapin, Vincent; Pereira, Bruno; Azarnoush, Kasra; Demaison, Luc

    2017-07-01

    If it is sustained for several days, sepsis can trigger severe abnormalities of cardiac function which leads to death in 50% of cases. This probably occurs through activation of toll-like receptor-9 by bacterial lipopolysaccharides and overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF- α and IL-1 β In contrast, early sepsis is characterized by the development of tachycardia. This study aimed at determining the early changes in the cardiac function during sepsis and at finding the mechanism responsible for the observed changes. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups, the first one being made septic by cecal ligation and puncture (sepsis group) and the second one being subjected to the same surgery without cecal ligation and puncture (sham-operated group). The cardiac function was assessed in vivo and ex vivo in standard conditions. Several parameters involved in the oxidative stress and inflammation were determined in the plasma and heart. As evidenced by the plasma level of TNF- α and gene expression of IL-1 β and TNF- α in the heart, inflammation was developed in the sepsis group. The cardiac function was also slightly stimulated by sepsis in the in vivo and ex vivo situations. This was associated with unchanged levels of oxidative stress, but several parameters indicated a lower cardiac production of reactive oxygen species in the septic group. In conclusion, despite the development of inflammation, early sepsis did not increase reactive oxygen species production and did not reduce myocardial function. The depressant effect of TNF- α and IL-1 β on the cardiac function is known to occur at very high concentrations. The influence of low- to moderate-grade inflammation on the myocardial mechanical behavior must thus be revisited. © 2017 French National Institute of Agronomical Research (INRA). Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  2. Incorporating IStation into Early Childhood Classrooms to Improve Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Luo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: IStation is an adaptive computer-based reading program that adapts to the learner’s academic needs. This study investigates if the Istation computer-based reading program promotes reading improvement scores as shown on the STAR Reading test and the IStation test scaled scores for elementary school third-grade learners on different reading levels. Background: Prior literature provided a limited evidence base for incorporating computer-adaptive learning technologies to improve reading comprehension in the con-text of early childhood education. Methodology: Using a mixed-method case study research approach, this study purports to investigate the effects of IStation and examine the perspectives of teachers and students. Supported by survey and interview data, this case study employed a sample of 98 public school third-grade students in an urban elementary school in the southeastern United States as well as the three classroom teachers. Contribution: This study has provided a additional data to show evidence for the effectiveness of a computer-based reading program, IStation, by using the students’ and teachers’ viewpoints as well as reading comprehension test scores data; and b recommendations for practitioners and researchers regarding professional development for IStation implementation. Findings: The results of this study show a strong correlation between the usage of IStation and the rise of STAR reading scores during the time IStation was integrated. There were differing opinions regarding the effectiveness of IStation between students and teachers, as well as between low and high achieving students. Teachers recognized that intervening variables of teachers’ whole and small group lessons individualized for each class, as well as students’ practice sessions both at home and at school, could have also resulted in improved STAR reading scores. Recommendations for Practitioners: There is no one-size-fits-all solution when

  3. Improved oxygen-activation method for determining water flow behind casing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeon, D.C.; Scott, H.D.; Olesen, J.R.; Patton, G.L.; Mitchell, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on impulse activation which is a new oxygen-activation technique developed to detect vertical water flow and to provide a quantitative measure of water flow velocity and flow rate. Flow-loop measurements made over a wide range of water velocities are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Measurements of up- and downward channel flow were made at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) leak test well in Ada, OK, to demonstrate the technique in a controlled environment and to confirm that EPA requirements have been met. A major advantage of this method over previous procedures is that a measurement is a known zero-flow zone is not required. The impulse-activation technique has improved sensitivity to both low and high flow rates. In the EPA leak test well, the technique successfully discriminated between 0- and 1.4 ft/min flow conditions. The lowest quantified velocity was 1.8 ft/min or 10 BWPD, significantly below the EPA requirement of 3 ft/min. The upper limit of detection has not been determined by exceeds 137 ft/min. The water flow log (WFL SM ) measurement uses the impulse-activation technique and a Dual-Bust SM , thermal-decay-time (TDT SM ) tool to detect water flow behind casing. An important application of this measurement is testing for fluid migration in the wellbore as part of the mechanical integrity testing process for Class I and II disposal wells. The new oxygen-activation measurement was used in numerous production wells to identify the presence of water flow behind casing. Additional applications include the identification of open fractures in horizontal wells and the quantification of water flow in the tubing/casing annulus in injection and production wells

  4. Improved activity of SnO for the photocatalytic oxygen evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaizra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available SnO prepared by soft chemistry exhibits a black color and semiconducting properties. The X-ray diffraction indicates a tetragonal symmetry (SG: P4/nmm with nano crystallites of an average size of 85 nm. The forbidden band, determined from the diffuse reflectance is found to be 1.46 eV. The electrical conductivity occurs by polaron hopping and follows an Arrhenius type law with activation energy of 0.21 eV, the change in the slope at 526 K is attributed to the oxidation to SnO2. The photo-electrochemical study shows n type conduction with a flat band potential of −0.45 V, close to the photocurrent onset potential (−0.40 V. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows the bulk contribution of SnO (Rb = 1.7 kΩ cm2 and decreases down to 1.89 kΩ cm2 under illumination. The photocatalytic properties have been evaluated for the first time for to the oxygen evolution. The valence band, deriving from Sn2+: 5p orbital with a potential (−0.80 VSCE/5.55 eV, is suitably positioned with respect to O2/H2O level (∼0.6 VSCE, leading to water oxidation under visible light. The best performance occurs at pH ∼ 7 with an oxygen liberation rate of 23 µmol mL h−1 (mg catalyst−1 and a quantum efficiency of 1.2%. An improvement of ∼13% is observed on the system SnO/clay.

  5. Improving the knowledge about dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll variability at ESTOC by using autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianca, A.; Caudet, E.; Vega, D.; Barrera, C.; Hernandez Brito, J.

    2016-02-01

    The European Station for Time Series in the Ocean, Canary Islands "ESTOC" is located in the Eastern Subtropical North Atlantic Gyre (29'10ºN, 15'30ºW). ESTOC started operations in 1994 based on a monthly ship-based sampling, in addition to hydrographic and sediment trap moorings. Since 2002, ESTOC is part of the European network for deep sea ocean observatories through several projects, among others ANIMATE (Atlantic Network of Interdisciplinary Moorings and Time-series for Europe), EuroSITES (European Ocean Observatory Network) and Fixed point Open Ocean Observatory network (FixO3). The main purpose of these projects was to improve the time-resolution of the biogeochemical measurements through moored biogeochemical sensors. Additionally, ESTOC is included in the Marine-Maritime observational network of the Macaronesian region, which is supported by the European overseas territories programs since 2009. This network aims to increase the quantity and quality of marine environmental observations. The goal is to understand phenomena which impact in the environment, and consequently at the socio-economy of the region to attempt their prediction. With this purpose, ESTOC has included the use of autonomous vehicles "glider" in order to increase the observational resolution and, by comparison with the parallel observational programs, to study the biogeochemical processes at different time scale resolutions. This study investigates the time variability of the dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll distributions in the water column focusing on the diel cycle, looking at the relevance of this variability in the already known seasonal distributions. Our interest is assessing net community production and remineralization rates through the use of oxygen variations, establishing the relationship between the DO anomalies values and those from the chlorophyll distribution in the water column.

  6. A fast-start pacing strategy speeds pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics and improves supramaximal running performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Turnes

    Full Text Available The focus of the present study was to investigate the effects of a fast-start pacing strategy on running performance and pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2 kinetics at the upper boundary of the severe-intensity domain. Eleven active male participants (28±10 years, 70±5 kg, 176±6 cm, 57±4 mL/kg/min visited the laboratory for a series of tests that were performed until exhaustion: 1 an incremental test; 2 three laboratory test sessions performed at 95, 100 and 110% of the maximal aerobic speed; 3 two to four constant speed tests for the determination of the highest constant speed (HS that still allowed achieving maximal oxygen uptake; and 4 an exercise based on the HS using a higher initial speed followed by a subsequent decrease. To predict equalized performance values for the constant pace, the relationship between time and distance/speed through log-log modelling was used. When a fast-start was utilized, subjects were able to cover a greater distance in a performance of similar duration in comparison with a constant-pace performance (constant pace: 670 m±22%; fast-start: 683 m±22%; P = 0.029; subjects also demonstrated a higher exercise tolerance at a similar average speed when compared with constant-pace performance (constant pace: 114 s±30%; fast-start: 125 s±26%; P = 0.037. Moreover, the mean VO2 response time was reduced after a fast start (constant pace: 22.2 s±28%; fast-start: 19.3 s±29%; P = 0.025. In conclusion, middle-distance running performances with a duration of 2-3 min are improved and VO2 response time is faster when a fast-start is adopted.

  7. Sulfur Isotope Trends in Archean Microbialite Facies Record Early Oxygen Production and Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerkle, A.; Meyer, N.; Izon, G.; Poulton, S.; Farquhar, J.; Claire, M.

    2014-12-01

    The major and minor sulfur isotope composition (δ34S and Δ33S) of pyrites preserved in ~2.65-2.5 billion-year-old (Ga) microbialites record localized oxygen production and consumption near the mat surface. These trends are preserved in two separate drill cores (GKF01 and BH1-Sacha) transecting the Campbellrand-Malmani carbonate platform (Ghaap Group, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa; Zerkle et al., 2012; Izon et al., in review). Microbialite pyrites possess positive Δ33S values, plotting parallel to typical Archean trends (with a Δ33S/δ34S slope of ~0.9) but enriched in 34S by ~3 to 7‰. We propose that these 34S-enriched pyrites were formed from a residual pool of sulfide that was partially oxidized via molecular oxygen produced by surface mat-dwelling cyanobacteria. Sulfide, carrying the range of Archean Δ33S values, could have been produced deeper within the microbial mat by the reduction of sulfate and elemental sulfur, then fractionated upon reaction with O2 produced by oxygenic photosynthesis. Preservation of this positive 34S offset requires that: 1) sulfide was only partially (50­­-80%) consumed by oxidation, meaning H2S was locally more abundant (or more rapidly produced) than O2, and 2) the majority of the sulfate produced via oxidation was not immediately reduced to sulfide, implying either that the sulfate pool was much larger than the sulfide pool, or that the sulfate formed near the mat surface was transported and reduced in another part of the system. Contrastingly, older microbialite facies (> 2.7 Ga; Thomazo et al., 2013) appear to lack these observed 34S enrichments. Consequently, the onset of 34S enrichments could mark a shift in mat ecology, from communities dominated by anoxygenic photosynthesizers to cyanobacteria. Here, we test these hypotheses with new spatially resolved mm-scale trends in sulfur isotope measurements from pyritized stromatolites of the Vryburg Formation, sampled in the lower part of the BH1-Sacha core. Millimeter

  8. A Bovine Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carrier as Pump Prime for Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Reduced Systemic Lactic Acidosis and Improved Cerebral Oxygen Metabolism During Low-flow in a Porcine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    1 A bovine hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier as pump prime for cardiopulmonary bypass: reduced systemic lactic acidosis and improved cerebral...2010 2. REPORT TYPE Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2007 - November 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A bovine hemoglobin-based oxygen...carrier as pump prime for cardiopulmonary bypass: reduced systemic lactic acidosis and improved cerebral oxygen metabolism during low-flow in a

  9. The effects of swimming exercise and dissolved oxygen on growth performance, fin condition and precocious maturation of early-rearing Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Thomas; Summerfelt, Steven T.; Mazik, Patricia M.; Good, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Swimming exercise, typically measured in body-lengths per second (BL/s), and dissolved oxygen (DO), are important environmental variables in fish culture. While there is an obvious physiological association between these two parameters, their interaction has not been adequately studied in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Because exercise and DO are variables that can be easily manipulated in modern aquaculture systems, we sought to assess the impact of these parameters, alone and in combination, on the performance, health and welfare of juvenile Atlantic salmon. In our study, Atlantic salmon fry were stocked into 12 circular 0.5 m3 tanks in a flow-through system and exposed to either high (1.5–2 BL/s) or low (exercise and DO concentration on growth, feed conversion, survival and fin condition. By study's end, both increased swimming speed and higher DO were independently associated with a statistically significant increase in growth performance (p exercise and dissolved oxygen at saturation during Atlantic salmon early rearing can result in improved growth performance and a lower incidence of precocious parr.

  10. Oxygen isotope analysis of phosphate: improved precision using TC/EA CF-IRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPorte, D F; Holmden, C; Patterson, W P; Prokopiuk, T; Eglington, B M

    2009-06-01

    Oxygen isotope values of biogenic apatite have long demonstrated considerable promise for paleothermometry potential because of the abundance of material in the fossil record and greater resistance of apatite to diagenesis compared to carbonate. Unfortunately, this promise has not been fully realized because of relatively poor precision of isotopic measurements, and exceedingly small size of some substrates for analysis. Building on previous work, we demonstrate that it is possible to improve precision of delta18O(PO4) measurements using a 'reverse-plumbed' thermal conversion elemental analyzer (TC/EA) coupled to a continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS) via a helium stream [Correction made here after initial online publication]. This modification to the flow of helium through the TC/EA, and careful location of the packing of glassy carbon fragments relative to the hot spot in the reactor, leads to narrower, more symmetrically distributed CO elution peaks with diminished tailing. In addition, we describe our apatite purification chemistry that uses nitric acid and cation exchange resin. Purification chemistry is optimized for processing small samples, minimizing isotopic fractionation of PO4(-3) and permitting Ca, Sr and Nd to be eluted and purified further for the measurement of delta44Ca and 87Sr/86Sr in modern biogenic apatite and 143Nd/144Nd in fossil apatite. Our methodology yields an external precision of +/- 0.15 per thousand (1sigma) for delta18O(PO4). The uncertainty is related to the preparation of the Ag3PO4 salt, conversion to CO gas in a reversed-plumbed TC/EA, analysis of oxygen isotopes using a CF-IRMS, and uncertainty in constructing calibration lines that convert raw delta18O data to the VSMOW scale. Matrix matching of samples and standards for the purpose of calibration to the VSMOW scale was determined to be unnecessary. Our method requires only slightly modified equipment that is widely available. This fact, and the

  11. Facilitated Oxygen Chemisorption in Heteroatom-Doped Carbon for Improved Oxygen Reaction Activity in All-Solid-State Zinc-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sisi; Wang, Mengfan; Sun, Xinyi; Xu, Na; Liu, Jie; Wang, Yuzhou; Qian, Tao; Yan, Chenglin

    2018-01-01

    Driven by the intensified demand for energy storage systems with high-power density and safety, all-solid-state zinc-air batteries have drawn extensive attention. However, the electrocatalyst active sites and the underlying mechanisms occurring in zinc-air batteries remain confusing due to the lack of in situ analytical techniques. In this work, the in situ observations, including X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, of a heteroatom-doped carbon air cathode are reported, in which the chemisorption of oxygen molecules and oxygen-containing intermediates on the carbon material can be facilitated by the electron deficiency caused by heteroatom doping, thus improving the oxygen reaction activity for zinc-air batteries. As expected, solid-state zinc-air batteries equipped with such air cathodes exhibit superior reversibility and durability. This work thus provides a profound understanding of the reaction principles of heteroatom-doped carbon materials in zinc-air batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Early resuscitation with polymerized bovine hemoglobin reverses acidosis, but not peripheral tissue oxygenation, in a severe hamster shock model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettstein, Reto; Tsai, Amy G; Harder, Yves; Erni, Dominique; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2006-11-01

    Awake hamsters equipped with the dorsal window chamber preparation were subjected to hemorrhage of 50% of the estimated blood volume. Initial resuscitation (25% of estimated blood volume) with polymerized bovine hemoglobin (PBH) or 10% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) occurred in concert with an equivolumetric bleeding to simulate the early, prehospital setting (exchange transfusion). Resuscitation (25% of estimated blood volume) without bleeding was performed with PBH, HES, or autologous red blood cells (HES-RBCs). Peripheral microcirculation, tissue oxygenation, and systemic hemodynamic and blood gas parameters were assessed. After exchange transfusion, base deficit was -8.6 +/- 3.7 mmol/L (PBH) and -5.1 +/- 5.3 mmol/L (HES) (not significant). Functional capillary density was 17% +/- 6% of baseline (PBH) and 31% +/- 11% (HES) (P < 0.05) and arteriolar diameter 73% +/- 3% of baseline (PBH) and 90% + 5% (HES) (P < 0.01). At the end, hemoglobin levels were 3.7 +/- 0.3 g/dL with HES, 8.2 +/- 0.6 g/dL with PBH, and 10.4 +/- 0.8 g/dL with HES-RBCs (P < 0.01 HES vs. PBH and HES-RBCs, P < 0.05 PBH vs. HES-RBCs). Base excess was restored to baseline with PBH and HES-RBCs, but not with HES (P < 0.05). Functional capillary density was 46% +/- 5% of baseline (PBH), 62% + 20% (HES-RBCs), and 36% +/- 19% (HES) (P < 0.01 HES-RBCs vs. HES). Peripheral oxygen delivery and consumption was highest with HES-RBCs, followed by PBH (P < 0.05 HES-RBCs vs. PBH, P < 0.01 HES-RBCs and PBH vs. HES). In conclusion, the PBH led to a correction of base deficit comparable to blood transfusion. However, oxygenation of the peripheral tissue was inferior with PBH. This was attributed to its negative impact on the peripheral microcirculation caused by arteriolar vasoconstriction.

  13. Improving Early Career Science Teachers' Ability to Teach Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, G. R.; Slater, T. F.; Wierman, T.; Erickson, J. G.; Mendez, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    The GEMS Space Science Sequence is a high quality, hands-on curriculum for elementary and middle schools, created by a national team of astronomers and science educators with NASA funding and support. The standards-aligned curriculum includes 24 class sessions for upper elementary grades targeting the scale and nature of Earth's, shape, motion and gravity, and 36 class sessions for middle school grades focusing on the interactions between our Sun and Earth and the nature of the solar system and beyond. These materials feature extensive teacher support materials which results in pre-test to post-test content gains for students averaging 22%. Despite the materials being highly successful, there has been a less than desired uptake by teachers in using these materials, largely due to a lack of professional development training. Responding to the need to improve the quantity and quality of space science education, a collaborative of space scientists and science educators - from the University of California, Berkeley's Lawrence Hall of Science (LHS) and Center for Science Education at the Space Sciences Laboratory (CSE@SSL), the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP), the University of Wyoming, and the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education - experimented with a unique professional development model focused on helping master teachers work closely with pre-service teachers during their student teaching internship field experience. Research on the exodus of young teachers from the teaching profession clearly demonstrates that early career teachers often leave teaching because of a lack of mentoring support and classroom ready curriculum materials. The Advancing Mentor and Novice Teachers in Space Science (AMANTISS) team first identified master teachers who supervise novice, student teachers in middle school, and trained these master teachers to use the GEMS Space Science Sequence for Grades 6-8. Then, these master teachers were mentored in how to coach their

  14. Dissolved oxygen concentration in the medium during cell culture: Defects and improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kuan; Zhao, Tong; Huang, Xin; He, Yunlin; Zhou, Yanzhao; Wu, Liying; Wu, Kuiwu; Fan, Ming; Zhu, Lingling

    2016-03-01

    In vitro cell culture has provided a useful model to study the effects of oxygen on cellular behavior. However, it remains unknown whether the in vitro operations themselves affect the medium oxygen levels and the living states of cells. In addition, a prevailing controversy is whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is induced by continuous hypoxia or reoxygenation. In this study, we have measured the effects of different types of cell culture containers and the oxygen environment where medium replacement takes place on the actual oxygen tension in the medium. We found that the deviations of oxygen concentrations in the medium are much greater in 25-cm(2) flasks than in 24-well plates and 35-mm dishes. The dissolved oxygen concentrations in the medium were increased after medium replacement in normoxia, but remained unchanged in glove boxes in which the oxygen tension remained at a low level (11.4, 5.7, and 0.5% O2 ). We also found that medium replacement in normoxia increased the number of ROS-positive cells and reduced the cell viability; meanwhile, medium replacement in a glove box did not produce the above effects. Therefore, we conclude that the use of 25-cm(2) flasks should be avoided and demonstrate that continuous hypoxia does not produce ROS, whereas the reoxygenation that occurs during the harvesting of cells leads to ROS and induces cell death. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  15. Reactive oxygen species inactivation improves pancreatic capillary blood flow in caerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirelles Jr. Roberto Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Reactive oxygen species (ROS inactivation was studied to determine alterations in the pancreatic capillary blood flow (PCBF during caerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats. METHODS: A laser-Doppler flowmeter to measure PCBF and N-t-Butyl-Phenylnitrone (PBN compound to inactivate ROS were used. Forty rats were divided in groups: 1 control; 2 caerulein; 3 PBN; 4 caerulein+PBN. Serum biochemistry and histopathological analyses were performed. RESULTS: PCBF measured a mean of 109.08 ± 14.54%, 68.24 ± 10.47%, 102.18 ± 10.23% and 87.73 ± 18.72% in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. PCBF in groups 2 and 4 decreased 31.75 ± 16.79% and 12.26 ± 15.24%, respectively. Serum amylase was 1323.70 ± 239.10 U/l, 2184.60 ± 700.46 U/l, 1379.80 ± 265.72 U/l and 1622.10 ± 314.60 U/l in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. There was a significant difference in the PCBF and serum amylase when compared groups 2 and 4. Cytoplasmatic vacuolation was present in groups 2 and 4. Otherwise, no qualitative changes were seen. CONCLUSION: ROS inactivation improves PCBF and minimizes the serum amylase increase during caerulein-induced pancreatitis. ROS effect may be one of the leading causative events in this model of acute pancreatitis.

  16. Improving decision making in the early phases of configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Harlou, Ulf; Haug, Anders

    2008-01-01

    During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system...

  17. Improving decision making in the early phases of configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Harlou, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system...

  18. Early benthic successional processes at implanted substrates in Barkley Submarine Canyon affected by a permanent oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera De Leo, F.; Smith, C. R.; Levin, L. A.; Fleury, A.; Aguzzi, J.

    2016-02-01

    With the advent of cabled observatories scientists are now able to have a permanent presence in the deep-seafloor, being able to reveal previously unseen faunal behavior as well as to track long-term changes in biodiversity and ecosystem function. The Ocean Networks Canada 800-km loop seafloor observatory array (NEPTUNE) located in the NE Pacific has instruments measuring a variety of environmental variables ranging from temperature, salinity, oxygen, currents, turbidity, fluorescence, etc, at multiple and very high temporal resolution scales. High-definition video cameras also monitor benthic communities in multiple deep-sea habitats, all at some extent influenced by an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). In the present study, whale-bone and wood substrates are being used to evaluate bathymetric, regional and inter-basin variations in benthic biodiversity and connectivity, as well as interactions between biodiversity and ecosystem function. In May of 2014 three humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) rib sections, one 20x20x10 cm block of Douglas Fir (Pseudotsunga meniziesii), and a 30x30x30 block of authigenic carbonate were placed with the use of an ROV at 890 m depth inside Barkley Canyon. The substrate packages were placed concentrically, 45-cm away from a HD video camera. Five-minute videos were captured at 2-hr intervals. Preliminary data analysis from 8 months of deployment showed very distinct early community succession patterns between the two organic substrates (bones and wood) and the authigenic carbonate. Whalebones and wood showed amphipod (Orchomene obtusa) abundance peaks mostly contained during the first 60 days after deployment; Amphipod peak abundance rapid decline coincides with rapid growth of bacterial mat on whalebone and wood surfaces. Low abundance, species richness and substrate degradation rates are in agreement with a low oxygen environment of the OMZ in the canyon. Despite the early stages of data analysis, this experiment demonstrates how

  19. Illuminating the early signaling pathway of a fungal light-oxygen-voltage photoreceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Emanuel; Dick, Bernhard; Baeurle, Stephan A

    2012-02-01

    Circadian clocks are molecular timekeepers encountered in a wide variety of organisms, which allow to adapt the cell's metabolism and behavior to the daily and seasonal periods. Their function is regulated by light-sensing proteins, among which Vivid, a light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) sensitive domain of the fungus Neurospora crassa, constitutes one of the most prominent examples. Although the major photochemical and structural changes during the photocycle of this photosensor have been elucidated through experimental means, its signal transduction pathway is still poorly resolved at the molecular level. In this article, we show through molecular dynamics simulation that the primary steps after adduct formation involve a switch of Gln182 in vicinity of the chromophore FAD (flavin-adenine-dinucleotide), followed by a coupling between the Iβ- and Hβ-strands through H-bond formation between Gln182 and Asn161 as well as subsequent weakening of the H-bonding interaction between the Iβ- and Aβ-strands. These processes then induce a reorientation of the Aβ-Bβ-loop with respect to the protein core as well as a simultaneous contraction of the partially unfolded α-helix onto the α-Aβ-linker at the Ncap. Finally, we demonstrate through additional dimer simulations that the light-induced conformational changes, observed in the monomeric case, play a decisive role in controlling the dimerization tendency of Vivid with its partner domains and that the light-state homodimer shows a much larger affinity for aggregation than the dark state. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Heliox delivered by high flow nasal cannula improves oxygenation in infants with respiratory syncytial virus acute bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Seliem

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Transient improvement of oxygenation in infants with RSV acute bronchiolitis during the initial phase of the therapy is associated with heliox when provided with HFNC, may provide a precious time for other therapeutic agents to work or for the disease to resolve naturally, avoiding other aggressive interventions.

  1. Dietary nitrate does not reduce oxygen cost of exercise or improve muscle mitochondrial function in patients with mitochondrial myopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabben, M.; Schmitz, J.P.J.; Ciapaite, J.; le Clercq, C.M.P.; van Riel, N.A.; Haak, H.R.; Nicolay, K.; de Coo, I.F.M.; Smeets, H.; Praet, S.F.; van Loon, L.J.; Prompers, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Muscle weakness and exercise intol erance negatively affect the quality of life of patients with mitochondrial myopathy. Short-term dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to improve exercise performance and reduce oxygen cost of exercise in healthy humans and trained athletes. We

  2. Improved oxygenation during standing performance of deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure after cardiac surgery: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Henrik; Faager, Gun; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2015-09-01

    Breathing exercises after cardiac surgery are often performed in a sitting position. It is unknown whether oxygenation would be better in the standing position. The aim of this study was to evaluate oxygenation and subjective breathing ability during sitting vs standing performance of deep breathing exercises on the second day after cardiac surgery. Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 189) were randomized to sitting (controls) or standing. Both groups performed 3 × 10 deep breaths with a positive expiratory pressure device. Peripheral oxygen saturation was measured before, directly after, and 15 min after the intervention. Subjective breathing ability, blood pressure, heart rate, and pain were assessed. Oxygenation improved significantly in the standing group compared with controls directly after the breathing exercises (p < 0.001) and after 15 min rest (p = 0.027). The standing group reported better deep breathing ability compared with controls (p = 0.004). A slightly increased heart rate was found in the standing group (p = 0.047). After cardiac surgery, breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure, performed in a standing position, significantly improved oxygenation and subjective breathing ability compared with sitting performance. Performance of breathing exercises in the standing position is feasible and could be a valuable treatment for patients with postoperative hypoxaemia.

  3. Oxygen therapy devices and portable ventilators for improved physical activity in daily life in patients with chronic respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanetto, Karina Couto; Pitta, Fabio

    2017-02-01

    Patients with hypoxemia and chronic respiratory failure may need to use oxygen therapy to correct hypoxemia and to use ventilatory support to augment alveolar ventilation, reverse abnormalities in blood gases (in particular hypercapnia) and reduce the work of breathing. Areas covered: This narrative review provides an overview on the use of oxygen therapy devices or portable ventilators for improved physical activity in daily life (PADL) as well as discusses the issue of lower mobility in daily life among stable patients with chronic respiratory disease who present indication for long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) or home-based noninvasive ventilation (NIV). A literature review of these concepts was performed by using all related search terms. Expert commentary: Technological advances led to the development of light and small oxygen therapy devices and portable ventilators which aim to facilitate patients' mobility and ambulation. However, the day-by-day dependence of a device may reduce mobility and partially impair patients' PADL. Nocturnal NIV implementation in hypercapnic patients seems promising to improve PADL. The magnitude of their equipment-related physical inactivity is underexplored up to this moment and more long-term randomized clinical trials and meta-analysis examining the effects of ambulatory oxygen and NIV on PADL are required.

  4. The Formation of Haze During the Rise of Oxygen in the Atmosphere of the Early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, S. M.; Jellinek, M.; Pierrehumbert, R.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    also provide a wealth of organic material to the surface. Photochemical hazes are abundant in reducing atmospheres, such as the N2/CH4 atmosphere of Titan, but are unlikely to form in oxidizing atmospheres, such as the N2/O2 atmosphere of present day Earth. However, information about haze formation in mildly oxidizing atmospheres is lacking. Understanding haze formation in mildly oxidizing atmospheres is necessary for models that wish to investigate the atmosphere of the Early Earth as O2 first appeared and then increased in abundance. Previous studies of the atmosphere of the Early Earth have focused on haze formation in N2/CO2/CH4 atmospheres. In this work, we experimentally investigate the effect of the addition of O2 on the formation and composition of aerosols. Using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) (see e.g. [1]) we have obtained in situ composition measurements of aerosol particles produced in N2/CO2/CH4/O2 gas mixtures subjected to FUV radiation (deuterium lamp, 115-400 nm) for a range of initial CO2/CH4/O2 mixing ratios. In particular, we studied the effect of O2 ranging from 2 ppm to 2%. The particles were also investigated using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), which measures particle size, number density and mass loading. A comparison of the composition of the aerosols will be presented. The effect of variation of O2 mixing ratio on aerosol production, size, and composition will also be discussed. [1] Trainer, M.G., et al. (2012) Astrobiology, 12, 315-326.

  5. Heliox delivered by high flow nasal cannula improves oxygenation in infants with respiratory syncytial virus acute bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Seliem

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the hypothesis that use of heliox would result in improvement of gas exchange when used with high flow nasal cannula in infants with RSV acute bronchiolitis. Methods: All patients that met the inclusion criteria were randomized to either heliox (70:30 or air-oxygen mixture 30% via high flow nasal cannula at 8 L/min for a continuous 24 h. Measurements were taken at baseline, after 2 h, and at the end of the 24 h. Results: This prospective study included 48 patients. After 2 h of treatment with heliox, the oxygen saturation and PaO2 significantly improved when compared with the air-oxygen group, 98.3% vs. 92.9%, 62.0 mmHg vs. 43.6 mmHg (p = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively. Furthermore, PaO2/FiO2 ratio was significantly higher in the heliox group when compared with the air-oxygen group, 206.7 vs. 145.3. Nevertheless, CO2 showed better elimination when heliox was used, without significance. MWCA score dropped significantly in the heliox group, 2.2 points vs. 4.0 points in air-oxygen (p = 0.04, 2 h after starting the therapy. Conclusion: Transient improvement of oxygenation in infants with RSV acute bronchiolitis during the initial phase of the therapy is associated with heliox when provided with HFNC, may provide a precious time for other therapeutic agents to work or for the disease to resolve naturally, avoiding other aggressive interventions.

  6. Non-randomised phase II trial of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in patients with chronic arm lymphoedema and tissue fibrosis after radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gothard, Lone; Stanton, Anthony; MacLaren, Julie; Lawrence, David; Hall, Emma; Mortimer, Peter; Parkin, Eileen; Pritchard, Joyce; Risdall, Jane; Sawyer, Robert; Woods, Mary; Yarnold, John

    2004-01-01

    Background: Radiation-induced arm lymphoedema is a common and distressing complication of curative treatment for early breast cancer. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO 2 ) therapy promotes healing in bone rendered ischaemic by radiotherapy, and may help some soft-tissue injuries too, but is untested in arm lymphoedema. Methods: Twenty-one eligible research volunteers with a minimum 30% increase in arm volume in the years after axillary/supraclavicular radiotherapy (axillary surgery in 18/21 cases) were treated with HBO 2 . The volunteers breathed 100% oxygen at 2.4 ATA for 100 min in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber on 30 occasions over a period of 6 weeks. The volume of the ipsilateral limb, measured opto-electronically by a perometer and expressed as a percentage of contralateral limb volume, was selected as the primary endpoint. A secondary endpoint was local lymph drainage expressed as fractional removal rate of radioisotopic tracer, measured using lymphoscintigraphy. Results: Three out of 19 evaluable patients experienced >20% reduction in arm volume at 12 months. Six out of 13 evaluable patients experienced a >25% improvement in 99 Tc-nanocolloid clearance rate from the ipsilateral forearm measured by quantitative lymphoscintigraphy at 12 months. Overall, there was a statistically significant, but clinically modest, reduction in ipsilateral arm volume at 12 months follow-up compared with baseline (P=0.005). The mean percentage reduction in arm volume from baseline at 12 months was 7.51. Moderate or marked lessening of induration in the irradiated breast, pectoral fold and/or supraclavicular fossa was recorded clinically in 8/15 evaluable patients. Twelve out of 19 evaluable patients volunteered that their arms felt softer, and six reported improvements in shoulder mobility at 12 months. No significant improvements were noted in patient self-assessments of quality of life. Conclusion: Interpretation is limited by the absence of a control group. However, measurement of

  7. Results of the Software Process Improvement Efforts of the Early Adopters in NAVAIR 4.0

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saint-Amand, David C; Hodgins, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    .... The process improvement efforts described in this paper began in the 1990s and early 2000s. Their process improvement tool sets included the Capability Maturity Model, the Capability Maturity Model (CMM...

  8. Improving early cycle economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Ramsey, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly increasing range and expense of new diagnostics, compels consideration of a different, more proactive approach to health economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies. Early cycle economic evaluation is a decision analytic approach to evaluate technologies in development so as to

  9. Oxygen bubbling can improve the labelling of pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hisataka; Suzuki, K.H.; Sakahara, Harumi; Yao Zhengsheng; Yokoyama, Akira; Konishi, Junji

    1995-01-01

    We performed studies in animals (mice) and humans to investigate the effect of such oxygen bubbling on the labelling efficiency of and on the renal uptake of 99m Tc. The method of labelling of 99m Tc (V) DMSA was that of Hirano. It was found that oxygen bubbling oxidized the contaminated 99m Tc (III) DMSA into 99m Tc (V) DMSA in vitro and decreased the uptake of radioactivity in the kidney in both amimals and humans. (orig.)

  10. Four Weeks of Off-Season Training Improves Peak Oxygen Consumption in Female Field Hockey Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey T. Funch

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the changes in peak oxygen consumption ( V ˙O2peak and running economy (RE following four-weeks of high intensity training and concurrent strength and conditioning during the off-season in collegiate female field hockey players. Fourteen female student-athletes (age 19.29 ± 0.91 years were divided into two training groups, matched from baseline V ˙O2peak: High Intensity Training (HITrun; n = 8 and High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT; n = 6. Participants completed 12 training sessions. HITrun consisted of 30 min of high-intensity running, while HIIT consisted of a series of whole-body high intensity Tabata-style intervals (75–85% of age predicted maximum heart rate for a total of four minutes. In addition to the interval training, the off-season training included six resistance training sessions, three team practices, and concluded with a team scrimmage. V ˙O2peak was measured pre- and post-training to determine the effectiveness of the training program. A two-way mixed (group × time ANOVA showed a main effect of time with a statistically significant difference in V ˙O2peak from pre- to post-testing, F(1, 12 = 12.657, p = 0.004, partial η2 = 0.041. Average (±SD V ˙O2peak increased from 44.64 ± 3.74 to 47.35 ± 3.16 mL·kg−1·min−1 for HIIT group and increased from 45.39 ± 2.80 to 48.22 ± 2.42 mL·kg−1·min−1 for HITrun group. Given the similar improvement in aerobic power, coaches and training staff may find the time saving element of HIIT-type conditioning programs attractive.

  11. Origin of electrical improvement of amorphous TaInZnO TFT by oxygen thermo-pressure-induced process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byung Du; Rim, You Seung; Kim, Hyun Jae; Lim, Jun Hyung; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Park, Jin-Seong

    2014-01-01

    Novel amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film transistors (AOS-TFTs) have already stepped up as an alternative solution for application in mass-produced active matrix organic light-emitting diodes, as well as flexible and transparent electronics. However, the factors related to the device properties (mobility (μ sat ) and stability (ΔV th )) are still unclear. Since most factors are strongly related to oxygen elements, the versatile thermo-pressure-induced process (TPP) has been applied to improve novel TaInZnO TFT performances with regard to mobility and stability by controlling the oxygen pressure, resulting in the optimum values (improving μ sat by 50% and ΔV th by 30%). It is found that the TPP may suppress the occupied trap states as well as increase the unoccupied trapping states in tantalum indium zinc oxide subgap states, depending on the oxygen pressure in TPP. In addition, the origin of the improvement is unveiled with x-ray photoemission and x-ray adsorption spectroscopy (XAS). The TPP in AOS-TFTs can effectively improve and be used to manipulate device properties such as mobility and stability easily. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and XAS as a defect state analyser may also provide understanding of the origins of device instability as well as evolutionary electrical improvement in AOS-TFTs. (paper)

  12. The SOS pilot study: a RCT of routine oxygen supplementation early after acute stroke--effect on recovery of neurological function at one week.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Roffe

    Full Text Available Mild hypoxia is common after stroke and associated with poor long-term outcome. Oxygen supplementation could prevent hypoxia and improve recovery. A previous study of routine oxygen supplementation showed no significant benefit at 7 and 12 months. This pilot study reports the effects of routine oxygen supplementation for 72 hours on oxygen saturation and neurological outcomes at 1 week after a stroke.Patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke were recruited within 24 h of hospital admission between October 2004 and April 2008. Participants were randomized to oxygen via nasal cannulae (72 h or control (room air, oxygen given only if clinically indicated. Clinical outcomes were assessed by research team members at 1 week. Baseline data for oxygen (n = 148 and control (n = 141 did not differ between groups.The median (interquartile range National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score for the groups at baseline was 6 (7 and 5 (7 respectively. The median Nocturnal Oxygen Saturation during treatment was 1.4% (0.3 higher in the oxygen than in the control group (p<0.001 during the intervention. At 1 week, the median NIHSS score had reduced by 2 (3 in the oxygen and by 1 (2 in the control group. 31% of participants in the oxygen group and 14% in the control group had an improvement of ≥4 NIHSS points at 1 week doubling the odds of improvement in the oxygen group (OR: 2.9.Our data show that routine oxygen supplementation started within 24 hours of hospital admission with acute stroke led to a small, but statistically significant, improvement in neurological recovery at 1 week. However, the difference in NIHSS improvement may be due to baseline imbalance in stroke severity between the two groups and needs to be confirmed in a larger study and linked to longer-term clinical outcome.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN12362720; European Clinical Trials Database 2004-001866-41.

  13. Integrating spatial and temporal oxygen data to improve the quantification of in situ petroleum biodegradation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gregory B; Laslett, Dean; Patterson, Bradley M; Johnston, Colin D

    2013-03-15

    Accurate estimation of biodegradation rates during remediation of petroleum impacted soil and groundwater is critical to avoid excessive costs and to ensure remedial effectiveness. Oxygen depth profiles or oxygen consumption over time are often used separately to estimate the magnitude and timeframe for biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and subsurface environments. Each method has limitations. Here we integrate spatial and temporal oxygen concentration data from a field experiment to develop better estimates and more reliably quantify biodegradation rates. During a nine-month bioremediation trial, 84 sets of respiration rate data (where aeration was halted and oxygen consumption was measured over time) were collected from in situ oxygen sensors at multiple locations and depths across a diesel non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminated subsurface. Additionally, detailed vertical soil moisture (air-filled porosity) and NAPL content profiles were determined. The spatial and temporal oxygen concentration (respiration) data were modeled assuming one-dimensional diffusion of oxygen through the soil profile which was open to the atmosphere. Point and vertically averaged biodegradation rates were determined, and compared to modeled data from a previous field trial. Point estimates of biodegradation rates assuming no diffusion ranged up to 58 mg kg(-1) day(-1) while rates accounting for diffusion ranged up to 87 mg kg(-1) day(-1). Typically, accounting for diffusion increased point biodegradation rate estimates by 15-75% and vertically averaged rates by 60-80% depending on the averaging method adopted. Importantly, ignoring diffusion led to overestimation of biodegradation rates where the location of measurement was outside the zone of NAPL contamination. Over or underestimation of biodegradation rate estimates leads to cost implications for successful remediation of petroleum impacted sites. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Early postnatal docosahexaenoic acid levels and improved preterm brain development

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Emily W.Y.; Chau, Vann; Barkovich, A. James; Ferriero, Donna M.; Miller, Steven P.; Rogers, Elizabeth E.; Grunau, Ruth E.; Synnes, Anne R.; Xu, Duan; Foong, Justin; Brant, Rollin; Innis, Sheila M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Preterm birth has a dramatic impact on polyunsaturated fatty acid exposures for the developing brain. This study examined the association between postnatal fatty acid levels and measures of brain injury and development, as well as outcomes. Methods A cohort of 60 preterm newborns (24?32 weeks GA) was assessed using early and near-term MRI studies. Red blood cell fatty acid composition was analyzed coordinated with each scan. Outcome at a mean of 33 months corrected age was assessed...

  15. Simultaneous administration of glucose and hyperoxic gas achieves greater improvement in tumor oxygenation than hyperoxic gas alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, Stacey A.; Lanzen, Jennifer L.; Braun, Rod D.; Rosner, Gary; Secomb, Timothy W.; Biaglow, John; Brizel, David M.; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To test the feasibility of hyperglycemic reduction of oxygen consumption combined with oxygen breathing (O 2 ), to improve tumor oxygenation. Methods and Materials: Fischer-344 rats bearing 1 cm R3230Ac flank tumors were anesthetized with Nembutal. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, tumor blood flow ([TBF], laser Doppler flowmetry), pH, and pO 2 were measured before, during, and after glucose (1 or 4 g/kg) and/or O 2 . Results: Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were unaffected by treatment. Glucose at 1 g/kg yielded maximum blood glucose of 400 mg/dL, no change in TBF, reduced tumor pH (0.17 unit), and 3 mm Hg pO 2 rise. Glucose at 4 g/kg yielded maximum blood glucose of 900 mg/dL, pH drop of 0.6 unit, no pO 2 change, and reduced TBF (31%). Oxygen tension increased by 5 mm Hg with O 2 . Glucose (1 g/Kg) + O 2 yielded the largest change in pO 2 (27 mm Hg); this is highly significant relative to baseline or either treatment alone. The effect was positively correlated with baseline pO 2 , but 6 of 7 experiments with baseline pO 2 2 to improve tumor oxygenation. However, some cell lines are not susceptible to the Crabtree effect, and the magnitude is dependent on baseline pO 2 . Additional or alternative manipulations may be necessary to achieve more uniform improvement in pO 2

  16. Improvement of lipase production at different stirring speeds and oxygen levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.O.M. Alonso

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipase production by a Brazilian wild strain of Yarrowia lipolytica at different stirring speeds and air flow rates was studied. The relationship among lipid consumption, cell growth and lipase production by this microorganism is presented. The most pronounced effect of oxygen on lipase production was determined by stirring speed. Maximum lipase activity was detected in the late stationary phase at 200 rpm and an air flow rate of 1-2 dm³/min (0.8-1.7 vvm when the lipid source had been fully consumed. Higher stirring speeds resulted in mechanical and/or oxidative stress, while lower stirring speeds seemed to limit oxygen levels. An increase in the availability of oxygen at higher air flow rates led to faster lipid uptake and anticipation of enzyme release into the culture medium. The highest lipase production was obtained at 200 rpm and 1 dm³/min (0.8 vvm.

  17. Improved Detection of Microsatellite Instability in Early Colorectal Lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery W Bacher

    Full Text Available Microsatellite instability (MSI occurs in over 90% of Lynch syndrome cancers and is considered a hallmark of the disease. MSI is an early event in colon tumor development, but screening polyps for MSI remains controversial because of reduced sensitivity compared to more advanced neoplasms. To increase sensitivity, we investigated the use of a novel type of marker consisting of long mononucleotide repeat (LMR tracts. Adenomas from 160 patients, ranging in age from 29-55 years old, were screened for MSI using the new markers and compared with current marker panels and immunohistochemistry standards. Overall, 15 tumors were scored as MSI-High using the LMRs compared to 9 for the NCI panel and 8 for the MSI Analysis System (Promega. This difference represents at least a 1.7-fold increase in detection of MSI-High lesions over currently available markers. Moreover, the number of MSI-positive markers per sample and the size of allelic changes were significantly greater with the LMRs (p = 0.001, which increased confidence in MSI classification. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the LMR panel for detection of mismatch repair deficient lesions were 100% and 96%, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of the MSI Analysis System were 67% and 100%; and for the NCI panel, 75% and 97%. The difference in sensitivity between the LMR panel and the other panels was statistically significant (p<0.001. The increased sensitivity for detection of MSI-High phenotype in early colorectal lesions with the new LMR markers indicates that MSI screening for the early detection of Lynch syndrome might be feasible.

  18. Phospho-Rb mediating cell cycle reentry induces early apoptosis following oxygen-glucose deprivation in rat cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Ren, Qing-Guo; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Zhou, Ke; Yu, Zhi-Yuan; Luo, Xiang; Wang, Wei

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cell cycle reentry and apoptosis in cultured cortical neurons following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). We found that the percentage of neurons with BrdU uptake, TUNEL staining, and colocalized BrdU uptake and TUNEL staining was increased relative to control 6, 12 and 24 h after 1 h of OGD. The number of neurons with colocalized BrdU and TUNEL staining was decreased relative to the number of TUNEL-positive neurons at 24 h. The expression of phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (phospho-Rb) was significantly increased 6, 12 and 24 h after OGD, parallel with the changes in BrdU uptake. Phospho-Rb and TUNEL staining were colocalized in neurons 6 and 12 h after OGD. This colocalization was strikingly decreased 24 h after OGD. Treatment with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor roscovitine (100 μM) decreased the expression of phospho-Rb and reduced neuronal apoptosis in vitro. These results demonstrated that attempted cell cycle reentry with phosphorylation of Rb induce early apoptosis in neurons after OGD and there must be other mechanisms involved in the later stages of neuronal apoptosis besides cell cycle reentry. Phosphoralated Rb may be an important factor which closely associates aberrant cell cycle reentry with the early stages of neuronal apoptosis following ischemia/hypoxia in vitro, and pharmacological interventions for neuroprotection may be useful directed at this keypoint.

  19. Greater endurance capacity and improved dyspnoea with acute oxygen supplementation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients without resting hypoxaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowman, Leona M; McDonald, Christine F; Bozinovski, Steven; Vlahos, Ross; Gillies, Rebecca; Pouniotis, Dodie; Hill, Catherine J; Goh, Nicole S L; Holland, Anne E

    2017-07-01

    Supplemental oxygen is commonly prescribed in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), although its benefits have not been proven. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of oxygen on oxidative stress, cytokine production, skeletal muscle metabolism and physiological response to exercise in IPF. Eleven participants with IPF received either oxygen, at an FiO 2 of 0.50, or compressed air for 1 h at rest and during a cycle endurance test at 85% of peak work rate. Blood samples collected at rest and during exercise were analysed for markers of oxidative stress, skeletal muscle metabolism and cytokines. The protocol was repeated a week later with the alternate intervention. Compared with air, oxygen did not adversely affect biomarker concentrations at rest and significantly improved endurance time (mean difference = 99 ± 81s, P = 0.002), dyspnoea (-1 ± 1 U, P = 0.02), systolic blood pressure (BP; -11 ± 11 mm Hg, P = 0.006), nadir oxyhaemoglobin saturation (SpO 2 ; 8 ± 6%, P = 0.001), SpO 2 at 2-min (7 ± 6%, P = 0.003) and 5-min isotimes (5 ± 3, P < 0.001) and peak exercise xanthine concentrations (-42 ± 73 µmol/L, P = 0.03). Air significantly increased IL-10 (5 ± 5 pg/mL, P = 0.04) at 2-min isotime. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs), IL-6, TNF-α, creatine kinase, lactate, heart rate and fatigue did not differ between the two interventions at any time point. In patients with IPF, breathing oxygen at FiO 2 of 0.50 at rest seems safe. During exercise, oxygen improves exercise tolerance, alleviates exercise-induced hypoxaemia and reduces dyspnoea. A potential relationship between oxygen administration and improved skeletal muscle metabolism should be explored in future studies. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  20. Improved Outcome of Cardiac Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Infants and Children Using Magnetic Levitation Centrifugal Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Giovanni Battista; Hoxha, Stiljan; Torre, Salvatore; Rungatscher, Alessio; Menon, Tiziano; Barozzi, Luca; Faggian, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has traditionally been and, for the most part, still is being performed using roller pumps. Use of first-generation centrifugal pumps has yielded controversial outcomes, perhaps due to mechanical properties of the same and the ensuing risk of hemolysis and renal morbidity. Latest-generation centrifugal pumps, using magnetic levitation (ML), exhibit mechanical properties which may have overcome limitations of first-generation devices. This retrospective study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of veno-arterial (V-A) ECMO for cardiac indications in neonates, infants, and children, using standard (SP) and latest-generation ML centrifugal pumps. Between 2002 and 2014, 33 consecutive neonates, infants, and young children were supported using V-A ECMO for cardiac indications. There were 21 males and 12 females, with median age of 29 days (4 days-5 years) and a median body weight of 3.2 kg (1.9-18 kg). Indication for V-A ECMO were acute circulatory collapse in ICU or ward after cardiac repair in 16 (49%) patients, failure to wean after repair of complex congenital heart disease in 9 (27%), fulminant myocarditis in 4 (12%), preoperative sepsis in 2 (6%), and refractory tachy-arrhythmias in 2 (6%). Central cannulation was used in 27 (81%) patients and peripheral in 6. Seven (21%) patients were supported with SP and 26 (79%) with ML centrifugal pumps. Median duration of support was 82 h (range 24-672 h), with 26 (79%) patients weaned from support. Three patients required a second ECMO run but died on support. Seventeen (51%) patients required peritoneal dialysis for acute renal failure. Overall survival to discharge was 39% (13/33 patients). All patients with fulminant myocarditis and with refractory arrhythmias were weaned, and five (83%) survived, whereas no patient supported for sepsis survived. Risk factors for hospital mortality included lower (pumps in infants and children yields outcomes absolutely comparable to

  1. Surface modification of argon/oxygen plasma treated vulcanized ethylene propylene diene polymethylene surfaces for improved adhesion with natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, Ganesh C.; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit; Neogi, Sudarsan; Bhowmick, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    Vulcanized ethylene propylene diene polymethylene (EPDM) rubber surface was treated in a radio frequency capacitatively coupled low pressure argon/oxygen plasma to improve adhesion with compounded natural rubber (NR) during co-vulcanization. The plasma modified surfaces were analyzed by means of contact angle measurement, surface energy, attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray sulfur mapping and atomic force microscopy. Several experimental variables such as plasma power, length of exposure time and composition of the argon-oxygen gas mixture were considered. It was delineated that plasma treatment changed both surface composition and roughness, and consequently increased peel strength. The change in surface composition was mainly ascribed to the formation of C-O and -C=O functional groups on the vulcanized surfaces. A maximum of 98% improvement in peel strength was observed after plasma treatment.

  2. Surface modification of argon/oxygen plasma treated vulcanized ethylene propylene diene polymethylene surfaces for improved adhesion with natural rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basak, Ganesh C. [Rubber Technology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit [Department of Polymer Science and Technology, University of Calcutta, Calcutta 700 009 (India); Neogi, Sudarsan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Bhowmick, Anil K., E-mail: anilkb@rtc.iitkgp.ernet.in [Rubber Technology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2011-01-15

    Vulcanized ethylene propylene diene polymethylene (EPDM) rubber surface was treated in a radio frequency capacitatively coupled low pressure argon/oxygen plasma to improve adhesion with compounded natural rubber (NR) during co-vulcanization. The plasma modified surfaces were analyzed by means of contact angle measurement, surface energy, attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray sulfur mapping and atomic force microscopy. Several experimental variables such as plasma power, length of exposure time and composition of the argon-oxygen gas mixture were considered. It was delineated that plasma treatment changed both surface composition and roughness, and consequently increased peel strength. The change in surface composition was mainly ascribed to the formation of C-O and -C=O functional groups on the vulcanized surfaces. A maximum of 98% improvement in peel strength was observed after plasma treatment.

  3. Colorimetric Detection of Caspase 3 Activity and Reactive Oxygen Derivatives: Potential Early Indicators of Thermal Stress in Corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickael Ros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to develop and implement rapid assessments of coral health to allow effective adaptive management in response to coastal development and global change. There is now increasing evidence that activation of caspase-dependent apoptosis plays a key role during coral bleaching and subsequent mortality. In this study, a “clinical” approach was used to assess coral health by measuring the activity of caspase 3 using a commercial kit. This method was first applied while inducing thermal bleaching in two coral species, Acropora millepora and Pocillopora damicornis. The latter species was then chosen to undergo further studies combining the detection of oxidative stress-related compounds (catalase activity and glutathione concentrations as well as caspase activity during both stress and recovery phases. Zooxanthellae photosystem II (PSII efficiency and cell density were measured in parallel to assess symbiont health. Our results demonstrate that the increased caspase 3 activity in the coral host could be detected before observing any significant decrease in the photochemical efficiency of PSII in the algal symbionts and/or their expulsion from the host. This study highlights the potential of host caspase 3 and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities as early indicators of stress in individual coral colonies.

  4. Nanophase Iron Oxides as an Ultraviolet Sunscreen for Ancient Photosynthetic Microbes: A Possible Link Between Early Organisms, Banded-Iron Formations, and the Oxygenation of the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Rogoff, Dana A.

    2006-01-01

    We propose that nanophase iron oxide-bearing materials provided important niches for ancient photosynthetic microbes on the early Earth that ultimately led to the oxygenation of the Earth s atmosphere and the formation of iron oxide deposits. Atmospheric oxygen and ozone attenuate UV radiation on the Earth today providing substantial protection for photosynthetic organisms. With ultraviolet radiation fluxes likely to have been even higher on the early Earth than today, accessing solar radiation was particularly risky for early organisms. Yet, we know that photosynthesis arose then and played a critical role in subsequent evolution. Of primary importance was protection at approx.250-290 nm, where peak nucleic acid (approx.260 nm) and protein (approx.280 nm) absorptions occur. Nanophase ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide minerals absorb, and thus block, the lethal UV radiation, while transmitting light through much of the visible and near-infrared regions of interest to photosynthesis (400 to 1100 nm). Further, they were available in early environments, and are synthesized by many organisms. Based on ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide spectral properties, likely geologic processes, and the results of experiments with the photosynthetic organisms, Euglena sp. and Chlumydomonus reinhardtii, we propose a scenario where photosynthesis, and ultimately the oxygenation of the atmosphere, depended on the protection of early microbes by nanophase ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides. The results of this study are also applicable to other potentially habitable iron-bearing planetary bodies because of the evolutionary pressure to utilize solar radiation when available as an energy source.

  5. Blood transfusion improves renal oxygenation and renal function in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafrani, Lara; Ergin, Bulent; Kapucu, Aysegul; Ince, Can

    2016-12-20

    The effects of blood transfusion on renal microcirculation during sepsis are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of blood transfusion on renal microvascular oxygenation and renal function during sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. Twenty-seven Wistar albino rats were randomized into four groups: a sham group (n = 6), a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group (n = 7), a LPS group that received fluid resuscitation (n = 7), and a LPS group that received blood transfusion (n = 7). The mean arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow, and renal microvascular oxygenation within the kidney cortex were recorded. Acute kidney injury was assessed using the serum creatinine levels, metabolic cost, and histopathological lesions. Nitrosative stress (expression of endothelial (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)) within the kidney was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Hemoglobin levels, pH, serum lactate levels, and liver enzymes were measured. Fluid resuscitation and blood transfusion both significantly improved the mean arterial pressure and renal blood flow after LPS infusion. Renal microvascular oxygenation, serum creatinine levels, and tubular damage significantly improved in the LPS group that received blood transfusion compared to the group that received fluids. Moreover, the renal expression of eNOS was markedly suppressed under endotoxin challenge. Blood transfusion, but not fluid resuscitation, was able to restore the renal expression of eNOS. However, there were no significant differences in lactic acidosis or liver function between the two groups. Blood transfusion significantly improved renal function in endotoxemic rats. The specific beneficial effect of blood transfusion on the kidney could have been mediated in part by the improvements in renal microvascular oxygenation and sepsis-induced endothelial dysfunction via the restoration of eNOS expression within the kidney.

  6. Assessment and support during early labour for improving birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shinobu; Hanada, Nobutsugu; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Takehara, Kenji; Ota, Erika; Sasaki, Hatoko; Nagata, Chie; Mori, Rintaro

    2017-04-20

    The progress of labour in the early or latent phase is usually slow and may include painful uterine contractions. Women may feel distressed and lose their confidence during this phase. Support and assessment interventions have been assessed in two previous Cochrane Reviews. This review updates and replaces these two reviews, which have become out of date. To investigate the effectiveness of assessment and support interventions for women during early labour.In order to measure the effectiveness of the interventions, we compared the duration of labour, the rate of obstetrical interventions, and the rate of other maternal or neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 October 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials of any assessment or support intervention in the latent phase of labour. We planned to include cluster-randomised trials if they were eligible. We did not include quasi-randomised trials. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We resolved any disagreement by discussion or by involving a third assessor. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. We included five trials with a total of 10,421 pregnant women in this review update. The trials were conducted in the UK, Canada and America. The trials compared interventions in early labour versus usual care. We examined three comparisons: early labour assessment versus immediate admission to hospital; home visits by midwives versus usual care (telephone triage); and one-to-one structured midwifery care versus usual care. These trials were at moderate- risk of bias mainly because blinding women and staff to these interventions is not generally feasible. For important outcomes we assessed evidence using

  7. Gasoline – ignition improveroxygenate blends as fuels for advanced compression ignition combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, L.; Boot, M.D.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Mixing is inhibited both by the relatively low volatility of conventional diesel fuel and the short premixing time due to high fuel reactivity (i.e. cetane number (CN)). Consequently, in this research two promising oxygenates which can be produced from 2 nd generation biomass -ethanol from cellulose

  8. Investigation on the improved radiation hardness of silicon detectors with high oxygen concentration

    CERN Document Server

    Moll, Michael; Lindström, G

    2000-01-01

    We present an investigation on the influence of the oxygen concentration on radiation-induced changes in the effective doping concentration of silicon detectors. Diodes fabricated from silicon with interstitial oxygen content ranging from below 2*10/sup 14/ to 9*10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/ have been irradiated with fast neutrons up to a fluence of 2*10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/. Our main interest focused on the so-called stable damage component in the change of the effective doping concentration being of prime importance for the application of silicon detectors in high-energy physics experiments. We demonstrate, that with a high oxygen enrichment the donor removal is appreciably reduced, reaching a value of only 10601130f the initial doping concentration for [O/sub i/]=9*10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/, while for normal detector grade material with [O/sub i/] below 5*10/sup 16/ cm /sup -3/ that value is 60-90Furthermore, we show that the fluence proportional introduction of stable acceptors is independent of the oxygen concentratio...

  9. Early intervention to improve hand function in hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Purna Basu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy often have marked hand involvement with excessive thumb adduction and flexion and limited active wrist extension from infancy. Post-lesional aberrant plasticity can lead to progressive abnormalities of the developing motor system. Disturbances of somatosensory and visual function and developmental disregard contribute to difficulties with hand use. Progressive soft tissue and bony changes may occur, leading to contractures which further limit function in a vicious cycle. Early intervention might help to break this cycle: however, the precise nature and appropriateness of the intervention must be carefully considered. Traditional approaches to the hemiplegic upper limb include medications and botulinum toxin injections to manage abnormalities of tone, and surgical interventions. Therapist input, including provision of orthoses, remains a mainstay although many therapies have not been well evaluated. There has been a recent increase in interventions for the hemiplegic upper limb, mostly aimed outside the period of infancy. These include trials of constraint-induced movement therapy and bimanual therapy as well as the use of virtual reality and robot-assisted therapy. In future, non-invasive brain stimulation may be combined with therapy. Interventions under investigation in the infant age group include modified constraint-induced movement therapy and action observation therapy. A further approach which may be suited to the infant with thumb-in-palm deformity, but which requires evaluation, is the use of elastic taping. Enhanced cutaneous feedback through mechanical stimulation to the skin provided by the tape during movement has been postulated to modulate ongoing muscle activity. If effective, this would represent a low-cost, safe, widely applicable early intervention.

  10. Using Newsletters to Improve Parents' Communication with Their Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Jodi; Gonzalez, Chris; Gengler, Colleen; Olson, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Two sets of newsletters designed to improve parent-teen communication were distributed at two different time points to 71 parents of seventh and eighth graders across five states. At both points, parents completed an evaluation assessing parent-child communication, parenting practices, the emotional experience of parenting, other parent education…

  11. Incorporating IStation into Early Childhood Classrooms to Improve Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tian; Lee, Guang-Lea; Molina, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: IStation is an adaptive computer-based reading program that adapts to the learner's academic needs. This study investigates if the IStation computer-based reading program promotes reading improvement scores as shown on the STAR Reading test and the IStation test scaled scores for elementary school third-grade learners on different…

  12. Improving oxygen therapy for children and neonates in secondary hospitals in Nigeria: study protocol for a stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Hamish R; Ayede, Adejumoke I; Bakare, Ayobami A; Oyewole, Oladapo B; Peel, David; Gray, Amy; McPake, Barbara; Neal, Eleanor; Qazi, Shamim; Izadnegahdar, Rasa; Falade, Adegoke G; Duke, Trevor

    2017-10-27

    Oxygen is a life-saving, essential medicine that is important for the treatment of many common childhood conditions. Improved oxygen systems can reduce childhood pneumonia mortality substantially. However, providing oxygen to children is challenging, especially in small hospitals with weak infrastructure and low human resource capacity. This trial will evaluate the implementation of improved oxygen systems at secondary-level hospitals in southwest Nigeria. The improved oxygen system includes: a standardised equipment package; training of clinical and technical staff; infrastructure support (including improved power supply); and quality improvement activities such as supportive supervision. Phase 1 will involve the introduction of pulse oximetry alone; phase 2 will involve the introduction of the full, improved oxygen system package. We have based the intervention design on a theory-based analysis of previous oxygen projects, and used quality improvement principles, evidence-based teaching methods, and behaviour-change strategies. We are using a stepped-wedge cluster randomised design with participating hospitals randomised to receive an improved oxygen system at 4-month steps (three hospitals per step). Our mixed-methods evaluation will evaluate effectiveness, impact, sustainability, process and fidelity. Our primary outcome measures are childhood pneumonia case fatality rate and inpatient neonatal mortality rate. Secondary outcome measures include a range of clinical, quality of care, technical, and health systems outcomes. The planned study duration is from 2015 to 2018. Our study will provide quality evidence on the effectiveness of improved oxygen systems, and how to better implement and scale-up oxygen systems in resource-limited settings. Our results should have important implications for policy-makers, hospital administrators, and child health organisations in Africa and globally. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12617000341325

  13. Photobiomodulation laser improves the early repair process of hypothyroid rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzêda e Silva, V. D.; Rodriguez, T. T.; Xavier, F. C. A.; dos Santos, J. N.; Vasconcelos, R. M.; Ramalho, L. M. P.

    2018-04-01

    Delay in wound healing has been observed in the hypothyroidism disfunction. Laser light can modulate various biological phenomena acting on different cell types. However, there are few reports in the literature regarding the effects of laser on wound healing of hypothyroid models. This study aimed to evaluate the differences in reepithelialization process of cutaneous wounds on hypothyroid and euthyroid rats treated with laser phototherapy. Forty-eight rats were divided into two main groups: euthyroid (EU) and hypothyroid (HYPO). Hypothyroidism was induced by Thyroidectomy. Each group was divided into subgroups: control (without laser) and laser groups. Standard surgical wound was created on the dorsum of each rat. The irradiation protocols (λ660 nm, 40 mW, CW; 10 J/cm2) was carried out immediately after wounding and repeated every 24h during 3 and 7 days. After animal death, specimens were taken, routinely processed, cut, stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and underwent histological analysis. Three days after the surgery, it was possible to observe initial reepithelialization in more advanced stages in the wound area of the irradiated hypothyroid group when compared to control hypothyroid group (p<0.05). No significant difference was found in the experimental period of 7 days among the groups. It was concluded that the laser light did influence reepithelialization process on hypothyroid rats in early stages of healing process.

  14. Fluid resuscitation does not improve renal oxygenation during hemorrhagic shock in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Legrand, Matthieu; Mik, Egbert; Balestra, Gianmarco; Lutter, Rene; Pirracchio, Romain; Payen, Didier; Ince, Can

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The resuscitation strategy for hemorrhagic shock remains controversial, with the kidney being especially prone to hypoxia. Methods: The authors used a three-phase hemorrhagic shock model to investigate the effects of fluid resuscitation on renal oxygenation. After a 1-h shock phase, rats were randomized into four groups to receive either normal saline or hypertonic saline targeting a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of either 40 or 80 mmHg. After such resuscitation, rats w...

  15. High-Flow Nasal Interface Improves Oxygenation in Patients Undergoing Bronchoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Lucangelo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During bronchoscopy hypoxemia is commonly found and oxygen supply can be delivered by interfaces fed with high gas flows. Recently, the high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC has been introduced for oxygen therapy in adults, but they have not been used so far during bronchoscopy in adults. Forty-five patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups receiving oxygen: 40 L/min through a Venturi mask (V40, N=15, nasal cannula (N40, N=15, and 60 L/min through a nasal cannula (N60, N=15 during bronchoscopy. Gas exchange and circulatory variables were sampled before (FiO2 = 0.21, at the end of bronchoscopy (FiO2 = 0.5, and thereafter (V40, FiO2 = 0.35. In 8 healthy volunteers oxygen was randomly delivered according to V40, N40, and N60 settings, and airway pressure was measured. At the end of bronchoscopy, N60 presented higher PaO2, PaO2/FiO2, and SpO2 than V40 and N40 that did not differ between them. In the volunteers (N60 median airway pressure amounted to 3.6 cmH2O. Under a flow rate of 40 L/min both the Venturi mask and HFNC behaved similarly, but nasal cannula associated with a 60 L/min flow produced the better results, thus indicating its use in mild respiratory dysfunctions.

  16. Investigation on the improved radiation hardness of silicon detectors with high oxygen concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moll, M.; Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G.

    2000-01-01

    We present an investigation on the influence of the oxygen concentration on radiation-induced changes in the effective doping concentration of silicon detectors. Diodes fabricated from silicon with interstitial oxygen content ranging from below 2x10 14 to 9x10 17 cm -3 have been irradiated with fast neutrons up to a fluence of 2x10 15 cm -2 . Our main interest focused on the so-called stable damage component in the change of the effective doping concentration being of prime importance for the application of silicon detectors in high-energy physics experiments. We demonstrate, that with a high oxygen enrichment the donor removal is appreciably reduced, reaching a value of only 10% of the initial doping concentration for [O i ]=9x10 17 cm -3 , while for normal detector grade material with [O i ] below 5x10 16 cm -3 that value is 60-90%. Furthermore, we show that the fluence proportional introduction of stable acceptors is independent of the oxygen concentration with an averaged introduction rate of (1.49±0.03)x10 -2 cm -1 . Only one material was found exhibiting a significantly smaller value of about 0.6x10 -2 cm -1 and thus indicating the possibility to suppress the radiation-induced acceptor creation by material modification. Finally, we show that the experimental findings disagree in several important aspects with predictions made by microscopic defect kinetics models, leaving the physical background of some of the measured data as an open question

  17. Practitioner-informed improvements to early childhood intervention performance checklists and practice guides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J. Dunst

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Results from four early childhood practitioner field tests of performance checklists and early intervention practice guides are reported. Findings from the first field test were used to make changes and improvements in the checklists and practice guides evaluated in the second and third field tests, and findings from the latter two field tests were used to improve the checklist and practice guide evaluated in the fourth field test. Results indicated that changes made in response to practitioners’ suggestions and feedback were associated with (1 progressive increases in the practitioners’ social validity judgments of the checklists, practice guides, and checklist-practice guide correspondence, and (2 progressive decreases in the number of practitioner suggestions and feedback for improving the early intervention materials. The field-test research demonstrates the importance of practitioner input, suggestions, and feedback for improving the usefulness of early childhood intervention practices.

  18. Improvement of attention span and reaction time with hyperbaric oxygen treatment in patients with toxic injury due to mold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezra, N; Dang, K; Heuser, G

    2011-01-01

    It is, by now, well established that mold toxins (mycotoxins) can cause significant adverse health effects. In this study, 15 subjects who developed an attention deficit disorder (ADD) and slowing of reaction time at the time of exposure to mold toxins were identified. Deficits in attention span and reaction time were documented not only by taking a careful history, but also by performing a Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). The TOVA test provides an objective measure of these two variables. It was found that mold-exposed subjects show statistically significant decreases in attention span and significant increases in reaction time to stimuli compared to controls. After ten sessions of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT), a statistically significant improvement was seen in both measures. This preliminary study suggests promising outcomes in treating mold-exposed patients with hyperbaric oxygen.

  19. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy investigation of the early stages of the oxygen aided Cr growth on Fe(0 0 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, A., E-mail: alberto.brambilla@polimi.it [CNISM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Calloni, A.; Picone, A.; Finazzi, M.; Duò, L.; Ciccacci, F. [CNISM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    We report on an X-ray photoemission spectroscopy investigation of the early stages of growth of ultra-thin Cr films on the oxygen-passivated Fe(0 0 1)–p(1 × 1)O surface. The Cr coverages ranged from sub-monolayer up to a few atomic layers. Cr has been grown either at 380 K or at 570 K. Our investigation reveals that during the Cr film growth oxygen floats toward the free surface. The presence of a metallic Cr signal from the very beginning of film growth is discussed in relation to Cr–Fe intermixing and alloy formation at the interface. Our findings are independent from the growth temperature, indicating that it has a very little influence on the chemical interactions at the interface, at variance with the oxygen-free Cr/Fe interface.

  20. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy investigation of the early stages of the oxygen aided Cr growth on Fe(0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, A.; Calloni, A.; Picone, A.; Finazzi, M.; Duò, L.; Ciccacci, F.

    2013-01-01

    We report on an X-ray photoemission spectroscopy investigation of the early stages of growth of ultra-thin Cr films on the oxygen-passivated Fe(0 0 1)–p(1 × 1)O surface. The Cr coverages ranged from sub-monolayer up to a few atomic layers. Cr has been grown either at 380 K or at 570 K. Our investigation reveals that during the Cr film growth oxygen floats toward the free surface. The presence of a metallic Cr signal from the very beginning of film growth is discussed in relation to Cr–Fe intermixing and alloy formation at the interface. Our findings are independent from the growth temperature, indicating that it has a very little influence on the chemical interactions at the interface, at variance with the oxygen-free Cr/Fe interface.

  1. High Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen Therapy can be used safely in the general paediatric ward using Paediatric Early Warning Scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsing, IE; Tinnevelt, Marcel; Jansen, Nicolaas J.G.; Koomen, E

    2015-01-01

    High Flow Nasal Cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) is nowadays widely used at paediatric intensive care units (PICU) to provide a safe and comfortable (warm and humidified) oxygen delivery in children with respiratory distress. At general paediatric wards HFNC is hardly used because intensive observation

  2. Effects of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration and Iron Addition on Immediate-early Gene Expression of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Kasama, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    in cultures at 0.5% O2 compared to those at higher oxygen tensions. Moreover, expression of katG (catalase-peroxidase gene) and feoB2 (ferrous transport protein B2 gene) was reduced markedly by iron addition, regardless of oxygen conditions. The data provides a greater understanding of molecular response...

  3. Improvements in or relating to processes for reducing the oxygen content of metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.H.; Spooner, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for reducing the oxygen content of a metal oxide material (such as an intimate mixture of uranium and plutonium oxides or a mixed oxide of uranium and plutonium) by contacting the material with a hydrogen-containing gas at an elevated temperature, wherein the material is contained in a plurality of carbon crucibles, each crucible having apertured ends and being otherwise a closed vessel, the crucibles being moved through a heated zone in end-to-end contact and thereby forming a duct through which the gas is passed counter-current to the direction of movement of the crucibles. (author)

  4. Four Weeks of Off-Season Training Improves Peak Oxygen Consumption in Female Field Hockey Players

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey T. Funch; Erik Lind; Larissa True; Deborah Van Langen; John T. Foley; James F. Hokanson

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the changes in peak oxygen consumption ( V ˙O2peak) and running economy (RE) following four-weeks of high intensity training and concurrent strength and conditioning during the off-season in collegiate female field hockey players. Fourteen female student-athletes (age 19.29 ± 0.91 years) were divided into two training groups, matched from baseline V ˙O2peak: High Intensity Training (HITrun; n = 8) and High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT; ...

  5. Space Shuttle Orbiter oxygen partial pressure sensing and control system improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Robert F.; Hoy, Dennis M.; Kelly, Kevin J.; Walleshauser, James J.

    1992-01-01

    A program aimed at developing a new PPO2 oxygen sensor and a replacement amplifier for the Space Shuttle Orbiter is described. Experimental design methodologies used in the test and modeling process made it possible to enhance the effectiveness of the program and to reduce its cost. Significant cost savings are due to the increased lifetime of the basic sensor cell, the maximization of useful sensor life through an increased amplifier gain adjustment capability, the use of streamlined production processes for the manufacture of the assemblies, and the refurbishment capability of the replacement sensor.

  6. Climate, catchment runoff and limnological drivers of carbon and oxygen isotope composition of diatom frustules from the central andean altiplano during the Lateglacial and Early Holocene

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Armand; Bao, Roberto; Giralt, Santiago; Sáez, Alberto; Leng, Melanie J.; Barker, Philips A.; Kendrick, C.P.; Sloane, Hilary J.

    2013-01-01

    Diatom-based carbon and oxygen isotope analyses (δ13Cdiatom and δ18Odiatom) were performed on diatomrich laminated sediments of Lake Chungará (Andean Altiplano, northern Chile) deposited during the Lateglacial and Early Holocene (12,400e8300 cal years BP) to reconstruct climate change and environmental response across this major climate transition. The δ13Cdiatom data show both centennial-tomillennial scale changes related to fluctuations in lake productivity and CO2 concentration in the lake...

  7. Intraportal islet oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszynski, Thomas M; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-05-01

    Islet transplantation (IT) is a promising therapy for the treatment of diabetes. The large number of islets required to achieve insulin independence limit its cost-effectiveness and the number of patients who can be treated. It is believed that >50% of islets are lost in the immediate post-IT period. Poor oxygenation in the early post-IT period is recognized as a possible reason for islet loss and dysfunction but has not been extensively studied. Several key variables affect oxygenation in this setting, including (1) local oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)), (2) islet oxygen consumption, (3) islet size (diameter, D), and (4) presence or absence of thrombosis on the islet surface. We discuss implications of oxygen-limiting conditions on intraportal islet viability and function. Of the 4 key variables, the islet size appears to be the most important determinant of the anoxic and nonfunctional islet volume fractions. Similarly, the effect of thrombus formation on the islet surface may be substantial. At the University of Minnesota, average size distribution data from clinical alloislet preparations (n = 10) indicate that >150-µm D islets account for only ~30% of the total islet number, but >85% of the total islet volume. This suggests that improved oxygen supply to the islets may have a profound impact on islet survivability and function since most of the β-cell volume is within large islets which are most susceptible to oxygen-limiting conditions. The assumption that the liver is a suitable islet transplant site from the standpoint of oxygenation should be reconsidered. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  8. Improvement of Hyperemic Myocardial Oxygen Extraction Fraction Estimation By A Diffusion Prepared Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCommis, Kyle S.; Koktzoglou, Ioannis; Zhang, Haosen; Goldstein, Thomas A.; Northrup, Benjamin E.; Li, Debiao; Gropler, Robert J.; Zheng, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Myocardial oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) during hyperemia can be estimated using a double-inversion-recovery (DIR) prepared T2-weighted black-blood sequence. Severe irregular ECG-triggering due to elevated heart rate and/or arrhythmias may render it difficult to adequately suppress the flowing left ventricle blood signal and thus potentially cause errors in the estimates of myocardial OEF. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate another black-blood technique, a diffusion-weighted (DW)-prepared TSE sequence for its ability to determine regional myocardial OEF during hyperemia. Control dogs and dogs with acute coronary artery stenosis were imaged with both the DIR- and DW-prepared TSE sequences at rest and during either dipyridamole or dobutamine hyperemia. Validation of MRI OEF estimates was performed using blood sampling from the artery and coronary sinus in control dogs. The two methods showed comparable correlations with blood sampling results (R2 = 0.9). Similar OEF estimations for all dogs were observed except for the group of dogs with severe coronary stenosis during dobutamine stress. In these dogs, the DW method provided more physiologically reasonable OEF (hyperemic OEF = 0.75 ± 0.08 vs resting OEF of 0.6) than the DIR method (hyperemic OEF = 0.56 ± 0.10). DW-preparation may be a valuable alternative for more accurate oxygenation measurements during irregular ECG-triggering. PMID:20512871

  9. Oxygen plasma treatment and deposition of CNx on a fluorinated polymer matrix composite for improved erosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratore, C.; Korenyi-Both, A.; Bultman, J. E.; Waite, A. R.; Jones, J. G.; Storage, T. M.; Voevodin, A. A.

    2007-01-01

    The use of polymer matrix composites in aerospace propulsion applications is currently limited by insufficient resistance to erosion by abrasive media. Erosion resistant coatings may provide necessary protection; however, adhesion to many high temperature polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials is poor. A low pressure oxygen plasma treatment process was developed to improve adhesion of CN x coatings to a carbon reinforced, fluorinated polymer matrix composite. Fullerene-like CN x was selected as an erosion resistant coating for its high hardness-to-elastic modulus ratio and elastic resilience which were expected to reduce erosion from media incident at different angles (normal or glancing) relative to the surface. In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to evaluate the effect of the plasma treatment on surface chemistry, and electron microscopy was used to identify changes in the surface morphology of the PMC substrate after plasma exposure. The fluorine concentration at the surface was significantly reduced and the carbon fibers were exposed after plasma treatment. CN x coatings were then deposited on oxygen treated PMC substrates. Qualitative tests demonstrated that plasma treatment improved coating adhesion resulting in an erosion resistance improvement of a factor of 2 compared to untreated coated composite substrates. The combination of PMC pretreatment and coating with CN x reduced the erosion rate by an order of magnitude for normally incident particles

  10. Operando investigation of Au-MnOx thin films with improved activity for the oxygen evolution reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Rasmus; Seitz, Linsey C.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis

    2017-01-01

    The electrochemical splitting of water holds great potential as a method for producing clean fuels by storing electricity from intermittent energy sources. The efficiency of such a process would be greatly facilitated by incorporating more active catalysts based on abundant materials for the oxygen...... improvement over pure MnOx. These films are characterized with operando X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, which reveal that Mn assumes a higher oxidation state under reaction conditions when Au is present. The magnitude of the enhancement is correlated to the size of the Au domains, where larger domains...

  11. Curcumin pretreatment and post-treatment both improve the antioxidative ability of neurons with oxygen-glucose deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-xian Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that induced expression of endogenous antioxidative enzymes thr-ough activation of the antioxidant response element/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 pathway may be a neuroprotective strategy. In this study, rat cerebral cortical neurons cultured in vitro were pretreated with 10 μM curcumin or post-treated with 5 μM curcumin, respectively before or after being subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation for 24 hours. Both pretreatment and post-treatment resulted in a significant decrease of cell injury as indicated by propidium iodide/Hoechst 33258 staining, a prominent increase of Nrf2 protein expression as indicated by western blot analysis, and a remarkable increase of protein expression and enzyme activity in whole cell lysates of thioredoxin before ischemia, after ischemia, and after reoxygenation. In addition, post-treatment with curcumin inhibited early DNA/RNA oxidation as indicated by immunocytochemistry and increased nuclear Nrf2 protein by inducing nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. These findings suggest that curcumin activates the expression of thioredoxin, an antioxidant protein in the Nrf2 pathway, and protects neurons from death caused by oxygen-glucose deprivation in an in vitro model of ischemia/reperfusion. We speculate that pharmacologic stimulation of antioxidant gene expression may be a promising approach to neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia.

  12. Improvement of Electrochemical Properties of Lithium–Oxygen Batteries Using a Silver Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin-Bum; Luo, Xiangyi; Lu, Jun; Shin, Chang Dae; Yoon, Chong Seung; Amine, Khalil; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2015-07-09

    Silver (Ag) electrodes are prepared by an electrodeposition method at -0.25 V versus SCE. To evaluate the effect of particle size on Li–air cells, deposition times are 3, 10, 30, and 300 s. When cycled at a current density of 0.032 mA cm–2, the Ag-deposited electrode for 300 s shows very low polarization corresponding to the oxygen evolution reaction potential at 3.6 V. X-ray diffraction studies confirm that the main discharge product is Li2O2, and the results of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy of the discharged electrodes show lithium peroxides at different positions due to the limitation of active sites on silver particles.

  13. Increasing arterial oxygen partial pressure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is associated with improved rates of hospital admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindelboeck, Walter; Schindler, Otmar; Moser, Adrian; Hausler, Florian; Wallner, Simon; Strasser, Christa; Haas, Josef; Gemes, Geza; Prause, Gerhard

    2013-06-01

    As recent clinical data suggest a harmful effect of arterial hyperoxia on patients after resuscitation from cardiac arrest (CA), we aimed to investigate this association during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the earliest and one of the most crucial phases of recirculation. We analysed 1015 patients who from 2003 to 2010 underwent out-of-hospital CPR administered by emergency medical services serving 300,000 inhabitants. Inclusion criteria for further analysis were nontraumatic background of CA and patients >18 years of age. One hundred and forty-five arterial blood gas analyses including oxygen partial pressure (paO2) measurement were obtained during CPR. We observed a highly significant increase in hospital admission rates associated with increases in paO2 in steps of 100 mmHg (13.3 kPa). Subsequently, data were clustered according to previously described cutoffs (≤ 60 mmHg [8 kPa

  14. Reimagining Instructional Leadership and Organizational Conditions for Improvement: Applied Research Transforming Early Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchiano, Debra; Klein, Rebecca; Hawley, Marsha Shigeyo

    2016-01-01

    Despite concerted efforts to improve children's learning by improving classrooms, results have been lackluster. There is a growing understanding that a sole focus on teachers and classrooms is insufficient. Yet, the field has not systematically explored how to help early childhood education settings become organizations designed for powerful…

  15. Improvement of activated carbons as oxygen reduction catalysts in neutral solutions by ammonia gas treatment and their performance in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.; Nieto Delgado, Cesar; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Commercially available activated carbon (AC) powders from different precursor materials (peat, coconut shell, coal, and hardwood) were treated with ammonia gas at 700 C to improve their performance as oxygen reduction catalysts in neutral p

  16. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy can improve post concussion syndrome years after mild traumatic brain injury - randomized prospective trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahav Boussi-Gross

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is the leading cause of death and disability in the US. Approximately 70-90% of the TBI cases are classified as mild, and up to 25% of them will not recover and suffer chronic neurocognitive impairments. The main pathology in these cases involves diffuse brain injuries, which are hard to detect by anatomical imaging yet noticeable in metabolic imaging. The current study tested the effectiveness of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT in improving brain function and quality of life in mTBI patients suffering chronic neurocognitive impairments.The trial population included 56 mTBI patients 1-5 years after injury with prolonged post-concussion syndrome (PCS. The HBOT effect was evaluated by means of prospective, randomized, crossover controlled trial: the patients were randomly assigned to treated or crossover groups. Patients in the treated group were evaluated at baseline and following 40 HBOT sessions; patients in the crossover group were evaluated three times: at baseline, following a 2-month control period of no treatment, and following subsequent 2-months of 40 HBOT sessions. The HBOT protocol included 40 treatment sessions (5 days/week, 60 minutes each, with 100% oxygen at 1.5 ATA. "Mindstreams" was used for cognitive evaluations, quality of life (QOL was evaluated by the EQ-5D, and changes in brain activity were assessed by SPECT imaging. Significant improvements were demonstrated in cognitive function and QOL in both groups following HBOT but no significant improvement was observed following the control period. SPECT imaging revealed elevated brain activity in good agreement with the cognitive improvements.HBOT can induce neuroplasticity leading to repair of chronically impaired brain functions and improved quality of life in mTBI patients with prolonged PCS at late chronic stage.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00715052.

  17. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy can improve post concussion syndrome years after mild traumatic brain injury - randomized prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussi-Gross, Rahav; Golan, Haim; Fishlev, Gregori; Bechor, Yair; Volkov, Olga; Bergan, Jacob; Friedman, Mony; Hoofien, Dan; Shlamkovitch, Nathan; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Efrati, Shai

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in the US. Approximately 70-90% of the TBI cases are classified as mild, and up to 25% of them will not recover and suffer chronic neurocognitive impairments. The main pathology in these cases involves diffuse brain injuries, which are hard to detect by anatomical imaging yet noticeable in metabolic imaging. The current study tested the effectiveness of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT) in improving brain function and quality of life in mTBI patients suffering chronic neurocognitive impairments. The trial population included 56 mTBI patients 1-5 years after injury with prolonged post-concussion syndrome (PCS). The HBOT effect was evaluated by means of prospective, randomized, crossover controlled trial: the patients were randomly assigned to treated or crossover groups. Patients in the treated group were evaluated at baseline and following 40 HBOT sessions; patients in the crossover group were evaluated three times: at baseline, following a 2-month control period of no treatment, and following subsequent 2-months of 40 HBOT sessions. The HBOT protocol included 40 treatment sessions (5 days/week), 60 minutes each, with 100% oxygen at 1.5 ATA. "Mindstreams" was used for cognitive evaluations, quality of life (QOL) was evaluated by the EQ-5D, and changes in brain activity were assessed by SPECT imaging. Significant improvements were demonstrated in cognitive function and QOL in both groups following HBOT but no significant improvement was observed following the control period. SPECT imaging revealed elevated brain activity in good agreement with the cognitive improvements. HBOT can induce neuroplasticity leading to repair of chronically impaired brain functions and improved quality of life in mTBI patients with prolonged PCS at late chronic stage. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00715052.

  18. Treatment with soy isoflavones during early adulthood improves metabolism in early postnatally overfed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pamelli; Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida; Tófolo, Laize Peron; Prates, Kelly Valério; Francisco, Flávio Andrade; Silveira, Sandra da Silva; Malta, Ananda; Lopes, Denise Alves; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Palma-Rigo, Kesia; Torrezan, Rosana; Mathias, Paulo Cezar de Freitas

    2018-01-01

    The incidences of obesity and related diseases have reached epidemic proportions, and new therapeutic approaches are needed. Soy isoflavones have been identified as an important dietary factor for preventing and treating metabolic dysfunction. This study examined the effects of high doses of isoflavone on glucose and fat metabolism in a model of programmed obesity and evaluated its effects on the autonomic nervous system. Litters of Wistar rats were standardized at nine pups per dam in normal litters (NL) or reduced to three pups per dam at the third day of life (P3) in small litters (SL) to induce postnatal overfeeding. Gavage with a soy bean isoflavone mixture (1 g/day) diluted in water was started at P60 and continued for 30 days. The control animals received vehicle gavage. At P90, biometric and metabolic parameters as well as direct autonomic nerve activity were measured. Increases in glycaemia and insulinaemia observed in SL rats were reduced by isoflavone treatment, which also caused lower glucose-induced insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. Sympathetic activity in the major splanchnic nerve was increased, while vagus nerve activity was reduced by isoflavone treatment. The dyslipidaemia induced by overfeeding in SL rats was restored by isoflavone treatment. The present study shows that treatment with isoflavone reduces adiposity and improves glucose and lipid metabolism. Collectively, these effects may depend on autonomic changes.

  19. Correlating carbon and oxygen isotope events in early to middle Miocene shallow marine carbonates in the Mediterranean region using orbitally tuned chemostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Gerald; Piller, Werner E.; Reuter, Markus; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2015-04-01

    During the Miocene prominent oxygen isotope events (Mi-events) reflect major changes in glaciation, while carbonate isotope maxima (CM-events) reflect changes in organic carbon burial, particularly during the Monterey carbon isotope excursion. However, despite their importance to the global climate history they have never been recorded in shallow marine carbonate successions. The Decontra section on the Maiella Platform (central Apennines, Italy), however, allows to resolve them for the first time in such a setting during the early to middle Miocene. The present study improves the stratigraphic resolution of parts of the Decontra section via orbital tuning of high-resolution gamma ray (GR) and magnetic susceptibility data to the 405 kyr eccentricity metronome. The tuning allows, within the established biostratigraphic, sequence stratigraphic, and isotope stratigraphic frameworks, a precise correlation of the Decontra section with pelagic records of the Mediterranean region, as well as the global paleoclimatic record and the global sea level curve. Spectral series analyses of GR data further indicate that the 405 kyr orbital cycle is particularly well preserved during the Monterey Event. Since GR is a direct proxy for authigenic uranium precipitation during increased burial of organic carbon in the Decontra section, it follows the same long-term orbital pacing as observed in the carbon isotope records. The 405 kyr GR beat is thus correlated with the carbon isotope maxima observed during the Monterey Event. Finally, the Mi-events can now be recognized in the δ18O record and coincide with plankton-rich, siliceous, or phosphatic horizons in the lithology of the section.

  20. Improving Hemocompatibility of Membranes for Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenators by Grafting Nonthrombogenic Polymer Brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obstals, Fabian; Vorobii, Mariia; Riedel, Tomáš; de Los Santos Pereira, Andres; Bruns, Michael; Singh, Smriti; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar

    2018-03-01

    Nonthrombogenic modifications of membranes for extracorporeal membrane oxygenators (ECMOs) are of key interest. The absence of hemocompatibility of these membranes and the need of anticoagulation of patients result in severe and potentially life-threatening complications during ECMO treatment. To address the lack of hemocompatibility of the membrane, surface modifications are developed, which act as barriers to protein adsorption on the membrane and, in this way, prevent activation of the coagulation cascade. The modifications are based on nonionic and zwitterionic polymer brushes grafted directly from poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (TPX) membranes via single electron transfer-living radical polymerization. Notably, this work introduces the first example of well-controlled surface-initiated radical polymerization of zwitterionic brushes. The antifouling layers markedly increase the recalcification time (a proxy of initiation of coagulation) compared to bare TPX membranes. Furthermore, platelet and leukocyte adhesion is drastically decreased, rendering the ECMO membranes hemocompatible. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Exendin-4 improved rat cortical neuron survival under oxygen/glucose deprivation through PKA pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M-D; Huang, Y; Zhang, G-P; Mao, L; Xia, Y-P; Mei, Y-W; Hu, B

    2012-12-13

    Previous studies demonstrated that exendin-4 (Ex-4) may possess neurotrophic and neuroprotective functions in ischemia insults, but its mechanism remained unknown. Here, by using real-time PCR and ELISA, we identified the distribution of active GLP-1Rs in the rat primary cortical neurons. After establishment of an in vitro ischemia model by oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD), neurons were treated with various dosages of Ex-4. The MTT assay showed that the relative survival rate increased with the dosage of Ex-4 ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 μg/ml (Pglucose-regulated proteins 78 (GRP78) and reduced C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP). Western blot analysis demonstrated that, after neurons were treated with Ex-4, GRP78 was up-regulated over time (Pneurons, down-regulated the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and up-regulated the Bax expression 3h after ODG (Pneurons against OGD by modulating the unfolded protein response (UPR) through the PKA pathway and may serve as a novel therapeutic agent for stroke. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Trends in brain oxygenation during mental and physical exercise measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): potential for early detection of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Monica S.; Allen, Jeffery W.; Mikkilineni, Shweta; Liu, Hanli

    2005-04-01

    Motivation: Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is crucial because symptoms respond best to available treatments in the initial stages of the disease. Recent studies have shown that marked changes in brain oxygenation during mental and physical tasks can be used for noninvasive functional brain imaging to detect Alzheimer"s disease. The goal of our study is to explore the possibility of using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and mapping (NIRM) as a diagnostic tool for AD before the onset of significant morphological changes in the brain. Methods: A 16-channel NIRS brain imager was used to noninvasively measure spatial and temporal changes in cerebral hemodynamics induced during verbal fluency task and physical activity. The experiments involved healthy subjects (n = 10) in the age range of 25+/-5 years. The NIRS signals were taken from the subjects' prefrontal cortex during the activities. Results and Conclusion: Trends of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex of the brain were observed. During the mental stimulation, the subjects showed significant increase in oxygenated hemoglobin [HbO2] with a simultaneous decrease in deoxygenated hemoglobin [Hb]. However, physical exercise caused a rise in levels of HbO2 with small variations in Hb. This study basically demonstrates that NIRM taken from the prefrontal cortex of the human brain is sensitive to both mental and physical tasks and holds potential to serve as a diagnostic means for early detection of Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Testosterone improves erectile function through inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation in castrated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone is overwhelmingly important in regulating erectile physiology. However, the associated molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects and mechanisms of testosterone in erectile dysfunction (ED in castrated rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four groups (control, sham-operated, castration and castration-with-testosterone-replacement. Reactive oxygen species (ROS production was measured by dihydroethidium (DHE staining. Erectile function was assessed by the recording of intracavernous pressure (ICP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP. Protein expression levels were examined by western blotting. We found that castration reduced erectile function and that testosterone restored it. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS activity was decrease in the castrated rats, and testosterone administration attenuated this decrease (each p < 0.05. The testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP concentrations were lower in the castrated rats, and testosterone restored these levels (each p < 0.05. Furthermore, the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and prostacyclin synthase (PTGIS expression levels and phospho-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS, Ser1177/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS ratio were reduced in the castrated rats compared with the controls (each p < 0.05. In addition, the p40phox and p67phox expression levels were increased in the castrated rats, and testosterone reversed these changes (each p < 0.05. Overall, our results demonstrate that testosterone ameliorates ED after castration by reducing ROS production and increasing the activity of the eNOS/cGMP and COX-2/PTGIS/cAMP signaling pathways.

  4. Improving Early Identification and Intervention for Children at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotholz, David A; Kinsman, Anne M; Lacy, Kathi K; Charles, Jane

    2017-02-01

    To provide an example of a successful, novel statewide effort to increase early identification of young children at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using a 2-tiered screening process with enhanced quality assessment, interagency policy collaboration and coordination. The South Carolina Act Early Team (SCAET) provided focused collaboration among leaders representing state agencies, universities, health care systems, private organizations, and families to improve quality of life for children with ASD. Specific focus was on implementing policy changes and training to result in earlier identification and home-based behavioral intervention for young children at risk for ASD. Policy changes, training, and modified state agency practices were accomplished. Presumptive eligibility, on the basis of a 2-tiered screening process was implemented by BabyNet (South Carolina's Early Intervention Program) in collaboration with the lead agency for developmental disability services. There was a fivefold increase in children eligible for early intensive behavioral intervention without waiting for a diagnosis of ASD, avoiding long waits for diagnostic evaluations. Only 16 children (2.5%) were later found not to have ASD from a comprehensive evaluation. Improvements in early identification and intervention are feasible through collaborative policy change. The South Carolina Act Early Team and its key stakeholders committed to improving outcomes for this population used existing tools and methods in new ways to improve early identification of children with ASD and to make available evidence-based intervention services. This example should be replicable in other states with key stakeholders working collaboratively for the benefit of young children with ASD. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Multi-disciplinary team for early gastric cancer diagnosis improves the detection rate of early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Lianjun; Wu, Huichao; Zhu, Rong; Li, Youfeng; Wu, Xinglong; Xie, Rui; Li, Hongping; Wang, Haibo; Zhang, Hua; Xiao, Hong; Chen, Hui; Zhen, Hong; Zhao, Kui; Yang, Xuefeng; Xie, Ming; Tuo, Bigung

    2017-12-06

    Gastric cancer is a frequent malignant tumor worldwide and its early detection is crucial for curing the disease and enhancing patients' survival rate. This study aimed to assess whether the multi-disciplinary team (MDT) can improve the detection rate of early gastric cancer (EGC). The detection rate of EGC at the Digestive Endoscopy Center, Affiliated Hospital, Zunyi Medical College, China between September 2013 and September 2015 was analyzed. MDT for the diagnosis of EGC in the hospital was established in September 2014. The study was divided into 2 time periods: September 1, 2013 to August 31, 2014 (period 1) and September 1, 2014 to September 1, 2015 (period 2). A total of 60,800 patients' gastroscopies were performed during the two years. 61 of these patients (0.1%) were diagnosed as EGC, accounting for 16.44% (61/371) of total patients with gastric cancer. The EGC detection rate before MDT (period 1) was 0.05% (16/29403), accounting for 9.09% (16/176) of total patients with gastric cancer during this period. In comparison, the EGC detection rate during MDT (period 2) was 0.15% (45/31397), accounting for 23% (45/195) of total patients with gastric cancer during this period (P cooperation with Department of Pathology (OR = 10.1, 95% CI 2.39-43.3, P < 0.05). MDT could improve the endoscopic detection rate of EGC.

  6. Improved in vivo performance of amperometric oxygen (PO2) sensing catheters via electrochemical nitric oxide generation/release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hang; Coughlin, Megan A; Major, Terry C; Aiello, Salvatore; Rojas Pena, Alvaro; Bartlett, Robert H; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2015-08-18

    A novel electrochemically controlled release method for nitric oxide (NO) (based on electrochemical reduction of nitrite ions) is combined with an amperometric oxygen sensor within a dual lumen catheter configuration for the continuous in vivo sensing of the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in blood. The on-demand electrochemical NO generation/release method is shown to be fully compatible with amperometric PO2 sensing. The performance of the sensors is evaluated in rabbit veins and pig arteries for 7 and 21 h, respectively. Overall, the NO releasing sensors measure both venous and arterial PO2 values more accurately with an average deviation of -2 ± 11% and good correlation (R(2) = 0.97) with in vitro blood measurements, whereas the corresponding control sensors without NO release show an average deviation of -31 ± 28% and poor correlation (R(2) = 0.43) at time points >4 h after implantation in veins and >6 h in arteries. The NO releasing sensors induce less thrombus formation on the catheter surface in both veins and arteries (p < 0.05). This electrochemical NO generation/release method could offer a new and attractive means to improve the biocompatibility and performance of implantable chemical sensors.

  7. Novel Mahalanobis-based feature selection improves one-class classification of early hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz, Ricardo de Lima; Carneiro, Pedro Cunha; Bonin, João Eliton; Macedo, Túlio Augusto Alves; Patrocinio, Ana Claudia; Soares, Alcimar Barbosa

    2018-05-01

    Detection of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for increasing survival rates in up to 40%. One-class classifiers can be used for modeling early HCC in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), but demand the specific knowledge pertaining to the set of features that best describes the target class. Although the literature outlines several features for characterizing liver lesions, it is unclear which is most relevant for describing early HCC. In this paper, we introduce an unconstrained GA feature selection algorithm based on a multi-objective Mahalanobis fitness function to improve the classification performance for early HCC. We compared our approach to a constrained Mahalanobis function and two other unconstrained functions using Welch's t-test and Gaussian Data Descriptors. The performance of each fitness function was evaluated by cross-validating a one-class SVM. The results show that the proposed multi-objective Mahalanobis fitness function is capable of significantly reducing data dimensionality (96.4%) and improving one-class classification of early HCC (0.84 AUC). Furthermore, the results provide strong evidence that intensity features extracted at the arterial to portal and arterial to equilibrium phases are important for classifying early HCC.

  8. Group relationships in early and late sessions and improvement in interpersonal problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Coco, Gianluca; Gullo, Salvatore; Di Fratello, Carla; Giordano, Cecilia; Kivlighan, Dennis M

    2016-07-01

    Groups are more effective when positive bonds are established and interpersonal conflicts resolved in early sessions and work is accomplished in later sessions. Previous research has provided mixed support for this group development model. We performed a test of this theoretical perspective using group members' (actors) and aggregated group members' (partners) perceptions of positive bonding, positive working, and negative group relationships measured early and late in interpersonal growth groups. Participants were 325 Italian graduate students randomly (within semester) assigned to 1 of 16 interpersonal growth groups. Groups met for 9 weeks with experienced psychologists using Yalom and Leszcz's (2005) interpersonal process model. Outcome was assessed pre- and posttreatment using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and group relationships were measured at Sessions 3 and 6 using the Group Questionnaire. As hypothesized, early measures of positive bonding and late measures of positive working, for both actors and partners, were positively related to improved interpersonal problems. Also as hypothesized, late measures of positive bonding and early measures of positive working, for both actors and partners, were negatively related to improved interpersonal problems. We also found that early actor and partner positive bonding and negative relationships interacted to predict changes in interpersonal problems. The findings are consistent with group development theory and suggest that group therapists focus on group-as-a-whole positive bonding relationships in early group sessions and on group-as-a-whole positive working relationships in later group sessions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Intraoperative ventilation strategy during cardiopulmonary bypass attenuates the release of matrix metalloproteinases and improves oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Lucian; Warszawska, Joanna Maria; Schenk, Peter; Debreceni, Tamás; Dworschak, Martin; Roth, Georg A; Szerafin, Tamás; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan

    2015-05-01

    Patients undergoing open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) often develop a systemic immune reaction, characterized by an increase of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators. We previously demonstrated that continued mechanical ventilation during CPB reduces this response. We hypothesized that this strategy may also impact on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) release. Thirty consecutive patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with CPB were randomized into a ventilated (VG) (n = 15) and a standard non-ventilated group (NVG) (n = 15). Blood was collected at the beginning, at the end of surgery, and on the five consecutive days. MMPs, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), and lipocalin 2 (LCN2) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Parameters of transpulmonary oxygen transport were assessed at different time points. MMP-8, MMP-9, and LCN2 were significantly lower at the end of surgery in VG compared with those in NVG patients (MMP-8 [ng/mL]: 7.1 [3.5] versus 12.5 [7.7], P = 0.02; MMP-9 [ng/mL]: 108 [42] versus 171 [98], P = 0.029; LCN2 [ng/mL]: 109 [42] versus 171 [98], P = 0.03). TIMP-1 concentrations were lower on postoperative day one, (TIMP-1 [ng/mL]: 174 [55] versus 273 [104], P = 0.003), whereas MMP-3 levels were lower on postoperative days four and five (MMP-3 [ng/mL]: 44 [17] versus 67 [35], P = 0.026). The arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio was significantly higher in VG patients throughout the postoperative observation period, which did not affect the length of postoperative ventilatory support. Continued mechanical ventilation during CPB reduces serum levels of MMPs, their inhibitor TIMP-1 and LCN2, which preserves MMP-9 activity. The present study suggests that continued mechanical ventilation improves postoperative oxygenation and could potentially prevent aggravation of lung injury after CPB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy or hydroxycobalamin attenuates surges in brain interstitial lactate and glucose; and hyperbaric oxygen improves respiratory status in cyanide-intoxicated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson-Smith, P; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Hyldegaard, O

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide (CN) intoxication inhibits cellular oxidative metabolism and may result in brain damage. Hydroxycobalamin (OHCob) is one among other antidotes that may be used following intoxication with CN. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) is recommended when supportive measures or antidotes fail. However...

  11. Improvement of oxygen supply by an artificial carrier in combination with normobaric oxygenation decreases the volume of tissue hypoxia and tissue damage from transient focal cerebral ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiffge, David J.; Lapina, Natalia E.; Tsagogiorgas, Charalambos; Theisinger, Bastian; Henning, Robert H.; Schilling, Lothar

    Tissue hypoxia may play an important role in the development of ischemic brain damage. In the present study we investigated in a rat model of transient focal brain ischemia the neuroprotective effects of increasing the blood oxygen transport capacity by applying a semifluorinated alkane

  12. Early-career registered nurses' participation in hospital quality improvement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine T; Brewer, Carol S; Fatehi, Farida K; Bernstein, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    We surveyed 2 cohorts of early-career registered nurses from 15 states in the US, 2 years apart, to compare their reported participation in hospital quality improvement (QI) activities. We anticipated differences between the 2 cohorts because of the growth of several initiatives for engaging nurses in QI. There were no differences between the 2 cohorts across 14 measured activities, except for their reported use of appropriate strategies to improve hand-washing compliance to reduce nosocomial infection rates.

  13. Improvement of oxygen storage components for compliance with LEV/ULEV and Euro III/IV emission limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touret, O.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The presentation will be divided in two sections. The first part will explain briefly the role of the oxygen storage component in the performance of the catalyst and the dramatic improvement in performance required by the future emission legislation especially in North America and the European Union. A survey of the different technical solutions available will be given. The second part will be focused on the description of the CeO 2 and CeO 2 ZrO 2 sintering mechanism the demonstration of the possibility to reach a solid solution for a large range of compositions using different analytical technique such as XRD, XPS, EXAFS. Finally the influence of ageing condition on the solid solution stability will be described with a tentative correlation with model catalyst activity

  14. Improving Early-Grade Literacy in East Africa: Experimental Evidence from Kenya and Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Adrienne M.; McEwan, Patrick J.; Ngware, Moses; Oketch, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Primary school enrollments have increased rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, spurring concerns about low levels of learning. We analyze field experiments in Kenya and Uganda that assessed whether the Reading to Learn intervention, implemented by the Aga Khan Foundation in both countries, improved early-grade literacy as measured by common assessments.…

  15. Improving Empathy and Communication Skills of Visually Impaired Early Adolescents through a Psycho-Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mehmet Ali; Duy, Baki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an interpersonal communication skills psycho-education program to improve empathy and communication skills of visually impaired adolescents. Participants of the study were sixteen early adolescents schooling in an elementary school for visually impaired youth in Diyarbakir. The…

  16. Eco-Efficient Process Improvement at the Early Development Stage: Identifying Environmental and Economic Process Hotspots for Synergetic Improvement Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinno, Fabiano; Hischier, Roland; Seeger, Stefan; Som, Claudia

    2018-05-15

    We present here a new eco-efficiency process-improvement method to highlight combined environmental and costs hotspots of the production process of new material at a very early development stage. Production-specific and scaled-up results for life cycle assessment (LCA) and production costs are combined in a new analysis to identify synergetic improvement potentials and trade-offs, setting goals for the eco-design of new processes. The identified hotspots and bottlenecks will help users to focus on the relevant steps for improvements from an eco-efficiency perspective and potentially reduce their associated environmental impacts and production costs. Our method is illustrated with a case study of nanocellulose. The results indicate that the production route should start with carrot pomace, use heat and solvent recovery, and deactivate the enzymes with bleach instead of heat. To further improve the process, the results show that focus should be laid on the carrier polymer, sodium alginate, and the production of the GripX coating. Overall, the method shows that the underlying LCA scale-up framework is valuable for purposes beyond conventional LCA studies and is applicable at a very early stage to provide researchers with a better understanding of their production process.

  17. Oxygen isotope studies of early Precambrian granitic rocks from the Giants Range batholith, northeastern Minnesota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, S.

    1974-01-01

    Oxygen isotope studies of granitic rocks from the 2.7 b.y.-old composite Giants Range batholith show that: (1) ??(O18)quartz values of 9 to 10 permil characterize relatively uncontaminated Lower Precambrian, magmatic granodiorites and granites; (2) granitic rocks thought to have formed by static granitization have ??(O18)quartz values that are 1 to 2 permil higher than magmatic granitic rocks; (3) satellite leucogranite bodies have values nearly identical to those of the main intrusive phases even where they transect O18-rich metasedimentary wall rocks; (4) oxygen isotopic interaction between the granitic melts and their O18-rich wall rocks was minimal; and (5) O18/O18 ratios of quartz grains in a metasomatic granite are largely inherited from the precursor rock, but during the progression - sedimentary parent ??? partially granitized parent ??? metasomatic granite ??? there is gradual decrease in ??(O18)quartz by 1 to 2 permil. ?? 1974.

  18. Effect of mechanical ventilation on systemic oxygen extraction and lactic acidosis during early septic shock in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffel, M I; Astiz, M E; Rackow, E C; Weil, M H

    1990-01-01

    We studied the effect of mechanical ventilation on systemic oxygen extraction and lactic acidosis in peritonitis and shock in rats. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and perforation. After tracheostomy, rats were randomized to spontaneous breathing (S) or mechanical ventilation with paralysis (V). Five animals were studied in each group. The V animals were paralyzed with pancuronium bromide to eliminate respiratory effort. Mechanical ventilation consisted of controlled ventilation using a rodent respirator with periodic adjustment of minute ventilation to maintain PaCO2 and pH within normal range. Arterial and central venous blood gases and thermodilution cardiac output were measured at baseline before abdominal surgery, and sequentially at 0.5, 3.5, and 6 h after surgery. At 6 h, cardiac output was 193 +/- 30 ml/kg.min in S animals and 199 +/- 32 ml/kg.min in V animals (NS). The central venous oxygen saturation was 27.4 +/- 4.7% in S animals and 30.0 +/- 6.4% in V animals (NS). Systemic oxygen extraction was 70 +/- 5% in S animals and 67 +/- 6% in V animals (NS). Arterial lactate was 2.4 +/- 0.4 mmol/L in S animals and 2.2 +/- 0.5 mmol/L in V animals (NS). The S animals developed lethal hypotension at 6.6 +/- 0.4 h compared to 6.8 +/- 0.4 h in V animals (NS). These data suggest that mechanical ventilation does not decrease systemic oxygen extraction or ameliorate the development of lactic acidosis during septic shock.

  19. Combined oxygen- and carbon-isotope records through the Early Jurassic: multiple global events and two modes of carbon-cycle/temperature coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Korte, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    , to the extent that meaningful comparisons between these events can begin to be made. Here we present new carbon and oxygen isotope data from mollusks (bivalves and belemnites) and brachiopods collected through the marine Early Jurassic succession of NE England, including the Sinemurian-Plienbachian boundary...... GSSP. All materials have been screened by chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy to check for diagenetic alteration. Analysis of carbon isotopes from marine calcite is supplemented by analysis of carbon-isotope values from fossil wood collected through the same section. It is demonstrated...... that both long-term and short-term carbon-isotope shifts from the UK Early Jurassic represent global changes in carbon cycle balances. The Sinemurian-Pliensbachian boundary event is an event of global significance and shows several similarities to the Toarcian OAE (relative sea-level change, carbon-isotope...

  20. Solvent-free, improved synthesis of pure bixbyite phase of iron and manganese mixed oxides as low-cost, potential oxygen carrier for chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mungse, P.B.; Saravanan, G.; Nishibori, M.; Šubrt, Jan; Labhsetwar, N.K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2017), s. 511-521 ISSN 0033-4545. [International Conference Solid State Chemistry 2016 /12./. Prague, 18.09.2016-23.09.2016] Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : CO capture and sequestration * Lattice * Mixed metal oxides * Reactive oxygen * Thermal power plants Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 2.626, year: 2016

  1. Administration of Oxygen Ultra-Fine Bubbles Improves Nerve Dysfunction in a Rat Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hozo Matsuoka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-fine bubbles (<200 nm in diameter have several unique properties and have been tested in various medical fields. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of oxygen ultra-fine bubbles (OUBs on a sciatic nerve crush injury (SNC model rats. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with 1.5 mL saline, OUBs diluted in saline, or nitrogen ultra-fine bubbles (NUBs diluted in saline three times per week for 4 weeks in four groups: (1 control, (sham operation + saline; (2 SNC, (crush + saline; (3 SNC+OUB, (crush + OUB-saline; (4 SNC+NUB, (crush + NUB-saline. The effects of the OUBs on dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and Schwann cells (SCs were examined by serial dilution of OUB medium in vitro. Sciatic functional index, paw withdrawal thresholds, nerve conduction velocity, and myelinated axons were significantly decreased in the SNC group compared to the control group; these parameters were significantly improved in the SNC+OUB group, although NUB treatment did not affect these parameters. In vitro, OUBs significantly promoted neurite outgrowth in DRG neurons by activating AKT signaling and SC proliferation by activating ERK1/2 and JNK/c-JUN signaling. OUBs may improve nerve dysfunction in SNC rats by promoting neurite outgrowth in DRG neurons and SC proliferation.

  2. Role of distal arginine in early sensing intermediates in the heme domain of the oxygen sensor FixL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasaitis, Audrius; Hola, Klara; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Balland, Veronique; Vos, Marten H; Liebl, Ursula

    2006-05-16

    FixL is a bacterial heme-based oxygen sensor, in which release of oxygen from the sensing PAS domain leads to activation of an associated kinase domain. Static structural studies have suggested an important role of the conserved residue arginine 220 in signal transmission at the level of the heme domain. To assess the role of this residue in the dynamics and properties of the initial intermediates in ligand release, we have investigated the effects of R220X (X = I, Q, E, H, or A) mutations in the FixLH heme domain on the dynamics and spectral properties of the heme upon photolysis of O(2), NO, and CO using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Comparison of transient spectra for CO and NO dissociation with steady-state spectra indicated less strain on the heme in the ligand dissociation species for all mutants compared to the wild type (WT). For CO and NO, the kinetics were similar to those of the wild type, with the exception of (1) a relatively low yield of picosecond NO rebinding to R220A, presumably related to the increase in the free volume of the heme pocket, and (2) substantial pH-dependent picosecond to nanosecond rebinding of CO to R220H, related to formation of a hydrogen bond between CO and histidine 220. Upon excitation of the complex bound with the physiological sensor ligand O(2), a 5-8 ps decay phase and a nondecaying (>4 ns) phase were observed for WT and all mutants. The strong distortion of the spectrum associated with the decay phase in WT is substantially diminished in all mutant proteins, indicating an R220-induced role of the heme in the primary intermediate in signal transmission. Furthermore, the yield of dissociated oxygen after this phase ( approximately 10% in WT) is increased in all mutants, up to almost unity in R220A, indicating a key role of R220 in caging the oxygen near the heme through hydrogen bonding. Molecular dynamics simulations corroborate these findings and suggest motions of O(2) and arginine 220 away from the heme

  3. Improving the Quality of Early Childhood Education in Chile: Tensions between Public Policy and Teacher Discourses over the Schoolarisation of Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Marcela; Woodrow, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article problematises emerging tensions in Chile, in relation to the discourses of early childhood teachers and public policies aimed at improving the quality of early childhood education. The aim of the analysis is to contribute to developing more nuanced understandings of these tensions, through the analytical lenses provided by the…

  4. Has growth mixture modeling improved our understanding of how early change predicts psychotherapy outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffmann, Andrew

    2017-03-02

    Early change in psychotherapy predicts outcome. Seven studies have used growth mixture modeling [GMM; Muthén, B. (2001). Second-generation structural equation modeling with a combination of categorical and continuous latent variables: New opportunities for latent class-latent growth modeling. In L. M. Collins & A. G. Sawyers (Eds.), New methods for the analysis of change (pp. 291-322). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association] to identify patient classes based on early change but have yielded conflicting results. Here, we review the earlier studies and apply GMM to a new data set. In a university-based training clinic, 251 patients were administered the Outcome Questionnaire-45 [Lambert, M. J., Hansen, N. B., Umphress, V., Lunnen, K., Okiishi, J., Burlingame, G., … Reisinger, C. W. (1996). Administration and scoring manual for the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ 45.2). Wilmington, DE: American Professional Credentialing Services] at each psychotherapy session. We used GMM to identify class structure based on change in the first six sessions and examined trajectories as predictors of outcome. The sample was best described as a single class. There was no evidence of autoregressive trends in the data. We achieved better fit to the data by permitting latent variables some degree of kurtosis, rather than to assume multivariate normality. Treatment outcome was predicted by the amount of early improvement, regardless of initial level of distress. The presence of sudden early gains or losses did not further improve outcome prediction. Early improvement is an easily computed, powerful predictor of psychotherapy outcome. The use of GMM to investigate the relationship between change and outcome is technically complex and computationally intensive. To date, it has not been particularly informative.

  5. Did professional attendance at home births improve early neonatal survival in Indonesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt, Laurel; Stanton, Cynthia; Ronsmans, Carine; Makowiecka, Krystyna; Adisasmita, Asri

    2009-07-01

    BACKGROUND Early neonatal mortality has been persistently high in developing countries. Indonesia, with its national policy of home-based, midwife-assisted birth, is an apt context for assessing the effect of home-based professional birth attendance on early neonatal survival. METHODS We pooled four Indonesian Demographic and Health Surveys and used multivariate logistic regression to analyse trends in first-day and early neonatal mortality. We measured the effect of the context of delivery, including place and type of provider, and tested for changes in trend when the 'Midwife in the Village' programme was initiated. RESULTS Reported first-day mortality did not decrease significantly between 1986 and 2002, whereas early neonatal mortality decreased by an average of 3.2% annually. The rate of the decline did not change over the time period, either in 1989 when the Midwife in the Village programme was initiated, or in any year following when uptake of professional care increased. In simple and multivariate analyses, there were no significant differences in first-day or early neonatal death rates comparing home-based births with or without a professional midwife. Early neonatal mortality was higher in public facilities, likely due to selection. Biological determinants (twin births, male sex, short birth interval, previous early neonatal loss) were important for both outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Decreasing newborn death rates in Indonesia are encouraging, but it is not clear that these decreases are associated with greater uptake of professional delivery care at home or in health facilities. This may suggest a need for improved training in immediate newborn care, strengthened emergency referral, and continued support for family planning policies.

  6. Paediatric early warning scores on a children's ward: a quality improvement initiative.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ennis, Linda

    2014-09-09

    The aim of this quality improvement initiative was to incorporate a paediatric early warning score (PEWS) and track and trigger system in the routine care of children in an acute general children\\'s ward at a regional hospital in the Republic of Ireland. In the absence of a nationally recommended specific PEWS strategy, a local plan was developed. The experience of structuring and implementing the PEWS and track and trigger system is presented in this article. Data from the first year of use were collected to evaluate the clinical utility and effectiveness of this system. In the busy acute children\\'s service, the PEWS initiative was found to benefit processes of early detection, prompt referral and timely, appropriate management of children at potential risk of clinical deterioration. Nursing staff were empowered and supported to communicate concerns immediately and to seek rapid medical review, according to an agreed PEWS escalation plan. Outcomes were significantly improved.

  7. Public-private partnerships improve health outcomes in individuals with early stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, James E; Tolea, Magdalena I; George, Nika; Wingbermuehle, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    In a collaborative effort between the Missouri Department of Health, Area Agencies on Aging (AAA), Alzheimer Association, and academic researchers, we tested whether early dementia detection and comprehensive care consultations would improve health outcomes in care receivers (CRs) and their family caregivers (FCGs), therefore addressing an important public health concern. A total of 244 community-dwelling older adults screened for early-stage dementia by the AAA field staff were referred to the Alzheimer Association and participated in Project Learn MORE (Missouri Outreach and Referral Expanded) (PLM) - a 2-year, nonrandomized multisite intervention consisting of comprehensive care consultations to improve coping skills. PLM participants were compared against 96 controls receiving the Alzheimer Association's "usual services" between January 2011 and December 2012. We examined CR and FCG outcomes, including burden, care confidence, and mood, as effects of PLM, on delaying transitions in level of care. CRs showed improved knowledge (P=0.002) and reduced depression (P=0.007), while FCGs demonstrated improved knowledge (P=0.003) and ability to identify sources of support for the CR (P=0.032) and for themselves (P=0.043). However, FCGs were more burdened after PLM (P=0.02), due to increased awareness of Alzheimer's disease. PLM delayed transitions in care (odds ratio [OR] 3.32, 95% confidence level [CI]: 1.25-8.83) with the number needed to treat =6.82. PLM was successful in improving detection of incident cases of dementia in the community and in connecting patients and their families with needed services. Our findings support the use of state agencies and community service partners to detect dementia. Early implementation of psychosocial interventions could have significant impact in improving patient- and family-centered outcomes, potentially providing a cost-efficient alternative to pharmacotherapy.

  8. Beta-hydroxybutyrate increases reactive oxygen species in late but not in early postimplantation embryonic cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, H; Eriksson, U J; Melefors, O; Welsh, N

    1998-02-01

    Embryonic dysmorphogenesis has been blocked by antioxidant treatment in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that embryonic excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has a role in the teratogenic process of diabetic pregnancy. We report that the basal levels of ROS in dispersed rat embryonic cells in vitro, as determined by fluorescence of dichlorofluorescein (DCF), were not different in cells from control and diabetic pregnancy at day 10 or 12. Beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-HB) and succinic acid monomethyl ester both augmented DCF fluorescence in cells from day 12 embryos of normal and diabetic rats but not from day 10 embryos. Cells of day 10 and day 12 embryos from normal and diabetic rats responded to increasing glucose concentrations with a dosage-dependent alleviation of DCF fluorescence. Day 10 embryonic cells exhibited high glucose utilization rates and high pentose phosphate shunt rates, but low mitochondrial oxidation rates. Moreover, in vitro culture of embryos between gestational days 9 and 10 in the presence of 20% oxygen induced an increased and glucose-sensitive oxidation of glucose compared with embryos not cultured in vitro. At gestation day 12, however, pentose phosphate shunt rates showed a decrease, whereas the mitochondrial beta-HB oxidation rates were increased compared with those at gestation day 10. This was paralleled by a lower expression of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase- and phosphofructokinase-mRNA levels at day 12 than at day 10. On the other hand, H-ferritin mRNA expression at day 12 was high compared with day 10. None of the mRNA species investigated were affected by the diabetic state of the mother. It was concluded that beta-HB-induced stimulation of mitochondrial oxidative events may lead to the generation of ROS at gestational day 12, but probably not at day 10, when only a minute amount of mitochondrial activity occurs. Thus our results do not support the notion of diabetes-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress before the development of

  9. The Implementation of Traditional Games to Improve the Social Emotional Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Indah Lestari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study was to improve the social emotional early childhood through the traditional game. This research was conducted on the children of group B TK Pradnyandari III Kerobokan in the academic year 2016 / 2017. This research used Classroom Action Research design with observation method. The subjects of this study were 22 children of group B1 TK Pradnyandari III Kerobokan consisting of 11 sons and 11 daughters. The object of research is the application of traditional children's games to increase social emotional early childhood. The results og this research as in Cycle I, 14 children (63.64% reached the completeness learning mastery, 8 children (36.36% had not reached. In Cycle II, 20 children (90,91% reached the learning mastery, leaving only 2 children (9,09% had not reached. The implementation of traditional games can enhance children's social emotional skill. Based on the research findings there was an improvement of 27.27% learning mastery of the children from Cycle I to Cycle II. This means that the application of traditional games can improve children's social emotional development. Traditional games can be piloted in other areas of development skill in early childhood education.

  10. Understanding the gut microbiome of dairy calves: Opportunities to improve early-life gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Guan, Le Luo

    2017-07-01

    Early gut microbiota plays a vital role in the long-term health of the host. However, understanding of these microbiota is very limited in livestock species, especially in dairy calves. Neonatal calves are highly susceptible to enteric infections, one of the major causes of calf death, so approaches to improving gut health and overall calf health are needed. An increasing number of studies are exploring the microbial composition of the gut, the mucosal immune system, and early dietary interventions to improve the health of dairy calves, revealing possibilities for effectively reducing the susceptibility of calves to enteric infections while promoting growth. Still, comprehensive understanding of the effect of dietary interventions on gut microbiota-one of the key aspects of gut health-is lacking. Such knowledge may provide in-depth understanding of the mechanisms behind functional changes in response to dietary interventions. Understanding of host-microbial interactions with dietary interventions and the role of the gut microbiota during pathogenesis at the site of infection in early life is vital for designing effective tools and techniques to improve calf gut health. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pancreatic nitric oxide and oxygen free radicals in the early stages of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to explore the regulatory mechanisms of free radicals during streptozotocin (STZ-induced pancreatic damage, which may involve nitric oxide (NO production as a modulator of cellular oxidative stress. Removal of oxygen species by incubating pancreatic tissues in the presence of polyethylene glycol-conjugated superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD (1 U/ml produced a decrease in nitrite levels (42% and NO synthase (NOS activity (50% in diabetic but not in control samples. When NO production was blocked by N G-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA (600 µM, SOD activity increased (15.21 ± 1.23 vs 24.40 ± 2.01 U/mg dry weight. The increase was abolished when the NO donor, spermine nonoate, was added to the incubating medium (13.2 ± 1.32. Lipid peroxidation was lower in diabetic tissues when PEG-SOD was added (0.40 ± 0.02 vs 0.20 ± 0.03 nmol/mg protein, and when L-NMMA blocked NOS activity in the incubating medium (0.28 ± 0.05; spermine nonoate (100 µM abolished the decrease in lipoperoxide level (0.70 ± 0.02. We conclude that removal of oxygen species produces a decrease in pancreatic NO and NOS levels in STZ-treated rats. Moreover, inhibition of NOS activity produces an increase in SOD activity and a decrease in lipoperoxidation in diabetic pancreatic tissues. Oxidative stress and NO pathway are related and seem to modulate each other in acute STZ-induced diabetic pancreas in the rat.

  12. Inverse Regulation of Early and Late Chondrogenic Differentiation by Oxygen Tension Provides Cues for Stem Cell-Based Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Portron

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Multipotent stem/stromal cells (MSC are considered promising for cartilage tissue engineering. However, chondrogenic differentiation of MSC can ultimately lead to the formation of hypertrophic chondrocytes responsible for the calcification of cartilage. To prevent the production of this calcified matrix at the articular site, the late hypertrophic differentiation of MSCs must be carefully controlled. Given that articular cartilage is avascular, we hypothesized that in addition to its stimulatory role in the early differentiation of chondrogenic cells, hypoxia may prevent their late hypertrophic conversion. Methods: Early and late chondrogenic differentiation were evaluated using human adipose MSC and murine ATDC5 cells cultured under either normoxic (21%O2 or hypoxic (5%O2 conditions. To investigate the effect of hypoxia on late chondrogenic differentiation, the transcriptional activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α and HIF-2α were evaluated using the NoShift DNA-binding assay and through modulation of their activity (chemical inhibitor, RNA interference. Results: Our data demonstrate that low oxygen tension not only stimulates the early chondrogenic commitment of two complementary models of chondrogenic cells, but also inhibits their hypertrophic differentiation. Conclusion: These results suggest that hypoxia can be used as an instrumental tool to prevent the formation of a calcified matrix in MSC-based cartilage tissue engineering.

  13. SIRT3 Expression Decreases with Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Rat Cortical Neurons during Early Brain Injury Induced by Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sirtuin3 (SIRT3 is an important protein deacetylase which predominantly presents in mitochondria and exhibits broad bioactivities including regulating energy metabolism and counteracting inflammatory effect. Since inflammatory cascade was proved to be critical for pathological damage following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, we investigated the overall expression and cell-specific distribution of SIRT3 in the cerebral cortex of Sprague-Dawley rats with experimental SAH induced by internal carotid perforation. Results suggested that SIRT3 was expressed abundantly in neurons and endothelia but rarely in gliocytes in normal cerebral cortex. After experimental SAH, mRNA and protein expressions of SIRT3 decreased significantly as early as 8 hours and dropped to the minimum value at 24 h after SAH. By contrast, SOD2 expression increased slowly as early as 12 hours after experimental SAH, rose up sharply at the following 12 hours, and then was maintained at a higher level. In conclusion, attenuated SIRT3 expression in cortical neurons was associated closely with enhanced reactive oxygen species generation and cellular apoptosis, implying that SIRT3 might play an important neuroprotective role during early brain injury following SAH.

  14. Improvement of Dairy Cattle Productivity Through Early Non-Pregnancy Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indetie, D.

    2002-01-01

    Reproductive wastage bears a great deal on the productivity of dairy cattle by prolonging the calving intervals thereby reducing the milk produced and the number of calves born over the lifetime of a cow. early identification of a non-cyclic or non-pregnant cows can result in early intervention and rebreeding of the affected cattle ths improving productivity. Determination of progesterone levels in milk can be used as a good indicator of the reproductive status of dairy cows. five hundred and thirty two cows were sampled by collecting milk sample on day of AI, day 12 and 13 and day 22 to 24 after AI. The milk samples were assayed to determine progesterone levels at these stages of the estrus cycle, which were then used to deduce the reproductive status of the cow. Out of the cows sampled 16% were not cycling and had progesterone levels of 1 nm/L or less during the mid luteal phase. Insemination of cows whose Progesterone levels were less than 3 nm/L resulted in conception rates of 80% and indication of the timeliness of insemination. Inseminating cows 19 hours after onset of standing heat resulted in conception rates of 79% compared with insemination early whose conception rates were 15%.It can be concluded that the timeliness of AI will determine the success of conception rates if heat is detected properly and the cow is in the right reproductive state. Early non-pregnancy diagnosis using progesterone can reduce the anoestrus period as well as detecting cows with reproductive anomalies which can be rectified early and the cows presented for rebreeding thus reducing the calving interval and improving the productivity of the dairy enterprise

  15. Improvement of activated carbons as oxygen reduction catalysts in neutral solutions by ammonia gas treatment and their performance in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.

    2013-11-01

    Commercially available activated carbon (AC) powders from different precursor materials (peat, coconut shell, coal, and hardwood) were treated with ammonia gas at 700 C to improve their performance as oxygen reduction catalysts in neutral pH solutions used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The ammonia treated ACs exhibited better catalytic performance in rotating ring-disk electrode tests than their untreated precursors, with the bituminous based AC most improved, with an onset potential of Eonset = 0.12 V (untreated, Eonset = 0.08 V) and n = 3.9 electrons transferred in oxygen reduction (untreated, n = 3.6), and the hardwood based AC (treated, E onset = 0.03 V, n = 3.3; untreated, Eonset = -0.04 V, n = 3.0). Ammonia treatment decreased oxygen content by 29-58%, increased nitrogen content to 1.8 atomic %, and increased the basicity of the bituminous, peat, and hardwood ACs. The treated coal based AC cathodes had higher maximum power densities in MFCs (2450 ± 40 mW m-2) than the other AC cathodes or a Pt/C cathode (2100 ± 1 mW m-2). These results show that reduced oxygen abundance and increased nitrogen functionalities on the AC surface can increase catalytic performance for oxygen reduction in neutral media. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Improvement of Early Antenatal Care Initiation: The Effects of Training Local Health Volunteers in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Oumudee, Nurlisa; Armeeroh, Masuenah; Nima, Niamina; Duerahing, Nurosanah

    2018-01-01

    Although antenatal care (ANC) coverage has been increasing in low- and middle-income countries, the adherence to the ANC initiation standards at gestational age ANC initiation by training the existing local health volunteers (LHVs) in 3 southernmost provinces of Thailand. A clustered nonrandomized intervention study was conducted from November 2012 to February 2014. One district of each province was selected to be the study intervention districts for that province. A total of 124 LHVs in the intervention districts participated in the knowledge-counseling intervention. It was organized as half-day workshop using 2 training modules each comprising a 30-minute lecture followed by counseling practice in pairs for 1 hour. Outcome was the rate of early ANC initiation among women giving birth, and its association with intervention, meeting an LHV, and months after training was analyzed. Of 6677 women, 3178 and 3499 women were in the control and intervention groups, respectively. Rates of early ANC were significantly improved after the intervention (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-1.43, P ANC. Training LHVs in communities by knowledge-counseling intervention significantly improved early ANC initiation, but the magnitude of change was still limited.

  17. Ventilation onset prior to umbilical cord clamping (physiological-based cord clamping improves systemic and cerebral oxygenation in preterm lambs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme R Polglase

    Full Text Available As measurement of arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 is common in the delivery room, target SpO2 ranges allow clinicians to titrate oxygen therapy for preterm infants in order to achieve saturation levels similar to those seen in normal term infants in the first minutes of life. However, the influence of the onset of ventilation and the timing of cord clamping on systemic and cerebral oxygenation is not known.We investigated whether the initiation of ventilation, prior to, or after umbilical cord clamping, altered systemic and cerebral oxygenation in preterm lambs.Systemic and cerebral blood-flows, pressures and peripheral SpO2 and regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (SctO2 were measured continuously in apnoeic preterm lambs (126±1 day gestation. Positive pressure ventilation was initiated either 1 prior to umbilical cord clamping, or 2 after umbilical cord clamping. Lambs were monitored intensively prior to intervention, and for 10 minutes following umbilical cord clamping.Clamping the umbilical cord prior to ventilation resulted in a rapid decrease in SpO2 and SctO2, and an increase in arterial pressure, cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen extraction. Ventilation restored oxygenation and haemodynamics by 5-6 minutes. No such disturbances in peripheral or cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics were observed when ventilation was initiated prior to cord clamping.The establishment of ventilation prior to umbilical cord clamping facilitated a smooth transition to systemic and cerebral oxygenation following birth. SpO2 nomograms may need to be re-evaluated to reflect physiological management of preterm infants in the delivery room.

  18. An Early Permian epithermal gold system in the Tulasu Basin in North Xinjiang, NW China: Constraints from in situ oxygen-sulfur isotopes and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Leilei; Wan, Bo; Deng, Chen; Cai, Keda; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2018-03-01

    The Axi and Jingxi-Yelmand gold deposits, being the largest gold deposits in the Chinese North Tianshan, NW China, are located ca. l0 km apart in the Tulasu Basin, and are hosted by the Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous Dahalajunshan Formation. In situ LA-ICP-MS titanium analyses on quartz from the Axi and Jingxi-Yelmand deposits are broadly identical. Accordingly, the calculated ore-forming temperatures by Ti-in-quartz thermometer give average temperatures of 279 °C and 294 °C, respectively. Results of in situ SIMS analyses of oxygen and sulfur isotopes on quartz and pyrite from these two deposits are similar. Temperature-corrected fluids of the Axi deposit have δ18O values of 2.6-8.1‰ and δ34S values of 0.8-2.4‰, whereas the fluids of the Jingxi-Yelmand deposit have δ18O of 6.4-8.9‰ and δ34S of -0.4 to 4.0‰. The oxygen and sulfur isotopes from the two deposits indicate a magmatic origin. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of Aqialehe Formation sandstone provided a lower limit for the mineralization timing of the Axi deposit (288 Ma). In situ SIMS U-Pb analyses on entrapped zircon (297 Ma) and newly recognized 284.5 Ma columnar rhyolite implies that the Jingxi-Yelmand deposit formed in the Early Permian. Based on the magmatic affinity of the ore fluids, similar age and ore-formation temperatures, we propose that the Axi and Jingxi-Yelmand deposits comprise an epithermal gold system, which was driven by the same Permian magma in the Tulasu Basin. The ore geological features together with our new results indicate that the Axi and Jingxi-Yelmand deposits are intermediate and high sulfidation type epithermal deposits, respectively.

  19. Cutaneous Mitochondrial PO2, but Not Tissue Oxygen Saturation, Is an Early Indicator of the Physiologic Limit of Hemodilution in the Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römers, Luuk H L; Bakker, Charlotte; Dollée, Nathalie; Hoeks, Sanne E; Lima, Alexandre; Raat, Nicolaas J H; Johannes, Tanja; Stolker, Robert J; Mik, Egbert G

    2016-07-01

    Hemodilution is a consequence of fluid replacement during blood loss and is limited by the individual ability to compensate for decreasing hemoglobin level. We tested the ability of a novel noninvasive method for measuring cutaneous mitochondrial PO2 (mitoPO2) to detect this threshold early. Anesthetized and ventilated pigs were hemodynamically monitored and randomized into a hemodilution (n = 12) or a time control (TC) group (n = 14). MitoPO2 measurements were done by oxygen-dependent delayed fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX after preparation of the skin with 20% 5-aminolevulinic acid cream. Tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) was measured with near infrared spectroscopy on the thoracic wall. After baseline measurements, progressive normovolemic hemodilution was performed in the hemodilution group in equal steps (500 ml blood replaced by 500 ml Voluven; Fresenius Kabi AG, Germany). Consecutive measurements were performed after 20-min stabilization periods and repeated 8 times or until the animal died. The TC animals remained stable with regard to hemodynamics and mitoPO2. In the hemodilution group, mitoPO2 became hemoglobin-dependent after reaching a threshold of 2.6 ± 0.2 g/dl. During hemodilution, hemoglobin and mitoPO2 decreased (7.9 ± 0.2 to 2.1 ± 0.2 g/dl; 23.6 ± 2 to 9.9 ± 0.8 mmHg), but StO2 did not. Notably, mitoPO2 dropped quite abruptly (about 39%) at the individual threshold. We observed that this decrease in mitoPO2 occurred at least one hemodilution step before changes in other conventional parameters. Cutaneous mitoPO2 decreased typically one hemodilution step before occurrence of significant alterations in systemic oxygen consumption and lactate levels. This makes mitoPO2 a potential early indicator of the physiologic limit of hemodilution and possibly a physiologic trigger for blood transfusion.

  20. Improving Latino Children's Early Language and Literacy Development: Key Features of Early Childhood Education within Family Literacy Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youngok; Zuniga, Stephen; Howes, Carollee; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Parrish, Deborah; Quick, Heather; Manship, Karen; Hauser, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Noting the lack of research on how early childhood education (ECE) programmes within family literacy programmes influence Latino children's early language and literacy development, this study examined key features of ECE programmes, specifically teacher-child interactions and child engagement in language and literacy activities and how these…

  1. Repaired supraspinatus tendons in clinically improving patients: Early postoperative findings and interval changes on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Eun; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Rhee, Yong Girl [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, So Hee; Park, So Young; Jin Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    To demonstrate and further determine the incidences of repaired supraspinatus tendons on early postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in clinically improving patients and to evaluate interval changes on follow-up MRIs. Fifty patients, who showed symptomatic and functional improvements after supraspinatus tendon repair surgery and who underwent postoperative MRI twice with a time interval, were included. The first and the second postoperative MRIs were obtained a mean of 4.4 and 11.5 months after surgery, respectively. The signal intensity (SI) patterns of the repaired tendon on T2-weighted images from the first MRI were classified into three types of heterogeneous high SI with fluid-like bright high foci (type I), heterogeneous high SI without fluid-like bright high foci (type II), and heterogeneous or homogeneous low SI (type III). Interval changes in the SI pattern, tendon thickness, and rotator cuff interval thickness between the two postoperative MRIs were evaluated. The SI patterns on the first MRI were type I or II in 45 tendons (90%) and type III in five (10%). SI decreased significantly on the second MRI (p < 0.050). The mean thickness of repaired tendons and rotator cuff intervals also decreased significantly (p < 0.050). Repaired supraspinatus tendons exhibited high SI in 90% of clinically improving patients on MRI performed during the early postsurgical period. The increased SI and thickness of the repaired tendon decreased on the later MRI, suggesting a gradual healing process rather than a retear.

  2. Repaired supraspinatus tendons in clinically improving patients: Early postoperative findings and interval changes on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Eun; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Rhee, Yong Girl; Yoon, So Hee; Park, So Young; Jin Wook

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate and further determine the incidences of repaired supraspinatus tendons on early postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in clinically improving patients and to evaluate interval changes on follow-up MRIs. Fifty patients, who showed symptomatic and functional improvements after supraspinatus tendon repair surgery and who underwent postoperative MRI twice with a time interval, were included. The first and the second postoperative MRIs were obtained a mean of 4.4 and 11.5 months after surgery, respectively. The signal intensity (SI) patterns of the repaired tendon on T2-weighted images from the first MRI were classified into three types of heterogeneous high SI with fluid-like bright high foci (type I), heterogeneous high SI without fluid-like bright high foci (type II), and heterogeneous or homogeneous low SI (type III). Interval changes in the SI pattern, tendon thickness, and rotator cuff interval thickness between the two postoperative MRIs were evaluated. The SI patterns on the first MRI were type I or II in 45 tendons (90%) and type III in five (10%). SI decreased significantly on the second MRI (p < 0.050). The mean thickness of repaired tendons and rotator cuff intervals also decreased significantly (p < 0.050). Repaired supraspinatus tendons exhibited high SI in 90% of clinically improving patients on MRI performed during the early postsurgical period. The increased SI and thickness of the repaired tendon decreased on the later MRI, suggesting a gradual healing process rather than a retear.

  3. Improvement in rice straw pulp bleaching effluent quality by incorporating oxygen delignification stage prior to elemental chlorine-free bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Daljeet; Bhardwaj, Nishi K; Lohchab, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Environmental degradation by industrial and other developmental activities is alarming for imperative environmental management by process advancements of production. Pulp and paper mills are now focusing on using nonwood-based raw materials to protect forest resources. In present study, rice straw was utilized for pulp production as it is easily and abundantly available as well as rich in carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicelluloses). Soda-anthraquinone method was used for pulp production as it is widely accepted for agro residues. Bleaching process during paper production is the chief source of wastewater generation. The chlorophenolic compounds generated during bleaching are highly toxic, mutagenic, and bioaccumulative in nature. The objectives of study were to use oxygen delignification (ODL) stage prior to elemental chlorine-free (ECF) bleaching to reduce wastewater load and to study its impact on bleached pulp characteristics. ODL stage prior to ECF bleaching improved the optical properties of pulp in comparison to only ECF bleaching. When ODL stage was incorporated prior to bleaching, the tensile index and folding endurance of the pulp were found to be 56.6 ± 1.5 Nm/g and 140, respectively, very high in comparison to ECF alone. A potential reduction of 51, 57, 43, and 53% in BOD 3 , COD, color, and AOX, respectively was observed on adding the ODL stage compared to ECF only. Generation of chlorophenolic compounds was reduced significantly. Incorporation of ODL stage prior to bleaching was found to be highly promising for reducing the toxicity of bleaching effluents and may lead to better management of nearby water resources. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  4. Improvement of the Oxidation Resistance of CoNiCrAlY Bond Coats Sprayed by High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel onto Nickel Superalloy Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Fossati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available CoNiCrAlY powders with similar granulometry and chemical composition, but different starting reactivity toward oxygen, were sprayed onto superalloy substrates by High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel producing coatings of similar thicknesses. After spraying, samples were maintained at 1,273 K in air for different test periods of up to 5,000 hours. Morphological, microstructural, compositional and electrochemical analyses were performed on the coated samples in order to assess the high temperature oxidation resistance provided by the two different powders. The powder with higher starting reactivity towards oxygen improves the oxidation resistance of the coated samples by producing thinner and more adherent thermally grown oxide layers.

  5. Centrically reordered inversion recovery half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo sequence: improvement of the image quality of oxygen-enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Hatabu, Hiroto; Higashino, Takanori; Kawamitsu, Hideaki; Watanabe, Hirokazu; Takenaka, Daisuke; Cauteren, Marc van; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study presented here was to determine the improvement in image quality of oxygen-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) subtraction imaging obtained with a centrically reordered inversion recovery half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo (c-IR-HASTE) sequence compared with that obtained with a conventional sequentially reordered inversion recovery single-shot HASTE (s-IR-HASTE) sequence for pulmonary imaging. Materials and methods: Oxygen-enhanced MR imaging using a 1.5 T whole body scanner was performed on 12 healthy, non-smoking volunteers. Oxygen-enhanced MR images were obtained with the coronal two-dimensional (2D) c-IR-HASTE sequence and 2D s-IR-HASTE sequence combined with respiratory triggering. For a 256x256 matrix, 132 phase-encoding steps were acquired including four steps for phase correction. Inter-echo spacing for each sequence was 4.0 ms. The effective echo time (TE) for c-IR-HASTE was 4.0 ms, and 16 ms for s-IR-HASTE. The inversion time (TI) was 900 ms. To determine the improvement in oxygen-enhanced MR subtraction imaging by c-IR-HASTE, CNRs of subtraction image, overall image quality, and image degradation of the c-IR-HASTE and s-IR-HASTE techniques were statistically compared. Results: CNR, overall image quality, and image degradation of c-IR-HASTE images showed significant improvement compared to those s-IR-HASTE images (P<0.05). Conclusion: Centrically reordered inversion recovery half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo (c-IR-HASTE) sequence enhanced the signal from the lung and improved the image quality of oxygen-enhanced MR subtraction imaging

  6. Improvement of Transparent Conducting Performance on Oxygen-Activated Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Electrodes Formed by Horizontal Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon-Ryul; Oh, Dong-Hyeun; Riu, Doh-Hyung; Ahn, Hyo-Jin

    2017-12-27

    In this study, highly transparent conducting fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) electrodes were fabricated using the horizontal ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition. In order to improve their transparent conducting performances, we carried out oxygen activation by adjusting the ratio of O 2 /(O 2 +N 2 ) in the carrier gas (0%, 20%, and 50%) used during the deposition process. The oxygen activation on the FTO electrodes accelerated the substitution concentration of F (F O • ) into the oxygen sites in the FTO electrode while the oxygen vacancy (V O • • ) concentration was reduced. In addition, due to growth of pyramid-shaped crystallites with (200) preferred orientations, this oxygen activation caused the formation of a uniform surface structure. As a result, compared to others, the FTO electrode prepared at 50% O 2 showed excellent electrical and optical properties (sheet resistance of ∼4.0 ± 0.14 Ω/□, optical transmittance of ∼85.3%, and figure of merit of ∼5.09 ± 0.19 × 10 -2 Ω -1 ). This led to a superb photoconversion efficiency (∼7.03 ± 0.20%) as a result of the improved short-circuit current density. The photovoltaic performance improvement can be defined by the decreased sheet resistance of FTO used as a transparent conducting electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which is due to the combined effect of the high carrier concentration by the improved F O • concentration on the FTO electrodes and the fasted Hall mobility by the formation of a uniform FTO surface structure and distortion relaxation on the FTO lattices resulting from the reduced V O • • • concentration.

  7. Improvement of early detection of breast cancer through collaborative multi-country efforts: Medical physics component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Patricia; Faulkner, Keith; Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Gershan, Vesna; Kausik, Aruna; Zdesar, Urban; Brandan, María-Ester; Kurt, Serap; Davidović, Jasna; Salama, Dina H; Aribal, Erkin; Odio, Clara; Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Sabih, Zahida; Vujnović, Saša; Paez, Diana; Delis, Harry

    2018-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through a Coordinated Research Project on "Enhancing Capacity for Early Detection and Diagnosis of Breast Cancer through Imaging", brought together a group of mammography radiologists, medical physicists and radiographers; to investigate current practices and improve procedures for the early detection of breast cancer by strengthening both the clinical and medical physics components. This paper addresses the medical physics component. The countries that participated in the CRP were Bosnia and Herzegovina, Costa Rica, Egypt, India, Kenya, the Frmr. Yug. Rep. of Macedonia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Slovenia, Turkey, Uganda, United Kingdom and Zambia. Ten institutions participated using IAEA quality control protocols in 9 digital and 3 analogue mammography equipment. A spreadsheet for data collection was generated and distributed. Evaluation of image quality was done using TOR MAX and DMAM2 Gold phantoms. QC results for analogue equipment showed satisfactory results. QC tests performed on digital systems showed that improvements needed to be implemented, especially in thickness accuracy, signal difference to noise ratio (SDNR) values for achievable levels, uniformity and modulation transfer function (MTF). Mean glandular dose (MGD) was below international recommended levels for patient radiation protection. Evaluation of image quality by phantoms also indicated the need for improvement. Common activities facilitated improvement in mammography practice, including training of medical physicists in QC programs and infrastructure was improved and strengthened; networking among medical physicists and radiologists took place and was maintained over time. IAEA QC protocols provided a uniformed approach to QC measurements. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. DOT1L inhibitor improves early development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Jia; Zhang, Yu; Zuo, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    Incomplete epigenetic reprogramming of the genome of donor cells causes poor early and full-term developmental efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Previous research indicate that inhibition of the histone H3 K79 methyltransferase DOT1L, using a selective pharmacological...... inhibitor EPZ004777 (EPZ), significantly improved reprogramming efficiency during the generation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells. However, the roles of DOT1L in porcine nuclear transfer-mediated cellular reprogramming are not yet known. Here we showed that DOT1L inhibition via 0.5 nM EPZ treatment...

  9. Vascular Steal Explains Early Paradoxical Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Cerebrovascular Response in Brain Regions with Delayed Arterial Transit Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Poublanc

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI during manipulation of inhaled carbon dioxide (CO2 can be used to measure cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR and map regions of exhausted cerebrovascular reserve. These regions exhibit a reduced or negative BOLD response to inhaled CO2. In this study, we sought to clarify the mechanism behind the negative BOLD response by investigating its time delay (TD. Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC MRI with the injection of a contrast agent was used as the gold standard in order to provide measurement of the blood arrival time to which CVR TD could be compared. We hypothesize that if negative BOLD responses are the result of a steal phenomenon, they should be synchronized with positive BOLD responses from healthy brain tissue, even though the blood arrival time would be delayed. Methods: On a 3-tesla MRI system, BOLD CVR and DSC images were collected in a group of 19 patients with steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease. For each patient, we generated a CVR magnitude map by regressing the BOLD signal with the end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PETCO2, and a CVR TD map by extracting the time of maximum cross-correlation between the BOLD signal and PETCO2. In addition, a blood arrival time map was generated by fitting the DSC signal with a gamma variate function. ROI masks corresponding to varying degrees of reactivity were constructed. Within these masks, the mean CVR magnitude, CVR TD and DSC blood arrival time were extracted and averaged over the 19 patients. CVR magnitude and CVR TD were then plotted against DSC blood arrival time. Results: The results show that CVR magnitude is highly correlated to DSC blood arrival time. As expected, the most compromised tissues with the longest blood arrival time have the lowest (most negative CVR magnitude. However, CVR TD shows a noncontinuous relationship with DSC blood arrival time. CVR TD is well correlated to DSC blood arrival time

  10. Early warning of climate tipping points from critical slowing down: comparing methods to improve robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, T. M.; Livina, V. N.; Dakos, V.; Van Nes, E. H.; Scheffer, M.

    2012-01-01

    We address whether robust early warning signals can, in principle, be provided before a climate tipping point is reached, focusing on methods that seek to detect critical slowing down as a precursor of bifurcation. As a test bed, six previously analysed datasets are reconsidered, three palaeoclimate records approaching abrupt transitions at the end of the last ice age and three models of varying complexity forced through a collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Approaches based on examining the lag-1 autocorrelation function or on detrended fluctuation analysis are applied together and compared. The effects of aggregating the data, detrending method, sliding window length and filtering bandwidth are examined. Robust indicators of critical slowing down are found prior to the abrupt warming event at the end of the Younger Dryas, but the indicators are less clear prior to the Bølling-Allerød warming, or glacial termination in Antarctica. Early warnings of thermohaline circulation collapse can be masked by inter-annual variability driven by atmospheric dynamics. However, rapidly decaying modes can be successfully filtered out by using a long bandwidth or by aggregating data. The two methods have complementary strengths and weaknesses and we recommend applying them together to improve the robustness of early warnings. PMID:22291229

  11. Oxygen-sensitive regulation and neuroprotective effects of growth hormone-dependent growth factors during early postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Susan; Boie, Gudrun; Doerr, Helmuth-Guenther; Trollmann, Regina

    2017-04-01

    Perinatal hypoxia severely disrupts metabolic and somatotrophic development, as well as cerebral maturational programs. Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) represent the most important endogenous adaptive mechanisms to hypoxia, activating a broad spectrum of growth factors that contribute to cell survival and energy homeostasis. To analyze effects of systemic hypoxia and growth hormone (GH) therapy (rhGH) on HIF-dependent growth factors during early postnatal development, we compared protein (using ELISA) and mRNA (using quantitative RT PCR) levels of growth factors in plasma and brain between normoxic and hypoxic mice (8% O 2 , 6 h; postnatal day 7 , P7) at P14. Exposure to hypoxia led to reduced body weight ( P controls and was associated with significantly reduced plasma levels of mouse GH ( P controls. In addition, rhGH treatment increased cerebral IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, and erythropoietin mRNA levels, resulting in significantly reduced apoptotic cell death in the hypoxic, developing mouse brain. These data indicate that rhGH may functionally restore hypoxia-induced systemic dysregulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis and induce upregulation of neuroprotective, HIF-dependent growth factors in the hypoxic developing brain. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Detection of Early Ischemic Changes in Noncontrast CT Head Improved with "Stroke Windows".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainali, Shraddha; Wahba, Mervat; Elijovich, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Noncontrast head CT (NCCT) is the standard radiologic test for patients presenting with acute stroke. Early ischemic changes (EIC) are often overlooked on initial NCCT. We determine the sensitivity and specificity of improved EIC detection by a standardized method of image evaluation (Stroke Windows). Methods. We performed a retrospective chart review to identify patients with acute ischemic stroke who had NCCT at presentation. EIC was defined by the presence of hyperdense MCA/basilar artery sign; sulcal effacement; basal ganglia/subcortical hypodensity; and loss of cortical gray-white differentiation. NCCT was reviewed with standard window settings and with specialized Stroke Windows. Results. Fifty patients (42% females, 58% males) with a mean NIHSS of 13.4 were identified. EIC was detected in 9 patients with standard windows, while EIC was detected using Stroke Windows in 35 patients (18% versus 70%; P Windows (14% and 36%; P Windows (6% and 46%; P Windows significantly improved detection of EIC.

  13. Educational gaps and solutions for early-career nurse managers' education and participation in quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine T; Brewer, Carol S; Fatehi, Farida; Jun, Jin

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine early-career frontline nurse managers' (FLNMs') reported educational preparedness and participation in quality improvement (QI). Frontline nurse managers are vitally important for leading QI. However, it is not well known if they have adequate knowledge and skills to lead this important function. We examined cross-sectional survey data from 42 FLNMs using descriptive statistics. About 30% of FLNMs reported being very prepared across 12 measured QI skills by schools or employers and 35% reported participating in a specific clinical effort to improve patient care on their unit more than once a month. More than 50% reported having good organizational support for QI, but only about 30% reported being rewarded for their contributions to QI. Our study highlights opportunities for development in QI for FLNMs and offers some solutions for nurse executives that can bridge the educational gaps.

  14. Improving battery safety by early detection of internal shorting with a bifunctional separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Zhuo, Denys; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

    2014-10-01

    Lithium-based rechargeable batteries have been widely used in portable electronics and show great promise for emerging applications in transportation and wind-solar-grid energy storage, although their safety remains a practical concern. Failures in the form of fire and explosion can be initiated by internal short circuits associated with lithium dendrite formation during cycling. Here we report a new strategy for improving safety by designing a smart battery that allows internal battery health to be monitored in situ. Specifically, we achieve early detection of lithium dendrites inside batteries through a bifunctional separator, which offers a third sensing terminal in addition to the cathode and anode. The sensing terminal provides unique signals in the form of a pronounced voltage change, indicating imminent penetration of dendrites through the separator. This detection mechanism is highly sensitive, accurate and activated well in advance of shorting and can be applied to many types of batteries for improved safety.

  15. Can Early Intervention Improve Maternal Well-Being? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Orla; Delaney, Liam; O'Farrelly, Christine; Fitzpatrick, Nick; Daly, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study estimates the effect of a targeted early childhood intervention program on global and experienced measures of maternal well-being utilizing a randomized controlled trial design. The primary aim of the intervention is to improve children's school readiness skills by working directly with parents to improve their knowledge of child development and parenting behavior. One potential externality of the program is well-being benefits for parents given its direct focus on improving parental coping, self-efficacy, and problem solving skills, as well as generating an indirect effect on parental well-being by targeting child developmental problems. Participants from a socio-economically disadvantaged community are randomly assigned during pregnancy to an intensive 5-year home visiting parenting program or a control group. We estimate and compare treatment effects on multiple measures of global and experienced well-being using permutation testing to account for small sample size and a stepdown procedure to account for multiple testing. The intervention has no impact on global well-being as measured by life satisfaction and parenting stress or experienced negative affect using episodic reports derived from the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM). Treatment effects are observed on measures of experienced positive affect derived from the DRM and a measure of mood yesterday. The limited treatment effects suggest that early intervention programs may produce some improvements in experienced positive well-being, but no effects on negative aspects of well-being. Different findings across measures may result as experienced measures of well-being avoid the cognitive biases that impinge upon global assessments.

  16. Can Early Intervention Improve Maternal Well-Being? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla Doyle

    Full Text Available This study estimates the effect of a targeted early childhood intervention program on global and experienced measures of maternal well-being utilizing a randomized controlled trial design. The primary aim of the intervention is to improve children's school readiness skills by working directly with parents to improve their knowledge of child development and parenting behavior. One potential externality of the program is well-being benefits for parents given its direct focus on improving parental coping, self-efficacy, and problem solving skills, as well as generating an indirect effect on parental well-being by targeting child developmental problems.Participants from a socio-economically disadvantaged community are randomly assigned during pregnancy to an intensive 5-year home visiting parenting program or a control group. We estimate and compare treatment effects on multiple measures of global and experienced well-being using permutation testing to account for small sample size and a stepdown procedure to account for multiple testing.The intervention has no impact on global well-being as measured by life satisfaction and parenting stress or experienced negative affect using episodic reports derived from the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM. Treatment effects are observed on measures of experienced positive affect derived from the DRM and a measure of mood yesterday.The limited treatment effects suggest that early intervention programs may produce some improvements in experienced positive well-being, but no effects on negative aspects of well-being. Different findings across measures may result as experienced measures of well-being avoid the cognitive biases that impinge upon global assessments.

  17. Oxidation driven ZnS Core-ZnO shell photocatalysts under controlled oxygen atmosphere for improved photocatalytic solar water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Daegil; Kim, Jung Hyeun

    2018-06-01

    Zinc type photocatalysts attract great attentions in solar hydrogen production due to their easy availability and benign environmental characteristics. Spherical ZnS particles are synthesized with a facile hydrothermal method, and they are further used as core materials to introduce ZnO shell layer surrounding the core part by partial oxidation under controlled oxygen contents. The resulting ZnS core-ZnO shell photocatalysts represent the heterostructural type II band alignment. The existence of oxide layer also influences on proton adsorption power with an aid of strong base cites derived from highly electronegative oxygen atoms in ZnO shell layer. Photocatalytic water splitting reaction is performed to evaluate catalyst efficiency under standard one sun condition, and the highest hydrogen evolution rate (1665 μmolg-1h-1) is achieved from the sample oxidized at 16.2 kPa oxygen pressure. This highest hydrogen production rate is achieved in cooperation with increased light absorption and promoted charge separations. Photoluminescence analysis reveals that the improved visible light response is obtained after thermal oxidation process due to the oxygen vacancy states in the ZnO shell layer. Therefore, overall photocatalytic efficiency in solar hydrogen production is enhanced by improved charge separations, crystallinity, and visible light responses from the ZnS core-ZnO shell structures induced by thermal oxidation.

  18. Hemodynamic and oxygen transport patterns for outcome prediction, therapeutic goals, and clinical algorithms to improve outcome. Feasibility of artificial intelligence to customize algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, W C; Patil, R; Appel, P L; Kram, H B

    1992-11-01

    A generalized decision tree or clinical algorithm for treatment of high-risk elective surgical patients was developed from a physiologic model based on empirical data. First, a large data bank was used to do the following: (1) describe temporal hemodynamic and oxygen transport patterns that interrelate cardiac, pulmonary, and tissue perfusion functions in survivors and nonsurvivors; (2) define optimal therapeutic goals based on the supranormal oxygen transport values of high-risk postoperative survivors; (3) compare the relative effectiveness of alternative therapies in a wide variety of clinical and physiologic conditions; and (4) to develop criteria for titration of therapy to the endpoints of the supranormal optimal goals using cardiac index (CI), oxygen delivery (DO2), and oxygen consumption (VO2) as proxy outcome measures. Second, a general purpose algorithm was generated from these data and tested in preoperatively randomized clinical trials of high-risk surgical patients. Improved outcome was demonstrated with this generalized algorithm. The concept that the supranormal values represent compensations that have survival value has been corroborated by several other groups. We now propose a unique approach to refine the generalized algorithm to develop customized algorithms and individualized decision analysis for each patient's unique problems. The present article describes a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of artificial intelligence techniques to accomplish individualized algorithms that may further improve patient care and outcome.

  19. Integrating real-time subsurface hydrologic monitoring with empirical rainfall thresholds to improve landslide early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Becker, Rachel E.; Baum, Rex L.; Smith, Joel B.

    2018-01-01

    Early warning for rainfall-induced shallow landsliding can help reduce fatalities and economic losses. Although these commonly occurring landslides are typically triggered by subsurface hydrological processes, most early warning criteria rely exclusively on empirical rainfall thresholds and other indirect proxies for subsurface wetness. We explore the utility of explicitly accounting for antecedent wetness by integrating real-time subsurface hydrologic measurements into landslide early warning criteria. Our efforts build on previous progress with rainfall thresholds, monitoring, and numerical modeling along the landslide-prone railway corridor between Everett and Seattle, Washington, USA. We propose a modification to a previously established recent versus antecedent (RA) cumulative rainfall thresholds by replacing the antecedent 15-day rainfall component with an average saturation observed over the same timeframe. We calculate this antecedent saturation with real-time telemetered measurements from five volumetric water content probes installed in the shallow subsurface within a steep vegetated hillslope. Our hybrid rainfall versus saturation (RS) threshold still relies on the same recent 3-day rainfall component as the existing RA thresholds, to facilitate ready integration with quantitative precipitation forecasts. During the 2015–2017 monitoring period, this RS hybrid approach has an increase of true positives and a decrease of false positives and false negatives relative to the previous RA rainfall-only thresholds. We also demonstrate that alternative hybrid threshold formats could be even more accurate, which suggests that further development and testing during future landslide seasons is needed. The positive results confirm that accounting for antecedent wetness conditions with direct subsurface hydrologic measurements can improve thresholds for alert systems and early warning of rainfall-induced shallow landsliding.

  20. Clonidine improves attentional and memory components of delayed response performance in a model of early Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J S; Tinker, J P; Decamp, E

    2010-08-25

    Cognitive deficits, including attention and working memory deficits, are often described in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients even during the early stages of the disease. However, cognitive deficits associated with PD have proven difficult to treat and often do not respond well to the dopaminergic therapies used to treat the motor symptoms of the disease. Chronic administration of low doses of the neurotoxin 1-methy,4-phenyl,1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) can induce cognitive dysfunction in non-human primates, including impaired performance on a variable delayed response (VDR) task with attentional and memory components. Since alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists have been suggested to improve attention and working memory in a variety of conditions, the present study assessed the extent to which the alpha-2 noradrenergic agonist clonidine might influence VDR performance in early Parkinsonian non-human primates. Clonidine (0.02-0.10 mg/kg) improved performance on both attentional and memory components of the task, performed in a modified Wisconsin General Test Apparatus, in a dose-dependent manner and the cognition enhancing effects of clonidine were blocked by co-administration of the alpha-2 noradrenergic antagonist idazoxan (0.10 mg/kg). These data suggest that clonidine or drugs of this class, perhaps with greater receptor subtype selectivity and low sedation liability, might be effective therapeutics for cognitive dysfunction associated with PD. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Planktonic foraminiferal oxygen isotope analysis by ion microprobe technique suggests warm tropical sea surface temperatures during the Early Paleogene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozdon, Reinhard; Kelly, D. Clay; Kita, Noriko T.; Fournelle, John H.; Valley, John W.

    2011-09-01

    Cool tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are reported for warm Paleogene greenhouse climates based on the δ18O of planktonic foraminiferal tests. These results are difficult to reconcile with models of greenhouse gas-forced climate. It has been suggested that this "cool tropics paradox" arises from postdepositional alteration of foraminiferal calcite, yielding erroneously high δ18O values. Recrystallization of foraminiferal tests is cryptic and difficult to quantify, and the compilation of robust δ18O records from moderately altered material remains challenging. Scanning electron microscopy of planktonic foraminiferal chamber-wall cross sections reveals that the basal area of muricae, pustular outgrowths on the chamber walls of species belonging to the genus Morozovella, contain no mural pores and may be less susceptible to postdepositional alteration. We analyzed the δ18O in muricae bases of morozovellids from the central Pacific (Ocean Drilling Program Site 865) by ion microprobe using 10 μm pits with an analytical reproducibility of ±0.34‰ (2 standard deviations). In situ measurements of δ18O in these domains yield consistently lower values than those published for conventional multispecimen analyses. Assuming that the original δ18O is largely preserved in the basal areas of muricae, this new δ18O record indicates Early Paleogene (˜49-56 Ma) tropical SSTs in the central Pacific were 4°-8°C higher than inferred from the previously published δ18O record and that SSTs reached at least ˜33°C during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. This study demonstrates the utility of ion microprobe analysis for generating more reliable paleoclimate records from moderately altered foraminiferal tests preserved in deep-sea sediments.

  2. New concept for low emission diesel combustion. 2nd Report. Combustion improvement by applying EGR and oxygenated fuel; Teikogai diesel engine no nensho concept. EGR, gansanso nenryo ni yoru nensho kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, H.; Nakajima, H.; Kakegawa, T. [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Described herein are performance of a new concept of premixed, multiple injection combustion, in which part of the fuel is injected into the combustion chamber at the early stage and the remainder is injected in the ordinary manner, and characteristics of the exhaust gases. Also described are the effects of EGR and oxygenated fuel on reduced HC emissions and fuel consumption. The ordinary premixed, multiple injection combustion system has problems related to fuel efficiency, and HC and particulate missions. When combined with an EGR system, this system reduces HC emissions to one-third. MTBE shows an effect of improving fuel efficiency, when mixed with diesel fuel. No particulate matter is exhausted and fuel efficiency is improved by 6%, when MTBE is present in the fuel at 30% by weight. The pre-mixture is less homogeneous in the absence of EGR and oxygenated fuel, producing a luminous flame observed in the fuel-rich region. No such a flame is observed, when MTBE is added to the fuel and suction air temperature is increased to the level corresponding to that associated with EGR, conceivably resulting from increased suction air temperature and lower boiling point of MTBE, which together make the pre-mixture leaner and more homogeneous. 7 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Improvement in retinal venous oxygen saturation after panretinal photocoagulation is predictive of progression of proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Thomas Lee; Kawasaki, Ryo; Wong, Tien Yin

    blood pressure was 152/84mmHg. Retinal arterial and venous saturation was 96.7% and 67.4%, respectively. Patients in Group 1 and 2 did not differ in baseline retinal arterial and venous oxygen saturation, number of laser spots delivered, total laser energy delivered, or change in retinal arterial oxygen...... patients with diagnosed PDR were included. We performed wide-field fluorescein angiography (WFA) (Optomap; Optos PLC., Dunfermline, Scotland, UK) and retinal oximetry (Oxymap model T1; Oxymap, software version 2.4.2, Reykjavik, Iceland) at baseline and three months after PRP by a navigated laser (NAVILAS...

  4. Insights into highly improved solar-driven photocatalytic oxygen evolution over integrated Ag3PO4/MoS2 heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xingkai; Yang, Xiaofei; Xian, Xiaozhai; Tian, Lin; Tang, Hua; Liu, Qinqin

    2018-04-01

    Oxygen evolution has been considered as the rate-determining step in photocatalytic water splitting due to its sluggish four-electron half-reaction rate, the development of oxygen-evolving photocatalysts with well-defined morphologies and superior interfacial contact is highly important for achieving high-performance solar water splitting. Herein, we report the fabrication of Ag3PO4/MoS2 nanocomposites and, for the first time, their use in photocatalytic water splitting into oxygen under LED light illumination. Ag3PO4 nanoparticles were found to be anchored evenly on the surface of MoS2 nanosheets, confirming an efficient hybridization of two semiconductor materials. A maximum oxygen-generating rate of 201.6 mol L-1 g-1 h-1 was determined when 200 mg MoS2 nanosheets were incorporated into Ag3PO4 nanoparticles, which is around 5 times higher than that of bulk Ag3PO4. Obvious enhancements in light-harvesting property, as well as electron-hole separation and charge transportation are revealed by the combination of different characterizations. ESR analysis verified that more active oxygen-containing radicals generate over illuminated Ag3PO4/MoS2 composite photocatalysts rather than irradiated Ag3PO4. The improvement in oxygen evolution performance of Ag3PO4/MoS2 composite photocatalysts is ascribed to wide spectra response in the visible-light region, more efficient charge separation and enhanced oxidation capacity in the valence band (VB). This study provides new insights into the design and development of novel composite photocatalytic materials for solar-to-fuel conversion.

  5. An improved method of early diagnosis of smoking-induced respiratory changes using machine learning algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Jorge L M; Lopes, Agnaldo J; Jansen, José M; Faria, Alvaro C D; Melo, Pedro L

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an automatic classifier to increase the accuracy of the forced oscillation technique (FOT) for diagnosing early respiratory abnormalities in smoking patients. The data consisted of FOT parameters obtained from 56 volunteers, 28 healthy and 28 smokers with low tobacco consumption. Many supervised learning techniques were investigated, including logistic linear classifiers, k nearest neighbor (KNN), neural networks and support vector machines (SVM). To evaluate performance, the ROC curve of the most accurate parameter was established as baseline. To determine the best input features and classifier parameters, we used genetic algorithms and a 10-fold cross-validation using the average area under the ROC curve (AUC). In the first experiment, the original FOT parameters were used as input. We observed a significant improvement in accuracy (KNN=0.89 and SVM=0.87) compared with the baseline (0.77). The second experiment performed a feature selection on the original FOT parameters. This selection did not cause any significant improvement in accuracy, but it was useful in identifying more adequate FOT parameters. In the third experiment, we performed a feature selection on the cross products of the FOT parameters. This selection resulted in a further increase in AUC (KNN=SVM=0.91), which allows for high diagnostic accuracy. In conclusion, machine learning classifiers can help identify early smoking-induced respiratory alterations. The use of FOT cross products and the search for the best features and classifier parameters can markedly improve the performance of machine learning classifiers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancing Famine Early Warning Systems with Improved Forecasts, Satellite Observations and Hydrologic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J.; Thiaw, W. M.; Hoell, A.; Korecha, D.; McNally, A.; Shukla, S.; Arsenault, K. R.; Magadzire, T.; Novella, N.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Robjohn, M.; Pomposi, C.; Galu, G.; Rowland, J.; Budde, M. E.; Landsfeld, M. F.; Harrison, L.; Davenport, F.; Husak, G. J.; Endalkachew, E.

    2017-12-01

    Drought early warning science, in support of famine prevention, is a rapidly advancing field that is helping to save lives and livelihoods. In 2015-2017, a series of extreme droughts afflicted Ethiopia, Southern Africa, Eastern Africa in OND and Eastern Africa in MAM, pushing more than 50 million people into severe food insecurity. Improved drought forecasts and monitoring tools, however, helped motivate and target large and effective humanitarian responses. Here we describe new science being developed by a long-established early warning system - the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET). FEWS NET is a leading provider of early warning and analysis on food insecurity. FEWS NET research is advancing rapidly on several fronts, providing better climate forecasts and more effective drought monitoring tools that are being used to support enhanced famine early warning. We explore the philosophy and science underlying these successes, suggesting that a modal view of climate change can support enhanced seasonal prediction. Under this modal perspective, warming of the tropical oceans may interact with natural modes of variability, like the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, to enhance Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature gradients during both El Niño and La Niña-like climate states. Using empirical data and climate change simulations, we suggest that a sequence of droughts may commence in northern Ethiopia and Southern Africa with the advent of a moderate-to-strong El Niño, and then continue with La Niña/West Pacific related droughts in equatorial eastern East Africa. Scientifically, we show that a new hybrid statistical-dynamic precipitation forecast system, the FEWS NET Integrated Forecast System (FIFS), based on reformulations of the Global Ensemble Forecast System weather forecasts and National Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) seasonal climate predictions, can effectively anticipate recent East and Southern African drought events. Using cross-validation, we

  7. Coaching and Quality Assistance in Quality Rating Improvement Systems: Approaches Used by TA Providers to Improve Quality in Early Care and Education Programs and Home-Based Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sheila; Robbins, Taylor; Schneider, Will; Kreader, J. Lee; Ong, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Quality Rating Improvement Systems (QRISs) commonly offer on-site technical assistance (TA) and coaching to help early care and education settings achieve quality improvements and a higher QRIS rating. In surveys of administrators overseeing statewide QRISs, almost all states reported the use of on-site TA and coaching in both center-based and…

  8. Oxygen introduction during extraction and the improvement of antioxidant activity of essential oils of basil, lemon and lemongrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele de Freitas Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Essential oil extraction is commonly carried out by using the hydrodistillation method, which is described in official compendia of food quality control and medicinal plants. Despite the widespread use of this method, few studies have evaluated the effect of the atmosphere change during extraction on the composition and antioxidant activity of essentials oils. Therefore, a study of oxygen introduction influence during the extraction of essential oils from basil, lemongrass and lemon by hydrodistillation was performed. Total amount of oxygenated compounds (e.g., linalool, camphor, α-terpineol, neral, geranial, eugenol and α-muurolol increased for all essential oils extracted under oxygen flow. Antioxidant activity evaluated by using the ORAC method significantly increased (P<0.0001 with oxygen from 618 to 906, 355 to 613 and 72 to 262µmol Trolox g-1 oil for basil, lemongrass and lemon, respectively. Therefore, the simple modification proposed could be considered a suitable alternative to obtain essential oils with higher antioxidant activity.

  9. Blood transfusion improves renal oxygenation and renal function in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Zafrani (Lara); B. Ergin (Bulent); Kapucu, A. (Aysegul); C. Ince (Can)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The effects of blood transfusion on renal microcirculation during sepsis are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of blood transfusion on renal microvascular oxygenation and renal function during sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. Methods: Twenty-seven Wistar

  10. Blood transfusion improves renal oxygenation and renal function in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafrani, Lara; Ergin, Bulent; Kapucu, Aysegul; Ince, Can

    2016-01-01

    The effects of blood transfusion on renal microcirculation during sepsis are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of blood transfusion on renal microvascular oxygenation and renal function during sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. Twenty-seven Wistar albino rats were randomized into

  11. Haemodynamics and oxygenation improvement induced by high frequency percussive ventilation in a patient with hypoxia following cardiac surgery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persi Bruno

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction High frequency percussive ventilation is a ventilatory technique that delivers small bursts of high flow respiratory gas into the lungs at high rates. It is classified as a pneumatically powered, pressure-regulated, time-cycled, high-frequency flow interrupter modality of ventilation. High frequency percussive ventilation improves the arterial partial pressure of oxygen with the same positive end expiratory pressure and fractional inspiratory oxygen level as conventional ventilation using a minor mean airway pressure in an open circuit. It reduces the barotraumatic events in a hypoxic patient who has low lung-compliance. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no papers published about this ventilation modality in patients with severe hypoxaemia after cardiac surgery. Case presentation A 75-year-old Caucasian man with an ejection fraction of 27 percent, developed a lung infection with severe hypoxaemia [partial pressure of oxygen/fractional inspiratory oxygen of 90] ten days after cardiac surgery. Conventional ventilation did not improve the gas exchange. He was treated with high frequency percussive ventilation for 12 hours with a low conventional respiratory rate (five per minute. His cardiac output and systemic and pulmonary pressures were monitored. Compared to conventional ventilation, high frequency percussive ventilation gives an improvement of the partial pressure of oxygen from 90 to 190 mmHg with the same fractional inspiratory oxygen and positive end expiratory pressure level. His right ventricular stroke work index was lowered from 19 to seven g-m/m2/beat; his pulmonary vascular resistance index from 267 to 190 dynes•seconds/cm5/m2; left ventricular stroke work index from 28 to 16 gm-m/m2/beat; and his pulmonary arterial wedge pressure was lowered from 32 to 24 mmHg with a lower mean airway pressure compared to conventional ventilation. His cardiac index (2.7 L/min/m2 and ejection fraction (27 percent

  12. Improving rate capability and reducing over-potential of lithium-oxygen batteries through optimization of Dimethylsulfoxide-N/N-dimethylacetamide mixed electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chunguang; Li, Liangyu; Su, Junming; Zhang, Congcong; Chen, Xiang; Huang, Tao; Yu, Aishui

    2017-01-01

    Although dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solvent has been widely researched in rechargeable lithium-oxygen (Li-O 2 ) batteries, high polarization voltage and low rate capability limited its application. In this work, we reported a DMSO-based electrolyte system by adding N, N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) to adjust its physical and electrochemical properties. The ionic conductivity, viscosity, oxygen solubility and diffusion coefficient of the mixed electrolytes as well as their electrochemical performance in Li-O 2 batteries are researched. The electrochemical tests show that the optimized DMSO/DMA volume ratio is 30 to 70 based on the rate performance and polarization voltage of the cell. Compared with that of the pure DMSO-based electrolyte, the cell with the mixed electrolyte shows improved rate capability and reduced charge-discharge over-potential. When increasing current density from 0.2 to 0.5 mA cm −2 , the capability retention improves from 32% to 59%. Meanwhile, the charge-discharge voltage gap drops from 1.4V to 0.9V at a current density of 0.2 mA cm −2 . The improved electrochemical performance could be attributed to low viscosity, high oxygen solubility and diffusion coefficient as well as the low charge-transfer resistance with the mixed electrolyte.

  13. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…

  14. Does Early Decompressive Craniectomy Improve Outcome? Experience from an Active UK Recruiter Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. García Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The results of the recent DECRA study suggest that although craniectomy decreases ICP and ICU length of stay, it is also associated with worst outcomes. Our experience, illustrated by these two striking cases, supports that early decompressive craniectomy may significantly improve the outcome in selected patients. Case Reports. The first patient, a 20-year-old man who suffered severe brain contusion and subarachnoid haemorrhage after a fall downstairs, with refractory ICP of 35 mmHg, despite maximal medical therapy, eventually underwent decompressive craniectomy. After 18 days in intensive care, he was discharged for rehabilitation. The second patient, a 23-year-old man was found at the scene of a road accident with a GCS of 3 and fixed, dilated pupils who underwent extensive unilateral decompressive craniectomy for refractory intracranial hypertension. After three weeks of cooling, paralysis, and neuroprotection, he eventually left ICU for rehabilitation. Outcomes. Four months after leaving ICU, the first patient abseiled 40 m down the main building of St. Mary’s Hospital to raise money for the Trauma Unit. He has returned to part-time work. The second patient, was decannulated less than a month later and made a full cognitive recovery. A year later, with a titanium skull prosthesis, he is back to part-time work and to playing football. Conclusions. Despite the conclusions of the DECRA study, our experience of the use of early decompressive craniectomy has been associated with outstanding outcomes. We are currently actively recruiting patients into the RESCUEicp trial and have high hopes that it will clarify the role of the decompressive craniectomy in traumatic brain injury and whether it effectively improves outcomes.

  15. Early tracking would improve the operative experience of general surgery residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stain, Steven C; Biester, Thomas W; Hanks, John B; Ashley, Stanley W; Valentine, R James; Bass, Barbara L; Buyske, Jo

    2010-09-01

    High surgical complexity and individual career goals has led most general surgery (GS) residents to pursue fellowship training, resulting in a shortage of surgeons who practice broad-based general surgery. We hypothesize that early tracking of residents would improve operative experience of residents planning to be general surgeons, and could foster greater interest and confidence in this career path. Surgical Operative Log data from GS and fellowship bound residents (FB) applying for the 2008 American Board of Surgery Qualifying Examination (QE) were used to construct a hypothetical training model with 6 months of early specialization (ESP) for FB residents in 4 specialties (cardiac, vascular, colorectal, pediatric); and presumed these cases would be available to GS residents within the same program. A total of 142 training programs had both FB residents (n = 237) and GS residents (n = 402), and represented 70% of all 2008 QE applicants. The mean numbers of operations by FB and GS residents were 1131 and 1091, respectively. There were a mean of 252 cases by FB residents in the chief year, theoretically making 126 cases available for each GS resident. In 9 defined categories, the hypothetical model would result in an increase in the 5-year operative experience of GS residents (mastectomy 6.5%; colectomy 22.8%; gastrectomy 23.4%; antireflux procedures 23.4%; pancreatic resection 37.4%; liver resection 29.3%; endocrine procedures 19.6%; trauma operations 13.3%; GI endoscopy 6.5%). The ESP model improves operative experience of GS residents, particularly for complex gastrointestinal procedures. The expansion of subspecialty ESP should be considered.

  16. Modified Early Warning System improves patient safety and clinical outcomes in an academic community hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Mathukia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Severe adverse events such as cardiac arrest and death are often heralded by abnormal vital signs hours before the event. This necessitates an organized track and trigger approach of early recognition and response to subtle changes in a patient's condition. The Modified Early Warning System (MEWS is one of such systems that use temperature, blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate, and level of consciousness with each progressive higher score triggering an action. Root cause analysis for mortalities in our institute has led to the implementation of MEWS in an effort to improve patient outcomes. Here we discuss our experience and the impact of MEWS implementation on patient care at our community academic hospital. Methods: MEWS was implemented in a protocolized manner in June 2013. The following data were collected from non-ICU wards on a monthly basis from January 2010 to June 2014: 1 number of rapid response teams (RRTs per 100 patient-days (100PD; 2 number of cardiopulmonary arrests ‘Code Blue’ per 100PD; and 3 result of each RRT and Code Blue (RRT progressed to Code Blue, higher level of care, ICU transfer, etc.. Overall inpatient mortality data were also analyzed. Results: Since the implementation of MEWS, the number of RRT has increased from 0.24 per 100PD in 2011 to 0.38 per 100PD in 2013, and 0.48 per 100PD in 2014. The percentage of RRTs that progressed to Code Blue, an indicator of poor outcome of RRT, has been decreasing. In contrast, the numbers of Code Blue in non-ICU floors has been progressively decreasing from 0.05 per 100PD in 2011 to 0.02 per 100PD in 2013 and 2014. These improved clinical outcomes are associated with a decline of overall inpatient mortality rate from 2.3% in 2011 to 1.5% in 2013 and 1.2% in 2014. Conclusions: Implementation of MEWS in our institute has led to higher rapid response system utilization but lower cardiopulmonary arrest events; this is associated with a lower mortality

  17. Improvement of microwave-assisted digestion of milk powder with diluted nitric acid using oxygen as auxiliary reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzi, Cezar A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Barin, Juliano S. [Departamento de Tecnologia e Ciencia dos Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Garcia, Edivaldo E. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, 87100-900, Maringa, PR (Brazil); Nobrega, Joaquim A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Dressler, Valderi L. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M., E-mail: ericommf@gmail.com [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    The feasibility of using diluted HNO{sub 3} solutions under oxygen pressure for decomposition of whole and non-fat milk powders and whey powder samples has been evaluated. Digestion efficiency was evaluated by determining the carbon content in solution (digests) and the determination of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb and Zn was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and Hg by chemical vapor generation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Samples (up to 500 mg) were digested using HNO{sub 3} solutions (1 to 14 mol L{sup -1}) and the effect of oxygen pressure was evaluated between 2.5 and 20 bar. It was possible to perform the digestion of 500 mg of milk powder using 2 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} with oxygen pressure ranging from 7.5 to 20 bar with resultant carbon content in digests lower than 1700 mg L{sup -1}. Using optimized conditions, less than 0.86 mL of concentrated nitric acid (14 mol L{sup -1}) was enough to digest 500 mg of sample. The accuracy was evaluated by determination of metal concentrations in certified reference materials, which presented an agreement better than 95% (Student's t test, P < 0.05) for all the analytes.

  18. Cold-water immersion decreases cerebral oxygenation but improves recovery after intermittent-sprint exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minett, G M; Duffield, R; Billaut, F; Cannon, J; Portus, M R; Marino, F E

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the effects of post-exercise cooling on recovery of neuromuscular, physiological, and cerebral hemodynamic responses after intermittent-sprint exercise in the heat. Nine participants underwent three post-exercise recovery trials, including a control (CONT), mixed-method cooling (MIX), and cold-water immersion (10 °C; CWI). Voluntary force and activation were assessed simultaneously with cerebral oxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy) pre- and post-exercise, post-intervention, and 1-h and 24-h post-exercise. Measures of heart rate, core temperature, skin temperature, muscle damage, and inflammation were also collected. Both cooling interventions reduced heart rate, core, and skin temperature post-intervention (P recovery of voluntary force by 12.7 ± 11.7% (mean ± SD) and 16.3 ± 10.5% 1-h post-exercise compared to MIX and CONT, respectively (P  0.05). CWI reduced cerebral oxygenation compared to MIX and CONT post-intervention (P recovery after post-exercise cooling appear to be disassociated with cerebral oxygenation, rather reflecting reductions in thermoregulatory demands to sustain force production. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Incorporating Early Learning Strategies in the School Improvement Grants (SIG) Program: How Three Schools Integrated Early Childhood Strategies into School Turnaround Efforts to Improve Instruction for All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dunn, Lenay; Martella, Jana; McCauley, Carlas

    2015-01-01

    A significant body of research shows that achievement gaps evident in persistently low-performing schools, in many instances, manifest prior to children entering kindergarten. High-quality early learning programs have proven to demonstrate positive effects on closing academic gaps both for individual children and in the aggregate for the school.…

  20. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Complicated Scrub Typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Sun Kim

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a mite-borne infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi . Although early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic therapy improve the prognosis for the majority of patients, life-threatening complications are not uncommon. Here, we present a case of successful veno-veno-type extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for scrub typhus-induced complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocarditis and multi-organ dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in complicated scrub typhus in Korea.

  1. Improved healing of extraperitoneal intestinal anastomoses in the early phase when surrounded by omentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierie, J P; de Graaf, P W; van Dijk, M; Renooij, W; van Vroonhoven, T J; Obertop, H

    2000-01-01

    The extra-anatomical position of a cervical oesophagogastrostomy is a reason for impaired anastomotic healing, but transposition of the omentum that is covered with mesothelial cells may be a way to improve that. This hypothesis was tested in a rat model. An end-to-end jejuno-jejunostomy was placed subcutaneously in group I (n = 29), subcutaneously surrounded by omentum in group II (n = 29) and intra-abdominally surrounded by omentum in group III (n = 20). After 3, 7 or 14 days, the rats were sacrificed and bursting pressure (BP) of the anastomosis or jejunum was measured and the hydroxyproline (HP) level was determined. In group I 5/29, in group II 2/29 and in group III 0/20 rats died following anastomotic leakage (nonsignificant) and were excluded from other measurements. BP was decreased after 3 days in group I (60+/-9 mm Hg) compared with group II (101+/-8 mm Hg) and group III (107+/-11 mm Hg) (p = 0.002). After 7 days, BP in groups I (122+/-10 mm Hg) and II (132+/-10 mm Hg) were lower as compared with group III (230+/-8 mm Hg) (p<0.001). Differences in HP levels were not statistically significant between the groups after 3, 7 and 14 days. The healing of intestinal anastomoses in an extraperitoneal position is improved in the early phase only when surrounded by omentum. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Building a Framework in Improving Drought Monitoring and Early Warning Systems in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, T.; Wall, N.; Haigh, T.; Shiferaw, A. S.; Beyene, S.; Demisse, G. B.; Zaitchik, B.

    2015-12-01

    Decision makers need a basic understanding of the prediction models and products of hydro-climatic extremes and their suitability in time and space for strategic resource and development planning to develop mitigation and adaptation strategies. Advances in our ability to assess and predict climate extremes (e.g., droughts and floods) under evolving climate change suggest opportunity to improve management of climatic/hydrologic risk in agriculture and water resources. In the NASA funded project entitled, "Seasonal Prediction of Hydro-Climatic Extremes in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) under Evolving Climate Conditions to Support Adaptation Strategies," we are attempting to develop a framework that uses dialogue between managers and scientists on how to enhance the use of models' outputs and prediction products in the GHA as well as improve the delivery of this information in ways that can be easily utilized by managers. This process is expected to help our multidisciplinary research team obtain feedback on the models and forecast products. In addition, engaging decision makers is essential in evaluating the use of drought and flood prediction models and products for decision-making processes in drought and flood management. Through this study, we plan to assess information requirements to implement a robust Early Warning Systems (EWS) by engaging decision makers in the process. This participatory process could also help the existing EWSs in Africa and to develop new local and regional EWSs. In this presentation, we report the progress made in the past two years of the NASA project.

  3. Factors associated with timing of early neurological improvement after thrombolysis for ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guettier, S; Cogez, J; Bonnet, A-L; Dean, P; Apoil, M; Tchoumi, T; Dubuc, L; Arzur, J; de la Sayette, V; Kouassi, L-K; Viader, F; Touzé, E

    2016-03-01

    Early neurological improvement (ENI) after fibrinolysis for ischaemic stroke is strongly associated with recanalization and favourable outcome. However, it remains unknown why some patients recover within the first hour after treatment (very ENI, VENI) whereas others recover later within 24 h. The factors associated with the timing of ENI were assessed. Consecutive stroke patients treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) within 4.5 h after onset in four stroke centres of our geographical area were retrospectively studied. VENI assessed at 1 h and ENI assessed at 24 h post-treatment were defined by National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) improvement by 40% from baseline. Of 421 patients, 65 (15%) had VENI and 110 (26%) had ENI. Patients with VENI had significantly lower serum creatinine level than patients with ENI (79 ± 19 vs. 91 ± 35 μmol/l; P = 0.01). After adjustment for age, sex, baseline NIHSS, hypertension and blood glucose level, patients with low serum creatinine level were more likely to have VENI (lowest tertile, odds ratio 3.8, 95% confidence interval 1.5-9.7; intermediate tertile, odds ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 0.8-4.3; P for trend ENI patients to have a modified Rankin scale score ≤2 at 3 months. Low serum creatinine levels are associated with VENI, suggesting that swiftness of the efficacy of rt-PA or of neurological recovery may depend on renal function. © 2016 EAN.

  4. Disease management of early childhood caries: results of a pilot quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Man Wai; Torresyap, Gay; White, Alex; Melvin, Patrice; Graham, Dionne; Kane, Daniel; Scoville, Richard; Ohiomoba, Henry

    2012-08-01

    The purpose is to report findings of a quality improvement (QI) project implemented at two hospital-based dental clinics that care for children with early childhood caries (ECC). We tested a disease management (DM) approach in children younger than age 60 months with ECC. After 30 months, for the 403 and 234 DM patients at Children's Hospital Boston (CHB) and Saint Joseph Hospital (SJH) who returned for at least two visits, rates of new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the OR were 26.1, 13.4 and 10.9% for CHB and 41.0, 7.3 and 14.9% for SJH. Rates of new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the OR for historical controls were 75.2, 21.7, and 20.9% for CHB and 71.3, 31.3, and 25.0% for SJH. A risk-based DM approach utilizing QI strategies to address ECC can be implemented into practice and has the potential to improve care and health outcomes.

  5. Positive end expiratory pressure during one-lung ventilation: Selecting ideal patients and ventilator settings with the aim of improving arterial oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoftman Nir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP in treating intraoperative hypoxemia during one-lung ventilation (OLV remains in question given conflicting results of prior studies. This study aims to (1 evaluate the efficacy of PEEP during OLV, (2 assess the utility of preoperative predictors of response to PEEP, and (3 explore optimal intraoperative settings that would maximize the effects of PEEP on oxygenation. Forty-one thoracic surgery patients from a single tertiary care university center were prospectively enrolled in this observational study. After induction of general anesthesia, a double-lumen endotracheal tube was fiberoptically positioned and OLV initiated. Intraoperatively, PEEP = 5 and 10 cmH 2 O were sequentially applied to the ventilated lung during OLV. Arterial oxygenation, cardiovascular performance parameters, and proposed perioperative variables that could predict or enhance response to PEEP were analysed. T-test and c2 tests were utilized for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate analyses were carried out using a classification tree model of binary recursive partitioning. PEEP improved arterial oxygenation by ≥20% in 29% of patients (n = 12 and failed to do so in 71% (n = 29; however, no cardiovascular impact was noted. Among the proposed clinical predictors, only intraoperative tidal volume per kilogram differed significantly between responders to PEEP and non-responders (mean 6.6 vs. 5.7 ml/kg, P = 0.013; no preoperative variable predicted response to PEEP. A multivariate analysis did not yield a clinically significant model for predicting PEEP responsiveness. PEEP improved oxygenation in a subset of patients; larger, although still protective tidal volumes favored a positive response to PEEP. No preoperative variables, however, could be identified as reliable predictors for PEEP responders.

  6. Oxygen toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. van der Westhuizen

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen has been discovered about 200 years ago. Since then the vital physiological involvement of oxygen in various biologi­cal processes, mainly energy production, has been established. However, in the body molecular oxygen can be converted to toxic oxygen metabolites such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. These toxic metabolites are produced mainly in the mitochondria, plasma membranes and endoplasmic reticulum.

  7. Improving Early Adolescent Girls' Motor Skill: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Natalie; Morgan, Philip J; Salmon, J O; Barnett, Lisa M

    2017-12-01

    Physical activity (PA) levels decline substantially during adolescence and are consistently lower in girls. Competency in a range of fundamental movement skills (FMSs) may serve as a protective factor for the decline in PA typically observed in adolescent girls; yet, girls' mastery in FMS is low. Although interventions can improve FMS, there is a lack of interventions targeting girls, and very few are conducted in high schools. In addition, interventions are usually conducted by researchers, not teachers, and thus have little chance of being embedded into curricula. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based intervention, delivered by teachers, in improving adolescent girls' FMS. Four all-girls Australian secondary schools were recruited and randomized into intervention or control groups. In total, 190 year 7 girls (103 control/87 intervention; mean age, 12.4 ± 0.3 yr) completed baseline and posttest measures at 12 wk. Six FMS (i.e., catch, throw, kick, jump, leap, and dodge) were measured using the Victorian FMS Assessment instrument. Mixed models with posttest skill (i.e., locomotor, object control, and total skill) as the outcome, adjusting for baseline skill, intervention and control status, and relevant covariates, as well as accounting for clustering at school and class level, were used to assess the intervention impact. There were significant intervention effects, and large effect sizes (Cohen d) noted in locomotor (P = 0.04, t = 5.15, d = 1.6), object control (P < 0.001, t = 11.06, d = 0.83), and total skill (P = 0.02, t = 7.22, d = 1.36). Teachers adequately trained in authentic assessment and student-centered instruction can significantly improve the FMS competency of early adolescent girls. Therefore, comprehensive teacher training should be viewed as an integral component of future school-based interventions.

  8. Infrastructure for Large-Scale Quality-Improvement Projects: Early Lessons from North Carolina Improving Performance in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Warren P.; Lefebvre, Ann; Donahue, Katrina E.; Bacon, Thomas; Dobson, Allen

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known regarding how to accomplish large-scale health care improvement. Our goal is to improve the quality of chronic disease care in all primary care practices throughout North Carolina. Methods: Methods for improvement include (1) common quality measures and shared data system; (2) rapid cycle improvement principles; (3)…

  9. Functional High-Intensity Circuit Training Improves Body Composition, Peak Oxygen Uptake, Strength, and Alters Certain Dimensions of Quality of Life in Overweight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Billy; Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit; Zinner, Christoph; Von Stauffenberg, Valerie; Losert, Helena; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2017-01-01

    The effects of circuit-like functional high-intensity training (Circuit HIIT ) alone or in combination with high-volume low-intensity exercise (Circuit combined ) on selected cardio-respiratory and metabolic parameters, body composition, functional strength and the quality of life of overweight women were compared. In this single-center, two-armed randomized, controlled study, overweight women performed 9-weeks (3 sessions·wk -1 ) of either Circuit HIIT ( n = 11), or Circuit combined ( n = 8). Peak oxygen uptake and perception of physical pain were increased to a greater extent ( p body mass, body-mass-index, waist-to-hip ratio, fat mass, and enhanced fat-free mass; decreased ratings of perceived exertion during submaximal treadmill running; improved the numbers of push-ups, burpees, one-legged squats, and 30-s skipping performed, as well as the height of counter-movement jumps; and improved physical and social functioning, role of physical limitations, vitality, role of emotional limitations, and mental health to a similar extent (all p training can be employed to improve body composition, selected variables of functional strength, and certain dimensions of quality of life in overweight women. However, Circuit HIIT improves peak oxygen uptake to a greater extent, but with more perception of pain, whereas Circuit combined results in better perception of general health.

  10. OXYGEN MANAGEMENT DURING ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    MOENNE VARGAS, MARÍA ISABE

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen additions are a common practice in winemaking, as oxygen has a positive effect in fermentative kinetics, biomass synthesis and improvement of color, structure and :flavor in treated wines. However, most oxygen additions are carried out heuristically through pump-over operations solely on a know-how basis, which is difficult to manage in terms of the exact quantity of oxygen transferred to the fermenting must. It is important to estímate the amount of oxygen added because...

  11. Missed, Misused, or Mismanaged: Improving Early Detection Systems to Optimize Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Marisa; Marks, Kevin; Towle, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Early detection efforts have been shown to vary greatly in practice, and there is a general lack of systematic accountability built into monitoring early detection effort impact. This article reviews current early detection practices and the drawbacks of these practices, with particular attention given to prevalent issues of mismeasurement,…

  12. Vantage point - Early warning flaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinden, Donna

    2014-08-28

    USING AN EARLY warning score (EWS) system should improve the detection of acutely deteriorating patients. Under such a system, a score is allocated to each of six physiological measurements including respiratory rate and oxygen saturations, which are aggregated to produce an overall score. An aggregated score of seven or higher prompts nursing staff to refer a patient for emergency assessment.

  13. [Effects of seawater immersion on the inflammatory response and oxygen free radical injury of rats with superficial partial-thickness scald at early stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y X; Wang, J H; Liu, L; Zou, Q; Zhang, Y; Bai, Z

    2017-06-20

    Objective: To study the effects of seawater immersion on the inflammatory response and oxygen free radical injury of rats with superficial-thickness scald at early stage. Methods: Seventy Wistar rats were divided into healthy control group (HC, n =7), pure scald group (PS, n =21), scald+ fresh water immersion group (SF, n =21), and scald+ seawater immersion group (SS, n =21) according to the random number table. Rats in group HC did not receive any treatment, while 5% total body surface area superficial partial-thickness scald was made on the back of rats in the latter three groups. Rats in group PS lived freely immediately post burn, while wounds on the back of rats in groups SF and SS were immersed into fresh water and seawater, respectively. Serum and full-thickness skin tissue in the center of wounds on the back of 7 rats in groups PS, SF, and SS at post immersion (injury) hour (PIH) 2, 4, and 6 were collected, respectively, while serum and full-thickness skin tissue at the same position of the 7 rats in group HC were collected at PIH 6 of rats in other groups. Morphology of skin tissue was observed with HE staining; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) content in serum and skin tissue was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; superoxide dismutase (SOD) content in serum and skin tissue was determined by hydroxylamine method; malondialdehyde content in serum and skin tissue was determined by thiobarbituric acid method. Data were processed with analysis of variance of factorial design, one-way analysis of variance, Welch test, LSD test, and Tamhane test. Results: (1) Epidermal cells of skin tissue of rats in group HC arranged in order and continuously, and the dermis tissue and accessory structures were clear and complete. The skin layer and epidermis of wounds of rats in group PS had no significant change, but the edema of epidermis and dermis and infiltration of inflammatory cells enhanced over time at PIH 2, 4, and 6. The horny layer of epidermis of

  14. Development of an e-learning system for teaching endoscopists how to diagnose early gastric cancer: basic principles for improving early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kenshi; Uedo, Noriya; Muto, Manabu; Ishikawa, Hideki

    2017-03-01

    We developed an internet e-learning system in order to improve the ability of endoscopists to diagnose gastric cancer at an early stage. The efficacy of this system at expanding knowledge and providing invaluable experience regarding the endoscopic detection of early gastric cancer was demonstrated through an international multicenter randomized controlled trial. However, the contents of the system have not yet been fully described in the literature. Accordingly, we herein introduce the contents and their principles, which comprise three main subjects: technique, knowledge, and experience. Since all the e-learning contents and principles are based on conventional white-light endoscopy alone, which is commonly available throughout the world, they should provide a good reference point for any endoscopist who wishes to devise learning materials and guidelines for improving their own clinical practice.

  15. Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Loss of Synaptic Akt1 Signaling Leads to Deficient Activity-Dependent Protein Translation Early in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faraz; Singh, Kunal; Das, Debajyoti; Gowaikar, Ruturaj; Shaw, Eisha; Ramachandran, Arathy; Rupanagudi, Khader Valli; Kommaddi, Reddy Peera; Bennett, David A; Ravindranath, Vijayalakshmi

    2017-12-01

    Synaptic deficits are known to underlie the cognitive dysfunction seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by β-amyloid has also been implicated in AD pathogenesis. However, it is unclear whether ROS contributes to synaptic dysfunction seen in AD pathogenesis and, therefore, we examined whether altered redox signaling could contribute to synaptic deficits in AD. Activity dependent but not basal translation was impaired in synaptoneurosomes from 1-month old presymptomatic APP Swe /PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) mice, and this deficit was sustained till middle age (MA, 9-10 months). ROS generation leads to oxidative modification of Akt1 in the synapse and consequent reduction in Akt1-mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, leading to deficiency in activity-dependent protein translation. Moreover, we found a similar loss of activity-dependent protein translation in synaptoneurosomes from postmortem AD brains. Loss of activity-dependent protein translation occurs presymptomatically early in the pathogenesis of AD. This is caused by ROS-mediated loss of pAkt1, leading to reduced synaptic Akt1-mTOR signaling and is rescued by overexpression of Akt1. ROS-mediated damage is restricted to the synaptosomes, indicating selectivity. We demonstrate that ROS-mediated oxidative modification of Akt1 contributes to synaptic dysfunction in AD, seen as loss of activity-dependent protein translation that is essential for synaptic plasticity and maintenance. Therapeutic strategies promoting Akt1-mTOR signaling at synapses may provide novel target(s) for disease-modifying therapy in AD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1269-1280.

  16. Improving the Characteristics of Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 2} Grown at Room Temperature with Oxygen Radical-Assisted Electron Beam Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Min-Suk [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Inseok [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Indium tin oxide, ITO) is widely utilized in numerous industrial applications due to its high electrical conductivity and high optical transmittance in the visible region. High quality ITO thin-films have been grown at room temperature by oxygen radical assisted e-beam evaporation without any post annealing or plasma treatment. The introduction of oxygen radicals during e-beam growth greatly improved the surface morphology and structural properties of the ITO films. The obtained ITO film exhibits higher carrier mobility of 43.2 cm{sup 2}/V·s and larger optical transmittance of 84.6%, resulting in a higher figure of merit of ∼ 2.8 × 10{sup −2} Ω{sup −1}, which are quite comparable to the ITO film deposited by conventional e-beam evaporation. These results show that ITO films grown by oxygen radical assisted e-beam evaporation at room temperature with high optical transmittance and high electron conductivity have a great potential for organic optoelectronic devices.

  17. Improving the characteristics of Sn-doped In2O2 grown at room temperature with oxygen radical-assisted electron beam deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Min-Suk; Seo, Inseok

    2017-07-01

    Sn-doped In2O3 (Indium tin oxide, ITO) is widely utilized in numerous industrial applications due to its high electrical conductivity and high optical transmittance in the visible region. High quality ITO thin-films have been grown at room temperature by oxygen radical assisted e-beam evaporation without any post annealing or plasma treatment. The introduction of oxygen radicals during e-beam growth greatly improved the surface morphology and structural properties of the ITO films. The obtained ITO film exhibits higher carrier mobility of 43.2 cm2/V·s and larger optical transmittance of 84.6%, resulting in a higher figure of merit of ˜ 2.8 × 10-2 Ω-1, which are quite comparable to the ITO film deposited by conventional e-beam evaporation. These results show that ITO films grown by oxygen radical assisted e-beam evaporation at room temperature with high optical transmittance and high electron conductivity have a great potential for organic optoelectronic devices.

  18. Do minimum wages improve early life health? Evidence from developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Muhammad Farhan; Mendoza Rodríguez, José M; Harper, Sam; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit

    2016-06-01

    The impact of legislated minimum wages on the early-life health of children living in low and middle-income countries has not been examined. For our analyses, we used data from the Demographic and Household Surveys (DHS) from 57 countries conducted between 1999 and 2013. Our analyses focus on height-for-age z scores (HAZ) for children under 5 years of age who were surveyed as part of the DHS. To identify the causal effect of minimum wages, we utilized plausibly exogenous variation in the legislated minimum wages during each child's year of birth, the identifying assumption being that mothers do not time their births around changes in the minimum wage. As a sensitivity exercise, we also made within family comparisons (mother fixed effect models). Our final analysis on 49 countries reveal that a 1% increase in minimum wages was associated with 0.1% (95% CI = -0.2, 0) decrease in HAZ scores. Adverse effects of an increase in the minimum wage were observed among girls and for children of fathers who were less than 35 years old, mothers aged 20-29, parents who were married, parents who were less educated, and parents involved in manual work. We also explored heterogeneity by region and GDP per capita at baseline (1999). Adverse effects were concentrated in lower-income countries and were most pronounced in South Asia. By contrast, increases in the minimum wage improved children's HAZ in Latin America, and among children of parents working in a skilled sector. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that increases in the minimum wage unconditionally improve child health in lower-income countries, and highlight heterogeneity in the impact of minimum wages around the globe. Future work should involve country and occupation specific studies which can explore not only different outcomes such as infant mortality rates, but also explore the role of parental investments in shaping these effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Contemporary management of median arcuate ligament syndrome provides early symptom improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbo, Jesse A.; Trus, Thadeus; Nolan, Brian; Goodney, Philip; Rzucidlo, Eva; Powell, Richard; Walsh, Daniel; Stone, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective Optimal diagnosis and management of median arcuate ligament (MAL) syndrome (MALS) remains unclear in contemporary practice. The advent and evolution of laparoscopic and endovascular techniques has redirected management toward a less invasive therapeutic algorithm. This study examined our contemporary outcomes of patients treated for MALS. Methods All patients treated for MALS at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center from 2000 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographics and comorbidities were recorded. Freedom from symptoms and freedom from reintervention were the primary end points. Return to work or school was assessed. Follow-up by clinic visits and telephone allowed quantitative comparisons among the patients. Results During the study interval, 21 patients (24% male), with a median age of 42 years, were treated for MALS. All patients complained of abdominal pain in the presence of a celiac stenosis, 16 (76%) also reported weight loss at the time of presentation, and 57% had a concomitant psychiatric history. Diagnostic imaging most commonly used included duplex ultrasound (81%), computed tomography angiography (66%), angiography (57%), and magnetic resonance angiography (5%). Fourteen patients (67%) underwent multiple diagnostic studies. All patients underwent initial laparoscopic MAL release. Seven patients (33%) underwent subsequent celiac stent placement in the setting of recurrent or unresolved symptoms with persistent celiac stenosis at a mean interval of 49 days. Two patients required surgical bypass after an endovascular intervention failed. The 6-month freedom from symptoms was 75% and freedom from reintervention was 64%. Eighteen patients (81%) reported early symptom improvement and weight gain, and 66% were able to return to work. Conclusions A multidisciplinary treatment approach using initial laparoscopic release and subsequent stent placement and bypass surgery provides symptom improvement in most patients treated for MALS. The

  20. Improving decision speed, accuracy and group cohesion through early information gathering in house-hunting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeymeyt, Nathalie; Giurfa, Martin; Franks, Nigel R

    2010-09-29

    Successful collective decision-making depends on groups of animals being able to make accurate choices while maintaining group cohesion. However, increasing accuracy and/or cohesion usually decreases decision speed and vice-versa. Such trade-offs are widespread in animal decision-making and result in various decision-making strategies that emphasize either speed or accuracy, depending on the context. Speed-accuracy trade-offs have been the object of many theoretical investigations, but these studies did not consider the possible effects of previous experience and/or knowledge of individuals on such trade-offs. In this study, we investigated how previous knowledge of their environment may affect emigration speed, nest choice and colony cohesion in emigrations of the house-hunting ant Temnothorax albipennis, a collective decision-making process subject to a classical speed-accuracy trade-off. Colonies allowed to explore a high quality nest site for one week before they were forced to emigrate found that nest and accepted it faster than emigrating naïve colonies. This resulted in increased speed in single choice emigrations and higher colony cohesion in binary choice emigrations. Additionally, colonies allowed to explore both high and low quality nest sites for one week prior to emigration remained more cohesive, made more accurate decisions and emigrated faster than emigrating naïve colonies. These results show that colonies gather and store information about available nest sites while their nest is still intact, and later retrieve and use this information when they need to emigrate. This improves colony performance. Early gathering of information for later use is therefore an effective strategy allowing T. albipennis colonies to improve simultaneously all aspects of the decision-making process--i.e. speed, accuracy and cohesion--and partly circumvent the speed-accuracy trade-off classically observed during emigrations. These findings should be taken into account

  1. A Tumor-Targeted Nanodelivery System to Improve Early MRI Detection of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen F. Pirollo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of improvements in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI that would enhance sensitivity, leading to earlier detection of cancer and visualization of metastatic disease, is an area of intense exploration. We have devised a tumor-targeting, liposomal nanodelivery platform for use in gene medicine. This systemically administered nanocomplex has been shown to specifically and efficiently deliver both genes and oligonucleotides to primary and metastatic tumor cells, resulting in significant tumor growth inhibition and even tumor regression. Here we examine the effect on MRI of incorporating conventional MRI contrast agent Magnevist® into our anti-transferrin receptor single-chain antibody (TfRscFv liposomal complex. Both in vitro and in an in vivo orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer, we show increased resolution and image intensity with the complexed Magnevist®. Using advanced microscopy techniques (scanning electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy, we also established that the Magnevist® is in fact encapsulated by the liposome in the complex and that the complex still retains its nanodimensional size. These results demonstrate that this TfRscFv-liposome-Magnevist® nanocomplex has the potential to become a useful tool in early cancer detection.

  2. Linezolid is Associated with Improved Early Outcomes of Childhood Tuberculous Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huimin; Lu, Jie; Liu, Jinrong; Zhao, Yuhong; Ni, Xin; Zhao, Shunying

    2016-06-01

    Linezolid serves as an important component for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis although there is little published data about linezolid use in children, especially in childhood tuberculous meningitis (TBM). In this study, we retrospectively reviewed records of childhood TBM patients who started treatment between January 2012 and August 2014. A total of 86 childhood TBM patients younger than 15 years old were enrolled. Out of 86 children, 36 (41.9%) received the regimen containing linezolid. Thirty-two (88.9%) of 36 linezolid-treated cases had favorable outcomes, and 35 (70.0%) cases were successfully treated in the control group. The frequency of favorable outcome of linezolid group was significantly higher than that of control group (P = 0.037). In addition, compared with cases with fever clearance time of 4 weeks (P = 0.000) than linezolid group. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the frequency of adverse events between the two regimens (P = 0.896). In addition, the patients with adverse events were more likely to have treatment failure, the P value of which was 0.008. Our data demonstrate that linezolid improves early outcome of childhood TBM. The low frequency of linezolid-associated adverse effects highlights the promising prospects of its use for treatment of childhood TBM.

  3. Robotic-assisted gastroplication in a morbidly obese adolescent: early improvement in metabolic and neurohormonal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Calcaterra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bariatric surgery has to be considered in the management of severely obese adolescents when all conservative measures have been proven to be unresponsive. Short term metabolic and neurohormonal profile changes after robotic-assisted gastroplication are evaluated. The benefits and the usefulness of this surgical-reversal procedure in adolescent need to be defined. Fiveteen years old girl with body mass index 42.2 kg/m2, hyperinsulinism, hyperandrogenism, amenorrhea, polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypertension with left ventricular hypertrophy. Gastric volume after surgical procedure reduction was 80-100 mL. One month postoperatively significant weigh loss was obtained. Insulin levels, insulin-resistance, leptin and ghrelin concentration were substantially ameliorated. We can conclude that bariatric surgery should be considered for a minority of severely obese adolescents under the supervision of a multidisciplinary pediatric team. Our experience confirmed that the gastroplication is safe, feasible and effective and furthermore is a reversible technique. The early improvement of the obesity co-morbities is allowed. The increased surgical accuracy in robotic assistance could limit postoperative complications rate in obese adolescents.

  4. The influence of systemic hemodynamics and oxygen transport on cerebral oxygen saturation in neonates after the Norwood procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Gencheng; Holtby, Helen; Guerguerian, Anne-Marie; Cai, Sally; Humpl, Tilman; Caldarone, Christopher A; Redington, Andrew N; Van Arsdell, Glen S

    2008-01-01

    Ischemic brain injury is an important morbidity in neonates after the Norwood procedure. Its relationship to systemic hemodynamic oxygen transport is poorly understood. Sixteen neonates undergoing the Norwood procedure were studied. Continuous cerebral oxygen saturation was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. Continuous oxygen consumption was measured by respiratory mass spectrometry. Pulmonary and systemic blood flow, systemic vascular resistance, oxygen delivery, and oxygen extraction ratio were derived with measurements of arterial, and superior vena cava and pulmonary venous gases and pressures at 2- to 4-hour intervals during the first 72 hours in the intensive care unit. Mean cerebral oxygen saturation was 66% +/- 12% before the operation, reduced to 51% +/- 13% on arrival in the intensive care unit, and remained low during the first 8 hours; it increased to 56% +/- 9% at 72 hours, still significantly lower than the preoperative level (P blood flow and oxygen delivery (P blood flow (P = .001) and hemoglobin (P = .02) and negatively correlated with systemic vascular resistance (P = .003). It was not correlated with oxygen consumption (P > .05). Cerebral oxygen saturation decreased significantly in neonates during the early postoperative period after the Norwood procedure and was significantly influenced by systemic hemodynamic and metabolic events. As such, hemodynamic interventions to modify systemic oxygen transport may provide further opportunities to reduce the risk of cerebral ischemia and improve neurodevelopmental outcomes.

  5. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children’s math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hours) of training on math and science or on an alternative topic. Educators’ provision of math and science learning opportunities were documented, as were the fall-to-spring math and science learning gains of children (n = 385) enrolled in their classrooms. Professional development significantly impacted provision of science, but not math, learning opportunities. Professional development did not directly impact children’s math or science learning, although science learning was indirectly affected via the increase in science learning opportunities. Both math and science learning opportunities were positively associated with children’s learning. Results suggest that substantive efforts are necessary to ensure that children have opportunities to learn math and science from a young age. PMID:26257434

  6. Infrastructure for large-scale quality-improvement projects: early lessons from North Carolina Improving Performance in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Warren P; Lefebvre, Ann; Donahue, Katrina E; Bacon, Thomas; Dobson, Allen

    2010-01-01

    Little is known regarding how to accomplish large-scale health care improvement. Our goal is to improve the quality of chronic disease care in all primary care practices throughout North Carolina. Methods for improvement include (1) common quality measures and shared data system; (2) rapid cycle improvement principles; (3) quality-improvement consultants (QICs), or practice facilitators; (4) learning networks; and (5) alignment of incentives. We emphasized a community-based strategy and developing a statewide infrastructure. Results are reported from the first 2 years of the North Carolina Improving Performance in Practice (IPIP) project. A coalition was formed to include professional societies, North Carolina AHEC, Community Care of North Carolina, insurers, and other organizations. Wave One started with 18 practices in 2 of 9 regions of the state. Quality-improvement consultants recruited practices. Over 80 percent of practices attended all quarterly regional meetings. In 9 months, almost all diabetes measures improved, and a bundled asthma measure improved from 33 to 58 percent. Overall, the magnitude of improvement was clinically and statistically significant (P = .001). Quality improvements were maintained on review 1 year later. Wave Two has spread to 103 practices in all 9 regions of the state, with 42 additional practices beginning the enrollment process. Large-scale health care quality improvement is feasible, when broadly supported by statewide leadership and community infrastructure. Practice-collected data and lack of a control group are limitations of the study design. Future priorities include maintaining improved sustainability for practices and communities. Our long-term goal is to transform all 2000 primary-care practices in our state.

  7. A short period of high-intensity interval training improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Jacobs, Robert A; Bonne, Thomas Christian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improvements in pulmonary V̇O2 kinetics following a short period of high-intensity training (HIT) would be associated with improved skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Ten untrained male volunteers (age: 26 ± 2; mean ± SD) performed six HIT...

  8. Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their breathing to dangerously low levels. Will I need oxygen when I sleep? Usually if you use supplemental oxygen during the ... your health care provider tells you you only need to use oxygen for exercise or sleep. Even if you feel “fine” off of your ...

  9. Improving cerebral oxygenation, cognition and autonomic nervous system control of a chronic alcohol abuser through a three-month running program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aranha Cabral

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The abusive use of alcohol has shown to be associated to cerebral damage, impaired cognition, poor autonomic nervous control, impaired cardiovascular health, increased levels of stress and anxiety, depression symptoms and poor quality of life. Aerobic exercise has shown to be an efficient tool to reduce and overcome these issues. In this case report, a patient (forty-four years old, male under treatment in public psychiatric hospital, classified as having a substance use disorder, underwent a three-month running program. The maximal oxygen consumption increased from 24.2ml/kg/min to 30.1ml/kg/min, running time increased from 6min to 45min (650% and distance covered from 765m to 8700m (1037.2%. In prefrontal cortex oxygenation, oxyhemoglobin levels improved by 76.1%, deoxyhemoglobin decreased 96.9% and total hemoglobin increased 78.8% during exercise. Reaction time in the cognitive test during rest decreased 23%, and the number of correct answers increased by 266.6%. Parasympathetic cardiac parameters increased in several heart rate variability indices. Thus, we conclude that running exercise performed by an alcoholic patient hospitalized in a psychiatric hospital improves cerebral function, cognition and cardiovascular health. Keywords: Alcohol addiction, Near infrared spectroscopy, Prefrontal cortex, Running exercise, Treatment

  10. Providing a Head Start: Improving Access to Early Childhood Education for Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, Lyn; Ives, Nicole; McNeely, Clea; Allen, Chenoa

    2016-01-01

    The current research on the benefits of high-quality early childhood education and care (ECEC) leaves little doubt that early interventions have both short- and long-term advantages. Quality ECEC can have substantial positive impacts on young children's social, emotional, cognitive, and language development, with long-term effects on educational…

  11. Quality Improvement in Early Years Settings in Hong Kong and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Dora; Campbell-Barr, Verity; Leeson, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    With a growing awareness of the importance of early childhood education, the governments of Hong Kong and England have both increased investment through providing fee assistance to parents for buying services and providing funding to providers for offering "free" places, respectively. Alongside the increased funding of early childhood…

  12. Incorporating Early Learning Strategies in the School Improvement Grants (SIG) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dunn, Lenay; Martella, Jana; McCauley, Carlas

    2015-01-01

    The Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) and the Center on School Turnaround (CST) collaborated to develop case studies of three selected schools receiving SIG funds that have, with the support of their districts, promoted the use of early childhood programming (PK-3) as a key strategy in their schools' turnaround models. The goal…

  13. Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

    2011-12-22

    The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting

  14. Improving the baking quality of bread wheat by genomic selection in early generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Sebastian; Kummer, Christian; Gallee, Martin; Hellinger, Jakob; Ametz, Christian; Akgöl, Batuhan; Epure, Doru; Löschenberger, Franziska; Buerstmayr, Hermann

    2018-02-01

    Genomic selection shows great promise for pre-selecting lines with superior bread baking quality in early generations, 3 years ahead of labour-intensive, time-consuming, and costly quality analysis. The genetic improvement of baking quality is one of the grand challenges in wheat breeding as the assessment of the associated traits often involves time-consuming, labour-intensive, and costly testing forcing breeders to postpone sophisticated quality tests to the very last phases of variety development. The prospect of genomic selection for complex traits like grain yield has been shown in numerous studies, and might thus be also an interesting method to select for baking quality traits. Hence, we focused in this study on the accuracy of genomic selection for laborious and expensive to phenotype quality traits as well as its selection response in comparison with phenotypic selection. More than 400 genotyped wheat lines were, therefore, phenotyped for protein content, dough viscoelastic and mixing properties related to baking quality in multi-environment trials 2009-2016. The average prediction accuracy across three independent validation populations was r = 0.39 and could be increased to r = 0.47 by modelling major QTL as fixed effects as well as employing multi-trait prediction models, which resulted in an acceptable prediction accuracy for all dough rheological traits (r = 0.38-0.63). Genomic selection can furthermore be applied 2-3 years earlier than direct phenotypic selection, and the estimated selection response was nearly twice as high in comparison with indirect selection by protein content for baking quality related traits. This considerable advantage of genomic selection could accordingly support breeders in their selection decisions and aid in efficiently combining superior baking quality with grain yield in newly developed wheat varieties.

  15. Augmenting Amyloid PET Interpretations With Quantitative Information Improves Consistency of Early Amyloid Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harn, Nicholas R; Hunt, Suzanne L; Hill, Jacqueline; Vidoni, Eric; Perry, Mark; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2017-08-01

    Establishing reliable methods for interpreting elevated cerebral amyloid-β plaque on PET scans is increasingly important for radiologists, as availability of PET imaging in clinical practice increases. We examined a 3-step method to detect plaque in cognitively normal older adults, focusing on the additive value of quantitative information during the PET scan interpretation process. Fifty-five F-florbetapir PET scans were evaluated by 3 experienced raters. Scans were first visually interpreted as having "elevated" or "nonelevated" plaque burden ("Visual Read"). Images were then processed using a standardized quantitative analysis software (MIMneuro) to generate whole brain and region of interest SUV ratios. This "Quantitative Read" was considered elevated if at least 2 of 6 regions of interest had an SUV ratio of more than 1.1. The final interpretation combined both visual and quantitative data together ("VisQ Read"). Cohen kappa values were assessed as a measure of interpretation agreement. Plaque was elevated in 25.5% to 29.1% of the 165 total Visual Reads. Interrater agreement was strong (kappa = 0.73-0.82) and consistent with reported values. Quantitative Reads were elevated in 45.5% of participants. Final VisQ Reads changed from initial Visual Reads in 16 interpretations (9.7%), with most changing from "nonelevated" Visual Reads to "elevated." These changed interpretations demonstrated lower plaque quantification than those initially read as "elevated" that remained unchanged. Interrater variability improved for VisQ Reads with the addition of quantitative information (kappa = 0.88-0.96). Inclusion of quantitative information increases consistency of PET scan interpretations for early detection of cerebral amyloid-β plaque accumulation.

  16. Salt formation improved the properties of a candidate drug during early formulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigfridsson, Kalle; Ahlqvist, Matti; Lindsjö, Martin; Paulsson, Stefan

    2018-07-30

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if AZD5329, a dual neurokinin NK1/2 receptor antagonist, is a suitable candidate for further development as an oral immediate release (IR) solid dosage form as a final product. The neutral form of AZD5329 has only been isolated as amorphous material. In order to search for a solid material with improved physical and chemical stability and more suitable solid-state properties, a salt screen was performed. Crystalline material of a maleic acid salt and a fumaric acid salt of AZD5329 were obtained. X-ray powder diffractiometry, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic vapor sorption were used to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of the two salts. The fumarate salt of AZD5329 is anhydrous, the crystallization is reproducible and the hygroscopicity is acceptable. Early polymorphism assessment work using slurry technique did not reveal any better crystal modification or crystallinity for the fumarate salt. For the maleate salt, the form isolated originally was found to be a solvate, but an anhydrous form was found in later experiments; by suspension in water or acetone, by drying of the solvate to 100-120 °C or by subjecting the solvate form to conditions of 40 °C/75%RH for 3 months. The dissolution behavior and the chemical stability (in aqueous solutions, formulations and solid-state) of both salts were also studied and found to be satisfactory. The compound displays sensitivity to low pH, and the salt of the maleic acid, which is the stronger acid, shows more degradation during stability studies, in line with this observation. The presented data indicate that the substance fulfils basic requirements for further development of an IR dosage form, based on the characterization on crystalline salts of AZD5329. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictors of satisfactory improvements in pain for patients with early rheumatoid arthritis in a treat-to-target study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, P.M. ten; Vonkeman, H.E.; Voshaar, M.A.; Siemons, L.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Laar, M.A.F.J. van de

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify baseline predictors of achieving patient-perceived satisfactory improvement (PPSI) in pain after 6 months of treat to target in patients with early RA. METHODS: Baseline and 6 month data were used from patients included in the Dutch Rheumatoid

  18. Improving decision speed, accuracy and group cohesion through early information gathering in house-hunting ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Stroeymeyt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful collective decision-making depends on groups of animals being able to make accurate choices while maintaining group cohesion. However, increasing accuracy and/or cohesion usually decreases decision speed and vice-versa. Such trade-offs are widespread in animal decision-making and result in various decision-making strategies that emphasize either speed or accuracy, depending on the context. Speed-accuracy trade-offs have been the object of many theoretical investigations, but these studies did not consider the possible effects of previous experience and/or knowledge of individuals on such trade-offs. In this study, we investigated how previous knowledge of their environment may affect emigration speed, nest choice and colony cohesion in emigrations of the house-hunting ant Temnothorax albipennis, a collective decision-making process subject to a classical speed-accuracy trade-off. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Colonies allowed to explore a high quality nest site for one week before they were forced to emigrate found that nest and accepted it faster than emigrating naïve colonies. This resulted in increased speed in single choice emigrations and higher colony cohesion in binary choice emigrations. Additionally, colonies allowed to explore both high and low quality nest sites for one week prior to emigration remained more cohesive, made more accurate decisions and emigrated faster than emigrating naïve colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that colonies gather and store information about available nest sites while their nest is still intact, and later retrieve and use this information when they need to emigrate. This improves colony performance. Early gathering of information for later use is therefore an effective strategy allowing T. albipennis colonies to improve simultaneously all aspects of the decision-making process--i.e. speed, accuracy and cohesion--and partly circumvent the speed-accuracy trade

  19. Application of a high throughput method of biomarker discovery to improvement of the EarlyCDT(®-Lung Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel K Macdonald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The National Lung Screening Trial showed that CT screening for lung cancer led to a 20% reduction in mortality. However, CT screening has a number of disadvantages including low specificity. A validated autoantibody assay is available commercially (EarlyCDT®-Lung to aid in the early detection of lung cancer and risk stratification in patients with pulmonary nodules detected by CT. Recent advances in high throughput (HTP cloning and expression methods have been developed into a discovery pipeline to identify biomarkers that detect autoantibodies. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the successful clinical application of this strategy to add to the EarlyCDT-Lung panel in order to improve its sensitivity and specificity (and hence positive predictive value, (PPV. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Serum from two matched independent cohorts of lung cancer patients were used (n = 100 and n = 165. Sixty nine proteins were initially screened on an abridged HTP version of the autoantibody ELISA using protein prepared on small scale by a HTP expression and purification screen. Promising leads were produced in shake flask culture and tested on the full assay. These results were analyzed in combination with those from the EarlyCDT-Lung panel in order to provide a set of re-optimized cut-offs. Five proteins that still displayed cancer/normal differentiation were tested for reproducibility and validation on a second batch of protein and a separate patient cohort. Addition of these proteins resulted in an improvement in the sensitivity and specificity of the test from 38% and 86% to 49% and 93% respectively (PPV improvement from 1 in 16 to 1 in 7. CONCLUSION: This is a practical example of the value of investing resources to develop a HTP technology. Such technology may lead to improvement in the clinical utility of the EarlyCDT--Lung test, and so further aid the early detection of lung cancer.

  20. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and surgical delay improve flap survival of reverse pedicle flaps for lower third leg and foot reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeoth Mukundan Korambayil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of the study is to present a management protocol for various types of soft tissue defects of the distal third region of leg and foot treated with pedicle flaps, by including hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy in the treatment regimen with flap delay. Methods: We present a prospective study of 23 patients with various types of soft tissue defects of the foot, and lower third of leg managed in our institution from December 2012 to December 2013. All soft tissue defects were treated by a reverse pedicle flap. Twelve patients were managed with flap delay with HBO therapy and 11 patients with immediate flaps without HBO therapy. The postoperative period, hospital course, and follow-up were documented. Results: Of 12 patients with flap delay and HBO, 10 patients did not suffer any complications secondary to flap transfer. One patient had discoloration of the tip of the flap, which settled without the intervention, and 1 patient had recurrent abscess formation, which required debridement and closure. Of 11 patients with direct transfer, 6 patients presented with complications including flap congestion, partial flap loss, and tip necrosis, which required secondary intervention. Conclusion: HBO therapy is a useful adjunct in flap delay of the reverse pedicle flap for soft tissue reconstruction of the lower third of the leg and foot regions.

  1. Improving biomass-derived carbon by activation with nitrogen and cobalt for supercapacitors and oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Man; Jin, Xin; Wang, Linan; Sun, Mengjia; Tang, Yang; Chen, Yongmei; Sun, Yanzhi; Yang, Xiaojin; Wan, Pingyu

    2017-07-01

    Biomass-derived carbon by activation with nitrogen and cobalt (denoted as NPACCo) was prepared by one-pot pyrolysis of pomelo peel with melamine, cobalt nitrate and potassium hydroxide, followed by acid leaching. NPACCo possesses high content of quaternary-N (2.5%) and pyridinic-N (1.7%), co-existences of amorphous and short-range ordered carbon, high specific surface area and pore structure with majority of micropores and small mesopores. As electrode material of supercapacitors, NPACCo exhibits high specific capacitance and good rate capability. At ultrahigh rate of 50 A g-1 (135 mA cm-2), the capacitance of NPACCo remains 246 F g-1, which is 6.3, 1.9 and 3.2 times as high as that of other three materials (PC, PAC and NPAC). The as-assembled symmetric supercapacitor of NPACCo delivers high energy density, high power density and excellent cycling stability. With respect to oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), NPACCo exhibits high onset potential (0.87 V), high half-wave potential (0.78 V), excellent methanol tolerance and low yield of H2O2. The ORR properties of NPACCo are comparable or superior to those of commercial Pt/C. This investigation of pomelo peel-based NPACCo would be valuable for development of both supercapacitor and ORR.

  2. Electrostimulation improves muscle perfusion but does not affect either muscle deoxygenation or pulmonary oxygen consumption kinetics during a heavy constant-load exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layec, Gwenael; Millet, Grégoire P; Jougla, Aurélie; Micallef, Jean-Paul; Bendahan, David

    2008-02-01

    Electromyostimulation (EMS) is commonly used as part of training programs. However, the exact effects at the muscle level are largely unknown and it has been recently hypothesized that the beneficial effect of EMS could be mediated by an improved muscle perfusion. In the present study, we investigated rates of changes in pulmonary oxygen consumption (VO(2p)) and muscle deoxygenation during a standardized exercise performed after an EMS warm-up session. We aimed at determining whether EMS could modify pulmonary O(2) uptake and muscle deoxygenation as a result of improved oxygen delivery. Nine subjects performed a 6-min heavy constant load cycling exercise bout preceded either by an EMS session (EMS) or under control conditions (CONT). VO(2p) and heart rate (HR) were measured while deoxy-(HHb), oxy-(HbO(2)) and total haemoglobin/myoglobin (Hb(tot)) relative contents were measured using near infrared spectroscopy. EMS significantly increased (P < 0.05) the Hb(tot) resting level illustrating a residual hyperaemia. The EMS priming exercise did not affect either the HHb time constant (17.7 +/- 14.2 s vs. 13.1 +/- 2.3 s under control conditions) or the VO(2p) kinetics (time-constant = 18.2 +/- 5.2 s vs. 15.4 +/- 4.6 s under control conditions). Likewise, the other VO(2p) parameters were unchanged. Our results further indicated that EMS warm-up improved muscle perfusion through a residual hyperaemia. However, neither VO(2p) nor [HHb] kinetics were modified accordingly. These results suggest that improved O(2) delivery by residual hyperaemia induced by EMS does not accelerate the rate of aerobic metabolism during heavy exercise at least in trained subjects.

  3. Oxygen Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Solmes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available LTOT is prescribed for people with chronic lung disease in whom there is a decrease in the ability of the lungs to supply enough oxygen to the body. The heart is obliged to pump faster to meet the body's oxygen requirements. This may place undue stress on the heart, resulting in palpitations, dizziness and fatigue. A low oxygen level in arterial blood is also harmful to the heart, the brain and the pulmonary blood vessels. Oxygen therapy is used to break this cycle. A person with low blood oxygen will often be able to accomplish more with less fatigue with the help of supplemental oxygen therapy. Shortness of breath is a mechanical problem resulting from the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Oxygen therapy may or may not reduce shortness of breath, but it will help the lungs and heart to function with less stress.

  4. Early-Middle Pleistocene benthic turnover and oxygen isotope stratigraphy from the Central Mediterranean (Valle di Manche, Crotone Basin, Italy): Data and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Azzarone; Patrizia Ferretti; Veronica Rossi; Daniele Scarponi; Luca Capraro; Patrizia Macrì; John W. Huntley; Costanza Faranda

    2018-01-01

    Ostracod faunal turnover and oxygen isotope data (foraminifera) along the Valle di Manche (VdM) section are herein compiled. Specifically, the material reported in this work includes quantitative palaeoecological data and patterns of ostracod fauna framed within a high-resolution oxygen isotope stratigraphy (δ18O) from Uvigerina peregrina. In addition, the multivariate ostracod faunal stratigraphic trend (nMDS axis-1 sample score) is calibrated using bathymetric distributions of extant mollus...

  5. La mejora de la educacion infantil desde el analisis del pensamiento practico de sus educadores. [The Improvement of Early Childhood Education from an Analysis of the Practical Thinking of Early Childhood Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argos, Javier

    2000-01-01

    Discusses proposals for the innovation and development of early childhood education practice, based on findings from case studies on the practical knowledge of four experienced female early childhood educators. Argues that improving early childhood education should be based on its reasons and purposes rather than content or method. (JPB)

  6. To compare the effects of multiple sessions of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in neurological improvement in head injury patients: A prospective randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlendu Yadav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is used to improve functional outcome following brain injuries. Different number of sessions of HBOT have been reported but the frequency of HBOT sessions in head injured patients has not been standardized. We planned this prospective randomized study with an aim to compare the neurological effects of 10, 20 and 30 sessions of HBOT in the head injured patients. Materials and Methods: After review board approval, this study was conducted in 60 head injury patients with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score ≤ 9. All patients were resuscitated, stabilized and received neurological care according to institutional protocol. Patients were randomly allotted to-Group H10 (n-20-which received 10 sittings of HBOT, Group H20 (n-20-which received 20 sittings of HBOT, Group H30 (n-30-which received 30 sittings of HBOT. GCS score was recorded after every 10 sittings and at 30 days from initiation of HBOT. Improvement Global rating and Glasgow outcome scale (GOS were recorded after 30 days. Results: The maximum improvement in GCS scores was seen in group H30. The difference in the average improvement global rating scale was significant between group H10 and group H20, between group H10 and group H30 but was comparable between groups H20 and H30. The GOS was better after 30 sessions as compared to 10 sessions. Patients of all groups showed improvement in spasticity but group H30 showed a maximum improvement. Conclusion: A minimum of 30 HBOT sessions should be considered in head injury patients to show improvement with HBOT. Progressive improvement in GCS scores, GOS, spasticity, mood swings was better seen with increased number of HBOT sessions.

  7. Building Better Drought Resilience Through Improved Monitoring and Early Warning: Learning From Stakeholders in Europe, the USA, and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, K.; Hannaford, J.; Bachmair, S.; Tijdeman, E.; Collins, K.; Svoboda, M.; Knutson, C. L.; Wall, N.; Smith, K. H.; Bernadt, T.; Crossman, N. D.; Overton, I. C.; Barker, L. J.; Acreman, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    With climate projections suggesting that droughts will intensify in many regions in future, improved drought risk management may reduce potential threats to freshwater security across the globe. One aspect that has been called for in this respect is an improvement of the linkage of drought monitoring and early warning, which currently focuses largely on indicators from meteorology and hydrology, to drought impacts on environment and society. However, a survey of existing monitoring and early warning systems globally, that we report on in this contribution, demonstrates that although impacts are being monitored, there is limited work, and certainly little consensus, on how to best achieve this linkage. The Belmont Forum project DrIVER (Drought impacts: Vulnerability thresholds in monitoring and early-warning research) carried out a number of stakeholder workshops in North America, Europe and Australia to elaborate on options for such improvements. A first round of workshops explored current drought management practices among a very diverse range of stakeholders, and their expectations from monitoring and early warning systems (particularly regarding impact characterization). The workshops revealed some disconnects between the indices used in the public early warning systems and those used by local decision-makers, e.g. to trigger drought measures. Follow-up workshops then explored how the links between information at these different scales can be bridged and applied. Impact information plays a key role in this task. This contribution draws on the lessons learned from the transdisciplinary interactions in DrIVER, to enhance the usability of drought monitoring and early-warning systems and other risk management strategies.

  8. Gamma rays role in the improvement of yield and early maturity in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moualla, M.Y.; Ali, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    Seeds from soybean variety glycine max (L) Merr., were irradiated with three doses of gamma rays: 100, 150 and 200 Gray in order to obtain high yielding and early maturity mutants to grown after wheat in a two crop rotation. All the three doses induced morphological and physiological variation and malformation that increased with increasing the dose. Coefficient of variation values were higher in M2 than in their respective values of M3. The results showed no selection efficiency under the non optimal environmental growing conditions with this lack of efficiency being more evident for yield than for early maturity. Using FTAB statistical programme 20 M2 and M3 plant were selected for each character and when evaluated in the following generation, it was clear that selection efficiency was higher for early maturity than for yield; the latter being high yielding and 4 early maturing m 4 mutants were obtained. 3 tabs

  9. Gamma rays role in the improvement of yield and early maturity in soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moualla, M Y; Ali, N M [Atomic Energy Commission, P.O.Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1995-10-01

    Seeds from soybean variety glycine max (L) Merr., were irradiated with three doses of gamma rays: 100, 150 and 200 Gray in order to obtain high yielding and early maturity mutants to grown after wheat in a two crop rotation. All the three doses induced morphological and physiological variation and malformation that increased with increasing the dose. Coefficient of variation values were higher in M2 than in their respective values of M3. The results showed no selection efficiency under the non optimal environmental growing conditions with this lack of efficiency being more evident for yield than for early maturity. Using FTAB statistical programme 20 M2 and M3 plant were selected for each character and when evaluated in the following generation, it was clear that selection efficiency was higher for early maturity than for yield; the latter being high yielding and 4 early maturing m 4 mutants were obtained. 3 tabs.

  10. STUDY OF FACTORS INFLUENCING EARLY SYMPTOMATIC IMPROVEMENT, RETURN TO NORMOXIA AND RADIOLOGICAL RESOLUTION IN SWINE FLU PATIENTS WITH RESPIRATORY FAILURE IN RICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamsidhar Reddy Manne

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Since 2009, swine influenza outbreaks have been recorded virtually every year, although their extent and severity have varied widely. Localised outbreaks are taking place at variable intervals, usually every 1-3 years. The most recent outbreak has been from December 2016 through April 2017. We still are in the midst of one. This study of factors influencing early clinical and radiological improvement and reversion to normoxia in swine flu patients with respiratory failure helps in saving precious lives. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a cross-sectional study conducted at RICU, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, S.V.R.R. Government General Hospital/S.V. Medical College, Tirupathi, Andhra Pradesh, between January 2017 and April 2017. Study sample was the total number of swine flu patients admitted to the RICU of the Department of Pulmonary Medicine with respiratory failure. RESULTS Out of 42 patients who tested positive for swine flu, 37 had respiratory failure and were immediately admitted in RICU. Oxygen support, oseltamivir and higher antibiotics were immediately started, injectable steroids given where necessary. Comorbidities were meticulously managed. 19 were males and 18 were females. 21 patients (>50% were above 50 years. Cough and breathlessness were present in all patients (100%. At admission, all 37 showed SpO2 <85% and at discharge all of them were normoxic. 18 patients had either multilobar pneumonia or ARDS on CXR, which had resolved by the time of discharge. The shortest duration of stay was 7 days and the longest duration of stay was 11 days. 35 patients were discharged and 2 patients died. CONCLUSION Good oxygenation, starting of oseltamivir on day 1 of admission prevents further complications and hastens recovery. Swine flu patients with normal chest x-ray and no comorbidities can still end up with respiratory failure. Steroids decrease cough and breathlessness, but have no role in hastening recovery. No residual symptoms

  11. Does early change predict long-term (6 months) improvements in subjects who receive manual therapy for low back pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Chad; Petersen, Shannon; Donaldson, Megan; Wilhelm, Mark; Learman, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Early change is commonly assessed for manual therapy interventions and has been used to determine treatment appropriateness. However, current studies have only explored the relationship of between or within-session changes and short-/medium-term outcomes. The goal of this study was to determine whether pain changes after two weeks of pragmatic manual therapy could predict those participants with chronic low back pain who demonstrate continued improvements at 6-month follow-up. This study was a retrospective observational design. Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed using a 33% and a 50% pain change to predict improvement. Those who experienced a ≥33% pain reduction by 2 weeks had 6.98 (95% CI = 1.29, 37.53) times higher odds of 50% improvement on the GRoC and 4.74 (95% CI = 1.31, 17.17) times higher odds of 50% improvement on the ODI (at 6 months). Subjects who reported a ≥50% pain reduction at 2 weeks had 5.98 (95% CI = 1.56, 22.88) times higher odds of a 50% improvement in the GRoC and 3.99 (95% CI = 1.23, 12.88) times higher odds of a 50% improvement in the ODI (at 6 months). Future studies may investigate whether a change in plan of care is beneficial for patients who are not showing early improvement predictive of a good long-term outcome.

  12. Diagnostic delays in children with early-onset epilepsy: impact, reasons, and opportunities to improve care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Anne T.; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Baca, Christine B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Delayed diagnosis of early-onset epilepsy is a potentially important and avoidable complication in epilepsy care. We examined the frequency of diagnostic delays in young children with newly presenting epilepsy, their developmental impact, and reasons for delays. Methods Children who developed epilepsy before their third birthday were identified in a prospective community-based cohort. An interval ≥1 month from second seizure to diagnosis was considered a delay. Testing of development at baseline and for up to three years after and of IQ 8–9 years later was performed. Detailed parental baseline interview accounts and medical records were reviewed to identify potential reasons for delays. Factors associated with delays included the parent, child, pediatrician, neurologist, and scheduling. Results Diagnostic delays occurred in 70/172 (41%) children. Delays occurred less often if children had received medical attention for the first seizure (p<0.0001), previously had neonatal or febrile seizures (p=0.02), had only convulsions before diagnosis (p=0.005) or had a college-educated parent (p=0.01). A ≥1 month diagnostic delay was associated with an average 7.4 point drop (p=0.02) in the Vineland Scales of Adaptive Behavior motor score. The effect was present at diagnosis, persisted for at least three years, and was also apparent in IQ scores 8–9 years later which were lower in association with a diagnostic delay by 8.4 points (p=0.06) for processing speed up to 14.5 points (p=0.004) for full scale IQ, after adjustment for parental education and other epilepsy-related clinical factors. Factors associated with delayed diagnosis included parents not recognizing events as seizures (N=47), pediatricians missing or deferring diagnosis (N=15), neurologists deferring diagnosis (N=7), and scheduling problems (N=11). Significance Diagnostic delays occur in many young children with epilepsy. They are associated with substantial decrements in development and IQ later

  13. Improved age control on early Homo fossils from the upper Burgi Member at Koobi Fora, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joordens, Josephine C A; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Feibel, Craig S; Spoor, Fred; Sier, Mark J; van der Lubbe, Jeroen H J L; Nielsen, Trine Kellberg; Knul, Monika V; Davies, Gareth R; Vonhof, Hubert B

    2013-12-01

    To address questions regarding the evolutionary origin, radiation and dispersal of the genus Homo, it is crucial to be able to place the occurrence of hominin fossils in a high-resolution chronological framework. The period around 2 Ma (millions of years ago) in eastern Africa is of particular interest as it is at this time that a more substantial fossil record of the genus Homo is first found. Here we combine magnetostratigraphy and strontium (Sr) isotope stratigraphy to improve age control on hominin-bearing upper Burgi (UBU) deposits in Areas 105 and 131 on the Karari Ridge in the eastern Turkana Basin (Kenya). We identify the base of the Olduvai subchron (bC2n) plus a short isolated interval of consistently normal polarity that we interpret to be the Pre-Olduvai event. Combined with precession-forced (~20 kyr [thousands of years]) wet-dry climate cycles resolved by Sr isotope ratios, the magnetostratigraphic data allow us to construct an age model for the UBU deposits. We provide detailed age constraints for 15 hominin fossils from Area 131, showing that key specimens such as cranium KNM-ER 1470, partial face KNM-ER 62000 and mandibles KNM-ER 1482, KNM-ER 1801, and KNM-ER 1802 can be constrained between 1.945 ± 0.004 and 2.058 ± 0.034 Ma, and thus older than previously estimated. The new ages are consistent with a temporal overlap of two species of early Homo that can be distinguished by their facial morphology. Further, our results show that in this time interval, hominins occurred throughout the wet-dry climate cycles, supporting the hypothesis that the lacustrine Turkana Basin was a refugium during regionally dry periods. By establishing the observed first appearance datum of a marine-derived stingray in UBU deposits at 2.058 ± 0.034 Ma, we show that at this time the Turkana Basin was hydrographically connected to the Indian Ocean, facilitating dispersal of fauna between these areas. From a biogeographical perspective, we propose that the Indian Ocean

  14. SUPPLEMENTAL CARDIOPLEGIA IMMEDIATELY BEFORE GRAFT IMPLANTATION MAY IMPROVE EARLY POST-TRANSPLANTATION OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik eTevaearai Stahel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preservation of cardiac grafts for transplantation is not standardized and most centers use a single administration of crystalloid solution at the time of harvesting. We investigated possible benefits of an additional dose of cardioplegia dispensed immediately before implantation.Methods: Consecutive adult cardiac transplantations (2005-2012 were reviewed. Hearts were harvested following a standard protocol (Celsior 2L, 4-8oC. In 2008, 100mL crystalloid cardioplegic solution was added and administered immediately before implantation. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate risk factors for post-operative graft failure and mid-term outcome. Results: A total of 81 patients, 44 standard (Cardio - versus 37 with additional cardioplegia (Cardio + were analyzed. Recipients and donors were comparable in both groups. Cardio + patients demonstrated a reduced need for defibrillation (24% vs. 48%, p=0.03, post-operative ratio of CK-MB/CK (10.1±3.9% vs. 13.3±4.2%, p=0.001, intubation time (2.0±1.6 vs. 7.2±11.5 days, p=0.05 and ICU stay (3.9±2.1 vs. 8.5±7.8 days, p=0.001. Actuarial survival was reduced when graft ischemic time was >180 minutes in Cardio – but not in Cardio + patients (p=0.033. Organ ischemic time >180 minutes (OR:5.48, CI:1.08-27.75, donor female gender (OR:5.84, CI:1.13-33.01 and recipient/donor age >60 (OR:6.33, CI:0.86-46.75, but not the additional cardioplegia nor the observation period appeared independent predictors of post-operative acute graft failure.Conclusion: An additional dose of cardioplegia administered immediately before implantation may be a simple way to improve early and late outcome of cardiac transplantation, especially in situations of prolonged graft ischemia. A large, ideally multicentric, randomized study is desirable to verify this preliminary observation.

  15. An improved oxygen diffusion model to explain the effect of low-temperature baking on high field losses in niobium superconducting cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2006-07-01

    Radio-frequency (RF) superconducting cavities made of high purity niobium are widely used to accelerate charged particle beams in particle accelerators. The major limitation to achieve RF field values approaching the theoretical limit for niobium is represented by ''anomalous'' losses which degrade the quality factor of the cavities starting at peak surface magnetic fields of about 100 mT, in absence of field emission. These high field losses are often referred to as ''Q-drop''. It has been observed that the Q-drop is drastically reduced by baking the cavities at 120 C for about 48 h under ultrahigh vacuum. An improved oxygen diffusion model for the niobium-oxide system is proposed to explain the benefit of the low-temperature baking on the Q-drop in niobium superconducting rf cavities. The model shows that baking at 120 C for 48 h allows oxygen to diffuse away from the surface, and therefore increasing the lower critical field towards the value for pure niobium.

  16. Improvements of anti-corrosion and mechanical properties of NiTi orthopedic materials by acetylene, nitrogen and oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, Ray W.Y.; Ho, Joan P.Y.; Liu Xuanyong; Chung, C.Y.; Chu, Paul K.; Yeung, Kelvin W.K.; Lu, William W.; Cheung, Kenneth M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Nickel-titanium shape memory alloys (NiTi) are useful materials in orthopedics and orthodontics due to their unique super-elasticity and shape memory effects. However, the problem associated with the release of harmful Ni ions to human tissues and fluids has been raising safety concern. Hence, it is necessary to produce a surface barrier to impede the out-diffusion of Ni ions from the materials. We have conducted acetylene, nitrogen and oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) into NiTi alloys in an attempt to improve the surface properties. All the implanted and annealed samples surfaces exhibit outstanding corrosion and Ni out-diffusion resistance. Besides, the implanted layers are mechanically stronger than the substrate underneath. XPS analyses disclose that the layer formed by C 2 H 2 PIII is composed of mainly TiC x with increasing Ti to C concentration ratios towards the bulk. The nitrogen PIII layer is observed to be TiN, whereas the oxygen PIII layer is composed of oxides of Ti 4+ , Ti 3+ and Ti 2+

  17. [Protective effects of luteolin on neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion injury via improving Na+/K+ -ATPase activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lumei; Zhang, Mingming; Ding, Yuemin; Fang, Yuting; Yao, Chunlei; Zhang, Xiong

    2010-04-01

    Luteolin, a flavone, has considerable neuroprotective effects by its anti-oxidative mechanism. However, it is still unclear whether luteolin can protect neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) induced injury. After 2 hours oxygen-glucose deprivation and 24 hours reperfusion treatment in primary cultured hippocampal neurons, the neuron viability, survival rate and apoptosis rate were evaluated by MTT assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assay and Hoechst staining, respectively. The activity of Na+/K+ -ATPase was examined in cultured neurons or in the hippocampus of SD rats treated by 10 minutes global cerebral ischemia and followed 24 hours reperfusion. Treatment by OGD/R markedly reduced neuronal viability, increased LDH leakage rate and increased apoptosis rate. Application of luteolin (10-100 micromol x L(-1)) during OGD inhibited OGD/R induced neuron injury and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to the control group or OGP/R-treated neurons, the activity of Na+/K+ -ATPase was significantly suppressed in global ischemia/reperfusion group or OGD/R-treated neurons. Application of luteolin during ischemia or OGD preserved the Na+/K+ -ATPase activity. Furthermore, inhibition of Na+/K+ -ATPase with ouabain attenuated the protective effect afforded by luteolin. The data provide the evidence that luteolin has neuroprotective effect against OGD/R induced injury and the protective effect may be associated with its ability to improve Na+/K+ -ATPase activity after OGD/R.

  18. Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chickens exposed to medium-term chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, M A K; Kikusato, M; Zulkifli, I; Toyomizu, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to achieve a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and to improve the performance of broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. 2. Chickens were given a control diet with normal drinking water, or diets supplemented with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) or grape seed extract (GSE), or a control diet with electrolysed reduced water (ERW) for 19 d after hatch. Thereafter, chickens were exposed to a temperature of either 34°C continuously for a period of 5 d, or maintained at 24°C, on the same diets. 3. The control broilers exposed to 34°C showed decreased weight gain and feed consumption and slightly increased ROS production and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in skeletal muscle. The chickens exposed to 34°C and supplemented with ERW showed significantly improved growth performance and lower ROS production and MDA contents in tissues than control broilers exposed to 34°C. Following heat exposure, CNSL chickens performed better with respect to weight gain and feed consumption, but still showed elevated ROS production and skeletal muscle oxidative damage. GSE chickens did not exhibit improved performance or reduced skeletal muscle oxidative damage. 4. In conclusion, this study suggests that ERW could partially inhibit ROS-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improve growth performance in broiler chickens under medium-term chronic heat treatment.

  19. Production of a recombinant phospholipase A2 in Escherichia coli using resonant acoustic mixing that improves oxygen transfer in shake flasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Cruz, Norma A; Reynoso-Cereceda, Greta I; Pérez-Rodriguez, Saumel; Restrepo-Pineda, Sara; González-Santana, Jesus; Olvera, Alejandro; Zavala, Guadalupe; Alagón, Alejandro; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A

    2017-07-25

    Shake flasks are widely used during the development of bioprocesses for recombinant proteins. Cultures of recombinant Escherichia coli with orbital mixing (OM) have an oxygen limitation negatively affecting biomass growth and recombinant-protein production. With the aim to improve mixing and aeration in shake flask cultures, we analyzed cultures subjected to OM and the novel resonant acoustic mixing (RAM) by applying acoustic energy to E. coli BL21-Gold (DE3): a producer of recombinant phospholipase A2 (rPLA2) from Micrurus laticollaris snake venom. Comparing OM with RAM (200 rpm vs. 7.5g) at the same initial volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k L a ≈ 80 h -1 ) ~69% less biomass was obtained with OM compared with RAM. We analyzed two more conditions increasing agitation until maximal speed (12.5 and 20g), and ~1.6- and ~1.4-fold greater biomass was obtained as compared with cultures at 7.5g. Moreover, the specific growth rate was statistically similar in all cultures carried out in RAM, but ~1.5-fold higher than that in cultures carried out under OM. Almost half of the glucose was consumed in OM, whereas between 80 and 100% of the glucose was consumed in RAM cultures, doubling biomass per glucose yields. Differential organic acid production was observed, but acetate production was prevented at the maximal RAM (20g). The amount of rPLA2 in both, OM and RAM cultures, represented 38 ± 5% of the insoluble protein. A smaller proportion of α-helices and β-sheet of purified inclusion bodies (IBs) were appreciated by ATR-FTIR from cultures carried out under OM, than those from RAM. At maximal agitation by RAM, internal E. coli localization patterns of protein aggregation changed, as well as, IBs proteolytic degradation, in conjunction with the formation of small external vesicles, although these changes did not significantly affect the cell survival response. In moderate-cell-density recombinant E. coli BL21-Gold (DE3) cultures, the agitation increases in

  20. Improving GC-PPC-SAFT equation of state for LLE of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds with water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Binh; Jean-Charles, De Hemptinne; Creton, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    , uαβ, and wαβ are fitted on mutual solubilities of water and organic compounds. The regressed values which are obtained for each chemical family, are subsequently used for predicting infinite dilution activity coefficient in water and n-octanol/water partition coefficient.In general, the results...... obtained are very much improved compared to the predictive approach discussed previously [Nguyen et al. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 52 (2013) 7014-7029]. The global deviation values on the decimal log scale for infinite dilution activity coefficient in water, water solubility and n-octanol/water partition...

  1. Early tracheostomy in intensive care trauma patients improves resource utilization: a cohort study and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Despite the integral role played by tracheostomy in the management of trauma patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), its timing remains subject to considerable practice variation. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of early tracheostomy on the duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU length of stay, and outcomes in trauma ICU patients. Methods The following data were obtained from a prospective ICU database containing information on all trauma patients who received tracheostomy over a 5-year period: demographics, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, Glasgow Coma Scale score, Injury Severity Score, type of injuries, ICU and hospital outcomes, ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS), and the type of tracheostomy procedure (percutaneous versus surgical). Tracheostomy was considered early if it was performed by day 7 of mechanical ventilation. We compared the duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU LOS and outcome between early and late tracheostomy patients. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess the impact of tracheostomy timing on ICU stay. Results Of 653 trauma ICU patients, 136 (21%) required tracheostomies, 29 of whom were early and 107 were late. Age, sex, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II and Injury Severity Score were not different between the two groups. Patients with early tracheostomy were more likely to have maxillofacial injuries and to have lower Glasgow Coma Scale score. Duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly shorter with early tracheostomy (mean ± standard error: 9.6 ± 1.2 days versus 18.7 ± 1.3 days; P tracheostomy, patients were discharged from the ICU after comparable periods in both groups (4.9 ± 1.2 days versus 4.9 ± 1.1 days; not significant). ICU and hospital mortality rates were similar. Using multivariate analysis, late tracheostomy was an independent predictor of

  2. Exercise training improves in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early endothelial progenitor cells in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, Kristina; Horváth, Tibor; Mueller, Maja; Markowski, Andrea; Siegmund, Tina; Jacob, Christian; Drexler, Helmut; Landmesser, Ulf

    2011-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and injury are considered to contribute considerably to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that intense exercise training can increase the number and angiogenic properties of early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). However, whether exercise training stimulates the capacity of early EPCs to promote repair of endothelial damage and potential underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of moderate exercise training on in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs, and their nitric oxide and superoxide production as characterized by electron spin resonance spectroscopy analysis in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Twenty-four subjects with metabolic syndrome were randomized to an 8 weeks exercise training or a control group. Superoxide production and nitric oxide (NO) availability of early EPCs were characterized by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy analysis. In vivo endothelial repair capacity of EPCs was examined by transplantation into nude mice with defined carotid endothelial injury. Endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation was analysed using high-resolution ultrasound. Importantly, exercise training resulted in a substantially improved in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs (24.0 vs 12.7%; p exercise training, but not in the control group. Moreover, exercise training reduced superoxide production of EPCs, which was not observed in the control group. The present study suggests for the first time that moderate exercise training increases nitric oxide production of early endothelial progenitor cells and reduces their superoxide production. Importantly, this is associated with a marked beneficial effect on the in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

  3. Development of an Excel-based laboratory information management system for improving workflow efficiencies in early ADME screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinyan

    2016-01-01

    There is a clear requirement for enhancing laboratory information management during early absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) screening. The application of a commercial laboratory information management system (LIMS) is limited by complexity, insufficient flexibility, high costs and extended timelines. An improved custom in-house LIMS for ADME screening was developed using Excel. All Excel templates were generated through macros and formulae, and information flow was streamlined as much as possible. This system has been successfully applied in task generation, process control and data management, with a reduction in both labor time and human error rates. An Excel-based LIMS can provide a simple, flexible and cost/time-saving solution for improving workflow efficiencies in early ADME screening.

  4. Importance of early physical rehabilitation in improving functional state of vegetative nervous system of women with postmastectomy syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Odynets

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the expediency of early application of physical rehabilitation to improve the functional state of vegetative nervous system of women with postmastectomy syndrome. Material & Methods: theoretical analysis of scientific and methodical literature, analysis of heart rate variability, methods of mathematical statistics. The study involved 135 women with postmastectomy syndrome who underwent radical mastectomy for Madden. Results: at the end of the research value of high-frequency component of the spectrum was significantly higher in women MG1 compared to MG on 257,72 ms² (p<0,01 and the stress index was lower on 107,01 c. u (p<0,001. Conclusions: the feasibility of early rehabilitation intervention to improve the functional state of the autonomic nervous system is not detected during the year classes on problem-oriented programs.

  5. Improved synthesis of β-CIT and [11C]β-CIT labeled at nitrogen or oxygen positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Qihuang; Mulholland, G. Keith

    1996-01-01

    The important radiotracer precursor 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-idophenyl)-tropane (β-CIT, RTI-55) was made in 52% overall yield from cocaine. Key steps were improved conjugate Grignard addition to anhydroecgonine methyl ester with > 3.5:1 2β: 2α-isomer selectivity, and a mild new direct aromatic iodination with I 2 and silver triflate in CH 2 Cl 2 . The [ 11 C]β-CIT was labeled at either the N or O positions with [ 11 C]methyl triflate; and efficient reversed-phase HPLC was used to preparatively separate [N- 11 C]β-CIT from N-nor-β-CIT for the first time, and a fast solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was applied to preparatively separate [O- 11 C]β-CIT from β-CIT-acid precursor

  6. Early Science Education: Exploring Familiar Contexts To Improve the Understanding of Some Basic Scientific Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabel P.; Veiga, Luisa

    2001-01-01

    Argues that science education is a fundamental tool for global education and that it must be introduced in early years as a first step to a scientific culture for all. Describes testing validity of a didactic strategy for developing the learning of concepts, which was based upon an experimental work approach using everyday life contexts. (Author)

  7. Changing Policy, Changing Culture: Steps toward Early Learning Quality Improvement in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayler, Collette

    2011-01-01

    Across Australia a combined government effort is underway to reform early childhood education and care (ECEC) provision. A National Law Bill passed in 2010 heralds a new legal, regulatory and accountability framework that embraces all types ECEC provision. As a result, service providers face rapid change to address a new orientation and higher…

  8. An Intervention Including an Online Game to Improve Grade 6 Students' Performance in Early Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovou, Angeliki; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Koller, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether an intervention including an online game contributed to 236 Grade 6 students' performance in early algebra, that is, solving problems with covarying quantities. An exploratory quasi-experimental study was conducted with a pretest-posttest-control-group design. Students in the experimental group were asked to solve…

  9. Mild hypothermia protects hippocampal neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion-induced injury by improving lysosomal function and autophagic flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tianen; Liang, Lian; Liang, Yanran; Yu, Tao; Zeng, Chaotao; Jiang, Longyuan

    2017-09-15

    Mild hypothermia has been proven to be useful to treat brain ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. The present study was undertaken to determine whether mild hypothermia protects hippocampal neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion(OGD/R)-induced injury via improving lysosomal function and autophagic flux. The results showed that OGD/R induced the occurrence of autophagy, while the acidic environment inside the lysosomes was altered. The autophagic flux assay with RFP-GFP tf-LC3 was impeded in hippocampal neurons after OGD/R. Mild hypothermia recovered the lysosomal acidic fluorescence and the lysosomal marker protein expression of LAMP2, which decreased after OGD/R.Furthermore, we found that mild hypothermia up-regulated autophagic flux and promoted the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes in hippocampal neurons following OGD/R injury, but could be reversed by treatment with chloroquine, which acts as a lysosome inhibitor. We also found that mild hypothermia improved mitochondrial autophagy in hippocampal neurons following OGD/R injury. Finally,we found that chloroquine blocked the protective effects of mild hypothermia against OGD/R-induced cell death and injury. Taken together, the present study indicates that mild hypothermia protects hippocampal neurons against OGD/R-induced injury by improving lysosomal function and autophagic flux. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Improving early detection initiatives: a qualitative study exploring perspectives of older people and professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lette, Manon; Stoop, Annerieke; Lemmens, Lidwien C; Buist, Yvette; Baan, Caroline A; de Bruin, Simone R

    2017-06-23

    A wide range of initiatives on early detection and intervention have been developed to proactively identify problems related to health and wellbeing in (frail) older people, with the aim of supporting them to live independently for as long as possible. Nevertheless, it remains unclear what the best way is to design such initiatives and how older people's needs and preferences can be best addressed. This study aimed to address this gap in the literature by exploring: 1) older people's perspectives on health and living environment in relation to living independently at home; 2) older people's needs and preferences in relation to initiating and receiving care and support; and 3) professionals' views on what would be necessary to enable the alignment of early detection initiatives with older people's own needs and preferences. In this qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 36 older people and 19 professionals in proactive elderly care. Data were analysed using the framework analysis method. From the interviews with older people important themes in relation to health and living environment emerged, such as maintaining independence, appropriate housing, social relationships, a supporting network and a sense of purpose and autonomy. Older people preferred to remain self-sufficient, and they would rather not ask for help for psychological or social problems. However, the interviews also highlighted that they were not always able or willing to anticipate future needs, which can hinder early detection or early intervention. At the same time, professionals indicated that older people tend to over-estimate their self-reliance and therefore advocated for early detection and intervention, including social and psychological issues. Older people have a broad range of needs in different domains of life. Discrepancies exist between older people and professionals with regard to their views on timing and scope of early detection initiatives. This study aimed

  11. Demonstration of a Cylinder-Fill System Based on Solid Electrolyte Oxygen Separator (SEOS) Technology: One Year Early Field Assessment at a USAF Maintenance Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    governed by the Nernst equation : )ln( 4 , , 2 2 cathodeO anodeO N p p F RTV = (1) Removal of the oxygen product from the anode side of the...technology requires applied voltages higher than the Nernst voltage, VN. This overpotential increases the productivity per cell. However, the increased

  12. Demonstration of a Cylinder Fill System Based on Solid Electrolyte Oxygen Separator (SEOS) Technology: Early Field Assessment at a USAF Maintenance Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    is governed by the Nernst equation : )ln( 4 , , 2 2 cathodeO anodeO N p p F RT V  (1) Removal of the oxygen product from the anode side of the...requires applied voltages higher than the Nernst voltage, VN. This overpotential increases the productivity per cell. However, the increased

  13. Prevention and early intervention to improve mental health in higher education students: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavley, Nicola; Jorm, Anthony F

    2010-05-01

    The age at which most young people are in higher education is also the age of peak onset for mental and substance use disorders, with these having their first onset before age 24 in 75% of cases. In most developed countries, over 50% of young people are in higher education. To review the evidence for prevention and early intervention in mental health problems in higher education students. The review was limited to interventions targeted to anxiety, depression and alcohol misuse. Interventions to review were identified by searching PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Interventions were included if they were designed to specifically prevent or intervene early in the general (non-health professional) higher education student population, in one or more of the following areas: anxiety, depression or alcohol misuse symptoms, mental health literacy, stigma and one or more behavioural outcomes. For interventions to prevent or intervene early for alcohol misuse, evidence of effectiveness is strongest for brief motivational interventions and for personalized normative interventions delivered using computers or in individual face-to-face sessions. Few interventions to prevent or intervene early with depression or anxiety were identified. These were mostly face-to-face, cognitive-behavioural/skill-based interventions. One social marketing intervention to raise awareness of depression and treatments showed some evidence of effectiveness. There is very limited evidence that interventions are effective in preventing or intervening early with depression and anxiety disorders in higher education students. Further studies, possibly involving interventions that have shown promise in other populations, are needed.

  14. Metabolic Agents that Enhance ATP can Improve Cognitive Functioning: A Review of the Evidence for Glucose, Oxygen, Pyruvate, Creatine, and l-Carnitine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Owen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past four or five decades, there has been increasing interest in the neurochemical regulation of cognition. This field received considerable attention in the 1980s, with the identification of possible cognition enhancing agents or “smart drugs”. Even though many of the optimistic claims for some agents have proven premature, evidence suggests that several metabolic agents may prove to be effective in improving and preserving cognitive performance and may lead to better cognitive aging through the lifespan. Aging is characterized by a progressive deterioration in physiological functions and metabolic processes. There are a number of agents with the potential to improve metabolic activity. Research is now beginning to identify these various agents and delineate their potential usefulness for improving cognition in health and disease. This review provides a brief overview of the metabolic agents glucose, oxygen, pyruvate, creatine, and l-carnitine and their beneficial effects on cognitive function. These agents are directly responsible for generating ATP (adenosine triphosphate the main cellular currency of energy. The brain is the most metabolically active organ in the body and as such is particularly vulnerable to disruption of energy resources. Therefore interventions that sustain adenosine triphosphate (ATP levels may have importance for improving neuronal dysfunction and loss. Moreover, recently, it has been observed that environmental conditions and diet can affect transgenerational gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms. Metabolic agents might play a role in regulation of nutritional epigenetic effects. In summary, the reviewed metabolic agents represent a promising strategy for improving cognitive function and possibly slowing or preventing cognitive decline.

  15. Density functional theory simulation of titanium migration and reaction with oxygen in the early stages of oxidation of equiatomic NiTi alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Michael; Tofail, Syed A M

    2010-05-01

    The biocompatibility of NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA) has made possible applications in self-expandable cardio-vascular stents, stone extraction baskets, catheter guide wires and other invasive and minimally invasive biomedical devices. The NiTi intermetallic alloy spontaneously forms a thin passive layer of TiO(2), which provides its biocompatibility. The oxide layer is thought to form as the Ti in the alloy surface reacts with oxygen, resulting in a depletion of Ti in the subsurface region - experimental evidence indicates formation of a Ni-rich layer below the oxide film. In this paper, we study the initial stages of oxide growth on the (110) surface of the NiTi alloy to understand the formation of alloy/oxide interface. We initially adsorb atomic and molecular oxygen on the (110) surface and then successively add O(2) molecules, up to 2 monolayer of O(2). Oxygen adsorption always results in a large energy gain. With atomic oxygen, Ti is pulled out of the surface layer leaving behind a Ni-rich subsurface region. Molecular O(2), on the other hand adsorbs dissociatively and pulls a Ti atom farther out of the surface layer. The addition of further O(2) up to 1 monolayer is also dissociative and results in complete removal of Ti from the initial surface layer. When further O(2) is added up to 2 monolayer, Ti is pulled even further out of the surface and a single thin layer of composition O-Ti-O is formed. The electronic structure shows that the metallic character of the alloy is unaffected by interaction with oxygen and formation of the oxide layer, consistent with the oxide layer being a passivant. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A concise guide to sustainable PEMFCs: recent advances in improving both oxygen reduction catalysts and proton exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Megan E; Liu, Haiqing; Wong, Stanislaus S

    2015-08-21

    The rising interest in fuel cell vehicle technology (FCV) has engendered a growing need and realization to develop rational chemical strategies to create highly efficient, durable, and cost-effective fuel cells. Specifically, technical limitations associated with the major constituent components of the basic proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), namely the cathode catalyst and the proton exchange membrane (PEM), have proven to be particularly demanding to overcome. Therefore, research trends within the community in recent years have focused on (i) accelerating the sluggish kinetics of the catalyst at the cathode and (ii) minimizing overall Pt content, while simultaneously (a) maximizing activity and durability as well as (b) increasing membrane proton conductivity without causing any concomitant loss in either stability or as a result of damage due to flooding. In this light, as an example, high temperature PEMFCs offer a promising avenue to improve the overall efficiency and marketability of fuel cell technology. In this Critical Review, recent advances in optimizing both cathode materials and PEMs as well as the future and peculiar challenges associated with each of these systems will be discussed.

  17. Disease activity decrease is associated with improvement in work productivity over 1 year in early axial spondyloarthritis (SPondyloArthritis Caught Early cohort).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Fongen, Camilla; Landewé, Robert; Ramonda, Roberta; van der Heijde, Désirée; van Gaalen, Floris A

    2017-12-01

    To assess if a change in disease activity is associated with a change in work productivity loss (WPL) over 1 year in early axial SpA (axSpA) patients. Baseline and 1 year data of axSpA patients in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early cohort were analysed. Linear regression models were built explaining the change in the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) over time by the change in absenteeism, presenteeism, WPL and activity impairment over time. Effect modification and confounding were tested for age, gender, arm of Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society classification criteria, HLA-B27, duration of chronic back pain, profession and medication. At baseline, in 105 axSpA patients (48% female, mean age 30.8 years, mean symptom duration 13.6 months, 92% HLA-B27 positive, 24% radiographic sacroiliitis), the mean ASDAS was 2.4 (s.d. 1.0), absenteeism 9% (s.d. 23), presenteeism 33% (s.d. 28), WPL 36% (s.d. 30) and activity impairment 37% (s.d. 25). After 1 year, the mean ASDAS decreased to 2.0 (s.d. 0.8) and absenteeism, presenteeism, WPL and activity impairment improved to 6% (s.d. 22), 26% (s.d. 26), 27% (s.d. 29) and 27% (s.d. 26), respectively. Models showed that if ASDAS decreased 1 unit, absenteeism, presenteeism, WPL and activity impairment improved by 5, 17, 16 and 18%, respectively. The impact of disease activity on work productivity was higher in patients with shorter symptom duration and the impact on absenteeism was higher in patients starting pharmacological treatment. In early axSpA patients, work productivity and daily activities are seriously impacted at baseline and 1 year. However, decreasing disease activity is associated with marked improvements in work productivity and daily activities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included Within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Stacie M; Kirk, Erik P

    2016-03-01

    The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA intervention and a second site participating as the control site. The PA program was designed to promote 300 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous PA academic lessons. Academic achievement related to early literacy and phonological awareness in the areas of rhyming and alliteration were assessed at baseline, 4 and 8 months. Over 8 months, rhyming significantly (p literacy. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  19. Assessment of early warning system performance and improvements since it is in operational phase in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Constantin; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Marmureanu, Gheorghe; Ortansa Cioflan, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake represents a major natural disaster for Romanian territory. The main goal following the occurrence of a strong earthquake is to minimize the total number of fatalities. A rapid early warning system (REWS) was developed in Romania in order to provide 25-35 seconds warning time to Bucharest facilities for the earthquakes with M>5.0. The system consists of four components: a network of strong motion sensors installed in the epicentral area, a redundant communication network, an automatic analyzing system located in the Romanian Data Centre and an alert distribution system. The detection algorithm is based on the magnitude computation using strong motion data and rapid evaluation and scaling relation between the maximum P-wave acceleration measured in the epicentral area and the higher ground motion amplitude recorded in Bucharest. In order to reduce the damages caused by earthquakes, the exploitation of the up to date technology is very important. The information is the key point in the disaster management, and the internet is one of the most used instrument, implying also low costs. The Rapid Early Warning System was expanded to cover all countries affected by major earthquakes originating in the Vrancea seismic area and reduce their impact on existing installations of national interest in neighbouring Romania and elsewhere. REWS provides an efficient instrument for prevention and reaction based on the integrated system for seismic detection in South-Eastern Europe. REWS has been operational since 2013 and sends alert the authorities, hazardous facilities in Romania and Bulgaria (NPP, emergency response agencies etc.) and to public via twitter and some smartphone applications developed in the house. Also, NIEP is part of the UNESCO initiative case on developing a platform on earthquake early warning systems (IP-MEP) that aims to promote and strengthen the development of earthquake early warning systems in earthquake-prone regions of the world by sharing

  20. Can early intervention policies improve wellbeing? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Daly; Liam Delaney; Orla Doyle; Nick Fitzpatrick; Christine O'Farrelly

    2014-01-01

    Many authors have proposed incorporating measures of well-being into evaluations of public policy. Yet few evaluations use experimental design or examine multiple aspects of well-being, thus the causal impact of public policies on well-being is largely unknown. In this paper we examine the effect of an intensive early intervention program on maternal well-being in a targeted disadvantaged community. Using a randomized controlled trial design we estimate and compare treatment effects on global...

  1. Can Early Intervention Policies Improve Well-being? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Doyle, Orla; Fitzpatrick, Nick; O'Farrelly, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Many authors have proposed incorporating measures of well-being into evaluations of public policy. Yet few evaluations use experimental design or examine multiple aspects of wellbeing, thus the causal impact of public policies on well-being is largely unknown. In this paper we examine the effect of an intensive early intervention program on maternal wellbeing in a targeted disadvantaged community. Using a randomized controlled trial design we estimate and compare treatment effects on global w...

  2. Does early training improve driving skills of young novice French drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freydier, Chloé; Berthelon, Catherine; Bastien-Toniazzo, Mireille

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this research was to study drivers' performances and divided attention depending on their initial training. The performances of young novice drivers who received early training, traditionally trained drivers and more experienced drivers were compared during a dual task consisting of a simulated car-following task and a number' parity judgment task. It was expected that, due to their limited driving experience, the young novice drivers would have more difficulty in adequately distributing their attention between the two tasks. Poorer performances by novice drivers than experienced drivers were therefore expected. The results indicate that traditionally trained drivers had more difficulties in speed regulation and maintaining their position in the lane than drivers with early training and experienced drivers. Performance impairment linked to driving inexperience was also found in the secondary task. The results were interpreted regarding the attentional resources involved in driving with a secondary task and supported the positive effects of French early training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Pursuit of Metals and the Ideology of Improvement in Early Modern Sápmi, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The article examines the ideology of improvement in the context of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century mining in northern Sweden in the province of Sápmi. It discusses how the rhetoric of improvement and “civilizing” projects were intertwined with the mining enterprises; how they informed...

  4. Improving outcomes in patients with melanoma: strategies to ensure an early diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voss RK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rachel K Voss,1 Tessa N Woods,1 Kate D Cromwell,1 Kelly C Nelson,2 Janice N Cormier1 1Department of Surgical Oncology, 2Department of Dermatology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Patients with thin, low-risk melanomas have an excellent long-term prognosis and higher quality of life than those who are diagnosed at later stages. From an economic standpoint, treatment of early stage melanoma consumes a fraction of the health care resources needed to treat advanced disease. Consequently, early diagnosis of melanoma is in the best interest of patients, payers, and health care systems. This review describes strategies to ensure that patients receive an early diagnosis through interventions ranging from better utilization of primary care clinics, to in vivo diagnostic technologies, to new “apps” available in the market. Strategies for screening those at high risk due to age, male sex, skin type, nevi, genetic mutations, or family history are discussed. Despite progress in identifying those at high risk for melanoma, there remains a lack of general consensus worldwide for best screening practices. Strategies to ensure early diagnosis of recurrent disease in those with a prior melanoma diagnosis are also reviewed. Variations in recurrence surveillance practices by type of provider and country are featured, with evidence demonstrating that various imaging studies, including ultrasound, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, provide only minimal gains in life expectancy, even for those with more advanced (stage III disease. Because the majority of melanomas are attributable to ultraviolet radiation in the form of sunlight, primary prevention strategies, including sunscreen use and behavioral interventions, are reviewed. Recent international government regulation of tanning beds is described, as well as issues surrounding the continued use artificial ultraviolet

  5. Evaluation and Immunohistochemical Qualification of Carbogen-Induced ΔR{sub 2}* as a Noninvasive Imaging Biomarker of Improved Tumor Oxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Lauren C.J., E-mail: lauren.baker@icr.ac.uk [Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom); Boult, Jessica K.R.; Jamin, Yann; Gilmour, Lesley D.; Walker-Samuel, Simon; Burrell, Jake S. [Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom); Ashcroft, Margaret [Division of Medicine, Centre for Cell Signalling and Molecular Genetics, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Howe, Franklyn A. [St. George' s, University of London, London (United Kingdom); Griffiths, John R. [Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Raleigh, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Kogel, Albert J. van der [University of Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Robinson, Simon P. [Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and histologically qualify carbogen-induced ΔR{sub 2}* as a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging biomarker of improved tumor oxygenation using a double 2-nitroimidazole hypoxia marker approach. Methods and Materials: Multigradient echo images were acquired from mice bearing GH3 prolactinomas, preadministered with the hypoxia marker CCI-103F, to quantify tumor R{sub 2}* during air breathing. With the mouse remaining positioned within the magnet bore, the gas supply was switched to carbogen (95% O{sub 2}, 5% CO{sub 2}), during which a second hypoxia marker, pimonidazole, was administered via an intraperitoneal line, and an additional set of identical multigradient echo images acquired to quantify any changes in tumor R{sub 2}*. Hypoxic fraction was quantified histologically using immunofluorescence detection of CCI-103F and pimonidazole adduct formation from the same whole tumor section. Carbogen-induced changes in tumor pO{sub 2} were further validated using the Oxylite fiberoptic probe. Results: Carbogen challenge significantly reduced mean tumor R{sub 2}* from 116 ± 13 s{sup −1} to 97 ± 9 s{sup −1} (P<.05). This was associated with a significantly lower pimonidazole adduct area (2.3 ± 1%), compared with CCI-103F (6.3 ± 2%) (P<.05). A significant correlation was observed between ΔR{sub 2}* and Δhypoxic fraction (r=0.55, P<.01). Mean tumor pO{sub 2} during carbogen breathing significantly increased from 6.3 ± 2.2 mm Hg to 36.0 ± 7.5 mm Hg (P<.01). Conclusions: The combined use of intrinsic susceptibility magnetic resonance imaging with a double hypoxia marker approach corroborates carbogen-induced ΔR{sub 2}* as a noninvasive imaging biomarker of increased tumor oxygenation.

  6. Low- and high-volume of intensive endurance training significantly improves maximal oxygen uptake after 10-weeks of training in healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnt Erik Tjønna

    Full Text Available Regular exercise training improves maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, but the optimal intensity and volume necessary to obtain maximal benefit remains to be defined. A growing body of evidence suggests that exercise training with low-volume but high-intensity may be a time-efficient means to achieve health benefits. In the present study, we measured changes in VO2max and traditional cardiovascular risk factors after a 10 wk. training protocol that involved three weekly high-intensity interval sessions. One group followed a protocol which consisted of 4×4 min at 90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax interspersed with 3 min active recovery at 70% HRmax (4-AIT, the other group performed a single bout protocol that consisted of 1×4 min at 90% HRmax (1-AIT. Twenty-six inactive but otherwise healthy overweight men (BMI: 25-30, age: 35-45 y were randomized to either 1-AIT (n = 11 or 4-AIT (n = 13. After training, VO2max increased by 10% (∼5.0 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 and 13% (∼6.5 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 after 1-AIT and 4-AIT, respectively (group difference, p = 0.08. Oxygen cost during running at a sub-maximal workload was reduced by 14% and 13% after 1-AIT and 4-AIT, respectively. Systolic blood pressure decreased by 7.1 and 2.6 mmHg after 1-AIT and 4-AIT respectively, while diastolic pressure decreased by 7.7 and 6.1 mmHg (group difference, p = 0.84. Both groups had a similar ∼5% decrease in fasting glucose. Body fat, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and ox-LDL cholesterol only were significantly reduced after 4-AIT. Our data suggest that a single bout of AIT performed three times per week may be a time-efficient strategy to improve VO2max and reduce blood pressure and fasting glucose in previously inactive but otherwise healthy middle-aged individuals. The 1-AIT type of exercise training may be readily implemented as part of activities of daily living and could easily be translated into programs designed to improve public health

  7. A bHLH gene from Tamarix hispida improves abiotic stress tolerance by enhancing osmotic potential and decreasing reactive oxygen species accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Nie, Xianguang; Liu, Yujia; Zheng, Lei; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Bing; Huo, Lin; Wang, Yucheng

    2016-02-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) leucine-zipper transcription factors play important roles in abiotic stress responses. However, their specific roles in abiotic stress tolerance are not fully known. Here, we functionally characterized a bHLH gene, ThbHLH1, from Tamarix hispida in abiotic stress tolerance. ThbHLH1 specifically binds to G-box motif with the sequence of 'CACGTG'. Transiently transfected T. hispida plantlets with transiently overexpressed ThbHLH1 and RNAi-silenced ThbHLH1 were generated for gain- and loss-of-function analysis. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines overexpressing ThbHLH1 were generated to confirm the gain- and loss-of-function analysis. Overexpression of ThbHLH1 significantly elevates glycine betaine and proline levels, increases Ca(2+) concentration and enhances peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities to decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Additionally, ThbHLH1 regulates the expression of the genes including P5CS, BADH, CaM, POD and SOD, to activate the above physiological changes, and also induces the expression of stress tolerance-related genes LEAs and HSPs. These data suggest that ThbHLH1 induces the expression of stress tolerance-related genes to improve abiotic stress tolerance by increasing osmotic potential, improving ROS scavenging capability and enhancing second messenger in stress signaling cascades. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The effects of swimming exercise and dissolved oxygen on growth performance, fin condition and precocious maturation of early-rearing Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic salmon fry were stocked into twelve circular 0.5 m3 tanks in a flow-through system and exposed to either high (1.5-2 body-lengths per second, or BL/s) or low (less than 0.5 BL/s) swimming speeding and high (100% saturation) or low (70% saturation) dissolved oxygen (DO) while being raised fr...

  9. Learning From Experience: Improving Early Tracheal Extubation Success After Congenital Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Peter D; Staudt, Anna M; Sebastian, Roby; Corridore, Marco; Tumin, Dmitry; Simsic, Janet; Galantowicz, Mark; Naguib, Aymen; Tobias, Joseph D

    2016-07-01

    The many advantages of early tracheal extubation following congenital cardiac surgery in young infants and children are now widely recognized. Benefits include avoiding the morbidity associated with prolonged intubation and the consequences of sedation and positive pressure ventilation in the setting of altered cardiopulmonary physiology. Our practice of tracheal extubation of young infants in the operating room following cardiac surgery has evolved and new challenges in the arena of postoperative sedation and pain management have appeared. Review our institutional outcomes associated with early tracheal extubation following congenital cardiac surgery. Inclusion criteria included all children less than 1 year old who underwent congenital cardiac surgery between October 1, 2010, and October 24, 2013. A total of 416 patients less than 1 year old were included. Of the 416 patients, 234 underwent tracheal extubation in the operating room (56%) with 25 requiring reintubation (10.7%), either immediately or following admission to the cardiothoracic ICU. Of the 25 patients extubated in the operating room who required reintubation, 22 failed within 24 hours of cardiothoracic ICU admission; 10 failures were directly related to narcotic doses that resulted in respiratory depression. As a result of this review, we have instituted changes in our cardiothoracic ICU postoperative care plans. We have developed a neonatal delirium score, and have adopted the "Kangaroo Care" approach that was first popularized in neonatal ICUs. This provision allows for the early parental holding of infants following admission to the cardiothoracic ICU and allows for appropriately selected parents to sleep in the same beds alongside their postoperative children.

  10. Contextual learning theory: Concrete form and a software prototype to improve early education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2016-01-01

    In 'contextual learning theory' three types of contextual conditions (differentiation of learning procedures and materials, integrated ICT support, and improvement of development and learning progress) are related to four aspects of the learning process (diagnostic, instructional, managerial, and

  11. Focused breastfeeding counselling improves short- and long-term success in an early-discharge setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid M S; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Knight, Christopher H

    2017-01-01

    Length of postnatal hospitalization has decreased and has been shown to be associated with infant nutritional problems and increase in readmissions. We aimed to evaluate if guidelines for breastfeeding counselling in an early discharge hospital setting had an effect on maternal breastfeeding self...... in the intervention compared to the reference group (adjusted OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.37, −0.81), and 6 months following birth, more infants were exclusively breastfed in the intervention group (adjusted OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.02, −1.81). Moreover, mothers in the intervention compared to the reference group were breastfeeding...

  12. Improved heuristics for early melanoma detection using multimode hyperspectral dermoscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nicholas B.; Booth, Nicholas; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the performance of a multimode dermoscopy system (SkinSpect) designed to quantify and 3-D map in vivo melanin and hemoglobin concentrations in skin and its melanoma scoring system, and compare the results accuracy with SIAscopy, and histopathology. Methods: A multimode imaging dermoscope is presented that combines polarization, fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging to accurately map the distribution of skin melanin, collagen and hemoglobin in pigmented lesions. We combine two depth-sensitive techniques: polarization, and hyperspectral imaging, to determine the spatial distribution of melanin and hemoglobin oxygenation in a skin lesion. By quantifying melanin absorption in pigmented areas, we can also more accurately estimate fluorescence emission distribution mainly from skin collagen. Results and discussion: We compared in vivo features of melanocytic lesions (N = 10) extracted by non-invasive SkinSpect and SIMSYS-MoleMate SIAscope, and correlate them to pathology report. Melanin distribution at different depths as well as hemodynamics including abnormal vascularity we detected will be discussed. We will adapt SkinSpect scoring with ABCDE (asymmetry , border, color, diameter, evolution) and seven point dermatologic checklist including: (1) atypical pigment network, (2) blue-whitish veil, (3) atypical vascular pattern, (4) irregular streaks, (5) irregular pigmentation, (6) irregular dots and globules, (7) regression structures estimated by dermatologist. Conclusion: Distinctive, diagnostic features seen by SkinSpect in melanoma vs. normal pigmented lesions will be compared by SIAscopy and results from histopathology.

  13. Improving Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies and Practices in Early Care and Education in Three States, 2014-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Blaser, Casey; Geno-Rasmussen, Cristy; Shuell, Julie; Plumlee, Catherine; Gargano, Tony; Yaroch, Amy L

    2017-08-31

    The National Early Care and Education Learning Collaboratives (ECELC) project aims to facilitate best practices in nutrition, physical activity, screen time, and breastfeeding support and infant feeding among early care and education (ECE) programs across multiple states. The project uses a train-the-trainer approach with 5, in-person learning-collaborative sessions, technical assistance, and action planning. We describe the longitudinal practice-based evaluation of the project and assess whether ECE programs evaluated (n = 104) sustained changes in policies and practices 1 year after completing the project. The number of best practices increased from pre-assessment to post-assessment (P professional development and training focused on improving best practices for environment-level child nutrition and physical activity, which is one strategy among many that are warranted for obesity prevention in young children.

  14. Early operative management of complicated appendicitis is associated with improved surgical outcomes in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symer, Matthew M; Abelson, Jonathan S; Sedrakyan, Art; Yeo, Heather L

    2018-04-19

    There is no consensus on the ideal management of complicated appendicitis. The New York State Planning and Research Cooperative database was used to identify all patients admitted with complicated appendicitis and undergoing appendectomy within 1-year. Primary outcome was any complication. Secondary outcomes included length of stay (LOS), hospital charges, and laparoscopy use. Outcomes were compared in appendectomy before or after 48h from admission. 31,167 patients ≥18yo were identified for analysis, 28,015(89.9%) underwent early appendectomy. Early appendectomy patients were more likely to be White (69.8% vs. 64.2% p < 0.01), and commercially insured (53.1% vs. 45.4%, p < 0.01). Of the 3152 undergoing delayed surgery, 1610(51.1%) had surgery later during the index admission, 715(22.7%) were readmitted urgently and underwent appendectomy, and 827(26.2%) had elective appendectomy. Patients undergoing delayed surgery had more complications (OR 1.34 95%CI 1.23-1.45), readmissions (OR 1.55 95%CI 1.42-1.70), high hospital charges (OR 4.79 95%CI 4.35-5.27), and prolonged LOS (OR 6.12 95%CI 5.61-6.68). In this population-level study of complicated appendicitis we found more complications, longer LOS, and higher charges in patients undergoing delayed surgery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving early detection of gastric cancer: a novel systematic alphanumeric-coded endoscopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emura, Fabian; Gralnek, Ian; Baron, Todd H

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive worldwide use of standard esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) examinations, gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common forms of cancer and ranks as the most common malignant tumor in East Asia, Eastern Europe and parts of Latin America. Current limitations of using non systematic examination during standard EGD could be at least partially responsible for the low incidence of early GC diagnosis in countries with a high prevalence of the disease. Originally proposed by Emura et al., systematic alphanumeric-coded endoscopy (SACE) is a novel method that facilitates complete examination of the upper GI tract based on sequential systematic overlapping photo-documentation using an endoluminal alphanumeric-coded nomenclature comprised of eight regions and 28 areas covering the entire surface upper GI surface. For precise localization or normal or abnormal areas, SACE incorporates a simple coordinate system based on the identification of certain natural axes, walls, curvatures and anatomical endoluminal landmarks. Efectiveness of SACE was recently demonstrated in a screening study that diagnosed early GC at a frequency of 0.30% (2/650) in healthy, average-risk volunteer subjects. Such a novel approach, if uniformly implemented worldwide, could significantly change the way we practice upper endoscopy in our lifetimes.

  16. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  17. Early Radiosurgery Improves Hearing Preservation in Vestibular Schwannoma Patients With Normal Hearing at the Time of Diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpinar, Berkcan [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Mousavi, Seyed H., E-mail: mousavish@upmc.edu [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); McDowell, Michael M.; Niranjan, Ajay; Faraji, Amir H. [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Flickinger, John C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Lunsford, L. Dade [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are increasingly diagnosed in patients with normal hearing because of advances in magnetic resonance imaging. We sought to evaluate whether stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) performed earlier after diagnosis improved long-term hearing preservation in this population. Methods and Materials: We queried our quality assessment registry and found the records of 1134 acoustic neuroma patients who underwent SRS during a 15-year period (1997-2011). We identified 88 patients who had VS but normal hearing with no subjective hearing loss at the time of diagnosis. All patients were Gardner-Robertson (GR) class I at the time of SRS. Fifty-seven patients underwent early (≤2 years from diagnosis) SRS and 31 patients underwent late (>2 years after diagnosis) SRS. At a median follow-up time of 75 months, we evaluated patient outcomes. Results: Tumor control rates (decreased or stable in size) were similar in the early (95%) and late (90%) treatment groups (P=.73). Patients in the early treatment group retained serviceable (GR class I/II) hearing and normal (GR class I) hearing longer than did patients in the late treatment group (serviceable hearing, P=.006; normal hearing, P<.0001, respectively). At 5 years after SRS, an estimated 88% of the early treatment group retained serviceable hearing and 77% retained normal hearing, compared with 55% with serviceable hearing and 33% with normal hearing in the late treatment group. Conclusions: SRS within 2 years after diagnosis of VS in normal hearing patients resulted in improved retention of all hearing measures compared with later SRS.

  18. Early Radiosurgery Improves Hearing Preservation in Vestibular Schwannoma Patients With Normal Hearing at the Time of Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpinar, Berkcan; Mousavi, Seyed H.; McDowell, Michael M.; Niranjan, Ajay; Faraji, Amir H.; Flickinger, John C.; Lunsford, L. Dade

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are increasingly diagnosed in patients with normal hearing because of advances in magnetic resonance imaging. We sought to evaluate whether stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) performed earlier after diagnosis improved long-term hearing preservation in this population. Methods and Materials: We queried our quality assessment registry and found the records of 1134 acoustic neuroma patients who underwent SRS during a 15-year period (1997-2011). We identified 88 patients who had VS but normal hearing with no subjective hearing loss at the time of diagnosis. All patients were Gardner-Robertson (GR) class I at the time of SRS. Fifty-seven patients underwent early (≤2 years from diagnosis) SRS and 31 patients underwent late (>2 years after diagnosis) SRS. At a median follow-up time of 75 months, we evaluated patient outcomes. Results: Tumor control rates (decreased or stable in size) were similar in the early (95%) and late (90%) treatment groups (P=.73). Patients in the early treatment group retained serviceable (GR class I/II) hearing and normal (GR class I) hearing longer than did patients in the late treatment group (serviceable hearing, P=.006; normal hearing, P<.0001, respectively). At 5 years after SRS, an estimated 88% of the early treatment group retained serviceable hearing and 77% retained normal hearing, compared with 55% with serviceable hearing and 33% with normal hearing in the late treatment group. Conclusions: SRS within 2 years after diagnosis of VS in normal hearing patients resulted in improved retention of all hearing measures compared with later SRS.

  19. Efficacy of Early Surgery for Neurological Improvement in Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Evidence of Trauma in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomoo; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Endo, Toshiki; Uenohara, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Teiji

    2017-09-01

    The optimal timing for surgery for patients with spinal cord injury without radiographic evidence of trauma (SCIWORET) remains unclear. This is especially true in the elderly, given that most studies are done with younger patients to avoid age-related comorbidities. We aimed to compare the efficacy of early (24 hours postinjury) surgery in patients with SCIWORET aged ≥65 years. We identified patients aged ≥65 years who underwent surgery for SCIWORET between January 1995 and February 2016. The primary outcome was a change in the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score at discharge, with a recovery of >50% defined as a favorable neurologic outcome. Logistic regression analysis was performed, and model fit was assessed using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Eighty patients aged ≥65 years with SCIWORET underwent surgery were enrolled. Favorable neurologic outcomes were seen in 43.3% of those who underwent early surgery, but only in 18.0% of those who underwent late surgery. Logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index), and JOA score, revealed that early surgery independently predicted favorable outcomes (odds ratio, 4.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-13.20), with excellent calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow, P = 0.857). The present study indicated that early surgery within 24 hours of injury for elderly patients with SCIWORET could lead to more favorable neurologic improvements. We believe that chronological age alone should not be considered sufficient justification to deny patients early surgical decompression for SCIWORET. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantifying parental preferences for interventions designed to improve home food preparation and home food environments during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virudachalam, Senbagam; Chung, Paul J; Faerber, Jennifer A; Pian, Timothy M; Thomas, Karen; Feudtner, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Though preparing healthy food at home is a critical health promotion habit, few interventions have aimed to improve parental cooking skills and behaviors. We sought to understand parents' preferences and priorities regarding interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments during early childhood. We administered a discrete choice experiment using maximum difference scaling. Eighty English-speaking parents of healthy 1-4 year-old children rated the relative importance of potential attributes of interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments. We performed latent class analysis to identify subgroups of parents with similar preferences and tested for differences between the subgroups. Participants were mostly white or black 21-45 year-old women whose prevalence of overweight/obesity mirrored the general population. Latent class analysis revealed three distinct groups of parental preferences for intervention content: a healthy cooking group, focused on nutrition and cooking healthier food; a child persuasion group, focused on convincing toddlers to eat home-cooked food; and a creative cooking group, focused on cooking without recipes, meal planning, and time-saving strategies. Younger, lower income, 1-parent households comprised the healthy cooking group, while older, higher income, 2-parent households comprised the creative cooking group (p cooked dinner regularly, unlike the other two groups (p food preparation practices. Such interventions are important for creating healthier home food environments and preventing obesity starting from early childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Metabarcoding improves detection of eukaryotes from early biofouling communities: implications for pest monitoring and pathway management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiko, Anastasija; Schimanski, Kate; Pochon, Xavier; Hopkins, Grant A; Goldstien, Sharyn; Floerl, Oliver; Wood, Susanna A

    2016-07-01

    In this experimental study the patterns in early marine biofouling communities and possible implications for surveillance and environmental management were explored using metabarcoding, viz. 18S ribosomal RNA gene barcoding in combination with high-throughput sequencing. The community structure of eukaryotic assemblages and the patterns of initial succession were assessed from settlement plates deployed in a busy port for one, five and 15 days. The metabarcoding results were verified with traditional morphological identification of taxa from selected experimental plates. Metabarcoding analysis identified > 400 taxa at a comparatively low taxonomic level and morphological analysis resulted in the detection of 25 taxa at varying levels of resolution. Despite the differences in resolution, data from both methods were consistent at high taxonomic levels and similar patterns in community shifts were observed. A high percentage of sequences belonging to genera known to contain non-indigenous species (NIS) were detected after exposure for only one day.

  2. Improving human activity recognition and its application in early stroke diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, José R; González, Silvia; Sedano, Javier; Chira, Camelia; Trejo-Gabriel-Galan, Jose M

    2015-06-01

    The development of efficient stroke-detection methods is of significant importance in today's society due to the effects and impact of stroke on health and economy worldwide. This study focuses on Human Activity Recognition (HAR), which is a key component in developing an early stroke-diagnosis tool. An overview of the proposed global approach able to discriminate normal resting from stroke-related paralysis is detailed. The main contributions include an extension of the Genetic Fuzzy Finite State Machine (GFFSM) method and a new hybrid feature selection (FS) algorithm involving Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a voting scheme putting the cross-validation results together. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is a well-performing HAR tool that can be successfully embedded in devices.

  3. Attention deficit associated with early life interictal spikes in a rat model is improved with ACTH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Hernan

    Full Text Available Children with epilepsy often present with pervasive cognitive and behavioral comorbidities including working memory impairments, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorder. These non-seizure characteristics are severely detrimental to overall quality of life. Some of these children, particularly those with epilepsies classified as Landau-Kleffner Syndrome or continuous spike and wave during sleep, have infrequent seizure activity but frequent focal epileptiform activity. This frequent epileptiform activity is thought to be detrimental to cognitive development; however, it is also possible that these IIS events initiate pathophysiological pathways in the developing brain that may be independently associated with cognitive deficits. These hypotheses are difficult to address due to the previous lack of an appropriate animal model. To this end, we have recently developed a rat model to test the role of frequent focal epileptiform activity in the prefrontal cortex. Using microinjections of a GABA(A antagonist (bicuculline methiodine delivered multiple times per day from postnatal day (p 21 to p25, we showed that rat pups experiencing frequent, focal, recurrent epileptiform activity in the form of interictal spikes during neurodevelopment have significant long-term deficits in attention and sociability that persist into adulthood. To determine if treatment with ACTH, a drug widely used to treat early-life seizures, altered outcome we administered ACTH once per day subcutaneously during the time of the induced interictal spike activity. We show a modest amelioration of the attention deficit seen in animals with a history of early life interictal spikes with ACTH, in the absence of alteration of interictal spike activity. These results suggest that pharmacological intervention that is not targeted to the interictal spike activity is worthy of future study as it may be beneficial for preventing or ameliorating adverse

  4. Predictors of satisfactory improvements in pain for patients with early rheumatoid arthritis in a treat-to-target study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Klooster, Peter M; Vonkeman, Harald E; Oude Voshaar, Martijn A H; Siemons, Liseth; van Riel, Piet L C M; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify baseline predictors of achieving patient-perceived satisfactory improvement (PPSI) in pain after 6 months of treat to target in patients with early RA. Baseline and 6 month data were used from patients included in the Dutch Rheumatoid Arthritis Monitoring remission induction cohort study. Simple and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify significant predictors of achieving an absolute improvement of 30 mm or a relative improvement of 50% on a visual analogue scale for pain. At 6 months, 125 of 209 patients (59.8%) achieved an absolute PPSI and 130 patients (62.2%) achieved a relative PPSI in pain. Controlling for baseline pain, having symmetrical arthritis was the strongest independent predictor of achieving an absolute [odds ratio (OR) 3.17, P = 0.03] or relative (OR 3.44, P = 0.01) PPSI. Additionally, anti-CCP positivity (OR 2.04, P = 0.04) and having ≤12 tender joints (OR 0.29, P = 0.01) were predictive of achieving a relative PPSI. The total explained variance of baseline predictors was 30% for absolute and 18% for relative improvements, respectively. Symmetrical joint involvement, anti-CCP positivity and fewer tender joints at baseline are prognostic signs for achieving satisfactory improvement in pain after 6 months of treat to target in patients with early RA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Early treatment with tolvaptan improves diuretic response in acute heart failure with renal dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsue, Yuya; ter Maaten, Jozine M.; Suzuki, Makoto; Torii, Sho; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Fukamizu, Seiji; Ono, Yuichi; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Kitai, Takeshi; Nishioka, Toshihiko; Sugi, Kaoru; Onishi, Yuko; Noda, Makoto; Kagiyama, Nobuyuki; Satoh, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Kazuki; van der Meer, Peter; Damman, Kevin; Voors, Adriaan A.; Goldsmith, Steven R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Poor response to diuretics is associated with worse prognosis in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). We hypothesized that treatment with tolvaptan improves diuretic response in patients with AHF. Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of the AQUAMARINE open-label randomized

  6. Is Greater Improvement in Early Self-Regulation Associated with Fewer Behavioral Problems Later in Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Alyssa C. P.; Miller-Lewis, Lauren R.; Searle, Amelia K.; Sawyer, Michael G.; Lynch, John W.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the extent of improvement in self-regulation achieved between ages 4 and 6 years is associated with the level of behavioral problems later in childhood. Participants were 4-year-old children (n = 510) attending preschools in South Australia. Children's level of self-regulation was assessed using the…

  7. Highlighting the evidence gap: how cost-effective are interventions to improve early childhood nutrition and development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batura, Neha; Hill, Zelee; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Lingam, Raghu; Colbourn, Timothy; Kim, Sungwook; Sikander, Siham; Pulkki-Brannstrom, Anni-Maria; Rahman, Atif; Kirkwood, Betty; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene

    2015-07-01

    There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of early childhood interventions to improve the growth and development of children. Although, historically, nutrition and stimulation interventions may have been delivered separately, they are increasingly being tested as a package of early childhood interventions that synergistically improve outcomes over the life course. However, implementation at scale is seldom possible without first considering the relative cost and cost-effectiveness of these interventions. An evidence gap in this area may deter large-scale implementation, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We conduct a literature review to establish what is known about the cost-effectiveness of early childhood nutrition and development interventions. A set of predefined search terms and exclusion criteria standardized the search across five databases. The search identified 15 relevant articles. Of these, nine were from studies set in high-income countries and six in low- and middle-income countries. The articles either calculated the cost-effectiveness of nutrition-specific interventions (n = 8) aimed at improving child growth, or parenting interventions (stimulation) to improve early childhood development (n = 7). No articles estimated the cost-effectiveness of combined interventions. Comparing results within nutrition or stimulation interventions, or between nutrition and stimulation interventions was largely prevented by the variety of outcome measures used in these analyses. This article highlights the need for further evidence relevant to low- and middle-income countries. To facilitate comparison of cost-effectiveness between studies, and between contexts where appropriate, a move towards a common outcome measure such as the cost per disability-adjusted life years averted is advocated. Finally, given the increasing number of combined nutrition and stimulation interventions being tested, there is a significant need for evidence of cost

  8. Effect of oxygen plasma etching on pore size-controlled 3D polycaprolactone scaffolds for enhancing the early new bone formation in rabbit calvaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kook, Min-Suk; Roh, Hee-Sang; Kim, Byung-Hoon

    2018-05-02

    This study was to investigate the effects of O 2 plasma-etching of the 3D polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold surface on preosteoblast cell proliferation and differentiation, and early new bone formation. The PCL scaffolds were fabricated by 3D printing technique. After O 2 plasma treatment, surface characterizations were examined by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle. MTT assay was used to determine cell proliferation. To investigate the early new bone formation, rabbits were sacrificed at 2 weeks for histological analyses. As the O 2 plasma etching time is increased, roughness and hydrophilicity of the PCL scaffold surface increased. The cell proliferation and differentiation on plasma-etched samples was significantly increased than on untreated samples. At 2 weeks, early new bone formation in O 2 plasma-etched PCL scaffolds was the higher than that of untreated scaffolds. The O 2 plasma-etched PCL scaffolds showed increased preosteoblast differentiation as well as increased new bone formation.

  9. Radiation hard detectors from silicon enriched with both oxygen and thermal donors improvements in donor removal and long-term stability with regard to neutron irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Z; Eremin, V; Dezillie, B; Chen, W; Bruzzi, M

    2002-01-01

    Detectors made on the silicon wafers with high concentration of thermal donors (TD), which were introduced during the high temperature long time (HTLT) oxygenation procedure, have been investigated in the study of radiation hardness with regard to neutron irradiation and donor removal problems in irradiated high resistivity Si detectors. Two facts have been established as the evidence of radiation hardness improvement of HTLT(TD) Si detectors irradiated below approx 10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2 compared to detectors made on standard silicon wafers: the increase of space charge sign inversion fluence (of 1 MeV neutrons) due to lower initial Si resistivity dominated by TD, and the gain in the reverse annealing time constant tau favourable for this material. Coupled with extremely high radiation tolerance to protons observed earlier ('beta zero' behaviour in a wide range of fluence), detectors from HTLT(TD) Si may be unique for application in the experiments with multiple radiations. The changes in the effective sp...

  10. Improvement of memory recall by quercetin in rodent contextual fear conditioning and human early-stage Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Masanori; Ohta, Kazunori; Hayashi, Yuichi; Hayakawa, Miki; Yamada, Yasushi; Akanabe, Hiroshi; Chikaishi, Tokio; Nakagawa, Kiyomi; Itoh, Yoshinori; Muro, Takato; Yanagida, Daisuke; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Mori, Tetsuya; Saito, Kazuki; Ohzawa, Kaori; Suzuki, Chihiro; Li, Shimo; Ueda, Masashi; Wang, Miao-Xing; Nishida, Emika; Islam, Saiful; Tana; Kobori, Masuko; Inuzuka, Takashi

    2016-06-15

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience a wide array of cognitive deficits, which typically include the impairment of explicit memory. In previous studies, the authors reported that a flavonoid, quercetin, reduces the expression of ATF4 and delays memory deterioration in an early-stage AD mouse model. In the present study, the effects of long-term quercetin intake on memory recall were assessed using contextual fear conditioning in aged wild-type mice. In addition, the present study examined whether memory recall was affected by the intake of quercetin-rich onion (a new cultivar of hybrid onion 'Quergold') powder in early-stage AD patients. In-vivo analysis indicated that memory recall was enhanced in aged mice fed a quercetin-containing diet. Memory recall in early-stage AD patients, determined using the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale, was significantly improved by the intake of quercetin-rich onion (Quergold) powder for 4 weeks compared with the intake of control onion ('Mashiro' white onion) powder. These results indicate that quercetin might influence memory recall.

  11. Fluorescence-based endoscopic imaging of Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen to improve early detection of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Shinji; Yu, James Y H; Quang, Timothy; Hiwatari, Ken-Ichiro; Kumagai, Hironori; Kao, Stephanie; Holt, Alex; Erskind, Jalysa; McClure, Richard; Siuta, Michael; Kitamura, Tokio; Tobita, Etsuo; Koike, Seiji; Wilson, Kevin; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Liu, Eric; Washington, Kay; Omary, Reed; Gore, John C; Pham, Wellington

    2015-03-01

    Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen belongs to the mucin-type tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen. Notably, TF antigen is overexpressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) but is rarely expressed in normal colonic tissue. Increased TF antigen expression is associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. In this study, we sought to validate a novel nanobeacon for imaging TF-associated CRC in a preclinical animal model. We developed and characterized the nanobeacon for use with fluorescence colonoscopy. In vivo imaging was performed on an orthotopic rat model of CRC. Both white light and fluorescence colonoscopy methods were utilized to establish the ratio-imaging index for the probe. The nanobeacon exhibited specificity for TF-associated cancer. Fluorescence colonoscopy using the probe can detect lesions at the stage which is not readily confirmed by conventional visualization methods. Further, the probe can report the dynamic change of TF expression as tumor regresses during chemotherapy. Data from this study suggests that fluorescence colonoscopy can improve early CRC detection. Supplemented by the established ratio-imaging index, the probe can be used not only for early detection, but also for reporting tumor response during chemotherapy. Furthermore, since the data obtained through in vivo imaging confirmed that the probe was not absorbed by the colonic mucosa, no registered toxicity is associated with this nanobeacon. Taken together, these data demonstrate the potential of this novel probe for imaging TF antigen as a biomarker for the early detection and prediction of the progression of CRC at the molecular level. © 2014 UICC.

  12. Dietary restriction improves repopulation but impairs lymphoid differentiation capacity of hematopoietic stem cells in early aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Duozhuang; Tao, Si; Chen, Zhiyang; Koliesnik, Ievgen Oleksandrovich; Calmes, Philip Gerald; Hoerr, Verena; Han, Bing; Gebert, Nadja; Zörnig, Martin; Löffler, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) improves health, delays tissue aging, and elongates survival in flies and worms. However, studies on laboratory mice and nonhuman primates revealed ambiguous effects of DR on lifespan despite improvements in health parameters. In this study, we analyzed consequences of adult-onset DR (24 h to 1 yr) on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function. DR ameliorated HSC aging phenotypes, such as the increase in number of HSCs and the skewing toward myeloid-biased HSCs during aging. Furthermore, DR increased HSC quiescence and improved the maintenance of the repopulation capacity of HSCs during aging. In contrast to these beneficial effects, DR strongly impaired HSC differentiation into lymphoid lineages and particularly inhibited the proliferation of lymphoid progenitors, resulting in decreased production of peripheral B lymphocytes and impaired immune function. The study shows that DR-dependent suppression of growth factors and interleukins mediates these divergent effects caused by DR. Supplementation of insulin-like growth factor 1 partially reverted the DR-induced quiescence of HSCs, whereas IL-6/IL-7 substitutions rescued the impairment of B lymphopoiesis exposed to DR. Together, these findings delineate positive and negative effects of long-term DR on HSC functionality involving distinct stress and growth signaling pathways. PMID:26951333

  13. Improvement of porcine cloning efficiency by trichostain A through early-stage induction of embryo apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qianqian; Zhu, Kongju; Liu, Zhiguo; Song, Zhenwei; Huang, Yuankai; Zhao, Haijing; Chen, Yaosheng; He, Zuyong; Mo, Delin; Cong, Peiqing

    2013-03-15

    Trichostain A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, improved developmental competence of SCNT embryos in many species, apparently by improved epigenetic reprogramming. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of TSA-induced apoptosis in cloned porcine embryos. At various developmental stages, a comet assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining were used to detect apoptosis, and real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess expression of genes related to apoptosis and pluripotency. In this study, TSA significantly induced apoptosis (in a dose-dependent manner) at the one-, two-, and four-cell stages. However, in blastocyst stage embryos, TSA decreased the apoptotic index (P < 0.05). Expression levels of Caspase 3 were higher in TSA-treated versus control embryos at the two-cell stage (not statistically significant). The expression ratio of antiapoptotic Bcl-xl gene to proapoptotic Bax gene, an indicator of antiapoptotic potential, was higher in TSA-treated groups at the one-, two-, and four-cell and blastocyst stages. Furthermore, expression levels of pluripotency-related genes, namely, Oct4 and Nanog, were elevated at the morula stage (P < 0.05) in TSA treatment groups. We concluded that inducing apoptosis might be a mechanism by which TSA promotes development of reconstructed embryos. At the initial stage of apoptosis induction, abnormal cells were removed, thereby enhancing proliferation of healthy cells and improving embryo quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Linking hydrogen-mediated boron toxicity tolerance with improvement of root elongation, water status and reactive oxygen species balance: a case study for rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Duan, Xingliang; Xu, Sheng; Wang, Ren; Ouyang, Zhaozeng; Shen, Wenbiao

    2016-12-01

    Boron is essential for plant growth but hazardous when present in excess. As the antioxidant properties of hydrogen gas (H 2 ) were recently described in plants, oxidative stress induced by excess boron was investigated along with other biological responses during rice (Oryza sativa) seed germination to study the beneficial role of H 2 METHODS: Rice seeds were pretreated with exogenous H 2 Using physiological, pharmacological and molecular approaches, the production of endogenous H 2 , growth status, reactive oxygen species (ROS) balance and relative gene expression in rice were measured under boron stress to investigate mechanisms of H 2 -mediated boron toxicity tolerance. In our test, boron-inhibited seed germination and seedling growth, and endogenous H 2 production, were obviously blocked by exogenously applying H 2 The re-establishment of ROS balance was confirmed by reduced lipid peroxidation and ROS accumulation. Meanwhile, activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) were increased. Suppression of pectin methylesterase (PME) activity and downregulation of PME transcripts by H 2 were consistent with the alleviation of root growth inhibition caused by boron. Water status was improved as well. This result was confirmed by the upregulation of genes encoding specific aquaporins (AQPs), the maintenance of low osmotic potential and high content of soluble sugar. Increased transcription of representative AQP genes (PIP2;7 in particular) and BOR2 along with decreased BOR1 mRNA may contribute to lowering boron accumulation. Hydrogen provides boron toxicity tolerance mainly by improving root elongation, water status and ROS balance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Brief communication: Using averaged soil moisture estimates to improve the performances of a regional-scale landslide early warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segoni, Samuele; Rosi, Ascanio; Lagomarsino, Daniela; Fanti, Riccardo; Casagli, Nicola

    2018-03-01

    We communicate the results of a preliminary investigation aimed at improving a state-of-the-art RSLEWS (regional-scale landslide early warning system) based on rainfall thresholds by integrating mean soil moisture values averaged over the territorial units of the system. We tested two approaches. The simplest can be easily applied to improve other RSLEWS: it is based on a soil moisture threshold value under which rainfall thresholds are not used because landslides are not expected to occur. Another approach deeply modifies the original RSLEWS: thresholds based on antecedent rainfall accumulated over long periods are substituted with soil moisture thresholds. A back analysis demonstrated that both approaches consistently reduced false alarms, while the second approach reduced missed alarms as well.

  16. Homogeneous Subgroups of Young Children with Autism Improve Phenotypic Characterization in the Study to Explore Early Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Lisa D; Tian, Lin H; Levy, Susan E; Rice, Catherine; Lee, Li-Ching; Schieve, Laura; Pandey, Juhi; Daniels, Julie; Blaskey, Lisa; Hepburn, Susan; Landa, Rebecca; Edmondson-Pretzel, Rebecca; Thompson, William

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify homogenous classes of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to improve phenotypic characterization. Children were enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development between 2 and 5 years of age. 707 children were classified with ASD after a comprehensive evaluation with strict diagnostic algorithms. Four classes of children with ASD were identified from latent class analysis: mild language delay with cognitive rigidity, mild language and motor delay with dysregulation, general developmental delay, and significant developmental delay with repetitive motor behaviors. We conclude that a four-class phenotypic model of children with ASD best describes our data and improves phenotypic characterization of young children with ASD. Implications for screening, diagnosis, and research are discussed.

  17. Towards comprehensive early abortion service delivery in high income countries: insights for improving universal access to abortion in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Dawson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving access to safe abortion is an essential strategy in the provision of universal access to reproductive health care. Australians are largely supportive of the provision of abortion and its decriminalization. However, the lack of data and the complex legal and service delivery situation impacts upon access for women seeking an early termination of pregnancy. There are no systematic reviews from a health services perspective to help direct health planners and policy makers to improve access comprehensive medical and early surgical abortion in high income countries. This review therefore aims to identify quality studies of abortion services to provide insight into how access to services can be improved in Australia. Methods We undertook a structured search of six bibliographic databases and hand-searching to ascertain peer reviewed primary research in English between 2005 and 2015. Qualitative and quantitative study designs were deemed suitable for inclusion. A deductive content analysis methodology was employed to analyse selected manuscripts based upon a framework we developed to examine access to early abortion services. Results This review identified the dimensions of access to surgical and medical abortion at clinic or hospital-outpatient based abortion services, as well as new service delivery approaches utilising a remote telemedicine approach. A range of factors, mostly from studies in the United Kingdom and United States of America were found to facilitate improved access to abortion, in particular, flexible service delivery approaches that provide women with cost effective options and technology based services. Standards, recommendations and targets were also identified that provided services and providers with guidance regarding the quality of abortion care. Conclusions Key insights for service delivery in Australia include the: establishment of standards, provision of choice of procedure, improved provider

  18. Craniopharyngioma: improving outcome by early recognition and treatment of acute complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, Balakrishnan; Ashley, Sue; Thomas, David G. T.; Marsh, Henry; Britton, Juliet; Brada, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the frequency, mode of presentation, treatment, and outcome of acute complications in patients with craniopharyngioma around the time of radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A review was made of 188 patients with craniopharyngioma treated with conservative surgery and external beam radiotherapy at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1950 and 1992. Results: Twenty six (14%) (95% confidence interval: 9-19%) patients with craniopharyngioma developed acute deterioration immediately before, during and 2 months after radiotherapy with visual deterioration (19 patients), hydrocephalus (7 patients), and global deficit (7 patients). Cystic enlargement with or without hydrocephalus was the most common cause of deterioration. No patient or disease characteristics were predictive of deterioration on univariate or multivariate analysis. Eighteen patients had surgical intervention at the time of deterioration and survived the immediate period. Six of seven patients who did not have surgical intervention died. All patients who survived the postcomplication period completed the full course of external beam radiotherapy. The 10-year progression-free survival of 162 patients without deterioration was 86%, and of 18 patients with acute deterioration who recovered after surgery, 77%. Conclusion: Patients with craniopharyngioma develop acute deterioration around the time of radiotherapy owing to cystic enlargement and/or hydrocephalus which does not represent tumor progression. Early recognition and appropriate surgical treatment followed by conventional full-dose radiotherapy are associated with good long-term outcome

  19. Early stage second-language learning improves executive control: evidence from ERP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Margot D; Janus, Monika; Moreno, Sylvain; Astheimer, Lori; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of research has reported a bilingual advantage in performance on executive control tasks, but it is not known at what point in emerging bilingualism these advantages first appear. The present study investigated the effect of early stage second-language training on executive control. Monolingual English-speaking students were tested on a go-nogo task, sentence judgment task, and verbal fluency, before and after 6 months of Spanish instruction. The training group (n = 25) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Spanish and the control group (n = 30) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Psychology. After training, the Spanish group showed larger P3 amplitude on the go-nogo task and smaller P600 amplitude on the judgment task, indicating enhanced performance, with no changes for the control group and no differences between groups on behavioral measures. Results are discussed in terms of neural changes underlying executive control after brief second-language learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Principled Improvement in Science: Forces and proportional relations in early secondary-school teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Christine; Ilie, Sonia; Guardia, Paula; Hofmann, Riikka; Mercer, Neil; Riga, Fran

    2015-01-01

    In response to continuing concerns about student attainment and participation in science and mathematics, the epiSTEMe project took a novel approach to pedagogy in these two disciplines. Using principles identified as effective in the research literature (and combining these in a fashion not previously attempted), the project developed topic modules for early secondary-school teaching in the UK, arranged for their implementation in classrooms, and evaluated the results. This paper reports the development, implementation, and evaluation of one of the epiSTEMe science modules. Entitled Forces and Proportional Relations, the module covers standard curricular material in the domain of forces, while paying particular attention to the proportional nature of many key constructs. It was developed in collaboration with a small group of teachers; implemented subsequently in 16 classrooms, in all cases involving students from the first year of secondary school; and evaluated through comparison with first-year students in 13 control classrooms who were studying the topic using established methods. Evaluation addressed topic mastery and opinions about the topic and the manner in which it was taught. While further research is required before definite conclusions are warranted, results relating to topic mastery provide grounds for optimism about the epiSTEMe approach. Furthermore, student opinions about the module were positive.

  1. Early Improvement in Work Productivity Predicts Future Clinical Course in Depressed Outpatients: Findings from the CO-MED Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Manish K.; Minhajuddin, Abu; Greer, Tracy L.; Carmody, Thomas; Rush, A. John; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

    2018-01-01

    Objective Depression symptom severity, the most commonly studied outcome in antidepressant treatment trials, accounts for only a small portion of burden related to major depression. While lost work productivity is the biggest contributor to depression’s economic burden, few studies have systematically evaluated the independent effect of treatment on work productivity and the relationship between changes in work productivity and longer-term clinical course. Method Work productivity was measured repeatedly by the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) self-report in 331 employed participants with major depression enrolled in the Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes (CO-MED) trial. Trajectories of change in work productivity during the first 6 weeks of treatment were identified and used to predict remission at 3 and 7 months. Results Participants reported reduced absence from work and increased work productivity with antidepressant treatment even after controlling for changes in depression severity. Three distinct trajectories of changes in work productivity were identified: 1) robust early improvement (24%), 2) minimal change (49%), and 3) high-impairment slight reduction (27%). As compared to other participants, those with robust improvement had 3–5 times higher remission rates at 3 months and 2–5 times higher remission rates at 7 months, even after controlling for select baseline variables and remission status at week 6. Conclusions In this secondary analysis, self-reported work productivity improved in depressed patients with antidepressant treatment even after accounting for depressive symptom reduction. Early improvement in work productivity is associated with much higher remission rates after 3 and 7 months of treatment. PMID:27523501

  2. Treatment with human immunoglobulin G improves the early disease course in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschüntzsch, Jana; Zhang, Yaxin; Klinker, Florian; Makosch, Gregor; Klinge, Lars; Malzahn, Dörthe; Brinkmeier, Heinrich; Liebetanz, David; Schmidt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe hereditary myopathy. Standard treatment by glucocorticosteroids is limited because of numerous side effects. The aim of this study was to test immunomodulation by human immunoglobulin G (IgG) as treatment in the experimental mouse model (mdx) of DMD. 2 g/kg human IgG compared to human albumin was injected intraperitoneally in mdx mice at the age of 3 and 7 weeks. Advanced voluntary wheel running parameters were recorded continuously. At the age of 11 weeks, animals were killed so that blood, diaphragm, and lower limb muscles could be removed for quantitative PCR, histological analysis and ex vivo muscle contraction tests. IgG compared to albumin significantly improved the voluntary running performance and reduced muscle fatigability in an ex vivo muscle contraction test. Upon IgG treatment, serum creatine kinase values were diminished and mRNA expression levels of relevant inflammatory markers were reduced in the diaphragm and limb muscles. Macrophage infiltration and myopathic damage were significantly ameliorated in the quadriceps muscle. Collectively, this study demonstrates that, in the early disease course of mdx mice, human IgG improves the running performance and diminishes myopathic damage and inflammation in the muscle. Therefore, IgG may be a promising approach for treatment of DMD. Two monthly intraperitoneal injections of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) improved the early 11-week disease phase of mdx mice. Voluntary running was improved and serum levels of creatine kinase were diminished. In the skeletal muscle, myopathic damage was ameliorated and key inflammatory markers such as mRNA expression of SPP1 and infiltration by macrophages were reduced. The study suggests that IgG could be explored as a potential treatment option for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and that pre-clinical long-term studies should be helpful. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  3. Polyphenols and IUGR pregnancies: Maternal hydroxytyrosol supplementation improves prenatal and early-postnatal growth and metabolism of the offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Vazquez-Gomez

    Full Text Available Hydroxytyrosol is a polyphenol with antioxidant, metabolism-regulatory, anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory properties. The present study aimed to determine whether supplementing the maternal diet with hydroxytyrosol during pregnancy can improve pre- and early post-natal developmental patterns and metabolic traits of the offspring. Experiment was performed in Iberian sows fed a restricted diet in order to increase the risk of IUGR. Ten sows were treated daily with 1.5 mg of hydroxytyrosol per kg of feed between Day 35 of pregnancy (30% of total gestational period until delivery whilst 10 animals were left untreated as controls. Number and weight of offspring were assessed at birth, on post-natal Day 15 and at weaning (25 days-old. At weaning, body composition and plasma indexes of glucose and lipids were measured. Treatment with hydroxytyrosol was associated with higher mean birth weight, lower incidence of piglets with low birth weight. Afterwards, during the lactation period, piglets in the treated group showed a higher body-weight than control piglets; such effects were even stronger in the most prolific litters. These results suggest that maternal supplementation with hydroxytyrosol may improve pre- and early post-natal development of offspring in pregnancies at risk of IUGR.

  4. Randomized trial investigating the efficacy of manual lymphatic drainage to improve early outcome after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Jay R; Joss, Brendan; Jardine, Berit; Wood, David J

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the efficacy of manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) in the early postoperative period after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to reduce edema and pain and improve knee range of motion. Prospective randomized controlled trial. Private hospital and functional rehabilitation clinic. Consecutive sample of patients (N=43; 53 knees) scheduled for TKA. MLD (vs no MLD) on days 2, 3, and 4 postoperatively. Both groups underwent conventional, concomitant physical therapy. Clinical assessment was undertaken pre- and postoperatively prior to and after the designated postoperative MLD sessions (days 2, 3, and 4) and at 6 weeks postsurgery. This included active knee flexion and extension range of motion, lower limb girths (ankle, midpatella, thigh, and calf), and knee pain using a numeric rating scale and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. A significant group effect was observed for active knee flexion, with post hoc tests demonstrating a significantly greater active knee flexion in the MLD group when compared with the control (no MLD) group at the final measure prior to hospital discharge (day 4 postsurgery) and at 6 weeks postsurgery. There were no further group effects observed for the remaining patient-reported and functional outcomes. MLD in the early postoperative stages after TKA appears to improve active knee flexion up to 6 weeks postsurgery, in addition to conventional care. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Early pathologic findings and long-term improvement in anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, D T; Salzman, K L; Digre, K B; Jensen, R L; Dunson, W A; Dalmau, J

    2006-07-11

    A 67-year-old man sequentially developed anti-Ma2-associated paraneoplastic encephalitis (PNE) and contralateral herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Brain biopsy 1 month before HSE revealed extensive infiltrates of T cells, B cells, and plasma cells. Most T cells expressed the cytotoxic granule-associated protein TIA-1 and the membranolytic protein granzyme-B. Although recovery was thought to be unlikely, treatment of the PNE with corticosteroids and resection of the associated lung cancer resulted in dramatic improvement for 21 months.

  6. Does early improvement in depressive symptoms predict subsequent remission in patients with depression who are treated with duloxetine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueki A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Akitsugu Sueki, Eriko Suzuki, Hitoshi Takahashi, Jun Ishigooka Department of Neuropsychiatry, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: In this prospective study, we examined whether early reduction in depressive symptoms predicts later remission to duloxetine in the treatment of depression, as monitored using the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS. Patients and methods: Among the 106 patients who were enrolled in this study, 67 were included in the statistical analysis. A clinical evaluation using the MADRS was performed at weeks 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 after commencing treatment. For each time point, the MADRS total score was separated into three components: dysphoria, retardation, and vegetative scores. Results: Remission was defined as an MADRS total score of ≤10 at end point. From our univariate logistic regression analysis, we found that improvements in both the MADRS total score and the dysphoria score at week 4 had a significant interaction with subsequent remission. Furthermore, age and sex were significant predictors of remission. There was an increase of approximately 4% in the odds of remission for each unit increase in age, and female sex had an odds of remission of 0.318 times that of male sex (remission rate for men was 73.1% [19/26] and for women 46.3% [19/41]. However, in the multivariate model using the change from baseline in the total MADRS, dysphoria, retardation, and vegetative scores at week 4, in which age and sex were included as covariates, only sex retained significance, except for an improvement in the dysphoria score. Conclusion: No significant interaction was found between early response to duloxetine and eventual remission in this study. Sex difference was found to be a predictor of subsequent remission in patients with depression who were treated with duloxetine, with the male sex having greater odds of remission. Keywords: antidepressant, early response, sex difference, serotonin

  7. Early improvement in obstructive sleep apnea and increase in orexin levels after bariatric surgery in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Raouf; Simakajornboon, Narong; Szczesniak, Rhonda; Inge, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) associated with obesity is known to improve after bariatric surgery, but little is known about early changes in this condition after surgery. To study the clinical course of OSA after bariatric surgery SETTING: Children's hospital in the United States METHODS: Adolescents and young adults with obstructive sleep apnea undergoing vertical sleeve gastrectomy (n = 6) or gastric bypass (n = 1) were enrolled in this prospective study. Participants underwent formal polysomnography before and at 3 and 5 weeks after bariatric surgery. Anthropometric measurements and assay for orexin and leptin were also performed at study visits. Thirty-one adolescents who underwent 2 polysomnography studies that were 4 weeks apart served as control patients. Baseline mean (range) age of participants was 17.8 (15.4-20.7) years, 71% were male, with body mass index of 55.2 (41.3-61.6) kg/m 2 and had a median apnea hypopnea index (AHI) of 15.8 (7.1-23.8) events/hour. Differences in least-square means from longitudinal analysis did not show significant differences in AHI in the control group but showed significant postoperative decline in AHI relative to baseline. AHI declined postoperatively from baseline by 9.2 events/hour (95% confidence interval: 3.8 to 14.5) at 3 weeks (P = .002) and 9.1 events/hour (95% confidence interval: 3.8 to 14.5) at 5 weeks (P = .002); there was no significant change from 3 to 5 weeks in AHI. Leptin decreased and orexin levels increased significantly by 3 weeks postoperatively. These observations suggest that OSA responds early and out of proportion to weight loss after metabolic and or bariatric surgery, thus weight independent factors may at least in part be responsible for early improvement in OSA postoperatively. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxygen Compatibility of Brass-Filled PTFE Compared to Commonly Used Fluorinated Polymers for Oxygen Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Stephen D.; Frisby, Paul M.; Davis, Samuel Eddie

    2009-01-01

    Safe and reliable seal materials for high-pressure oxygen systems sometimes appear to be extinct species when sought out by oxygen systems designers. Materials that seal well are easy to find, but these materials are typically incompatible with oxygen, especially in cryogenic liquid form. This incompatibility can result in seals that leak, or much worse, seals that easily ignite and burn during use. Materials that are compatible with oxygen are easy to find, such as the long list of compatible metals, but these metallic materials are limiting as seal materials. A material that seals well and is oxygen compatible has been the big game in the designer's safari. Scientists at the Materials Combustion Research Facility (MCRF), part of NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), are constantly searching for better materials and processes to improve the safety of oxygen systems. One focus of this effort is improving the characteristics of polymers used in the presence of an oxygen enriched environment. Very few systems can be built which contain no polymeric materials; therefore, materials which have good impact resistance, low heat of combustion, high auto-ignition temperature and that maintain good mechanical properties are essential. The scientists and engineers at the Materials Combustion Research Facility, in cooperation with seal suppliers, are currently testing a new formulation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with Brass filler. This Brass-filled PTFE is showing great promise as a seal and seat material for high pressure oxygen systems. Early research has demonstrated very encouraging results, which could rank this material as one of the best fluorinated polymers ever tested. This paper will compare the data obtained for Brass-filled PTFE with other fluorinated polymers, such as TFE-Teflon (PTFE) , Kel-F 81, Viton A, Viton A-500, Fluorel , and Algoflon . A similar metal filled fluorinated polymer, Salox-M , was tested in comparison to Brass-filled PTFE to

  9. [Results of applying a paediatric early warning score system as a healthcare quality improvement plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Martín, M J; Prieto-Martínez, S; García-Solano, M; Montilla-Pérez, M; Tena-Martín, E; Ballesteros-García, M M

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study were to introduce a paediatric early warning score (PEWS) into our daily clinical practice, as well as to evaluate its ability to detect clinical deterioration in children admitted, and to train nursing staff to communicate the information and response effectively. An analysis was performed on the implementation of PEWS in the electronic health records of children (0-15 years) in our paediatric ward from February 2014 to September 2014. The maximum score was 6. Nursing staff reviewed scores >2, and if >3 medical and nursing staff reviewed it. Monitoring indicators: % of admissions with scoring; % of complete data capture; % of scores >3; % of scores >3 reviewed by medical staff, % of changes in treatment due to the warning system, and number of patients who needed Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) admission, or died without an increased warning score. The data were collected from all patients (931) admitted. The scale was measured 7,917 times, with 78.8% of them with complete data capture. Very few (1.9%) showed scores >3, and 14% of them with changes in clinical management (intensifying treatment or new diagnostic tests). One patient (scored 2) required PICU admission. There were no deaths. Parents or nursing staff concern was registered in 80% of cases. PEWS are useful to provide a standardised assessment of clinical status in the inpatient setting, using a unique scale and implementing data capture. Because of the lack of severe complications requiring PICU admission and deaths, we will have to use other data to evaluate these scales. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic analysis of Tunisian families with Usher syndrome type 1: toward improving early molecular diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Rebeh, Imen; Grati, Mhamed; Bonnet, Crystel; Bouassida, Walid; Hadjamor, Imen; Ayadi, Hammadi; Ghorbel, Abdelmonem; Petit, Christine; Masmoudi, Saber

    2016-01-01

    Usher syndrome accounts for about 50% of all hereditary deaf-blindness cases. The most severe form of this syndrome, Usher syndrome type I (USH1), is characterized by profound congenital sensorineural deafness, vestibular dysfunction, and retinitis pigmentosa. Six USH1 genes have been identified, MYO7A, CDH23, PCDH15, USH1C, SANS, and CIB2, encoding myosin VIIA, cadherin-23, protocadherin-15, harmonin, scaffold protein containing ankyrin repeats and a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain, and calcium- and integrin-binding member 2, respectively. In the present study, we recruited four Tunisian families with a diagnosis of USH1, together with healthy unrelated controls. Affected members underwent detailed audiologic and ocular examinations. We used the North African Deafness (NADf) chip to search for known North African mutations associated with USH. Then, we selected microsatellite markers covering USH1 known loci to genotype the DNA samples. Finally, we performed DNA sequencing of three known USH1 genes: MYO7A, PCDH15, and USH1C. Four biallelic mutations, all single base changes, were found in the MYO7A, USH1C, and PCDH15 genes. These mutations consist of a previously reported splicing defect c.470+1G>A in MYO7A, three novel variants, including two nonsense (p.Arg3X and p.Arg134X) in USH1C and PCDH15, respectively, and one frameshift (p.Lys615Asnfs*6) in MYO7A. We found a remarkable genetic heterogeneity in the studied families with USH1 with a variety of mutations, among which three were novel. These novel mutations will be included in the NADf mutation screening chip that will allow a higher diagnosis efficiency of this extremely genetically heterogeneous disease. Ultimately, efficient molecular diagnosis of USH in a patient's early childhood is of utmost importance, allowing better educational and therapeutic management.

  11. Improved Early Detection of Sepsis in the ED With a Novel Monocyte Distribution Width Biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouser, Elliott D; Parrillo, Joseph E; Seymour, Christopher; Angus, Derek C; Bicking, Keri; Tejidor, Liliana; Magari, Robert; Careaga, Diana; Williams, JoAnna; Closser, Douglas R; Samoszuk, Michael; Herren, Luke; Robart, Emily; Chaves, Fernando

    2017-09-01

    Sepsis most often presents to the ED, and delayed detection is harmful. WBC count is often used to detect sepsis, but changes in WBC count size also correspond to sepsis. We sought to determine if volume increases of circulating immune cells add value to the WBC count for early sepsis detection in the ED. A blinded, prospective cohort study was conducted in two different ED populations within a large academic hospital. Neutrophil and monocyte volume parameters were measured in conjunction with routine CBC testing on a UniCel DxH 800 analyzer at the time of ED admission and were evaluated for the detection of sepsis. There were 1,320 subjects in the ED consecutively enrolled and categorized as control subjects (n = 879) and those with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) (n = 203), infection (n = 140), or sepsis (n = 98). Compared with other parameters, monocyte distribution width (MDW) best discriminated sepsis from all other conditions (area under the curve [AUC], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.73-0.84; sensitivity, 0.77; specificity, 0.73; MDW threshold, 20.50), sepsis from SIRS (AUC, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.67-0.84), and severe sepsis from noninfected patients in the ED (AUC, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.75-0.99; negative predictive value, 99%). The added value of MDW to WBC count was statistically significant (AUC, 0.89 for MDW + WBC vs 0.81 for WBC alone; P sepsis compared with WBC count alone at the time of admission in the ED. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT02232750; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Toward Improving Early Diagnosis of Congenital Chagas Disease in an Endemic Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Louisa A; Gilman, Robert H; Verastegui, Manuela; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Sanchez, Gerardo; Valencia, Edward; Sanchez, Leny; Malaga, Edith; Rendell, Victoria R; Jois, Malasa; Shah, Vishal; Santos, Nicole; Abastoflor, Maria Del Carmen; LaFuente, Carlos; Colanzi, Rony; Bozo, Ricardo; Bern, Caryn

    2017-07-15

    Congenital Trypanosoma cruzi transmission is now estimated to account for 22% of new infections, representing a significant public health problem across Latin America and internationally. Treatment during infancy is highly efficacious and well tolerated, but current assays for early detection fail to detect >50% of infected neonates, and 9-month follow-up is low. Women who presented for delivery at 2 urban hospitals in Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia, were screened by rapid test. Specimens from infants of infected women were tested by microscopy (micromethod), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and immunoglobulin (Ig)M trypomastigote excreted-secreted antigen (TESA)-blots at birth and 1 month and by IgG serology at 6 and 9 months. Among 487 infants of 476 seropositive women, congenital T. cruzi infection was detected in 38 infants of 35 mothers (7.8%). In cord blood, qPCR, TESA-blot, and micromethod sensitivities/specificities were 68.6%/99.1%, 58.3%/99.1%, and 16.7%/100%, respectively. When birth and 1-month results were combined, cumulative sensitivities reached 84.2%, 73.7%, and 34.2%, respectively. Low birthweight and/or respiratory distress were reported in 11 (29%) infected infants. Infants with clinical signs had higher parasite loads and were significantly more likely to be detected by micromethod. The proportion of T. cruzi-infected infants with clinical signs has fallen since the 1990s, but symptomatic congenital Chagas disease still represents a significant, albeit challenging to detect, public health problem. Molecular methods could facilitate earlier diagnosis and circumvent loss to follow-up but remain logistically and economically prohibitive for routine screening in resource-limited settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. An improved early detection method of type-2 diabetes mellitus using multiple classifier system

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The specific causes of complex diseases such as Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) have not yet been identified. Nevertheless, many medical science researchers believe that complex diseases are caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Detection of such diseases becomes an issue because it is not free from false presumptions and is accompanied by unpredictable effects. Given the greatly increased amount of data gathered in medical databases, data mining has been used widely in recent years to detect and improve the diagnosis of complex diseases. However, past research showed that no single classifier can be considered optimal for all problems. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on employing multiple classifier systems to improve the accuracy of detection for complex diseases, such as T2DM. We proposed a dynamic weighted voting scheme called multiple factors weighted combination for classifiers\\' decision combination. This method considers not only the local and global accuracy but also the diversity among classifiers and localized generalization error of each classifier. We evaluated our method on two real T2DM data sets and other medical data sets. The favorable results indicated that our proposed method significantly outperforms individual classifiers and other fusion methods.

  14. Adipose derived stromal vascular fraction improves early tendon healing: an experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Behfar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tendon never restores the complete biological and mechanical properties after healing. Bone marrow and recently adipose tissue have been used as the sources of mesenchymal stem cells, which have been proven to enhance tendon healing. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF, derived from adipose tissue by an enzymatic digestion, represents an alternative source of multipotent cells, which undergo differentiation into multiple lineages to be used in regenerative medicine. In the present study, we investigated potentials of this source on tendon healing. Twenty rabbits were divided into control and treatment groups. Five rabbits were used as donors of adipose tissue. The injury model was unilateral complete transection through the middle one third of deep digital flexor tendon. Immediately after suture repair, either fresh stromal vascular fraction from enzymatic digestion of adipose tissue or placebo was intratendinously injected into the suture site in treatments and controls, respectively. Cast immobilization was continued for two weeks after surgery. Animals were sacrificed at the third week and tendons underwent histological, immunohistochemical, and mechanical evaluations. By histology, improved fibrillar organization and remodeling of neotendon were observed in treatment group. Immunohistochemistry revealed an insignificant increase in collagen type III and I expression in treatments over controls. Mechanical testing showed significant increase in maximum load and energy absorption in SVF treated tendons. The present study showed that intratendinous injection of uncultured adipose derived stromal vascular fraction improved structural and mechanical properties of repaired tendon and it could be an effective modality for treating tendon laceration.

  15. Oxygen safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sure you have working smoke detectors and a working fire extinguisher in your home. If you move around the house with your oxygen, you may need more than one fire extinguisher in different locations. Smoking can be very dangerous. No one should smoke ...

  16. EARLY IDENTIFICATION OF SOFTWARE DEFECTS USING OCL PREDICATES TO IMPROVE SOFTWARE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. JALILA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Formal specification-based testing has been used widely to assess potential faults or prove their absence in a given system at the earliest. This research work has proposed an automated fault-based testing framework to test the specification of the system using Object Constraint Language (OCL. Accordingly, the possible faults in OCL specification of the system has been anticipated by mutating its method based on OCL predicate-based fault classes. Then, test cases are generated using Genetic Algorithm with simulated annealing technique. In this paper, a novel OCL-predicate based fitness function is defined to evaluate the generated test data. Finally, this paper presents the experimental results, which indicate that the proposed methodology provides more test coverage with the reduced test suite and test run. This results in cost-effective software development so as to improve software quality.

  17. Improving Tolerance of Faba Bean during Early Growth Stages to Salinity through Micronutrients Foliar Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. EL FOULY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity, either of soil or of irrigation water, causes disturbances in plant growth and nutrient balance. Previous work indicates that applying nutrients by foliar application increases tolerance to salinity. A pot experiment with three replicates was carried out in the green house of NRC, Cairo, Egypt, to study the effect of micronutrients foliar application on salt tolerance of faba bean. Two concentrations of a micronutrient compound (0.1% and 0.15% were sprayed in two different treatments prior to or after the salinity treatments. Levels of NaCl (0.00-1000-2000-5000 ppm were supplied to irrigation water. Results indicated that 2000 and 5000 ppm NaCl inhibited growth and nutrient uptake. Spraying micronutrients could restore the negative effect of salinity on dry weight and nutrients uptake, when sprayed either before or after the salinity treatments. It is suggested that micronutrient foliar sprays could be used to improve plant tolerance to salinity.

  18. Improved renal function after early conversion from a calcineurin inhibitor to everolimus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mjörnstedt, L; Sørensen, S S; von Zur Mühlen, B

    2012-01-01

    .2) mL/min with everolimus versus a decrease of 0.4 (12.0) mL/min in controls (p graft or patient survival. The 12-month incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) was 27.5% (n = 28) with everolimus and 11.0% (n = 11) in controls (p = 0.004). All......In an open-label, multicenter trial, de novo kidney transplant recipients at low to medium immunological risk were randomized at week 7 posttransplant to remain on CsA (n = 100, controls) or convert to everolimus (n = 102), both with enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium and corticosteroids...... controls (3.0%; p = 0.030). In conclusion, conversion from CsA to everolimus at week 7 after kidney transplantation was associated with a greater improvement in mGFR at month 12 versus CNI-treated controls but discontinuations and BPAR were more frequent....

  19. Oxygen therapy - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathe increased amounts of oxygen to get normal levels of oxygen in their blood. Oxygen therapy provides babies with the extra oxygen. Information Oxygen is a gas that the cells in your body need to work properly. The ...

  20. Focus on early-career GPs: qualitative evaluation of a multi-faceted educational intervention to improve antibiotic prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckx, Laura; Anthierens, Sibyl; Magin, Parker J; Morgan, Simon; McArthur, Lawrie; Yardley, Lucy; Dallas, Anthea; Little, Paul; van Driel, Mieke L

    2018-01-16

    We conducted an educational intervention emphasizing rational antibiotic prescribing in early-career General Practitioners (GP) in vocational training (trainees). The intervention consisted of an online introduction module, an online communication training module, face-to-face workshops, and cases to be discussed one-on-one by the trainee-supervisor dyad during regular scheduled education sessions. To explore the participants' experiences with the intervention. A qualitative study of 14 GP trainees and supervisors. Interviews followed a semi-structured interview guide, were transcribed and analysed using concurrent thematic analysis. Overall, the intervention was well received. Resources were not often used in practice, but GP trainees used the information in communicating with patients. The intervention improved trainees' confidence and provided new communication strategies, e.g. explicitly asking about patients' expectations and talking patients through the examination to form an overall clinical picture. Trainees seemed eager to learn and adapt their practice, whereas GP supervisors rather commented that the intervention was reinforcing. None of the participants reported prescribing conflicts between trainee and supervisor. However, most participants identified conflicts within the GP practice or with specialists: other doctors who prescribe more antibiotics perpetuate patients' ideas that antibiotics will fix everything, which in turn causes conflict with the patient and undermines attempts to improve antibiotic prescribing. The educational intervention was received positively. Early-career GPs thought it influenced their prescribing behaviour and improved their confidence in non-prescribing. Interventions that target teams (e.g. entire practice) could minimize conflict, ensure consistency of messages and support overall antibiotic stewardship in primary care. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please

  1. Improved outcomes after successful implementation of a pediatric early warning system (PEWS) in a resource-limited pediatric oncology hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulnik, Asya; Mora Robles, Lupe Nataly; Forbes, Peter W; Soberanis Vasquez, Doris Judith; Mack, Ricardo; Antillon-Klussmann, Federico; Kleinman, Monica; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos

    2017-08-01

    Hospitalized pediatric oncology patients are at high risk of clinical decline and mortality, particularly in resource-limited settings. Pediatric early warning systems (PEWS) aid in the early identification of clinical deterioration; however, there are limited data regarding their feasibility or impact in low-resource settings. This study describes the successful implementation of PEWS at the Unidad Nacional de Oncología Pediátrica (UNOP), a pediatric oncology hospital in Guatemala, resulting in improved inpatient outcomes. A modified PEWS was implemented at UNOP with systems to track errors, transfers to a higher level of care, and high scores. A retrospective cohort study was used to evaluate clinical deterioration events in the year before and after PEWS implementation. After PEWS implementation at UNOP, there was 100% compliance with PEWS documentation and an error rate of <10%. Implementation resulted in 5 high PEWS per week, with 30% of patients transferring to a higher level of care. Among patients requiring transfer to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), 93% had an abnormal PEWS before transfer. The rate of clinical deterioration events decreased after PEWS implementation (9.3 vs 6.5 per 1000-hospitalpatient-days, p = .003). Despite an 18% increase in total hospital patient-days, PICU utilization for inpatient transfers decreased from 1376 to 1088 PICU patient-days per year (21% decrease; P<.001). This study describes the successful implementation of PEWS in a pediatric oncology hospital in Guatemala, resulting in decreased inpatient clinical deterioration events and PICU utilization. This work demonstrates that PEWS is a feasible and effective quality improvement measure to improve hospital care for children with cancer in hospitals with limited resources. Cancer 2017;123:2965-74. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  2. Using video feedback to improve early father–infant interaction: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Beverley; Ramchandani, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    Preventive interventions with parents of infants have tended to focus on mothers. Recent research focused on fathers suggests that their involvement in interventions might enhance effectiveness. One effective approach with mothers is the brief, home-based Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting (VIPP). This paper is a report of a pilot study of VIPP with fathers to assess its feasibility. Five fathers were recruited from an existing longitudinal study of parents. The primary outcome was acceptability, assessed using a semi-structured questionnaire after completion of the intervention. All fathers completed all sessions of the intervention. Fathers rated the intervention as having had a significant impact on their understanding of their child’s thoughts and feelings, and as having improved their communication and relationship with their baby. Fathers’ feedback was generally positive. The flexibility to conduct sessions at home (or at fathers’ places of work) and the flexible timing of sessions were identified as fundamental to successful delivery. The results of this pilot study are encouraging, as VIPP with fathers was feasible. In light of the modest sample size, and the use of a non-clinical sample, the intervention must be evaluated with larger, clinical samples to evaluate its efficacy with fathers. PMID:22434935

  3. Using video feedback to improve early father-infant interaction: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Peter J; Davies, Beverley; Ramchandani, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    Preventive interventions with parents of infants have tended to focus on mothers. Recent research focused on fathers suggests that their involvement in interventions might enhance effectiveness. One effective approach with mothers is the brief, home-based Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting (VIPP). This paper is a report of a pilot study of VIPP with fathers to assess its feasibility. Five fathers were recruited from an existing longitudinal study of parents. The primary outcome was acceptability, assessed using a semi-structured questionnaire after completion of the intervention. All fathers completed all sessions of the intervention. Fathers rated the intervention as having had a significant impact on their understanding of their child's thoughts and feelings, and as having improved their communication and relationship with their baby. Fathers' feedback was generally positive. The flexibility to conduct sessions at home (or at fathers' places of work) and the flexible timing of sessions were identified as fundamental to successful delivery. The results of this pilot study are encouraging, as VIPP with fathers was feasible. In light of the modest sample size, and the use of a non-clinical sample, the intervention must be evaluated with larger, clinical samples to evaluate its efficacy with fathers.

  4. New and Improved Remotely Sensed Products and Tools for Agricultural Monitoring Applications in Support of Famine Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, M. E.; Rowland, J.; Senay, G. B.; Funk, C. C.; Pedreros, D.; Husak, G. J.; Bohms, S.

    2011-12-01

    The high global food prices in 2008 led to the acknowledgement that there is a need to monitor the inter-connectivity of global and regional markets and their potential impacts on food security in many more regions than previously considered. The crisis prompted an expansion of monitoring by the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) to include additional countries, beyond those where food security has long been of concern. Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the University of California Santa Barbara Climate Hazards Group have provided new and improved data products as well as visualization and analysis tools in support of this increased mandate for remote monitoring. We present a new product for measuring actual evapotranspiration (ETa) based on the implementation of a surface energy balance model and site improvements of two standard FEWS NET monitoring products: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and satellite-based rainfall estimates. USGS FEWS NET has implemented a simplified surface energy balance model to produce operational ETa anomalies for Africa. During the growing season, ETa anomalies express surplus or deficit crop water use which is directly related to crop condition and biomass. The expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (eMODIS) production system provides FEWS NET with a much improved NDVI dataset for crop and rangeland monitoring. eMODIS NDVI provides a reliable data stream with a vastly improved spatial resolution (250-m) and short latency period (less than 12 hours) which allows for better operational vegetation monitoring. FEWS NET uses satellite rainfall estimates as inputs for monitoring agricultural food production. By combining high resolution (0.05 deg) rainfall mean fields with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission rainfall estimates and infrared temperature data, we provide pentadal (5-day) rainfall fields suitable for crop

  5. Disease activity decrease is associated with improvement in work productivity over 1 year in early axial spondyloarthritis (SPondyloArthritis Caught Early cohort)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Fongen, Camilla; Landewé, Robert; Ramonda, Roberta; van der Heijde, Désirée; van Gaalen, Floris A.

    2017-01-01

    To assess if a change in disease activity is associated with a change in work productivity loss (WPL) over 1 year in early axial SpA (axSpA) patients. Baseline and 1 year data of axSpA patients in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early cohort were analysed. Linear regression models were built explaining

  6. Improved outcomes for newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis between 2000 and 2014: cracking the glass ceiling of early death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchtar, Eli; Gertz, Morie A; Kumar, Shaji K; Lacy, Martha Q; Dingli, David; Buadi, Francis K; Grogan, Martha; Hayman, Suzanne R; Kapoor, Prashant; Leung, Nelson; Fonder, Amie; Hobbs, Miriam; Hwa, Yi Lisa; Gonsalves, Wilson; Warsame, Rahma; Kourelis, Taxiarchis V; Russell, Stephen; Lust, John A; Lin, Yi; Go, Ronald S; Zeldenrust, Steven; Kyle, Robert A; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Dispenzieri, Angela

    2017-04-13

    In light of major advances in immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis, we evaluated the trends in presentation, management, and outcome among 1551 newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis patients seen in our institution from 2000 to 2014. As compared with the 2 intervals 2000-2004 and 2005-2009, patients diagnosed in 2010-2014 were less likely to have >2 involved organs. Utilization of autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) was similar across all periods, about one-third of patients, but there was an increase in the use of pre-ASCT bortezomib induction and of unattenuated melphalan conditioning in 2010-2014 compared with earlier periods. Non-ASCT first-line regimen changed with 65% of patients in 2010-2014 received bortezomib-based therapy, 79% of patients in 2005-2009 received melphalan-dexamethasone, and 64% of patients in 2000-2004 received melphalan-prednisone. The rate of better than very good partial response (VGPR) was higher in more recent periods (66% vs 58% vs 51%; P = .001), a change largely driven by improved VGPR rates in the non-ASCT population. Overall survival (OS) has improved, with inflection points for improvement differing for the ASCT and non-ASCT groups. In the ASCT population, the greatest gains were after 2010 (4-year OS, 91% compared with 73% and 65%). In the non-ASCT group, greatest gains were after 2005 (4-year OS, 38%, 32%, and 16%). Fewer patients died within 6 months of diagnosis in the 2 later periods (24% vs 25% vs 37%; P < .001). Overall, outcomes among patients with AL amyloidosis have improved with earlier diagnosis, higher rates of VGPR, lower early mortality, and improved OS. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  7. Stable isotopic investigations of early development in extant and fossil chambered cephalopods I. Oxygen isotopic composition of eggwater and carbon isotopic composition of siphuncle organic matter in Nautilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Kimberley C.; DeNiro, Michael J.; Ward, Peter D.

    1985-12-01

    Eggwaters from the chambered cephalopod Nautilus are depleted in both 18O and deuterium relative to ambient seawater. Eggwaters from six other species, including the related chambered cephalopod Sepia, do not show such depletion. These observations indicate that the previously observed step towards more positive δ 18O values in calcium carbonate laid down after Nautilus hatches, relative to carbonate precipitated prior to hatching, can be explained by equilibration of the carbonate with water in the egg before hatching and with seawater after hatching. The presence of an oxygen isotope difference between eggwater and seawater for Nautilus and its absence for Sepia suggest that hatching will be recorded in the δ 18O values of shell carbonates for some but not all extinct and extant chambered cephalopods. The δ 13C values of the organic fraction of the siphuncle in Nautilus do not show any consistent pattern with regard to the time of formation before or after hatching. This observation suggests that the minimum in δ 13C values previously observed for calcium carbonate precipitated after Nautilus hatches is not caused by a change in food sources once the animal becomes free-swimming, as has been suggested.

  8. Introgression of wild alleles into the tetraploid peanut crop to improve water use efficiency, earliness and yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellison F Dutra

    Full Text Available The introduction of genes from wild species is a practice little adopted by breeders for the improvement of commercial crops, although it represents an excellent opportunity to enrich the genetic basis and create new cultivars. In peanut, this practice is being increasingly adopted. In this study we present results of introgression of wild alleles from the wild species Arachis duranensis and A. batizocoi improving photosynthetic traits and yield in a set of lines derived from the cross of an induced allotetraploid and cultivated peanut with selection under water stress. The assays were carried out in greenhouse and field focusing on physiological and agronomic traits. A multivariate model (UPGMA was adopted in order to classify drought tolerant lines. Several lines showed improved levels of tolerance, with values similar to or greater than the tolerant control. Two BC1F6 lines (53 P4 and 96 P9 were highlighted for good drought-related traits, earliness and pod yield, having better phenotypic profile to the drought tolerant elite commercial cultivar BR1. These lines are good candidates for the creation of peanut cultivars suitable for production in semiarid environments.

  9. Improving Early Childhood Development among Vulnerable Populations: A Pilot Initiative at a Women, Infants, and Children Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Ferguson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Early childhood development (ECD programs have demonstrated drastic improvements in survival, growth, health, and social productivity. An ECD pilot intervention was delivered to vulnerable populations of a Women, Infants, and Children (WIC clinic in Des Moines, Iowa, to assess ECD outcomes and parental receivability in this setting. Study Design. In a randomized, single blinded control initiative, WIC group sessions of mothers (children aged 2 years and younger were selected for pilot ECD intervention (37 participants or control (36. Care for Child Development ECD course material was supplemented to intervention groups. Survey results were assessed with paired samples T-testing and by an ANOVA. Results. Pilot session receivability demonstrated significance in all areas relative to control: enjoyment, p=0.008; learning capacity, p=0.011; and participant sharing, p=0.023. Furthermore, the previously validated ECD intervention demonstrated significantly improved cumulative 1 month behavior outcomes following the intervention: p=0.006. Conclusions. The WIC setting provides an ideal environment for delivering ECD education beyond traditional counseling in nutrition. High receivability indices among parents demonstrate remarkable capacity for improvement and growth. The significance in receivability, as well as 1 month behavior outcomes, represents parents’ overall readiness to enhance the home environment for their child if merely educated how.

  10. Improvement in Creatinine Clearance after Open Heart Surgery in Infants as an Early Indicator of Surgical Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Amit; Dagan, Ovadia

    2016-12-01

    Early surgical correction of congenital heart malformations in neonates and small infants may be complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI), which is associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates, especially in patients who require dialysis. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered the best measurement of renal function which, in neonates and infants, is highly dependent on heart function. To determine whether measurements of creatinine clearance after open heart surgery in neonates and young infants can serve as an early indicator of surgical success or AKI. We conducted a prospective observational study in 19 neonates and small infants (body weight creatinine clearance and albumin excretion was performed before and during surgery and four times during 48 hours after surgery. Mean creatinine clearance was lowest during surgery (25.2 ± 4. ml/min/1.73 m2) and increased significantly in the first 16 hours post-surgery (45.7 ± 6.3 ml/min/1.73 m2). A similar pattern was noted for urine albumin which was highest during surgery (203 ± 31 µg/min) and lowest (93 ± 20 µg/min) 48 hours post-surgery. AKI occurred in four patients, and two patients even required dialysis. All six showed a decline in creatinine clearance and an increase in urine albumin between 8 and 16 hours post-surgery. In neonates and small infants undergoing open heart surgery, a significant improvement in creatinine clearance in the first 16 hours postoperatively is indicative of a good surgical outcome. This finding has important implications for the early evaluation and treatment of patients in the intensive care unit on the first day post-surgery.

  11. iROLL: does 3-D radioguided occult lesion localization improve surgical management in early-stage breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemel, Christina; Cramer, Andreas; Grossmann, Christoph; Kajdi, Georg W; Malzahn, Uwe; Lamp, Nora; Langen, Heinz-Jakob; Schmid, Jan; Buck, Andreas K; Grimminger, Hanns-Jörg; Herrmann, Ken

    2015-10-01

    To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of 3-D radioguided occult lesion localization (iROLL) and to compare iROLL with wire-guided localization (WGL) in patients with early-stage breast cancer undergoing breast-conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). WGL (standard procedure) and iROLL in combination with SLNB were performed in 31 women (mean age 65.1 ± 11.2 years) with early-stage breast cancer and clinically negative axillae. Patient comfort in respect of both methods was assessed using a ten point scale. SLNB and iROLL were guided by freehand SPECT (fhSPECT). The results of the novel 3-D image-based method were compared with those of WGL, ultrasound-based lesion localization, and histopathology. iROLL successfully detected the malignant primary and at least one sentinel lymph node in 97% of patients. In a single patient (3%), only iROLL, and not WGL, enabled lesion localization. The variability between fhSPECT and ultrasound-based depth localization of breast lesions was low (1.2 ± 1.4 mm). Clear margins were achieved in 81% of the patients; however, precise prediction of clear histopathological surgical margins was not feasible using iROLL. Patients rated iROLL as less painful than WGL with a pain score 0.8 ± 1.2 points (p localizing early-stage breast cancer in the course of breast-conserving surgery, and is a suitable replacement for WGL. As a single image-based procedure for localization of breast lesions and sentinel nodes, iROLL may improve the entire surgical procedure. However, no advantages of the image-guided procedure were found with regard to prediction of complete tumour resection.

  12. iROLL: does 3-D radioguided occult lesion localization improve surgical management in early-stage breast cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemel, Christina; Kajdi, Georg W.; Schmid, Jan; Buck, Andreas K.; Herrmann, Ken [University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Cramer, Andreas; Grossmann, Christoph; Grimminger, Hanns-Joerg [Missionsaerztliches Klinikum Wuerzburg, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Malzahn, Uwe [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Clinical Epidemiology and Biometry, Wuerzburg (Germany); Lamp, Nora [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Pathology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Langen, Heinz-Jakob [Missionsaerztliches Klinikum Wuerzburg, Department of Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of 3-D radioguided occult lesion localization (iROLL) and to compare iROLL with wire-guided localization (WGL) in patients with early-stage breast cancer undergoing breast-conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). WGL (standard procedure) and iROLL in combination with SLNB were performed in 31 women (mean age 65.1 ± 11.2 years) with early-stage breast cancer and clinically negative axillae. Patient comfort in respect of both methods was assessed using a ten point scale. SLNB and iROLL were guided by freehand SPECT (fhSPECT). The results of the novel 3-D image-based method were compared with those of WGL, ultrasound-based lesion localization, and histopathology. iROLL successfully detected the malignant primary and at least one sentinel lymph node in 97 % of patients. In a single patient (3 %), only iROLL, and not WGL, enabled lesion localization. The variability between fhSPECT and ultrasound-based depth localization of breast lesions was low (1.2 ± 1.4 mm). Clear margins were achieved in 81 % of the patients; however, precise prediction of clear histopathological surgical margins was not feasible using iROLL. Patients rated iROLL as less painful than WGL with a pain score 0.8 ± 1.2 points (p < 0.01) lower than the score for iROLL. iROLL is a well-tolerated and feasible technique for localizing early-stage breast cancer in the course of breast-conserving surgery, and is a suitable replacement for WGL. As a single image-based procedure for localization of breast lesions and sentinel nodes, iROLL may improve the entire surgical procedure. However, no advantages of the image-guided procedure were found with regard to prediction of complete tumour resection. (orig.)

  13. Do early care and education services improve language development for maltreated children? Evidence from a national child welfare sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Darcey H; Klein, Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Young children under 6 years old are over-represented in the U.S. child welfare system (CWS). Due to their exposure to early deprivation and trauma, they are also highly vulnerable to developmental problems, including language delays. High quality early care and education (ECE) programs (e.g. preschool, Head Start) can improve children's development and so policymakers have begun calling for increased enrollment of CWS-supervised children in these programs. However, it is not a given that ECE will benefit all children who experience maltreatment. Some types of maltreatment may result in trauma-related learning and behavior challenges or developmental deficits that cause children to respond to ECE settings differently. The current study uses data from a nationally representative survey of children in the U.S. child welfare system, the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II, to assess whether young CWS-supervised children (N=1,652) who were enrolled in ECE had better language development outcomes 18 months later than those not enrolled in ECE. We also explore whether the type of maltreatment that brought children to the CWS' attention moderates the relationship between ECE and children's language development. After controlling for children's initial scores on the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-3), type(s) of maltreatment experienced, and child and caregiver demographics, we found that ECE participation predicted better PLS-3 scores at follow-up, with a positive interaction between ECE participation and supervisory neglect. ECE seems to be beneficial for CWS-involved children's early language development, especially for children referred to the CWS because they lack appropriate parent supervision at home. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hepatocyte transplantation improves early survival after partial hepatic resection and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha, C.; Sharma, A.; Alfieri, A.; Guha, U.; Sokhi, R.; Gagandeep, S.; Gupta, S.; Vikram, B.; RoyChowdhury, J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) is limited in its role as an adjuvant therapy of intrahepatic malignancies because of lower tolerance of human liver to irradiation (TD (5(5)) -TD (50(5)) ∼ 30-40 Gy). Although, surgical resection of primary or metastatic hepatic tumors has been shown to prolong survival, it is often limited by the presence of residual disease. RT could potentially improve survival of patients with positive surgical margins. However, radiation damage to the liver may be enhanced by hepatocellular proliferation induced by partial hepatic (PH) resection. We hypothesize that hepatocyte transplantation would be able to provide metabolic support and modulate the development of radiation-induced liver disease post-resection. The present study was designed to test the potential of hepatocyte transplantation in modifying the outcome of hepatocellular damage induced by PH and RT. Methods: Adult male Fischer 344 rats (Charles River) received hepatic irradiation of 50 Gy in a single fraction, after surgical exposure and shielding of the stomach and intestine, using a 320 MGC Philips orthovoltage unit. Immediately following irradiation, a two-third partial hepatectomy was performed. Four days post-radiation, the treatment group was injected with 5 x 10 6 syngeneic hepatocytes into the splenic pulp after a left subcostal incision, which allows homogeneous liver engraftment of the transplanted hepatocytes. Hematoxylin and eosin stains of liver biopsies, performed at various time points (3 days, 1, 2, 3 weeks or, anytime when animals died) were used for histologic evaluation. Time-adjusted survival was calculated from the date of irradiation by the product-limit Kaplan-Meier method, adjusting the denominator at every time point for the number of rats at risk. Results: Eight weeks after RT, 30% (n = 11) of the control animals (PH + 50 Gy) were alive compared to 100% (n = 9) of the transplant recipients (p <0.05). The median survival of the control group was 15

  15. Development of an improved and early sowing potential variety of jute - binadeshipat-2 using chemical mutagen sodium azide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuzzaman, K.M.; Saha, C.S.; Azad, M.A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Jute is the important agricultural and industrial resource of Bangladesh for earning foreign currency. Seeds of the widely cultivated variety, CVL-1 were treated with 4 mM to 20mM of sodium azide (NaN3). The treated seeds were grown in M1 to M10 generations. A single plant (selection number C-278) was selected from M2 segregating population on the basis of early sowing potential and late flowering. Ten fiber quality characters were tested and it was found that the fiber quality of the mutant had been improved. Hence, the mutagen sodium azide showed extra potentiality to induce fiber quality characters of jute. The strain C-278 was also tested through Preliminary, Advanced, Zonal Yield Trial and Farmers field trial at different locations of the jute growing area in Bangladesh. The field evaluation team of the National Seed Board (NSB) visited most of the trials and reported that at early sowing and overall performance of the strain C-278 was found best than that of the mother variety. Besides these the strain produced 7.5% and 20% higher fiber yield than the mother variety CVL-1 and a local cultivar, D-154, respectively. After evaluation of the Technical Committee of NSB recommended that the strain C-278 may be released as a variety. The National Seed Board released the strain C-278 as a National jute variety under the name Binadeshipat-2 for cultivation in Bangladesh

  16. Oxygen Dependent Biocatalytic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Asbjørn Toftgaard

    Enzyme catalysts have the potential to improve both the process economics and the environ-mental profile of many oxidation reactions especially in the fine- and specialty-chemical industry, due to their exquisite ability to perform stereo-, regio- and chemo-selective oxida-tions at ambient...... to aldehydes and ketones, oxyfunctionalization of C-H bonds, and epoxidation of C-C double bonds. Although oxygen dependent biocatalysis offers many possibilities, there are numerous chal-lenges to be overcome before an enzyme can be implemented in an industrial process. These challenges requires the combined...... far below their potential maximum catalytic rate at industrially relevant oxygen concentrations. Detailed knowledge of the en-zyme kinetics are therefore required in order to determine the best operating conditions and design oxygen supply to minimize processing costs. This is enabled...

  17. Medical oxygen and air travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyznicki, J M; Williams, M A; Deitchman, S D; Howe, J P

    2000-08-01

    This report responds to a resolution that asked the American Medical Association (AMA) to take action to improve airport and airline accommodations for passengers requiring medical oxygen. Information for the report was derived from a search of the MEDLINE database and references listed in pertinent articles, as well as through communications with experts in aerospace and emergency medicine. Based on this information, the AMA Council on Scientific Affairs determined that commercial air travel exposes passengers to altitude-related hypoxia and gas expansion, which may cause some passengers to experience significant symptoms and medical complications during flight. Medical guidelines are available to help physicians evaluate and counsel potential passengers who are at increased risk of inflight hypoxemia. Supplemental oxygen may be needed for some passengers to maintain adequate tissue oxygenation and prevent hypoxemic complications. For safety and security reasons, federal regulations prohibit travelers from using their own portable oxygen system onboard commercial aircraft. Many U.S. airlines supply medical oxygen for use during flight but policies and procedures vary. Oxygen-dependent passengers must make additional arrangements for the use of supplemental oxygen in airports. Uniform standards are needed to specify procedures and equipment for the use of medical oxygen in airports and aboard commercial aircraft. Revision of federal regulations should be considered to accommodate oxygen-dependent passengers and permit them to have an uninterrupted source of oxygen from departure to destination.

  18. Short communication. Melatonin improves the reproductive performance of seasonal anoestrus goats exposed to buck effect during early post-partum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Zarazaga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether any combination of buck effect and melatonin treatment could improve reproductive performance in Payoya female goats during early postpartum. Forty-four pregnant female goats were used. After birth in spring, they were distributed into two major groups: females submitted to the buck effect (BE, N=22 or not such effect (NBE, N=22. In turn, the BE animals were subdivided into: 1 no further treatment (CBE, N=11 and 2 implanted with melatonin (MELBE, N=11. And the NBE animals were subdivided into: 3 no further treatment (CNBE, N=12 and 4 implanted with melatonin (MELNBE, N=10. Melatonin was implanted 10 days after birth. Oestrus activity was tested daily using entire males from day of birth (D0 in the groups NBE and from D55 after birth in the BE groups. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed 10 days after the detection of oestrus and 45 days after mounting to determine pregnancy. Fecundity, fertility and productivity were higher in MELBE animals compared to CNBE animals (fecundity and fertility: 66.7% vs. 0.0%, and productivity: 0.73 vs. 0.00 kids/female for MELBE and CNBE respectively, p<0.05, and CBE animals (fecundity and fertility: 66.7% vs. 14.3%, and productivity: 0.73 vs. 0.09 kids/female for MELBE and CBE respectively; p<0.05. No significant differences were recorded between the subgroups of the NBE animals. The present results show that exogenous melatonin improves the reproductive performances of early post-partum Payoya does exposed to male effect during the seasonal anoestrus.

  19. Delayed administration of recombinant human parathyroid hormone improves early biomechanical strength in a rat rotator cuff repair model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchman, Kyle R; Goetz, Jessica E; Uribe, Bastian U; Amendola, Andrew M; Barber, Joshua A; Malandra, Allison E; Fredericks, Douglas C; Hettrich, Carolyn M

    2016-08-01

    Despite advances in intraoperative techniques, rotator cuff repairs frequently do not heal. Recombinant human parathyroid hormone (rhPTH) has been shown to improve healing at the tendon-to-bone interface in an established acute rat rotator cuff repair model. We hypothesized that administration of rhPTH beginning on postoperative day 7 would result in improved early load to failure after acute rotator cuff repair in an established rat model. Acute rotator cuff repairs were performed in 108 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-four rats received daily injections of rhPTH beginning on postoperative day 7 until euthanasia or a maximum of 12 weeks postoperatively. The remaining 54 rats received no injections and served as the control group. Animals were euthanized at 2 and 16 weeks postoperatively and evaluated by gross inspection, biomechanical testing, and histologic analysis. At 2 weeks postoperatively, rats treated with rhPTH demonstrated significantly higher load to failure than controls (10.9 vs. 5.2 N; P = .003). No difference in load to failure was found between the 2 groups at 16 weeks postoperatively, although control repairs more frequently failed at the tendon-to-bone interface (45.5% vs. 22.7%; P = .111). Blood vessel density appeared equivalent between the 2 groups at both time points, but increased intracellular and extracellular vascular endothelial growth factor expression was noted in the rhPTH-treated group at 2 weeks. Delayed daily administration of rhPTH resulted in increased early load to failure and equivalent blood vessel density in an acute rotator cuff repair model. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Parenteral and Early Enteral Feeding in Patients with Colonic Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Malkov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to provide evidence whether it is expedient to use an early enteral feeding protocol in patients with colonic malignancies in the postoperative period to prevent and to correct hemodynamic disorders, oxygen imbalance, and malnutrition. Subjects and methods. A hundred patients (61 males and 39 females aged 66.2±5.0 years, who had Stages 2—3 colonic malignancies, were examined. Two algorithms of postoperative management were analyzed using the traditional diet and early enteral feeding. Results. The early enteral feeding protocol improves central hemodynamics and oxygen and nutritional status, prevents moderate protein-energy deficiency in the early postoperative period and reduces the number of complications and fatal outcomes in patients with colonic malignancies. Key words: malignancies, malnutrition, hemo-dynamics, oxygen status, enteral feeding.

  1. Tumor oxygenation in a transplanted rat rhabdomyosarcoma during fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zywietz, Friedrich; Reeker, Wolfram; Kochs, Eberhard

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the changes in tumor oxygenation in the course of a fractionated radiation treatment extending over 4 weeks. Methods and Materials: Rhabdomyosarcomas R1H of the rat were irradiated with 60 Co-γ-rays with a total dose of 60 Gy, given in 20 fractions over 4 weeks. Oxygen partial pressure (pO 2 ) in tumors was measured at weekly intervals using polarographic needle probes in combination with a microprocessor-controlled device (pO 2 -Histograph/KIMOC). The pO 2 measurements were carried out in anesthetized animals under mechanical ventilation and in respiratory and hemodynamic steady state. Tumor pO 2 values were correlated to the arterial oxygen pressure p a O 2 , arterial pCO 2 , and pH determined with a blood gas analyzer. Results: Tumor oxygenation did not change significantly during the 3 weeks of irradiation (up to 45 Gy), from a median pO 2 of 23 ± 2 mmHg in untreated controls to 19 ± 4 mmHg after the third week. The decrease of the number of pO 2 values between 0 and 5 mmHg indicated that an improved oxygenation in the tumors occurred. However, with increasing radiation dose (fourth week, 60 Gy) a significant decrease in tumor oxygenation to a median pO 2 of 8 ± 2 mmHg and a rapid increase in the frequency of pO 2 values (35 ± 4%) between 0 and 5 mmHg was found. Conclusion: Improved oxygenation in rhabdomyosarcomas R1H was only present in the early phase of the fractionated irradiation. Radiation doses above 45 Gy led to a considerable decrease of tumor oxygenation in the later phase of irradiation

  2. Application of Virtual Rain and Stream Gauge Information Service for Improved Flood Early Warning System in Lower Mekong Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnayake, S. B.; Jayasinghe, S.; Meechaiya, C.; Markert, K. N.; Lee, H.; Towashiraporn, P.; Anderson, E.; Okeowo, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    area. Model results (inundations) are compared with the estimates of water levels of Jason 2/3 measurements from two locations along the river. The results encourage us to use satellite-derived rainfall data over upstream areas to improve flood modeling, which contributes to improved flood early warning in Myanmar and other lower Mekong countries.

  3. Spatial and temporal regulation of the metabolism of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during the early development of pepper (Capsicum annuum) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaki, Morad; Leterrier, Marina; Valderrama, Raquel; Chaki, Mounira; Begara-Morales, Juan C; Barroso, Juan B; del Río, Luis A; Palma, José M; Corpas, Francisco J

    2015-09-01

    The development of seedlings involves many morphological, physiological and biochemical processes, which are controlled by many factors. Some reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively) are implicated as signal molecules in physiological and phytopathological processes. Pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a very important crop and the goal of this work was to provide a framework of the behaviour of the key elements in the metabolism of ROS and RNS in the main organs of pepper during its development. The main seedling organs (roots, hypocotyls and green cotyledons) of pepper seedlings were analysed 7, 10 and 14 d after germination. Activity and gene expression of the main enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes), NADP-generating dehydrogenases and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase were determined. Cellular distribution of nitric oxide ((·)NO), superoxide radical (O2 (·-)) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) was investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The metabolism of ROS and RNS during pepper seedling development was highly regulated and showed significant plasticity, which was co-ordinated among the main seedling organs, resulting in correct development. Catalase showed higher activity in the aerial parts of the seedling (hypocotyls and green cotyledons) whereas roots of 7-d-old seedlings contained higher activity of the enzymatic components of the ascorbate glutathione cycle, NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase and NADP-malic enzyme. There is differential regulation of the metabolism of ROS, nitric oxide and NADP dehydrogenases in the different plant organs during seedling development in pepper in the absence of stress. The metabolism of ROS and RNS seems to contribute significantly to plant development since their components are involved directly or indirectly in many metabolic pathways. Thus, specific molecules such as H2O2 and NO have implications for signalling, and their temporal and spatial regulation contributes

  4. Physical activity reduces systemic blood pressure and improves early markers of atherosclerosis in pre-pubertal obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Aggoun, Yacine; Marchand, Laetitia M; Martin, Xavier E; Herrmann, François R; Beghetti, Maurice

    2009-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of physical activity on systemic blood pressure (BP) and early markers of atherosclerosis in pre-pubertal obese children. Hypertension and endothelial dysfunction are premature complications of obesity. We performed a 3-month randomized controlled trial with a modified crossover design: 44 pre-pubertal obese children (age 8.9 + or - 1.5 years) were randomly assigned (1:1) to an exercise (n = 22) or a control group (n = 22). We recruited 22 lean children (age 8.5 + or - 1.5 years) for baseline comparison. The exercise group trained 60 min 3 times/week during 3 months, whereas control subjects remained relatively inactive. Then, both groups trained twice/week during 3 months. We assessed changes at 3 and 6 months in office and 24-h BP, arterial intima-media thickness (IMT) and stiffness, endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation), body mass index (BMI), body fat, cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen consumption [VO(2)max]), physical activity, and biological markers. Obese children had higher BP, arterial stiffness, body weight, BMI, abdominal fat, insulin resistance indexes, and C-reactive protein levels, and lower flow-mediated dilation, VO(2)max, physical activity, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than lean subjects. At 3 months, we observed significant changes in 24-h systolic BP (exercise -6.9 + or - 13.5 mm Hg vs. control 3.8 + or - 7.9 mm Hg, -0.8 + or - 1.5 standard deviation score [SDS] vs. 0.4 + or - 0.8 SDS), diastolic BP (-0.5 + or - 1.0 SDS vs. 0 + or - 1.4 SDS), hypertension rate (-12% vs. -1%), office BP, BMI z-score, abdominal fat, and VO(2)max. At 6 months, change differences in arterial stiffness and IMT were significant. A regular physical activity program reduces BP, arterial stiffness, and abdominal fat; increases cardiorespiratory fitness; and delays arterial wall remodeling in pre-pubertal obese children. (Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Arterial Function and

  5. High symptom improvement and local tumor control using stereotactic radiotherapy when given early after diagnosis of meningioma. A multicentre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compter, I.; Houben, R.M.A.; Bosmans, G.; Baumert, B.G. [Maastricht Univ. Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation-Oncology (MAASTRO); Zaugg, K.; Buescher, C. [University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). Clinic and Policlinic of Radiation-Oncology; Dings, J.T.A. [Maastricht Univ. Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Anten, M.M.H.M.E. [Maastricht Univ. Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurology

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: The goal of the present study was to analyze long-term results of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) in patients with a meningioma. Methods and materials: A total of 72 patients treated between 1996 and 2008 in MAASTRO clinic (n = 45) and University Hospital Zurich (n = 27) were included. SRT was given as primary treatment (n = 46), postoperatively (n = 19) or at recurrence (n = 7); 49 tumours (68%) were located in the skull base. Median total dose was 54 Gy. Results: Median follow-up was 4.13 years (range 0.66-11 years). The 3- and 5-year overall survival were 92 and 79% for grade 0 and I meningioma. Progression-free survival for grade 0 and I was 95% at 3 and 5 years, and 40% for grade II and III at 3 years. In 98.4% of patients, clinical symptoms were stable or improved. The majority of symptoms improved within 24 months after SRT. Local control is significantly better if patients are irradiated immediately after diagnosis compared to a watchful waiting policy (p = 0.017). Grade IV toxicity was low (4.2%, n = 3) Conclusion: SRT is an effective treatment with high local and clinical control. Early SRT resulted in better outcome than late treatment at progression. (orig.)

  6. A pilot study of parent education intervention improves early childhood development among toddlers with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Melanie E; Hoyt-Drazen, Catherine; Abel, Regina; Rodeghier, Mark J; Yarboi, Janet M; Compas, Bruce E; King, Allison A

    2016-12-01

    Young children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk for cognitive delay. In addition to biologic risk factors associated with SCD, environmental factors contribute to cognitive dysfunction within this cohort. We completed a single-arm, prospective cohort study. Children with SCD between the ages of 3 and 36 months and their caregivers were followed between October 2010 and December 2013. The aim was to describe the role of a home visitation model, the home environment, and socioeconomic status in the development of young children with SCD. Primary outcome measures were the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III) and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME). We hypothesized that the home visitation model, Parents as Teachers ® (PAT), would encourage positive parent-child interactions and improve cognitive outcomes. Thirty-five participants had at least two PAT visits and BSID-III assessments. Mean scores within all five subtests of the BSID-III improved between enrollment and exit, with significant changes within cognitive (P = 0.016) and expressive language (EL) domains (P = 0.002). Multivariate modeling found the HOME score associated with the exit results of the cognitive domain. We report longitudinal results of the first home visitation program within the early childhood SCD population and show significant improvement in cognitive and EL development. Additionally, home environment was a significant predictor of cognitive development. Randomized controlled trials to test the impact of interventions targeting the home environment are warranted for this vulnerable population. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Phenotype analysis of early risk factors from electronic medical records improves image-derived diagnostic classifiers for optic nerve pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaganti, Shikha; Nabar, Kunal P.; Nelson, Katrina M.; Mawn, Louise A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2017-03-01

    We examine imaging and electronic medical records (EMR) of 588 subjects over five major disease groups that affect optic nerve function. An objective evaluation of the role of imaging and EMR data in diagnosis of these conditions would improve understanding of these diseases and help in early intervention. We developed an automated image processing pipeline that identifies the orbital structures within the human eyes from computed tomography (CT) scans, calculates structural size, and performs volume measurements. We customized the EMR-based phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) to derive diagnostic EMR phenotypes that occur at least two years prior to the onset of the conditions of interest from a separate cohort of 28,411 ophthalmology patients. We used random forest classifiers to evaluate the predictive power of image-derived markers, EMR phenotypes, and clinical visual assessments in identifying disease cohorts from a control group of 763 patients without optic nerve disease. Image-derived markers showed more predictive power than clinical visual assessments or EMR phenotypes. However, the addition of EMR phenotypes to the imaging markers improves the classification accuracy against controls: the AUC improved from 0.67 to 0.88 for glaucoma, 0.73 to 0.78 for intrinsic optic nerve disease, 0.72 to 0.76 for optic nerve edema, 0.72 to 0.77 for orbital inflammation, and 0.81 to 0.85 for thyroid eye disease. This study illustrates the importance of diagnostic context for interpretation of image-derived markers and the proposed PheWAS technique provides a flexible approach for learning salient features of patient history and incorporating these data into traditional machine learning analyses.

  8. Improving early diagnosis of pulmonary infections in patients with febrile neutropenia using low-dose chest computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M G Gerritsen

    Full Text Available We performed a prospective study in patients with chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia to investigate the diagnostic value of low-dose computed tomography compared to standard chest radiography. The aim was to compare both modalities for detection of pulmonary infections and to explore performance of low-dose computed tomography for early detection of invasive fungal disease. The low-dose computed tomography remained blinded during the study. A consensus diagnosis of the fever episode made by an expert panel was used as reference standard. We included 67 consecutive patients on the first day of febrile neutropenia. According to the consensus diagnosis 11 patients (16.4% had pulmonary infections. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 36%, 93%, 50% and 88% for radiography, and 73%, 91%, 62% and 94% for low-dose computed tomography, respectively. An uncorrected McNemar showed no statistical difference (p = 0.197. Mean radiation dose for low-dose computed tomography was 0.24 mSv. Four out of 5 included patients diagnosed with invasive fungal disease had radiographic abnormalities suspect for invasive fungal disease on the low-dose computed tomography scan made on day 1 of fever, compared to none of the chest radiographs. We conclude that chest radiography has little value in the initial assessment of febrile neutropenia on day 1 for detection of pulmonary abnormalities. Low-dose computed tomography improves detection of pulmonary infiltrates and seems capable of detecting invasive fungal disease at a very early stage with a low radiation dose.

  9. Challenges Facing Early Phase Trials Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute: An Analysis of Corrective Action Plans to Improve Accrual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massett, Holly A; Mishkin, Grace; Rubinstein, Larry; Ivy, S Percy; Denicoff, Andrea; Godwin, Elizabeth; DiPiazza, Kate; Bolognese, Jennifer; Zwiebel, James A; Abrams, Jeffrey S

    2016-11-15

    Accruing patients in a timely manner represents a significant challenge to early phase cancer clinical trials. The NCI Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program analyzed 19 months of corrective action plans (CAP) received for slow-accruing phase I and II trials to identify slow accrual reasons, evaluate whether proposed corrective actions matched these reasons, and assess the CAP impact on trial accrual, duration, and likelihood of meeting primary scientific objectives. Of the 135 CAPs analyzed, 69 were for phase I trials and 66 for phase II trials. Primary reasons cited for slow accrual were safety/toxicity (phase I: 48%), design/protocol concerns (phase I: 42%, phase II: 33%), and eligibility criteria (phase I: 41%, phase II: 35%). The most commonly proposed corrective actions were adding institutions (phase I: 43%, phase II: 85%) and amending the trial to change eligibility or design (phase I: 55%, phase II: 44%). Only 40% of CAPs provided proposed corrective actions that matched the reasons given for slow accrual. Seventy percent of trials were closed to accrual at time of analysis (phase I = 48; phase II = 46). Of these, 67% of phase I and 70% of phase II trials met their primary objectives, but they were active three times longer than projected. Among closed trials, 24% had an accrual rate increase associated with a greater likelihood of meeting their primary scientific objectives. Ultimately, trials receiving CAPs saw improved accrual rates. Future trials may benefit from implementing CAPs early in trial life cycles, but it may be more beneficial to invest in earlier accrual planning. Clin Cancer Res; 22(22); 5408-16. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Mileham and Kim, p. 5397. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Improving early diagnosis of pulmonary infections in patients with febrile neutropenia using low-dose chest computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, M G; Willemink, M J; Pompe, E; van der Bruggen, T; van Rhenen, A; Lammers, J W J; Wessels, F; Sprengers, R W; de Jong, P A; Minnema, M C

    2017-01-01

    We performed a prospective study in patients with chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia to investigate the diagnostic value of low-dose computed tomography compared to standard chest radiography. The aim was to compare both modalities for detection of pulmonary infections and to explore performance of low-dose computed tomography for early detection of invasive fungal disease. The low-dose computed tomography remained blinded during the study. A consensus diagnosis of the fever episode made by an expert panel was used as reference standard. We included 67 consecutive patients on the first day of febrile neutropenia. According to the consensus diagnosis 11 patients (16.4%) had pulmonary infections. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 36%, 93%, 50% and 88% for radiography, and 73%, 91%, 62% and 94% for low-dose computed tomography, respectively. An uncorrected McNemar showed no statistical difference (p = 0.197). Mean radiation dose for low-dose computed tomography was 0.24 mSv. Four out of 5 included patients diagnosed with invasive fungal disease had radiographic abnormalities suspect for invasive fungal disease on the low-dose computed tomography scan made on day 1 of fever, compared to none of the chest radiographs. We conclude that chest radiography has little value in the initial assessment of febrile neutropenia on day 1 for detection of pulmonary abnormalities. Low-dose computed tomography improves detection of pulmonary infiltrates and seems capable of detecting invasive fungal disease at a very early stage with a low radiation dose.

  11. Three-dimensional numerical modeling and computational fluid dynamics simulations to analyze and improve oxygen availability in the AMC bioartificial liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mareels, Guy; Poyck, Paul P. C.; Eloot, Sunny; Chamuleau, Robert A. F. M.; Verdonck, Pascal R.

    2006-01-01

    A numerical model to investigate fluid flow and oxygen (O(2)) transport and consumption in the AMC-Bioartificial Liver (AMC-BAL) was developed and applied to two representative micro models of the AMC-BAL with two different gas capillary patterns, each combined with two proposed hepatocyte

  12. Carbon nanotubes as VEGF carriers to improve the early vascularization of porcine small intestinal submucosa in abdominal wall defect repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Z

    2014-03-01

    MWNT–PSIS contributed to early vascularization from 2–12 weeks postimplantation and obtained more effective collagen deposition and exhibited improved tensile strength at 24 weeks postimplantation compared to PSIS or PSIS scaffolds, incorporating MWNT without VEGF165 loading (MWNT–PSIS. Keywords: vascular endothelial growth factor165, controlled release, multi-walled carbon nanotube, early vascularization

  13. Carbonate petrography, kerogen distribution, and carbon and oxygen isotope variations in an early Proterozoic transition from limestone to iron-formation deposition, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukes, N. J.; Klein, C.; Kaufman, A. J.; Hayes, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The transition zone comprises Campbellrand microbialaminated (replacing "cryptalgalaminate") limestone and shale, with minor dolomite, conformably overlain by the Kuruman Iron Formation of which the basal part is characterized by siderite-rich microbanded iron-formation with minor magnetite and some hematite-containing units. The iron-formation contains subordinate intraclastic and microbialaminated siderite mesobands and was deposited in deeper water than the limestones. The sequence is virtually unaltered with diagenetic mineral assemblages reflecting a temperature interval of about 110 degrees to 170 degrees C and pressures of 2 kbars. Carbonate minerals in the different rock types are represented by primary micritic precipitates (now recrystallized to microsparite), early precompactional sparry cements and concretions, deep burial limpid euhedral sparites, and spar cements precipitated from metamorphic fluids in close contact with diabase sills. Paragenetic pathways of the carbonate minerals are broadly similar in all lithofacies with kerogen intimately associated with them. Kerogen occurs as pigmentation in carbonate crystals, as reworked organic detritus in clastic-textured carbonate units, and as segregations of kerogen pigment around late diagenetic carbonate crystals. Locally kerogen may also be replaced by carbonate spar. Carbon isotope compositions of the carbonate minerals and kerogen are dependent on their mode of occurrence and on the composition of the dominant carbonate species in a specific lithofacies. Integration of sedimentary, petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic results makes it possible to distinguish between depositional, early diagenetic, deep burial, and metamorphic effects on the isotopic compositions of the carbonate minerals and the kerogen in the sequence. Major conclusions are that deep burial thermal decarboxylation led to 13C depletion in euhedral ferroan sparites and 13C enrichment in kerogen (organic carbon). Metamorphic

  14. Radiation-induced apoptosis of neural precursors cell cultures: early modulation of the response mediated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisone, P.; Dubner, D.; Robello, E.; Michelin, S.; Perez, M. R.

    2004-07-01

    Apoptosis, the typical mode of radiation-induced cell death in developing Central Nervous System (CNS), is closely related with the oxidative status. Enhanced radiation-induced generation of ROS/RNS has been observed after exposures to low radiation doses leading to cellular amplification of signal transduction and further molecular and cellular radiation-responses. Moreover Nitric oxide (NO) and hydroxyl radical are implicated in dopaminergic neurotoxicity in different parading. This study is an attempt to address the participation of radiation-induced free radicals production, the contribution of endogenous NO generation, and the excitonic pathway, in the radiation-induced apoptosis of neural cortical precursors. Cortical cells obtained from at 17 gestational day (gd) were irradiated with doses from 0,2 Gy to 2 Gy at a dose-rate of 0.3 Gy/m. A significant decrease of Luminol-dependent Chemiluminescence was evident 30 m after irradiation reaching basal levels at 120 m follow for a tendency to increasing values Incubations with Superoxide Dismatuse (SOD) decreased significantly the chemiluminescence in irradiated samples NO content estimated by measuring the stable products NO{sub 2} and NO{sub 3} released to the culture medium in the same period, has shown a time-dependent accumulation from 1 h post-irradiation. the apoptosis, determined 24 h post-irradiation by flow cytometry, morphology and DNA fragmentation revealed a dose-effect relationship with significant differences from 0.4 Gy. The samples pre-treated with 10 mM of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) a precursor of intracellular GSH synthesis, shown a significant decrease of the apoptosis. Apoptosis was significantly increased in irradiated cells after inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) byL-NAME. We conclude that ROS/RNS play a pivotal role in the early signaling pathways leading to a radiation-induced cell death. (Author) 40 refs.

  15. Radiation-induced apoptosis of neural precursors cell cultures: early modulation of the response mediated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, P.; Dubner, D.; Robello, E.; Michelin, S.; Perez, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    Apoptosis, the typical mode of radiation-induced cell death in developing Central Nervous System (CNS), is closely related with the oxidative status. Enhanced radiation-induced generation of ROS/RNS has been observed after exposures to low radiation doses leading to cellular amplification of signal transduction and further molecular and cellular radiation-responses. Moreover Nitric oxide (NO) and hydroxyl radical are implicated in dopaminergic neurotoxicity in different parading. This study is an attempt to address the participation of radiation-induced free radicals production, the contribution of endogenous NO generation, and the excitonic pathway, in the radiation-induced apoptosis of neural cortical precursors. Cortical cells obtained from at 17 gestational day (gd) were irradiated with doses from 0,2 Gy to 2 Gy at a dose-rate of 0.3 Gy/m. A significant decrease of Luminol-dependent Chemiluminescence was evident 30 m after irradiation reaching basal levels at 120 m follow for a tendency to increasing values Incubations with Superoxide Dismatuse (SOD) decreased significantly the chemiluminescence in irradiated samples NO content estimated by measuring the stable products NO 2 and NO 3 released to the culture medium in the same period, has shown a time-dependent accumulation from 1 h post-irradiation. the apoptosis, determined 24 h post-irradiation by flow cytometry, morphology and DNA fragmentation revealed a dose-effect relationship with significant differences from 0.4 Gy. The samples pre-treated with 10 mM of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) a precursor of intracellular GSH synthesis, shown a significant decrease of the apoptosis. Apoptosis was significantly increased in irradiated cells after inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) byL-NAME. We conclude that ROS/RNS play a pivotal role in the early signaling pathways leading to a radiation-induced cell death. (Author) 40 refs

  16. Evaluation of Selected Borrelia burgdorferi lp54 Plasmid-Encoded Gene Products Expressed during Mammalian Infection as Antigens To Improve Serodiagnostic Testing for Early Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Zachary P.; Crew, Rebecca M.; Brandt, Kevin S.; Ullmann, Amy J.; Schriefer, Martin E.; Molins, Claudia R.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory testing for the diagnosis of Lyme disease is performed primarily by serologic assays and is accurate for detection beyond the acute stage of the infection. Serodiagnostic assays to detect the early stages of infection, however, are limited in their sensitivity, and improvement is warranted. We analyzed a series of Borrelia burgdorferi proteins known to be induced within feeding ticks and/or during mammalian infection for their utility as serodiagnostic markers against a comprehensive panel of Lyme disease patient serum samples. The antigens were assayed for IgM and IgG reactivity in line immunoblots and separately by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with a focus on reactivity against early Lyme disease with erythema migrans (EM), early disseminated Lyme neuroborreliosis, and early Lyme carditis patient serum samples. By IgM immunoblotting, we found that recombinant proteins BBA65, BBA70, and BBA73 reacted with early Lyme EM samples at levels comparable to those of the OspC antigen used in the current IgM blotting criteria. Additionally, these proteins reacted with serum samples from patients with early neuroborreliosis and early carditis, suggesting value in detecting early stages of this disease progression. We also found serological reactivity against recombinant proteins BBA69 and BBA73 with early-Lyme-disease samples using IgG immunoblotting and ELISA. Significantly, some samples that had been scored negative by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended 2-tiered testing algorithm demonstrated positive reactivity to one or more of the antigens by IgM/IgG immunoblot and ELISA. These results suggest that incorporating additional in vivo-expressed antigens into the current IgM/IgG immunoblotting tier in a recombinant protein platform assay may improve the performance of early-Lyme-disease serologic testing. PMID:26376927

  17. Evaluation of Selected Borrelia burgdorferi lp54 Plasmid-Encoded Gene Products Expressed during Mammalian Infection as Antigens To Improve Serodiagnostic Testing for Early Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Zachary P; Crew, Rebecca M; Brandt, Kevin S; Ullmann, Amy J; Schriefer, Martin E; Molins, Claudia R; Gilmore, Robert D

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory testing for the diagnosis of Lyme disease is performed primarily by serologic assays and is accurate for detection beyond the acute stage of the infection. Serodiagnostic assays to detect the early stages of infection, however, are limited in their sensitivity, and improvement is warranted. We analyzed a series of Borrelia burgdorferi proteins known to be induced within feeding ticks and/or during mammalian infection for their utility as serodiagnostic markers against a comprehensive panel of Lyme disease patient serum samples. The antigens were assayed for IgM and IgG reactivity in line immunoblots and separately by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with a focus on reactivity against early Lyme disease with erythema migrans (EM), early disseminated Lyme neuroborreliosis, and early Lyme carditis patient serum samples. By IgM immunoblotting, we found that recombinant proteins BBA65, BBA70, and BBA73 reacted with early Lyme EM samples at levels comparable to those of the OspC antigen used in the current IgM blotting criteria. Additionally, these proteins reacted with serum samples from patients with early neuroborreliosis and early carditis, suggesting value in detecting early stages of this disease progression. We also found serological reactivity against recombinant proteins BBA69 and BBA73 with early-Lyme-disease samples using IgG immunoblotting and ELISA. Significantly, some samples that had been scored negative by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended 2-tiered testing algorithm demonstrated positive reactivity to one or more of the antigens by IgM/IgG immunoblot and ELISA. These results suggest that incorporating additional in vivo-expressed antigens into the current IgM/IgG immunoblotting tier in a recombinant protein platform assay may improve the performance of early-Lyme-disease serologic testing. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Improving child survival through a district management strengthening and community empowerment intervention: early implementation experiences from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katahoire, Anne Ruhweza; Henriksson, Dorcus Kiwanuka; Ssegujja, Eric; Waiswa, Peter; Ayebare, Florence; Bagenda, Danstan; Mbonye, Anthony K; Peterson, Stefan Swartling

    2015-08-19

    The Community and District Empowerment for Scale-up (CODES) project pioneered the implementation of a comprehensive district management and community empowerment intervention in five districts in Uganda. In order to improve effective coverage and quality of child survival interventions CODES combines UNICEF tools designed to systematize priority setting, allocation of resources and problem solving with Community dialogues based on Citizen Report Cards and U-Reports used to engage and empower communities in monitoring health service provision and to demand for quality services. This paper presents early implementation experiences in five pilot districts and lessons learnt during the first 2 years of implementation. This qualitative study was comprised of 38 in-depth interviews with members of the District Health Teams (DHTs) and two implementing partners. These were supplemented by observations during implementation and documents review. Thematic analysis was used to distill early implementation experiences and lessons learnt from the process. All five districts health teams with support from the implementing partners were able to adopt the UNICEF tools and to develop district health operational work plans that were evidence-based. Members of the DHTs described the approach introduced by the CODES project as a more systematic planning process and very much appreciated it. Districts were also able to implement some of the priority activities included in their work plans but limited financial resources and fiscal decision space constrained the implementation of some activities that were prioritized. Community dialogues based on Citizen Report Cards (CRC) increased community awareness of available health care services, their utilization and led to discussions on service delivery, barriers to service utilization and processes for improvement. Community dialogues were also instrumental in bringing together service users, providers and leaders to discuss problems and

  19. Oxygen - a limiting factor for brain recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Hadanny, Amir; Efrati, Shai

    2015-01-01

    Effective brain metabolism is highly dependent on a narrow therapeutic window of oxygen. In major insults to the brain (e.g., intracerebral hemorrhage), a slight decrease in oxygen supply, as occurs in a hypobaric environment at high altitude, has devastating effects on the injured brain tissue. Conversely, increasing brain oxygenation, by the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, can improve brain metabolism and its dependent regenerative processes.

  20. Early improvement in eating attitudes during cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders: the impact of personality disorder cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Emma C; Waller, Glenn; Gannon, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    The personality disorders are commonly comorbid with the eating disorders. Personality disorder pathology is often suggested to impair the treatment of axis 1 disorders, including the eating disorders. This study examined whether personality disorder cognitions reduce the impact of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for eating disorders, in terms of treatment dropout and change in eating disorder attitudes in the early stages of treatment. Participants were individuals with a diagnosed eating disorder, presenting for individual outpatient CBT. They completed measures of personality disorder cognitions and eating disorder attitudes at sessions one and six of CBT. Drop-out rates prior to session six were recorded. CBT had a relatively rapid onset of action, with a significant reduction in eating disorder attitudes over the first six sessions. Eating disorder attitudes were most strongly associated with cognitions related to anxiety-based personality disorders (avoidant, obsessive-compulsive and dependent). Individuals who dropped out of treatment prematurely had significantly higher levels of dependent personality disorder cognitions than those who remained in treatment. For those who remained in treatment, higher levels of avoidant, histrionic and borderline personality disorder cognitions were associated with a greater change in global eating disorder attitudes. CBT's action and retention of patients might be improved by consideration of such personality disorder cognitions when formulating and treating the eating disorders.

  1. A mentor training program improves mentoring competency for researchers working with early-career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mallory O; Gandhi, Monica

    2015-08-01

    Mentoring is increasingly recognized as a critical element in supporting successful careers in academic research in medicine and related disciplines, particularly for trainees and early career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds. Mentoring is often executed ad hoc; there are limited programs to train faculty to become more effective mentors, and the few that exist have a dearth of empirical support of their impact. In 2013, we recruited 34 faculty from across the US engaged in HIV-related clinical research to participate in a 2-day Mentoring the Mentors workshop. The workshop included didactic and interactive content focused on a range of topics, such as mentor-mentee communication, leadership styles, emotional intelligence, understanding the impact of diversity (unconscious bias, microaggressions, discrimination, tokenism) for mentees, and specific tools and techniques for effective mentoring. Pre- and post-workshop online evaluations documented high rates of satisfaction with the program and statistically significant improvements in self-appraised mentoring skills (e.g. addressing diversity in mentoring, communication with mentees, aligning mentor-mentee expectations), as assessed via a validated mentoring competency tool. This is the first mentoring training program focused on enhancing mentors' abilities to nurture investigators of diversity, filling an important gap, and evaluation results offer support for its effectiveness. Results suggest a need for refinement and expansion of the program and for more comprehensive, long-term evaluation of distal mentoring outcomes for those who participate in the program.

  2. Improved survival of baby boomer women with early-stage uterine cancer: A Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshaikh, Mohamed A; Ruterbusch, Julie; Cote, Michele L; Cattaneo, Richard; Munkarah, Adnan R

    2013-11-01

    To study the prognostic impact of baby boomer (BB) generation on survival end-points of patients with early-stage endometrial carcinoma (EC). Data were obtained from the SEER registry between 1988-2009. Inclusion criteria included women who underwent hysterectomy for stage I-II EC. Patients were divided into two birth cohorts: BB (women born between 1946 and 1964) and pre-boomers (PB) (born between 1926 and 1945). A total of 30,956 patients were analyzed. Considering that women in the PB group were older than those of the BB generation, the statistical analysis was limited to women 50-59 years of age at the time of diagnosis (n=11,473). Baby boomers had a significantly higher percentage of endometrioid histology (pgeneration compared to the PB generation (p=0.0003) with a trend for improved uterine cancer-specific survival (p=0.0752). On multivariate analysis, birth cohort (BB vs. PB) was not a significant predictor of survival end-points. Factors predictive of survival included: tumor grade, FIGO stage, African-American race, and increased number of dissected LN. Our study suggests that the survival of BB women between 50-60 years of age is better compared to women in the PB generation. As more BB patients are diagnosed with EC, further research is warranted.

  3. HYPERBARIC OXYGENATION AND AEROBIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irvine D. Prather

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The continuing desire to improve performance, particularly at the national and international levels, has led to the use of ergogenic aids. Ergogenic aids are defined as 'a procedure or agent that provides the athlete with a competitive edge beyond that obtained via normal training methods'. Random drug testing has been implemented in an effort to minimize an athlete's ability to gain an unfair advantage. However, other means of improving performance have been tried. Blood doping has been used to enhance endurance performance by improving oxygen delivery to working muscles. As oxygen is carried in combination with the hemoglobin, it seems logical that increasing the number of red blood cells (RBC's in the body would increase the oxygen carrying capacity to the tissues and result in improved performance. The first experiments of removing and then reinfusing blood showed a significant improvement in performance time

  4. Decrease of oxygen vacancy by Zn-doped for improving solar-blind photoelectric performance in β-Ga2O3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Daoyou; Qin, Xinyuan; Lv, Ming; Shi, Haoze; Su, Yuanli; Yao, Guosheng; Wang, Shunli; Li, Chaorong; Li, Peigang; Tang, Weihua

    2017-11-01

    Highly (201) oriented Zn-doped β-Ga2O3 thin films with different dopant concentrations were grown on (0001) sapphire substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. With the increase of Zn dopant concentration, the crystal lattice expands, the energy band gap shrinks, and the oxygen vacancy concentration decreases. Both the metal semiconductor metal (MSM) structure photodetectors based on the pure and Zn-doped β-Ga2O3 thin films exhibit solar blind UV photoelectric property. Compared to the pure β-Ga2O3 photodetector, the Zn-doped one exhibits a lower dark current, a higher photo/dark current ratio, a faster photoresponse speed, which can be attributed to the decreases of oxygen vacancy concentration.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. A 2-week pretreatment with 13-cis-retinoic acid + interferon-α-2a prior to definitive radiation improves tumor tissue oxygenation in cervical cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunst, J.; Haensgen, G.; Becker, A.; Krause, U.; Fuechsel, G.; Koehler, U.

    1998-01-01

    Background: We have evaluated the tumor tissue pO 2 in cervical cancers in patients treated with 13-cis-retinoic acid and interferon-α-2a prior to and during radiotherapy. Patients and methods: From June 1995 through April 1997, 22 patients with squamous cell carcinoma FIGO IIB/III of the cervix who were scheduled for definitive radiotherapy with curative intent received additional treatment with 13-cis-retinoic acid (cRA, isotretinoin) plus interferon-α-2a (IFN-α-2a) as part of a phase-II protocol. cRA/IFN-α-2a started 14 days prior to radiotherapy (1 mg per kilogramme body weight cRA orally daily plus 6x10 6 IU IFN-α-2a subcutaneously daily). After this indicution period, standard radiotherapy was administered (external irradiation with 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions of 1.8 Gy plus HDR-brachytherapy). During radiotherapy, cRA/IFN-α-2a-treatment was continued with 50% of the daily doses. Tumor tissue pO 2 -measurements were performed prior to and after the cRA/IFN-induction period as well as at 20 Gy and at the end of radiotherapy with an Eppendorf-pO 2 -histograph. Results: In 11 out of the 22 patients, pO 2 -measurements were performed prior to the cRA/IFN-induction therapy. The median pO 2 of these untreated tumors was 17.7±16.3 mm Hg. The relative frequency of hypoxic readings with pO 2 -values below 5 mm Hg ranged from 0% to 60.6% (mean 24.3±21.0%). After the 2-week induction period with cRA/IFN, the median pO 2 had increased from 17.7pm16.3 mm Hg to 27.6±19.1 mm Hg (not significant). In all 5 patients with hypoxic tumors prior to cRA/IFN (median pO 2 of 10 mm Hg or less), the median pO 2 was above 20 mm Hg after the 2-week cRA/IFN-induction. In this subgroup of hypoxic tumors, the median pO 2 increased from 6.3±2.7 mm Hg to 27.0±5.6 mm Hg (p=0.004, t-test for paired samples). The frequency of hypoxic readings (pO 2 -values 2 below 10 mm Hg prior to treatment), 4/5 achieved complete remission. Conclusions: Pretreatment with cRA/IFN improves oxygenation of

  6. Functional Outcomes in Individuals Undergoing Very Early (Spinal Cord Injury: Analysis of Neurological Improvement from the Austrian Spinal Cord Injury Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiassich, Georg; Gollwitzer, Maria; Gaderer, Franz; Blocher, Martina; Osti, Michael; Lill, Markkus; Ortmaier, Reinhold; Haider, Thomas; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Resch, Herbert; Aschauer-Wallner, Stephanie

    2017-12-15

    Our study aim was to assess the neurological outcomes of surgical decompression and stabilization within 5 and 24 h after injury. We performed a multi-center, retrospective cohort study in adolescents and adults 15-85 years of age presenting cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) at one of 6 Austrian trauma centers participating in the Austrian Spinal Cord Injury Study (ASCIS). Neurological outcomes were measured using the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) grade according to the International Standards For Neurological Classification Of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) form after at least 6 months of follow-up (FU). Of the 49 enrolled patients with acute CSCI, 33 underwent surgical decompression within 5 h (mean 3.2 h ± 1.1 h; very early group) after injury, and 16 underwent surgical decompression between 5 and 24 h (mean 8.6 h ± 5.5 h; early group). Significant neurological improvement was observed among the entire study population between the preoperative assessment and the FU. We identified a significant difference in the AIS grade at the last FU between the groups the using Jonckheere-Terpstra test for doubly ordered crosstabs (p = 0.011) and significantly different AIS improvement rates in the early group (Poisson model, p = 0.018). Improvement by one AIS grade was observed in 31% and 42% of the patients in the early and very early groups, respectively (p = 0.54). Improvement by two AIS grades was observed in 31% and 6% of the patients in the early and very early groups, respectively (p = 0.03; relative risk [RR], 5.2; 95% CI, 1.1-35). Improvement by three AIS grades was observed in 6% and 3% of patients in the early and very early groups, respectively (p = 1.0). Decompression of the spinal cord within 24 h after SCI was associated with an improved neurological outcome. No additional neurological benefit was observed in patients who underwent decompression within 5 h of injury.

  7. Sulphur and oxygen sequestration of n-C37 and n-C38 unsaturated ketones in an immature kerogen and the release of their carbon skeletons during early stages of thermal maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, M.P.; Schaeffer-Reiss, C.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Lewan, M.D.; Maxwell, J.R.; Schaeffer, P.; Sinninghe, Damste J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Sedimentary rock from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation (Messinian) in the Vena del Gesso Basin (northern Italy) containing immature (Ro = 0.25%) S-rich organic matter was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis at temperatures from 160 to 330??C for 72 h to study the diagenetic fate of n-C37 and n-C38 di-and tri-unsaturated methyl and ethyl ketones (alkenones) biosynthesised by several prymnesiophyte algae. During early diagenesis, the alkenones are incorporated into the kerogen by both sulphur and oxygen cross-linking as indicated by chemical degradation experiments with the kerogen of the unheated sample. Heating at temperatures between 160 and 260??C, which still represents early stages of thermal maturation, produces large amounts (up to 1 mg/g TOC) of S-bound, O-bound, and both S-and O-bound n-C37 and n-C38 skeletons, saturated n-C37 and n-C38 methyl, ethyl, and mid-chain ketones, C37 and C38 mid-chain 2,5-di-n-alkylthiophenes, C37 and C38 1,2-di-n-alkylbenzenes, and C37 and C38 n-alkanes. With increasing thermal maturation, three forms of the n-C37 and n-C38 skeletons are relatively stable (saturated hydrocarbons, 1,2-di-n-alkylbenzenes and saturated ketones), whereas the S-and O-bound skeletons are relatively labile. These results suggest that in natural situations saturated ketones with an n-C37 and n-C38 skeleton can be expected as well as the corresponding hydrocarbons. Copyright ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  8. Sulphur and oxygen sequestration of n-C{sub 37} and n-C{sub 38} unsaturated ketones in an immature kerogen and the release of their carbon skeletons during early stages of thermal maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopmans, M.P.; De Leeuw, J.W.; Damste, J.S.S. [Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Den Burg (Netherlands)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Sedimentary rock from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation (Messinian) in the Vena del Gesso Basin (northern Italy) containing immature (R{sub o} = 0.25%) S-rich organic matter was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis at temperatures from 160 to 330{degrees}C for 72 h to study the diagenetic fate of n-C{sub 37} and n-C{sub 38} di- and tri-unsaturated methyl and ethyl ketones (alkenones) biosynthesised by several prymnesiophyte algae. During early diagenesis, the alkenones are incorporated into the kerogen by both sulphur and oxygen cross-linking as indicated by chemical degradation experiments with the kerogen of the unheated sample. Heating at temperatures between 160 and 260{degrees}C, which still represents early stages of thermal maturation, produces large amounts (up to 1 mg/g TOC) of S-bound, O-bound, and both S- and O-bound n-C{sub 37} and n-C{sub 38} skeletons, saturated n-C{sub 37} and n-C{sub 38} methyl, ethyl, and mid-chain ketones, C{sub 37} and C{sub 38} mid-chain 2,5-di-n-alkylthiophenes, C{sub 37} and C{sub 38} 1,2-di-n-alkylbenzenes, and C{sub 37} and C{sub 38} n-alkanes. With increasing thermal maturation, three forms of the n-C{sub 37} and n-C{sub 38} skeletons are relatively stable (saturated hydrocarbons, 1,2-di-n-alkylbenzenes and saturated ketones), whereas the S- and O-bound skeletons are relatively labile. These results suggest that in natural situations saturated ketones with an n-C{sub 37} and n-C{sub 38} skeleton can be expected as well as the corresponding hydrocarbons. 58 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Sulphur and oxygen sequestration of n-C 37 and n-C 38 unsaturated ketones in an immature kerogen and the release of their carbon skeletons during early stages of thermal maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Martin P.; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; de Leeuw, Jan W.; Lewan, Michael D.; Maxwell, James R.; Schaeffer, Philippe; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    1997-06-01

    Sedimentary rock from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation (Messinian) in the Vena del Gesso Basin (northern Italy) containing immature ( Ro = 0.25%) S-rich organic matter was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis at temperatures from 160 to 330°C for 72 h to study the diagenetic fate of n-C 37 and n-C 38 di- and tri-unsaturated methyl and ethyl ketones (alkenones) biosynthesised by several prymnesiophyte algae. During early diagenesis, the alkenones are incorporated into the kerogen by both sulphur and oxygen cross-linking as indicated by chemical degradation experiments with the kerogen of the unheated sample. Heating at temperatures between 160 and 260°C, which still represents early stages of thermal maturation, produces large amounts (up to 1 mg/g TOC) of S-bound, O-bound, and both S- and O-bound n-C 37 and n-C 38 skeletons, saturated n-C 37 and n-C38 methyl, ethyl, and mid-chain ketones, C 37 and C 38 mid-chain 2,5-di- n-alkylthiophenes, C 37 and C 38 1,2-di- n-alkylbenzenes, and C 37 and C 38n-alkanes. With increasing thermal maturation, three forms of the n-C 37 and n-C 38 skeletons are relatively stable (saturated hydrocarbons, 1,2-di- n-alkylbenzenes and saturated ketones), whereas the S- and O-bound skeletons are relatively labile. These results suggest that in natural situations saturated ketones with an n-C 37 and n-C 38 skeleton can be expected as well as the corresponding hydrocarbons.

  10. Relationship Between Cerebral Oxygenation and Hemodynamic and Oxygen Transport Parameters in Surgery for Acquired Heart Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Lenkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamic and oxygen transport parameters in surgical correction of concomitant acquired heart diseases. Subjects and methods. Informed consent was received from 40 patients who required surgery because of concomitant (two or more acquired heart defects. During procedure, perioperative monitoring of oxygen transport and cerebral oxygenation was performed with the aid of PiCCO2 monitor (Pulsion Medical Systems, Germany and a Fore-Sight cerebral oximeter (CASMED, USA. Anesthesia was maintained with propofol and fen-tanyl, by monitoring the depth of anesthesia. Early postoperative intensive therapy was based on the protocol for early targeted correction of hemodynamic disorders. Oxygen transport and cerebral oxygenation parameters were estimated intraopera-tively and within 24 postoperative hours. A statistical analysis including evaluation of Spearman correlations was performed with the aid of SPSS 15.0. Results. During perfusion, there was a relationship between cerebral oximetry values and hemat-ocrit levels, and oxygen partial pressure in the venous blood. Furthermore, a negative correlation between cerebral oximetry values and blood lactate levels was found 30 minutes after initiation of extracorporeal circulation (EC. During the study, there was a positive correlation between cerebral oxygenation and values of cardiac index, central venous saturation, and oxygen delivery index. There was a negative relationship between cerebral oxygenation and extravascular lung water at the beginning of surgery and a correlation between cerebral oximetry values and oxygenation index by the end of the first 24 postoperative hours. Conclusion. The cerebral oxygenation values correlate -with the main determinants of oxygen transport during EC and after cardiac surgical procedures. Cerebral oximetry may be used in early targeted therapy for the surgical correction of acquired combined

  11. Rethinking Instructional Technology to Improve Pedagogy for Digital Literacy: A Design Case in a Graduate Early Childhood Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langub, Lee Woodham; Lokey-Vega, Anissa

    2017-01-01

    Digital literacy is an important aspect to consider within teacher education as a way to address twenty-first century learner needs, particularly in early childhood contexts where developmental concerns should be paramount in making instructional design decisions. This article is a design case of a graduate level early childhood education…

  12. The Psychosis Recent Onset GRoningen Survey (PROGR-S: defining dimensions and improving outcomes in early psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith J Liemburg

    Full Text Available Psychotic disorders are among the most complex medical conditions. Longitudinal cohort studies may offer further insight into determinants of functional outcome after a psychotic episode. This paper describes the Psychosis Recent Onset in GRoningen Survey (PROGR-S that currently contains data on 1076 early-episode patients with psychosis, including symptoms, personality, cognition, life events and other outcome determinants. Our goal in this report is to give an overview of PROGR-S, as a point of reference for future publications on the effect of cognition, personality and psychosocial functioning on outcomes. PROGR-S contains an extensive, diagnostic battery including anamnesis, biography, socio-demographic characteristics, clinical status, drug use, neuropsychological assessment, personality questionnaires, and physical status tests. Extensive follow-up data is available on psychopathology, physical condition, medication use, and care consumption. Sample characteristics were determined and related to existing literature. PROGR-S (period 1997-2009, n = 718 included the majority of the expected referrals in the catchment area. The average age was 27 (SD = 8.6 and two-thirds were male. The average IQ was lower than that in the healthy control group. The majority had been diagnosed with a psychotic spectrum disorder. A substantial number of the patients had depressive symptoms (479/718, 78% and current cannabis or alcohol use (465/718, 75%. The level of community functioning was moderate, i.e. most patients were not in a relationship and were unemployed. The PROGR-S database contains a valuable cohort to study a range of aspects related to symptomatic and functional outcomes of recent onset psychosis, which may play a role in the treatment of this complex and disabling disorder. Results reported here show interesting starting points for future research. Thus, we aim to investigate long-term outcomes on the basis of cognition, personality, negative

  13. Educating early childhood care and education providers to improve knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Mathews

    Full Text Available Early childhood care and education providers (CCPs work with over 7 million young children. These children are vulnerable to physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and neglect. However, CCPs make less than 1% of all reports of suspected child abuse and neglect that are made to child protective services. CCPs are therefore an untapped resource in the public health response to child maltreatment. However, their knowledge and attitudes about duties to report child maltreatment are poorly understood. Moreover, no rigorous research has tested whether their knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment can be improved. These gaps in knowledge are important because knowledge of the duty and positive attitudes towards it produce more effective reporting, and little evidence exists about how to enhance cognitive and affective attributes. Using the CONSORT approach, we report a single-blind test-retest randomized controlled trial evaluating iLook Out for Child Abuse, a customized online educational intervention for CCPs to increase knowledge and attitudes towards the reporting duty. 762 participants were randomized with results analyzed for 741 participants (372 in the intervention group; 369 in the control. Knowledge of the reporting duty increased in the intervention group from 13.54 to 16.19 out of 21 (2.65 increase, 95% CI: (2.37, 2.93; large effect size 0.95, p < 0.001; the control group remained stable, moving from 13.54 to 13.59 (0.05 increase, 95% CI: (-0.12, 0.22; negligible effect size 0.03, p = 0.684. Attitudes were enhanced on all 13 items for the intervention group, remaining stable in the control, with significant differences between groups on all items (p < 0.05. Gains were largely sustained at four month follow-up. Findings support education for CCPs and other professions. Future research should also explore effects of education on reporting behavior.US National Institutes of Health NCT02225301.

  14. Educating early childhood care and education providers to improve knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ben; Yang, Chengwu; Lehman, Erik B; Mincemoyer, Claudia; Verdiglione, Nicole; Levi, Benjamin H

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood care and education providers (CCPs) work with over 7 million young children. These children are vulnerable to physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and neglect. However, CCPs make less than 1% of all reports of suspected child abuse and neglect that are made to child protective services. CCPs are therefore an untapped resource in the public health response to child maltreatment. However, their knowledge and attitudes about duties to report child maltreatment are poorly understood. Moreover, no rigorous research has tested whether their knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment can be improved. These gaps in knowledge are important because knowledge of the duty and positive attitudes towards it produce more effective reporting, and little evidence exists about how to enhance cognitive and affective attributes. Using the CONSORT approach, we report a single-blind test-retest randomized controlled trial evaluating iLook Out for Child Abuse, a customized online educational intervention for CCPs to increase knowledge and attitudes towards the reporting duty. 762 participants were randomized with results analyzed for 741 participants (372 in the intervention group; 369 in the control). Knowledge of the reporting duty increased in the intervention group from 13.54 to 16.19 out of 21 (2.65 increase, 95% CI: (2.37, 2.93); large effect size 0.95, p < 0.001); the control group remained stable, moving from 13.54 to 13.59 (0.05 increase, 95% CI: (-0.12, 0.22); negligible effect size 0.03, p = 0.684). Attitudes were enhanced on all 13 items for the intervention group, remaining stable in the control, with significant differences between groups on all items (p < 0.05). Gains were largely sustained at four month follow-up. Findings support education for CCPs and other professions. Future research should also explore effects of education on reporting behavior. US National Institutes of Health NCT02225301.

  15. Early growth hormone (GH) treatment promotes relevant motor functional improvement after severe frontal cortex lesion in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Margarita; Fuente, A; Criado, J; Yajeya, J; Devesa, J; Riolobos, A S

    2013-06-15

    A number of studies, in animals and humans, describe the positive effects of the growth hormone (GH) treatment combined with rehabilitation on brain reparation after brain injury. We examined the effect of GH treatment and rehabilitation in adult rats with severe frontal motor cortex ablation. Thirty-five male rats were trained in the paw-reaching-for-food task and the preferred forelimb was recorded. Under anesthesia, the motor cortex contralateral to the preferred forelimb was aspirated or sham-operated. Animals were then treated with GH (0.15 mg/kg/day, s.c) or vehicle during 5 days, commencing immediately or 6 days post-lesion. Rehabilitation was applied at short- and long-term after GH treatment. Behavioral data were analized by ANOVA following Bonferroni post hoc test. After sacrifice, immunohistochemical detection of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and nestin were undertaken in the brain of all groups. Animal group treated with GH immediately after the lesion, but not any other group, showed a significant improvement of the motor impairment induced by the motor lesion, and their performances in the motor test were no different from sham-operated controls. GFAP immunolabeling and nestin immunoreactivity were observed in the perilesional area in all injured animals; nestin immunoreactivity was higher in GH-treated injured rats (mainly in animals GH-treated 6 days post-lesion). GFAP immunoreactivity was similar among injured rats. Interestingly, nestin re-expression was detected in the contralateral undamaged motor cortex only in GH-treated injured rats, being higher in animals GH-treated immediately after the lesion than in animals GH-treated 6 days post-lesion. Early GH treatment induces significant recovery of the motor impairment produced by frontal cortical ablation. GH effects include increased neurogenesis for reparation (perilesional area) and for increased brain plasticity (contralateral motor area). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  16. ProSeal laryngeal mask airway improves oxygenation when used as a conduit prior to laryngoscope guided intubation in bariatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary objective of this study was to compare the effect of ventilation using the ProSeal TM laryngeal mask airway (PLMA with facemask and oropharyngeal airway (FM, prior to laryngoscopy, on arterial oxygenation in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods: Forty morbidly obese patients were randomly recruited to either PLMA or FM. After pre-oxygenation (FiO 2 1.0 in the ramp position with continuous positive airway pressure of 10 cm H 2 O for 5 min, anaesthesia was induced. Following loss of jaw thrust oropharyngeal airway, the FM and PLMA were inserted. On achieving paralysis, volume control ventilation with PEEP (5 cm H 2 O was initiated. The difficulty in mask ventilation (DMV in FM, number of attempts at PLMA and laryngoscopy were graded (Cormack and Lehane in all patients. Time from onset of laryngoscopy to endotracheal tube confirmation was recorded. Hypoxia was defined as mild (SpO 2 ≤95%, moderate (SpO 2 ≤90% and severe (SpO 2 ≤85%. Results: Significant rise in pO 2 was observed within both groups ( P=0.001, and this was significantly higher in the PLMA ( P=0.0001 when compared between the groups. SpO 2 ≥ 90% ( P=0.018 was seen in 19/20 (95% patients in PLMA and 13/20 (65% in FM at confirmation of tracheal tube. A strong association was found between DMV and Cormack Lehane in the FM group and with number of attempts in the PLMA group. No adverse events were observed. Conclusion: ProSeal TM laryngeal mask airway as conduit prior to laryngoscopy in morbidly obese patients seems effective in increasing oxygen reserves, and can be suggested as a routine airway management technique when managing the airway in the morbidly obese.

  17. Training for Quality: Improving Early Childhood Programs through Systematic Inservice Training. Monographs of the High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, Number Nine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Ann S.

    The Training of Trainers (ToT) Evaluation investigated the efficacy of the High/Scope model for improving the quality of early childhood programs on a national scale. To address this question, the High/Scope Foundation undertook a multimethod evaluation that collected anecdotal records from the consultants and 793 participants in 40 ToT projects,…

  18. Mouth self-examination to improve oral cancer awareness and early detection in a high-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, Kalavathy Jayapal; Anandkrishnan, Nitin; Suresh, Amritha; Iyer, Subramania K; Ramaiyer, Sundaram Karimassery; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham

    2011-07-01

    Oral cancer is a potentially preventable disease due to its association with well-known risk factors and easy detectability. There is a significant deficiency in the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors among the public. Raising public awareness could effectively contribute to achieving a significant reduction in the incidence of oral cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mouth self-examination (MSE) in improving the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors as well as test its feasibility as an oral cancer-screening tool. The study was carried out in a high-risk population of 57,704 from India, of which, 34,766 individuals who have met the eligibility criteria formed the study population. MSE brochures and trained health workers were employed for the purpose of health education and cancer screening. The present study compared their efficacy to detect oral lesions. Subjects with suspicious lesions were referred to the trained oral cancer specialist for confirmation. A questionnaire to assess the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors was developed and validated. SPSS (v.11.0) was used for data analysis. The program identified 216 cases of potentially malignant lesions as well as three cases of oral cancer. The findings of MSE and health workers showed 72% concordance, while that of health workers and oral cancer specialist showed 100% concordance. MSE had a low sensitivity of 18%, while the specificity was 99.9%. Though the technique identified high-risk lesions such as red patches (66.7%) and non-healing ulcers (42.9%), the detection rate of white patches was low (12.7%). Overall awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors after introduction of MSE program was over 80%; but the compliance to seek treatment was poor (32%). Mouth self-examination may be used as an effective tool to improve the awareness of oral cancer and for the early detection of lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality improvement in determination of chemical oxygen demand in samples considered difficult to analyze, through participation in proficiency-testing schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a critical analytical parameter in waste and wastewater treatment, more specifically in anaerobic digestion, although little is known about the quality of measuring COD of anaerobic digestion samples. Proficiency testing (PT) is a powerful tool that can be used...... to test the performance achievable in the participants laboratories, so we carried out a second PT of COD determination in samples considered ‘‘difficult’’ to analyze (i.e. solid samples and liquid samples with high concentrations of suspended solids). The results obtained (based on acceptable z...

  20. Does topical wound oxygen (TWO2) offer an improved outcome over conventional compression dressings (CCD) in the management of refractory venous ulcers (RVU)? A parallel observational comparative study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tawfick, W

    2009-07-01

    Topical wound oxygen (TWO(2)) may help wound healing in the management of refractory venous ulcers (RVU). The aim of this study was to measure the effect of TWO(2) on wound healing using the primary end-point of the proportion of ulcers healed at 12 weeks. Secondary end-points were time to full healing, percentage of reduction in ulcer size, pain reduction, recurrence rates and Quality-Adjusted Time Spent Without Symptoms of disease and Toxicity of Treatment (Q-TWiST).

  1. Improved Apnea-Hypopnea Index and Lowest Oxygen Saturation After Maxillomandibular Advancement With or Without Counterclockwise Rotation in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben B.; Laulund, Anne Sofie; Ingerslev, Janne

    2015-01-01

    - and postsurgical values of pharyngeal volume measured on computed tomogram or cone-beam computed tomogram and changes in Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) and lowest oxygen saturation (LSAT) values after surgery. Datawere subjected to a meta-analysis based on odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and P...... between pharyngeal volume changes and surgical method used. Postoperative parameters included an AHI lower than 5 (OR = 14.9; 95% CI, 2.7-83.5; P = .002), an AHI lower than 20 (OR = 114.8; 95% CI, 23.5-561.1; P

  2. Recombinator of hydrogen and oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stejskal, J.; Klein, O.; Scholtz, G.; Schmidt, P.; Olaussson, A.

    1976-01-01

    Improvements are proposed for the well known reactors for the catalytic recombination of hydrogen and oxygen, which should permit this being used in contiuous operation in nuclear reactors (BWRs). The improvements concern the geometric arrangement of gas-inlet and -outlet pipes, the inclination of the axis of the catalyst container and the introduction of remote operation. (UWI) [de

  3. Oxygen and animal evolution: Did a rise of atmospheric oxygen trigger the origin of animals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, Daniel Brady; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies challenge the classical view that the origin of animal life was primarily controlled by atmospheric oxygen levels. For example, some modern sponges, representing early-branching animals, can live under 200 times less oxygen than currently present in the atmosphere - levels commonly...... thought to have been maintained prior to their origination. Furthermore, it is increasingly argued that the earliest animals, which likely lived in low oxygen environments, played an active role in constructing the well-oxygenated conditions typical of the modern oceans. Therefore, while oxygen is still...

  4. Improving the capacity of lithium-sulfur batteries by tailoring the polysulfide adsorption efficiency of hierarchical oxygen/nitrogen-functionalized carbon host materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Artur; Janek, Jürgen; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2017-03-22

    The use of monolithic carbons with structural hierarchy and varying amounts of nitrogen and oxygen functionalities as sulfur host materials in high-loading lithium-sulfur cells is reported. The primary focus is on the strength of the polysulfide/carbon interaction with the goal of assessing the effect of (surface) dopant concentration on cathode performance. The adsorption capacity - which is a measure of the interaction strength between the intermediate lithium polysulfide species and the carbon - was found to scale almost linearly with the nitrogen level. Likewise, the discharge capacity of lithium-sulfur cells increased linearly. This positive correlation can be explained by the favorable effect of nitrogen on both the chemical and electronic properties of the carbon host. The incorporation of additional oxygen-containing surface groups into highly nitrogen-functionalized carbon helped to further enhance the polysulfide adsorption efficiency, and therefore the reversible cell capacity. Overall, the areal capacity could be increased by almost 70% to around 3 mA h cm -2 . We believe that the design parameters described here provide a blueprint for future carbon-based nanocomposites for high-performance lithium-sulfur cells.

  5. Improvement in the Sensitivity of PbO Doped Tin Oxide Thick Film Gas Sensor by RF and Microwave Oxygen Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. SRIVASTAVA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work efforts have been made to analyze the effect of oxygen plasma and PbO doping on the sensitivity of SnO2-based thick film gas sensor for methanol, propanol and acetone. The effect of substrate temperature on the response of dual frequency (RF and microwave plasma treated thick film sensor array has also been studied. To achieve this, three sensor arrays (each with four tin oxide sensors doped with different (1 %, 2 %, 3 % and 4 % PbO concentrations were fabricated by thick film technology and then treated with oxygen plasma for various durations (5 min, 10 min. and 15 min.. The plasma treated sensors were found to possess appreciably high sensitivity at room temperature in comparison to untreated sensor. The sensitivity showed the increasing trend with plasma exposure time and 15 minutes exposure time was found to be most suitable as the sensitivity of the plasma treated sensors for this duration were high towards all the chosen vapors with maximum (97 % value for propanol. The sensitivity of the sensors were found to be increasing gradually as PbO concentration was varied from 1- 4%.

  6. β-Glucan induces reactive oxygen species production in human neutrophils to improve the killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Souza Bonfim-Mendonça

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is among the most prevalent vaginal diseases. Candida albicans is still the most prevalent species associated with this pathology, however, the prevalence of other Candida species, such as C. glabrata, is increasing. The pathogenesis of these infections has been intensely studied, nevertheless, no consensus has been reached on the pathogenicity of VVC. In addition, inappropriate treatment or the presence of resistant strains can lead to RVVC (vulvovaginal candidiasis recurrent. Immunomodulation therapy studies have become increasingly promising, including with the β-glucans. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated microbicidal activity, phagocytosis, intracellular oxidant species production, oxygen consumption, myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, and the release of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin-8 (IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-1Ra in neutrophils previously treated or not with β-glucan. In all of the assays, human neutrophils were challenged with C. albicans and C. glabrata isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. β-glucan significantly increased oxidant species production, suggesting that β-glucan may be an efficient immunomodulator that triggers an increase in the microbicidal response of neutrophils for both of the species isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. The effects of β-glucan appeared to be mainly related to the activation of reactive oxygen species and modulation of cytokine release.

  7. Improved wound management by regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy and regulated, oxygen- enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy through basic science research and clinical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moris Topaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RNPT should be regarded as a state-of-the-art technology in wound treatment and the most important physical, nonpharmaceutical, platform technology developed and applied for wound healing in the last two decades. RNPT systems maintain the treated wound′s environment as a semi-closed, semi-isolated system applying external physical stimulations to the wound, leading to biological and biochemical effects, with the potential to substantially influence wound-host interactions, and when properly applied may enhance wound healing. RNPT is a simple, safe, and affordable tool that can be utilized in a wide range of acute and chronic conditions, with reduced need for complicated surgical procedures, and antibiotic treatment. This technology has been shown to be effective and safe, saving limbs and lives on a global scale. Regulated, oxygen-enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RO-NPT is an innovative technology, whereby supplemental oxygen is concurrently administered with RNPT for their synergistic effect on treatment and prophylaxis of anaerobic wound infection and promotion of wound healing. Understanding the basic science, modes of operation and the associated risks of these technologies through their fundamental clinical mechanisms is the main objective of this review.

  8. Improving Quality and Child Outcomes in Early Childhood Education by Redefining the Role Afforded to Teachers in Professional Development: A Continuous Quality Improvement Learning Collaborative among Public Preschools in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, MaryCatherine; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Atwood, Sid; Duran Mellado, Francis Romina; Godoy Ossa, Felipe; Trevino Villareal, Ernesto; Snow, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    Based on evidence derived from studies conducted mostly in the United States, many low- and middle-income countries are investing in early childhood education (ECE), with high expectations that it will improve academic outcomes, increase human capital, promote economic growth and reduce economic inequality. In Chile, there has been a great…

  9. Percutaneous cystostomy drainage for early removing urethral catheter in robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: Improving on patients' discomfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Jui Yang

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The use of a percutaneous cystostomy device is feasible and safe for the early removal of urethral Foley catheter in robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy to decrease penile pain and patient discomfort.

  10. Comparing Tablets and PCs in teaching Mathematics: An attempt to improve Mathematics Competence in Early Childhood Education

    OpenAIRE

    Papadakis, Stamatis; Kalogiannakis, Michail; Zaranis, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates and compares the influence of using computers and tablets, in the development of mathematical competence in early childhood education. For the implementation of the survey, we conducted a 14 weeks intervention, which included one experimental and one control group. Children in both groups were taught Mathematics according to Greek curriculum for early childhood education in conjunction with the use either of the same educational software, which depending on the ...

  11. Improved Survival Endpoints With Adjuvant Radiation Treatment in Patients With High-Risk Early-Stage Endometrial Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elshaikh, Mohamed A., E-mail: melshai1@hfhs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Vance, Sean; Suri, Jaipreet S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Mahan, Meredith [Public Health Science, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Munkarah, Adnan [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Women' s Health Services, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To determine the impact of adjuvant radiation treatment (RT) on recurrence-free survival (RFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS) in patients with high-risk 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I-II endometrial carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We identified 382 patients with high-risk EC who underwent hysterectomy. RFS, DSS, and OS were calculated from the date of hysterectomy by use of the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression modeling was used to explore the risks associated with various factors on survival endpoints. Results: The median follow-up time for the study cohort was 5.4 years. The median age was 71 years. All patients underwent hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy, 93% had peritoneal cytology, and 85% underwent lymphadenectomy. Patients with endometrioid histology constituted 72% of the study cohort, serous in 16%, clear cell in 7%, and mixed histology in 4%. Twenty-three percent of patients had stage II disease. Adjuvant management included RT alone in 220 patients (57%), chemotherapy alone in 25 patients (7%), and chemoradiation therapy in 27 patients (7%); 110 patients (29%) were treated with close surveillance. The 5-year RFS, DSS, and OS were 76%, 88%, and 73%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, adjuvant RT was a significant predictor of RFS (P<.001) DSS (P<.001), and OS (P=.017). Lymphovascular space involvement was a significant predictor of RFS and DSS (P<.001). High tumor grade was a significant predictor for RFS (P=.038) and DSS (P=.025). Involvement of the lower uterine segment was also a predictor of RFS (P=.049). Age at diagnosis and lymphovascular space involvement were significant predictors of OS: P<.001 and P=.002, respectively. Conclusion: In the treatment of patients with high-risk features, our study suggests that adjuvant RT significantly improves recurrence-free, disease-specific, and overall survival in patients with early-stage endometrial carcinoma

  12. Partial deoxygenation of extender improves sperm quality, reduces lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species during cryopreservation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, B; Ghosh, S K; Lone, S A; Prasad, J K; Das, G K; Katiyar, R; Mustapha, Abdul Rahman; Kumar, Ajay; Verma, M R

    2018-02-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of partial deoxygenation of extender on sperm quality, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) during cryopreservation of semen. Semen extender was prepared freshly and split into three sub-extenders [Extender I: control (non-deoxygenated), Extender II (partially deoxygenated by using LN 2 flushing) and Extender III (partially deoxygenated mechanically by vacuum pump)]. Amounts of dissolved oxygen (DO) were determined in all the three extenders and also in post-thaw semen. Ejaculates with mass motility of  ≥3+ and individual progressive motility of 70% or greater were collected from Murrah buffalo bulls and utilized in the study. Each semen sample was divided into Groups I (diluted with Extender I), II (diluted with Extender II) and III (diluted Extender III) with a maximum of 60 × 10 6 sperm/mL. French mini straws (0.25 mL) were filled with the extended semen samples, sealed with polyvinyl alcohol powder, kept for 3 h at 5 °C for equilibration and then stored in an automatic programmable freezer until the temperature of straws reached -145 °C followed by plunging the straws into liquid nitrogen (-196 °C). Semen samples were evaluated at pre-freeze and post-thaw stages for various variables [sperm motility, live sperm count, acrosomal integrity, hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) response, LPO and ROS concentrations]. The mean DO was less (P fertility of frozen-thawed buffalo sperm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Early Ambulation Decreases Length of Hospital Stay, Perioperative Complications and Improves Functional Outcomes in Elderly Patients Undergoing Surgery for Correction of Adult Degenerative Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adogwa, Owoicho; Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Fialkoff, Jared; Cheng, Joseph; Karikari, Isaac O; Bagley, Carlos

    2017-09-15

    Ambispective cohort review. To examine the effects of early mobilization on patient outcomes, complications profile, and 30-day readmission rates. Prolonged immobilization after surgery can result in functional decline and an increased risk of hospital-associated complications. We conducted an ambispective study of 125 elderly patients (>65 years) undergoing elective spinal surgery for correction of adult degenerative scoliosis. We identified all unplanned readmissions within 30 days of discharge. Unplanned readmissions were defined to have occurred as a result of either a surgical or a nonsurgical complication. "Days of immobility" was defined as the number of days until a patient moved out of bed beyond a chair. Patients in the top and bottom quartiles were dichotomized into "early ambulators" and "late ambulators", respectively. Early ambulators were ambulatory within 24 hours of surgery, whereas late ambulators were ambulatory at a minimum of 48 hours after surgery. Complication rates, duration of hospital stay, and 30-day readmission rates were compared between early ambulators and late ambulators. Baseline characteristics were similar between both cohorts. Compared with patients with a longer duration of immobility (i.e., late ambulators), the prevalence of at least one perioperative complication was significantly lower in the early ambulators cohort (30% vs. 54%, P = 0.06). The length of inhospital stay was 34% shorter in the early ambulators cohort (5.33 days vs. 8.11 days, P = 0.01). Functional independence was superior in the early ambulators cohort, with the majority of patients discharged directly home after surgery compared with late ambulators (71.2% vs. 22.0%, P = 0.01). Early ambulation after surgery significantly reduces the incidence of perioperative complications, shortens duration of inhospital stay, and contributes to improved perioperative functional status in elderly patients. Even a delay of 24 hours to ambulation is