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Sample records for early neoplastic changes12

  1. Early neuroimaging findings of glioblastoma mimicking non-neoplastic cerebral lesion.

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    Jung, Tae-Young; Jung, Shin

    2007-09-01

    A 54-year-old man and a 63-year-old woman presented with glioblastoma manifesting as seizure and headache, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging of the two patients revealed hypointense area on T(1)-weighted imaging, and hyperintense area on T(2)-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging, with no enhancement after gadolinium administration. Both patients underwent conservative therapy under diagnoses of non-neoplastic cerebral lesion. Six months later, they suffered aggravated symptoms and new neurological deficits. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging revealed hypointense area on diffusion-weighted imaging and ring enhancement on T(1)-weighted imaging with gadolinium at the site of the previously detected lesions. The tumors showed growth pattern of superficial origin. The large enhanced masses were totally removed through craniotomy under neuronavigator guidance. The histological diagnoses were glioblastoma. Glioblastoma may mimic non-neoplastic conditions on neuroimaging in the early stages. Close follow up of such patients is essential.

  2. Early-enhancing non-neoplastic lesions on gadolinium-enhanced MRI of the liver

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    Kanematsu, M. E-mail: masa-gif@umin.ac.jp; Kondo, H.; Semelka, R.C.; Matsuo, M.; Goshima, S.; Hoshi, H.; Moriyama, N.; Itai, Y

    2003-10-01

    AIM: To assess the frequency, cause, and significance of early-enhancing, non-neoplastic (EN) lesions on gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver performed for the detection of malignant hepatic tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From September 1997 to September 2000, we reviewed the images of 125 patients, suspected of having hepatic tumours, in whom (1) gadolinium-enhanced triphasic dynamic gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) imaging in addition to unenhanced T1- and T2-weighted MRI was performed, (2) conventional angiography and combination computed tomography (CT) hepatic arteriography and CT during arterial portography were performed within 2 weeks of the MRI, and (3) definitive surgery within 2 weeks of the MRI or follow-up study by means of intravenously contrast-enhanced CT or MRI in 10 months or more was performed. Angiographic studies were correlated to determine the underlying causes of the EN lesions. RESULTS: We found 78 EN lesions in 36 patients (29%), ranging in size from 4 and 50 mm (mean, 12.2 mm). From the MR reports, our radiologists had prospectively diagnosed EN lesions as probable malignant tumours in eight (10%), possible malignant tumours in 36 (46%), and probable non-neoplastic lesion in 34 (44%). EN lesions were found in 27 of 81 (33%) cirrhotic patients and in nine of 44 (20%) non-cirrhotic patients. Fifty-one EN lesions (65%) were located along the liver edge. The shape was circular in 42 (54%), oval in 14 (18%), irregular in 12 (15%), wedge-shaped in seven (9%), and fan-shaped in three (4%). Twenty EN lesions (26%) appeared slightly hyperintense on T2-weighted images. The causes were non-neoplastic arterio-portal shunting in 48 (62%), cystic venous drainage in four (5%), rib compression in four (5%), aberrant right gastric venous drainage in two (3%), and unknown in 20 (26%). CONCLUSION: Over half the number of EN lesions were caused by non-neoplastic arterio-portal shunting, occasionally showing slight hyperintensity on

  3. Nanodiamond modified copolymer scaffolds affects tumour progression of early neoplastic oral keratinocytes.

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    Suliman, Salwa; Mustafa, Kamal; Krueger, Anke; Steinmüller-Nethl, Doris; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Osdal, Tereza; Hamza, Amani O; Sun, Yang; Parajuli, Himalaya; Waag, Thilo; Nickel, Joachim; Johannessen, Anne Christine; McCormack, Emmet; Costea, Daniela Elena

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the tumorigenic potential of functionalising poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds. The copolymer scaffolds were functionalised with nanodiamonds (nDP) or with nDP and physisorbed BMP-2 (nDP-PHY) to enhance osteoinductivity. Culturing early neoplastic dysplastic keratinocytes (DOK(Luc)) on nDP modified scaffolds reduced significantly their subsequent sphere formation ability and decreased significantly the cells' proliferation in the supra-basal layers of in vitro 3D oral neoplastic mucosa (3D-OT) when compared to DOK(Luc) previously cultured on nDP-PHY scaffolds. Using an in vivo non-invasive environmentally-induced oral carcinogenesis model, nDP scaffolds were observed to reduce bioluminescence intensity of tumours formed by DOK(Luc) + carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAF). nDP modification was also found to promote differentiation of DOK(Luc) both in vitro in 3D-OT and in vivo in xenografts formed by DOK(Luc) alone. The nDP-PHY scaffold had the highest number of invasive tumours formed by DOK(Luc) + CAF outside the scaffold area compared to the nDP and control scaffolds. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo results presented here demonstrate that nDP modified copolymer scaffolds are able to decrease the tumorigenic potential of DOK(Luc), while confirming concerns for the therapeutic use of BMP-2 for reconstruction of bone defects in oral cancer patients due to its tumour promoting capabilities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Imaging of limbic para-neoplastic encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmelin, A.; Sellat, F.; Morand, G.; Quoix, E.; Clouet, P.L.; Dietemann, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rare syndrome mostly associated with small cell lung cancer. We present the case of a 69-year-old man with selective amnesia suggesting limbic encephalitis. A neuroendocrine cell lung cancer was found, confirming the diagnostics of para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis. Contrast-enhanced cerebral CT was normal whether magnetic resonance imaging showed signal abnormalities of the medial part of temporal lobes and hippocampal regions. Because neurologic improvement may follow treatment of the primary tumor, early diagnosis is important. (authors)

  5. Management of neoplastic meningitis.

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    Roth, Patrick; Weller, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Leptomeningeal dissemination of tumor cells, also referred to as neoplastic meningitis, is most frequently seen in patients with late-stage cancer and mostly associated with a poor prognosis. Basically, neoplastic meningitis may affect all patients with a malignant tumor but is most common in patients affected by lung cancer, breast carcinoma, melanoma or hematologic neoplasms such as lymphoma and leukemia. Controlled clinical trials are largely lacking which results in various non-standardized treatment regimens. The presence of solid tumor manifestations in the CNS as well as the extracranial tumor load defines the most appropriate treatment approach. Radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy and intrathecal treatment must be considered. For each patient, the individual situation needs to be carefully evaluated to determine the potential benefit as well as putative side effects associated with any therapy. A moderate survival benefit and particularly relief from pain and neurological deficits are the main treatment goals. Here, we summarize the management of patients with neoplastic meningitis and review the available treatment options.

  6. Neoplastic causes of abnormal puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Susanne; Shelso, John; Wright, Karen; Furman, Wayne

    2014-04-01

    Neoplasm-related precocious puberty (PP) is a rare presenting feature of childhood cancer. Moreover, evaluation of suspected PP in a child is complex, and cancer is often not considered. We characterized the clinicopathologic features of patients presenting with PP at a large pediatric cancer center, reviewed the relevant literature, and developed an algorithm for the diagnostic work-up of these patients. We examined the records of all patients with a neoplasm and concomitant PP treated at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital from January 1975 through October 2011, reviewed the available literature, and analyzed the demographic, clinical, endocrine, and neoplasm-related features. Twenty-four of 13,615 children and adolescents (0.18%) were diagnosed with PP within 60 days of presentation. Primary diagnoses included brain tumor (12), adrenocortical carcinoma (5), hepatoblastoma (4), and others (3). PP was observed 0-48 months before diagnosis of neoplasm; 17 patients had peripheral PP and 7 had central PP. Neoplasm-related PP is rare and takes the form of a paraneoplastic syndrome caused by tumor production of hormones or by alteration of physiologic gonadotropin production. PP can precede diagnosis of malignancy by months or years, and neoplastic causes should be considered early to avoid delayed cancer diagnosis. Treatment of the primary malignancy resolved or diminished PP in surviving patients with an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Photodynamic therapy and the treatment of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biel, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Approximately 12000 new cases of laryngeal carcinoma are reported yearly in the united States. Early carcinomas of the larynx (Tis, T1 and T2) are presently treated with either radiation therapy or surgery alone. Five year cure rates achieved with this therapy are 75-85%. Radiation therapy has the advantage of preserving physical integrity of the larynx, thereby preserving voice. Radiation therapy, however, has significant disadvantages even when small laryngeal fields of radiation are used. These disadvantages include discomfort and mucositis during and for potential prolonged periods after therapy, permanently altered voice quality, dysphagia, chondroradionecrosis of the larynx and trachea, and the prolonged length of therapy (6-7 weeks). This report presents the results of 10 patients treated with PDT for neo-plastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the larynx and tracheobronchial tree. (author). 12 refs., 1 tab

  8. Non-neoplastic gliotic cerebellar cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisberg, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical and CT findings in 3 patients with non-neoplastic gliotic cerebellar cyst are described. CT does not permit accurate preoperative differentiation of these lesions from neoplastic disorders. (orig.)

  9. Knowledge on neoplastic diseases among young rural inhabitants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lewandowska

    2017-09-01

    According to self-assessment, every third respondent stated having a low or average level of knowledge. The most frequently used source of knowledge was the Internet, and much more rarely a doctor or a nurse. Very few of the respondents could enumerate the tests applied in the early detection of neoplastic diseases.

  10. NEOPLASTIC LESIONS OF THE APPENDIX

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    Piotr Bryk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to present the clinical observations of neoplastic lesions of the appendix (one carcinoid and two mucous cysts and to discuss various manners of treatment and prognosis. Material and methods: The authors of the following paper present a description of three cases of appendix tumours, two patients with a mucous cyst and a patient with carcinoid, against the background of all the appendectomies performed at the Clinical Department of General, Endocrine and Oncological Surgery of the Provincial Polyclinical Hospital in Kielce in the years 2005–2011. Results : Within the 7-year period, a total of 11 719 surgical operations have been performed, where 834 (7.1% were that of appendectomy. Among all of the removed vermiform appendixes, neoplastic lesions occurred in three cases constituting a mere 0.3% of all of the appendectomies performed within that period. In two of the cases there was a suspicion of mucous cysts before the surgical operation. In none of the above-mentioned cases was is possible to ultimately establish the diagnosis before the operation. The patients were subjected to a simple appendectomy. The patients are in good clinical health, with no signs of relapse. Conclusions : The presented cases of patients with appendix tumours illustrate the difficulty of preoperative detection of a neoplastic lesion. This is mainly due to a scantily symptomatic course or symptoms typical of appendicitis. In light of this, histopathological examination of each appendix should be treated as obligatory.

  11. Non-neoplastic disorders of the esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong

    2013-01-01

    Non-neoplastic disorders of the esophagus include esophagitis, esophageal diverticulum, esophageal injury, foreign body, fistulous formation between the esophagus and the surrounding structures and mucocele. Since these disorders have variable symptoms and radiologic findings, it needs to differentiated from other disorders other than esophageal diseases. Being knowledgeable of CT findings suggest that these disorders can help diagnose non-neoplastic disorders of the esophagus. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of non-neoplastic disorders of the esophagus.

  12. Capsule endoscopy in neoplastic diseases

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    Pennazio, Marco; Rondonotti, Emanuele; de Franchis, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, diagnosis and management of small-bowel tumors were delayed by the difficulty of access to the small bowel and the poor diagnostic capabilities of the available diagnostic techniques. An array of new methods has recently been developed, increasing the possibility of detecting these tumors at an earlier stage. Capsule endoscopy (CE) appears to be an ideal tool to recognize the presence of neoplastic lesions along this organ, since it is non-invasive and enables the entire small bowel to be visualized. High-quality images of the small-bowel mucosa may be captured and small and flat lesions recognized, without exposure to radiation. Recent studies on a large population of patients undergoing CE have reported small-bowel tumor frequency only slightly above that reported in previous surgical series (range, 1.6%-2.4%) and have also confirmed that the main clinical indication to CE in patients with small-bowel tumors is obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. The majority of tumors identified by CE are malignant; many were unsuspected and not found by other methods. However, it remains difficult to identify pathology and tumor type based on the lesion’s endoscopic appearance. Despite its limitations, CE provides crucial information leading in most cases to changes in subsequent patient management. Whether the use of CE in combination with other new diagnostic (MRI or multidetector CT enterography) and therapeutic (Push-and-pull enteroscopy) techniques will lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment of these neoplasms, ultimately resulting in a survival advantage and in cost savings, remains to be determined through carefully-designed studies. PMID:18785274

  13. Total gastrectomy for non-neoplastic diseases

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    Bjorn, Niels; Ainsworth, Alan Patrick; Mortensen, Michael Bau

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to describe patients who had total gastrectomy for non-neoplastic diseases within a well-defined geographical area. Material and Methods: Retrospective study of patients who had gastrectomy for a non-neoplastic disease at the Department of Surgery, Odense...... University Hospital from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2014. Results: A total of 268 gastrectomies were performed with the 10-year period. Of these, ten (4%) were done for non-neoplastic diseases. Two were men and eight women with a median age of 51 years (range 31 to 96 years). Six had emergency surgery...... of 10 and 2 of 10, respectively. Histology of the resected specimens showed: Oedema, inflammation and/or necrosis (n=6), Menetrier's disease (n=2) and perforation (n=2). Conclusions: Gastrectomy for non-neoplastic diseases accounts for less than 5% of all gastrectomies. The majority of these cases...

  14. Neoplastic pericardial disease. Analysis of 26 patients

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    Helena Nogueira Soufen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To characterize patients with neoplastic pericardial disease diagnosed by clinical presentation, complementary test findings, and the histological type of tumor. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with neoplastic pericardial disease were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Clinical manifestations and abnormalities in chest roentgenograms and electrocardiograms were frequent, but were not specific. Most patients underwent surgery. There was a high positivity of the pericardial biopsy when associated with the cytological analysis of the pericardial liquid used to determine the histological type of the tumor, particularly when the procedure was performed with the aid of pericardioscopy. CONCLUSION: The correct diagnosis of neoplastic pericardial disease involves suspicious but nonspecific findings during clinical examination and in screen tests. The suspicious findings must be confirmed through more invasive diagnostic approaches, in particular pericardioscopy with biopsy and cytological study.

  15. Morphological spectrum of non‑neoplastic lesions of the uterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The uterine cervix is a gateway to several non‑neoplastic and neoplastic gynecological lesions. Most of these non‑neoplastic lesions are commonly found in women of reproductive age. These lesions constitute a source of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide hence the need to analyze them to provide ...

  16. Imaging of limbic para-neoplastic encephalitis; Imagerie de l`encephalite limbique paraneoplastique

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    Rimmelin, A.; Sellat, F.; Morand, G.; Quoix, E.; Clouet, P.L.; Dietemann, J.L. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1997-09-01

    Para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rare syndrome mostly associated with small cell lung cancer. We present the case of a 69-year-old man with selective amnesia suggesting limbic encephalitis. A neuroendocrine cell lung cancer was found, confirming the diagnostics of para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis. Contrast-enhanced cerebral CT was normal whether magnetic resonance imaging showed signal abnormalities of the medial part of temporal lobes and hippocampal regions. Because neurologic improvement may follow treatment of the primary tumor, early diagnosis is important. (authors). 10 refs.

  17. A study on mast cell variation in neoplastic and non neoplastic disease of uterine cervix

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    N Mainali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mast cells are heterogeneous group of immune cells involved in multiple biological events. The significance of mast cells in uterine tumor surveillance has been studied with conflicting results. The presence of mast cell in tumor has been described as evidence of a host immunologic anti tumor response and if they are abundant the prognosis is good. However in other studies, with the help of different granules of mast cell, it is said to be very closely related with angiogenesis and tumor invasion. The study aims to analyze the histomorphologic changes with special reference to mast cells in different neoplastic and non neoplastic disease of uterine cervix, and also the relationship of the mast cell population with degree of anaplasia and mitotic figures.Materials and methods: Cervical biopsies received in the department of Pathology for HPE were stained with H& E stain and toludine blue for the identification of mast cellResult: Out of a total of 100 cases, 82 were non neoplastic cases with the mean mast cell count of 83.73 and mean age of patient being 44.30 year. Eighteen neoplastic cases were included which had mean mast cell count of 13.5 and mean age of 49.5 year.Conclusion: Mast cell was found to be highest in non Neoplastic lesion with increase count in polypoidal cervicitis. There was a statistical significance variation between mast cell count in neoplastic and non Neoplastic disease of the cervix. However,role of age in mast cell count was least significant.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i8.11594 Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No. 8 (2014 658-662

  18. Evaluation of Calretinin expression in Ameloblastoma and Non-Neoplastic Odontogenic Cysts - An immunohistochemical study.

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    D'Silva, Shaloom; Sumathi, M K; Balaji, N; Shetty, Nisha K N; Pramod, K M; Cheeramelil, Jacob

    2013-12-01

    Calretinin a 29-kDa calcium binding protein is expressed widely in normal human tissue and tumours including amelobastoma. The objective of this study was to determine calretinin expression in heamatoxylin and eosin diagnosed cases of ameloblastoma and non-neoplastic odontogenic cysts. The lining epithelium in 3 cases of radicular cysts, 5 cases of odontogenic keratocysts, 5 cases of dentigerous cysts and 11 cases of ameloblastomas were examined for expression of calretinin. No positive epithelial staining was observed in radicular and dentigerous cysts. In comparison, however 100% of cases of ameloblastomas and 40% of cases of odontogenic karatocysts showed positive calretinin expression. Calretinin may be a specific immunohistochemical marker for ameloblastoma. If there is any possible relation between calretinin expression and neural origin of the odontogenic epithelium and its neoplastic transformation and if calretinin could be used as an early marker to predict the tendency of neoplastic change of odontogenic epithelium could be answered through further researches. How to cite this article: D'Silva S, Sumathi MK, Balaji N, Shetty NK, Pramod KM, Cheeramelil J. Evaluation of Calretinin expression in Ameloblastoma and Non-Neoplastic Odontogenic Cysts - An immunohistochemical study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):42-8 .

  19. Multistep change in epidermal growth factor receptors during spontaneous neoplastic progression in Chinese hamster embryo fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakshull, E.; Kraemer, P.M.; Wharton, W.

    1985-01-01

    Whole Chinese hamster embryo lineages have been shown to undergo multistep spontaneous neoplastic progression during serial passage in culture. The authors have studied the binding, internalization, and degradation of 125 I-labeled epidermal growth factor at four different stages of transformation. The whole Chinese hamster embryo cells lost cell surface epidermal growth factor receptors gradually during the course of neoplastic progression until only 10% of the receptor number present in the early-passage cells (precrisis) were retained in the late-passage cells (tumorigenic). No differences in internalization rates, chloroquine sensitivity, or ability to degrade hormone between the various passage levels were seen. No evidence for the presence in conditioned medium of transforming growth factors which might mask or down-regulate epidermal growth factor receptor was obtained. These results suggest that a reduction in cell surface epidermal growth factor receptor might be an early event during spontaneous transformation in whole Chinese hamster embryo cells

  20. A nine - year retrospective study of avian neoplastic diseases in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avian neoplastic diseases have been identified as one of the leading causes of mortality and production losses in commercial chickens in Nigeria. Although available reports described the trend of Marek's disease in Zaria, Kaduna state, they did not take cognizance of other neoplastic diseases of poultry hence the need for ...

  1. Matrix Metalloproteinases in Non-Neoplastic Disorders

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    Tokito, Akinori; Jougasaki, Michihisa

    2016-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases belonging to the metzincin superfamily. There are at least 23 members of MMPs ever reported in human, and they and their substrates are widely expressed in many tissues. Recent growing evidence has established that MMP not only can degrade a variety of components of extracellular matrix, but also can cleave and activate various non-matrix proteins, including cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, contributing to both physiological and pathological processes. In normal conditions, MMP expression and activity are tightly regulated via interactions between their activators and inhibitors. Imbalance among these factors, however, results in dysregulated MMP activity, which causes tissue destruction and functional alteration or local inflammation, leading to the development of diverse diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, neurodegenerative disease, as well as cancer. This article focuses on the accumulated evidence supporting a wide range of roles of MMPs in various non-neoplastic diseases and provides an outlook on the therapeutic potential of inhibiting MMP action. PMID:27455234

  2. KRAS Mutation and Epithelial-Macrophage Interplay in Pancreatic Neoplastic Transformation.

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    Bishehsari, Faraz; Zhang, Lijuan; Barlass, Usman; Preite, Nailliw; Turturro, Sanja; Najor, Matthew S; Shetuni, Brandon B; Zayas, Janet P; Mahdavinia, Mahboobeh; Abukhdeir, Abde M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2018-05-14

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is characterized by epithelial mutations in KRAS and prominent tumor-associated inflammation, including macrophage infiltration. But knowledge of early interactions between neoplastic epithelium and macrophages in PDA carcinogenesis is limited. Using a pancreatic organoid model, we found that the expression of mutant KRAS in organoids increased i) ductal to acinar gene expression ratios, ii) epithelial cells proliferation, and iii) colony formation capacity in vitro, and endowed pancreatic cells with the ability to generate neoplastic tumors in vivo. KRAS mutations induced a pro-tumorigenic phenotype in macrophages. Altered macrophages decreased epithelial Pigment Epithelial Derived Factor (PEDF) expression and induced a cancerous phenotype. We validated our findings using annotated patient samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) as well as in our human PDA specimens. Epithelium-macrophage cross talk occurs early in pancreatic carcinogenesis where KRAS directly induces cancer-related phenotypes in epithelium, and also promotes a pro-tumorigenic phenotype in macrophages, in turn augmenting neoplastic growth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 UICC.

  3. Melanocytic nevi and non-neoplastic hyperpigmentations.

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    Clemente, C

    2017-06-01

    This is the first of three chapters that will be progressively published on Pathologica as updating activity of the Italian Study Group of Dermatopathology (GISD), Italian Society of Pathology and Cytology (SIAPeC IAP). The first chapter concerns non-neoplastic hyperpigmented skin lesions and nevi, the second will address the topics of dysplastic nevus, borderline and low malignant potential melanocytic proliferations and the third melanoma in its variants and differential diagnoses with a supplement on the immunohistochemistry and molecular support to diagnostic and prognostic definition of nevi and melanomas. Although we believe that great advances were made in the application of ancillary genetic, immunohistochemical and molecular techniques, for the diagnosis and biological characterization of melanocytic tumors the morphology still remains the gold standard. These chapters are not intended as substitutes or even claim to be compared to the numerous and valuable texts that are also recently published, but they want to present, concisely and quickly available, all of those traits that we believe essential to the histopathological evaluation of a melanocytic lesion. No morphological parameter is exclusive and individually sufficient to make the correct diagnosis of nevus or melanoma but to reach a final conclusive and appropriate interpretation a set of morphological characters must be evaluated and compared. I was lucky enough to be able to examine several thousand cases and to draw lessons from each of these increasing my diagnostic experience. I had a great lesson by my teacher and good friend Prof. Martin C. Mihm Jr of Boston, dermato-pathologist with undisputed international reputation, who, with great passion, patience and friendship, transferred me much of his experience and knowledge and for which I always thank him. Special thanks I would like to address Dr. Agostino Crupi, dermatologist, skin-oncologist and brilliant dermatoscopist who taught me how the

  4. A HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF NON-NEOPLASTIC AND NEOPLASTIC LESIONS OF KIDNEY FOR A PERIOD OF TWO YEARS

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    Jagadeeswari Suvvari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nephrectomy is a common procedure in surgical practice. There are many indications for nephrectomy, non-neoplastic and neoplastic conditions. The common conditions being chronic pyelonephritis and renal tumours. A detailed and meticulous histopathological examination is essential to establish the diagnosis of lesions of kidney. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a retrospective study for a period of two years from January 2015 to December 2016 at a tertiary care centre. 34 cases of nephrectomy specimens were analysed and data recorded. RESULTS Non-neoplastic lesions were constituting 47.05% (16 of cases and 52.94% (18 cases were neoplastic lesions. Lesions were more common in females with male:female ratio of 1:1.4. Both the lesions were common in age group of 41-50 years. CONCLUSION The prevalence of neoplastic lesions was more common than non-neoplastic lesions. The commonest indication for nephrectomy was chronic pyelonephritis followed by renal tumours. Histopathological examination in correlation with clinical and radiological features plays a great role in subcategorisation of lesions accurately to ensure better therapy.

  5. Prox1-Heterozygosis Sensitizes the Pancreas to Oncogenic Kras-Induced Neoplastic Transformation

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    Yiannis Drosos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current paradigm of pancreatic neoplastic transformation proposes an initial step whereby acinar cells convert into acinar-to-ductal metaplasias, followed by progression of these lesions into neoplasias under sustained oncogenic activity and inflammation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving these processes is crucial to the early diagnostic and prevention of pancreatic cancer. Emerging evidence indicates that transcription factors that control exocrine pancreatic development could have either, protective or facilitating roles in the formation of preneoplasias and neoplasias in the pancreas. We previously identified that the homeodomain transcription factor Prox1 is a novel regulator of mouse exocrine pancreas development. Here we investigated whether Prox1 function participates in early neoplastic transformation using in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches. We found that Prox1 expression is transiently re-activated in acinar cells undergoing dedifferentiation and acinar-to-ductal metaplastic conversion. In contrast, Prox1 expression is largely absent in neoplasias and tumors in the pancreas of mice and humans. We also uncovered that Prox1-heterozygosis markedly increases the formation of acinar-to-ductal-metaplasias and early neoplasias, and enhances features associated with inflammation, in mouse pancreatic tissues expressing oncogenic Kras. Furthermore, we discovered that Prox1-heterozygosis increases tissue damage and delays recovery from inflammation in pancreata of mice injected with caerulein. These results are the first demonstration that Prox1 activity protects pancreatic cells from acute tissue damage and early neoplastic transformation. Additional data in our study indicate that this novel role of Prox1 involves suppression of pathways associated with inflammatory responses and cell invasiveness.

  6. Role of nuclear medicine in pulmonary neoplastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waxman, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the single most important factor in determining survival in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma is the extent of spread of metastasis from the primary lesion. This explains the extensive efforts in developing accurate staging tests for pulmonary tumors, both primary and metastatic, with special emphasis on the determination of pulmonary hilar and mediastinal spread of disease. Continued improvements in nuclear medicine instrumentation along with the development of tumor specific radiopharmaceuticals, as well as agents that have the capability of tracking tumor viability, have changed the orientation of scintigraphic techniques in the evaluation of pulmonary neoplastic processes. Gallium scintigraphy is no longer considered as a primary imaging modality in the staging of pulmonary tumors, and in most institutions has been replaced by computed tomography (CT) for this purpose. It has been demonstrated that gallium, relative to other imaging modalities, is a sensitive indicator of hilar spread of tumor. However, because of the normally high background activity within the sternum and spine, mediastinal abnormalities are poorly detected. Since most pulmonary tumors metastasize via regional nodes to the pulmonary hilum and then to the mediastinum, the high sensitivity for the detection of pulmonary hilar abnormalities and the high specificity for mediastinal lesion detection suggest that gallium scintigraphy is a valuable adjunctive test when used appropriately. Thallium 201 as a tumor agent is being studied by several institutions. Preliminary results indicate a high degree of sensitivity for the detection of pulmonary hilar and mediastinal lesions and there are early indications that thallium is a promising agent to evaluate tumor viability. 52 references

  7. Viral Oncolytic Therapeutics for Neoplastic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    of intrathecal delivery of anesthetics was focused on slow infusion in the lumbar region. Coincidentally, due to the anatomy of the skull and...antibodies,40 nerve growth factor,41 Sonic Hedgehog ,42 siRNA,43 and dynorphins.44 One recent paper describing the results of early clinical studies...the subsequent transfer from VRS to the parenchyma and uptake and transport by cells. ■ THE ANATOMY OF THE LMS AND THE ROLE OF THE INJECTED VOLUME IN

  8. Glycaemic adverse drug reactions from anti-neoplastics used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    235625 records ... Glycaemic adverse drug reactions from anti-neoplastics used in treating pancreatic cancer. ... Based on the emphasized nine antineoplastic drugs with high hyperglycemic ADR incidence, we found: fluorouracil, sorafenib and pemetrexed with high ADR record of metabolism and nutrition disorders; ...

  9. Corneal Structural Changes in Nonneoplastic and Neoplastic Monoclonal Gammopathies.

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    Aragona, Pasquale; Allegra, Alessandro; Postorino, Elisa Imelde; Rania, Laura; Innao, Vanessa; Wylegala, Edward; Nowinska, Anna; Ieni, Antonio; Pisani, Antonina; Musolino, Caterina; Puzzolo, Domenico; Micali, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    To investigate corneal confocal microscopic changes in nonneoplastic and neoplastic monoclonal gammopathies. Three groups of subjects were considered: group 1, twenty normal subjects; group 2, fifteen patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS); group 3, eight patients with smoldering multiple myeloma and eight patients with untreated multiple myeloma. After hematologic diagnosis, patients underwent ophthalmologic exam and in vivo confocal microscopic study. The statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls tests and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Epithelial cells of gammopathic patients showed significantly higher reflectivity than controls, demonstrated by optical density (P < 0.001). Subbasal nerve density, branching, and beading were significantly altered in gammopathic patients (P = 0.01, P = 0.02, P = 0.02, respectively). The number of keratocytes was significantly reduced in neoplastic patients (P < 0.001 versus both normal and MGUS) in the anterior, medium, and posterior stroma. The ROC curve analysis showed good sensitivity and specificity for this parameter. Group 2 and 3 keratocytes showed higher nuclear and cytoplasmatic reflectivity in the medium and posterior stroma. Endothelial cells were not affected. Patients with neoplastic gammopathies showed peculiar alterations of the keratocyte number, which appeared significantly reduced. A follow-up with corneal confocal microscopy of patients with MGUS is suggested as a useful tool to identify peripheral tissue alterations linked to possible neoplastic disease development.

  10. Non-neoplastic surgical diseases of the lung and pleura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Non-neoplastic diseases of the bronchi, pulmonary parenchyma, mediastinum, and pleura that are amenable to surgical management represent a wide range of unrelated etiopathogenic conditions that usually have a focal distribution. The author discusses the presurgical clinical, radiographic, and laboratory assessment and prognoses, and addresses therapeutic recommendations

  11. Enteroclysis of non-neoplastic disorders of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Enteroclysis is now widely used for examining the jejunum and ileum. The technique is ideal for demonstrating the extent and severity of disorders that cause morphological changes to the small intestine. In this review many non-neoplastic small intestinal disorders as demonstrated by enteroclysis are described and illustrated. (orig.)

  12. Non-neoplastic conditions presenting as soft-tissue tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crundwell, N. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); O' Donnell, P. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, A. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: asif.saifuddin@rnoh.nhs.uk

    2007-01-15

    Review of referrals to our unit over the last 7 years showed that of approximately 750 cases referred as soft-tissue tumours, 132 were subsequently diagnosed as non-neoplastic lesions. The imaging characteristics of these lesions are presented to differentiate them from neoplasms. The most common diagnoses were myositis ossificans, ganglion cyst, abscess/infection, bursitis and synovitis. The imaging features of other rarer conditions will also be discussed.

  13. Non-neoplastic conditions presenting as soft-tissue tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crundwell, N.; O'Donnell, P.; Saifuddin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Review of referrals to our unit over the last 7 years showed that of approximately 750 cases referred as soft-tissue tumours, 132 were subsequently diagnosed as non-neoplastic lesions. The imaging characteristics of these lesions are presented to differentiate them from neoplasms. The most common diagnoses were myositis ossificans, ganglion cyst, abscess/infection, bursitis and synovitis. The imaging features of other rarer conditions will also be discussed

  14. The influence of theosophy on Mondrian's neoplastic work

    OpenAIRE

    Bris Marino, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    (ENG)The influence of Theosophy in the symbolist painting of Mondrian (1908-1911) has been unanimously recognized. There is not, however, the same consensus with respect to the influence of theosophy in his neoplastic period. There is a relationship between Mondrian’s theoretical writing and his practical work, but no proportionality. Mondrian’s theoretical discourse is not limited to painting and touches on other arts and disciplines (architecture,...

  15. Sirtuin 1 stimulates the proliferation and the expression of glycolysis genes in pancreatic neoplastic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Andreia V; Mawson, Amanda; Gill, Anthony; Arshi, Mehreen; Warmerdam, Max; Giry-Laterriere, Marc; Eling, Nils; Lie, Triyana; Kuster, Evelyne; Camargo, Simone; Biankin, Andrew V; Wu, Jianmin; Rooman, Ilse

    2016-11-15

    Metabolic reprogramming is a feature of neoplasia and tumor growth. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a lysine deacetylase of multiple targets including metabolic regulators such as p53. SIRT1 regulates metaplasia in the pancreas. Nevertheless, it is unclear if SIRT1 affects the development of neoplastic lesions and whether metabolic gene expression is altered.To assess neoplastic lesion development, mice with a pancreas-specific loss of Sirt1 (Pdx1-Cre;Sirt1-lox) were bred into a KrasG12D mutant background (KC) that predisposes to the development of pancreatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Similar grade PanIN lesions developed in KC and KC;Sirt1-lox mice but specifically early mucinous PanINs occupied 40% less area in the KC;Sirt1-lox line, attributed to reduced proliferation. This was accompanied by reduced expression of proteins in the glycolysis pathway, such as GLUT1 and GAPDH.The stimulatory effect of SIRT1 on proliferation and glycolysis gene expression was confirmed in a human PDAC cell line. In resected PDAC samples, higher proliferation and expression of glycolysis genes correlated with poor patient survival. SIRT1 expression per se was not prognostic but low expression of Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulator 2 (CCAR2), a reported SIRT1 inhibitor, corresponded to poor patient survival.These findings open perspectives for novel targeted therapies in pancreatic cancer.

  16. Sirtuin 1 stimulates the proliferation and the expression of glycolysis genes in pancreatic neoplastic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Andreia V.; Mawson, Amanda; Gill, Anthony; Arshi, Mehreen; Warmerdam, Max; Giry-Laterriere, Marc; Eling, Nils; Lie, Triyana; Kuster, Evelyne; Camargo, Simone; Biankin, Andrew V.; Wu, Jianmin; Rooman, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming is a feature of neoplasia and tumor growth. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a lysine deacetylase of multiple targets including metabolic regulators such as p53. SIRT1 regulates metaplasia in the pancreas. Nevertheless, it is unclear if SIRT1 affects the development of neoplastic lesions and whether metabolic gene expression is altered. To assess neoplastic lesion development, mice with a pancreas-specific loss of Sirt1 (Pdx1-Cre;Sirt1-lox) were bred into a KrasG12D mutant background (KC) that predisposes to the development of pancreatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Similar grade PanIN lesions developed in KC and KC;Sirt1-lox mice but specifically early mucinous PanINs occupied 40% less area in the KC;Sirt1-lox line, attributed to reduced proliferation. This was accompanied by reduced expression of proteins in the glycolysis pathway, such as GLUT1 and GAPDH. The stimulatory effect of SIRT1 on proliferation and glycolysis gene expression was confirmed in a human PDAC cell line. In resected PDAC samples, higher proliferation and expression of glycolysis genes correlated with poor patient survival. SIRT1 expression per se was not prognostic but low expression of Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulator 2 (CCAR2), a reported SIRT1 inhibitor, corresponded to poor patient survival. These findings open perspectives for novel targeted therapies in pancreatic cancer. PMID:27494892

  17. Neoplastic stem cells: current concepts and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulenburg, Axel; Brämswig, Kira; Herrmann, Harald; Karlic, Heidrun; Mirkina, Irina; Hubmann, Rainer; Laffer, Sylvia; Marian, Brigitte; Shehata, Medhat; Krepler, Clemens; Pehamberger, Hubert; Grunt, Thomas; Jäger, Ulrich; Zielinski, Christoph C; Valent, Peter

    2010-11-01

    Neoplastic stem cells have initially been characterized in myeloid leukemias where NOD/SCID mouse-repopulating progenitors supposedly reside within a CD34+/Lin- subset of the malignant clone. These progenitors are considered to be self-renewing cells responsible for the in vivo long-term growth of neoplastic cells in leukemic patients. Therefore, these cells represent an attractive target of therapy. In some lymphoid leukemias, NOD/SCID mouse-repopulating cells were also reported to reside within the CD34+/Lin- subfraction of the clone. More recently, several attempts have been made to transfer the cancer stem cell concept to solid tumors and other non-hematopoietic neoplasms. In several of these tumors, the cell surface antigens AC133 (CD133) and CD44 are considered to indicate the potential of a cell to initiate permanent tumor formation in vivo. However, several questions concerning the phenotype, self-renewal capacity, stroma-dependence, and other properties of cancer- or leukemia-initiating cells remain to be solved. The current article provides a summary of our current knowledge on neoplastic (cancer) stem cells, with special emphasis on clinical implications and therapeutic options as well as a discussion about conceptual and technical limitations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Serum amyloid A protein in amyloidosis, rheumatic, and neoplastic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, M.D.; Cohen, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    Serum levels of amyloid protein A (SAA) have been shown to be elevated in different types of amyloidosis and in rheumatic diseases by radioimmunoassay using 125 iodine labeled AA and anti-AA. SAA levels were elevated in both primary and secondary amyloidosis, but there were highly significant differences between these levels. In heredofamilial amyloid, SAA levels were within normal limits. While the mean SAA level was elevated in persons over 70 years, the fact that some persons in this age group had normal levels suggested that marked elevation after age 70 may be due to occult inflammatory or neoplastic disease. High SAA levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis correlated, in most cases, with physician evaluation of disease activity and Westergren ESR. SAA levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus were lower than those in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and most patients with degenerative joint disease had normal levels. Very high levels of SAA were found in patients with neoplastic diseases. Patients with carcinoma of the lung and bowel had much higher levels than patients with carcinoma of the breast. Determination of SAA levels may be of value in evaluating different forms of systemic amyloidosis, assessing the activity of rheumatic disease, and screening for occult inflammatory or neoplastic disease

  19. Use of magnetic resonance imaging to detect neoplastic meningitis: Limited use in leukemia and lymphoma but convincing results in solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauls, Sandra; Fischer, Ann-Cathrin; Brambs, Hans-Jürgen; Fetscher, Sebastian; Höche, Wolfram; Bommer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background: An early diagnosis of meningitis is important to improve patients’ survival. Data about a direct comparison of cerebrospinal fluid cytology (CSF-cytology) and MRI are very limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare these two diagnostic modalities in diagnosing meningitis in patients with hematopoietic and solid malignancies. Methods: In 68 patients suspicious for neoplastic meningitis, cytology and MRI (1.5 T) was performed. The meningeal, pial or intraparenchymal hyperintense signal or contrast enhancement was correlated to the final CNS diagnosis and to cytology. Results: 44 patients (64.7%) had neoplastic meningitis, 21 patients (30.9%) had non-neoplastic meningitis. The sensitivity to diagnose meningeal disease was 49.2% for MRI and 95.4% for cytology (p < 0.001). In patients with neoplastic meningitis, sensitivity was 45.5% for MRI and 93.2% for cytology (p < 0.001). In patients with infectious meningitis, sensitivity was 57.1% for MRI and 100% for cytology (p = 0.0013). In patients with solid tumors, the sensitivity was 84.6% for both diagnostic methods. The sensitivity for MRI was low in patients with leukemia (20.0%) and lymphoma (37.5%). The positive predictive value (PPV) for MRI to differentiate infectious from neoplastic meningitis was high in patients with infectious meningitis (75.0%), in patients with lymphoma (83.3%), and in patients with solid tumors (72.7%). Ppv was low in patients with leukemia (33.3%). Conclusion: Diagnostic value of MRI for diagnosing meningitis is especially limited in patients with hematopoietic malignancies. MRI better detected leptomeningeal involvement caused by solid tumors than by leukemia or lymphoma. The ppv to specify neoplastic meningitis depends on tumor subtype.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Human Cells Change during Neoplastic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthold, Martin; Guo, Xinyi; Bonin, Keith; Scarpinato, Karin

    2014-03-01

    Using an AFM with a spherical probe of 5.3 μm, we determined mechanical properties of individual human mammary epithelial cells that have progressed through four stages of neoplastic transformation: normal, immortal, tumorigenic, and metastatic. Measurements on cells in all four stages were taken over both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Moreover, the measurements were made for cells outside of a colony (isolated), on the periphery of a colony, and inside a colony. By fitting the AFM force vs. indentation curves to a Hertz model, we determined the Young's modulus, E. We found a distinct contrast in the influence a cell's colony environment has on its stiffness depending on whether the cells are normal or cancer cells. We also found that cells become softer as they advance to the tumorigenic stage and then stiffen somewhat in the final step to metastatic cells. For cells averaged over all locations the stiffness values of the nuclear region for normal, immortal, tumorigenic, and metastatic cells were (mean +/- sem) 880 +/- 50, 940+/-50, 400 +/- 20, and 600 +/-20 Pa respectively. Cytoplasmic regions followed a similar trend. These results point to a complex picture of the mechanical changes that occur as cells undergo neoplastic transformation. This work is supported by NSF Materials and Surface Engineering grant CMMI-1152781.

  1. Degradation of type IV collagen by neoplastic human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheela, S.; Barrett, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    An assay for the degradation of type IV (basement membrane) collagen was developed as a biochemical marker for neoplastic cells from chemically transformed human skin fibroblasts. Type IV collagen was isolated from basement membrane of Syrian hamster lung and type I collagen was isolated from rat tails; the collagens were radioactively labelled by reductive alkylation. The abilities of normal (KD) and chemically transformed (Hut-11A) human skin fibroblasts to degrade the collagens were studied. A cell-associated assay was performed by growing either normal or transformed cells in the presence of radioactively labelled type IV collagen and measuring the released soluble peptides in the medium. This assay also demonstrated that KD cells failed to synthesize an activity capable of degrading type IV collagen whereas Hut-11A cells degraded type IV collagen in a linear manner for up to 4 h. Human serum at very low concentrations, EDTA and L-cysteine inhibited the enzyme activity, whereas protease inhibitors like phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride, N-ethyl maleimide or soybean trypsin inhibitor did not inhibit the enzyme from Hut-11A cells. These results suggest that the ability to degrade specifically type IV collagen may be an important marker for neoplastic human fibroblasts and supports a role for this collagenase in tumor cell invasion

  2. Genetic biomarkers for neoplastic colorectal cancer in peripheral lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Mirela; Ciocirlan, Mihai; Ionescu, Cristina; Becheanu, Gabriel; Gologan, Serban; Teiusanu, Adriana; Arbanas, Tudor; Mircea, Diculescu

    2011-04-01

    Loss of genomic stability appears as a key step in colorectal carcinogenesis. Micronucleus (MN) designates a chromosome fragment or an entire chromosme which lags behind mitosis. MN may be noticed as an additional nucleus within the cytoplasm cell during the intermediate mitosis phases. We tested the hypothesis that MN and its related anomalies may be associated with the presence of neoplastic colorectal lesions. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were cultured and microscopically examined. The frequency of micronuclei (FMN) and the presence of nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB) in binucleated cells were compared in patients with of without colorectal neoplastic lesions. We included 45 patients undergoing colonoscopy, 23 males and 22 females, with a median age of 59. 17 patients had polyps, 11 colorectal cancer (CRC) and 17 had a normal colonoscopy. The FMN was significantly higher in women than in men (8.14 vs 4.17, p=0.008); NPB were significantly less frequent in patients with advanced adenomas (>10mm or vilous) or CRC (p=0.044) when compared with patients with normal colonoscopy, hiperplastic polyps or non-advanced adenomas. Micronuclei are more frequent in women, but its frequency was not significantly different in patients with advanced adenomas or CRC. Null or low frequency values for nucleoplasmic bridges presence in peripheral lymphocyte may be predictive for advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer.

  3. Neoplastic and proliferative disorders of the perinephric space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.T.; Haarer, K.A.; Thomas, E.; Thaete, F.L.

    2012-01-01

    The perinephric space is a well-marginated central compartment of the retroperitoneum, located between the anterior and posterior pararenal spaces. Various neoplastic and proliferative disorders can affect the perinephric space, and there is a wide array of imaging findings. Although many perinephric lesions may extend directly from the kidney and adrenal gland, other lesions occur in the perinephric space due to haematogenous spread, as part of a systemic disease, or by extension from an adjacent retroperitoneal compartment. Imaging plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of perinephric diseases, as many of the disease processes affecting this space will not result in clinical signs or symptoms until the disease is at an advanced stage. Despite the often shared non-specific clinical and imaging findings among these disease processes, application of a categorical differential diagnosis based on the imaging characteristics will serve to narrow the differential diagnosis and direct further evaluation and treatment. In this article, the lesions have been categorized as soft-tissue rind [nephroblastomatosis, fibrosis, Erdheim–Chester disease (ECD), extramedullary haematopoiesis, lymphoma, infiltrating metastases], focal solid lesions (extension of renal or adrenal malignancies, melanoma metastases, treated lymphoma), fat-containing lesions (angiomyolipoma, liposarcoma, myelolipoma), and cystic lesions (lymphangiomas, abscesses). The aim of this article is to demonstrate and describe the key imaging features of several neoplastic and proliferative disorders that affect the perinephric space.

  4. Depleted uranium induces neoplastic transformation in human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong; LaCerte, Carolyne; Thompson, W Douglas; Wise, John Pierce

    2010-02-15

    Depleted uranium (DU) is commonly used in military armor and munitions, and thus, exposure of soldiers and noncombatants is frequent and widespread. Previous studies have shown that DU has both chemical and radiological toxicity and that the primary route of exposure of DU to humans is through inhalation and ingestion. However, there is limited research information on the potential carcinogenicity of DU in human bronchial cells. Accordingly, we determined the neoplastic transforming ability of particulate DU to human bronchial epithelial cells (BEP2D). We observed the loss of contact inhibition and anchorage independent growth in cells exposed to DU after 24 h. We also characterized these DU-induced transformed cell lines and found that 40% of the cell lines exhibit alterations in plating efficiency and no significant changes in the cytotoxic response to DU. Cytogenetic analyses showed that 53% of the DU-transformed cell lines possess a hypodiploid phenotype. These data indicate that human bronchial cells are transformed by DU and exhibit significant chromosome instability consistent with a neoplastic phenotype.

  5. X-ray-induced in vitro neoplastic transformation of human diploid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques have recently been developed to identify and score quantitatively neoplastic transformation caused by x-rays in cultured cells derived from rodents. The present report describes for the first time the neoplastic transformation in vitro of human diploid cells by x-ray irradiation into cells which can progress in vitro into advanced stages of neoplastic development, namely, to form colonies in agar and give rise to tumors when injected into nude mice

  6. Collaborating with the Enemy: Function of Macrophages in the Development of Neoplastic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Eljaszewicz; Małgorzata Wiese; Anna Helmin-Basa; Michal Jankowski; Lidia Gackowska; Izabela Kubiszewska; Wojciech Kaszewski; Jacek Michalkiewicz; Wojciech Zegarski

    2013-01-01

    Due to the profile of released mediators (such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, etc.), neoplastic cells modulate the activity of immune system, directly affecting its components both locally and peripherally. This is reflected by the limited antineoplastic activity of the immune system (immunosuppressive effect), induction of tolerance to neoplastic antigens, and the promotion of processes associated with the proliferation of neoplastic tissue. Most of these responses are macrophages...

  7. Quantitative evaluation of RASSF1A methylation in the non-lesional, regenerative and neoplastic liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laghi Luigi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic changes during ageing and their relationship with cancer are under the focus of intense research. RASSF1A and NORE1A are novel genes acting in concert in the proapoptotic pathway of the RAS signalling. While NORE1A has not been previously investigated in the human liver, recent reports have suggested that RASSF1A is frequently epigenetically methylated not only in HCC but also in the cirrhotic liver. Methods To address whether epigenetic changes take place in connection to age and/or to the underlying disease, we investigated RASSF1A and NORE1A gene promoter methylation by conventional methylation specific PCR and Real-Time MSP in a series of hepatitic and non-hepatitic livers harboring regenerative/hyperplastic (cirrhosis/focal nodular hyperplasia, dysplastic (large regenerative, low and high grade dysplastic nodules and neoplastic (hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma growths. Results In the hepatitic liver (chronic hepatitic/cirrhosis, hepatocellular nodules and HCC we found widespread RASSF1A gene promoter methylation with a methylation index that increased from regenerative conditions (cirrhosis to hepatocellular nodules (p RASSF1A gene promoter methylation, NORE1A gene was never found epigenetically alterated in both hepatitic and non-hepatitic liver. Conclusion We have shown that in non-lesional, regenerative and neoplastic liver the RASSF1A gene is increasingly methylated, that this condition takes place as an age-related phenomenon and that the early setting and spreading over time of an epigenetically methylated hepatocyte subpopulation, might be related to liver tumorigenesis.

  8. FRA-1 protein overexpression is a feature of hyperplastic and neoplastic breast disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiappetta, Gennaro; Pierantoni, Giovanna Maria; Fusco, Alfredo; Ferraro, Angelo; Botti, Gerardo; Monaco, Mario; Pasquinelli, Rosa; Vuttariello, Emilia; Arnaldi, Liliane; Di Bonito, Maurizio; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    Fos-related antigen 1 (FRA-1) is an immediate early gene encoding a member of AP-1 family of transcription factors involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and other biological processes. fra-1 gene overexpression has an important role in the process of cellular transformation, and our previous studies suggest FRA-1 protein detection as a useful tool for the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasias. Here we investigate the expression of the FRA-1 protein in benign and malignant breast tissues by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, RT-PCR and qPCR analysis, to evaluate its possible help in the diagnosis and prognosis of breast neoplastic diseases. We investigate the expression of the FRA-1 protein in 70 breast carcinomas and 30 benign breast diseases by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, RT-PCR and qPCR analysis. FRA-1 protein was present in all of the carcinoma samples with an intense staining in the nucleus. Positive staining was also found in most of fibroadenomas, but in this case the staining was present both in the nucleus and cytoplasm, and the number of positive cells was lower than in carcinomas. Similar results were obtained from the analysis of breast hyperplasias, with no differences in FRA-1 expression level between typical and atypical breast lesions; however the FRA-1 protein localization is mainly nuclear in the atypical hyperplasias. In situ breast carcinomas showed a pattern of FRA-1 protein expression very similar to that observed in atypical hyperplasias. Conversely, no FRA-1 protein was detectable in 6 normal breast tissue samples used as controls. RT-PCR and qPCR analysis confirmed these results. Similar results were obtained analysing FRA-1 expression in fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) samples. The data shown here suggest that FRA-1 expression, including its intracellular localization, may be considered a useful marker for hyperplastic and neoplastic proliferative breast disorders

  9. Prognostic value of podoplanin expression in intratumoral stroma and neoplastic cells of uterine cervical carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Filomena M; Zaganelli, Fabricia L; Almeida, Bernardo G L; Goes, Joao Carlos Sampaio; Baracat, Edmund C; Carvalho, Jesus P

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathological significance of podoplanin expression in the intratumoral stroma and neoplastic cells of early stage uterine cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 143 patients with clinical stage I and IIA uterine cervical carcinomas underwent surgery between 2000 and 2007. Clinicopathological data and slides associated with these cases were retrospectively reviewed. Immunodetection of podoplanin expression in histologic sections of tissue microarray blocks was performed using the monoclonal antibody D2‐40. RESULTS: Expression of podoplanin was detected in neoplastic cells in 31/143 (21.6%) cases, with 29/31 (93.5%) of these cases diagnosed as squamous carcinoma. For all of the cases examined, the strongest signal for podoplanin expression was observed at the proliferating edge of the tumor nests. The rate of positive podoplanin expression for node‐positive cases was lower than that of node‐negative (18.9% vs. 22.6%, respectively). Furthermore, the rate of positive podoplanin expression in fatal cases was 10.5% vs. 21.6%, respectively. In 27/143 (18.8%) cases, podoplanin expression was detected in fibroblasts of the intratumoral stroma, and this expression did not correlate with patient age, clinical stage, tumor size, histologic type, depth of infiltration, or vascular involvement. Moreover, expression of podoplanin in intratumoral stroma fibroblasts was only negatively associated with nodal metastasis. A greater number of fatal cases was observed among negative intratumoral stroma fibroblasts (15.5% vs. 3.7%, respectively), although this difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results suggest that podoplanin may have a role in host‐tumor interactions and, as a result, may represent a favorable prognostic factor for squamous cervical carcinomas. PMID:21340215

  10. Prognostic value of podoplanin expression in intratumoral stroma and neoplastic cells of uterine cervical carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena M Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathological significance of podoplanin expression in the intratumoral stroma and neoplastic cells of early stage uterine cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 143 patients with clinical stage I and IIA uterine cervical carcinomas underwent surgery between 2000 and 2007. Clinicopathological data and slides associated with these cases were retrospectively reviewed. Immunodetection of podoplanin expression in histologic sections of tissue microarray blocks was performed using the monoclonal antibody D2-40. RESULTS: Expression of podoplanin was detected in neoplastic cells in 31/143 (21.6% cases, with 29/31 (93.5% of these cases diagnosed as squamous carcinoma. For all of the cases examined, the strongest signal for podoplanin expression was observed at the proliferating edge of the tumor nests. The rate of positive podoplanin expression for node-positive cases was lower than that of node-negative (18.9% vs. 22.6%, respectively. Furthermore, the rate of positive podoplanin expression in fatal cases was 10.5% vs. 21.6%, respectively. In 27/143 (18.8% cases, podoplanin expression was detected in fibroblasts of the intratumoral stroma, and this expression did not correlate with patient age, clinical stage, tumor size, histologic type, depth of infiltration, or vascular involvement. Moreover, expression of podoplanin in intratumoral stroma fibroblasts was only negatively associated with nodal metastasis. A greater number of fatal cases was observed among negative intratumoral stroma fibroblasts (15.5% vs. 3.7%, respectively, although this difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results suggest that podoplanin may have a role in host-tumor interactions and, as a result, may represent a favorable prognostic factor for squamous cervical carcinomas.

  11. Duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection for benign cystic neoplastic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beger, Hans G; Schwarz, Michael; Poch, Bertram

    2012-11-01

    Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are diagnosed frequently due to early use of abdominal imaging techniques. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, mucinous cystic neoplasm, and serous pseudopapillary neoplasia are considered pre-cancerous lesions because of frequent transformation to cancer. Complete surgical resection of the benign lesion is a pancreatic cancer preventive treatment. The application for a limited surgical resection for the benign lesions is increasingly used to reduce the surgical trauma with a short- and long-term benefit compared to major surgical procedures. Duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection introduced for inflammatory tumors in the pancreatic head transfers to the patient with a benign cystic lesion located in the pancreatic head, the advantages of a minimalized surgical treatment. Based on the experience of 17 patients treated for cystic neoplastic lesions with duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection, the surgical technique of total pancreatic head resection for adenoma, borderline tumors, and carcinoma in situ of cystic neoplasm is presented. A segmental resection of the peripapillary duodenum is recommended in case of suspected tissue ischemia of the peripapillary duodenum. In 305 patients, collected from the literature by PubMed search, in about 40% of the patients a segmental resection of the duodenum and 60% a duodenum and common bile duct-preserving total pancreatic head resection has been performed. Hospital mortality of the 17 patients was 0%. In 305 patients collected, the hospital mortality was 0.65%, 13.2% experienced a delay of gastric emptying and a pancreatic fistula in 18.2%. Recurrence of the disease was 1.5%. Thirty-two of 175 patients had carcinoma in situ. Duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection for benign cystic neoplastic lesions is a safe surgical procedure with low post-operative morbidity and mortality.

  12. Proposed Terminology and Classification of Pre-Malignant Neoplastic Conditions: A Consensus Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Valent

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer evolution is a step-wise non-linear process that may start early in life or later in adulthood, and includes pre-malignant (indolent and malignant phases. Early somatic changes may not be detectable or are found by chance in apparently healthy individuals. The same lesions may be detected in pre-malignant clonal conditions. In some patients, these lesions may never become relevant clinically whereas in others, they act together with additional pro-oncogenic hits and thereby contribute to the formation of an overt malignancy. Although some pre-malignant stages of a malignancy have been characterized, no global system to define and to classify these conditions is available. To discuss open issues related to pre-malignant phases of neoplastic disorders, a working conference was organized in Vienna in August 2015. The outcomes of this conference are summarized herein and include a basic proposal for a nomenclature and classification of pre-malignant conditions. This proposal should assist in the communication among patients, physicians and scientists, which is critical as genome-sequencing will soon be offered widely for early cancer-detection.

  13. Proposed Terminology and Classification of Pre-Malignant Neoplastic Conditions: A Consensus Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Peter; Akin, Cem; Arock, Michel; Bock, Christoph; George, Tracy I; Galli, Stephen J; Gotlib, Jason; Haferlach, Torsten; Hoermann, Gregor; Hermine, Olivier; Jäger, Ulrich; Kenner, Lukas; Kreipe, Hans; Majeti, Ravindra; Metcalfe, Dean D; Orfao, Alberto; Reiter, Andreas; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Staber, Philipp B; Sotlar, Karl; Schiffer, Charles; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Horny, Hans-Peter

    2017-12-01

    Cancer evolution is a step-wise non-linear process that may start early in life or later in adulthood, and includes pre-malignant (indolent) and malignant phases. Early somatic changes may not be detectable or are found by chance in apparently healthy individuals. The same lesions may be detected in pre-malignant clonal conditions. In some patients, these lesions may never become relevant clinically whereas in others, they act together with additional pro-oncogenic hits and thereby contribute to the formation of an overt malignancy. Although some pre-malignant stages of a malignancy have been characterized, no global system to define and to classify these conditions is available. To discuss open issues related to pre-malignant phases of neoplastic disorders, a working conference was organized in Vienna in August 2015. The outcomes of this conference are summarized herein and include a basic proposal for a nomenclature and classification of pre-malignant conditions. This proposal should assist in the communication among patients, physicians and scientists, which is critical as genome-sequencing will soon be offered widely for early cancer-detection. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. HLA‐G modulates the radiosensitivity of human neoplastic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelin, Severino; Gallegos, Cristina; Baffa Trasci, Sofía; Dubner, Diana; Favier, B.; Carosella, E.D.

    2011-01-01

    Tumor cells show a very broad range of radiosensitivities. The differential radiosensitivity may depend on many factors, being the efficiency to recognize and/or repair the DNA lesion, and the cell cycle control mechanisms, the most important (Jeggo and Lavin, 2009; Kumala et al., 2003). Human leukocyte antigen‐G (HLA‐G) is a non‐classical HLA class I molecule involved in fetus protection form the maternal immune system, transplant tolerance, and viral and tumoral immune escape (Carosella et al., 2008). It has been determined that gamma radiation modulates HLA‐G expression at the plasma membrane of human melanoma cells. However, its role in tumoral radiosensitivity has not been demonstrated yet. The objective of this work was to determine if the radiosensitivity of human neoplastic cell lines cultured in vitro was mediated by HLA‐G expression. (authors)

  15. Prevalence of human papillomavirus types in women with pre-neoplastic and neoplastic cervical lesions in the Federal District of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Camara, Geni NL; Cerqueira, Daniela M; Oliveira, Ana PG; Silva, Evandro O; Carvalho, Luciano GS; Martins, Cláudia RF

    2003-01-01

    As a contribution to the public health authorities in planning prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine strategies, we describe the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in women presenting abnormal cytological results in Pap smear screening tests in the Federal District, Central Brazil. We studied 129 cervical scraping samples from women whose cytological tests showed either pre-neoplastic or neoplastic lesions. Amplification of HPV DNA was performed by polymerase chain reaction using c...

  16. Nuclear Division Index may Predict Neoplastic Colorectal Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Mirela E; Ciocirlan, Mihai; Becheanu, Gabriel; Nicolaie, Tudor; Ditescu, Cristina; Teiusanu, Adriana G; Gologan, Serban I; Arbanas, Tudor; Diculescu, Mircea M

    2011-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops by accumulation of multiple genetic damages leading to genetic instability that can be evaluated by cytogenetic methods. In the current study we used Cytokinesis-Blocked Micronucleus Assay (CBMN) technique to assess the behavior of Nuclear Division Index(NDI) in peripheral lymphocytes of patients with CRC and polyps versus patients with normal colonoscopy. Blood samples were collected from patients after informed consent. By CBMN technique we assessed the proportion of mono-nucleated, bi-nucleated, tri-nucleated and tetra-nucleated cells/500 cells, to calculate NDI. Data were statistically analyzed using the SPSS 11.0 package. 45 patients were available for analysis, 23 men and 22 women, with a mean age of 58.7±13.5. 17 had normal colonoscopy, 17 colonic polyps and 11 CRC. The mean NDI values were significantly smaller for patients with CRC or polyps than in patients with normal colonoscopy (1.57 vs 1.73, p=0.013). The difference persisted for patients with neoplastic lesions (adenomas and carcinomas) when compared with patients with normal colonoscopy or non neoplastic (hyperplastic) polyps (1.56 vs.1.71, p=0.018). The NDI cut-off value to predict the presence of adenomas or carcinomas was equal to 1.55 with a 54.2% sensitivity and 81% specificity of lower values (p=0.019). The NDI cut off value to predict the presence of advanced adenomas or cancer was 1.525 for a sensitivity of 56.3% and a specificity of 82.8% (p=0.048). NDI may be useful in screening strategies for colorectal cancer as simple, noninvasive, inexpensive cytogenetic biomarker.

  17. The claudin gene family: expression in normal and neoplastic tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt, Kyle J; Agarwal, Rachana; Morin, Patrice J

    2006-01-01

    The claudin (CLDN) genes encode a family of proteins important in tight junction formation and function. Recently, it has become apparent that CLDN gene expression is frequently altered in several human cancers. However, the exact patterns of CLDN expression in various cancers is unknown, as only a limited number of CLDN genes have been investigated in a few tumors. We identified all the human CLDN genes from Genbank and we used the large public SAGE database to ascertain the gene expression of all 21 CLDN in 266 normal and neoplastic tissues. Using real-time RT-PCR, we also surveyed a subset of 13 CLDN genes in 24 normal and 24 neoplastic tissues. We show that claudins represent a family of highly related proteins, with claudin-16, and -23 being the most different from the others. From in silico analysis and RT-PCR data, we find that most claudin genes appear decreased in cancer, while CLDN3, CLDN4, and CLDN7 are elevated in several malignancies such as those originating from the pancreas, bladder, thyroid, fallopian tubes, ovary, stomach, colon, breast, uterus, and the prostate. Interestingly, CLDN5 is highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells, providing a possible target for antiangiogenic therapy. CLDN18 might represent a biomarker for gastric cancer. Our study confirms previously known CLDN gene expression patterns and identifies new ones, which may have applications in the detection, prognosis and therapy of several human cancers. In particular we identify several malignancies that express CLDN3 and CLDN4. These cancers may represent ideal candidates for a novel therapy being developed based on CPE, a toxin that specifically binds claudin-3 and claudin-4

  18. X-ray-induced in vitro neoplastic transformation of human diploid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.

    1980-01-01

    The neoplastic transformation, in vitro, of human diploid cells by x-ray irradiation into cells which can progress, in vitro, into advanced stages of neoplastic development is described. The cells are shown to form colonies in agar and to give rise to tumours when injected into nude mice. (U.K.)

  19. The spectrum of non- neoplastic skin lesions in Ibadan, Nigeria: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The other common specific skin lesions were lichen planus/lichenoid dermatitis 27(12.9% of 209 cases), verruca vulgaris 25 (12% of 209 cases). Conclusion: The number of histologically diagnosed non-neoplastic skin lesions is relatively small. There is a very wide spectrum of non-neoplastic skin lesions diagnosed within ...

  20. Collaborating with the enemy: function of macrophages in the development of neoplastic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eljaszewicz, Andrzej; Wiese, Małgorzata; Helmin-Basa, Anna; Jankowski, Michal; Gackowska, Lidia; Kubiszewska, Izabela; Kaszewski, Wojciech; Michalkiewicz, Jacek; Zegarski, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Due to the profile of released mediators (such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, etc.), neoplastic cells modulate the activity of immune system, directly affecting its components both locally and peripherally. This is reflected by the limited antineoplastic activity of the immune system (immunosuppressive effect), induction of tolerance to neoplastic antigens, and the promotion of processes associated with the proliferation of neoplastic tissue. Most of these responses are macrophages dependent, since these cells show proangiogenic properties, attenuate the adaptive response (anergization of naïve T lymphocytes, induction of Treg cell formation, polarization of immune response towards Th2, etc.), and support invasion and metastases formation. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), a predominant component of leukocytic infiltrate, "cooperate" with the neoplastic tissue, leading to the intensified proliferation and the immune escape of the latter. This paper characterizes the function of macrophages in the development of neoplastic disease.

  1. Collaborating with the Enemy: Function of Macrophages in the Development of Neoplastic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Eljaszewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the profile of released mediators (such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, etc., neoplastic cells modulate the activity of immune system, directly affecting its components both locally and peripherally. This is reflected by the limited antineoplastic activity of the immune system (immunosuppressive effect, induction of tolerance to neoplastic antigens, and the promotion of processes associated with the proliferation of neoplastic tissue. Most of these responses are macrophages dependent, since these cells show proangiogenic properties, attenuate the adaptive response (anergization of naïve T lymphocytes, induction of Treg cell formation, polarization of immune response towards Th2, etc., and support invasion and metastases formation. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs, a predominant component of leukocytic infiltrate, “cooperate” with the neoplastic tissue, leading to the intensified proliferation and the immune escape of the latter. This paper characterizes the function of macrophages in the development of neoplastic disease.

  2. Joint approach based on clinical and imaging features to distinguish non-neoplastic from neoplastic pituitary stalk lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Ye Lee

    Full Text Available Distinguishing non-neoplastic pituitary stalk lesions (non-NPSLs from neoplastic pituitary stalk lesions (NPSLs is a major concern in guiding treatment for a thickened pituitary stalk. Our study aimed to aid provide preoperative diagnostic assistance by combining clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings to distinguish non-NPSLs from NPSLs.We recruited 158 patients with thickened pituitary stalk lesions visible on MRI. Laboratory findings included hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus (DI, and hyperprolactinemia. MR images were assessed for anterior-posterior thickness (mm, diffuse pituitary stalk thickening, cystic changes, a high T1 signal, and glandular or extrasellar involvement. A diagnostic model was developed using a recursive partitioning logistic regression analysis. The model was validated in an independent dataset comprising 63 patients, and its diagnostic performance was compared with that of the original radiological reports.A univariate analysis found significant associations of DI (P = 0.006, absence of extrasellar involvement (P = 0.002, and lower stalk thickness (P = 0.031 with non-NPSLs. A diagnostic model was created using the following parameters (in order of priority: 1 lack of extrasellar involvement, 2 stalk thickness < 5.3 mm, and 3 presence of DI. The diagnostic performance (area under the curve; AUC of this model in the independent set was 0.813, representing a significant improvement over the original radiological reports (AUC: 0.713, P = 0.029.The joint diagnostic approach based on clinical and imaging-based factors robustly distinguished non-NPSLs from NPSLs. This approach could guide treatment strategies and prevent unnecessary surgery in patients with non-NPSL.

  3. DIAGNOSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Differentiation of pathologic/neoplastic hypercortisolism (Cushing's syndrome) from physiologic/non-neoplastic hypercortisolism (formerly known as pseudo-Cushing's syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findling, James W; Raff, Hershel

    2017-05-01

    Endogenous hypercortisolism (Cushing's syndrome) usually implies the presence of a pathologic condition caused by either an ACTH-secreting neoplasm or autonomous cortisol secretion from a benign or malignant adrenal neoplasm. However, sustained or intermittent hypercortisolism may also accompany many medical disorders that stimulate physiologic/non-neoplastic activation of the HPA axis (formerly known as pseudo-Cushing's syndrome); these two entities may share indistinguishable clinical and biochemical features. A thorough history and physical examination is often the best (and sometimes only) way to exclude pathologic/neoplastic hypercortisolism. The presence of alcoholism, renal failure, poorly controlled diabetes and severe neuropsychiatric disorders should always raise suspicion that the presence of hypercortisolism may be related to physiologic/non-neoplastic Cushing's syndrome. As late-night salivary cortisol and low-dose dexamethasone suppression have good sensitivity and negative predictive value, normal studies exclude Cushing's syndrome of any form. However, these tests have imperfect specificity and additional testing over time with clinical follow-up is often needed. When there is persistent diagnostic uncertainty, secondary tests such as the DDAVP stimulation test and the dexamethasone-CRH test may provide evidence for the presence or absence of an ACTH-secreting tumor. This review will define and characterize the numerous causes of physiologic/non-neoplastic hypercortisolism and provide a rational clinical and biochemical approach to distinguish it from pathologic/neoplastic hypercortisolism (true Cushing's syndrome). © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  4. Morphologic alterations in normal and neoplastic tissues following hyperthermia treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badylak, S.F.; Babbs, C.F.

    1984-01-01

    The sequential morphologic alterations in normal skeletal muscle in rats, Walker 256 tumors in rats, and transmissible venereal tumors (TVT) in dogs following microwave-induced hyperthermia (43 0 C and 45 0 for 20 minutes) were studied by light and electron microscopy. Normal muscle and Walker 256 tumors showed vascular damage at 5 minutes post-heating (PH), followed by suppuration and thrombosis at 6 and 48 hours PH, and by regeneration and repair at 7 days PH. Endothelial damage and parenchymal degeneration were present 5 minutes PH. Progressive ischemic injury occurred for at least 48 hours PH. Two hyperthermia treatments, separated by a 30 or 60 minute cooling interval, were applied to rats implanted with Walker 256 tumors. Increased selective heating of tumor tissue versus surrounding normal tissue, and increased intratumoral temperatures were found during the second hyperthermia treatment. Canine TVTs were resistant to hyperthermia damage. These results characterized the sequential morphologic alterations following hyperthermia treatment and showed that: 1) vascular damage contributed to the immediate and latent cytotoxic effects of hyperthermia, 2) selective heating occurred in the neoplastic tissue disrupted by prior heat treatment, and 3) not all neoplasms are responsive to hyperthermia treatment

  5. Mechanisms of radiation-induced neoplastic cell transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.C.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    Studies with cultured mammalian cells demonstrated clearly that radiation can transform cells directly and can enhance the cell transformation by oncogenic DNA viruses. In general, high-LET heavy-ion radiation can be more effective than X and gamma rays in inducing neoplastic cell transformation. Various experimental results indicate that radiation-induced DNA damage, most likely double-strand breaks, is important for both the initiation of cell transformation and for the enhancement of viral transformation. Some of the transformation and enhancement lesions can be repaired properly in the cell, and the amount of irrepairable lesions produced by a given dose depends on the quality of radiation. An inhibition of repair processes with chemical agents can increase the transformation frequency of cells exposed to radiation and/or oncogenic viruses, suggesting that repair mechanisms may play an important role in the radiation transformation. The progression of radiation-transformed cells appears to be a long and complicated process that can be modulated by some nonmutagenic chemical agents, e.g., DMSO. Normal cells can inhibit the expression of transforming properties of tumorigenic cells through an as yet unknown mechanism. The progression and expression of transformation may involve some epigenetic changes in the irradiated cells. 38 references, 15 figures, 1 table

  6. Neoplastic changes in freshwater fishes: Correlation with oil refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrander, G.K.

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally, oil pollution has been viewed as single event, large scale disasters such as the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that by products and anthropogenic contaminants resulting from oil exploration, extraction, recovery, refining, and the manufacture and use of oil and oil-based products are negatively impacting the environment. Potential problems of freshwater pollution by oil contaminants are increasing in many parts of the world from both active and abandoned oil production facilities. In the USA many ''Superfund'' sites have been designated for cleanup under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980; primarily because of waste discharged on to the sites by the oil industry. Pollution of surface and groundwater from these sites has already occurred and in some cases has led to deleterious effects on the complex aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems on and near these sites. The effect of oil and oil related products on aquatic organisms will be reviewed. Specifically, the discussion will focus on preneoplastic and neoplastic changes in fishes with a primary endpoint of cancer. Finally, a summary of current studies of feral fishes residing on and near an abandoned oil refinery in Oklahoma will be presented

  7. Mechanisms of radiation-induced neoplastic cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, T.C.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    Studies with cultured mammalian cells demonstrated clearly that radiation can transform cells directly and can enhance the cell transformation by oncogenic DNA viruses. In general, high-LET heavy-ion radiation can be more effective than X and gamma rays in inducing neoplastic cell transformation. Various experimental results indicate that radiation-induced DNA damage, most likely double-strand breaks, is important for both the initiation of cell transformation and for the enhancement of viral transformation. Some of the transformation and enhancement lesions can be repaired properly in the cell, and the amount of irrepairable lesions produced by a given dose depends on the quality of radiation. An inhibition of repair processes with chemical agents can increase the transformation frequency of cells exposed to radiation and/or oncogenic viruses, suggesting that repair mechanisms may play an important role in the radiation transformation. The progression of radiation-transformed cells appears to be a long and complicated process that can be modulated by some nonmutagenic chemical agents, e.g., DMSO. Normal cells can inhibit the expression of transforming properties of tumorigenic cells through an as yet unknown mechanism. The progression and expression of transformation may involve some epigenetic changes in the irradiated cells. 38 references, 15 figures, 1 table.

  8. Imaging of demyelinating and neoplastic diseases of the spinal cord; Bildgebung bei demyelinisierenden und tumoroesen Erkrankungen des Rueckenmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Mang, C. [Institut fuer CT und MRT Gaenserndorf, Gaenserndorf (Austria)

    2010-12-15

    The clinical symptoms of myelopathy are variable and non-specific. Demyelinating as well as neoplastic spinal cord diseases can cause paresthesia, progressive sensomotoric deficits and bowel and bladder dysfunction. Imaging of the spine, especially with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is an essential component in the diagnostic assessment of myelopathy and makes a substantial contribution to achieving the correct diagnosis. Although intramedullary neoplasms are far less common than demyelinating spinal cord diseases, radiologists should be familiar with the three most common entities, astrocytoma, ependymoma and hemangioblastoma, which represent over 70% of all spinal cord neoplasms. An early diagnosis and therapy is essential with neoplastic and demyelinating spinal cord diseases to hold residual neurological deficits as low as possible. (orig.) [German] Die klinische Symptomatik von Myelopathien ist aeusserst variabel und unspezifisch. Sowohl demyelinisierende als auch tumoroese Rueckenmarkerkrankungen koennen Paraesthesien, progrediente sensomotorische Ausfaelle und eine Sphinkterdysfunktion hervorrufen. Bildgebende Untersuchungen, und hier allen voran die MRT, sind ein unerlaesslicher Bestandteil zur Abklaerung von Myelopathien und tragen wesentlich zur korrekten Diagnose bei. Intramedullaere Tumoren sind zwar weitaus seltener als demyelinisierende Rueckenmarkerkrankungen, dennoch sollte der Radiologe mit den Bildmerkmalen der 3 haeufigsten Tumorarten, dem Astrozytom, Ependymom und Haemangioblastom vertraut sein, die ueber 70% aller Rueckenmarktumoren verursachen. Eine moeglichst fruehe Diagnostik und Therapie sind bei tumoroesen und demyelinisierenden Rueckenmarkerkrankungen essenziell, um bleibende neurologische Defizite moeglichst gering zu halten. (orig.)

  9. Quantitative evaluation of RASSF1A methylation in the non-lesional, regenerative and neoplastic liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gioia, Sonia; Bianchi, Paolo; Destro, Annarita; Grizzi, Fabio; Malesci, Alberto; Laghi, Luigi; Levrero, Massimo; Morabito, Alberto; Roncalli, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Background Epigenetic changes during ageing and their relationship with cancer are under the focus of intense research. RASSF1A and NORE1A are novel genes acting in concert in the proapoptotic pathway of the RAS signalling. While NORE1A has not been previously investigated in the human liver, recent reports have suggested that RASSF1A is frequently epigenetically methylated not only in HCC but also in the cirrhotic liver. Methods To address whether epigenetic changes take place in connection to age and/or to the underlying disease, we investigated RASSF1A and NORE1A gene promoter methylation by conventional methylation specific PCR and Real-Time MSP in a series of hepatitic and non-hepatitic livers harboring regenerative/hyperplastic (cirrhosis/focal nodular hyperplasia), dysplastic (large regenerative, low and high grade dysplastic nodules) and neoplastic (hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma) growths. Results In the hepatitic liver (chronic hepatitic/cirrhosis, hepatocellular nodules and HCC) we found widespread RASSF1A gene promoter methylation with a methylation index that increased from regenerative conditions (cirrhosis) to hepatocellular nodules (p < 0.01) to HCC (p < 0.001). In the non-hepatitic liver a consistent pattern of gene methylation was also found in both lesional (focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenoma) and non-lesional tissue. Specifically, hepatocellular adenomas (HA) showed a methylation index significantly higher than that detected in focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) (p < 0.01) and in non-lesional tissue (p < 0.001). In non-lesional liver also the methylation index gradually increased by ageing (p = 0.002), suggesting a progressive spreading of methylated cells over time. As opposed to RASSF1A gene promoter methylation, NORE1A gene was never found epigenetically alterated in both hepatitic and non-hepatitic liver. Conclusion We have shown that in non-lesional, regenerative and neoplastic liver the RASSF1A gene is increasingly

  10. Telomere length in normal and neoplastic canine tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadile, Casey D; Kitchell, Barbara E; Newman, Rebecca G; Biller, Barbara J; Hetler, Elizabeth R

    2007-12-01

    To determine the mean telomere restriction fragment (TRF) length in normal and neoplastic canine tissues. 57 solid-tissue tumor specimens collected from client-owned dogs, 40 samples of normal tissue collected from 12 clinically normal dogs, and blood samples collected from 4 healthy blood donor dogs. Tumor specimens were collected from client-owned dogs during diagnostic or therapeutic procedures at the University of Illinois Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, whereas 40 normal tissue samples were collected from 12 control dogs. Telomere restriction fragment length was determined by use of an assay kit. A histologic diagnosis was provided for each tumor by personnel at the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at the University of Illinois. Mean of the mean TRF length for 44 normal samples was 19.0 kilobases (kb; range, 15.4 to 21.4 kb), and the mean of the mean TRF length for 57 malignant tumors was 19.0 kb (range, 12.9 to 23.5 kb). Although the mean of the mean TRF length for tumors and normal tissues was identical, tumor samples had more variability in TRF length. Telomerase, which represents the main mechanism by which cancer cells achieve immortality, is an attractive therapeutic target. The ability to measure telomere length is crucial to monitoring the efficacy of telomerase inhibition. In contrast to many other mammalian species, the length of canine telomeres and the rate of telomeric DNA loss are similar to those reported in humans, making dogs a compelling choice for use in the study of human anti-telomerase strategies.

  11. Evaluation of Neoplastic Nature of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor Versus Ameloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KHALIFA, Gh.A.; SMOKIER, H.M.; ABO-HAGER, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    Although most of odontogenic tumors are benign, some of them will show locally destructive behavior, as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is now known as a benign but aggressive odontogenic neoplasm. The neoplastic characteristics in KCOT have been suggested from clinical as well as pathologic aspects. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is a gelatinase form of the MMPs family, which is a group of proteolytic enzymes that degrade many types of collagen. Cysteine aspartic acid-specific protease-3 (caspase-3) is the most downstream enzyme in the apoptosis-inducing protease pathway and is probably the most clearly associated with cell death. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the extracellular degradation potentiality (MMP-2) and apoptosis (caspase-3) of the epithelial lining in KCOT versus radicular cysts and ameloblastoma, in order to reinforce its classification as an odontogenic tumor. Material and Methods: Twenty-six surgical specimens including keratocyst odontogenic tumor (KCOT; n=l 1), ameloblastoma (AB; n=8) and radicular cysts (RC; n=7) were examined for expression of MMP-2 and caspase-3 using the immunohistochemical method. Results: For MMP-2 immuno expression, AB showed the statistically significant highest mean area percentage, followed by KCOT, while RC showed the statistically significant lowest mean area percentage. As for caspase-3, there was no statistically significant difference between KCOT and AB, while RC showed the statistically significantly lowest mean area percentage. Conclusion: Overexpression of MMP-2 protein related to growth and progression of lesions analyzed and may be one of the factors enhancing the recurrence of KCOT and invasion of AB. In addition, the epithelial lining of KCOT showed a high cell turnover reinforcing its classification as an odontogenic tumor

  12. Low Dose Suppression of Neoplastic Transformation in Vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Leslie Redpath

    2012-05-01

    This grant was to study the low dose suppression of neoplastic transformation in vitro and the shape of the dose-response curve at low doses and dose-rates of ionizing radiation. Previous findings had indicated a suppression of transformation at dose <10cGy of low-LET radiation when delivered at high dose-rate. The present study indicates that such suppression extends out to doses in excess of 100cGy when the dose (from I-125 photons) is delivered at dose-rates as low as 0.2 mGy/min and out to in excess of {approx}25cGy the highest dose studied at the very low dose-rate of 0.5 mGy/day. We also examined dose-rate effects for high energy protons (which are a low-LET radiation) and suppression was evident below {approx}10cGy for high dose-rate delivery and at least out to 50cGy for low dose-rate (20cGy/h) delivery. Finally, we also examined the effect of low doses of 1 GeV/n iron ions (a high-LET radiation) delivered at high dose-rate on transformation at low doses and found a suppression below {approx}10cGy that could be attributable to an adaptive response in bystander cells induced by the associated low-LET delta rays. These results have implications for cancer risk assessment at low doses.

  13. 78 FR 76507 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Cancer (Malignant Neoplastic Diseases)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... include updating the medical terminology in the listings. For example, we would replace the term ``Hodgkin... Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Cancer (Malignant Neoplastic Diseases); Proposed Rule #0;#0...

  14. Chondroblastoma and chondromyxoid fibroma : disentangling the neoplastic chondrogenesis of two rare cartilaginous tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeo, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    The scope of this study was to disentangle neoplastic chondrogenesis in two rare cartilaginous tumours: chondroblastoma and chondromyxoid fibroma. It was addressed: 1 The spectrum of phenotypic differentiation in chondroblastoma and chondromyxoid fibroma, 2 The signalling pathways driving

  15. Uptake of iodine-123-α-methyl tyrosine by gliomas and non-neoplastic brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwert, T.; Morgenroth, C.; Woesler, B.; Matheja, P.; Palkovic, S.; Vollet, B.; Samnick, S.; Maasjosthusmann, U.; Lerch, H.; Gildehaus, F.J.; Wassmann, H.; Schober, O.

    1996-01-01

    Using single-photon emission tomography (SPET), the radiopharmaceutical L-3-iodine-123-α-methyl tyrosine (IMT) has been applied to the imaging of amino acid transport into brain tumours. It was the aim of this study to investigate whether IMT SPET is capable of differentiating between high-grade gliomas, low-grade gliomas and non-neoplastic brain lesions. To this end, IMT uptake was determined in 53 patients using the triple-headed SPET camera MULTISPECT 3. Twenty-eight of these subjects suffered from high-grade gliomas (WHO grade III or IV), 12 from low-grade gliomas (WHO grade II), and 13 from non-neoplastic brain lesions, including lesions after effective therapy of a glioma (five cases), infarctions (four cases), inflammatory lesions (three cases), infarctions (four cases), inflammatory lesions (three cases) and traumatic haematoma (one case). IMT uptake was significantly higher in high-grade gliomas than in low-grade gliomas and non-neoplastic lesions. IMT uptake by low-grade gliomas was not significantly different from that by non-neoplastic lesions. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 71% and 83% for differentiating high-grade from low-grade gliomas, 82% and 100% for distinguishing high-grade gliomas from non-neoplastic lesions, and 50% and 100% for discriminating low-grade gliomas from non-neoplastic lesions. Analogously to positron emission tomography with radioactively labelled amino acids and fluorine-18 deoxyglucose, IMT SPET may aid in differentiating higc-grade gliomas from histologically benign brain tumours and non-neoplastic brain lesions; it is of only limited value in differentiating between non-neoplastic lesions and histologically benign brain tumours. (orig.)

  16. Hyaluronic Acid in Normal and Neoplastic Colorectal Tissue: Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric and Fluor Metric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Cleto Marolla

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The expression of HA was found to be slightly lower in tumor tissue than in colorectal non-neoplastic mucosa, although this difference was not statistically significant. This finding probably influenced the lower expression of HA in tumor tissue than in colorectal non-neoplastic mucosa. Compared to normal tissues, HA levels are significantly increased in the tumor tissues unless they exhibit lymph node metastasis. Otherwise, the expression of HA in tumor tissue did not correlated with the other clinicopathological parameters.

  17. Diffusion tensor imaging in inflammatory and neoplastic intramedullary spinal cord lesions: Focusing on fiber tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Joon Woo; Lee, Eugene; Kim, Sung Gon; Kang, Yu Suhn; Ahn, Joong Mo; Kang, Heung Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Inflammatory and neoplastic intramedullary spinal cord lesions have overlapping clinical features, and it is occasionally difficult to distinguish one from the other on conventional magnetic resonance imaging. We aimed to compare diffusion tensor imaging findings between inflammatory and neoplastic intramedullary spinal cord lesions, with a specific focus on patterns of fiber tracking. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed in patients with either inflammatory or neoplastic intramedullary spinal cord lesions. The fiber tracking patterns (categorized as “intact,” “displaced,” or “interrupted”) were compared between these two groups. Eight patients were included in the study: 5 patients with pathologically or clinically confirmed inflammatory lesions and 3 patients with pathologically or clinically confirmed neoplastic lesions. Among the 5 patients with inflammatory lesions, 2 patients exhibited the displaced pattern and 3 patients exhibited the intact pattern. Among the 3 patients with neoplastic lesions, 1 patient exhibited the intact pattern, 1 patient exhibited the displaced pattern, and 1 patient exhibited the interrupted pattern. In this study, inflammatory and neoplastic intramedullary spinal cord lesions were not clearly differentiated by fiber tracking; both conditions can present with overlapping features such as displaced fibers. The exclusion of inflammatory conditions based on the presence of displaced fibers in fiber tracking images should be avoided.

  18. Onconeuronal and antineuronal antibodies in patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic pulmonary pathologies and suspected for paraneoplastic neurological syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalak S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Onconeuronal antibodies are important diagnostic tool in patients with suspicion of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS. However, their role in PNS pathophysiology and specificity for particular neurological manifestation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate onconeuronal and antineuronal antibodies in patients with pulmonary pathologies and suspected for PNS. Materials and methods Twenty one patients with pulmonary pathologies were selected from the database of 525 consecutive patients with suspicion of PNS. Patients' sera were screened for the presence of onconeuronal and antineuronal antibodies by means of indirect immunofluorescence; the presence was confirmed by Western blotting. Clinical data were obtained from medical records, hospital data base, and questionnaire-based direct telephone contact with patients. Results Among 21 patients, aged 54 ± 11, with pulmonary pathologies, the most frequent neurological manifestations were neuropathies. Typical PNS included paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD and limbic encephalitis (LE. We found cases with multiple onconeuronal antibodies (anti-Ri and anti-Yo and coexisting PNS (PCD/LE. Well-defined onconeuronal antibodies were identified in 23.8% of patients. Among antineuronal antibodies, the most frequent were anti-MAG (23.8%. ROC curves analysis revealed high sensitivity of onconeuronal and antineuronal antibodies for typical PNS and lower for pulmonary malignancies. Conclusions Tests for antibodies are highly sensitive for the diagnosis of typical paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. Anti-myelin and anti-MAG antibodies are associated with non-neoplastic pulmonary diseases. Patients with well-defined onconeuronal antibodies require careful screening and follow-up, because the PNS diagnosis indicates a high probability of an underlying malignancy.

  19. The analysis of health condition and the assessment of the risk of neoplastic diseases among residents of villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lewandowska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neoplastic diseases have been classified as civilization diseases and are a big problem for modern medicine. According to the data from the International Agency for Research of Cancer, about 10 million people suffer from cancer and a number of deaths due to this disease has exceeded 6 million; until 2020 those numbers may double. In Poland, cancer survivors of five years concern 22% of men and 35% of women suffering from tumours, while in northern and western Europe there is a cure rate of 40% for men and 50% for women. The main reason for the adverse situation in Poland is a low percentage of early diagnosis of cancer. On the one hand this results from insufficient preparation of both family doctors and physicians of other specialties, but on the other, from insufficient dissemination of early diagnosis methods. Objective: The objective of the study is to analyze the health condition and to assess the risk of a neoplastic disease among residents of villages. Material and methods: The research involved 1000 residents of villages in Podkarpackie Voivodeship. The age of the researched ranges from 18 to 30 years, with mean age 26.96±0.84 (range [18;30], median 25.95%CI [18,9;29,01]. The researched group is represented in 43,8% by women in 56,2% by men. In order to obtain the research material, a standardized questionnaire has been applied including interview and physical examination, enabling assessment of symptoms reported during the interview and analysis of symptoms indicating a disease, including cancer. Results: According to the data analysis, during last few months the respondents have suffered from such ailments as cough (8.22% W, 7.12% M, dyspnea (3.2% W, 1.78% M, abdominal pain (13.7% W, 4.27% M, pain (5.48% W, 2.14% M and weakness (14.61% W, 4.98% M. During observations, one female respondent was diagnosed with symptoms of melanoma (0.46%, which has been confirmed in later dermatological test. Conclusions: No changes in

  20. Knowledge of nursing students about the care provided to people with neoplastic wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Ferreira Gomes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the knowledge of nursing students about the care provided to patients with neoplastic wound. Method: This is an exploratory research of a qualitative nature, which was attended by 15 students of the Bachelor's Degree in Nursing from the Center of Education and Health of the Federal University of Campina Grande, campus Cuité - PB, in the period from October to November 2015. For data collection, we used a form for an interview. The data were analyzed through the Technique of Thematic Analysis of Minayo. Results: From the analysis of the empirical material emerged the following thematic categories: Category 1 - Defining neoplastic wounds; Category 2 - Knowledge incipient on ‘neoplastic wounds’ for academic and professional practice; Category 3 - Envisioning the theme "neoplastic wound" in the Academy; Category 4 - Knowledge about methods of evaluation of neoplastic wounds and Category 5 - Knowledge of therapeutic modalities of neoplastic wounds. Conclusions: The academics know the evaluative method of a patient with neoplastic wound as integralizadora unit of care process; recognize palliative care as the best therapeutic modality for these customers, especially when they are in completion and indicate the products contraindicated in the treatment of these lesions; however, do not mention the covers and recommended substances for the control of the signs and symptoms of these injuries. In this context, it is believed that the creation of academic projects of extension, with the aim of creating opportunities for integration between theory and practice, is one of the ways to improve the knowledge.   Keywords: Knowledge; Students of Nursing; Skin Neoplasms.

  1. DNA measurements on cell nuclei of normal, proliferating and neoplastic thyroid tissues in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christov, K.; Thomas, C.; Sandritter, W.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear DNA content was measured in 3 normal, 9 hyperplastic and 16 neoplastic rat thyroid glands. Thyroid hyperplasia and tumor growth were induced after treatment of the animals with X rays and methylthiouracil. In the control animals only diploid thyroid epithelial cells were observed. In stages of diffuse and nodular thyroid hyperplasia, the total DNA content per nucleus indicated that most chromosomes were diploid; only a few cells were hyperdiploid. In thyroid adenomas and carcinomas scattering of the diploid region and an increased number of hyperdiploid cells were found. Among the various types of thyroid tumors neither a difference in the number of hyperdiploid cells, nor the typical pattern of the distribution of these cells in a histogram was found. The increased number of hyperdiploid cells in hyperplastic and neoplastic thyroids only suggested an increase in the proportion of cells entering the cell cycle and not an appearance of a neoplastic strain. (author)

  2. Neoplastic lesions of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ): diagnosis, differential diagnosis and intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, T.J.; Abolmaali, N.; Schedel, H.; Bergh, B.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the effectiveness of diagnostic and interventional radiological techniques for neoplastic lesions of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Material and methods. Modern diagnosis of the TMJ is based on the clinical use of conventional X-ray techniques, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and interventional techniques like biopsies, vascular occlusion and ablation. Results. Conventional X-ray still forms the basic diagnostic procedure applied in open and closed mouth position. CT improves the diagnostic information and serves as the standard diagnostical instrument for cartaliganeous or osseous neoplastic lesions. MRI evaluates soft tissue infiltration in multiplanar techniques and high spatial resolution. Interventional vascular and ablative techniques improve the treatment of neoplastic disorders. (orig.) [de

  3. Treatment of non-neoplastic renal hemorrhage with segmental embolization of renal artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Bing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of segmental embolization of renal artery in dealing with non- neoplastic renal hemorrhage. Methods: Four cases of non-neoplastic hemorrhage, including 2 with bleeding after renal acupuncture biopsy, 2 with bleeding after nephrolithotomy and 1 with congenital renal arteriovenous malformation, were treated with superselective segmental embolization of renal artery. 2 were embolized with coil, 1 with alcohol plus coil and 1 with PVA parcels. Results: Hematuria disappeared in 1-3 days. There was no recurrence in 7-45 months follow up and no complications induced by embolization. Conclusion: It is a safe and reliable therapy to treat non-neoplastic renal hemorrhage with segmental embolization of renal artery. (authors)

  4. DNA measurements on cell nuclei of normal, proliferating and neoplastic thyroid tissues in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christov, K [National Center of Oncology, Academy of Medicine, Sofia-56 (Bulgaria); Thomas, C; Sandritter, W [Freiburg Univ. (F.R. Germany). Pathologisches Inst.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear DNA content was measured in 3 normal, 9 hyperplastic and 16 neoplastic rat thyroid glands. Thyroid hyperplasia and tumor growth were induced after treatment of the animals with X rays and methylthiouracil. In the control animals only diploid thyroid epithelial cells were observed. In stages of diffuse and nodular thyroid hyperplasia, the total DNA content per nucleus indicated that most chromosomes were diploid; only a few cells were hyperdiploid. In thyroid adenomas and carcinomas scattering of the diploid region and an increased number of hyperdiploid cells were found. Among the various types of thyroid tumors neither a difference in the number of hyperdiploid cells, nor the typical pattern of the distribution of these cells in a histogram was found. The increased number of hyperdiploid cells in hyperplastic and neoplastic thyroids only suggested an increase in the proportion of cells entering the cell cycle and not an appearance of a neoplastic strain.

  5. Value of the biological data in the sonographic diagnosis of neoplastic biliary obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, F; Fagioli Zucchi, A; Rappuoli, G; Guercia, M; Terrosi Vagnoli, P

    1988-01-01

    The authors' purpose is to demonstrate the possibility of improving US reliability in the diagnosis of neoplastic obstructions of the bile ducts, basing their study on the hematic alkaline phosphates level (AP), wich is an earlier sign of obstruction than bilirubine values. All 368 patients observed had AP levels above the threshold of 270 IU/l. The 34 patients with neoplastic obstruction (including 13 without jaundice) had more than twice the normal level of AP, and presented with at least one dilated bile duct in the biliary tree. Coronal scans of the main bile duct are fundamental in the diagnosis of the level of obstruction. It seems thus possible to affirm that US diagnosis of the biliary obstruction, together with high AP values (more than twice the normal), provides with reliable information as to the neoplastic nature of the biliary obstruction, even if jaundice is not present.

  6. Value of the biological data in the sonographic diagnosis of neoplastic biliary obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, F.; Fagioli Zucchi, A.; Rappuoli, G.; Guercia, M.; Terrosi Vagnoli, P.

    1988-01-01

    The authors' purpose is to demonstrate the possibility of improving US reliability in the diagnosis of neoplastic obstructions of the bile ducts, basing their study on the hematic alkaline phosphates level (AP), wich is an earlier sign of obstruction than bilirubine values. All 368 patients observed had AP levels above the threshold of 270 IU/l. The 34 patients with neoplastic obstruction (including 13 without jaundice) had more than twice the normal level of AP, and presented with at least one dilated bile duct in the biliary tree. Coronal scans of the main bile duct are fundamental in the diagnosis of the level of obstruction. It seems thus possible to affirm that US diagnosis of the biliary obstruction, together with high AP values (more than twice the normal), provides with reliable information as to the neoplastic nature of the biliary obstruction, even if jaundice is not present

  7. Importance of Absent Neoplastic Epithelium in Patients Treated With Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enblad, Malin; Birgisson, Helgi; Wanders, Alkwin; Sköldberg, Filip; Ghanipour, Lana; Graf, Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    The importance of absent neoplastic epithelium in specimens from cytoreductive surgery (CRS) is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and prognostic value of histopathology without neoplastic epithelium in patients treated with CRS and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Data were extracted from medical records and histopathology reports for patients treated with initial CRS and HIPEC at Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden, between 2004 and 2012. Patients with inoperable disease and patients undergoing palliative non-CRS surgery were excluded from the study. Patients lacking neoplastic epithelium in surgical specimens from CRS, with or without mucin, were classified as "neoplastic epithelium absent" (NEA), and patients with neoplastic epithelium were classified as "neoplastic epithelium present" (NEP). The study observed NEA in 78 of 353 patients (22 %). Mucin was found in 28 of the patients with NEA. For low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms and adenomas, the 5-year overall survival rate was 100 % for NEA and 84 % for NEP, and the 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 100 % for NEA and 59 % for NEP. For appendiceal/colorectal adenocarcinomas (including tumors of the small intestine), the 5-year overall survival rate was 61 % for NEA and 38 % for NEP, and the 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 60 % for NEA and 14 % for NEP. Carcinoembryonic antigen level, peritoneal cancer index, and completeness of the cytoreduction score were lower in patients with NEA. A substantial proportion of patients undergoing CRS and HIPEC have NEA. These patients have a favorable prognosis and a decreased risk of recurrence. Differences in patient selection can affect the proportion of NEA and hence explain differences in survival rates between reported series.

  8. A HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF NEOPLASTIC LESIONS OF UTERINE CERVIX OF PERI AND POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jogesh Kakati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Neoplastic lesions of uterine cervix is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in women. The tremendous success in giving a confirmed diagnosis of the disease by doing histopathological examination is of prime importance in giving the most appropriate treatment and to understand the prognosis. The aim of the study is to study the incidence and age-wise distribution of the neoplastic lesions of the uterine cervix in peri and postmenopausal women by doing histopathological examination of neoplastic lesions and by doing correlation of clinical findings with histopathological examination. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study included 803 cases of total cervical specimens, out of which 180 cases of neoplastic cervical lesions were found, out of which 150 cases were found in the peri and postmenopausal age groups, i.e. above 40 years of age. The study was done in Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, from the period 1 st June, 2013, to 1 st June, 2014. The specimens that were included in the study were punch biopsies, hysterectomies and polypectomies and cervical specimens were studied by doing histopathological examinations. RESULTS Out of the 150 cases of neoplastic lesions in the peri and postmenopausal women, the most common neoplastic lesion was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, i.e. CIN (8.3% of the cervix, followed by malignant (5.6% and benign (4.7% lesions of the cervix in this study group of patients. CONCLUSION Histopathological examination of the cervix is an effective method of giving a confirmed diagnosis of all the noncancerous, precancerous and cancerous lesions of uterine cervix, which helps in giving the most appropriate treatment and also helps in understanding the prognosis.

  9. Atypical focal non-neoplastic brain changes in neurofibromatosis type 1: mass effect and contrast enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raininko, R.; Thelin, L.; Eeg-Olofsson, O.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Children and young adults with neurofibromatosis type 1 often have small high-signal foci on T2-weighted images of the brain. We describe follow-up of two patients in whom one of the foci had atypical features, commonly regarded as signs of a neoplasm. In the first, one lesion showed temporary contrast enhancement and decreasing mass effect. The second developed an expanding lesion that increased minimally in size over 4.5 year's follow-up. The borderline between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions seems to be indistinct. (orig.)

  10. Scintigraphy of bone marrow for neoplastic lesions in breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, J.; Zimacek, J.; Wagnerova, M.; Szabova, J.; Sirakova, I.; Frolo, D.

    1989-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy was performed in 259 patients including 124 females with breast carcinoma using the technique of 99m Tc-labelled colloid retention by phagocytizing cells, thus visualizing the reticuloendothelial component of the bone marrow. The objective was to early diagnose hematogenic metastases. In five patients, simultaneous skeleton scintiscanning was not performed. The technique was shown to play a role in early diagnosis of bone metastases and of bone lesions in less usual loci and especially in the differential diagnosis of nonmalignant bone disease, such as arthrosis. Its constraints include an intensive cumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in the liver and the splenic reticuloendothelial systems, which precludes the assessment of the bone marrow in the adjacent areas; further a difficult interpretation of the results, high cost and long time of examination. It has no role in patients with disseminated forms of the disease with multiple bone metastases already shown by scintigraphy. Bone marrow scintigraphy alone is not a reliable method for early diagnosis of breast carcinoma (L.O.)

  11. Biomarkers for screening of lung cancer and pre-neoplastic lesions in a high risk Chilean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I Adonis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mortality of lung cancer (LC, increases each year in the world, in spite of any advances, in development of new drugs to advance stages of LC. The high incidence of LC has been associated with smoking habit, genetic diversity and environmental pollution. Antofagasta region has been reported to have the highest LC mortality rate in Chile and its inhabitants were exposed to arsenic in their drinking water in concentrations as high as 870 μg/L. Non-invasive techniques such as biomarkers (Automatic Quantitative Cytometry: AQC and DR70 and Auto Fluorescence Bronchoscopy (AFB might be potentially useful as a supplementary diagnostic approach and early detection. Early detection is one of the most important factors to intervene and prevent cancer progression in LC. This is a work of an ongoing prospective bimodality cancer surveillance study in high risk LC volunteers. Enrolment was done in subjects from Antofagasta and Metropolitan regions. In addition, we enrolled subjects who were suspected of having lung cancer. AQC, DR70 and AFB were used as tools in the detection of pre-neoplastic (PNL and neoplastic lesions (NL. RESULTS: Half of the samples, classified as suspicious by AFB, were confirmed as metaplasia or dysplasia by histopathology. For LC, DR70 showed a higher sensitivity (95.8% and specificity (91.9% than AQC. However, for PNL AQC showed a higher sensitivity (91.9% than DR70 (27.3%, although both with low PPV values. As a pre screener, both biomarkers might be employed as complementary tools to detect LC, especially as serially combined tests, with a sensitivity of 60% and a PPV of 65.2%. Additionally, the use of parallel combined tests might support the detection of PNL (sensitivity 91.2%; PPV 49.1%. CONCLUSION: This work adds information on cellular and molecular biomarkers to complement imaging techniques for early detection of LC in Latin America that might contribute to formulate policies concerning screening of LC

  12. Casein kinase II is elevated in solid human tumours and rapidly proliferating non-neoplastic tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münstermann, U; Fritz, G; Seitz, G

    1990-01-01

    Protein kinase CKII (i.e. casein kinase II, CKII, NII) is expressed at a higher level in rapidly proliferating tissues and in solid human tumours (e.g. colorectal carcinomas) when compared to the corresponding non-neoplastic colorectal mucosa. This could be shown by (a) Western blotting of cellular...

  13. Arising podosomal structures are associated with neoplastic cell morphological phenotype induced by the microenvironment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, Pavel; Blase, C.; Matoušková, Eva; Bereiter-Hahn, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 26, - (2006), s. 967-972 ISSN 0250-7005 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR8145 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : podosomes * neoplastic cell morphotype * phenotypic plasticity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.479, year: 2006

  14. Responsiveness of fetal rat brain cells to glia maturation factor during neoplastic transformation in cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugen, A; Laerum, O D; Bock, E

    1981-01-01

    of gestation. The brains of the treated fetuses were transferred to cell culture and underwent neoplastic transformation with a characteristic sequence of phenotypic alterations which could be divided into five different stages. During the first 40 days after explantation (stage I & II) BE induced...

  15. Superficial inflammatory and primary neoplastic lymphadenopathy: diagnostic accuracy of power-doppler sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magarelli, N.; Guglielmi, G.; Savastano, M.; Toro, V.; Sborgia, M.; Fioritoni, G.; Mattei, P.A.; Steinbach, L.; Bonomo, L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of a cut-off of the resistive index of 0.5 for the differentiation between inflammatory and neoplastic primary lymphadenopathies. Subjects and methods: We measured the resistive index of superficial enlarged lymph nodes in a total of 50 patients (29 males and 21 females; age range 12-72 years, mean age 41.6 year) using an ATL 5000 HDI. A resistive index greater than or equal to 0.5 indicated an inflammatory lymph node and a resistive index <0.5 was consistent with neoplastic primary lymphadenopathies. The gold standard was either surgical biopsy or lymph-node reduction seen with ultrasound examination after antibiotic therapy. Results: The sensitivity of the resistive index for distinguishing inflammatory from neoplastic lymphadenopathy was 84.6%, the specificity 100% and the diagnostic accuracy 95.7% (P<0.001, statistically significant). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that power-Doppler using a resistive index cut-off of 0.5 was a valid technique for distinguising between inflammatory and primary neoplastic lymph nodes in patients with superficial lymphadenopathies

  16. General survey of non-neoplastic radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silini, G.

    1983-01-01

    The 1982 report of UNSCEAR analysed a large body of information on the non-tumourous consequences of irradiation after partial- and whole-body exposure. Based on that analysis this review discusses, for partial-body exposure, the major points relating to morphological and functional non-stochastic early effects such as induction mechanisms, relationships with dose, time and radiation quality, and specific nature of the effects in various tissues. The review specifically considers doses and effects that are likely to be critical under conditions of highly fractionated and long-term exposure. It shows that for organ irradiation the presence of a dose threshold is the most important characteristic of non-stochastic effects. The significance of the threshold in relation to mechanisms, its dependence on physical or biological variables and its practical significance are particularly commented upon. The review considers the distinctive features of early effects of whole-body irradiation and late effects of partial-body exposure and underlines their main interest under accident conditions and for medical treatment, respectively. As to late consequences of whole-body irradiation, lifespan shortening is the effect specifically considered. The review discusses the basic aspects of the life shortening action, such as general definitions, relationships to physiological ageing, technical and methodological assessment and relationships to other specific or non-specific effects of radiation. Data on life shortening in various animal species are briefly reviewed under the form of dose relationships for short-term and lifelong exposures with some discussion of human data. The conclusion is drawn that, in the light of present evidence, at the low doses and dose rates which are most important in practice, life shortening appears to be due essentially to the induction of tumours. (author)

  17. KIT polymorphisms and mutations determine responses of neoplastic mast cells to bafetinib (INNO-406).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Barbara; Hadzijusufovic, Emir; Blatt, Katharina; Gleixner, Karoline V; Pickl, Winfried F; Thaiwong, Tuddow; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma; Willmann, Michael; Valent, Peter

    2010-09-01

    Advanced systemic mastocytosis (SM) is characterized by uncontrolled growth of neoplastic mast cells (MC) and drug resistance. The tyrosine kinase receptor KIT is often mutated and activated and thus contributes to malignant growth of MC. Therefore, KIT-targeting drugs are currently tested for their ability to block growth of malignant MC. We determined the effects of the multikinase inhibitor INNO-406 (bafetinib) on primary neoplastic MC, the canine mastocytoma cell line C2, the human MC leukemia cell line HMC-1.1 bearing the KIT mutant V560G, and HMC-1.2 cells harboring KIT V560G and KIT D816V. INNO-406 was found to inhibit proliferation in HMC-1.1 cells (IC(50): 30-40 nM), but not in HMC-1.2 cells or primary neoplastic cells in patients with KIT D816V-positive SM. In canines, growth-inhibitory effects of INNO-406 were seen in C2 cells (IC(50): 50-100 nM) exhibiting a KIT exon 11 internal tandem-duplication and in primary neoplastic MC harboring wild-type exon 11, whereas no effects were seen in MC exhibiting a polymorphism at amino acid 581 in exon 11. INNO-406 was found to block KIT phosphorylation and expression in HMC-1.1 cells and C2 cells, but not in HMC-1.2 cells, whereas Lyn-phosphorylation was blocked by INNO-406 in all types of MC. In neoplastic MC, the major target of INNO-406 appears to be KIT. Drug responses may depend on the presence and type of KIT mutation. In human MC, the KIT D816V mutant introduces resistance, and in canine mastocytomas, an exon 11 polymorphism may be indicative of resistance against INNO-406.

  18. DNA mismatch repair protein deficient non-neoplastic colonic crypts: a novel indicator of Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Rish K; Dudley, Beth; Karloski, Eve; Brand, Randall E; O'Callaghan, Neil; Rosty, Christophe; Buchanan, Daniel D; Jenkins, Mark A; Thibodeau, Stephen N; French, Amy J; Lindor, Noralane M; Pai, Reetesh K

    2018-06-08

    Lynch syndrome is the most common form of hereditary colorectal carcinoma. However, establishing the diagnosis of Lynch syndrome is challenging, and ancillary studies that distinguish between sporadic DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein deficiency and Lynch syndrome are needed, particularly when germline mutation studies are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to determine if MMR protein-deficient non-neoplastic intestinal crypts can help distinguish between patients with and without Lynch syndrome. We evaluated the expression of MMR proteins in non-neoplastic intestinal mucosa obtained from colorectal surgical resection specimens from patients with Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal carcinoma (n = 52) and patients with colorectal carcinoma without evidence of Lynch syndrome (n = 70), including sporadic MMR protein-deficient colorectal carcinoma (n = 30), MMR protein proficient colorectal carcinoma (n = 30), and "Lynch-like" syndrome (n = 10). MMR protein-deficient non-neoplastic colonic crypts were identified in 19 of 122 (16%) patients. MMR protein-deficient colonic crypts were identified in 18 of 52 (35%) patients with Lynch syndrome compared to only 1 of 70 (1%) patients without Lynch syndrome (p Lynch-like" syndrome and harbored two MSH2-deficient non-neoplastic colonic crypts. MMR protein-deficient non-neoplastic colonic crypts were not identified in patients with sporadic MMR protein-deficient or MMR protein proficient colorectal carcinoma. Our findings suggest that MMR protein-deficient colonic crypts are a novel indicator of Lynch syndrome, and evaluation for MMR protein-deficient crypts may be a helpful addition to Lynch syndrome diagnostics.

  19. Critical role of CCDC6 in the neoplastic growth of testicular germ cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staibano, Stefania; Fusco, Alfredo; Chieffi, Paolo; Celetti, Angela; Ilardi, Gennaro; Leone, Vincenza; Luise, Chiara; Merolla, Francesco; Esposito, Francesco; Morra, Francesco; Siano, Maria; Franco, Renato

    2013-01-01

    DNA damage response has been clearly described as an anti-cancer barrier in early human tumorigenesis. Moreover, interestingly, testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) have been reported to lack the DNA Damage Response (DDR) pathway activation. CCDC6 is a pro-apoptotic phosphoprotein substrate of the kinase ataxia telangectasia mutated (ATM) able to sustain DNA damage checkpoint in response to genotoxic stress and is commonly rearranged in malignancies upon fusion with different partners. In our study we sought to determine whether CCDC6 could have a role in the patho-genesis of testicular germ cell tumors. To achieve this aim, analysis for CCDC6 expression has been evaluated on serial sections of the mouse testis by immunohistochemistry and on separate populations of murine testicular cells by western blot. Next, the resistance to DNA damage-induced apoptosis and the production of reactive oxygen species has been investigated in GC1 cells, derived from immortalized type B murine germ cells, following CCDC6 silencing. Finally, the CCDC6 expression in normal human testicular cells, in Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia Unclassified (IGCNU), in a large series of male germ cell tumours and in the unique human seminoma TCam2 cell line has been evaluated by immunohistochemistry and by Western Blot analyses. The analysis of the CCDC6 expression revealed its presence in Sertoli cells and in spermatogonial cells. CCDC6 loss was the most consistent feature among the primary tumours and TCam2 cells. Interestingly, following treatment with low doses of H 2 O 2 , the silencing of CCDC6 in GC1 cells caused a decrease in the oxidized form of cytochrome c and low detection of Bad, PARP-1 and Caspase 3 proteins. Moreover, in the silenced cells, upon oxidative damage, the cell viability was protected, the γH2AX activation was impaired and the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) release was decreased. Therefore, our results suggest that the loss of CCDC6 could aid the spermatogonial cells to

  20. The eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF1A2 induces neoplastic properties and mediates tumorigenic effects of ZNF217 in precursor cells of human ovarian carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yu; Wong, Nicholas; Guan, Yinghui; Salamanca, Clara M.; Cheng, Jung Chien; Lee, Jonathan M.; Gray, Joe W.; Auersperg, Nelly

    2008-04-25

    Ovarian epithelial carcinomas (OEC) frequently exhibit amplifications at the 20q13 locus which is the site of several oncogenes, including the eukaryotic elongation factor EEF1A2 and the transcription factor ZNF217. We reported previously that overexpressed ZNF217 induces neoplastic characteristics in precursor cells of OEC. Unexpectedly, ZNF217, which is a transcriptional repressor, enhanced expression of eEF1A2. In this study, array comparative genomic hybridization, single nucleotide polymorphism and Affymetrix analysis of ZNF217-overexpressing cell lines confirmed consistently increased expression of eEF1A2 but not of other oncogenes, and revealed early changes in EEF1A2 gene copy numbers and increased expression at crisis during immortalization. We defined the influence of eEF1A2 overexpression on immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cells, and investigated interrelationships between effects of ZNF217 and eEF1A2 on cellular phenotypes. Lentivirally induced eEF1A2 overexpression caused delayed crisis, apoptosis resistance and increases in serum-independence, saturation densities, and anchorage independence. siRNA to eEF1A2 reversed apoptosis resistance and reduced anchorage independence in eEF1A2-overexpressing lines. Remarkably, siRNA to eEF1A2 was equally efficient in inhibiting both anchorage independence and resistance to apoptosis conferred by ZNF217 overexpression. Our data define neoplastic properties that are caused by eEF1A2 in nontumorigenic ovarian cancer precursor cells, and suggest that eEF1A2 plays a role in mediating ZNF217-induced neoplastic progression.

  1. Prevalence of human papillomavirus types in women with pre-neoplastic and neoplastic cervical lesions in the Federal District of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geni NL Camara

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the public health authorities in planning prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine strategies, we describe the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV types in women presenting abnormal cytological results in Pap smear screening tests in the Federal District, Central Brazil. We studied 129 cervical scraping samples from women whose cytological tests showed either pre-neoplastic or neoplastic lesions. Amplification of HPV DNA was performed by polymerase chain reaction using consensus primers MY09 and MY11 followed by identification of isolates by restriction fragment length polymorphism. We detected HPV DNA in 62% of the samples, including HPV-16 in 43.8%, HPV-58 in 12.5%, HPV-31 in 10%, HPV-53 in 6.3%, each of HPV-18 and HPV-33 in 3.8% of the isolates. Other types (HPV-35, -52, -66, -CP8304, -6, -11, and -CP8061 were less frequent (= or < 2.5% each. The prevalence of HPV-58 was relatively higher in this population than in data in South America, but similar to results obtained in other studies in Latin America, Europe, and Eastern Asia. Case-control studies need to be carried out to establish the association between the prevalence of HPV types specially the less frequent high-risk types and cervical cancer.

  2. Prevalence of Neoplastic Diseases in Pet Birds Referred for Surgical Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia F. Castro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoplastic disease is common in pet birds, particularly in psittacines, and treatment should be primarily aimed at tumor eradication. Nineteen cases of pet birds submitted to diagnostic and/or therapeutic surgical procedures due to neoplastic disease characterized by the presence of visible masses were retrospectively analyzed; affected species, types of neoplasms and respective locations, and outcomes of surgical procedures were determined. All birds undergoing surgery belonged to the order Psittaciformes; the Blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva was the prevalent species. Lipoma was the most frequent neoplasm in the sample studied. Most neoplasms affected the integumentary system, particularly the pericloacal area. Tumor resection was the most common surgical procedure performed, with high resolution and low recurrence rates.

  3. Prevalence of Neoplastic Diseases in Pet Birds Referred for Surgical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Patrícia F.; Fantoni, Denise T.; Miranda, Bruna C.; Matera, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Neoplastic disease is common in pet birds, particularly in psittacines, and treatment should be primarily aimed at tumor eradication. Nineteen cases of pet birds submitted to diagnostic and/or therapeutic surgical procedures due to neoplastic disease characterized by the presence of visible masses were retrospectively analyzed; affected species, types of neoplasms and respective locations, and outcomes of surgical procedures were determined. All birds undergoing surgery belonged to the order Psittaciformes; the Blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva) was the prevalent species. Lipoma was the most frequent neoplasm in the sample studied. Most neoplasms affected the integumentary system, particularly the pericloacal area. Tumor resection was the most common surgical procedure performed, with high resolution and low recurrence rates. PMID:26981315

  4. Reduced Pms2 expression in non-neoplastic flat mucosa from patients with colon cancer correlates with reduced apoptosis competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Harris; Prasad, Anil; Holubec, Hana; Bernstein, Carol; Payne, Claire M; Ramsey, Lois; Dvorakova, Katerina; Wilson, Megan; Warneke, James A; Garewal, Harinder

    2006-06-01

    Pms2 protein is a component of the DNA mismatch repair complex responsible both for post-replication correction of DNA nucleotide mispairs and for early steps in apoptosis. Germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes give rise to hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer, which accounts for about 4% of colon cancers. However, little is known about the expression of mismatch repair proteins in relation to sporadic colon cancer, which accounts for the great majority of colon cancers. Multiple samples were taken from the non-neoplastic flat mucosa of colon resections from patients with no colonic neoplasia, a tubulovillous adenoma, or an adenocarcinoma. Expression of Pms2 was assessed using semiquantitative immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis was assessed in polychrome-stained epoxy sections using morphologic criteria. Samples from patients without colonic neoplasia had moderate to strong staining for Pms2 in cell nuclei at the base of crypts, while samples from 2 of the 3 colons with a tubulovillous adenoma, and from 6 of the 10 colons with adenocarcinomas, showed reduced Pms2 expression. Samples from patients with an adenocarcinoma that had reduced Pms2 expression also exhibited reduced apoptosis capability in nearby tissue samples, evidenced when this paired tissue was stressed ex vivo with bile acid. Reduced Pms2 expression in the colonic mucosa may be an early step in progression to colon cancer. This reduction may cause decreased mismatch repair, increased genetic instability, and/or reduced apoptotic capability. Immunohistochemical determination of reduced Pms2 expression, upon further testing, may prove to be a promising early biomarker of risk of progression to malignancy.

  5. A Study of the Pathomorphology of Non-Neoplastic Changes in Canine Mammary Glands

    OpenAIRE

    Knauer, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Whilst neoplasia in canine mammae has been the subject of a considerable number of studies, little is known about non-neoplastic changes of the mammae. The aim of the present study was therefore to conduct pathological anatomical and histopathological examinations of mammary glands in order to draw up a survey of the type and frequency of non-tumorous changes in the lactiferous tissues. The material under examination consis...

  6. Experimental control of neoplastic progression in cell populations: Foulds' rules revisited.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, H

    1994-01-01

    Foulds introduced six rules of tumor progression based on his observations of spontaneous mammary cancer in mice and generalized them to all forms of neoplasia [Foulds, L. (1954) Cancer Res. 14, 327-339 and Foulds, L. (1969) Neoplastic Development (Academic, New York), Vol. 1, preface and pp. 72-74.] Rules III, IV, and V are considered controversial, and research in animals seems inadequate to resolve the controversies. A subline of NIH 3T3 cells undergoes progressive transformation to produc...

  7. Probiotics against neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa: effects on cell proliferation and polyamine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Francesco; Linsalata, Michele; Orlando, Antonella

    2014-10-07

    Gastric cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide, accounting for about 10% of newly diagnosed neoplasms. In the last decades, an emerging role has been attributed to the relations between the intestinal microbiota and the onset of both gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal neoplasms. Thus, exogenous microbial administration of peculiar bacterial strains (probiotics) has been suggested as having a profound influence on multiple processes associated with a change in cancer risk. The internationally accepted definition of probiotics is live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. The possible effects on the gastrointestinal tract following probiotic administration have been investigated in vitro and in animal models, as well as in healthy volunteers and in patients suffering from different human gastrointestinal diseases. Although several evidences are available on the use of probiotics against the carcinogen Helicobacter pylori, little is still known about the potential cross-interactions among probiotics, the composition and quality of intestinal flora and the neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa. In this connection, a significant role in cell proliferation is played by polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine). These small amines are required in both pre-neoplastic and neoplastic tissue to sustain the cell growth and the evidences here provided suggest that probiotics may act as antineoplastic agents in the stomach by affecting also the polyamine content and functions. This review will summarize data on the most widely recognized effects of probiotics against neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa and in particular on their ability in modulating cell proliferation, paying attention to the polyamine metabolism.

  8. Gallium SPECT detection of neoplastic intravascular obstruction of the superior vena cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swayne, L.C.; Kaplan, I.L.

    1989-01-01

    A rare case of an intravascular neoplastic obstruction of the superior vena cava is discussed. The lesion was detected with gallium single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) despite a normal appearance on a concurrent radiographic CT study. A computer-generated composite SPECT-CT image confirmed the intravascular localization of the radioisotope, and a subsequent CT-guided transthoracic needle biopsy revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma

  9. Temperature dependence of 1H NMR relaxation time, T2, for intact and neoplastic plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewa, Czesław J.; Lewa, Maria

    Temperature dependences of the spin-spin proton relaxation time, T2, have been shown for normal and tumorous tissues collected from kalus culture Nicotiana tabacum and from the plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. For neoplastic plant tissues, time T2 was increased compared to that for intact plants, a finding similar to that for animal and human tissues. The temperature dependences obtained were compared to analogous relations observed with animal tissues.

  10. Perfusion abnormalities in congenital and neoplastic pulmonary disease: comparison of MR perfusion and multislice CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boll, Daniel T.; Lewin, Jonathan S.; Young, Philip; Gilkeson, Robert C.; Siwik, Ernest S.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion patterns of chronic, nonembolic pulmonary diseases of congenital and neoplastic origin and to compare the findings with results obtained with pulmonary, contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography (CT) imaging to prove that congenital and neoplastic pulmonary conditions require MR imaging over the pulmonary perfusion cycle to successfully and directly detect changes in lung perfusion patterns. Twenty-five patients underwent concurrent CT and MR evaluation of chronic pulmonary diseases of congenital (n=15) or neoplastic (n=10) origin. Analysis of MR perfusion and contrast-enhanced CT datasets was realized by defining pulmonary and vascular regions of interest in corresponding positions. MR perfusion calculated time-to-peak enhancement, maximal enhancement and the area under the perfusion curve. CT datasets provided pulmonary signal-to-noise ratio measurements. Vessel centerlines of bronchial arteries were determined. Underlying perfusion type, such as pulmonary arterial or systemic arterial supply, as well as regions with significant variations in perfusion were determined statistically. Analysis of the pulmonary perfusion pattern detected pulmonary arterial supply in 19 patients; six patients showed systemic arterial supply. In pulmonary arterial perfusion, MR and multislice CT imaging consistently detected the perfusion type and regions with altered perfusion patterns. In bronchial arterial supply, MR perfusion and CT imaging showed significant perfusion differences. Patients with bronchial arterial supply had bronchial arteries ranging from 2.0 to 3.6 mm compared with submillimeter diameters in pulmonary arterial perfusion. Dynamic MR imaging of congenital and neoplastic pulmonary conditions allowed characterization of the pulmonary perfusion type. CT imaging suggested the presence of systemic arterial perfusion by visualizing hypertrophied bronchial arteries. (orig.)

  11. Expression of a fms-related oncogene in carcinogen-induced neoplastic epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, C.; Nettesheim, P.; Barrett, J.C.; Gilmer, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    Following carcinogen exposure in vitro, normal rat tracheal epithelial cells are transformed in a multistage process in which the cultured cells become immortal and ultimately, neoplastic. Five cell lines derived from tumors produced by neoplastically transformed rat tracheal epithelial cells were examined for the expression of 11 cellular oncogenes previously implicated in pulmonary or epithelial carcinogenesis. RNA homologous to fms was expressed at a level 5-19 times higher than normal tracheal epithelial cells in three of five of the tumor-derived lines. All three lines expressing high levels of fms-related RNA gave rise to invasive tumors of epithelial origin when injected into nude mice. Increased expression of the fms-related mRNA was not due to gene amplification, and no gene rearrangement was detected by Southern analyses. RNA blot analysis using a 3' v-fms probe detected a 9.5-kilobase message in the three tumor-derived lines, whereas both normal rat aveolar macrophages and the human choriocarcinoma line BeWo expressed a fms transcript of ≅ 4 kilobases. The authors conclude from these data that the gene expressed as a 9.5-kilobase transcript in these neoplastic epithelial cells is a member of a fms-related gene family but may be distinct from the gene that encodes the macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) receptor

  12. An in vitro model demonstrates the potential of neoplastic human germ cells to influence the tumour microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, B; Schuppe, H-C; Bergmann, M; Hedger, M P; Loveland, B E; Loveland, K L

    2017-07-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) typically contain high numbers of infiltrating immune cells, yet the functional nature and consequences of interactions between GCNIS (germ cell neoplasia in situ) or seminoma cells and immune cells remain unknown. A co-culture model using the seminoma-derived TCam-2 cell line and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, n = 7 healthy donors) was established to investigate how tumour and immune cells each contribute to the cytokine microenvironment associated with TGCT. Three different co-culture approaches were employed: direct contact during culture to simulate in situ cellular interactions occurring within seminomas (n = 9); indirect contact using well inserts to mimic GCNIS, in which a basement membrane separates the neoplastic germ cells and immune cells (n = 3); and PBMC stimulation prior to direct contact during culture to overcome the potential lack of immune cell activation (n = 3). Transcript levels for key cytokines in PBMC and TCam-2 cell fractions were determined using RT-qPCR. TCam-2 cell fractions showed an immediate increase (within 24 h) in several cytokine mRNAs after direct contact with PBMC, whereas immune cell fractions did not. The high levels of interleukin-6 (IL6) mRNA and protein associated with TCam-2 cells implicate this cytokine as important to seminoma physiology. Use of PBMCs from different donors revealed a robust, repeatable pattern of changes in TCam-2 and PBMC cytokine mRNAs, independent of potential inter-donor variation in immune cell responsiveness. This in vitro model recapitulated previous data from clinical TGCT biopsies, revealing similar cytokine expression profiles and indicating its suitability for exploring the in vivo circumstances of TGCT. Despite the limitations of using a cell line to mimic in vivo events, these results indicate how neoplastic germ cells can directly shape the surrounding tumour microenvironment, including by influencing local immune responses. IL6

  13. Glycomics expression analysis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans of human colorectal cancer tissues and non-neoplastic mucosa by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marolla, Ana Paula Cleto [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Waisberg, Jaques [Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Saba, Gabriela Tognini [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Waisberg, Daniel Reis [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Margeotto, Fernando Beani; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    To determine the presence of glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues, since it has a central role in tumor development and progression. Tissue samples from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues were obtained from 64 operated patients who had colorectal carcinoma with no distant metastases. Expressions of heparan sulphate, chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate and their fragments were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, with the technique for extraction and quantification of glycosaminoglycans after proteolysis and electrophoresis. The statistical analysis included mean, standard deviation, and Student’s t test. The glycosaminoglycans extracted from colorectal tissue showed three electrophoretic bands in agarose gel. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed characteristic disaccharide fragments from glycosaminoglycans, indicating their structural characterization in the tissues analyzed. Some peaks in the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were not characterized as fragments of sugars, indicating the presence of fragments of the protein structure of proteoglycans generated during the glycosaminoglycan purification. The average amount of chondroitin and dermatan increased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p=0.01). On the other hand, the average amount of heparan decreased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p= 0.03). The method allowed the determination of the glycosaminoglycans structural profile in colorectal tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissue. Neoplastic tissues showed greater amounts of chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate compared to non-neoplastic tissues, while heparan sulphate was decreased in neoplastic tissues.

  14. Glycomics expression analysis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans of human colorectal cancer tissues and non-neoplastic mucosa by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marolla, Ana Paula Cleto; Waisberg, Jaques; Saba, Gabriela Tognini; Waisberg, Daniel Reis; Margeotto, Fernando Beani; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva

    2015-01-01

    To determine the presence of glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues, since it has a central role in tumor development and progression. Tissue samples from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues were obtained from 64 operated patients who had colorectal carcinoma with no distant metastases. Expressions of heparan sulphate, chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate and their fragments were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, with the technique for extraction and quantification of glycosaminoglycans after proteolysis and electrophoresis. The statistical analysis included mean, standard deviation, and Student'st test. The glycosaminoglycans extracted from colorectal tissue showed three electrophoretic bands in agarose gel. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed characteristic disaccharide fragments from glycosaminoglycans, indicating their structural characterization in the tissues analyzed. Some peaks in the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were not characterized as fragments of sugars, indicating the presence of fragments of the protein structure of proteoglycans generated during the glycosaminoglycan purification. The average amount of chondroitin and dermatan increased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p=0.01). On the other hand, the average amount of heparan decreased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p= 0.03). The method allowed the determination of the glycosaminoglycans structural profile in colorectal tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissue. Neoplastic tissues showed greater amounts of chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate compared to non-neoplastic tissues, while heparan sulphate was decreased in neoplastic tissues.

  15. Glycomics expression analysis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans of human colorectal cancer tissues and non-neoplastic mucosa by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marolla, Ana Paula Cleto; Waisberg, Jaques; Saba, Gabriela Tognini; Waisberg, Daniel Reis; Margeotto, Fernando Beani; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva

    2015-01-01

    To determine the presence of glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues, since it has a central role in tumor development and progression. Tissue samples from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues were obtained from 64 operated patients who had colorectal carcinoma with no distant metastases. Expressions of heparan sulphate, chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate and their fragments were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, with the technique for extraction and quantification of glycosaminoglycans after proteolysis and electrophoresis. The statistical analysis included mean, standard deviation, and Student’s t test. The glycosaminoglycans extracted from colorectal tissue showed three electrophoretic bands in agarose gel. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed characteristic disaccharide fragments from glycosaminoglycans, indicating their structural characterization in the tissues analyzed. Some peaks in the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were not characterized as fragments of sugars, indicating the presence of fragments of the protein structure of proteoglycans generated during the glycosaminoglycan purification. The average amount of chondroitin and dermatan increased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p=0.01). On the other hand, the average amount of heparan decreased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p= 0.03). The method allowed the determination of the glycosaminoglycans structural profile in colorectal tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissue. Neoplastic tissues showed greater amounts of chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate compared to non-neoplastic tissues, while heparan sulphate was decreased in neoplastic tissues

  16. Pitfalls of improperly procured adjacent non-neoplastic tissue for somatic mutation analysis using next-generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid adoption of next-generation sequencing provides an efficient system for detecting somatic alterations in neoplasms. The detection of such alterations requires a matched non-neoplastic sample for adequate filtering of non-somatic events such as germline polymorphisms. Non-neoplastic tissue adjacent to the excised neoplasm is often used for this purpose as it is simultaneously collected and generally contains the same tissue type as the neoplasm. Following NGS analysis, we and others have frequently observed low-level somatic mutations in these non-neoplastic tissues, which may impose additional challenges to somatic mutation detection as it complicates germline variant filtering. Methods We hypothesized that the low-level somatic mutation observed in non-neoplastic tissues may be entirely or partially caused by inadvertent contamination by neoplastic cells during the surgical pathology gross assessment or tissue procurement process. To test this hypothesis, we applied a systematic protocol designed to collect multiple grossly non-neoplastic tissues using different methods surrounding each single neoplasm. The procedure was applied in two breast cancer lumpectomy specimens. In each case, all samples were first sequenced by whole-exome sequencing to identify somatic mutations in the neoplasm and determine their presence in the adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. We then generated ultra-deep coverage using targeted sequencing to assess the levels of contamination in non-neoplastic tissue samples collected under different conditions. Results Contamination levels in non-neoplastic tissues ranged up to 3.5 and 20.9 % respectively in the two cases tested, with consistent pattern correlated with the manner of grossing and procurement. By carefully controlling the conditions of various steps during this process, we were able to eliminate any detectable contamination in both patients. Conclusion The results demonstrated that the

  17. Neoplastic meningitis: a retrospective review of clinical presentations, radiological and cerebrospinal fluid findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jearanaisilp, Sorrawit; Sangruji, Tumthip; Danchaivijitr, Chotipat; Danchaivijitr, Nasuda

    2014-08-01

    To review the clinical, radiological, and laboratory presentations of patients with neoplastic meningitis. Patients with neoplastic meningitis were recruited by a retrospective search of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytopathological report database of Siriraj Hospital between 1997 and 2006. Clinical information and CSF result of these patients were extracted from their medical records. Neuroimagings were reviewed by a neuroradiologist. The present study revealed 40 cases of neoplastic meningitis, which comprised of 17 cases with carcinomatous meningitis (CM) and 23 lymphoma/leukemia meningitis (LM) cases. In patients with CM, the majority (70%) had adenocarcinoma of lung or breast. Three of 17 cases with unknown primary tumor had carcinomatous meningitis as an initial presentation. In LM most of the cases (70%) were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The most common symptom among patients with CM and LM was headache follow by cranial nerve palsy. In CM cases, CSF cytology was positive in the first specimen in 15 cases (82.35%) and in 22 from 23 cases (95.7%) in LM cases. Overall CSF showed pleocytosis in 36 cases (90%), most of which were lymphocyte predominant. The most common findings from brain imagings were leptomeningeal enhancement and hydrocephalus. The common primary sites were lung and breast cancer in the CM group and ALL and NHL in the LM group. The common symptoms were headache and cranial nerve palsy. Routine CSF examination was abnormal in virtually all cases. Positive CSF cytology was a gold standard for a diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis. High index of suspicious and awareness were required to avoid miss diagnosis.

  18. Immunoelectron microscopic localisation of keratin and luminal epithelial antigens in normal and neoplastic urothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P D; Nathrath, W B; Trejdosiewicz, L K

    1982-01-01

    Immunoelectron microscope cytochemistry was carried out on 2% paraformaldehyde fixed, 50 mu sections of normal urothelium and bladder carcinoma cells in culture using antisera raised in rabbits to human 40-63 000 MW epidermal "broad spectrum" keratin and calf urothelial "luminal epithelial antigen" (aLEA) Both the unconjugated and indirect immunoperoxidase-DAB techniques were used before routine embedding. The localisation of both keratin and luminal epithelial antigen (LEA) was similar in normal and neoplastic cells and reaction product was associated not only with tonofilaments but also lining membrane vesicles and on fine filaments in the cytoplasmic ground substance.

  19. Comparison of the circadian variation in cell proliferation in normal and neoplastic colonic epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M F; Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1985-09-15

    Circadian variations in cell proliferation in normal tissues have been recognised for many years but comparable phenomena in neoplastic tissues appear not to have been reported. Adenomas and carcinomas were induced in mouse colon by injection of dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and cell proliferation in these tumors was measured stathmokinetically. In normal intestine cell proliferation is fastest at night whereas in both adenomas and carcinomas it was found to be slower at night than in the middle of the day. Chemical sympathectomy was found to abolish the circadian variation in tumor cell proliferation.

  20. Adaptive Response Against Spontaneous Neoplastic Transformation In Vitro Induced by Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redpath, J. Leslie

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project was to establish a dose response curve for radiation-induced neoplastic transformation of HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells in vitro under experimental conditions were an adaptive response, if it were induced, would have an opportunity to be expressed. During the first two years of the grant an exhaustive series of experiments were performed and the resulting data were reported at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Radiation Research Society and then Subsequently published. The data showed that an adaptive response against spontaneous neoplastic transformation was seen up to doses of 10cGy of Cs-137 gamma rays. At dose of 30, 50 and 100 cGy the transformation frequencies were above background. This indicated that for this system, under the specific experimental conditions used, there was a threshold of somewhere between 10 and 30 cGy. The results also indicated some unexpected, though very interesting, correlations with relative risk estimates made from human epidemiologic studies

  1. Immunogenetical study of the atomic-bombed patients of neoplastic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Masaki; Miyazaki, Takashige; Tomonaga, Akimitsu; Hara, Kohei; Hirose, Takeshi

    1978-01-01

    The immunogenetical backgrounds of 30 patients with neoplastic diseases (group I) and 30 with non-neoplastic diseases (group II) who were exposed to the A-bomb within 30 km of the center of explosion were studied using human leucocyte antigen (HLA), whose gene combines with Ir-gene, as an index. Eighty-four healthy, non-exposed persons (group III) were selected as controls. Regarding phenotype and genotype frequency, type A9 showed Aw24 and type A10 showed A26 in all cases. Except for Bw40, there was no significant difference among the groups (frequency of A9, I>II; that of A10, II< III). Bw40 was frequently observed in group I although it had racial specificity. There were 16 cases of Bw40 in group I (53.3%), 10 cases in group II (33.3%), and 23 cases in group III (27.3%). Further analysis of Bw40 revealed that Bw40.1 and Bw40.2 were more frequent in group I than in the control group. Bw40.3 was not observed in any of the groups. (Tsunoda, M.)

  2. [Non-neoplastic enlargement of salivary glands: clinico-histologic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Guevara, Martha Beatriz; Torres Tejero, Marco Antonio; Martínez Mata, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    We carried out a retrospective study on non-neoplastic enlargement of the salivary glands at the Oral Histopathology Diagnostic Center of the Autonomous Metropolitan University at Xochimilco (UAM-Xochimilco) in Mexico during a period of 24 years (1979-2003). From 5,625 biopsies received and analyzed, a total of 461 (8.2%) were non-neoplastic enlargement of the salivary glands; for each case, we registered demographic data as well as clinic characteristics. These lesions were characterized as a heterogeneous group of pathologic entities among which we included local, obstructive, infectious, and immunopathologic lesions. The most frequent lesion was the extravasation cyst in 341 (74%) cases, followed by chronic sialoadenitis and Sjögren's syndrome with 54 (11.7%) and 41 (8.8%) cases, respectively, and at a lesser percentage mucous retention cyst, sialosis, benign lymphoepithelial lesions and those related with sialolytes. Females were affected more frequently; mean age was second to third life decades. These lesions were most frequently localized on inferior labial mucosa.

  3. Sensitivity to radiation of human normal, hyperthyroid, and neoplastic thyroid epithelial cells in primary culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.C.; Hiraoka, Toshio; Kopecky, K.J.; Nakamura, Nori; Jones, M.P.; Ito, Toshio; Clifton, K.H.

    1986-09-01

    Samples of thyroid tissue removed surgically from 63 patients were cultured in vitro and X-irradiated to investigate the radiosensitivities of various types of thyroid epithelial cells. A total of 76 samples were obtained, including neoplastic cells from patients with papillary carcinoma (PC) or follicular adenoma (FA), cells from hyperthyroidism (HY) patients, and normal cells from the surgical margins of PC and FA patients. Culturing of the cells was performed in a manner which has been shown to yield a predominance of epithelial cells. Results of colony formation assays indicated that cells from HY and FA patients were the least radiosensitive: when adjusted to the overall geometric mean plating efficiency of 5.5 %, the average mean lethal dose D 0 was 97.6 cGy for HY cells, and 96.7 cGy and 94.3 cGy, respectively, for neoplastic and normal cells from FA patients. Cells from PC patients were more radiosensitive, normal cells having an adjusted average D 0 of 85.0 cGy and PC cells a significantly (p = .001) lower average D 0 of 74.4 cGy. After allowing for this variation by cell type, in vitro radiosensitivity was not significantly related to age at surgery (p = .82) or sex (p = .10). These results suggest that malignant thyroid cells may be especially radiosensitive. (author)

  4. Mechanisms of chemical modification of neoplastic cell transformation by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.C.; Tobias, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    During space travel, astronauts will be continuously exposed to ionizing radiation; therefore, it is necessary to minimize the radiation damage by all possible means. The authors' studies show that DMSO (when present during irradiation) can protect cells from being killed and transformed by X rays and that low concentration of DMSO can reduce the transformation frequency significantly when it is applied to cells, even many days after irradiation. The process of neoplastic cell transformation is a complicated one and includes at least two different stages: induction and expression. DMSO apparently can modify the radiation damage during both stages. There are several possible mechanisms for the DMSO effect: (1) changing the cell membrane structure and properties; (2) inducing cell differentiation by acting on DNA; and (3) scavanging free radicals in the cell. Recent studies with various chemical agents, e.g., 5-azacytidine, dexamethane, rhodamin-123, etc., indicate that the induction of cell differentiation by acting on DNA may be an important mechanism for the suppression of expression of neoplastic cell transformation by DMSO

  5. Interobserver agreement for the spine instability neoplastic score varies according to the experience of the evaluator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gemio Jacobsen Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the interobserver agreement for the Neoplastic Spine Instability Score (SINS among spine surgeons with or without experience in vertebral metastasis treatment and physicians in other specialties. METHODS: Case descriptions were produced based on the medical records of 40 patients with vertebral metastases. The descriptions were then published online. Physicians were invited to evaluate the descriptions by answering questions according to the Neoplastic Spine Instability Score (SINS. The agreement among physicians was calculated using the kappa coefficient. RESULTS: Seventeen physicians agreed to participate: three highly experienced spine surgeons, seven less-experienced spine surgeons, three surgeons of other specialties, and four general practitioners (n = 17. The agreement for the final SINS score among all participants was fair, and it varied according to the SINS component. The agreement was substantial for the spine location only. The agreement was higher among experienced surgeons. The agreement was nearly perfect for spinal location among the spine surgeons who were highly experienced in vertebral metastases. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the experience of the evaluator has an impact on SINS scale classification. The interobserver agreement was only fair among physicians who were not spine surgeons and among spine surgeons who were not experienced in the treatment of vertebral metastases, which may limit the use of the SINS scale for the screening of unstable lesions by less-experienced evaluators.

  6. Alcohol consumption and the neoplastic progression in Barrett's esophagus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Lou

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: In the developed countries, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC is increasing over recent decades. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to arrive at quantitative conclusions about the contribution of alcohol intakes and the progression of Barrett's esophagus. METHODS: A comprehensive, systematic bibliographic search of medical literature published up to Oct 2013 was conducted to identify relevant studies. A meta-analysis was conducted for alcohol consumption on the Barrett's esophagus progression. RESULTS: A total of 882 cases in 6,867 individuals from 14 observational studies were indemnified in this meta-analysis. The result of this current meta-analysis, including 10 case-control and 4 cohort studies, indicated that alcohol consumption was not associated with the neoplastic progression in Barrett's esophagus (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.93-1.48. When stratified by the study designs, no significant association was detected in either high vs low group or ever vs never group. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol drinking is not associated with risk of neoplastic progression in Barrett's esophagus. Further well designed studies are needed in this area.

  7. Sites of inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport in macrophage-injured neoplastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, D L; Lehninger, A L

    1982-11-01

    Previous work has shown that injury of neoplastic cells by cytotoxic macrophages (CM) in cell culture is accompanied by inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. We have investigated the nature of this inhibition by studying mitochondrial respiration in CM-injured leukemia L1210 cells permeabilized with digitonin. CM-induced injury affects the mitochondrial respiratory chain proper. Complex I (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) and complex II (succinate-coenzyme Q reductase) are markedly inhibited. In addition a minor inhibition of cytochrome oxidase was found. Electron transport from alpha-glycerophosphate through the respiratory chain to oxygen is unaffected and permeabilized CM-injured L1210 cells oxidizing this substrate exhibit acceptor control. However, glycerophosphate shuttle activity was found not to occur within CM-injured or uninjured L1210 cells in culture hence, alpha-glycerophosphate is apparently unavailable for mitochondrial oxidation in the intact cell. It is concluded that the failure of respiration of intact neoplastic cells injured by CM is caused by the nearly complete inhibition of complexes I and II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The time courses of CM-induced electron transport inhibition and arrest of L1210 cell division are examined and the possible relationship between these phenomena is discussed.

  8. Extracellular matrix in tumours as a source of additional neoplastic lesions - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madej Janusz A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The review describes the role of cells of extracellular matrix (ECM as a source of neoplastic outgrowths additional to the original tumour. The cells undergo a spontaneous transformation or stimulation by the original tumour through intercellular signals, e.g. through Shh protein (sonic hedgehog. Additionally, cells of an inflammatory infiltrate, which frequently accompany malignant tumours and particularly carcinomas, may regulate tumour cell behaviour. This is either by restricting tumour proliferation or, inversely, by induction and stimulation of the proliferation of another tumour cell type, e.g. mesenchymal cells. The latter type of tumour may involve formation of histologically differentiated stromal tumours (GIST, which probably originate from interstitial cells of Cajal in the alimentary tract. Occasionally, e.g. in gastric carcinoma, proliferation involves lymphoid follicles and lymphocytes of GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue, which gives rise to lymphoma. The process is preceded by the earlier stage of intestinal metaplasia, or is induced by gastritis alone. This is an example of primary involvement of inflammatory infiltrate cells in neoplastic progression. Despite the numerous histogenetic classifications of tumours (zygotoma benignum et zygotoma malignum, or mesenchymomata maligna et mesenchymomata benigna, currently in oncological diagnosis the view prevails that the direction of tumour differentiation and its degree of histologic malignancy (grading are more important factors than the histogenesis of the tumour.

  9. Speeding through cell cycle roadblocks: Nuclear cyclin D1-dependent kinase and neoplastic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diehl J Alan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mitogenic induction of cyclin D1, the allosteric regulator of CDK4/6, is a key regulatory event contributing to G1 phase progression. Following the G1/S transition, cyclin D1 activation is antagonized by GSK3β-dependent threonine-286 (Thr-286 phosphorylation, triggering nuclear export and subsequent cytoplasmic degradation mediated by the SCFFbx4-αBcrystallin E3 ubiquitin ligase. Although cyclin D1 overexpression occurs in numerous malignancies, overexpression of cyclin D1 alone is insufficient to drive transformation. In contrast, cyclin D1 mutants refractory to phosphorylation-dependent nuclear export and degradation are acutely transforming. This raises the question of whether overexpression of cyclin D1 is a significant contributor to tumorigenesis or an effect of neoplastic transformation. Significantly, recent work strongly supports a model wherein nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1-dependent kinase during S-phase is a critical event with regard to transformation. The identification of mutations within SCFFbx4-αBcrystallin ligase in primary tumors provides mechanistic insight into cyclin D1 accumulation in human cancer. Furthermore, analysis of mouse models expressing cyclin D1 mutants refractory to degradation indicate that nuclear cyclin D1/CDK4 kinase triggers DNA re-replication and genomic instability. Collectively, these new findings provide a mechanism whereby aberrations in post-translational regulation of cyclin D1 establish a cellular environment conducive to mutations that favor neoplastic growth.

  10. Immunohistochemistry expression of TCF4 protein on carcinoma, adenoma and non neoplastic colorectal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Huber Tauil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To detect and quantify the immunoreactivity of TCF4 protein in colorectal carci- noma, colorectal adenoma and non-neoplasic colorectal epithelium. Methods: We studied 129 individuals: 40 with colorectal cancer, 52 with colorectal ad- enoma and 37 with non-neoplastic colorectal epithelium. The colorectal adenoma and carcinoma samples were obtained from patients who underwent surgical procedures, and colonoscopies and samples of non-neoplastic colorectal epithelium were taken from patients who died from cardiovascular diseases, without diseases of the large intestine. Samples of different tissues were included in paraffin blocks, and the immunohistochem- ical expression of protein TCF4 was analyzed using the technique of tissue microarray (TMA with polyclonal antibody TCF4. The immunoreactivity was analyzed and classified as positive and negative. Results: The immunohistochemical expression of TCF4 protein was significantly higher (p < 0.01 in colorectal carcinoma than in the non-neoplastic colorectal epithelium and adenoma. There was no difference (p = 0.76 between TCF4 protein immunohistochemical expression in colorectal adenoma and non-neoplastic colorectal tissue. Conclusions: TCF4 protein showed a more intense expression in colorectal carcinoma than in non-neoplastic colorectal epithelium and adenoma, indicating that this protein is in- volved in colorectal carcinogenesis. Resumo: Objetivos: Detectar e quantificar a imunoexpressão da proteína TCF4 no carcinoma e no adenoma colorretal e no epitélio colorretal não neoplásico. Método: Foram estudados 129 indivíduos: 40 com carcinoma colorretal, 52 com adenoma colorretal e 37 com epitélio colorretal não neoplásico. Os tecidos de adenoma e carcinoma colorretais foram representados por amostras da lesão retirada de doentes submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos e colonoscópicos, e as amostras de epitélio colorretal não neo- plásico foram retiradas de doentes falecidos por

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities in patients with neoplastic meningitis. An evaluation using 111In-DTPA ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, S.A.; Trump, D.L.; Chen, D.C.; Thompson, G.; Camargo, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics were evaluated by 111 In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ( 111 In-DTPA) ventriculography in 27 patients with neoplastic meningitis. Nineteen patients (70 percent) had evidence of cerebrospinal fluid flow disturbances. These occurred as ventricular outlet obstructions, abnormalities of flow in the spinal canal, or flow distrubances over the cortical convexities. Tumor histology, physical examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, myelograms, and computerized axial tomographic scans were not sufficient to predict cerebrospinal fluid flow patterns. These data indicate that cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities are common in patients with neoplastic meningitis and that 111 In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow imaging is useful in characterizing these abnormalities. This technique provides insight into the distribution of intraventricularly administered chemotherapy and may provide explanations for treatment failure and drug-induced neurotoxicity in patients with neoplastic meningitis

  12. Gastric diffuse large B cell lymphoma presenting as para neoplastic cerebellar degeneration: Case report and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmaiah, K.C.; Viveka, B.K.; Kumar, N.A.; Saini, M.L.; Sinha, S.; Saini, K.S.

    2013-01-01

    Para neoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) is a type of para neoplastic neurological disorder (PND) that is associated with many solid tumors, Hodgkins lymphoma (HL) and very rarely with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We report a case of PCD associated with gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in a patient who presented with acute onset of giddiness and double vision and had complete remission of the gastric lesion and marked improvement of cerebellar syndrome with rituximab-based combination chemotherapy. A brief review of the literature is also presented.

  13. Biogenic amines as regulators of the proliferative activity of normal and neoplastic intestinal epithelial cells (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1987-01-01

    The role of extracellular amines such as noradrenaline and serotonin and their interaction with cyclic nucleotides and intracellular polyamines in the regulation of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation is reviewed with particular reference to the differences between normal and neoplastic cells. In respect to the normal epithelium of the small intestine there is a strong case to support the notion that cell proliferation is controlled by, amongst other things, sympathetic nerves. In colonic carcinomas, antagonists for certain serotonin receptors, for histamine H2 receptors and for dopamine D2 receptors inhibit both cell division and tumour growth. Because of the reproducible variations between tumour lines in the response to these antagonists, this inhibition appears to be due to a direct effect on the tumour cells rather than an indirect effect via the tumour host or stroma. This conclusion is supported by the cytocidal effects of toxic congeners of serotonin on the tumour cells. The most salient difference between the amine responses of normal and neoplastic cells relates to the issue of amine uptake. Proliferation of crypt cells is promoted by amine uptake inhibitors, presumably because they block amine re-uptake by the amine secreting cells--sympathetic neurones and enteroendocrine cells. However, tumour cell proliferation is strongly inhibited by amine uptake inhibitors, suggesting that neoplastic cells can, and need to take up the amine before being stimulated by it. Recent revelations in the field of oncogenes also support an important association between amines, cyclic nucleotides and cell division. The ras oncogenes code for a protein that is a member of a family of molecules which relay information from extracellular regulators, such as biogenic amines, to the intracellular regulators, including cyclic nucleotides. Evidence is presented suggesting that enteroendocrine cells, enterocytes, carcinoid tumour cells and adenocarcinoma cells all have the same

  14. Review Article: The Role of Molecular Pathological Epidemiology in the Study of Neoplastic and Non-neoplastic Diseases in the Era of Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Shuji; Nishihara, Reiko; VanderWeele, Tyler J; Wang, Molin; Nishi, Akihiro; Lochhead, Paul; Qian, Zhi Rong; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Nan, Hongmei; Yoshida, Kazuki; Milner, Danny A; Chan, Andrew T; Field, Alison E; Camargo, Carlos A; Williams, Michelle A; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-07-01

    Molecular pathology diagnostics to subclassify diseases based on pathogenesis are increasingly common in clinical translational medicine. Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) is an integrative transdisciplinary science based on the unique disease principle and the disease continuum theory. While it has been most commonly applied to research on breast, lung, and colorectal cancers, MPE can investigate etiologic heterogeneity in non-neoplastic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, drug toxicity, and immunity-related and infectious diseases. This science can enhance causal inference by linking putative etiologic factors to specific molecular biomarkers as outcomes. Technological advances increasingly enable analyses of various -omics, including genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, metagenomics, microbiome, immunomics, interactomics, etc. Challenges in MPE include sample size limitations (depending on availability of biospecimens or biomedical/radiological imaging), need for rigorous validation of molecular assays and study findings, and paucities of interdisciplinary experts, education programs, international forums, and standardized guidelines. To address these challenges, there are ongoing efforts such as multidisciplinary consortium pooling projects, the International Molecular Pathological Epidemiology Meeting Series, and the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-MPE guideline project. Efforts should be made to build biorepository and biobank networks, and worldwide population-based MPE databases. These activities match with the purposes of the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K), Genetic Associations and Mechanisms in Oncology (GAME-ON), and Precision Medicine Initiatives of the United States National Institute of Health. Given advances in biotechnology, bioinformatics, and computational/systems biology, there are wide open opportunities in MPE to contribute to public

  15. Pancreatic endocrine tumor with neoplastic venous thrombus and bilobar liver metastasis. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, L; Turrini, O; Sarran, A; Delpero, J-R

    2010-02-01

    We report the case of an asymptomatic 56-year-old woman with a metastatic pancreatic endocrine tumor, fortuitously discovered by abdominal imaging. A CT-scan showed a large mass in the pancreatic tail invading the spleen and stomach; in addition, there was neoplastic thrombus within the spleno-mesentericoportal venous confluence and bilobar liver metastases. Surgical resection was performed in two stages. The first procedure was an extended left pancreatectomy with venous thrombectomy and "clearance" of the left hepatic lobe. During the interval, embolization of the right portal vein was carried out. Right hepatectomy and radiofrequency destruction of residual metastases was then performed. On the basis of completeness of the resection and the histopathological data, the patient did not undergo any adjuvant therapy, in accordance with French guidelines. At 1 year of follow-up, there was no evidence of recurrence. (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Neoplastic Multifocal Skin Lesions: Biology, Etiology, and Targeted Therapies for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana R; Santos, Ana C; Sanchez-Lopez, Elena; Kovačević, Andjekla B; Espina, Marta; Calpena, Ana C; Veiga, Francisco J; Garcia, Maria L; Souto, Eliana B

    2018-01-01

    Neoplastic skin lesions are multifocal, diffuse skin infiltrations of particular relevance in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative, nodular, or crusting skin lesions. Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), namely, basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and also actinic keratosis (AK), are the most common malignant tumors in humans. BCCs do not proliferate rapidly and most of the times do not metastasize, while SCCs are more infiltrative, metastatic, and destructive. AKs are precursor lesions of cutaneous SCCs. The classical therapy of NMSCs makes use of photodynamic therapy associated with chemotherapeutics. With improved understanding of the pathological mechanisms of tumor initiation, progression, and differentiation, a case is made towards the use of targeted chemotherapy with the intent to reduce the cytotoxicity of classical treatments. The present review aims to describe the current state of the art on the knowledge of NMSC, including its risks factors, oncogenes, and skin carcinogenesis, discussing the classical therapy against new therapeutic options. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Expression of the α2-macroglobulin receptor on human neoplastic fibroblastoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grofova, M.; Matoska, J.; Bies, J.; Bizik, J.; Vaheri, A.

    1995-01-01

    The α 2 -macroglobulin membrane-associated receptor ( α 2 MR) has been previously detected on hepatocytes, fibroblast, macrophages, syncytiotrophoblasts and recently on human malignant blood cells of myelomonocytic leukemia. In cells growing in vitro from human germ cell tumors α 2 MR mRNA was detected by Northern blotting. Endocytosis of α 2 MR from culture medium was detected in these cells by indirect immunofluorescence. In cell extracts α 2 MR and its degradation products were detected by immunoblotting. The cells expressing α 2 MR and internalizing α 2 MR were identified as fibroblast both by their morphology and expression of vimentin intermediate filaments. The role and function of α 2 MR receptor in the analyzed neoplastic cells of teratomatous origin is discussed. (author)

  18. Compact energy dispersive X-ray microdiffractometer for diagnosis of neoplastic tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, C.; Malezan, A.; Poletti, M. E.; Perez, R. D.

    2017-08-01

    An energy dispersive X-ray microdiffractometer with capillary optics has been developed for characterizing breast cancer. The employment of low divergence capillary optics helps to reduce the setup size to a few centimeters, while providing a lateral spatial resolution of 100 μm. The system angular calibration and momentum transfer resolution were assessed by a detailed study of a polycrystalline reference material. The performance of the system was tested by means of the analysis of tissue-equivalent samples previously characterized by conventional X-ray diffraction. In addition, a simplified correction model for an appropriate comparison of the diffraction spectra was developed and validated. Finally, the system was employed to evaluate normal and neoplastic human breast samples, in order to determine their X-ray scatter signatures. The initial results indicate that the use of this compact energy dispersive X-ray microdiffractometer combined with a simplified correction procedure is able to provide additional information to breast cancer diagnosis.

  19. Comparison of radiosensitivities of human autologous normal and neoplastic thyroid epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.C.; Kopecky, K.J.; Hiraoka, T.; Ezaki, H.; Clifton, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were conducted to examine differences between the radiosensitivities of normal and neoplastic epithelial cells of the human thyroid. Freshly excised thyroid tissues from the tumours of eight patients with papillary carcinoma (PC) and five with follicular adenoma (FA) were cultured in vitro separately from normal thyroid tissue obtained from the surgical margins of the same patients. Plating efficiency of unirradiated control tissue was lower, on average for tumour tissue compared with normal tissue. Radiosensitivity, measured by the 37% inactivation dose D 0 , was greater for carcinoma tissue than for normal tissue in seven out of eight PC cases. Adenomatous tissue was less radiosensitive than normal tissue in four out of five FA cases. This is the first report comparing the radiosensitivity of autologous normal and abnormal epithelial tissue from the human thyroid. (author)

  20. Screening colonoscopy for the detection of neoplastic lesions in asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, E J; Green, B; Poles, M A

    2009-08-01

    Although non-AIDS defining malignancies are rapidly increasing as HIV-infected subjects live longer, little is know about the results of screening for colonic neoplasms (adenomatous polyps and adenocarcinomas) in this population. We conducted a screening colonoscopy study to determine the prevalence of colonic neoplasms in 136 asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects >or=50 years of age and 272 asymptomatic uninfected control subjects matched for age, sex, and family history of colorectal cancer. Advanced neoplasms were defined as adenomas >or=10 mm or any adenoma, regardless of size, with villous histology, high-grade dysplasia, or adenocarcinoma. The prevalence of neoplastic lesions was significantly higher in HIV-infected subjects than in control subjects (62.5% vs 41.2%, pscreening colonoscopy should be offered to HIV-infected subjects, but the age of initiation and the optimal frequency of screening require further study.

  1. Neoplastic transformation of hamster embryo cells irradiated in utero and assayed in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.; Pain, C.; Mason, H.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that induction of neoplastic transformation in vitro by x-rays and neutrons has been reported, and the authors had previously found that transformation by x-rays could be detected at doses as low as 1 R and the rate of transformation increased with dose, reaching a peak of 1% between 150 and 300 R. This frequency of neoplastic transformation in vitro is much higher than the frequency of radiation induced tumors observed after exposing animals to similar doses of radiation. Studies are here reported showing that malignant transformed cells can be obtained from embryos irradiated in utero and assayed in vitro, and that the frequency of transformation is at least tenfold lower than when the irradiations are performed in vitro, and thus closer to the incidence in animals. Hamster embryo cells were used for the studies. Questions that arise are as follows: does the host mediate in modulating transformation by radiation; is there a repair of transforming events before they can be expressed; and how significant is the state of cells during irradiation in determining the rate of transformation. It is known from in vitro studies that cell replication is required for fixation of the transformation. With the in vitro technique cells are seeded as single cells with ample opportunity to divide. In addition they are not in contact with one another, and constitute a mixture of cell types from many tissues. In utero the situation is quite different; the embryonic cells are irradiated as tissues where there is cell to cell contact in tissue-specific arrangements, and where the rate of cell replication varies with the tissue. It remains to be seen which of these factors, if any, is responsible for the lowered yield of transformed cells characteristic of in utero as opposed to in vitro irradiation. (U.K.)

  2. Cerebellar hemangioblastomas: A study of the immunoprofile of neoplastic stromal component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Desanka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Central nervous system hemangioblastomas (HBs are uncommon highly vascularized tumors that are predominantly found in the cerebellum. They occur sporadically or in association with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease. HBs are of unknown histogenesis, and the origin of stromal cells is still a subject of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunoprofile of neoplastic stromal component, and to determine whether the profile of the expression of immunomarkers used can contribute to the elucidation of the histogenesis of HBs. Methods. A series of eight cerebellar HBs were histochemically examined for the detection of mast cells and immunohistochemically for the expression of factor VIII-related antigen (FVIII-RAg, CD34, vimentin, factor XIIIa (FXIIIa, S-100 protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, neuron-specific enolase (NSE neurofilaments (NF, synaptophysin, chromogranin, and somatostatin. Results. Mast cells were present in all hemangioblastomas, and were particularly abundant in one tumor. Immunohistochemically, intense reactivity for vimentin and NSE in the stromal cells was constantly seen. Immunoreactivity with S-100 protein and FXIIIa was variable, but generally many HBs stromal cells were negative for these markers. However, stromal cells were uniformly negative for FVIII-RAg in all HBs investigated. They were negative for CD34 GFAP, NF, synaptophysin, chromogranin, as well as somatostatin. GFAP-positivity of the occasional stromal type cells, located only peripherally, was interpreted as "pseudopositivity". Conclusion. The immunoprofile of neoplastic stromal component in this study suggested a possible origin from undifferentiated multipotential mesenchymal cells. High expression of NSE (glycolytic and hypoxia-inducible enzyme in the HBs stromal cells might be related to the loss of the VHL protein function.

  3. SV40 T antigen alone drives karyotype instability that precedes neoplastic transformation of human diploid fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, F A; Peabody, D S; Cooper, J L; Cram, L S; Kraemer, P M

    1990-01-01

    To define the role of SV40 large T antigen in the transformation and immortalization of human cells, we have constructed a plasmid lacking most of the unique coding sequences of small t antigen as well as the SV40 origin of replication. The promoter for T antigen, which lies within the origin of replication, was deleted and replaced by the Rous sarcoma virus promoter. This minimal construct was co-electroporated into normal human fibroblasts of neonatal origin along with a plasmid containing the neomycin resistance gene (neo). Three G418-resistant, T antigen-positive clones were expanded and compared to three T antigen-positive clones that received the pSV3neo plasmid (capable of expressing large and small T proteins and having two origins of replication). Autonomous replication of plasmid DNA was observed in all three clones that received pSV3neo but not in any of the three origin minus clones. Immediately after clonal expansion, several parameters of neoplastic transformation were assayed. Low percentages of cells in T antigen-positive populations were anchorage independent or capable of forming colonies in 1% fetal bovine serum. The T antigen-positive clones generally exhibited an extended lifespan in culture but rarely became immortalized. Large numbers of dead cells were continually generated in all T antigen-positive, pre-crisis populations. Ninety-nine percent of all T antigen-positive cells had numerical or structural chromosome aberrations. Control cells that received the neo gene did not have an extended life span, did not have noticeable numbers of dead cells, and did not exhibit karyotype instability. We suggest that the role of T antigen protein in the transformation process is to generate genetic hypervariability, leading to various consequences including neoplastic transformation and cell death.

  4. Association Between Telomere Length and Risk of Cancer and Non-Neoplastic Diseases: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haycock, P.C.; Burgess, S.; Nounu, A.; Zheng, J.; Okoli, G.N.; Bowden, J.; Wade, K.H.; Timpson, N.J.; Evans, D.M.; Willeit, P.; Aviv, A.; Gaunt, T.R.; Hemani, G.; Mangino, M.; Ellis, H.P.; Kurian, K.M.; Pooley, K.A.; Eeles, R.A.; Lee, J.E.; Fang, S.; Chen, W.V.; Law, M.H.; Bowdler, L.M.; Iles, M.M.; Yang, Q.; Worrall, B.B.; Markus, H.S.; Hung, R.J.; Amos, C.I.; Spurdle, A.B.; Thompson, D.J.; O'Mara, T.A.; Wolpin, B.; Amundadottir, L.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, R.; Trichopoulou, A.; Onland-Moret, N.C.; Lund, E.; Duell, E.J.; Canzian, F.; Severi, G.; Overvad, K.; Gunter, M.J.; Tumino, R.; Svenson, U.; Rij, A. van; Baas, A.F.; Bown, M.J.; Samani, N.J.; t'Hof, F.N.G. van; Tromp, G.; Jones, G.T.; Kuivaniemi, H.; Elmore, J.R.; Johansson, M.; McKay, J.; Scelo, G.; Carreras-Torres, R.; Gaborieau, V.; Brennan, P.; Bracci, P.M.; Neale, R.E.; Olson, S.H.; Gallinger, S.; Li, D.; Petersen, G.M.; Risch, H.A.; Klein, A.P.; Han, J.; Abnet, C.C.; Freedman, N.D.; Taylor, P.R.; Maris, J.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Vermeulen, S.H.; Wiencke, J.K.; Walsh, K.M.; Wrensch, M.; Rice, T.; Turnbull, C.; Litchfield, K.; Paternoster, L.; Standl, M.; Abecasis, G.R.; SanGiovanni, J.P.; Li, Y.; Mijatovic, V.; Sapkota, Y.; Low, S.K.; Zondervan, K.T.; Montgomery, G.W.; Nyholt, D.R.; Heel, D.A. van; Hunt, K.; Arking, D.E.; Ashar, F.N.; Sotoodehnia, N.; Woo, D.; et al.,

    2017-01-01

    Importance: The causal direction and magnitude of the association between telomere length and incidence of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases is uncertain owing to the susceptibility of observational studies to confounding and reverse causation. Objective: To conduct a Mendelian randomization study,

  5. Detection of immune complexes in sera of dogs with rheumatic and neoplastic diseases by 125I-Clq binding test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terman, D.S.; Moore, D.; Collins, J.; Johnston, B.; Person, D.; Templeton, J.; Poser, R.; Quinby, F.

    1979-01-01

    Some canine rheumatic and neoplastic diseases bear a striking clinical and serological resemblance to their counterparts in man. In the present study, human 125 I-Clq was employed in a radioimmunoassay for detection of immune complexes in sera of normal dogs and those with rheumatic and neoplastic diseases. Human 125 I-Clq showed binding of 16.7 +- 5.73% in a group of normal dog sera with binding of 32.5 +- 17.3% and 43.0 +- 16.0% in sera of dogs with rheumatic and neoplastic diseases. respectively. Human 125 I-Clq bound similar quantities of heat-aggregated canine and human gamma-globulin over a broad range of concentrations and human 125 I-Clq binding in canine sera was effectively inhibited by similar quantities of heat aggregated canine and human gamma-globulin. Seven of 12 dogs with elevated levels of Clq binding had active clinical and serological rheumatic disease (SLE or rheumatoid arthritis), while none of 7 dogs with values within the normal range had active clinical disease. All 5 dogs with widespread osteogenic sarcoma and all 4 dogs with high grade adenocarcinoma of the mammary gland had elevated Clq binding values while 2 animals with low grade malignancies without evident metastases did not. Thus, it appears that human 125 I-Clq may be employed to assay immune complexes in canine sera and may be a valuable technique for the study of dogs with various rheumatic and neoplastic diseases. (author)

  6. Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis with prominent papillary structure and clear neoplastic cells: Morphologic and immunohistochemical findings and differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Wen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis is rare, and its etiology is unknown. The definite diagnosis merely depends on the exclusion of other tumors and histological features. We first describe a 38-year-old man with a carcinoma arising in the rete testis. The tumor was characterized by clear neoplastic cells and branching papillary growth. Focal stromal invasion and transition of normal rete epithelium to neoplastic cells were seen. The neoplastic cells were positive for epithelial membrane antigen, Ber-Ep4, vimentin, renal cell carcinoma marker, and CD10, while negative for Wilms′ tumor 1, thyroid transcription factor-1, estrogen receptor, prostate specific antigen, placental alkaline phosphate, CD117, and alpha-1-fetoprotein. According to the above features, we diagnosed this tumor as adenocarcinoma of the rete testis. To our best knowledge, this is the first reported case of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis with prominently papillary structure and clear neoplastic cells. The rarity of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis and the unique features in our case cause diagnostic pitfalls. A complete clinicopathological study and thorough differential diagnosis are crucial for the correct result.

  7. Case of a rare type of non-neoplastic mucinous pancreatic cyst – likely new pathological entity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilendarov, A.; Nedeva, M.; Belovejdov, V.; Aleksieva, D.; Sirakov, N.

    2013-01-01

    Full text:Introduction: The cystic lesions of the pancreas consists of a range of pathologies which may be broadly divided into neoplastic, non- neoplastic and cysts. Recently a new non-neoplastic cystic lesions, called mucinous non-neoplastic cysts, have been described. Materials and Methods: The imaging methods (ultrasound and CT ) were used as well as invasive imaging methods under image control with a view of the histological verification of the diagnosis. A case of pancreatic cystic lesion is described, accidentally detected by ultrasound and CT scan made for different purpose. Results : The finding was a 28/32 mm cyst in the body of the pancreas, apparently communicating with the pancreatic duct . The Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography and laboratory tests of liver function, serum CEA and carbohydrate antigen C19 -9 were within normal limits. After the distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy the lasting histological specimen showed a simple cyst, lined with mucinous epithelium. Conclusion: The presented case guides the imaging diagnosticians and surgeons towards seeking a thorough preoperative clarification of pancreatic cystic lesions. It is recommended that patients diagnosed with 'benign' mucinous neoplasm are closely monitored due to the inability to completely confirm the benign nature of the lesion

  8. Single-Cell RNA-Seq Analysis of Infiltrating Neoplastic Cells at the Migrating Front of Human Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Darmanis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common primary brain cancer in adults and is notoriously difficult to treat because of its diffuse nature. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq on 3,589 cells in a cohort of four patients. We obtained cells from the tumor core as well as surrounding peripheral tissue. Our analysis revealed cellular variation in the tumor’s genome and transcriptome. We were also able to identify infiltrating neoplastic cells in regions peripheral to the core lesions. Despite the existence of significant heterogeneity among neoplastic cells, we found that infiltrating GBM cells share a consistent gene signature between patients, suggesting a common mechanism of infiltration. Additionally, in investigating the immunological response to the tumors, we found transcriptionally distinct myeloid cell populations residing in the tumor core and the surrounding peritumoral space. Our data provide a detailed dissection of GBM cell types, revealing an abundance of information about tumor formation and migration. : Darmanis et al. perform single-cell transcriptomic analyses of neoplastic and stromal cells within and proximal to primary glioblastomas. The authors describe a population of neoplastic-infiltrating glioblastoma cells as well as a putative role of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in supporting tumor growth. Keywords: single cell, RNA-seq, glioma, glioblastoma, GBM, brain, heterogeneity, infiltrating, diffuse, checkpoint

  9. Study on the measurement of serum thymidine kinase and its clinical significance in hematological neoplastic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torizumi, Kazutami; Aibata, Hirofumi; Yamada, Ryusaku; Shimizu, Eiji; Okamoto, Yukiharu; Tsujimoto, Masato; Tsuda, Tadaaki; Ota, Kiichiro

    1988-06-01

    A 'Prolifigen TK-REA' kit for measuring serum thymidine kinase (TK) was fundamentally and clinically evaluated. Laboratory findings for recovery, dilution, and reproducibility were satisfactory. There was no correlation between serum TK activity and serum lactic dehydrogenase, carcinoembryonic antigen, or ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein. The serum concentration of TK in normal volunteers ranged from 1.6 to 6.5 U/L. It was extremely high for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), as compared to the normal value. In the AML group, higher incidence of blasts in peripheral blood tended to be associated with higher serum concentration of TK. A similar tendency was seen in the case of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and myelodysplasia syndrome (MDS). A positive correlation between serum TK activity and the absolute counts of myeloblasts in peripheral blood existed in CML and AML patients. Since patients with hematological neoplastic disorders, who have abnormality in DNA metabolism, tended to have higher serum TK activity than did normal volunteers, serum TK activity may have a potential marker for abnormal DNA metabolism. (Namekawa, K.).

  10. Characterizing interspecies uncertainty using data from studies of anti-neoplastic agents in animals and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Paul S.; Keenan, Russell E.; Swartout, Jeffrey C.

    2008-01-01

    For most chemicals, the Reference Dose (RfD) is based on data from animal testing. The uncertainty introduced by the use of animal models has been termed interspecies uncertainty. The magnitude of the differences between the toxicity of a chemical in humans and test animals and its uncertainty can be investigated by evaluating the inter-chemical variation in the ratios of the doses associated with similar toxicological endpoints in test animals and humans. This study performs such an evaluation on a data set of 64 anti-neoplastic drugs. The data set provides matched responses in humans and four species of test animals: mice, rats, monkeys, and dogs. While the data have a number of limitations, the data show that when the drugs are evaluated on a body weight basis: 1) toxicity generally increases with a species' body weight; however, humans are not always more sensitive than test animals; 2) the animal to human dose ratios were less than 10 for most, but not all, drugs; 3) the current practice of using data from multiple species when setting RfDs lowers the probability of having a large value for the ratio. These findings provide insight into inter-chemical variation in animal to human extrapolations and suggest the need for additional collection and analysis of matched toxicity data in humans and test animals

  11. Imaging the cranial nerves: part II: primary and secondary neoplastic conditions and neurovascular conflicts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil- Centro de Lisboa, Radiology Department, Lisboa Codex (Portugal); Casselman, Jan [A. Z. St Jan Brugge and A. Z. St Augustinus Antwerpen Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-09-15

    There have been unprecedented improvements in cross-sectional imaging in the last decades. The emergence of volumetric CT, higher field MR scanners and higher resolution MR sequences is largely responsible for the increasing diagnostic yield of imaging in patients presenting with cranial nerve deficits. The introduction of parallel MR imaging in combination with small surface coils allows the depiction of submillimetric nerves and nerve branches, and volumetric CT and MR imaging is able to provide high quality multiplanar and curved reconstructions that can follow the often complex course of cranial nerves. Seeking the cause of a cranial nerve deficit is a common indication for imaging, and it is not uncommon that radiologists are the first specialists to see a patient with a cranial neuropathy. To increase the diagnostic yield of imaging, high-resolution studies with smaller fields of view are required. To keep imaging studies within a reasonable time frame, it is mandatory to tailor the study according to neuro-topographic testing. This review article focuses on the contribution of current imaging techniques in the depiction of primary and secondary neoplastic conditions affecting the cranial nerves as well as on neurovascular conflicts, an increasingly recognized cause of cranial neuralgias. (orig.)

  12. Possible error-prone repair of neoplastic transformation induced by fission-spectrum neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, C K; Han, A; Elkind, M M

    1948-01-01

    An examination was made of the effect of fission-spectrum neutrons from the JANUS reactor at Argonne National Laboratory, delivered either as acute or protracted irradiation, on the incidence of neoplastic transformation in the C3H 10T1/2 mouse embryo cell line. Acute exposures were delivered at 10-38 cGy min/sup -1/, protracted exposures at 0.086 or 0.43 cGy min/sup -1/. The total doses for both ranged from 2.4 to 350 cGy. In the low dose region (2.4-80 cGy), there was a large enhancement in transformation frequency when the neutrons were delivered at the low dose rates compared with the high dose rates, but the survival of the cells was not significantly different between the two exposures conditions. Analysis of the intial parts of the curves shows that the regression line for protracted doses is about 9 times steeper than that for single acute exposures. Finally, the possibility is discussed that an ''error-prone'' repair process may be causing the enhanced transformation frequency by protracted neutron exposures.

  13. Osteogenic tumour in Australopithecus sediba: Earliest hominin evidence for neoplastic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S. Randolph-Quinney

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe the earliest evidence for neoplastic disease in the hominin lineage. This is reported from the type specimen of the extinct hominin Australopithecus sediba from Malapa, South Africa, dated to 1.98 million years ago. The affected individual was male and developmentally equivalent to a human child of 12 to 13 years of age. A penetrating lytic lesion affected the sixth thoracic vertebra. The lesion was macroscopically evaluated and internally imaged through phase-contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography. A comprehensive differential diagnosis was undertaken based on gross- and micro-morphology of the lesion, leading to a probable diagnosis of osteoid osteoma. These neoplasms are solitary, benign, osteoid and bone-forming tumours, formed from well-vascularised connective tissue within which there is active production of osteoid and woven bone. Tumours of any kind are rare in archaeological populations, and are all but unknown in the hominin record, highlighting the importance of this discovery. The presence of this disease at Malapa predates the earliest evidence of malignant neoplasia in the hominin fossil record by perhaps 200 000 years.

  14. Diagnostic Accuracy of CT in Paediatric Intracranial Neoplastic Lesions - Radiologic and Pathologic Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, A.

    2011-01-01

    The frequency of paediatric tumours in developing countries could be attributed to the increased percentage (39% of total population of children) in the overall population. Therefore, extensive researches should be under taken in the field of Paediatric Oncology in the third world. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the diagnostic accuracy of CT by comparing the pre-operative radiological findings of paediatric brain tumours with post-operative histopathological findings on the basis of characteristic radiological features of various tumours. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital based prospective, cross-sectional and descriptive study carried out in Radiology Dept, KEMU / Mayo Hospital, Lahore. Study was conducted over a period of 3 years from June 2005 till June 2008 and comprised of 100 cases of paediatric brain tumours up to 12 years of age. Cases were also collected from Mayo and Children Hospital, Lahore. Results: Topographically, supratentorial tumours were found more than infratentorial 55 : 45. Low grade were more common than high grade 73 : 27. The most common tumour was astrocytoma with 52 cases. Medulloblastoma ranked the second with 16 cases followed by craniopharyngioma with 12 cases. Conclusion: The diagnostic accuracy of CT scan was found to be 83% when correlated with histopathology. CT proved fairly accurate in detection of paediatric intracranial neoplastic lesions. As CT is relatively commonly available inexpensive modality than MRI so it can be used as non invasive imaging modality. (author)

  15. Imaging the cranial nerves: part II: primary and secondary neoplastic conditions and neurovascular conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandra; Casselman, Jan

    2007-01-01

    There have been unprecedented improvements in cross-sectional imaging in the last decades. The emergence of volumetric CT, higher field MR scanners and higher resolution MR sequences is largely responsible for the increasing diagnostic yield of imaging in patients presenting with cranial nerve deficits. The introduction of parallel MR imaging in combination with small surface coils allows the depiction of submillimetric nerves and nerve branches, and volumetric CT and MR imaging is able to provide high quality multiplanar and curved reconstructions that can follow the often complex course of cranial nerves. Seeking the cause of a cranial nerve deficit is a common indication for imaging, and it is not uncommon that radiologists are the first specialists to see a patient with a cranial neuropathy. To increase the diagnostic yield of imaging, high-resolution studies with smaller fields of view are required. To keep imaging studies within a reasonable time frame, it is mandatory to tailor the study according to neuro-topographic testing. This review article focuses on the contribution of current imaging techniques in the depiction of primary and secondary neoplastic conditions affecting the cranial nerves as well as on neurovascular conflicts, an increasingly recognized cause of cranial neuralgias. (orig.)

  16. Genetic Dissociation of Glycolysis and the TCA Cycle Affects Neither Normal nor Neoplastic Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Laura E; Kulkarni, Sucheta; Wang, Huabo; Lu, Jie; Dolezal, James M; Bharathi, Sivakama S; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Patel, Mulchand S; Deshpande, Rahul; Alencastro, Frances; Wendell, Stacy G; Goetzman, Eric S; Duncan, Andrew W; Prochownik, Edward V

    2017-11-01

    Rapidly proliferating cells increase glycolysis at the expense of oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos) to generate sufficient levels of glycolytic intermediates for use as anabolic substrates. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a critical mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes pyruvate's conversion to acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA), thereby connecting these two pathways in response to complex energetic, enzymatic, and metabolic cues. Here we utilized a mouse model of hepatocyte-specific PDC inactivation to determine the need for this metabolic link during normal hepatocyte regeneration and malignant transformation. In PDC "knockout" (KO) animals, the long-term regenerative potential of hepatocytes was unimpaired, and growth of aggressive experimental hepatoblastomas was only modestly slowed in the face of 80%-90% reductions in AcCoA and significant alterations in the levels of key tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and amino acids. Overall, oxphos activity in KO livers and hepatoblastoma was comparable with that of control counterparts, with evidence that metabolic substrate abnormalities were compensated for by increased mitochondrial mass. These findings demonstrate that the biochemical link between glycolysis and the TCA cycle can be completely severed without affecting normal or neoplastic proliferation, even under the most demanding circumstances. Cancer Res; 77(21); 5795-807. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. The effects of environmental deuterium on normal and neoplastic cultured cell development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bild, W.; Schuller, T.; Zhihai, Qin; Blankenstein, T.; Nastasa, V.; Haulica, I.

    2000-01-01

    The powdered culture media (RPMI - 1640) were reconstituted either with normal distilled water (150 ppm deuterium) either with deuterium - depleted water (DDW) in various concentrations (30, 60, 90 ppm) and sterilized by filtration with 0.2 μm filters. The cell lines used were NIH (normal mouse fibroblasts), RAG (mouse renal carcinoma) and TS/A (mouse mammary adenocarcinoma). In auxiliary tests, BAIBC mouse splenocytes in direct culture were used, stimulated for growth with concanavalin A or LPS (bacterial lipopolysaccharide). The estimation of the growth was made using the MTT assay or direct counting with trypan blue exclusion. The following results were obtained: Deuterium - depleted water had a stimulating effect on cell growth, the most important stimulating action being from the 90 ppm deuterium-water. The growth curves show, in a first phase, a stimulation of the rapid -growing neoplastic cells, followed by a slower growth of the normal cells. Amiloride 100 mM blocking of the Na + /K + membrane pump did not affect the cell growth curves, while the lansoprazole 100 mM blocking of the K + /H + ATP-ase brought the growth curves at the level of those with normal water. This might show an eventual involvement of the K + /H + antiport in the stimulating effects of the DDW. (authors)

  18. The difficulties of pseudo-Cushing's syndrome (or "non-neoplastic hypercortisolism").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabre, Olivier

    2018-06-01

    Pseudo-Cushing's syndrome covers different pathological conditions responsible for mild-to-moderate ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism, related not to an ACTH-secreting tumor but rather to CRH and/or AVP hypothalamic secretion through activation of various neural pathways, in patients generally displaying excess central adiposity. It is better termed "non-neoplastic hypercortisolism" (NNH). The main conditions implicated in NNH comprise: neuropsychiatric disorder, alcohol abuse, insulin-resistant obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, and end-stage kidney disease. Glucocorticoid resistance is one differential diagnosis, as are some cases of primary adrenal disease with incompletely suppressed ACTH. Differentiating between NNH and mild-to-moderate Cushing's disease can be a real challenge. Clinical analysis, based on thorough history taking and screening for catabolic signs is essential; useful explorations include midnight serum or salivary cortisol and Dex/CRH and ddAVP stimulation response. Pituitary MRI suffers from limitations regarding both sensitivity and specificity, while bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling cannot distinguish between pituitary ACTH secretion by a tumor or by normal cells stimulated by endogenous CRH. Definitive diagnosis of functional etiology requires demonstrating that treatment of the underlying condition restores normal secretion of ACTH and cortisol, but this is not always possible. Lingering diagnostic uncertainty has to be accepted in certain patients, who will have to be followed up for some time before diagnosis can be considered more or less definitive. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Ozone acts alone and synergistically with ionizing radiation to induce in vitro neoplastic transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borek, C; Zaider, M; Ong, A; Mason, H; Witz, G

    1986-09-01

    Ozone, a major chemical oxidant in the atmosphere, is an environmental air pollutant whose ability to act as a direct carcinogen is unclear. Using in vitro transformation, a technique which permits the study of oncogenesis in the absence of host specific effects, it is reported for the first time that ozone (5 p.p.m. for 5 min) induces neoplastic transformation in vitro in both primary hamster embryo cells and mouse fibroblast cultures (C3H/10-1/2). Exposure of the hamster and mouse cells to ozone also results in enhanced levels of free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation products. The carcinogenic interaction between ozone and ionizing radiation is also reported. Exposure of the cells to 3 or 4 Gy of ..gamma..-rays, 2 h prior to O/sub 3/ treatment, results in markedly enhanced rates of transformation, statistically consistent with a synergistic interaction between the agents. The results demonstrate that O/sub 3/ acts as a direct carcinogen and co-carcinogen on susceptible cells, therefore having important consequences for public health.

  20. Complications after tracheal and cricotracheal resection and anastomosis for inflammatory and neoplastic stenoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Cesare; Del Bon, Francesca; Paderno, Alberto; Grazioli, Paola; Mangili, Stefano; Lombardi, Davide; Nicolai, Piero; Peretti, Giorgio

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate complications and success rates of tracheal resection and anastomosis (TRA) and cricotracheal resection and anastomosis (CTRA) in patients treated in 2 academic institutions. Retrospective charts review of 137 patients submitted to TRA/CTRA. Fifty (36.5%) had neoplastic (group A) and 87 (63.5%) benign (group B) stenoses. Using univariate analysis, age, medical comorbidities, previous radiotherapy, type of TRA/CTRA, association with neck dissection and thyroidectomy, length of resected airway, and preoperative tracheotomy were evaluated to identify factors predictive of complications and outcomes. The mean length of resected airway was 2.7 and 3 cm in groups A and B, respectively. Overall decannulation and complication rates for group A were 96% and 36%, and 99% and 46% for group B, respectively. Length of airway resected and presence of preoperative tracheotomy had a statistically significant effect on major surgical complications. Age older than 70 and cardiovascular and pulmonary comorbidities were significantly associated with the incidence of major medical complications. No statistically significant difference was found considering the complication rates of group A versus group B. Even though the overall success rate of TRA/CTRA is high, it should always be regarded as a major surgical procedure with a non-negligible incidence of complications. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Is there an association with constitutional structural chromosomal abnormalities and hematologic neoplastic process? A short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panani, Anna D

    2009-04-01

    The occasional observation of constitutional chromosomal abnormalities in patients with a malignant disease has led to a number of studies on their potential role in cancer development. Investigations of families with hereditary cancers and constitutional chromosomal abnormalities have been key observations leading to the molecular identification of specific genes implicated in tumorigenesis. Large studies have been reported on the incidence of constitutional chromosomal aberrations in patients with hematologic malignancies, but they could not confirm an increased risk for hematologic malignancy among carriers of structural chromosomal changes. However, it is of particular interest that constitutional structural aberrations with breakpoints similar to leukemia-associated specific breakpoints have been reported in patients with hematologic malignancies. Because of insufficient data, it remains still unclear if these aberrations represent random events or are associated with malignancy. There has been a substantial discussion about mechanisms involved in constitutional structural chromosomal changes in the literature. The documentation of more patients with constitutional structural chromosomal changes could be of major importance. Most importantly, the molecular investigation of chromosomal regions involved in rearrangements could give useful information on the genetic events underlying constitutional anomalies, contributing to isolation of genes important in the development of the neoplastic process. Regarding constitutional anomalies in patients with hematologic disorders, a survey of the cytogenetic data of our cytogenetics unit is herein also presented.

  2. [Microsatellite instability and human papilloma virus genotypes in preneoplastic and neoplastic uterine cervix lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa S, Juan Carlos; Martínez S, Ricardo; Montenegro, Sonia; Roa E, Iván; Capurro V, Italo; Ibacache S, Gilda; Melo A, Angélica

    2007-01-01

    The association between some specific human papilloma virus (HPV) types and cervix cancer is well known. However, the genetic conditions that favor the development of cervical cancer are less well known. To determine the presence of satellite instability (MSI) in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the cervix and correlate these findings with HPV genotypes. Biopsy samples of cervical lesions were studied. Sixteen had low grade lesions, 22 had high grade lesions and 28 had an epidermoid cancer. Viral types were identified with polymerase chain reaction, dot-blot hybridization and restriction fragment length polymorphism. MSI was determined using a panel of eight highly informative microsatellites. Microsatellite instability in at least one locus was observed in 91, 56 and 69% of low grade lesions, high grade lesions and epidermoid carcinomas, respectively. MSI-High grade, MSI-Low grade instability and microsatellite stability were observed in 5, 60 and 46% of samples, respectively. Two of three samples with high grade instability had HPV 52 genotype. Other viral subtypes had frequencies that ranged from 78% to 100%, with the exception of HPV16 that was present in only 53% of samples with low grade instability. Two thirds of biopsy samples from cervical lesions had MSI, mechanism that can be involved in the first stages of cervical carcinogenesis. The low frequency of high grade instability, its association with HPV52 and the low frequency of HPV16 in samples with low grade instability, suggest different coadjutant mechanisms in cervical carcinogenesis.

  3. Biochemical aspects of the neoplastic cell in relation to positive indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, R.

    1975-01-01

    In scintigraphic diagnoses with positive indicators, the capacity of these indicators to fix themselves or to selectively concentrate in the neoplastic tissue is utilized. This selectivity could be due to several biochemical peculiarities of the tumor cells in relation to surrounding cells: the presence on the membrane of particular chemical groups which allow these cells to invade adjacent tissue without being subject to contact inhibition; the presence on these same membranes of antigenic determinants which are particular to these cells and which can be revealed with specific antibodies; a high concentration of nucleic acid in tumor cells, with the associated possibility of fixing substances having a particular tropism for nucleic acids or for their chemical constituents; an elevated rate of nucleic acid synthesis, with an associated increase in the incorporation of precursors and also of substances which specifically interfere with this biochemical pathway; in numerous cases, tumor cells produce high quantities of acidic metabolites which must be neutralized by equivalent quantities of anions, the latter entering the cells by active transport phenomena; in tumors which develop particularly rapidly, there is a development of degenerative processes with an accumulation of degradation products; in metastatic tumors, the cells have metabolic and biosynthetic activities which are a function of the original tissue, with the possiblity of a clear metabolic difference in relation to adjacent tissues [fr

  4. SMAD family proteins: the current knowledge on their expression and potential role in neoplastic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Witkowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β plays a crucial role and takes part in many processes in the human body both in physiology and pathology. This cytokine is involved in angiogenesis, regulates apoptosis and stimulates divisions of cells, such as hepatocytes, lymphocytes or hematopoietic cells. SMAD proteins family is a unique group of particles responsible for transducting the signal induced by TGF-β into the nucleus. This molecules, after receiving a signal from activated TGF-β, act on transcription factors in the nucleus, leading directly to the expression of the corresponding genes. According to current knowledge, disturbances in the functioning of SMAD proteins are present in a number of diseases. The reduced expression was observed, for example in cardiovascular diseases such as primary pulmonary hypertension or myocardial infarction, autoimmune diseases for instance systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease or osteoporosis. The latest clinical data showed the presence of mutations in SMAD proteins in cancerogenesis. Mutation of SMAD-4 protein can be detected in half of the patients with pancreatic cancer, 20% of patients with colorectal cancer and 10% of patients with lung cancer. However, mutation in SMAD-2 protein was observed in 7% of both patients with colorectal cancer and lung cancer. On the basis of numerous works, SMAD protein expression would be valuable prognostic factor in some of neoplastic diseases.

  5. Study of electron densities of normal and neoplastic human breast tissues by Compton scattering using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceição, A.L.C.; Poletti, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Electron densities of 33 samples of normal (adipose and fibroglangular) and neoplastic (benign and malignant) human breast tissues were determined through Compton scattering data using a monochromatic synchrotron radiation source and an energy dispersive detector. The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of the samples. Adipose tissue exhibits the lowest values of electron density whereas malignant tissue the highest. The relationship with their histology was discussed. Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%. - Highlights: ► Electron density of normal and neoplastic breast tissues was measured using Compton scattering. ► Monochromatic synchrotron radiation was used to obtain the Compton scattering data. ► The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of samples. ► Adipose tissue shows the lowest electron density values whereas the malignant tissue the highest. ► Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%.

  6. Age and Spatial Peculiarities of Non-neoplastic Diseases of the Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue in Kazakhstan, 2003–2015

    OpenAIRE

    IGISSINOV, Nurbek; KULMIRZAYEVA, Dariyana; BILYALOVA, Zarina; AKPOLATOVA, Gulnur; MAMYRBAYEVA, Marzya; ZHUMAGALIYEVA, Galina

    2017-01-01

    Background: Arrangement of effective management aimed at improving dermatological services and consistent care of patients with skin diseases depends on understanding the epidemiological situation. Methods: This retrospective study presents an epidemiological assessment of non-neoplastic skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases in Kazakhstan registered in 2003–2015. Results: The yearly incidence rate of the diseases among the whole population was in average 3,341.8±121.1 per 100000 population. T...

  7. Para neoplastic syndromes: Usefulness of 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (F.D.G.) positron emission tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banayan, S.; Janier, M.; Guillerma-Zucchi, N.; Billotey, C.; Ninet, J.; Delmas, P.; Thivolet, C.; Pellet, O.

    2008-01-01

    Background We evaluated the performance of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F.D.G.) positron emission tomography (PET) in the diagnosis of underlying malignancy in cases of suspected para neoplastic syndrome (P.S.). Methods 18 F.D.G.-PET was performed in 31 patients, clinically suspected to have P.S.. The P.S. were 34, among which 12 neurological diseases, eight endocrine, seven rheumatological, one dermatological and six vascular. We compared computed tomography (CT), iodine-enhanced most of the time, and 18 F.D.G.-PET reports to clinicians definitive conclusion at the end of the work-up and a follow-up period of, at least, two months. Results We obtained a histological diagnosis of cancer for ten patients, but could only identify the primary site of malignancy for nine of them. 18 F.D.G.-PET showed six primary sites among which three were not seen on CT. CT disclosed four primary sites, among which one was not seen on 18 F.D.G.-PET. In one case, 18 F.D.G.-PET disclosed regional lymph node metastases whereas these were not identified by CT. Eleven non-neoplastic causes were evidenced, among which 18 F.D.G.-PET played a major role in three cases. Ten causes were still undetermined at the end of the study. Conclusion Whole-body 18 F.D.G.-PET study plays an important role in the identification of underlying malignancy in clinically suspected para neoplastic syndromes; either by identifying the primary tumor or by directing biopsy of metastases. Furthermore, it can identify non-neoplastic causes. (authors)

  8. Neoplastic Meningitis from Solid Tumors: A Prospective Clinical Study in Lombardia and a Literature Review on Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Silvani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoplastic dissemination to the leptomeninges is an increasingly common occurrence in patients with both haematological and solid tumors arising outside the central nervous system. Both refinement of diagnostic techniques (Magnetic resonance imaging and increased survival in patients treated with targeted therapies for systemic tumors account for this increased frequency. Cerebrospinal fluid cytological analysis and MRI confirm clinical diagnosis based on multifocal central nervous system signs/symptoms in a patient with known malignancy. Overall survival in patients with leptomeningeal neoplastic dissemination from solid tumors is short, rarely exceeding 3-4 months. However, selected patients may benefit from aggressive therapies, Apart from symptomatic treatment, intrathecal chemotherapy is used, with both free (methotrexate, Thiotepa, AraC and liposomal antitumor agents (liposomal AraC. Palliative radiotherapy is indicated only in cases of symptomatic bulky disease, surgery is limited to positioning of Ommaya recervoirs or C5F shunting. We report clinical data on a cohort of 26 prospectively followed patients with neoplastic leptomeningitis followed in Lombardia, Italy, in 2011. Prognostic factors and pattern of care are reported.

  9. Compton scattering spectrum as a source of information of normal and neoplastic breast tissues' composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C. [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, 14040-901 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, 14040-901 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    In this work we measured X-ray scatter spectra from normal and neoplastic breast tissues using photon energy of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90 Degree-Sign , in order to study the shape (FWHM) of the Compton peaks. The obtained results for FWHM were discussed in terms of composition and histological characteristics of each tissue type. The statistical analysis shows that the distribution of FWHM of normal adipose breast tissue clearly differs from all other investigated tissues. Comparison between experimental values of FWHM and effective atomic number revealed a strong correlation between them, showing that the FWHM values can be used to provide information about elemental composition of the tissues. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray scatter spectra from normal and neoplastic breast tissues were measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shape (FWHM) of Compton peak was related with elemental composition and characteristics of each tissue type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A statistical hypothesis test showed clear differences between normal and neoplastic breast tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a strong correlation between experimental values of FWHM and effective atomic number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shape (FWHM) of Compton peak can be used to provide information about elemental composition of the tissues.

  10. Differentiation of osteoporotic and neoplastic vertebral fractures by chemical shift {in-phase and out-of phase} MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragab, Yasser; Emad, Yasser; Gheita, Tamer; Mansour, Maged; Abou-Zeid, A.; Ferrari, Serge; Rasker, Johannes J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to establish the cut-off value of the signal intensity drop on chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with appropriate sensitivity and specificity to differentiate osteoporotic from neoplastic wedging of the spine. Patients and methods: All patients with wedging of vertebral bodies were included consecutively between February 2006 and January 2007. A chemical shift MRI was performed and signal intensity after (in-phase and out-phase) images were obtained. A DXA was performed in all. Results: A total of 40 patients were included, 20 with osteoporotic wedging (group 1) and 20 neoplastic (group 2). They were 21 males and 19 females. Acute vertebral collapse was observed in 15 patients in group 1 and subacute collapse in another 5 patients, while in group 2, 11 patients showed acute collapse and 9 patients (45%) showed subacute vertebral collapse. On the chemical shift MRI a substantial reduction in signal intensity was found in all lesions in both groups. The proportional changes observed in signal intensity of bone marrow lesions on in-phase compared with out-of-phase images showed significant differences in both groups (P < 0.05). At a cut-off value of 35%, the observed sensitivity of out-of-phase images was 95%, specificity was 100%, positive predictive value was 100% and negative predictive value was 95.2%. Conclusion: A chemical shift MRI is useful in order to differentiate patients with vertebral collapse due to underlying osteoporosis or neoplastic process.

  11. Neoplastic lesions of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ): diagnosis, differential diagnosis and intervention; Neoplasien des Temporomandibulargelenks (TMG). Diagnostik, Differenzialdiagnostik und Intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J.; Abolmaali, N.; Schedel, H.; Bergh, B. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Maeurer, J. [Radiologische Praxis am Prinzregentenplatz, Muenchen (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the effectiveness of diagnostic and interventional radiological techniques for neoplastic lesions of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Material and methods. Modern diagnosis of the TMJ is based on the clinical use of conventional X-ray techniques, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and interventional techniques like biopsies, vascular occlusion and ablation. Results. Conventional X-ray still forms the basic diagnostic procedure applied in open and closed mouth position. CT improves the diagnostic information and serves as the standard diagnostical instrument for cartaliganeous or osseous neoplastic lesions. MRI evaluates soft tissue infiltration in multiplanar techniques and high spatial resolution. Interventional vascular and ablative techniques improve the treatment of neoplastic disorders. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung. Vorstellung der Wertigkeit bildgebender Verfahren fuer die diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie des Temporomandibulargelenks (TMG). Material und Methodik. Die moderne Radiologie des TMG basiert auf dem Einsatz der konventionellen Roentgendiagnostik, der Computertomographie (CT) und der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT), sowie interventioneller Verfahren wie der Biopsie, vaskulaerer Embolisationsverfahren und tumorablativer Verfahren. Ergebnisse. Als Basisdiagnostik dient die konventionelle Diagnostik in offener und geschlossener Mundposition der Erfassung von Funktionsstoerungen sowie ossaerer Destruktionen. Die CT erweitert das diagnostische Spektrum und verbessert die Differenzialdiagnostik fuer ossifizierende Prozesse. Der Einsatz der MRT erlaubt die Erfassung der Weichteilinfiltration sowie der Gelenkstrukturen. Vaskulaere interventionelle Verfahren dienen der praetherapeutischen Okklusion bzw. der palliativen Tumortherapie in Form der okklusiven Embolisation, der Chemoembolisation, oder auch der Tumorablation. (orig.)

  12. Biological Characteristics of Caspase-14 and Its Expression in Neoplastic Diseases in the View of Translational Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-sheng LIU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Caspase-14, a member of caspase family, only exists in mammals. As the most divergent member in the family of mammalian caspases, caspase-14 displays a variety of unique characteristics. It is expressed in a limited number of tissues and has the shortest amino acid sequence within the caspase protein family. At present, it has been found that caspase-14 is functionally different from the inflammatory reaction group of typical caspase family members. It exerts a certain effect in the promotion of final differentiation of epidermal cells and hydration of stratum corneum so as to maintain the steady state of skin barrier. In recent years, caspase-14 expression has been discovered in neoplastic diseases. Translational medicine integrates experimental research results and clinical guidance into the optimal implementation criteria for promoting the prediction, prevention and treatment of diseases. Via human genomics and molecular biology, translational medicine offers a possibility of screening molecular markers so that it can be used to diagnose the neoplastic diseases. In this article, the biological characteristics and substrates of caspase-14 as well as its expression in embryonic period and neoplastic diseases were reviewed.

  13. Radiobiological studies on the importance of tumor oxygenation for anti-neoplastic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, C.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the twelve studies included in the present thesis was to determine the importance of hypoxia for various anti-neoplastic treatment modalities, and to evaluate possible ways of overcoming the hypoxia problem by combined modality therapy. The murine tumor systems were the C3H mammary carcinoma with 5-12% hypoxic cells, and the SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma with 2% hypoxic cells. The radiation response was significantly improved by the use of hypoxic cell radiosensitizers such as nimorazole or misonidazole, or by allowing the mice to breathe oxygen or carbogen during irradiation. In contrast, the radiation response was significantly impaired by carbon monoxide breathing at a level comparable to what has been observed in heavy smokers. The clamped TCD 50 assay was used to classify cancer chemotherapeutic drugs according to their preferential cytotoxicity towards the different tumor subpopulations. Methotrexate had no effect on hypoxic cells and was only borderline toxic towards aerobic cells. Three drugs had significant effect against oxic cells only (5-fluorouracil, bleomycin and cisplatin). Similarly, three drugs were toxic towards hypoxic cells only (etoposide, carmustine, and mitomycin c). Three drugs were effective towards both cell types (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide). Hypoxic cells in areas with insufficient blood supply, poor nutrition and increased acidity is known to be highly sensitive to hyperthermia. In a study where cisplatin, heat and x-rays were given together, the local tumor control was not improved when compared to radiation + heat, apparently due to a lack of enhancement in the killing of hypoxic cells. These studies have demonstrated the influence of tumor oxygenation on tumor response to treatment with drugs, hyperthermia and irradiation. New strategies targeted also against perfusion-limited hypoxia is needed. One of the most important conclusions from the present thesis can be implemented without expensive trials or

  14. YAP expression in normal and neoplastic breast tissue: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Rodríguez, Yolanda; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Ruiz-Ramos, Ruben; López-Márquez, Francisco C; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura

    2014-04-01

    Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a transcriptional factor involved in normal cell proliferation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis; however, its contribution to breast cancer (BC) is still controversial. We undertook this study to compare the expression of YAP by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in normal breast tissue of women without breast cancer (BC) (controls), non-neoplastic breast tissue in women with cancer (internal controls) and in four different subtypes of invasive ductal carcinoma. There were 17 controls and 105 tumor cases (53 luminal A, 15 luminal B, 20 overexpression of HER2 and 17 triple negative cases) studied by IHC. Statistical analysis included χ(2) for linear trend (Extended Mantel-Haenszel). There were 40% of internal controls that showed expression of YAP in myoepithelial cells, whereas in controls expression was 100%. In controls, 3/17 (17.6%) showed cytoplasmic staining in luminal cells. There was a significant difference in nuclear expression between the ductal BC subtypes. Luminal A had 4% of positive cases with <10% of cells affected in each case; in contrast, there were 17-20% of positive cases in the other groups with 50% or more of stained cells. YAP expression in stromal cells was not observed in controls or in triple-negative cases, and luminal B pattern had the highest YAP nuclear expression (20%). YAP showed decreased expression in tumor cells compared with normal breast tissue. These findings are consistent with a role of YAP as a suppressor gene in BC and show differences in YAP expression in different patterns of ductal BC. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Body Composition and Anti-Neoplastic Treatment in Adult and Older Subjects - A Systematic Review.

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    Gérard, S; Bréchemier, D; Lefort, A; Lozano, S; Abellan Van Kan, G; Filleron, T; Mourey, L; Bernard-Marty, C; Rougé-Bugat, M E; Soler, V; Vellas, B; Cesari, M; Rolland, Y; Balardy, L

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of the risk of poor tolerance and overdose of antineoplastic agents protocols represents a major challenge in oncology, particularly in older patients. We hypothesize that age-related modifications of body composition (i.e. increased fat mass and decreased lean mass) may significantly affect tolerance to chemotherapy. We conducted a systematic review for the last 25 years (between 1990 and 2015), using US National library of Medicine Medline electronic bibliographic database and Embase database of cohorts or clinical trials exploring (i) the interactions of body composition (assessed by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry, Bioelectrical Impedance Analyses, or Computerized Tomography) with pharmacokinetics parameters, (ii) the tolerance to chemotherapy, and (iii) the consequences of chemotherapies or targeted therapies on body composition. Our search identified 1504 articles. After a selection (using pre-established criteria) on titles and abstract, 24 original articles were selected with 3 domains of interest: impact of body composition on pharmacokinetics (7 articles), relationship between body composition and chemotoxicity (14 articles), and effect of anti-cancer chemotherapy on body composition (11 articles). The selected studies suggested that pharmacokinetic was influenced by lean mass, that lower lean mass could be correlated with toxicity, and that sarcopenic patients experienced more toxicities that non-sarcopenic patients. Regarding fat mass, results were less conclusive. No studies specifically explored the topic of body composition in older cancer patients. Plausible pathophysiological pathways linking body composition, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics are sustained by the actual review. However, despite the growing number of older cancer patients, our review highlighted the lack of specific studies in the field of anti-neoplastic agents toxicity regarding body composition conducted in elderly.

  16. Chest wall – a structure underestimated in ultrasonography. Part III: Neoplastic lesions

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    Andrzej Smereczyński

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chest wall neoplasms mainly include malignancies, metastatic in particular. Differential diagnosis should include clinical data; tumor location, extent, delineation; the degree of homogeneity; the presence of calcifications; the nature of bone destruction and the degree of vascularization. The aim of the paper is to present both the benefits and limitations of ultrasound for the diagnosis of chest wall neoplasms. The neoplastic process may be limited to the chest wall; it may spread from the chest wall into the intrathoracic structures or spread from the inside of the chest towards the chest wall. Benign tumors basically originate from vessels, nerves, bones, cartilage and soft tissues. In this paper, we briefly discuss malformations of blood and lymphatic vessels, glomus tumor as well as neurogenic tumors originating in the thoracic branches of the spinal nerves and the autonomic visceral system. Metastases, particularly lung, breast, kidney cancer, melanoma and prostate cancer, are predominant tumors of the osteocartilaginous structures of the chest wall. Plasma cell myeloma is also relatively common. The vast majority of these lesions are osteolytic, which is reflected in ultrasound as irregular cortical defects. Osteoblastic foci result only in irregular outline of the bone surface. Lipomas are the most common neoplasms of the chest wall soft tissue. Elastofibroma is another tumor with characteristic echostructure. Desmoid fibromatosis, which is considered to be a benign lesion with local aggressivity and recurrences after surgical resection, represents an interesting tumor form the clinical point of view. Ultrasonography represents an optimal tool for the monitoring of different biopsies of pathological lesions located in the chest wall. Based on our experiences and literature data, this method should be considered as a preliminary diagnosis of patients with chest wall tumors.

  17. Psidium guajava L. anti-neoplastic effects: induction of apoptosis and cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempo, P; Doto, A; Miceli, M; Mita, L; Benedetti, R; Nebbioso, A; Veglione, M; Rigano, D; Cioffi, M; Sica, V; Molinari, A M; Altucci, L

    2012-02-01

    Curative properties of medicinal plants such as Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) have often been indicated by epidemiological studies on populations in which these fruits are consumed daily. However, complete characterization of the active principles responsible for this ability has never been performed. Here, we have characterized P. guajava's anti-cancer potential and identified the parts of the fruit involved in its anti-neoplastic action. We studied morphology of our cells, cell cycle characteristics and apoptosis and performed immunostaining, differentiation and western blot analyses. We report that the P. guajava extract exerted anti-cancer control on both haematological and solid neoplasias. P. guajava extract's anti-tumour properties were found to be tightly bound to induction of apoptosis and differentiation. Use of ex vivo myeloid leukaemia blasts corroborated that P. guajava was able to induce cell death but did not exhibit anti-cancer effects on all malignant cells investigated, indicating selective activity against certain types of tumour. Analyses of P. guajava pulp, peel and seeds identified the pulp as being the most relevant component for causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, whereas peel was responsible for causing cell differentiation. P. guajava itself and its pulp-derived extract were found to induce apoptosis accompanied by caspase activation and p16, p21, Fas ligand (FASL TNF super-family, member 6), Bcl-2-associated agonist of cell death (BAD) and tumour necrosis factor receptor super-family, member 10b (DR5), overexpression. Our findings showed that P. guajava L. extract was able to exert anti-cancer activity on cultures in vitro and ex vivo, supporting the hypothesis of its anti malignant pro-apoptotic modulation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6 in normal and neoplastic human gastrointestinal mucosa

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    Mäki Markku

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human gastrointestinal mucosa regenerates vigorously throughout life, but the factors controlling cell fate in mature mucosa are poorly understood. GATA transcription factors direct cell proliferation and differentiation in many organs, and are implicated in tumorigenesis. GATA-4 and GATA-6 are considered crucial for the formation of murine gastrointestinal mucosa, but their role in human gastrointestinal tract remains unexplored. We studied in detail the expression patterns of these two GATA factors and a GATA-6 down-stream target, Indian hedgehog (Ihh, in normal human gastrointestinal mucosa. Since these factors are considered important for proliferation and differentiation, we also explored the possible alterations in their expression in gastrointestinal neoplasias. The expression of the carcinogenesis-related protein Indian hedgehog was also investigated in comparison to GATA factors. Methods Samples of normal and neoplastic gastrointestinal tract from children and adults were subjected to RNA in situ hybridization with 33P labelled probes and immunohistochemistry, using an avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase system. The pathological tissues examined included samples of chronic and atrophic gastritis as well as adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the colon and rectum. Results GATA-4 was abundant in the differentiated epithelial cells of the proximal parts of the gastrointestinal tract but was absent from the distal parts. In contrast, GATA-6 was expressed throughout the gastrointestinal epithelium, and in the distal gut its expression was most intense at the bottom of the crypts, i.e. cells with proliferative capacity. Both factors were also present in Barrett's esophagus and metaplasia of the stomach. GATA-6 expression was reduced in colon carcinoma. Ihh expression overlapped with that of GATA-6 especially in benign gastrointestinal neoplasias. Conclusion The results suggest differential but overlapping functions for GATA-4 and

  19. The gene expression program of prostate fibroblast senescence modulates neoplastic epithelial cell proliferation through paracrine mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavik, Claes; Coleman, Ilsa; Dean, James P; Knudsen, Beatrice; Plymate, Steven; Nelson, Peter S

    2006-01-15

    The greatest risk factor for developing carcinoma of the prostate is advanced age. Potential molecular and physiologic contributors to the frequency of cancer occurrence in older individuals include the accumulation of somatic mutations through defects in genome maintenance, epigenetic gene silencing, oxidative stress, loss of immune surveillance, telomere dysfunction, chronic inflammation, and alterations in tissue microenvironment. In this context, the process of prostate carcinogenesis can be influenced through interactions between intrinsic cellular alterations and the extrinsic microenvironment and macroenvironment, both of which change substantially as a consequence of aging. In this study, we sought to characterize the molecular alterations that occur during the process of prostate fibroblast senescence to identify factors in the aged tissue microenvironment capable of promoting the proliferation and potentially the neoplastic progression of prostate epithelium. We evaluated three mechanisms leading to cell senescence: oxidative stress, DNA damage, and replicative exhaustion. We identified a consistent program of gene expression that includes a subset of paracrine factors capable of influencing adjacent prostate epithelial growth. Both direct coculture and conditioned medium from senescent prostate fibroblasts stimulated epithelial cell proliferation, 3-fold and 2-fold, respectively. The paracrine-acting proteins fibroblast growth factor 7, hepatocyte growth factor, and amphiregulin (AREG) were elevated in the extracellular environment of senescent prostate fibroblasts. Exogenous AREG alone stimulated prostate epithelial cell growth, and neutralizing antibodies and small interfering RNA targeting AREG attenuated, but did not completely abrogate the growth-promoting effects of senescent fibroblast conditioned medium. These results support the concept that aging-related changes in the prostate microenvironment may contribute to the progression of prostate

  20. Large contribution of human papillomavirus in vaginal neoplastic lesions: a worldwide study in 597 samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, L; Saunier, M; Tinoco, L; Quirós, B; Alvarado-Cabrero, I; Alejo, M; Joura, E A; Maldonado, P; Klaustermeier, J; Salmerón, J; Bergeron, C; Petry, K U; Guimerà, N; Clavero, O; Murillo, R; Clavel, C; Wain, V; Geraets, D T; Jach, R; Cross, P; Carrilho, C; Molina, C; Shin, H R; Mandys, V; Nowakowski, A M; Vidal, A; Lombardi, L; Kitchener, H; Sica, A R; Magaña-León, C; Pawlita, M; Quint, W; Bravo, I G; Muñoz, N; de Sanjosé, S; Bosch, F X

    2014-11-01

    This work describes the human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and the HPV type distribution in a large series of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) grades 2/3 and vaginal cancer worldwide. We analysed 189 VAIN 2/3 and 408 invasive vaginal cancer cases collected from 31 countries from 1986 to 2011. After histopathological evaluation of sectioned formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, HPV DNA detection and typing was performed using the SPF-10/DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA)/LiPA25 system (version 1). A subset of 146 vaginal cancers was tested for p16(INK4a) expression, a cellular surrogate marker for HPV transformation. Prevalence ratios were estimated using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. HPV DNA was detected in 74% (95% confidence interval (CI): 70-78%) of invasive cancers and in 96% (95% CI: 92-98%) of VAIN 2/3. Among cancers, the highest detection rates were observed in warty-basaloid subtype of squamous cell carcinomas, and in younger ages. Concerning the type-specific distribution, HPV16 was the most frequently type detected in both precancerous and cancerous lesions (59%). p16(INK4a) overexpression was found in 87% of HPV DNA positive vaginal cancer cases. HPV was identified in a large proportion of invasive vaginal cancers and in almost all VAIN 2/3. HPV16 was the most common type detected. A large impact in the reduction of the burden of vaginal neoplastic lesions is expected among vaccinated cohorts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-neoplastic cystic and cystic-like lesions of the pancreas: may mimic pancreatic cystic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Brian K P; Tan, Yu-Meng; Chung, Yaw-Fui A; Chow, Pierce K H; Ong, Hock-Soo; Lim, Dennis T H; Wong, Wai-Keong; Ooi, London L P J

    2006-05-01

    Cystic lesions of the pancreas consist of a broad range of pathological entities. With the exception of the pancreatic pseudocyst, these are usually caused by pancreatic cystic neoplasms. Non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic and cystic-like lesions are extremely rare. In the present article, the surgical experience with these unusual entities over a 14-year period is reported. Between 1991 and 2004, all patients who underwent surgical exploration for a cystic lesion of the pancreas were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with a pancreatic pseudocyst were excluded. There were 106 patients of whom 8 (7.5%) had a final pathological diagnosis consistent with a non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic or cystic-like lesion, including 3 patients with a benign epithelial cyst, 2 with a pancreatic abscess (one tuberculous and one foreign body), 2 with mucous retention cysts and 1 with a mucinous non-neoplastic cyst. These eight patients are the focus of this study. There were six female and two male patients with a median age of 61.5 years (range, 41-71 years). All the patients were of Asian origin including seven Chinese and one Indian. Four of the patients were asymptomatic and their pancreatic cysts were discovered incidentally on radiological imaging for other indications. All the patients underwent preoperative radiological investigations, including ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, which showed a cystic lesion of the pancreas. Three patients, all of whom were symptomatic, were diagnosed preoperatively with a malignant cystic neoplasm on the basis of radiological imaging. Two patients were eventually found to have a pancreatic abscess, one tuberculous and the other, secondary to foreign body perforation. The third patient was found on final histology to have chronic pancreatitis with retention cysts. The remaining five patients had a preoperative diagnosis of an indeterminate cyst; on pathological examination, they were found to have a benign

  2. HPV genotype distribution and anomalous association of HPV33 to cervical neoplastic lesions in San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelaRosa-Martínez, Raúl; Sánchez-Garza, Mireya; López-Revilla, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The association of human papillomavirus (HPV) types to neoplastic lesions increase as a function of their oncogenicity and the duration of the infection since lesion severity progresses from low-grade to high-grade and cancer. In an outbreak, the prevalence of the HPV type involved would increase and the proportion of the associated low-grade lesions would predominate over severe lesions. In this study, the prevalence of HPV types and their association to neoplastic lesions was determined in women subjected to colposcopy in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. DNA from high-risk (HR) and low-risk (LR) HPV types was identified by E6 nested multiplex PCR in cervical scrapes from 700 women with normal cytology, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) or invasive cervical cancer (CC). Overall HPV-DNA prevalence was 67.7 %, that of HR-HPV was 63.1 %, and that of LR-HPV was 21.3 %. The highest prevalence (78.2 %) occurred in the 15-24 year group, whereas that of single infections was 52 % and that of multiple infections (i.e., by 2-6 HPV types) was 48 %. The most prevalent HR types were HPV33 (33.1 %), HPV16 (16.6 %), HPV18 and HPV51 (6.7 % each). HR-HPV prevalence was 29.6 % in normal cytology, 26.7 % in ASCUS, 63.3 % in LSIL, 68.2 % in HSIL, and 90.5 % in CC. Three prevalence trends for HR-HPV types were found in neoplastic lesions of increasing severity: increasing (LSIL  CC) for HPV33. Two-thirds of the women subjected to colposcopy from 2007 to 2010 in San Luis Potosí have HPV infections which predominate in the 15-24 years group. Around half of the infections are by one viral type and the rest by 2-6 types. HPV33 is the most prevalent type, followed by HPV16. Overall HR-HPV prevalence increases with the severity of neoplastic lesions. HPV33 prevalence is highest in LSIL and its U-shaped trend with progressing neoplastic lesions

  3. M-COPA suppresses endolysosomal Kit-Akt oncogenic signalling through inhibiting the secretory pathway in neoplastic mast cells.

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    Yasushi Hara

    Full Text Available Gain-of-function mutations in Kit receptor tyrosine kinase result in the development of a variety of cancers, such as mast cell tumours, gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs, acute myeloid leukemia, and melanomas. The drug imatinib, a selective inhibitor of Kit, is used for treatment of mutant Kit-positive cancers. However, mutations in the Kit kinase domain, which are frequently found in neoplastic mast cells, confer an imatinib resistance, and cancers expressing the mutants can proliferate in the presence of imatinib. Recently, we showed that in neoplastic mast cells that endogenously express an imatinib-resistant Kit mutant, Kit causes oncogenic activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI3K-Akt pathway and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5 but only on endolysosomes and on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, respectively. Here, we show a strategy for inhibition of the Kit-PI3K-Akt pathway in neoplastic mast cells by M-COPA (2-methylcoprophilinamide, an inhibitor of this secretory pathway. In M-COPA-treated cells, Kit localization in the ER is significantly increased, whereas endolysosomal Kit disappears, indicating that M-COPA blocks the biosynthetic transport of Kit from the ER. The drug greatly inhibits oncogenic Akt activation without affecting the association of Kit with PI3K, indicating that ER-localized Kit-PI3K complex is unable to activate Akt. Importantly, M-COPA but not imatinib suppresses neoplastic mast cell proliferation through inhibiting anti-apoptotic Akt activation. Results of our M-COPA treatment assay show that Kit can activate Erk not only on the ER but also on other compartments. Furthermore, Tyr568/570, Tyr703, Tyr721, and Tyr936 in Kit are phosphorylated on the ER, indicating that these five tyrosine residues are all phosphorylated before mutant Kit reaches the plasma membrane (PM. Our study provides evidence that Kit is tyrosine-phosphorylated soon after synthesis on the ER but is

  4. M-COPA suppresses endolysosomal Kit-Akt oncogenic signalling through inhibiting the secretory pathway in neoplastic mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yasushi; Obata, Yuuki; Horikawa, Keita; Tasaki, Yasutaka; Suzuki, Kyohei; Murata, Takatsugu; Shiina, Isamu; Abe, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in Kit receptor tyrosine kinase result in the development of a variety of cancers, such as mast cell tumours, gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs), acute myeloid leukemia, and melanomas. The drug imatinib, a selective inhibitor of Kit, is used for treatment of mutant Kit-positive cancers. However, mutations in the Kit kinase domain, which are frequently found in neoplastic mast cells, confer an imatinib resistance, and cancers expressing the mutants can proliferate in the presence of imatinib. Recently, we showed that in neoplastic mast cells that endogenously express an imatinib-resistant Kit mutant, Kit causes oncogenic activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI3K-Akt) pathway and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) but only on endolysosomes and on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), respectively. Here, we show a strategy for inhibition of the Kit-PI3K-Akt pathway in neoplastic mast cells by M-COPA (2-methylcoprophilinamide), an inhibitor of this secretory pathway. In M-COPA-treated cells, Kit localization in the ER is significantly increased, whereas endolysosomal Kit disappears, indicating that M-COPA blocks the biosynthetic transport of Kit from the ER. The drug greatly inhibits oncogenic Akt activation without affecting the association of Kit with PI3K, indicating that ER-localized Kit-PI3K complex is unable to activate Akt. Importantly, M-COPA but not imatinib suppresses neoplastic mast cell proliferation through inhibiting anti-apoptotic Akt activation. Results of our M-COPA treatment assay show that Kit can activate Erk not only on the ER but also on other compartments. Furthermore, Tyr568/570, Tyr703, Tyr721, and Tyr936 in Kit are phosphorylated on the ER, indicating that these five tyrosine residues are all phosphorylated before mutant Kit reaches the plasma membrane (PM). Our study provides evidence that Kit is tyrosine-phosphorylated soon after synthesis on the ER but is unable to

  5. RET/PTC1-Driven Neoplastic Transformation and Proinvasive Phenotype of Human Thyrocytes Involve Met Induction and β-Catenin Nuclear Translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Cassinelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the RET gene by chromosomal rearrangements generating RET/PTC oncogenes is a frequent, early, and causative event in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. We have previously shown that, in human primary thyrocytes, RET/PTC1 induces a transcriptional program including the MET proto-oncogene. In PTCs, β-catenin is frequently mislocated to the cytoplasm nucleus. We investigated the interplay between Ret/ptc1 signaling and Met in regulating the proinvasive phenotype and β-catenin localization in cellular models of human PTC. Here, we show that Met protein is expressed and is constitutively active in human thyrocytes exogenously expressing RET/PTC1 as well as a mutant (Y451F devoid of the main Ret/ptc1 multidocking site. Both in transformed thyrocytes and in the human PTC cell line TPC-1, Ret/ptc1-Y451-dependent signaling and Met cooperated to promote a proinvasive phenotype. Accordingly, gene/functional silencing of either RET/PTC1 or MET abrogated early branching morphogenesis in TPC-1 cells. The same effect was obtained by blocking the common downstream effector Akt. Y451 of Ret/ptc1 was required to promote proliferation and nuclear translocation of β-catenin, suggesting that these oncogene-driven effects are Met-independent. Pharmacologic inhibition of Ret/ptc1 and Met tyrosine kinases by the multitarget small molecule RPI-1 blocked cell proliferation and invasive ability and dislocated β-catenin from the nucleus. Altogether, these results support that Ret/ptc1 cross talks with Met at transcriptional and signaling levels and promotes β-catenin transcriptional activity to drive thyrocyte neoplastic transformation. Such molecular network, promoting disease initiation and acquisition of a proinvasive phenotype, highlights new options to design multitarget therapeutic strategies for PTCs.

  6. RET/PTC1-Driven Neoplastic Transformation and Proinvasive Phenotype of Human Thyrocytes Involve Met Induction and β-Catenin Nuclear Translocation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinelli, Giuliana; Favini, Enrica; Degl'Innocenti, Debora; Salvi, Alessandro; De Petro, Giuseppina; Pierotti, Marco A; Zunino, Franco; Borrello, Maria Grazia; Lanzi, Cinzia

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the RET gene by chromosomal rearrangements generating RET/PTC oncogenes is a frequent, early, and causative event in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We have previously shown that, in human primary thyrocytes, RET/PTC1 induces a transcriptional program including the MET proto-oncogene. In PTCs, β-catenin is frequently mislocated to the cytoplasm nucleus. We investigated the interplay between Ret/ptc1 signaling and Met in regulating the proinvasive phenotype and β-catenin localization in cellular models of human PTC. Here, we show that Met protein is expressed and is constitutively active in human thyrocytes exogenously expressing RET/PTC1 as well as a mutant (Y451F) devoid of the main Ret/ptc1 multidocking site. Both in transformed thyrocytes and in the human PTC cell line TPC-1, Ret/ptc1-Y451-dependent signaling and Met cooperated to promote a proinvasive phenotype. Accordingly, gene/functional silencing of either RET/PTC1 or MET abrogated early branching morphogenesis in TPC-1 cells. The same effect was obtained by blocking the common downstream effector Akt. Y451 of Ret/ptc1 was required to promote proliferation and nuclear translocation of β-catenin, suggesting that these oncogene-driven effects are Met-independent. Pharmacologic inhibition of Ret/ptc1 and Met tyrosine kinases by the multitarget small molecule RPI-1 blocked cell proliferation and invasive ability and dislocated β-catenin from the nucleus. Altogether, these results support that Ret/ptc1 cross talks with Met at transcriptional and signaling levels and promotes β-catenin transcriptional activity to drive thyrocyte neoplastic transformation. Such molecular network, promoting disease initiation and acquisition of a proinvasive phenotype, highlights new options to design multitarget therapeutic strategies for PTCs. PMID:19107227

  7. Hormone Receptor Expression Analyses in Neoplastic and Non-Neoplastic Canine Mammary Tissue by a Bead Based Multiplex Branched DNA Assay: A Gene Expression Study in Fresh Frozen and Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Mohr

    Full Text Available Immunohistochemistry (IHC is currently considered the method of choice for steroid hormone receptor status evaluation in human breast cancer and, therefore, it is commonly utilized for assessing canine mammary tumors. In case of low hormone receptor expression, IHC is limited and thus is complemented by molecular analyses. In the present study, a multiplex bDNA assay was evaluated as a method for hormone receptor gene expression detection in canine mammary tissues. Estrogen receptor (ESR1, progesterone receptor (PGR, prolactin receptor (PRLR and growth hormone receptor (GHR gene expressions were evaluated in neoplastic and non-neoplastic canine mammary tissues. A set of 119 fresh frozen and 180 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE was comparatively analyzed and used for assay evaluation. Furthermore, a possible association between the hormone receptor expression in different histological subtypes of canine malignant mammary tumors and the castration status, breed and invasive growth of the tumor were analyzed. The multiplex bDNA assay proved to be more sensitive for fresh frozen specimens. Hormone receptor expression found was significantly decreased in malignant mammary tumors in comparison to non-neoplastic tissue and benign mammary tumors. Among the histological subtypes the lowest gene expression levels of ESR1, PGR and PRLR were found in solid, anaplastic and ductal carcinomas. In summary, the evaluation showed that the measurement of hormone receptors with the multiplex bDNA assay represents a practicable method for obtaining detailed quantitative information about gene expression in canine mammary tissue for future studies. Still, comparison with IHC or quantitative real-time PCR is needed for further validation of the present method.

  8. Spine Instability Neoplastic Score: agreement across different medical and surgical specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Estanislao; Kovacs, Francisco M; Royuela, Ana; Asenjo, Beatriz; Pérez-Ramírez, Úrsula; Zamora, Javier

    2016-05-01

    Spinal instability is an acknowledged complication of spinal metastases; in spite of recent suggested criteria, it is not clearly defined in the literature. This study aimed to assess intra and interobserver agreement when using the Spine Instability Neoplastic Score (SINS) by all physicians involved in its management. Independent multicenter reliability study for the recently created SINS, undertaken with a panel of medical oncologists, neurosurgeons, radiologists, orthopedic surgeons, and radiation oncologists, was carried out. Ninety patients with biopsy-proven spinal metastases and magnetic resonance imaging, reviewed at the multidisciplinary tumor board of our institution, were included. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used for SINS score agreement. Fleiss kappa statistic was used to assess agreement on the location of the most affected vertebral level; agreement on the SINS category ("stable," "potentially stable," or "unstable"); and overall agreement with the classification established by tumor board. Clinical data and imaging were provided to 83 specialists in 44 hospitals across 14 Spanish regions. No assessment criteria were pre-established. Each clinician assessed the SINS score twice, with a minimum 6-week interval. Clinicians were blinded to assessments made by other specialists and to their own previous assessment. Subgroup analyses were performed by clinicians' specialty, experience (≤7, 8-13, ≥14 years), and hospital category (four levels according to size and complexity). This study was supported by Kovacs Foundation. Intra and interobserver agreement on the location of the most affected levels was "almost perfect" (κ>0.94). Intra-observer agreement on the SINS score was "excellent" (ICC=0.77), whereas interobserver agreement was "moderate" (ICC=0.55). Intra-observer agreement in SINS category was "substantial" (k=0.61), whereas interobserver agreement was "moderate" (k=0.42). Overall agreement with the tumor board classification

  9. Acute erythroid neoplastic proliferations. A biological study based on 62 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Claros, Alicia; Larriba, Itziar; Rozman, Maruja; Irriguible, Dolors; Vallespí, Teresa; Aventin, Anna; Ayats, Ramon; Millá, Fuensanta; Solé, Francesc; Florensa, Lourdes; Gallart, Miquel; Tuset, Esperanza; Lopez, Carmen; Woessner, Soledad

    2002-02-01

    The terms acute erythroleukemia and AML-M6 are defined in the FAB classification as proliferations of dysplastic erythroid elements mixed with blasts of myeloid origin, but pure erythroid leukemias are not included. The recent WHO classification has a category of acute myeloid leukemia not otherwise categorized, which includes acute erythroid leukemia (M6) of two subtypes: M6a-erythroleukemia (erythroid/myeloid) and M6b-pure erythroid leukemia. The aims of this co-operative study were to discover the incidences of these different subtypes, and pay special attention to the morphology of these entities. We reviewed a series of 62 patients with erythroid neoplastic proliferations. Previous medical history, age, sex, peripheral blood and bone marrow cell counts, cytochemical stains, immunophenotype, and cytogenetics were evaluated at presentation. We analyzed the incidence of erythrocyte, leukocyte and platelet abnormalities in the peripheral blood. In bone marrow we analyzed dysplastic features of erythroblasts, granulocytic elements and the megakaryocytic lineage. Fifty-three patients met the criteria of M6a subtype of the WHO classification, and 2 were classified as having pure erythremia (M6b); 7 cases could not be classified according to the WHO criteria. Fifty-five patients presented with de novo acute leukemia, and seven patients had secondary acute leukemia. The most frequent dysplastic features in blood smears were: schistocytes, tear-drop and pincered cells in erythrocytes; hypogranulation and hyposegmentation in leukocytes; gigantism and hypogranulation in platelets. In bone marrow, megaloblastic changes, multinuclearity, karyorrhexis and basophilic stippling in erythroblasts; hypogranulation and gigantism in granulocytic series, and micromegakaryocytes and unconnected nuclei in megakarocytes were the most dysplastic features. A positive PAS reaction and increase of bone marrow iron with ring sideroblasts were common features. Trilineage dysplasia was

  10. The A-myb transcription factor in neoplastic and normal B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golay, J; Facchinetti, V; Ying, G; Introna, M

    1997-07-01

    The myb family of transcription factors has been strongly implicated in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation in the haematopoietic system. The v-myb oncogene, carried by avian defective retroviruses, causes leukaemias in the chicken and transforms haematopoietic cells in vitro. Its normal cellular equivalent c-myb, has been shown to promote the proliferation and block the differentiation of haematopoietic cells in several experimental models and is required for fetal haematopoiesis. Two other members of the family have been cloned more recently, A-myb and B-myb, which show sequence homology with c-myb in several domains, of which the DNA binding domain as well as other regulatory domains. Both have been shown to be transcription factors. B-myb is also involved in the control of proliferation and differentiation, but, unlike c-myb, it is expressed in many cell types. The third member of the family, A-myb, shows the most restricted pattern of expression, suggesting a very specific role for this transcription factor. A-myb is expressed in a subpopulation of normal B lymphocytes activated in vivo and localised in the germinal center of peripheral lymphoid organs and is not detected at significant levels in all other mature or immature haematopoietic populations studied, including bone marrow cells, T lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, either at rest or after in vitro activation. These studies indicate that A-myb plays a role during a narrow window of normal B cell differentiation. A-myb expression has also been studied in a wide range of neoplastic B cells, representing the whole spectrum of B cell differentiation. A-myb is strongly expressed in Burkitt's lymphomas (BL) and slg+ B-acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (B-ALL) and not in all other leukaemias/lymphomas tested, with the exception of a subset of CLL (about 25% of cases). It is intriguing that the A-myb genome has been localised relatively close to the c-myc gene on chromosome 8, suggesting that

  11. Some growth factors in neoplastic tissues of brain tumors of different histological structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kit

    2016-01-01

    -β1 (BenderMedSystem, Austria.Results. We have found both common and distinctive features in the content of growth factors in neoplastic tissues of different histological structure and corresponding peritumoral areas. Common metabolic features of glioblastomas, brain metastases and meningiomas include various increase in the level of VEGF-A, VEGF-R1, VEGF-C, IFR-1, IFR-2 and VEGF-C/VEGF-R3 index ratio. Differences included the fact that the level of VEGF-R3 and TGF-β1 did not increase in the benign tumor, while the level of EGF and VEGF-A/VEGF-R1 index ratio were below the control values in contrast to the values of malignant tumors.Conclusions• In the neoplastic tissues of glioblastomas and peritumoral area there is a strong positive correlation between the level of VEGF-A with the level of EGF, IGF-1, IGF-II and TGF-β1.• In the metastatic tissue there is a strong positive correlation between the level of VEGF-A with the level of EGF, IGF-1, IGF-II and TGF-β1. However, correlations had a different nature in the peritumoral zone tissues near to metastases: there was a strong positive correlation of VEGF-A level with TGF-β1 only, while there was a strong negative correlation with the level of IGF-1 and IGF-II, there were no correlations with EGF level.• In meningioma tissues VEGF-A levels correlated only with the level of insulin-like growth factors: there was a strong positive correlation with IGF-1 and IGF-II, correlation has been found with the level of EGF and TGF-β1.• In descending order VEGF-C was detected in glioblastoma tissue, in metastatic tumors, meningiomas, peritumoral zones of glioblastomas and metastases. However, in all of these samples the level of the studied factor significantly exceeded the value in intact brain tissue. VEGFR-3 level was elevated in glioblastoma tissue only. 

  12. Aberrant gene methylation in non-neoplastic mucosa as a predictive marker of ulcerative colitis-associated CRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Marco; Scarpa, Melania; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Erroi, Francesca; Kotsafti, Andromachi; Basato, Silvia; Brun, Paola; D'Incà, Renata; Rugge, Massimo; Angriman, Imerio; Castoro, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    BACKGROUND PROMOTER: hypermethylation plays a major role in cancer through transcriptional silencing of critical genes. The aim of our study is to evaluate the methylation status of these genes in the colonic mucosa without dysplasia or adenocarcinoma at the different steps of sporadic and UC-related carcinogenesis and to investigate the possible role of genomic methylation as a marker of CRC. The expression of Dnmts 1 and 3A was significantly increased in UC-related carcinogenesis compared to non inflammatory colorectal carcinogenesis. In non-neoplastic colonic mucosa, the number of methylated genes resulted significantly higher in patients with CRC and in those with UC-related CRC compared to the HC and UC patients and patients with dysplastic lesion of the colon. The number of methylated genes in non-neoplastic colonic mucosa predicted the presence of CRC with good accuracy either in non inflammatory and inflammatory related CRC. Colonic mucosal samples were collected from healthy subjects (HC) (n = 30) and from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 29), UC and dysplasia (n = 14), UC and cancer (n = 10), dysplastic adenoma (n = 14), and colon adenocarcinoma (n = 10). DNA methyltransferases-1, -3a, -3b, mRNA expression were quantified by real time qRT-PCR. The methylation status of CDH13, APC, MLH1, MGMT1 and RUNX3 gene promoters was assessed by methylation-specific PCR. Methylation status of APC, CDH13, MGMT, MLH1 and RUNX3 in the non-neoplastic mucosa may be used as a marker of CRC: these preliminary results could allow for the adjustment of a patient's surveillance interval and to select UC patients who should undergo intensive surveillance.

  13. The Relationship between Brown Adipose Tissue Activity and Neoplastic Status: an 18F-FDG PET/CT Study in the Tropics

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    Huang Yung-Cheng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brown adipose tissue (BAT has thermogenic potential. For its activation, cold exposure is considered a critical factor though other determinants have also been reported. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between neoplastic status and BAT activity by 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT in people living in the tropics, where the influence of outdoor temperature was low. Methods 18F-FDG PET/CT scans were reviewed and the total metabolic activity (TMA of identified activated BAT quantified. The distribution and TMA of activated BAT were compared between patients with and without a cancer history. The neoplastic status of patients was scored according to their cancer history and 18F-FDG PET/CT findings. We evaluated the relationships between the TMA of BAT and neoplastic status along with other factors: age, body mass index, fasting blood sugar, gender, and outdoor temperature. Results Thirty of 1740 patients had activated BAT. Those with a cancer history had wider BAT distribution (p = 0.043 and a higher TMA (p = 0.028 than those without. A higher neoplastic status score was associated with a higher average TMA. Multivariate analyses showed that neoplastic status was the only factor significantly associated with the TMA of activated BAT (p = 0.016. Conclusions Neoplastic status is a critical determinant of BAT activity in patients living in the tropics. More active neoplastic status was associated with more vigorous TMA of BAT.

  14. Prenatal exposure to BPA alters the epigenome of the rat mammary gland and increases the propensity to neoplastic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Dhimolea

    Full Text Available Exposure to environmental estrogens (xenoestrogens may play a causal role in the increased breast cancer incidence which has been observed in Europe and the US over the last 50 years. The xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA leaches from plastic food/beverage containers and dental materials. Fetal exposure to BPA induces preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the adult rat mammary gland. Previous results suggest that BPA acts through the estrogen receptors which are detected exclusively in the mesenchyme during the exposure period by directly altering gene expression, leading to alterations of the reciprocal interactions between mesenchyme and epithelium. This initiates a long sequence of altered morphogenetic events leading to neoplastic transformation. Additionally, BPA induces epigenetic changes in some tissues. To explore this mechanism in the mammary gland, Wistar-Furth rats were exposed subcutaneously via osmotic pumps to vehicle or 250 µg BPA/kg BW/day, a dose that induced ductal carcinomas in situ. Females exposed from gestational day 9 to postnatal day (PND 1 were sacrificed at PND4, PND21 and at first estrus after PND50. Genomic DNA (gDNA was isolated from the mammary tissue and immuno-precipitated using anti-5-methylcytosine antibodies. Detection and quantification of gDNA methylation status using the Nimblegen ChIP array revealed 7412 differentially methylated gDNA segments (out of 58207 segments, with the majority of changes occurring at PND21. Transcriptomal analysis revealed that the majority of gene expression differences between BPA- and vehicle-treated animals were observed later (PND50. BPA exposure resulted in higher levels of pro-activation histone H3K4 trimethylation at the transcriptional initiation site of the alpha-lactalbumin gene at PND4, concomitantly enhancing mRNA expression of this gene. These results show that fetal BPA exposure triggers changes in the postnatal and adult mammary gland epigenome and alters gene

  15. Selenium, selenoenzymes, oxidative stress and risk of neoplastic progression from Barrett's esophagus: results from biomarkers and genetic variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumie Takata

    Full Text Available Clinical trials have suggested a protective effect of selenium supplementation on the risk of esophageal cancer, which may be mediated through the antioxidant activity of selenoenzymes. We investigated whether serum selenium concentrations, selenoenzyme activity, oxidative stress and genetic variation in selenoenzymes were associated with the risk of neoplastic progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA and two intermediate endpoints, aneuploidy and tetraploidy. In this prospective cohort study, during an average follow-up of 7.3 years, 47 EA cases, 41 aneuploidy cases and 51 tetraploidy cases accrued among 361 participants from the Seattle Barrett's Esophagus Research Study who were free of EA at the time of blood draw and had at least one follow-up visit. Development to EA was assessed histologically and aneuploidy and tetraploidy by DNA content flow cytometry. Serum selenium concentrations were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry, activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX 1 and GPX3 by substrate-specific coupled test procedures, selenoprotein P (SEPP1 concentrations and protein carbonyl content by ELISA method and malondialdehyde concentrations by HPLC. Genetic variants in GPX1-4 and SEPP1 were genotyped. Serum selenium was not associated with the risk of neoplastic progression to EA, aneuploidy or tetraploidy (P for trend = 0.25 to 0.85. SEPP1 concentrations were positively associated with the risk of EA [hazard ratio (HR = 3.95, 95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.42-10.97 comparing the third tertile with the first] and with aneuploidy (HR = 6.53, 95% CI = 1.31-32.58, but not selenoenzyme activity or oxidative stress markers. No genetic variants, overall, were associated with the risk of neoplastic progression to EA (global p = 0.12-0.69. Our results do not support a protective effect of selenium on risk of neoplastic progression to EA. Our study is the first to report positive associations of plasma SEPP1

  16. Determination and correlation of spatial distribution of trace elements in normal and neoplastic breast tissues evaluated by μ-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.P.; Oliveira, M.A.; Poletti, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Some trace elements, naturally present in breast tissues, participate in a large number of biological processes, which include among others, activation or inhibition of enzymatic reactions and changes on cell membranes permeability, suggesting that these elements may influence carcinogenic processes. Thus, knowledge of the amounts of these elements and their spatial distribution in normal and neoplastic tissues may help in understanding the role of these elements in the carcinogenic process and tumor progression of breast cancers. Concentrations of trace elements like Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn, previously studied at LNLS using TXRF and conventional XRF, were elevated in neoplastic breast tissues compared to normal tissues. In this study we determined the spatial distribution of these elements in normal and neoplastic breast tissues using μ-XRF technique. We analyzed 22 samples of normal and neoplastic breast tissues (malignant and benign) obtained from paraffin blocks available for study at the Department of Pathology HC-FMRP/USP. From the blocks, a small fraction of material was removed and subjected to histological sections of 60 μm thick made with a microtome. The slices where placed in holder samples and covered with ultralen film. Tissue samples were irradiated with a white beam of synchrotron radiation. The samples were positioned at 45 degrees with respect to the incident beam on a table with 3 freedom degrees (x, y and z), allowing independent positioning of the sample in these directions. The white beam was collimated by a 20 μm microcapillary and samples were fully scanned. At each step, a spectrum was detected for 10 s. The fluorescence emitted by elements present in the sample was detected by a Si (Li) detector with 165 eV at 5.9 keV energy resolution, placed at 90 deg with respect to the incident beam. Results reveal that trace elements Ca-Zn and Fe-Cu could to be correlated in malignant breast tissues. Quantitative results, achieved by Spearman

  17. Study of electron densities of normal and neoplastic human breast tissues by Compton scattering using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C. [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Electron densities of 33 samples of normal (adipose and fibroglangular) and neoplastic (benign and malignant) human breast tissues were determined through Compton scattering data using a monochromatic synchrotron radiation source and an energy dispersive detector. The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of the samples. Adipose tissue exhibits the lowest values of electron density whereas malignant tissue the highest. The relationship with their histology was discussed. Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron density of normal and neoplastic breast tissues was measured using Compton scattering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monochromatic synchrotron radiation was used to obtain the Compton scattering data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adipose tissue shows the lowest electron density values whereas the malignant tissue the highest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%.

  18. Fatal haemorrhage and neoplastic thrombosis in a captive African lion (Panthera leo) with metastatic testicular sex cord-stromal tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Viera, Omar Antonio; Sánchez-Sarmiento, Angélica María; Fernandes, Natália Coelho Couto de Azevedo; Guerra, Juliana Mariotti; Ressio, Rodrigo Albergaria; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2017-10-13

    The study of neoplasia in wildlife species contributes to the understanding of cancer biology, management practices, and comparative pathology. Higher frequencies of neoplasms among captive non-domestic felids have been reported most commonly in aging individuals. However, testicular tumours have rarely been reported. This report describes a metastatic testicular sex cord-stromal tumour leading to fatal haemorrhage and thrombosis in a captive African lion (Panthera leo). During necropsy of a 16-year-old male African lion, the left testicle and spermatic cord were found to be intra-abdominal (cryptorchid), semi-hard and grossly enlarged with multiple pale-yellow masses. Encapsulated haemorrhage was present in the retroperitoneum around the kidneys. Neoplastic thrombosis was found at the renal veins opening into the caudal vena cava. Metastases were observed in the lungs and mediastinal lymph nodes. Histology revealed a poorly differentiated pleomorphic neoplasm comprised of round to polygonal cells and scattered spindle cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm. An immunohistochemistry panel of inhibin-α, Ki-67, human placental alkaline phosphatase, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, cKit, vimentin and S100 was conducted. Positive cytoplasmic immunolabeling was obtained for vimentin and S100. The gross, microscopic and immunohistochemical findings of the neoplasm were compatible with a poorly differentiated pleomorphic sex cord-stromal tumour. Cause of death was hypovolemic shock from extensive retroperitoneal haemorrhage and neoplastic thrombosis may have contributed to the fatal outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first report of sex cord-stromal tumour in non-domestic felids.

  19. Neoplastic transformation in vitro by low doses of ionizing radiation: Role of adaptive response and bystander effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, M.; Lao, X.-Y.; Kapadia, R.; Elmore, E.; Redpath, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The shape of the dose-response curve for cancer induction by low doses of ionizing radiation is of critical importance to the assessment of cancer risk at such doses. Epidemiologic analyses are limited by sensitivity to doses typically greater than 50-100 mGy for low LET radiation. Laboratory studies allow for the examination of lower doses using cancer-relevant endpoints. One such endpoint is neoplastic transformation in vitro. It is known that this endpoint is responsive to both adaptive response and bystander effects. The relative balance of these processes is likely to play an important role in determining the shape of the dose-response curve at low doses. A factor that may influence this balance is cell density at time of irradiation. The findings reported in this paper indicate that the transformation suppressive effect of low doses previously seen following irradiation of sub-confluent cultures, and attributed to an adaptive response, is reduced for irradiated confluent cultures. However, even under these conditions designed to optimize the role of bystander effects the data do not fit a linear no-threshold model and are still consistent with the notion of a threshold dose for neoplastic transformation in vitro by low LET radiation

  20. Age and Spatial Peculiarities of Non-neoplastic Diseases of the Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue in Kazakhstan, 2003-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igissinov, Nurbek; Kulmirzayeva, Dariyana; Bilyalova, Zarina; Akpolatova, Gulnur; Mamyrbayeva, Marzya; Zhumagaliyeva, Galina

    2017-11-01

    Arrangement of effective management aimed at improving dermatological services and consistent care of patients with skin diseases depends on understanding the epidemiological situation. This retrospective study presents an epidemiological assessment of non-neoplastic skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases in Kazakhstan registered in 2003-2015. The yearly incidence rate of the diseases among the whole population was in average 3,341.8±121.1 per 100000 population. This represents 4835.0±156.1 for children, 5503.2±141.8 for adolescents and 2646.6±106.7 for adults per 100000 inhabitants. Space and time incidence rate was evaluated according to the administrative division. The overall trend decreased to 3.5% in children to 2.8% in adolescents to 1.9%, and in adults to 3.9%. Considerable variation in rates was seen across the country, with highest rates in East Kazakhstan, Mangystau and Aktobe regions, the lowest - in Atyrau and South-Kazakhstan regions. Non-neoplastic diseases of skin and subcutaneous tissue continue to be an urgent public health problem, especially among children in many regions of Kazakhstan.

  1. Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells Induce Tumor Progression of Neoplastic Hepatocytes in a TGF-β Dependent Fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIKULA, M.; PROELL, V.; FISCHER, A.N.M.; MIKULITS, W.

    2010-01-01

    The development of hepatocellular carcinomas from malignant hepatocytes is frequently associated with intra- and peritumoral accumulation of connective tissue arising from activated hepatic stellate cells. For both tumorigenesis and hepatic fibrogenesis, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling executes key roles and therefore is considered as a hallmark of these pathological events. By employing cellular transplantation we show that the interaction of neoplastic MIM-R hepatocytes with the tumor microenvironment, containing either activated hepatic stellate cells (M1-4HSCs) or myofibroblasts derived thereof (M-HTs), induces progression in malignancy. Cotransplantation of MIM-R hepatocytes with M-HTs yielded strongest MIM-R generated tumor formation accompanied by nuclear localization of Smad2/3 as well as of β-catenin. Genetic interference with TGF-β signaling by gain of antagonistic Smad7 in MIM-R hepatocytes diminished epithelial dedifferentiation and tumor progression upon interaction with M1-4HSCs or M-HTs. Further analysis showed that tumors harboring disrupted Smad signaling are devoid of nuclear β-catenin accumulation, indicating a crosstalk between TGF-β and β-catenin signaling. Together, these data demonstrate that activated HSCs and myofibroblasts directly govern hepatocarcinogenesis in a TGF-β dependent fashion by inducing autocrine TGF-β signaling and nuclear β-catenin accumulation in neoplastic hepatocytes. These results indicate that intervention with TGF-β signaling is highly promising in liver cancer therapy. PMID:16883581

  2. Neoplastic pleural effusion and intrathoracic metastasis of a scapular osteosarcoma in a dog: a multidisciplinary integrated diagnostic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Luis; Mortier, Jeremy; Ressel, Lorenzo; Finotello, Riccardo; Silvestrini, Paolo; Piviani, Martina

    2017-06-01

    A 10-year-old, female spayed mixed-breed or cross-bred dog was referred to the Small Animal Teaching Hospital of the University of Liverpool due to tachypnea, dyspnea, and pleural effusion not responding to diuretics and antibiotics. The chest was drained and cytology of the pleural fluid was consistent with a modified transudate with presence of atypical cells initially attributed to mesothelial hyperplasia and dysplasia. Computed tomography detected, in addition to the bilateral pleural effusion, diffuse pleural thickening, multiple pleural and pulmonary nodules, and a mineralized and lytic mass in the left scapula. Imaging findings were suggestive of a primary bone tumor with intrathoracic metastasis. Cytology of the left scapular and pleural masses revealed a malignant neoplasm highly suggestive of osteosarcoma. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstration of a positive cytochemical reaction for alkaline phosphatase on prestained cytology slides. This finding prompted review of the initial interpretation of the pleural effusion cytology. The presence of neoplastic osteoblasts in the thoracic fluid was identified by a combination of cytochemistry, cell pellet immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy findings. In this report, a multidisciplinary integrated diagnostic approach was used to diagnose and confirm a neoplastic pleural effusion due to osteosarcoma metastasis in a dog. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of transabdominal high-resolution US for staging gallbladder cancer and differential diagnosis of neoplastic polyps compared with EUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Sub; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Yong Jae; Ryu, Ji Kon; Kim, Yong-Tae; Lee, Jae Young; Han, Joon Koo

    2017-07-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of transabdominal high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS) for staging gallbladder cancer and differential diagnosis of neoplastic polyps compared with endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and pathology. Among 125 patients who underwent both HRUS and EUS, we included 29 pathologically proven cancers (T1 = 7, T2 = 19, T3 = 3) including 15 polypoid cancers and 50 surgically proven polyps (neoplastic = 30, non-neoplastic = 20). We reviewed formal reports and assessed the accuracy of HRUS and EUS for diagnosing cancer as well as the differential diagnosis of neoplastic polyps. Statistical analyses were performed using chi-square tests. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for gallbladder cancer were 82.7 %, 44.4 %, 82.7 %, and 44 % using HRUS and 86.2 %, 22.2 %, 78.1 %, and 33.3 % using EUS. HRUS and EUS correctly diagnosed the stage in 13 and 12 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for neoplastic polyps were 80 %, 80 %, 86 %, and 73 % using HRUS and 73 %, 85 %, 88 %, and 69 % using EUS. Single polyps (8/20 vs. 21/30), larger (1.0 ± 0.28 cm vs. 1.9 ± 0.85 cm) polyps, and older age (52.5 ± 13.2 vs. 66.1 ± 10.3 years) were common in neoplastic polyps (p diagnostic accuracy for GB cancer compared with EUS. • HRUS and EUS showed similar diagnostic accuracy for differentiating neoplastic polyps. • Single, larger polyps and older age were common in neoplastic polyps. • HRUS is less invasive compared with EUS.

  4. Computed tomography in neoplastic diseases of the skull base and adjacent areas using EMI scanner CT-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Yoshimi; Ohtake, Eiji; Asakura, Koichi; Tanohata, Kazunori; Ito, Otomasa

    1980-01-01

    CT-findings of 145 patients with and without neoplastic diseases of the skull base were evaluated using EMI CT-1000. Analysis of 64 patients without any lesion at the skull base showed more artifacts compared with that of higher slices, so that good or fair images were obtained only in 64% of this groups of patients. The most important factor in producing artifacts are considered to be caused by patient's movement. We also evaluated the tumor extension to the skull base in 81 patients. They were 24 brain tumors, 21 pituitary adenomas, and 36 nasopharyngeal and paranasal cancers. Four out of 24 brain tumors showed extracranial extension, 12 pituitary adenomas infiltrating outside of the sella turcica, and 10 cases of nasopharyngeal cancers showed intracranial extension. It was concluded that CT presented an excellent information in evaluating the degree of extension of neoplasms which invading to the skull base. (author)

  5. Three-dimensional lithographically-defined organotypic tissue arrays for quantitative analysis of morphogenesis and neoplastic progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Celeste M.; Inman, Jamie L.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-02-13

    Here we describe a simple micromolding method to construct three-dimensional arrays of organotypic epithelial tissue structures that approximate in vivo histology. An elastomeric stamp containing an array of posts of defined geometry and spacing is used to mold microscale cavities into the surface of type I collagen gels. Epithelial cells are seeded into the cavities and covered with a second layer of collagen. The cells reorganize into hollow tissues corresponding to the geometry of the cavities. Patterned tissue arrays can be produced in 3-4 h and will undergo morphogenesis over the following one to three days. The protocol can easily be adapted to study a variety of tissues and aspects of normal and neoplastic development.

  6. Linked color imaging reduces the miss rate of neoplastic lesions in the right colon: a randomized tandem colonoscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggi, Silvia; Mogavero, Giuseppe; Amato, Arnaldo; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Andrealli, Alida; Imperiali, Gianni; Lenoci, Nicoletta; Mandelli, Giovanna; Terreni, Natalia; Conforti, Francesco Simone; Conte, Dario; Spinzi, Giancarlo; Radaelli, Franco

    2018-04-01

     Linked color imaging (LCI) is a newly developed image-enhancing endoscopy technology that provides bright endoscopic images and increases color contrast. We investigated whether LCI improves the detection of neoplastic lesions in the right colon when compared with high definition white-light imaging (WLI).  Consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy were randomized (1:1) after cecal intubation into right colon inspection at first pass by LCI or by WLI. At the hepatic flexure, the scope was reintroduced to the cecum under LCI and a second right colon inspection was performed under WLI in previously LCI-scoped patients (LCI-WLI group) and vice versa (WLI-LCI group). Lesions detected on first- and second-pass examinations were used to calculate detection and miss rates, respectively. The primary outcome was the right colon adenoma miss rate.  Of the 600 patients enrolled, 142 had at least one adenoma in the right colon, with similar right colon adenoma detection rates (r-ADR) in the two groups (22.7 % in LCI-WLI and 24.7 % in WLI-LCI). At per-polyp analysis, double inspection of the right colon in the LCI-WLI and WLI-LCI groups resulted in an 11.8 % and 30.6 % adenoma miss rate, respectively ( P  one adenoma was identified in the second pass only (incremental ADR) in 2 of 300 patients (0.7 %) in the LCI - WLI group and in 13 of 300 patients (4.3 %) in the WLI - LCI group ( P  = 0.01).  LCI could reduce the miss rate of neoplastic lesions in the right colon. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. 2-[(aminopropyl)amino]ethanethiol (WR1065) is anti-neoplastic and anti-mutagenic when given during 60Coγ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.K.; Nagy, B.; Peraino, C.; Grdina, D.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of 2[(aminopropyl)amino]ethanethiol (WR1065) has been studied on the induction of neoplastic transformation using 10T1/2 cells and on mutation of the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus using Chinese hamster V79 cells. The first observations that treatment of 10T1/2 cells with 1 mM WR1065 for a total of 35 min during irradiation with 60 C γ-rays significantly reduces the incidence of neoplastic transformation while having no effect on cell viability are reported. In a similar experiment with V79 cells in which 4mM WR1065 was used, a significant reduction in mutation frequency at the HGPRT locus and significant protection against cell killing was found. These results suggest that WR1965 acts to modulate both acute damage and sub-lethal processes that lead to mutation and neoplastic transformation. Beyond the purely mechanistic approach of these studies, the potential application of these agents to minimizing the long-term neoplastic effects of radiation or chemotherapeutic agents currently in use for treating potentially curable cancer patients should be further investigated. (author)

  8. Postulating a dermal pathway for exposure to anti-neoplastic drugs among hospital workers. Applying a conceptual model to the results of three workplace surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.; Hoek, F.; Uitterhoeve, R.; Huijbers, R.; Overmars, R.F.; Anzion, R.; Vermeulen, R.

    2000-01-01

    Dermal exposure to anti-neoplastic drugs has been suggested as a potentially important route of exposure of hospital workers. Three small-scale workplace surveys were carried out in several hospitals focusing on contamination by leakage from IV infusion systems; contamination by spilled urine of

  9. Neoplastic progression of the human breast cancer cell line G3S1 is associated with elevation of cytoskeletal dynamics and upregulation of MT1-MMP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tolde, O.; Rosel, D.; Mierke, C.T.; Paňková, D.; Folk, P.; Veselý, Pavel; Brabek, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 4 (2010), s. 833-839 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : invasiveness * neoplastic progression * cytoskeletal dynamics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.571, year: 2010

  10. Characterization of the neoplastic disease in childhood in the province of Ciego de Avila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Calleja, Norma C

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study to characterize from the standpoint of childhood cancer epidemiology in the province of Ciego de Avila from January to December 2008. The sample consisted of all the managers or guardians, with inclusion criteria and signed informed consent. We applied a structured interview criteria validated by experts. The data were divided into tables and comments. Acute leukemias were most prevalent. The northern area had a higher proportional mortality and crude with 10.7 x c/100 people died and 0.05 respectively x c/1000 plus higher incidence rate, with 0.8 x c/10000 inhabitants. The higher prevalence of cancer diseases in the municipality of the chamber. The specific rates were in the group of 1 to 4 years and only 16.3% underwent early diagnosis of the disease. We conclude that working in the promotion, teaching and research to reduce childhood cancer mortality in the province

  11. Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8 sero-detection and HIV association in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS, non-KS tumors and non-neoplastic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak Fatemeh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association of the human herpesvirus-8/Kaposi's sarcoma (KS-associated herpesvirus (HHV-8/KSHV serology with various malignancies in Tanzania is not currently well established while previous studies were based on either PCR or immunofluorescence assays [IFA] but not with a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Selected archival diagnostic biopsies (n = 184 and sera from indigenous patients with KS (n = 120, non-KS tumors (n = 24 and non-neoplastic lesions (n = 40 at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, Tanzania, were evaluated by diagnostic histopathology, immunohistology [anti-HHV-8 latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA] and serology for HIV (ELISA and HHV-8 (IFA and ELISA. Results About 66.3% (n = 122 cases including AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (AKS (n = 93, reactive conditions (n = 28 and only one non-KS tumour were HIV positive. Endemic KS (EKS patients were mostly males (96.3%, 26/27 who were less (69.9%, 65/93 predominant in AIDS-associated (AKS. A high (89% percentage of patients with anti-HHV-8 antibodies was found in the cohort including the HIV positive (92% cases, males (81.2%, KS patients (93%, non-KS tumors (92%, and reactive conditions (75%. All HHV-8 seronegative KS cases were nodular stage whereas both sera and corresponding biopsies from early stage KS were HHV-8+. Assay sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV and specificity were 98.6%, 93.5% and 16.7% for IFA and 93.5%, 98.6% and 50.0% for ELISA respectively. Conclusion HHV-8 seroprevalence at MNH appears high as expected among AKS cases and males but also in non-KS patients. ELISA showed a combination of high HHV-8 sensitivity as well as higher PPV and specificity than IFA which however, showed higher sensitivity. The apparent stage-dependent, inverted serum HHV-8 immunoreactivity supports a notion of viral immune-segregation during KS development. Routine HHV-8 screening should be considered particularly in patients at risk of

  12. Critical Function of PRDM2 in the Neoplastic Growth of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

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    Erika Di Zazzo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs derive from primordial germ cells. Their maturation is blocked at different stages, reflecting histological tumor subtypes. A common genetic alteration in TGCT is a deletion of the chromosome 1 short arm, where the PRDM2 gene, belonging to the Positive Regulatory domain gene (PRDM family, is located. Expression of PRDM2 gene is shifted in different human tumors, where the expression of the two principal protein forms coded by PRDM2 gene, RIZ1 and RIZ2, is frequently unbalanced. Therefore, PRDM2 is actually considered a candidate tumor suppressor gene in different types of cancer. Although recent studies have demonstrated that PRDM gene family members have a pivotal role during the early stages of testicular development, no information are actually available on the involvement of these genes in TGCTs. In this article we show by qRT-PCR analysis that PRDM2 expression level is modulated by proliferation and differentiation agents such as estradiol, whose exposure during fetal life is probably an important risk factor for TGCTs development in adulthood. Furthermore in normal and cancer germ cell lines, PRDM2 binds estradiol receptor α (ERα and influences proliferation, survival and apoptosis, as previously reported using MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, suggesting a potential tumor-suppressor role in TGCT formation.

  13. Neoplastic and stromal cells contribute to an extracellular matrix gene expression profile defining a breast cancer subtype likely to progress.

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    Tiziana Triulzi

    Full Text Available We recently showed that differential expression of extracellular matrix (ECM genes delineates four subgroups of breast carcinomas (ECM1, -2, -3- and -4 with different clinical outcome. To further investigate the characteristics of ECM signature and its impact on tumor progression, we conducted unsupervised clustering analyses in 6 additional independent datasets of invasive breast tumors from different platforms for a total of 643 samples. Use of four different clustering algorithms identified ECM3 tumors as an independent group in all datasets tested. ECM3 showed a homogeneous gene pattern, consisting of 58 genes encoding 43 structural ECM proteins. From 26 to 41% of the cases were ECM3-enriched, and analysis of datasets relevant to gene expression in neoplastic or corresponding stromal cells showed that both stromal and breast carcinoma cells can coordinately express ECM3 genes. In in vitro experiments, β-estradiol induced ECM3 gene production in ER-positive breast carcinoma cell lines, whereas TGFβ induced upregulation of the genes leading to ECM3 gene classification, especially in ER-negative breast carcinoma cells and in fibroblasts. Multivariate analysis of distant metastasis-free survival in untreated breast tumor patients revealed a significant interaction between ECM3 and histological grade (p = 0.001. Cox models, estimated separately in grade I-II and grade III tumors, indicated a highly significant association between ECM3 and worse survival probability only in grade III tumors (HR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.3-7.0, p = 0.0098. Gene Set Enrichment analysis of ECM3 compared to non-ECM3 tumors revealed significant enrichment of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT genes in both grade I-II and grade III subsets of ECM3 tumors. Thus, ECM3 is a robust cluster that identifies breast carcinomas with EMT features but with accelerated metastatic potential only in the undifferentiated (grade III phenotype. These findings support the

  14. Confocal laser endomicroscopy and ultrasound endoscopy during the same endoscopic session for diagnosis and staging of gastric neoplastic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, C; Iacob, R; Dumbrava, Mona; Becheanu, G; Ionescu, M

    2009-01-01

    Confocal LASER endomicroscopy (CLE) is a newly developed endoscopic technique which allows subsurface in vivo histological assessment during ongoing endoscopy and targeted biopsies. Ultrasound endoscopy (EUS) is a useful tool in staging upper GI malignant lesions. We describe for the first time the use of both techniques during the same endoscopic session, in a pilot study, in order to increase the diagnostic yield of histological assessment and provide the staging of the gastric neoplastic lesions thus decreasing the time to therapeutic decision. CLE has been performed with the Pentax EG-3870CIK confocal endomicroscope after a 5 ml intravenous 10% fluorescein injection; EUS has been performed subsequently, during the same endoscopic Propofol sedation session, using a standard radial EUS-scope. Eleven patients have been investigated, 4 females, 7 males, mean age 59.7 +/- 12.3 years. The indication of CLE/EUS exploration was the presence of a gastric polypoid lesion in 37% of cases, atypical gastric ulcer in 27% of patients, gastric lymphoma 18%, suspicion of gastric cancer recurrence after resection 9% and infiltrating type gastric cancer 9%. Histological assessment after targeted biopsy has established the diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma in 55% of cases, gastric lymphoma in 18% of cases, gastric adenoma, gastric GIST and gastric foveolar hyperplasia in 9% of cases respectively. CLE has allowed targeted biopsies in 81.8% of cases. In 2 patients - one case with suspected recurrent gastric cancer after surgery and one case of gastric lymphoma, CLE has indicated normal gastric mucosa. The EUS evaluation has shown TO lesion in two cases, T1 in 3 cases, T2 in 3 cases, T3 in one case. The EUS evaluation showed in one gastric lymphoma patient a lesion interesting the mucosa and submucosa with regional adenopathy and a submucosal lesion with regional adenopathy in the other gastric lymphoma case. The therapeutic decision was surgery in 73% of cases, chemotherapy and

  15. Serum Free Light Chains in Neoplastic Monoclonal Gammopathies: Relative Under-Detection of Lambda Dominant Kappa/Lambda Ratio, and Underproduction of Free Lambda Light Chains, as Compared to Kappa Light Chains, in Patients With Neoplastic Monoclonal Gammopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Sok; Singh, Gurmukh

    2018-07-01

    Quantitative evaluation of serum free light chains is recommended for the work up of monoclonal gammopathies. Immunoglobulin light chains are generally produced in excess of heavy chains. In patients with monoclonal gammopathy, κ/λ ratio is abnormal less frequently with lambda chain lesions. This study was undertaken to ascertain if the levels of overproduction of the two light chain types and their detection rates are different in patients with neoplastic monoclonal gammopathies. Results of serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP), serum protein immunofixation electrophoresis (SIFE), urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP), urine protein immunofixation electrophoresis (UIFE), and serum free light chain assay (SFLCA) in patients with monoclonal gammopathies were examined retrospectively. The κ/λ ratios were appropriately abnormal more often in kappa chain lesions. Ratios of κ/λ were normal in about 25% of patients with lambda chain lesions in whom free homogenous lambda light chains were detectable in urine. An illustrative case suggests underproduction of free lambda light chains, in some instances. The lower prevalence of lambda dominant κ/λ ratio in lesions with lambda light chains is estimated to be due to relative under-detection of lambda dominant κ/λ ratio in about 25% of the patients and because lambda chains are not produced in as much excess of heavy chains as are kappa chains, in about 5% of the patients. The results question the medical necessity and clinical usefulness of the serum free light chain assay. UPEP/UIFE is under-utilized.

  16. The role of dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging in differentiating between infectious and neoplastic focal brain lesions: results from a cohort of 100 consecutive patients.

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    Valdeci Hélio Floriano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Differentiating between infectious and neoplastic focal brain lesions that are detected by conventional structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI may be a challenge in routine practice. Brain perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI may be employed as a complementary non-invasive tool, providing relevant data on hemodynamic parameters, such as the degree of angiogenesis of lesions. We aimed to employ dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging (DSC-MRI to differentiate between infectious and neoplastic brain lesions by investigating brain microcirculation changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DSC-MRI perfusion studies of one hundred consecutive patients with non-cortical neoplastic (n = 54 and infectious (n = 46 lesions were retrospectively assessed. MRI examinations were performed using a 1.5-T scanner. A preload of paramagnetic contrast agent (gadolinium was administered 30 seconds before acquisition of dynamic images, followed by a standard dose 10 seconds after starting imaging acquisitions. The relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV values were determined by calculating the regional cerebral blood volume in the solid areas of lesions, normalized to that of the contralateral normal-appearing white matter. Discriminant analyses were performed to determine the cutoff point of rCBV values that would allow the differentiation of neoplastic from infectious lesions and to assess the corresponding diagnostic performance of rCBV when using this cutoff value. RESULTS: Neoplastic lesions had higher rCBV values (4.28±2.11 than infectious lesions (0.63±0.49 (p<0.001. When using an rCBV value <1.3 as the parameter to define infectious lesions, the sensitivity of the method was 97.8% and the specificity was 92.6%, with a positive predictive value of 91.8%, a negative predictive value of 98.0%, and an accuracy of 95.0%. CONCLUSION: PWI is a useful complementary tool in distinguishing between infectious and neoplastic brain

  17. Effects of Training and Feedback on Accuracy of Predicting Rectosigmoid Neoplastic Lesions and Selection of Surveillance Intervals by Endoscopists Performing Optical Diagnosis of Diminutive Polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleugels, Jasper L A; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Hazewinkel, Yark; Wanders, Linda K; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2018-05-01

    Real-time differentiation of diminutive polyps (1-5 mm) during endoscopy could replace histopathology analysis. According to guidelines, implementation of optical diagnosis into routine practice would require it to identify rectosigmoid neoplastic lesions with a negative predictive value (NPV) of more than 90%, using histologic findings as a reference, and agreement with histology-based surveillance intervals for more than 90% of cases. We performed a prospective study with 39 endoscopists accredited to perform colonoscopies on participants with positive results from fecal immunochemical tests in the Bowel Cancer Screening Program at 13 centers in the Netherlands. Endoscopists were trained in optical diagnosis using a validated module (Workgroup serrAted polypS and Polyposis). After meeting predefined performance thresholds in the training program, the endoscopists started a 1-year program (continuation phase) in which they performed narrow band imaging analyses during colonoscopies of participants in the screening program and predicted histological findings with confidence levels. The endoscopists were randomly assigned to groups that received feedback or no feedback on the accuracy of their predictions. Primary outcome measures were endoscopists' abilities to identify rectosigmoid neoplastic lesions (using histology as a reference) with NPVs of 90% or more, and selecting surveillance intervals that agreed with those determined by histology for at least 90% of cases. Of 39 endoscopists initially trained, 27 (69%) completed the training program. During the continuation phase, these 27 endoscopists performed 3144 colonoscopies in which 4504 diminutive polyps were removed. The endoscopists identified neoplastic lesions with a pooled NPV of 90.8% (95% confidence interval 88.6-92.6); their proposed surveillance intervals agreed with those determined by histologic analysis for 95.4% of cases (95% confidence interval 94.0-96.6). Findings did not differ between the group

  18. Concanavalin A: A potential anti-neoplastic agent targeting apoptosis, autophagy and anti-angiogenesis for cancer therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wen-wen; Yu, Jia-ying; Xu, Huai-long; Bao, Jin-ku

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → ConA induces cancer cell death targeting apoptosis and autophagy. → ConA inhibits cancer cell angiogenesis. → ConA is utilized in pre-clinical and clinical trials. -- Abstract: Concanavalin A (ConA), a Ca 2+ /Mn 2+ -dependent and mannose/glucose-binding legume lectin, has drawn a rising attention for its remarkable anti-proliferative and anti-tumor activities to a variety of cancer cells. ConA induces programmed cell death via mitochondria-mediated, P73-Foxo1a-Bim apoptosis and BNIP3-mediated mitochondrial autophagy. Through IKK-NF-κB-COX-2, SHP-2-MEK-1-ERK, and SHP-2-Ras-ERK anti-angiogenic pathways, ConA would inhibit cancer cell survival. In addition, ConA stimulates cell immunity and generates an immune memory, resisting to the same genotypic tumor. These biological findings shed light on new perspectives of ConA as a potential anti-neoplastic agent targeting apoptosis, autophagy and anti-angiogenesis in pre-clinical or clinical trials for cancer therapeutics.

  19. Differentiation of benign osteoporotic and neoplastic vertebral compression fractures with a diffusion-weighted, steady-state free precession sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, A.; Huber, A.; Nikolaou, K.; Staebler, A.; Reiser, M.; Duerr, H.R.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnosic accuracy of a diffusion-weigthed, steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequence for the differentiation of acute benign osteoporotic and neoplastic vertebral compression fractures. Methods: 85 patients with 102 vertebral compression fractures were examined with MR imaging using a spine array surface coil (Siemens, Vision, 1.5 Tesla). The following sequences were performed in sagittal orientation: T 1 -weighted spin echo (SE), short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) and a diffusion-weighted SSFP sequence (TR=25 msec, diffusion pulse length δ=3 msec). The SSFP images were evaluated qualitatively on a 5-grade scale from strongly hypointense to strongly hyperintense. Quantitative analysis was performed with region of interest measurements (ROI) and calculation of a bone marrow ratio. Results: 60 fractures were due to osteoporosis and 42 fractures were caused by malignancy. 'Hyperintensity' in a vertebral fracture on a SSFP sequence provided a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 93%. The positive predictive value was 91%, the negative predictive value was 100%. Quantitative analysis of the bone marrow ratio showed a statistically significant difference between the osteoporosis and the tumor group (p [de

  20. Development of a method for the accurate measurement of protein turnover in neoplastic cells grown in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    In this study, it was shown that standard techniques for cell recovery and sample preparation for liquid scintillation counting led to underestimation of the radioactivity present in cell proteins by 20-40%. These techniques involved labeling with 3 He leucine or 14 C leucine, scraping the cells from the dish in a buffer, TCA precipitation of the cell proteins, solubilization in NaOH and counting in a liquid scintillation counter. Hydrolysis of the proteins with HCl or Pronase significantly increased the recovery of the labeled proteins. Also, solubilization in situ with NaOH or hydrolysis in situ with Pronase recovered 5-10% additional labeled proteins. The techniques developed here allow the accurate measurement of radioactivity in cell proteins. In addition, these techniques were used to study protein turnover in rat hepatoma cells grown in culture. These cells regulated their growth rate through changes in the protein synthesis rate as opposed to changes in the protein degradation rate. These data support the hypothesis that neoplastic cells, unlike normal cells, do not regulate proteolysis in growth control; normal cells under similar conditions have been shown to activate lysosomal proteolysis as they reach confluence. The physiologic implications of this observation are discussed

  1. Promoting effect of bile acids on neoplastic transformation of x-irradiated 10T1/2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, A.; Hill, C.K.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental studies have raised a concern about a role of bile acids in colo-rectal carcinogenesis. Studies in vivo suggest that bile acids may act as tumor promoters. Using 10T1/2 mouse cells as a model system, the authors explored the effects of cholic and cheno-deoxycholic acid on x-ray-induced neoplastic transformation in these cells. Addition of either cheno-deoxycholic acid or cholic acid to 10T1/2 cells, 24 hours after exposure to x-rays (50kv) increases significantly the frequencies of transformation. The compounds were present in the medium throughout the entire postirradiation refeeding period. At the concentrations used (0.5μg/ml), neither acid was cytotoxic and did not have any effect on cell survival. The enhancement of radiation-induced transformation seems to be greater in the presence of cholic acid, as compared to the effect of cheno-deoxycholic acid. Increase in transformation was relatively greater after low compared to high doses of radiation. The effect of bile acids on transformation of 10T1/2 cells is similar to that of a known tumor promoter TPA. The authors' observations support the conclusion that promotional effect of bile acids is not because of their specific effect on colonic epithelium, but rather due to their general properties as tumor promoters

  2. Mesenchymal stromal cells of osteosarcoma patients do not show evidence of neoplastic changes during long-term culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddingh, Emilie P; Ruslan, S Eriaty N; Reijnders, Christianne M A; Szuhai, Karoly; Kuijjer, Marieke L; Roelofs, Helene; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Maarten Egeler, R; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Lankester, Arjan C

    2015-01-01

    In vitro expanded mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are increasingly used as experimental cellular therapy. However, there have been concerns regarding the safety of their use, particularly with regard to possible oncogenic transformation. MSCs are the hypothesized precursor cells of high-grade osteosarcoma, a tumor with often complex karyotypes occurring mainly in adolescents and young adults. To determine if MSCs from osteosarcoma patients could be predisposed to malignant transformation we cultured MSCs of nine osteosarcoma patients and five healthy donors for an average of 649 days (range 601-679 days). Also, we compared MSCs derived from osteosarcoma patients at diagnosis and from healthy donors using genome wide gene expression profiling. Upon increasing passage, increasing frequencies of binucleate cells were detected, but no increase in proliferation suggestive of malignant transformation occurred in MSCs from either patients or donors. Hematopoietic cell specific Lyn substrate 1 (HLCS1) was differentially expressed (fold change 0.25, P value 0.0005) between MSCs of osteosarcoma patients (n = 14) and healthy donors (n = 9). This study shows that although HCLS1 expression was downregulated in MSCs of osteosarcoma patients and binucleate cells were present in both patient and donor derived MSCs, there was no evidence of neoplastic changes to occur during long-term culture.

  3. Potential Therapeutic Effects of Curcumin, the Anti-inflammatory Agent, Against Neurodegenerative, Cardiovascular, Pulmonary, Metabolic, Autoimmune and Neoplastic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bharat B.; Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B.

    2009-01-01

    Although safe in most cases, ancient treatments are ignored because neither their active component nor their molecular targets are well defined. This is not the case, however, with curcumin, a yellow-pigment substance and component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), which was identified more than a century ago. For centuries it has been known that turmeric exhibits anti-inflammatory activity, but extensive research performed within the past two decades has shown that the this activity of turmeric is due to curcumin, a diferuloylmethane. This agent has been shown to regulate numerous transcription factors, cytokines, protein kinases, adhesion molecules, redox status and enzymes that have been linked to inflammation. The process of inflammation has been shown to play a major role in most chronic illnesses, including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases. In the current review, we provide evidence for the potential role of curcumin in the prevention and treatment of various pro-inflammatory chronic diseases. These features, combined with the pharmacological safety and negligible cost, render curcumin an attractive agent to explore further. PMID:18662800

  4. Chronic Trichuris muris infection causes neoplastic change in the intestine and exacerbates tumour formation in APC min/+ mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly S Hayes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Incidences of infection-related cancers are on the rise in developing countries where the prevalence of intestinal nematode worm infections are also high. Trichuris muris (T. muris is a murine gut-dwelling nematode that is the direct model for human T. trichiura, one of the major soil-transmitted helminth infections of humans. In order to assess whether chronic infection with T. muris does indeed influence the development of cancer hallmarks, both wild type mice and colon cancer model (APC min/+ mice were infected with this parasite. Parasite infection in wild type mice led to the development of neoplastic change similar to that seen in mice that had been treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane. Additionally, both chronic and acute infection in the APCmin/+ mice led to an enhanced tumour development that was distinct to the site of infection suggesting systemic control. By blocking the parasite induced T regulatory response in these mice, the increase in the number of tumours following infection was abrogated. Thus T. muris infection alone causes an increase in gut pathologies that are known to be markers of cancer but also increases the incidence of tumour formation in a colon cancer model. The influence of parasitic worm infection on the development of cancer may therefore be significant.

  5. LINE-1 methylation status in prostate cancer and non-neoplastic tissue adjacent to tumor in association with mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiano, Valentina; Zugna, Daniela; Grasso, Chiara; Trevisan, Morena; Delsedime, Luisa; Molinaro, Luca; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo

    2017-01-02

    Aberrant DNA methylation seems to be associated with prostate cancer behavior. We investigated LINE-1 methylation in prostate cancer and non-neoplastic tissue adjacent to tumor (NTAT) in association with mortality from prostate cancer. We selected 157 prostate cancer patients with available NTAT from 2 cohorts of patients diagnosed between 1982-1988 and 1993-1996, followed up until 2010. An association between LINE-1 hypomethylation and prostate cancer mortality in tumor was suggested [hazard ratio per 5% decrease in LINE-1 methylation levels: 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95-2.01]. After stratification of the patients for Gleason score, the association was present only for those with a Gleason score of at least 8. Among these, low (80%) LINE-1 methylation was associated with a hazard ratio of 4.68 (95% CI: 1.03-21.34). LINE-1 methylation in the NTAT was not associated with prostate cancer mortality. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that tumor tissue global hypomethylation may be a late event in prostate cancerogenesis and is associated with tumor progression.

  6. Mesenchymal Tumors Can Derive from Ng2/Cspg4-Expressing Pericytes with β-Catenin Modulating the Neoplastic Phenotype

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    Shingo Sato

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The cell of origin for most mesenchymal tumors is unclear. One cell type that contributes to this lineages is the pericyte, a cell expressing Ng2/Cspg4. Using lineage tracing, we demonstrated that bone and soft tissue sarcomas driven by the deletion of the Trp53 tumor suppressor, or desmoid tumors driven by a mutation in Apc, can derive from cells expressing Ng2/Cspg4. Deletion of the Trp53 tumor suppressor gene in these cells resulted in the bone and soft tissue sarcomas that closely resemble human sarcomas, while stabilizing β-catenin in this same cell type caused desmoid tumors. Comparing expression between Ng2/Cspg4-expressing pericytes lacking Trp53 and sarcomas that arose from deletion of Trp53 showed inhibition of β-catenin signaling in the sarcomas. Activation of β-catenin inhibited the formation and growth of sarcomas. Thus, pericytes can be a cell of origin for mesenchymal tumors, and β-catenin dysregulation plays an important role in the neoplastic phenotype.

  7. Antioxidants impair anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat, but not anti-neoplastic effects of Vorinostat and caspase-8 downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergadà, Laura; Yeramian, Andree; Sorolla, Annabel; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat, applied as a single therapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation exhibits high anti-tumoral activity on endometrial carcinoma cell lines. In the present study, we have assessed the signalling processes underlying anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat. Increasing evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species are responsible for histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced cell killing. We have found that Vorinostat induces formation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. To investigate the role of oxidative stress as anti-neoplastic mechanism, we have evaluated the effects of different antioxidants (Bha, Nac and Tiron) on endometrial carcinoma cell line Ishikawa treated with Vorinostat. We show that Bha, Nac and Tiron markedly inhibited the cytotoxic effects of Vorinostat, increasing cell viability in vitro. We found that all three antioxidants did not inhibited accumulation of acetyl Histone H4, so that antioxidants did not inhibit Vorinostat activity. Finally, we have evaluated the effects of antioxidants on anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat as monotherapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation in vivo. Interestingly, antioxidants blocked the reduction of tumour growth caused by Vorinostat, but they were unable to inhibit anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat plus caspase-8 inhibition.

  8. Enhanced sensitivity to neoplastic transformation by 137Cs γ-rays of cells in the G2-/M-phase age interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, J.; Wells, R.L.; Elkind, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    C3H mouse 10T1/2 cells, exposed to low doses of fission-spectrum neutrons, have an enhanced frequency of neoplastic transformation if protracted exposures are used (Hill et al. 1982, 1984a, 1985). To explain this anormaly, a biophysical model was proposed (Elkind 1991 a,b). The unique shape and radiobiological properties of cells in and around mitosis, led to the proposal that the sensitive window is mitosis and possible cells just preceding or just following M phase (Elkind 1991a,b). This study was undertaken using 137 Cs γ-rays. The authors found that late G 2- to M-phase 10T1/2 cells have a maximal sensitivity to neoplastic transformation as well as to killing by 137 Cs γ-rays. (author)

  9. Diagnostic capabilities of the virtual bronchoscopy at advanced neoplastic process of esophagus with formation of tracheobronchial fistula: Description of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mitev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the problem is related to the continued increase in the neoplastic processes, and at the same time also to the development and improvement of the endoscopic and CT equipment, and thus expanding the diagnostic capabilities. Purpose: The presented research examines the results of the study of a rare case of ruptured trachea as a result of cancer of the esophagus. Methods: Fiberoptic esophagoscopy (FOE and CT of the chest followed by virtual bronchoscopy on a patient with a ruptured trachea, a 63 year-old man, were performed. Result: Performing MDCT with virtual bronchoscopy, according to this study, is crucial as the sole and complex methodology for the described case in connection with the finding of the trachea-oesophageal fistula and evaluation of the mediastinum and the pulmonary parenchyma. Conclusion: The VB is a successful method equally effective compared to the FB, to diagnose of advanced neoplastic processes.

  10. Detection of occult cancer with [18F]-FDG scintigraphy in case of limbic encephalitis, a rare neurologic para neoplastic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerrou, K.; Aide, N.; Montravers, F.; Grahek, D.; Younsi-Pourtau, N.; Petegnief, Y.; Colombet-Lamau, C.; Beco, V. de; Talbot, J.N.

    2003-01-01

    Limbic encephalitis is a rare neurologic para-neoplastic syndrome due to the production of anti-neuronal antibodies induced by the presence of a malignant tumour, most frequently a small cell lung cancer: The discovery and the resection of the malignant tissue allows a stabilisation of the neurological syndrome, a complete recovery being impossible when irreversible lesions are present. ( 18 F)-FDG PET may play a determinant role when the cancer is still occult after conventional imaging work-up. We report here on a such patient with evolving limbic encephalitis and no detectable cancer with conventional imaging modalities. ( 18 F)-FDG CDET successfully localised neoplastic small cell lung cancer tissue in the lung. The malignant tumour was not even detectable at surgery and was only confirmed at post surgical histology exactly exactly where it has been spotted by CDET. After surgery, the neurologic syndrome is now steady. (authors)

  11. MYC through miR-17-92 Suppresses Specific Target Genes to Maintain Survival, Autonomous Proliferation, and a Neoplastic State

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yulin; Choi, Peter  S.; Casey, Stephanie  C.; Dill, David  L.; Felsher, Dean  W.

    2014-01-01

    The MYC oncogene regulates gene expression through multiple mechanisms, and its overexpression culminates in tumorigenesis. MYC inactivation reverses turmorigenesis through the loss of distinguishing features of cancer, including autonomous proliferation and survival. Here we report that MYC via miR-17-92 maintains a neoplastic state through the suppression of chromatin regulatory genes Sin3b, Hbp1, Suv420h1, and Btg1, as well as the apoptosis regulator Bim. The enforced expression of miR-17-92 prevents MYC suppression from inducing proliferative arrest, senescence, and apoptosis and abrogates sustained tumor regression. Knockdown of the five miR-17-92 target genes blocks senescence and apoptosis while it modestly delays proliferative arrest, thus partially recapitulating miR-17-92 function. We conclude that MYC, via miR-17-92, maintains a neoplastic state by suppressing specific target genes.

  12. MYC through miR-17-92 Suppresses Specific Target Genes to Maintain Survival, Autonomous Proliferation, and a Neoplastic State

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yulin

    2014-08-01

    The MYC oncogene regulates gene expression through multiple mechanisms, and its overexpression culminates in tumorigenesis. MYC inactivation reverses turmorigenesis through the loss of distinguishing features of cancer, including autonomous proliferation and survival. Here we report that MYC via miR-17-92 maintains a neoplastic state through the suppression of chromatin regulatory genes Sin3b, Hbp1, Suv420h1, and Btg1, as well as the apoptosis regulator Bim. The enforced expression of miR-17-92 prevents MYC suppression from inducing proliferative arrest, senescence, and apoptosis and abrogates sustained tumor regression. Knockdown of the five miR-17-92 target genes blocks senescence and apoptosis while it modestly delays proliferative arrest, thus partially recapitulating miR-17-92 function. We conclude that MYC, via miR-17-92, maintains a neoplastic state by suppressing specific target genes.

  13. Three-Dimensional Printing as an Interdisciplinary Communication Tool: Preparing for Removal of a Giant Renal Tumor and Atrium Neoplastic Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golab, Adam; Slojewski, Marcin; Brykczynski, Miroslaw; Lukowiak, Magdalena; Boehlke, Marek; Matias, Daniel; Smektala, Tomasz

    2016-08-22

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing involves preparing 3D objects from a digital model. These models can be used to plan and practice surgery. We used 3D printing to plan for a rare complicated surgery involving the removal of a renal tumor and neoplastic mass, which reached the heart atrium. A printed kidney model was an essential element of communication for physicians with different specializations.

  14. Stokes shift spectroscopy for the early diagnosis of epithelial precancers in DMBA treated mouse skin carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyasingh, Ebenezar; Singaravelu, Ganesan; Prakasarao, Aruna

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we aim to characterize the tissue transformation in dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) treated mouse skin tumor model using stokes shift spectroscopy (SSS) technique for early detection of the neoplastic changes. Stokes shift (SS) spectra measured by scanning both excitation and emission wavelength simultaneously with a fixed wavelength of interval (Δλ=20 nm) in vivo from 33 DMBA treated animals and 6 control animals. The SS spectra of normal (n=6), hyperplasia (n=10), dysplasia (n=10), and WDSCC (n=13) of mice skin shows the distinct peaks around 300, 350, and 386 nm may be attributed to tryptophan, collagen, and NADH respectively. From the observed spectral differences and the ratio variables that resulted in better classification between groups, it is concluded that tryptophan, collagen, and NADH are the key fluorophores that undergo changes during tissue transformation process and hence they can be targeted as tumor markers for early neoplastic changes.

  15. Differentiation of osteoporotic and neoplastic vertebral fractures by chemical shift {l_brace}in-phase and out-of phase{r_brace} MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragab, Yasser [Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University (Egypt); Radiology Department, Dr Erfan and Bagedo General Hospital (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: yragab61@hotmail.com; Emad, Yasser [Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University (Egypt); Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Department, Dr Erfan and Bagedo General Hospital (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: yasseremad68@yahoo.com; Gheita, Tamer [Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University (Egypt)], E-mail: gheitamer@yahoo.com; Mansour, Maged [Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University (Egypt); Oncology Department, Dr Erfan and Bagedo General Hospital (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: magedmansour@yahoo.com; Abou-Zeid, A. [Public Health Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: alaabouzeid@yahoo.com; Ferrari, Serge [Division of Bone Diseases, Department of Rehabilitation and Geriatrics, and WHO, Collaborating Center for Osteoporosis Prevention, Geneva University Hospital (Switzerland)], E-mail: serge.ferrari@medecine.unige.ch; Rasker, Johannes J. [Rheumatologist University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)], E-mail: j.j.rasker@utwente.nl

    2009-10-15

    Objective: The objective of this study was to establish the cut-off value of the signal intensity drop on chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with appropriate sensitivity and specificity to differentiate osteoporotic from neoplastic wedging of the spine. Patients and methods: All patients with wedging of vertebral bodies were included consecutively between February 2006 and January 2007. A chemical shift MRI was performed and signal intensity after (in-phase and out-phase) images were obtained. A DXA was performed in all. Results: A total of 40 patients were included, 20 with osteoporotic wedging (group 1) and 20 neoplastic (group 2). They were 21 males and 19 females. Acute vertebral collapse was observed in 15 patients in group 1 and subacute collapse in another 5 patients, while in group 2, 11 patients showed acute collapse and 9 patients (45%) showed subacute vertebral collapse. On the chemical shift MRI a substantial reduction in signal intensity was found in all lesions in both groups. The proportional changes observed in signal intensity of bone marrow lesions on in-phase compared with out-of-phase images showed significant differences in both groups (P < 0.05). At a cut-off value of 35%, the observed sensitivity of out-of-phase images was 95%, specificity was 100%, positive predictive value was 100% and negative predictive value was 95.2%. Conclusion: A chemical shift MRI is useful in order to differentiate patients with vertebral collapse due to underlying osteoporosis or neoplastic process.

  16. Tumor-Derived G-CSF Facilitates Neoplastic Growth through a Granulocytic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell-Dependent Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waight, Jeremy D.; Hu, Qiang; Miller, Austin; Liu, Song; Abrams, Scott I.

    2011-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are induced under diverse pathologic conditions, including neoplasia, and suppress innate and adaptive immunity. While the mechanisms by which MDSC mediate immunosuppression are well-characterized, details on how they develop remain less understood. This is complicated further by the fact that MDSC comprise multiple myeloid cell types, namely monocytes and granulocytes, reflecting diverse stages of differentiation and the proportion of these subpopulations vary among different neoplastic models. Thus, it is thought that the type and quantities of inflammatory mediators generated during neoplasia dictate the composition of the resultant MDSC response. Although much interest has been devoted to monocytic MDSC biology, a fundamental gap remains in our understanding of the derivation of granulocytic MDSC. In settings of heightened granulocytic MDSC responses, we hypothesized that inappropriate production of G-CSF is a key initiator of granulocytic MDSC accumulation. We observed abundant amounts of G-CSF in vivo, which correlated with robust granulocytic MDSC responses in multiple tumor models. Using G-CSF loss- and gain-of-function approaches, we demonstrated for the first time that: 1) abrogating G-CSF production significantly diminished granulocytic MDSC accumulation and tumor growth; 2) ectopically over-expressing G-CSF in G-CSF-negative tumors significantly augmented granulocytic MDSC accumulation and tumor growth; and 3) treatment of naïve healthy mice with recombinant G-CSF protein elicited granulocytic-like MDSC remarkably similar to those induced under tumor-bearing conditions. Collectively, we demonstrated that tumor-derived G-CSF enhances tumor growth through granulocytic MDSC-dependent mechanisms. These findings provide us with novel insights into MDSC subset development and potentially new biomarkers or targets for cancer therapy. PMID:22110722

  17. Non-neoplastic parenchymal changes in kidney cancer and post-partial nephrectomy recovery of renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Wassim M; Chen, Ling Y; Cordon, Billy H; Mashni, Joseph; Sjoberg, Daniel D; Bernstein, Melanie; Russo, Paul

    2015-09-01

    To explore the association of non-neoplastic parenchymal changes (nNPC) with patients' health and renal function recovery after partial nephrectomy (PN). This retrospective review identified 800 pT1a patients who underwent PN at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from 2007 to 2012. Pathology reports were reviewed for nNPC graded as mild or severe: vascular sclerosis (VS), glomerulosclerosis (GS), and fibrosis/scarring. Correlations between nNPC and known preoperative predictors of renal function [age, sex, African-American race, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, body mass index, coronary artery disease, and hypertension (HTN)] were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation (ρ). Multivariable linear regression, adjusted for the described known preoperative risk predictors, was performed to evaluate whether the parenchymal features were able to predict 6-month postoperative eGFR. In this study, 46 % of tumors had benign surrounding parenchyma. We noted statistically significant yet weak associations of VS with age (ρ = 0.19; p < 0.001), ASA (ρ = 0.09; p < 0.001), preoperative eGFR (ρ = -0.14; p < 0.001), and HTN (ρ = 0.14; p < 0.001). GS also significantly correlated with HTN, but the correlation was again small (ρ = 0.12; p < 0.001). After adjusting for known risk predictors, only GS was a significant predictor of 6-month postoperative eGFR. When compared with no GS, mild and severe GS were negatively associated with a decrease of 4.9 and 10.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in 6-month postoperative eGFR, respectively. Presence of VS and GS correlated with patients' baseline health, and presence of GS predicted postoperative renal function recovery.

  18. Dasatinib inhibits the growth and survival of neoplastic human eosinophils (EOL-1) through targeting of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Christian; Gleixner, Karoline V; Peter, Barbara; Ferenc, Veronika; Gruze, Alexander; Remsing Rix, Lily L; Bennett, Keiryn L; Samorapoompichit, Puchit; Lee, Francis Y; Pickl, Winfried F; Esterbauer, Harald; Sillaber, Christian; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Valent, Peter

    2008-10-01

    Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by molecular and/or cytogenetic evidence of clonality of eosinophils, marked eosinophilia, and organ damage. In many patients, the transforming mutation FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha and the related CHIC2 deletion are found. The respective oncoprotein, FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha, is considered to play a major role in malignant cell growth in CEL. The tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitor imatinib (STI571) has been described to counteract the TK activity of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha in most patients. However, not all patients with CEL show a response to imatinib. Therefore, several attempts have been made to identify other TK inhibitors that counteract growth of neoplastic eosinophils. We provide evidence that dasatinib, a multi-targeted kinase inhibitor, blocks the growth and survival of EOL-1, an eosinophil leukemia cell line carrying FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha. The effects of dasatinib on proliferation of EOL-1 cells were dose-dependent, with an IC50 of 0.5 to 1 nM, which was found to be in the same range when compared to IC50 values produced with imatinib. Dasatinib was also found to induce apoptosis in EOL-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner (IC50: 1-10 nM). The apoptosis-inducing effects of dasatinib on EOL-1 cells were demonstrable by light microscopy, flow cytometry, and in a TUNEL assay. In Western blot experiments, dasatinib completely blocked the phosphorylation of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha in EOL-1 cells. Dasatinib inhibits the growth of leukemic eosinophils through targeting of the disease-related oncoprotein FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha. Based on this observation, dasatinib may be considered as a new interesting treatment option for patients with CEL.

  19. Prevalence of cervical neoplastic lesions and Human Papilloma Virus infection in Egypt: National Cervical Cancer Screening Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El All, Howayda S; Refaat, Amany; Dandash, Khadiga

    2007-01-01

    Background Data from Egyptian studies provide widely varying estimates on the prevalence of pre-malignant and malignant cervical abnormalities and human papilloma virus (HPVs) infection. To define the prevalence and risk factors of pre-invasive and invasive cervical cancer (cacx), a community based full-scale cross sectional, household survey including 5453 women aged between 35 and 60 years was conducted. Methods The study period was between February 2000 and December 2002. Initially, conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears were evaluated using the Bethesda system (TBS), followed by colposcopic guided biopsy (CGB) for all epithelial abnormalities (EA). In a third step, HPV was tested on all EA by in-situ hybridization (ISH) using first the broad spectrum HPV probe recognizing HPVs 6, 11, 16, 18, 30, 31, 35, 45, 51 and 52 followed by subtyping with probes 6/11, 16/18 and 31/33. Lastly, unequivocal cases were immunostained for herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Results EA representing 7.8% (424/5453), were categorized into atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS) (34.4%), atypical glandular cell of undetermined significance (AGCUS) (15.3%), combined ASCUS and AGCUS (3.1%), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) (41.0%), high grade SIL (5.2%) and invasive lesions (1%). CGB of EA (n = 281) showed non neoplastic lesions (12.8%), atypical squamous metaplasia (ASM) (19.2%), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I (CIN) (44.4%), CIN II (4.4%), CINIII (2.8%), endocervical lesions (5.2%), combined squamous and endocervical lesions (10.0%), invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (0.02%) and extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma (MZBCL) (0.02%). The overall predictive value of cytology was 87% while the predictive value for high grade lesions was 80%. On histological basis, HPVs were present in 94.3% of squamous lesions while it was difficult to be identified in endocervical ones. ISH

  20. Prevalence of cervical neoplastic lesions and Human Papilloma Virus infection in Egypt: National Cervical Cancer Screening Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandash Khadiga

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from Egyptian studies provide widely varying estimates on the prevalence of pre-malignant and malignant cervical abnormalities and human papilloma virus (HPVs infection. To define the prevalence and risk factors of pre-invasive and invasive cervical cancer (cacx, a community based full-scale cross sectional, household survey including 5453 women aged between 35 and 60 years was conducted. Methods The study period was between February 2000 and December 2002. Initially, conventional Papanicolaou (Pap smears were evaluated using the Bethesda system (TBS, followed by colposcopic guided biopsy (CGB for all epithelial abnormalities (EA. In a third step, HPV was tested on all EA by in-situ hybridization (ISH using first the broad spectrum HPV probe recognizing HPVs 6, 11, 16, 18, 30, 31, 35, 45, 51 and 52 followed by subtyping with probes 6/11, 16/18 and 31/33. Lastly, unequivocal cases were immunostained for herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2, cytomegalovirus (CMV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Results EA representing 7.8% (424/5453, were categorized into atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS (34.4%, atypical glandular cell of undetermined significance (AGCUS (15.3%, combined ASCUS and AGCUS (3.1%, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL (41.0%, high grade SIL (5.2% and invasive lesions (1%. CGB of EA (n = 281 showed non neoplastic lesions (12.8%, atypical squamous metaplasia (ASM (19.2%, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I (CIN (44.4%, CIN II (4.4%, CINIII (2.8%, endocervical lesions (5.2%, combined squamous and endocervical lesions (10.0%, invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC (0.02% and extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma (MZBCL (0.02%. The overall predictive value of cytology was 87% while the predictive value for high grade lesions was 80%. On histological basis, HPVs were present in 94.3% of squamous lesions while it was difficult to be identified in endocervical ones. ISH revealed

  1. Dual-energy CT with iodine quantification in distinguishing between bland and neoplastic portal vein thrombosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenti, G; Sofia, C; Mazziotti, S; Silipigni, S; D'Angelo, T; Pergolizzi, S; Scribano, E

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of dual-energy multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with iodine quantification compared to conventional enhancement measurements in distinguishing bland from neoplastic portal vein thrombosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Thirty-four patients (26 men, eight women; mean age, 62 years) with hepatocellular carcinoma and portal vein thrombosis underwent contrast-enhanced dual-energy MDCT during the late hepatic arterial phase for the assessment of portal thrombosis (bland, n=21; neoplastic, n=13). Datasets were analysed separately by two different readers. Interobserver correlation and variability were calculated and compared with the Bland-Altman method. Diagnostic accuracy of conventional enhancement measurements and iodine quantification was calculated by setting either histopathology (n=7) or a reference standard based on MDCT imaging criteria and thrombus evolutionary characteristics compared to a previous MDCT examination (n=27). For iodine quantification threshold determination receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn. p-Values <0.05 were considered significant. For conventional enhancement measurements and iodine quantification interobserver correlation was 98% and 96%. Enhancement measurement resulted in a sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity of 85.7%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 80%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 94.7%. An iodine concentration of 0.9 mg/ml optimised discrimination between neoplastic and bland thrombi (area under the ROC [AUC] 0.993) resulting in a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 95.2%, PPV of 92.9%, and NPV of 100%. The overall diagnostic accuracy of iodine quantification (97%) was significantly better than conventional enhancement measurements (88.2%; p<0.001). Compared to conventional enhancement measurements, iodine quantification improves the characterisation of portal vein thrombi during the late hepatic arterial phase in patients with

  2. Loss of a putative tumor suppressor locus after gamma-ray-induced neoplastic transformation of HeLa x Skin fibroblast human cell hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, M.S.; Redpath, J.L.; Fasching, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    The nontumorigenic HeLa x skin fibroblast hybrid cell line, CGL1, can be induced to re-express HeLa tumor-associated cell surface antigen, p75-IAP (intestinal alkaline phosphatase), with resulting neoplastic transformation, by exposure to γ radiation. This has allowed the human hybrid system to be developed into a quantitative in vitro model for radiation-induced neoplastic transformation of human cells. Recently, several γ-ray-induced IAP-expression mutants (GIMs) of the nontumorigenic HeLa x skin fibroblast hybrid CGL1 were isolated and all were tumorigenic when injected subcutaneously into nude mice. Control cell lines which were negative for p75-IAP (CONs) were also isolated from irradiated populations, and none were found to be tumorigenic. We have now begun to investigate the molecular basis of radiation-induced neoplastic transformation in this system by studying the potential genetic linkage between p75/IAP expression, tumorigenicity and damage to a putative tumor suppressor locus on fibroblast chromosome 11. Previous analysis of rare spontaneous segregants has indicated that this locus is involved in the regulation of tumorigenicity and in the expression of the HeLa tumor-associated cell surface marker intestinal alkaline phosphatase (p75-IAP) in this system. Therefore, analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism and chromosome painting have been performed for chromosome 11, and for chromosome 13 as a control, for the p75/IAP-positive GIM and p75/IAP-negative CON cell lines. We report that in five of eight of the GIMs large-scale damage to the fibroblast chromosome 11's is evident (four GIMs have lost one complete copy of a fibroblast chromosome 11 heavily damaged). None of the CONs, however (0/5), have lost a complete copy of either fibroblast chromosome 11. No large-scale damage to the control chromosome 13's was detected in the GIMs or CONs. 49 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  3. The Relationship between Brown Adipose Tissue Activity and Neoplastic Status: an 18F-FDG PET/CT Study in the Tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Yung-Cheng; Chen Tai-Been; Hsu Chien-Chin; Li Shau-Hsuan; Wang Pei-Wen; Lee Bi-Fang; Kuo Ching-Yuan; Chiu Nan-Tsing

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has thermogenic potential. For its activation, cold exposure is considered a critical factor though other determinants have also been reported. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between neoplastic status and BAT activity by 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in people living in the tropics, where the influence of outdoor temperature was low. Methods 18F-FDG PE...

  4. Protein kinase C-related kinase 1 and 2 play an essential role in thromboxane-mediated neoplastic responses in prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Aine G.; Mulvaney, Eamon P.; Hyland, Paula B.; Kinsella, B. Therese

    2015-01-01

    The prostanoid thromboxane (TX) A2 is increasingly implicated in neoplastic progression, including prostate cancer (PCa). Mechanistically, we recently identified protein kinase C-related kinase (PRK) 1 as a functional interactant of both the TP? and TP? isoforms of the human T prostanoid receptor (TP). The interaction with PRK1 was not only essential for TP?/TP?-induced PCa cell migration but also enabled the TXA2-TP axis to induce phosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr11 (H3Thr11), an epigenet...

  5. In vitro study of the influence of alpha particles irradiation on the pre-neoplastic transformation of rat trachea epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, C.

    2001-12-01

    Intern contamination by actinide oxide inhalation is potentially one health hazard during the nuclear fuel fabrication process. The aerosol particles can induce pulmonary lesions, such as epithelial cancers in particular. Their toxicity is mainly due to radiotoxicity of α irradiation. The aim of this work was to contribute, by an in vitro model, to the study of the apparition of pre-neoplastic states on epithelial cells after high LET irradiation. Primary cultures of rat tracheal epithelial cells were used. Two rat strain cells, SD TR for Sprague Dawley rats and WF TR for Wistar Furth I Fischer F344 rats, were compared after exposure to a dose range from 0 to 5 Gy. Reproductive cell death, i.e. senescent death, seems to be the main lethal way induced by α and γ irradiations. The nuclear volume of WF TR cells is higher than that of SD TR ones, explaining the higher α radiation-induced lethality of these cells. These WF TR cells are also much sensitive to dose rate and α particles energy. In the same manner, pre-neoplastic transformation rate of the cells seems to depend on the physical parameters of irradiation. But, it mainly varies as a function of cell radiosensitivity, that means cell death. In fact, the transformation rate of sensitive WF TR cells is lower than that of SD TR ones. In term of transformation for SD TR cells, dose-effect relationship fits to a linear and infra linear function after α irradiation, whereas the curve fits to linear and quadratic function after γ irradiation. The Relative Biological Efficiency (RBE) of α particles for lethality and pre-neoplastic transformation were determined for several levels of dose. A constant value of about 3 was found for RBE of lethality whatever the α dose. By contrast, the RBE of transformation has a value of about 10 up to 0.5 Gy and gradually decreases at higher doses to reach a value of 1 at 5 Gy. Similar shapes of dose-effect relationship can be observed for malignant lung tumour induction after

  6. HPV16 early gene E5 specifically reduces miRNA-196a in cervical cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chanzhen; Lin, Jianfei; Li, Lianqin; Zhang, Yonggang; Chen, Weiling; Cao, Zeyi; Zuo, Huancong; Chen, Chunling; Kee, Kehkooi

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16, which is responsible for greater than 50% of cervical cancer cases, is the most prevalent and lethal HPV type. However, the molecular mechanisms of cervical carcinogenesis remain elusive, particularly the early steps of HPV infection that may transform normal cervical epithelium into a pre-neoplastic state. Here, we report that a group of microRNAs (microRNAs) were aberrantly decreased in HPV16-positive normal cervical tissues, and these groups of...

  7. Late biological effects of ionizing radiation as influenced by dose, dose rate, age at exposure and genetic sensitivity to neoplastic transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, J.F.; Prine, J.R.; Tietjen, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    A most comprehensive investigation is in progress at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to study the late biological effects of whole-body exposure to gamma irradiation as they may be influenced by total dose, dose rate, age at exposure and genetic background. Strain C57B1/6J mice of four age groups (newborn, 2, 6 and l5 months) were given five doses (20, 60, 180, 540, and 1620 rads) of gamma rays, with each dose being delivered at six dose rates (0.7, 2.1, 6.3, 18.9, 56.7 rads/day and 25 rads/min). Forty to sixty mice were used in each of the approximately 119 dose/dose-rate and age combinations. The study was done in two replications with an equal number of mice per replicaton. Strain RF/J mice were used in a companion study to investigate the influence of genetic background on the type and magnitude of effect. Results of the first and second replications of the l5-month-old age group and data on the influence of genetic background on biological response have been completed, and the results show no significant life shortening within the dose and dose-rate range used. It was also concluded that radiaton-induced neoplastic transformaton was significantly greater in mice with a known genetic sensitivity to neoplastic disease than in mammals which do not normally have a significant incidence of tumours. (author)

  8. The anti-neoplastic activity of Vandetanib against high-risk medulloblastoma variants is profoundly enhanced by additional PI3K inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craveiro, Rogerio B; Ehrhardt, Michael; Velz, Julia; Olschewski, Martin; Goetz, Barbara; Pietsch, Torsten; Dilloo, Dagmar

    2017-07-18

    Medulloblastoma is comprised of at least four molecular subgroups with distinct clinical outcome (WHO classification 2016). SHH-TP53-mutated as well as MYC-amplified Non-WNT/Non-SHH medulloblastoma show the worst prognosis.Here we present evidence that single application of the multi-kinase inhibitor Vandetanib displays anti-neoplastic efficacy against cell lines derived from high-risk SHH-TP53-mutated and MYC-amplified Non-WNT/Non-SHH medulloblastoma. The narrow target spectrum of Vandetanib along with a favourable toxicity profile renders this drug ideal for multimodal treatment approaches. In this context our investigation documents that Vandetanib in combination with the clinically available PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 leads to enhanced cytotoxicity against MYC-amplified and SHH-TP53-mutated medulloblastoma. In line with these findings we show for MYC-amplified medulloblastoma a profound reduction in activity of the oncogenes STAT3 and AKT. Furthermore, we document that Vandetanib and the standard chemotherapeutic Etoposide display additive anti-neoplastic efficacy in the investigated medulloblastoma cell lines that could be further enhanced by PI3K inhibition. Of note, the combination of Vandetanib, GDC-0941 and Etoposide results in MYC-amplified and SHH-TP53-mutated cell lines in complete loss of cell viability. Our findings therefore provide a rational to further evaluate Vandetanib in combination with PI3K inhibitors as well as standard chemotherapeutics in vivo for the treatment of most aggressive medulloblastoma variants.

  9. Focus formation and neoplastic transformation by herpes simplex virus type 2 inactivated intracellularly by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine and near UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manak, M.M.; Aurelian, L.; Ts'o, P.O.

    1981-01-01

    The induction of focus formation in low serum and of neoplastic transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells was examined after the expression of herpes simplex virus type 2 functions. Syrian hamster embryo cells infected at a high multiplicity (5 PFU/cell) with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled herpes simplex virus type 2 (11% substitution of thymidine residues) were exposed to near UV light irradiation at various times postinfection. This procedure specifically inactivated the viral genome, while having little, if any, effect on the unlabeled cellular DNA. Focus formation in 1% serum and neoplastic transformation were observed in cells exposed to virus inactivated before infection, but the frequency was enhanced (15- to 27-fold) in cells in which the virus was inactivated at 4 to 8 h postinfection. Only 2 to 45 independently isolated foci were capable of establishing tumorigenic lines. The established lines exhibited phenotypic alterations characteristic of a transformed state, including reduced serum requirement, anchorage-independent growth, and tumorigenicity. They retained viral DNA sequences and, even at relatively late passage, expressed viral antigens, including ICP 10

  10. Correlation between standardized uptake value and apparent diffusion coefficient of neoplastic lesions evaluated with whole-body simultaneous hybrid PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakheja, Rajan; Chandarana, Hersh; DeMello, Linda; Jackson, Kimberly; Geppert, Christian; Faul, David; Glielmi, Christopher; Friedman, Kent P

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between standardized uptake value (SUV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of neoplastic lesions in the use of a simultaneous PET/MRI hybrid system. Twenty-four patients with known primary malignancies underwent FDG PET/CT. They then underwent whole-body PET/MRI. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with free breathing and a single-shot spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with b values of 0, 350, and 750 s/mm(2). Regions of interest were manually drawn along the contours of neoplastic lesions larger than 1 cm, which were clearly identified on PET and diffusion-weighted images. Maximum SUV (SUVmax) on PET/MRI and PET/CT images, mean SUV (SUVmean), minimum ADC (ADCmin), and mean ADC (ADCmean) were recorded on PET/MR images for each FDG-avid neoplastic soft-tissue lesion with a maximum of three lesions per patient. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to asses the following relations: SUVmax versus ADCmin on PET/MR and PET/CT images, SUVmean versus ADCmean, and ratio of SUVmax to mean liver SUV (SUV ratio) versus ADCmin. A subanalysis of patients with progressive disease versus partial treatment response was performed with the ratio of SUVmax to ADCmin for the most metabolically active lesion. Sixty-nine neoplastic lesions (52 nonosseous lesions, 17 bone metastatic lesions) were evaluated. The mean SUVmax from PET/MRI was 7.0 ± 6.0; SUVmean, 5.6 ± 4.6; mean ADCmin, 1.10 ± 0.58; and mean ADCmean, 1.48 ± 0.72. A significant inverse Pearson correlation coefficient was found between PET/MRI SUVmax and ADCmin (r = -0.21, p = 0.04), between SUVmean and ADCmean (r = -0.18, p = 0.07), and between SUV ratio and ADCmin (r = -0.27, p = 0.01). A similar inverse Pearson correlation coefficient was found between the PET/CT SUVmax and ADCmin. Twenty of 24 patients had previously undergone PET/CT; five patients had a partial treatment response, and six had progressive disease according to Response Evaluation

  11. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Malignant Mesothelioma: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasetti, Marco, E-mail: m.tomasetti@univpm.it; Santarelli, Lory [Department of Molecular Pathology and Innovative Therapies, Occupational Medicine, Polytechnic University of Marche, via Tronto 10/A Torrette 60020, Ancona (Italy)

    2010-04-14

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare and aggressive tumour of the serosal cavities linked to asbestos exposure. Improved detection methods for diagnosing this type of neoplastic disease are essential for an early and reliable diagnosis and treatment. Thus, focus has been placed on finding tumour markers for the non-invasive detection of MM. Recently, some blood biomarkers have been described as potential indicators of early and advanced MM cancers. The identification of tumour biomarkers alone or in combination could greatly facilitate the surveillance procedure for cohorts of subjects exposed to asbestos, a common phenomenon in several areas of western countries.

  12. Dual-energy CT with iodine quantification in distinguishing between bland and neoplastic portal vein thrombosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascenti, G.; Sofia, C.; Mazziotti, S.; Silipigni, S.; D'Angelo, T.; Pergolizzi, S.; Scribano, E.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of dual-energy multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with iodine quantification compared to conventional enhancement measurements in distinguishing bland from neoplastic portal vein thrombosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Material and methods: Thirty-four patients (26 men, eight women; mean age, 62 years) with hepatocellular carcinoma and portal vein thrombosis underwent contrast-enhanced dual-energy MDCT during the late hepatic arterial phase for the assessment of portal thrombosis (bland, n=21; neoplastic, n=13). Datasets were analysed separately by two different readers. Interobserver correlation and variability were calculated and compared with the Bland–Altman method. Diagnostic accuracy of conventional enhancement measurements and iodine quantification was calculated by setting either histopathology (n=7) or a reference standard based on MDCT imaging criteria and thrombus evolutionary characteristics compared to a previous MDCT examination (n=27). For iodine quantification threshold determination receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn. p-Values <0.05 were considered significant. Results: For conventional enhancement measurements and iodine quantification interobserver correlation was 98% and 96%. Enhancement measurement resulted in a sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity of 85.7%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 80%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 94.7%. An iodine concentration of 0.9 mg/ml optimised discrimination between neoplastic and bland thrombi (area under the ROC [AUC] 0.993) resulting in a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 95.2%, PPV of 92.9%, and NPV of 100%. The overall diagnostic accuracy of iodine quantification (97%) was significantly better than conventional enhancement measurements (88.2%; p<0.001). Conclusion: Compared to conventional enhancement measurements, iodine quantification improves the characterisation of portal vein thrombi during the late

  13. Low dose CT in early lung cancer diagnosis: prevalence data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, Luciano; Cortese, Giancarlo; Ferraris, Fabrizio; Perotto, Fabio; Fava, Cesare; Borasio, Piero; Dogliotti, Luigi; Novello, Silvia; Scagliotti, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. Lung cancer has a high mortality rate and its prognosis largely depends on early detection. We report the prevalence data of the study on early detection of lung cancer with low-dose spiral CT underway at our hospital. Materials and methods. Since the beginning of 2001, 519 asymptomatic volunteers have undergone annual blood tests, sputum tests, urinalyses and low-dose spiral CT. The inclusion criteria were age (55 years old), a history of cigarette smoking and a negative history for previous neoplastic disease. The diagnostic workup varied depending on the size and CT features of the nodules detected. Results. At baseline, the CT scan detected nodules> 5 mm in 22% of subjects; the nodules were single in 42 and multiple in 71. In 53% of cases the findings were completely negative, while in 122 (23.4%) nodules with a diameter [it

  14. A Microbiomic Analysis in African Americans with Colonic Lesions Reveals Streptococcus sp.VT162 as a Marker of Neoplastic Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Brim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests a role of the gut microbiota in colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC. To detect bacterial markers of colorectal cancer in African Americans a metabolomic analysis was performed on fecal water extracts. DNA from stool samples of adenoma and healthy subjects and from colon cancer and matched normal tissues was analyzed to determine the microbiota composition (using 16S rDNA and genomic content (metagenomics. Metagenomic functions with discriminative power between healthy and neoplastic specimens were established. Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (q-PCR using primers and probes specific to Streptococcus sp. VT_162 were used to validate this bacterium association with neoplastic transformation in stool samples from two independent cohorts of African Americans and Chinese patients with colorectal lesions. The metabolomic analysis of adenomas revealed low amino acids content. The microbiota in both cancer vs. normal tissues and adenoma vs. normal stool samples were different at the 16S rRNA gene level. Cross-mapping of metagenomic data led to 9 markers with significant discriminative power between normal and diseased specimens. These markers identified with Streptococcus sp. VT_162. Q-PCR data showed a statistically significant presence of this bacterium in advanced adenoma and cancer samples in an independent cohort of CRC patients. We defined metagenomic functions from Streptococcus sp. VT_162 with discriminative power among cancers vs. matched normal and adenomas vs. healthy subjects’ stools. Streptococcus sp. VT_162 specific 16S rDNA was validated in an independent cohort. These findings might facilitate non-invasive screening for colorectal cancer.

  15. Uncaria tomentosa exerts extensive anti-neoplastic effects against the Walker-256 tumour by modulating oxidative stress and not by alkaloid activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Alejandro Dreifuss

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the anti-neoplastic effects of an Uncaria tomentosa (UT brute hydroethanolic (BHE extract with those of two fractions derived from it. These fractions are choroformic (CHCl3 and n-butanolic (BuOH, rich in pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (POA and antioxidant substances, respectively. The cancer model was the subcutaneous inoculation of Walker-256 tumour cells in the pelvic limb of male Wistar rat. Subsequently to the inoculation, gavage with BHE extract (50 mg.kg(-1 or its fractions (as per the yield of the fractioning process or vehicle (Control was performed during 14 days. Baseline values, corresponding to individuals without tumour or treatment with UT, were also included. After treatment, tumour volume and mass, plasma biochemistry, oxidative stress in liver and tumour, TNF-α level in liver and tumour homogenates, and survival rates were analysed. Both the BHE extract and its BuOH fraction successfully reduced tumour weight and volume, and modulated anti-oxidant systems. The hepatic TNF-α level indicated a greater effect from the BHE extract as compared to its BuOH fraction. Importantly, both the BHE extract and its BuOH fraction increased the survival time of the tumour-bearing animals. Inversely, the CHCl3 fraction was ineffective. These data represent an in vivo demonstration of the importance of the modulation of oxidative stress as part of the anti-neoplastic activity of UT, as well as constitute evidence of the lack of activity of isolated POAs in the primary tumour of this tumour lineage. These effects are possibly resulting from a synergic combination of substances, most of them with antioxidant properties.

  16. Transmembrane potential of GlyCl-expressing instructor cells induces a neoplastic-like conversion of melanocytes via a serotonergic pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Blackiston

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that coordinate stem cell behavior within the host is a high priority for developmental biology, regenerative medicine and oncology. Endogenous ion currents and voltage gradients function alongside biochemical cues during pattern formation and tumor suppression, but it is not known whether bioelectrical signals are involved in the control of stem cell progeny in vivo. We studied Xenopus laevis neural crest, an embryonic stem cell population that gives rise to many cell types, including melanocytes, and contributes to the morphogenesis of the face, heart and other complex structures. To investigate how depolarization of transmembrane potential of cells in the neural crest’s environment influences its function in vivo, we manipulated the activity of the native glycine receptor chloride channel (GlyCl. Molecular-genetic depolarization of a sparse, widely distributed set of GlyCl-expressing cells non-cell-autonomously induces a neoplastic-like phenotype in melanocytes: they overproliferate, acquire an arborized cell shape and migrate inappropriately, colonizing numerous tissues in a metalloprotease-dependent fashion. A similar effect was observed in human melanocytes in culture. Depolarization of GlyCl-expressing cells induces these drastic changes in melanocyte behavior via a serotonin-transporter-dependent increase of extracellular serotonin (5-HT. These data reveal GlyCl as a molecular marker of a sparse and heretofore unknown cell population with the ability to specifically instruct neural crest derivatives, suggest transmembrane potential as a tractable signaling modality by which somatic cells can control stem cell behavior at considerable distance, identify a new biophysical aspect of the environment that confers a neoplastic-like phenotype upon stem cell progeny, reveal a pre-neural role for serotonin and its transporter, and suggest a novel strategy for manipulating stem cell behavior.

  17. Extra-articular Tenosynovial Chondromatosis Mimicking a Neoplastic Disease in the First Web Space of the Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Cebesoy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tenosynovial chondromatosis is a very rare disease. The most common symptom is a slowly enlarging soft tissue mass, which may be painful or cause limitation of joint motion. Plain radiograph may appear normal during early phases of the disease, but subsequent imaging may be necessary to exclude other pathologies. Nonoperative treatment may be elected for some patients, but a synovectomy and the removal of loose bodies are indicated for persistent symptoms. This report describe a case with a multinodular cartilaginous proliferation and rice body in the first web space of the hand, similar to synovial chondromatosis, but arising in the tenosynovial membranes.

  18. Early discontinuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Felde, Lina; Gichangi, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    prevalence and rate of early discontinuation of different drugs consisting of, in this study, lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensive drugs, antidepressants, antidiabetics and drugs against osteoporosis. Material and methods This was a register study based on prescription data covering a 4-year period...... and consisting of 470,000 citizens. For each practice and group of drug, a 1-year prevalence for 2002 and the rate of early discontinuation among new users in 2002-2003 were estimated. Early discontinuation was defined as no prescriptions during the second half-year following the first prescription....... There was a positive association between the prevalence of prescribing for the specific drugs studied (antidepressants, antidiabetics, drugs against osteoporosis and lipid-lowering drugs) and early discontinuation (r = 0.29 -0.44), but not for anti-hypertensive drugs. The analysis of the association between prevalence...

  19. Early literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from the Danish contribution to the EASE project, a European research project running from 2008 to 2010 on early literacy in relation to the transition from childcare to school. It explores a holistic, inclusive approach to early literacy that resists a narrow...... and schools. The paper also draws on Gee’s (2001, 2003, 2004, 2008) sociocultural approach to literacy, and Honneth’s (2003, 2006) concept of recognition. Emphasizing participation and recognition as key elements, it claims that stakeholders in early liter- acy must pay attention to how diverse early literacy...... opportunities empower children, especially when these opportunities are employed in a project-based learning environ- ment in which each child is able to contribute to the shared literacy events....

  20. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-04: Characterization of Fan Beam Coded Aperture Coherent Scatter Spectral Imaging Methods for Differentiation of Normal and Neoplastic Breast Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, R; Albanese, K; Lakshmanan, M; Greenberg, J; Kapadia, A [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, Carl E Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study intends to characterize the spectral and spatial resolution limits of various fan beam geometries for differentiation of normal and neoplastic breast structures via coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging techniques. In previous studies, pencil beam raster scanning methods using coherent scatter computed tomography and selected volume tomography have yielded excellent results for tumor discrimination. However, these methods don’t readily conform to clinical constraints; primarily prolonged scan times and excessive dose to the patient. Here, we refine a fan beam coded aperture coherent scatter imaging system to characterize the tradeoffs between dose, scan time and image quality for breast tumor discrimination. Methods: An X-ray tube (125kVp, 400mAs) illuminated the sample with collimated fan beams of varying widths (3mm to 25mm). Scatter data was collected via two linear-array energy-sensitive detectors oriented parallel and perpendicular to the beam plane. An iterative reconstruction algorithm yields images of the sample’s spatial distribution and respective spectral data for each location. To model in-vivo tumor analysis, surgically resected breast tumor samples were used in conjunction with lard, which has a form factor comparable to adipose (fat). Results: Quantitative analysis with current setup geometry indicated optimal performance for beams up to 10mm wide, with wider beams producing poorer spatial resolution. Scan time for a fixed volume was reduced by a factor of 6 when scanned with a 10mm fan beam compared to a 1.5mm pencil beam. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the utility of fan beam coherent scatter spectral imaging for differentiation of normal and neoplastic breast tissues has successfully reduced dose and scan times whilst sufficiently preserving spectral and spatial resolution. Future work to alter the coded aperture and detector geometries could potentially allow the use of even wider fans, thereby making coded

  1. Active vitamin D potentiates the anti-neoplastic effects of calcium in the colon: A cross talk through the calcium-sensing receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Abhishek; Höbaus, Julia; Tennakoon, Samawansha; Prinz-Wohlgenannt, Maximilian; Graça, João; Price, Sally A; Heffeter, Petra; Berger, Walter; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina; Kállay, Enikö

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest an inverse correlation between dietary calcium (Ca(2+)) and vitamin D intake and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). It has been shown in vitro that the active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3) can upregulate expression of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). In the colon, CaSR has been suggested to regulate proliferation of colonocytes. However, during tumorigenesis colonic CaSR expression is downregulated and we hypothesized that the loss of CaSR could influence the anti-tumorigenic effects of Ca(2+) and vitamin D. Our aim was to assess the impact of CaSR expression and function on the anti-neoplastic effects of 1,25-D3 in colon cancer cell lines. We demonstrated that in the healthy colon of mice, high vitamin D diet (2500 IU/kg diet) increased expression of differentiation and apoptosis markers, decreased expression of proliferation markers and significantly upregulated CaSR mRNA expression, compared with low vitamin D diet (100 IU/kg diet). To determine the role of CaSR in this process, we transfected Caco2-15 and HT29 CRC cells with wild type CaSR (CaSR-WT) or a dominant negative CaSR mutant (CaSR-DN) and treated them with 1,25-D3 alone, or in combination with CaSR activators (Ca(2+) and NPS R-568). 1,25-D3 enhanced the anti-proliferative effects of Ca(2+) and induced differentiation and apoptosis only in cells with a functional CaSR, which were further enhanced in the presence of NPS R-568, a positive allosteric modulator of CaSR. The mutant CaSR inhibited the anti-tumorigenic effects of 1,25-D3 suggesting that the anti-neoplastic effects of 1,25-D3 are, at least in part, mediated by the CaSR. Taken together, our data provides molecular evidence to support the epidemiological observation that both, vitamin D and calcium are needed for protection against malignant transformation of the colon and that their effect is modulated by the presence of a functional CaSR. This article is part of a Special Issue

  2. Phase- and size-adjusted CT cut-off for differentiating neoplastic lesions from normal colon in contrast-enhanced CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luboldt, W.; Kroll, M.; Wetter, A.; Vogl, T.J.; Toussaint, T.L.; Hoepffner, N.; Holzer, K.; Kluge, A.

    2004-01-01

    A computed tomography (CT) cut-off for differentiating neoplastic lesions (polyps/carcinoma) from normal colon in contrast-enhanced CT colonography (CTC) relating to the contrast phase and lesion size is determined. CT values of 64 colonic lesions (27 polyps 0 . The slope m was determined by linear regression in the correlation (lesion ∝[xA + (1 - x)V]//H) and the Y-intercept y 0 by the minimal shift of the line needed to maximize the accuracy of separating the colonic wall from the lesions. The CT value of the lesions correlated best with the intermediate phase: 0.4A+ 0.6V(r=0.8 for polyps ≥10 mm, r=0.6 for carcinomas, r=0.4 for polyps <10 mm). The accuracy in the differentiation between lesions and normal colonic wall increased with the height implemented as divisor, reached 91% and was obtained by the dynamic cut-off described by the formula: cut-off(A,V,H) = 1.1[0.4A + 0.6V]/H + 69.8. The CT value of colonic polyps or carcinomas can be increased extrinsically by scanning in the phase in which 0.4A + 0.6V reaches its maximum. Differentiating lesions from normal colon based on CT values is possible in contrast-enhanced CTC and improves when the cut-off is adjusted (normalized) to the contrast phase and lesion size. (orig.)

  3. Telomere length in non-neoplastic gastric mucosa and its relationship to H. pylori infection, degree of gastritis, and NSAID use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Tomomitsu; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Okubo, Masaaki; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Ohmiya, Naoki; Hirata, Ichiro

    2016-02-01

    Telomere shortening occurs with human aging in many organs and tissues and is accelerated by rapid cell turnover and oxidative injury. We measured average telomere length using quantitative real-time PCR in non-neoplastic gastric mucosa and assessed its relationship to H. pylori-related gastritis, DNA methylation, ulcer disease, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) usage. Gastric biopsies were obtained from 151 cancer-free subjects including 49 chronic NSAID users and 102 nonusers. Relative telomere length in genomic DNA was measured by real-time PCR. H. pylori infection status, histological severity of gastritis, and serum pepsinogens (PGs) were also investigated. E-cadherin (CDH1) methylation status was determined by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Average relative telomere length of H. pylori-infected subjects was significantly shortened when compared to H. pylori-negative subjects (p = 0.002) and was closely associated with all histological parameter of gastritis (all p values gastritis and CDH1 methylation status. Also, telomere shortening is accelerated by NSAID usage especially in H. pylori-negative subjects.

  4. Glycoprotein CD44 expression in normal, hyperplasic and neoplastic endometrium. An immunohistochemical study including correlations with p53, steroid receptor status and proliferative indices (PCNA, MIB1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorianakou, N; Ioachim, E; Mitselou, A; Kitsou, E; Zagorianakou, P; Stefanaki, S; Makrydimas, G; Agnantis, N J

    2003-01-01

    We have studied by immunohistochemistry the presence and localization of CD44, estrogen and progesterone receptors, p53 and proliferative associated indices (MIB1, PCNA) in archival endometrial tissue, in order to determine their diagnostic and prognostic value as well as the possible correlations between them. We examined 186 samples of endometrial tissue (100 endometrial carcinomas of endometrioid type, 40 cases of hyperplasia and 46 of normal endometrium). Patient records were examined for FIGO stage, grade, and depth of myometrial invasion, histology, and lympho-vascular space invasion. Strong membranous immunostaining (> 10% of neoplastic cells) was observed in 45% of the carcinomas. A statistically significant correlation was found in the expression of protein in stromal cells, when compared with epithelial cells (p failed to show any statistical correlation with tumor grade or with vessel invasion. The expression of the protein was lower in FIGO Stage II compared with Stage I (p = 0.03). A positive relation of CD44 expression with progesterone receptor status (p = 0.02) was detected. CD44 expression was also positively associated with the proliferation associated with the proliferative index MIB1 (p = 0.001). CD44 is closely related to the secretory phase of the normal menstrual cycle and its expression is decreased in hyperplasia (simple or complex with or without atypia) and in cancer cases. These observations suggest that decreased CD44 expression might be functionally involved in the multiple mechanisms of the development and progression of endometrial lesions.

  5. Incidental Serous Tubal Intraepithelial Carcinoma and Non-Neoplastic Conditions of the Fallopian Tubes in Grossly Normal Adnexa: A Clinicopathologic Study of 388 Completely Embedded Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Jeffrey D; Krishnan, Jayashree; Yemelyanova, Anna; Vang, Russell

    2016-09-01

    Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), the putative precursor of the majority of extrauterine high-grade serous carcinomas, has been reported in both high-risk women (those with a germline BRCA mutation, a personal history of breast carcinoma, and/or family history of breast or ovarian carcinoma) and average risk women from the general population. We reviewed grossly normal adnexal specimens from 388 consecutive, unselected women undergoing surgery, including those with germline BRCA mutation (37 patients), personal history of breast cancer or family history of breast/ovarian cancer (74 patients), endometrial cancer (175 patients), and a variety of other conditions (102 patients). Among 111 high-risk cases and 277 non-high-risk cases, 3 STICs were identified (0.8%), all in non-high-risk women (high risk vs. non-high risk: P=not significant). STIC was found in 2 women with nonserous endometrial carcinoma and 1 with complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia. Salpingoliths (mucosal calcifications), found in 9% of high-risk cases, and fimbrial adenofibromas in 9.9% of high-risk cases, were significantly more common in high-risk as compared with non-high-risk women (1.8% and 2.5%, respectively; PSTIC and endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma, and clarify the frequency of non-neoplastic tubal findings in grossly normal fallopian tubes.

  6. Leptin acts on neoplastic behavior and expression levels of genes related to hypoxia, angiogenesis, and invasiveness in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho Santos, Eliane Macedo; Guimarães, Talita Antunes; Santos, Hércules Otacílio; Cangussu, Lilian Mendes Borborema; de Jesus, Sabrina Ferreira; Fraga, Carlos Alberto de Carvalho; Cardoso, Claudio Marcelo; Santos, Sérgio Henrique Souza; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena; Farias, Lucyana Conceição

    2017-05-01

    Leptin, one of the main hormones controlling energy homeostasis, has been associated with different cancer types. In oral cancer, its effect is not well understood. We investigated, through in vitro and in vivo assays, whether leptin can affect the neoplastic behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Expression of genes possibly linked to the leptin pathway was assessed in leptin-treated oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and also in tissue samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral mucosa, including leptin, leptin receptor, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, E-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, Col1A1, Ki67, and mir-210. Leptin treatment favored higher rates of cell proliferation and migration, and reduced apoptosis. Accordingly, leptin-treated oral squamous cell carcinoma cells show decreased messenger RNA caspase-3 expression, and increased levels of E-cadherin, Col1A1, matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and mir-210. In tissue samples, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha messenger RNA and protein expression of leptin and leptin receptor were high in oral squamous cell carcinoma cases. Serum leptin levels were increased in first clinical stages of the disease. In animal model, oral squamous cell carcinoma-induced mice show higher leptin receptor expression, and serum leptin level was increased in dysplasia group. Our findings suggest that leptin seems to exert an effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma cells behavior and also on molecular markers related to cell proliferation, migration, and tumor angiogenesis.

  7. Mutation induction and neoplastic transformation in human and human-hamster hybrid cells: dependence on photon energy and modulation in the low-dose range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankenberg, D.; Frankenberg-Schwager, M.; Garg, I.; Pralle, E. [Abt. Klin. Strahlenbiologie und Klin. Strahlenphysik, Universitaet Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany); Uthe, D.; Greve, B.; Severin, E.; Goehde, W. [Institut fuer Strahlenbiologie, Universitaet Muenster, Munster (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    Mutation induction in the HPRT gene of human fibroblasts after irradiation with mammography-like 29 kVp or 200 kVp x-rays shows radiohypersensitivity for doses smaller than {approx}0.5 Gy. Similarly, mutation induction in the CD 59 gene on human chromosome 11 in A{sub L} cells shows radiohypersensitivity for doses smaller than {approx}0.5 Gy after exposure to 200 kVp x-rays, but not after irradiation with low-filtered 30 kVp x-rays. The RBE values of 29 and 30 kVp x-rays relative to 200 kVp x-rays are strongly dose dependent. For neoplastic transformation of human hybrid (CGL1) cells after irradiation with 29 or 200 kVp x-rays or {sup 60}Co gamma rays a linear-quadratic dose relationship was observed with RBE values of approximately four and eight for mammography relative to 200 kVp x-rays and {sup 60}Co gamma rays, respectively. (author)

  8. Regulation of the pituitary tumor transforming gene by insulin-like-growth factor-I and insulin differs between malignant and non-neoplastic astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamaon, Kathrin; Kirches, Elmar; Kanakis, Dimitrios; Braeuninger, Stefan; Dietzmann, Knut; Mawrin, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The reasons for overexpression of the oncogene pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) in tumors are still not fully understood. A possible influence of the insulin-like growth factor I (Igf-I) may be of interest, since enhanced Igf-I signalling was reported in various human tumors. We examined the influence of Igf-I and insulin on PTTG expression in human astrocytoma cells in comparison to proliferating non-neoplastic rat embryonal astrocytes. PTTG mRNA expression and protein levels were increased in malignant astrocytes treated with Igf-I or insulin, whereas in rat embryonic astrocytes PTTG expression and protein levels increased only when cells were exposed to Igf-I. Enhanced transcription did not occur after treatment with inhibitors of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), blocking the two basic signalling pathways of Igf-I and insulin. In addition to this transcriptional regulation, both kinases directly bind to PTTG, suggesting a second regulatory route by phosphorylation. However, the interaction of endogenous PTTG with MAPK and PI3K, as well as PTTG phosphorylation were independent from Igf-I or insulin. The latter results were also found in human testis, which contains high PTTG levels as well as in nonneoplastic astrocytes. This suggest, that PI3K and MAPK signalling is involved in PTTG regulation not only in malignant astrocytomas but also in non-tumorous cells

  9. The Bone Marrow-Mediated Protection of Myeloproliferative Neoplastic Cells to Vorinostat and Ruxolitinib Relies on the Activation of JNK and PI3K Signalling Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno A Cardoso

    Full Text Available The classical BCR-ABL-negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN are a group of heterogeneous haematological diseases characterized by constitutive JAK-STAT pathway activation. Targeted therapy with Ruxolitinib, a JAK1/2-specific inhibitor, achieves symptomatic improvement but does not eliminate the neoplastic clone. Similar effects are seen with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi, albeit with poorer tolerance. Here, we show that bone marrow (BM stromal cells (HS-5 protected MPN-derived cell lines (SET-2; HEL and UKE-1 and MPN patient-derived BM cells from the cytotoxic effects of Ruxolitinib and the HDACi Vorinostat. This protective effect was mediated, at least in part, by the secretion of soluble factors from the BM stroma. In addition, it correlated with the activation of signalling pathways important for cellular homeostasis, such as JAK-STAT, PI3K, JNK, MEK-ERK and NF-κB. Importantly, the pharmacological inhibition of JNK and PI3K pathways completely abrogated the BM protective effect on MPN cell lines and MPN patient samples. Our findings shed light on mechanisms of tumour survival and may indicate novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of MPN.

  10. The Bone Marrow-Mediated Protection of Myeloproliferative Neoplastic Cells to Vorinostat and Ruxolitinib Relies on the Activation of JNK and PI3K Signalling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Bruno A.; Belo, Hélio; Barata, João T.; Almeida, António M.

    2015-01-01

    The classical BCR-ABL-negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN) are a group of heterogeneous haematological diseases characterized by constitutive JAK-STAT pathway activation. Targeted therapy with Ruxolitinib, a JAK1/2-specific inhibitor, achieves symptomatic improvement but does not eliminate the neoplastic clone. Similar effects are seen with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), albeit with poorer tolerance. Here, we show that bone marrow (BM) stromal cells (HS-5) protected MPN-derived cell lines (SET-2; HEL and UKE-1) and MPN patient-derived BM cells from the cytotoxic effects of Ruxolitinib and the HDACi Vorinostat. This protective effect was mediated, at least in part, by the secretion of soluble factors from the BM stroma. In addition, it correlated with the activation of signalling pathways important for cellular homeostasis, such as JAK-STAT, PI3K, JNK, MEK-ERK and NF-κB. Importantly, the pharmacological inhibition of JNK and PI3K pathways completely abrogated the BM protective effect on MPN cell lines and MPN patient samples. Our findings shed light on mechanisms of tumour survival and may indicate novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of MPN. PMID:26623653

  11. Early Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuys, Ute Elisabeth

    1986-01-01

    Presents reviews of the following mathematics software designed to teach young children counting, number recognition, visual discrimination, matching, addition, and subtraction skills; Stickybear Numbers, Learning with Leeper, Getting Ready to Read and Add, Counting Parade, Early Games for Young Children, Charlie Brown's 1,2,3's, Let's Go Fishing,…

  12. Early blindness and coma during intrathecal chemotherapy for meningeal carcinomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogerd, W; Moffie, D; Smets, L A

    1990-02-01

    A 35-year-old woman was treated with intraventricular methotrexate (MTX) with a total dose of 70 mg followed by cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) with a total dose of 80 mg for meningeal metastasis of breast carcinoma. Radiation therapy was not given. Despite a response of the meningeal tumor the patient developed in the third week of MTX treatment a progressive visual loss and loss of consciousness which worsened during subsequent Ara-C treatment and led to death within 3 weeks. Postmortem examination revealed only minimal neoplastic infiltration of the meninges. Multiple foci of axonal degeneration and demyelination were found in the optic nerves and chiasm, the superficial layers of the brainstem, and spinal cord and to some extent in other cranial nerves and spinal nerve roots. The possible causes of this previously unreported early complication are discussed.

  13. Epstein-Barr virus load in transplant patients: Early detection of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, María Dolores; Durand, Karina A; Solernou, Veronica; Bosaleh, Andrea; Balbarrey, Ziomara; García de Dávila, María T; Rodríguez, Marcelo; Irazu, Lucía; Alonio, Lidia V; Picconi, María A

    2016-01-01

    High levels of circulating EBV load are used as a marker of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD). There is no consensus regarding the threshold level indicative of an increase in peripheral EBV DNA. The aim of the study was to clinically validate a developed EBV quantification assay for early PTLD detection. Transversal study: paired peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), plasma and oropharyngeal lymphoid tissue (OLT) from children undergoing a solid organ transplant with (n=58) and without (n=47) PTLD. Retrospective follow-up: 71 paired PBMC and plasma from recipients with (n=6) and without (n=6) PTLD history. EBV load was determined by real-time PCR. The diagnostic ability to detect all PTLD (categories 1-4), advanced PTLD (categories 2-4) or neoplastic PTLD (categories 3 and 4) was estimated by analyzing the test performance at different cut-off values or with a load variation greater than 0.5log units. The higher diagnostic performance for identifying all, advanced or neoplastic PTLD, was achieved with cut-off values of 1.08; 1.60 and 2.47log EBVgEq/10(5) PBMC or 2.30; 2.60; 4.47loggEq/10(5) OLT cells, respectively. EBV DNA detection in plasma showed high specificity but low (all categories) or high (advanced/neoplastic categories) sensitivity for PTLD identification. Diagnostic performance was greater when: (1) a load variation in PBMC or plasma was identified; (2) combining the measure of EBV load in PBMC and plasma. The best diagnostic ability to identify early PTLD stages was achieved by monitoring EBV load in PBMC and plasma simultaneously; an algorithm was proposed. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of morphological alterations of the adrenal glands in the neoplastic cachexia
    Estudo das alterações morfológicas da glândula adrenal na caquexia neoplásica

    OpenAIRE

    Tânia Longo Mazzuco; Karina Garcia Cotrim; Alexandre Yukio Saito; Marcelo Abbá Macioszek; Eveline Aparecida Isquierdo Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Advanced cancer occurs with nutritional and metabolic alterations that characterize neoplastic cachexia. When homeostasis is compromised, the adrenal glands have a fundamental role in the neuroendocrine response. Our purpose in this research was to study morphological alterations of the adrenal glands in the development of cancer associated to cachexia. Cachexia experimental model induced by Walker 256 tumor in Wistar rats, was used. Animals were sacrificed 12 days after tumor cells inoculati...

  15. Differential diagnosis of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma from non-neoplastic oral mucosal lesions: New cytopathologic evaluation method dependent on keratinization-related parameters but not nuclear atypism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Hitoshi; Misawa, Tsuneo; Ishii, Eri; Nakagawa, Miki; Koshiishi, Saki; Amemiya, Kenji; Oyama, Toshio; Tominaga, Kazuya; Cheng, Jun; Tanaka, Akio; Saku, Takashi

    2017-05-01

    The cytology of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is challenging because oral SCC cells tend to be well differentiated and lack nuclear atypia, often resulting in a false negative diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to establish practical cytological parameters specific to oral SCCs. We reviewed 123 cases of malignancy and 53 of non-neoplastic lesions of the oral mucosa, which had been diagnosed using both cytology and histopathology specimens. From those, we selected 12 SCC and 4 CIS cases that had initially been categorized as NILM to ASC-H with the Bethesda system, as well as 4 non-neoplastic samples categorized as LSIL or ASC-H as controls, and compared their characteristic findings. After careful examinations, we highlighted five cytological parameters, as described in Results. Those 20 cytology samples were then reevaluated by 4 independent examiners using the Bethesda system as well as the 5 parameters. Five cytological features, (i) concentric arrangement of orangeophilic cells (indicating keratin pearls), (ii) large number of orangeophilic cells, (iii) bizarre-shaped orangeophilic cells without nuclear atypia, (iv) keratoglobules, and (v) uneven filamentous cytoplasm, were found to be significant parameters. All malignant cases contained at least one of those parameters, while none were observed in the four non-neoplastic cases with nuclear atypia. In reevaluations, the Bethesda system did not help the screeners distinguish oral SCCs from non-neoplastic lesions, while use of the five parameters enabled them to make a diagnosis of SCC. Recognition of the present five parameters is useful for oral SCC cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:406-417. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Enhanced neoplastic transformation by mammography X rays relative to 200 kVp X rays: indication for a strong dependence on photon energy of the RBE(M) for various end points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, D; Kelnhofer, K; Bär, K; Frankenberg-Schwager, M

    2002-01-01

    The fundamental assumption implicit in the use of the atomic bomb survivor data to derive risk estimates is that the gamma rays of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are considered to have biological efficiencies equal to those of other low-LET radiations up to 10 keV/microm, including mammography X rays. Microdosimetric and radiobiological data contradict this assumption. It is therefore of scientific and public interest to evaluate the efficiency of mammography X rays (25-30 kVp) to induce cancer. In this study, the efficiency of mammography X rays relative to 200 kVp X rays to induce neoplastic cell transformation was evaluated using cells of a human hybrid cell line (CGL1). For both radiations, a linear-quadratic dose-effect relationship was observed for neoplastic transformation of CGL1 cells; there was a strong linear component for the 29 kVp X rays. The RBE(M) of mammography X rays relative to 200 kVp X rays was determined to be about 4 for doses energies of transformation of CGL1 cells. Both the data available in the literature and the results of the present study strongly suggest an increase of RBE(M) for carcinogenesis in animals, neoplastic cell transformation, and clastogenic effects with decreasing photon energy or increasing LET to an RBE(M) approximately 8 for mammography X rays relative to 60Co gamma rays.

  17. Reduced temperature (22 degrees C) results in enhancement of cell killing and neoplastic transformation in noncycling HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells irradiated with low-dose-rate gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redpath, J.L.; Antoniono, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of reduced temperature (22 degrees C) or serum deprivation during low-dose-rate (0.66 cGy/min) γ irradiation on cell killing and neoplastic transformation has been examined using the HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cell system. The reduced temperature stops progression of these cells through the cell cycle while serum deprivation slows down cell turnover markedly. The data demonstrate an enhancement in both of the end points when cells are held at 22 degrees C compared to parallel experiments done at 37 degrees C. In operational terms, the decreased survival and increased neoplastic transformation are consistent with our earlier hypothesis of a higher probability of misrepair at reduced temperature. The interpretation that this damage enhancement was associated with the reduced temperature, and not the fact that the cells were noncycling, was supported by the results of experiments performed with cells cultured at 37 degrees C in serum-free medium for 35 h prior to and then during the 12.24 h low-dose-rate radiation exposure. Under these conditions, cell cycle progression, as shown by reduction in growth rate and dual-parameter flow cytometric analysis, was considerable inhibited (cell cycle time increased from 20 h to 40 h), and there was no significant enhancement of cell killing or neoplastic transformation. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. Effects of a probiotic soy product and physical exercise on formation of pre-neoplastic lesions in rat colons in a short-term model of carcinogenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Elizeu A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose In this study the influence of moderate or intense physical exercise, alone or in combination with the consumption of a soya product fermented with Enterococcus faecium, on the development of colon cancer induced chemically in rats with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, was investigated. Methods Eighty male Wistar SPF rats were randomly allocated to 8 groups (n = 10. One week after the start of the program of product ingestion and/or physical activity, all animals except the controls (group I were injected subcutaneously with 50 mg/kg b.w. of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH. This procedure was repeated at the end of the second week. At the end of the 6-week experiment, all the animals were euthanized; the colons were removed and numbers of ACF was estimated. Results Twenty-four days after the induction of pre-neoplastic lesions, it was evident that the formation of ACF was not significantly reduced by the ingestion of the fermented product, by intense or moderate physical activity or by a combination of these factors, in comparison with the positive control group of rats (p Conclusion The results reported in this article show that consumption of the fermented soy product described here and the practice of physical exercise (intense or moderate were incapable, separately or combined, of inhibiting the formation of ACF in DMH-induced rats. The intense physical exercise led to an increased number of foci in the colons of these rats and, probably, to greater susceptibility to colorectal cancer.

  19. Homeostatic Mass Control in Gastric Non-Neoplastic Epithelia under Infection of Helicobacter pylori: An Immunohistochemical Analysis of Cell Growth, Stem Cells and Programmed Cell Death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kenji; Hasui, Kazuhisa; Wang, Jia; Kawano, Yoshifumi; Aikou, Takashi; Murata, Fusayoshi

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated homeostatic mass control in non-neoplastic gastric epithelia under Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection in the macroscopically normal-appearing mucosa resected from the stomach with gastric cancer, immunohistochemically analyzing the proliferation, kinetics of stem cells and programmed cell death occurring in them. Ki67 antigen-positive proliferating cells were found dominantly in the elongated neck portion, sparsely in the fundic areas and sporadically in the stroma with chronic infiltrates. CD117 could monitor the kinetics of gastric stem cells and showed its expression in two stages of gastric epithelial differentiation, namely, in transient cells from the gastric epithelial stem cells to the foveolar and glandular cells in the neck portion and in what are apparently progenitor cells from the gastric stem cells in the stroma among the infiltrates. Most of the nuclei were positive for ssDNA in the almost normal mucosa, suggesting DNA damage. Cleaved caspase-3-positive foveolar cells were noted under the surface, suggesting the suppression of apoptosis in the surface foveolar cells. Besides such apoptosis of the foveolar cells, in the severely inflamed mucosa apoptotic cells were found in the neck portion where most of the cells were Ki67 antigen-positive proliferating cells. Beclin-1 was recognized in the cytoplasm and in a few nuclei of the fundic glandular cells, suggesting their autophagic cell death and mutated beclin-1 in the nuclei. Taken together, the direct and indirect effects of HP infection on the gastric epithelial proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death suggested the in-situ occurrence of gastric cancer under HP infection

  20. Inhibition of Neoplastic Transformation and Chemically-Induced Skin Hyperplasia in Mice by Traditional Chinese Medicinal Formula Si-Wu-Tang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy M. Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Exploring traditional medicines may lead to the development of low-cost and non-toxic cancer preventive agents. Si-Wu-Tang (SWT, comprising the combination of four herbs, Rehmanniae, Angelica, Chuanxiong, and Paeoniae, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines for women’s diseases. In our previous studies, the antioxidant Nrf2 pathways were strongly induced by SWT in vitro and in vivo. Since Nrf2 activation has been associated with anticarcinogenic effects, the purpose of this study is to evaluate SWT’s activity of cancer prevention. In the Ames test, SWT demonstrated an antimutagenic activity against mutagenicity induced by the chemical carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA. In JB6 P+ cells, a non-cancerous murine epidermal model for studying tumor promotion, SWT inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF-induced neoplastic transformation. The luciferase reporter gene assays demonstrated that SWT suppressed EGF-induced AP-1 and TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation, which are essential factors involved in skin carcinogenesis. In a DMBA-induced skin hyperplasia assay in ‘Sensitivity to Carcinogenesis’ (SENCAR mice, both topical and oral SWT inhibited DMBA-induced epidermal hyperplasia, expression of the proliferation marker Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, and H-ras mutations. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that SWT prevents tumor promoter and chemical-induced carcinogenesis in vitro and in vivo, partly by inhibiting DNA damage and blocking the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB.

  1. Actinic keratosis associated with squamous and basal cell carcinomas: an evaluation of neoplastic progression by a standardized AgNOR analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Giuffrè

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to investigate the neoplastic progression in different stages of actinic keratosis (AK, a standardized AgNOR analysis was performed in 94 cases of AK, 35 of which were associated with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC or basal cell carcinoma (BCC, and in 31 cases of SCC and 22 cases of BCC. The cases were subdivided into low- and high- AgNOR-expressing (AgNOR status AK by using the mean area of AgNORs per cell (NORA value (3.996 ?m2 as the cut-off. In AK samples, a progressive increase of the mean NORA value from Stage I to Stage IV was encountered. In addition, a significantly higher mean NORA value was found in the AK cases associated with SCC, in comparison to those without SCC; by contrast, no significant differences in the mean NORA value were noted between AK cases with or without BCC. A highly significant association between a high AgNOR quantity and the coexistence of SCC was encountered in AK; no association was appreciable between the AgNOR quantity and the co-occurrence of BCC. Moreover, when the co-existence of SCC in AK was considered as the reference point, the AK cases associated with SCC mostly (95.5% presented a high AgNOR quantity (high sensitivity, but only 57.6% of cases without SCC displayed a low AgNOR quantity (low specificity. Additionally, our data document that the standardised AgNOR analysis represents a strong negative predictor for the association between SCC and AK. Indeed, a low AgNOR quantity mostly is associated with AK cases without SCC.

  2. Trisomy of the Dscr1 gene suppresses early progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia driven by oncogenic Kras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Choon; Shin, Jimin; Baek, Kwan-Hyuck, E-mail: khbaek@skku.edu

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •A single extra copy of Dscr1 restrains progression of PanIN-1A to PanIN-1B lesions. •Dscr1 trisomy attenuates calcineurin–NFAT pathway in neoplastic ductal epithelium. •Dscr1 trisomy leads to upregulation of p15{sup INK4b} in neoplastic ductal epithelium. •A single extra copy of Dscr1 reduces epithelial proliferation in early PanIN lesions. •Dscr1 trisomy may protect Down syndrome individuals from pancreatic cancer. -- Abstract: Individuals with Down syndrome exhibit remarkably reduced incidence of most solid tumors including pancreatic cancer. Multiple mechanisms arising from the genetic complexity underlying Down syndrome has been suggested to contribute to such a broad cancer protection. In this study, utilizing a genetically engineered mouse model of pancreatic cancer, we demonstrate that trisomy of the Down syndrome critical region-1 (Dscr1), an endogenous calcineurin inhibitor localized on chromosome 21, suppresses the progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-1A (PanIN-1A) to PanIN-1B lesions without affecting the initiation of PanIN lesions mediated by oncogenic Kras{sup G12D}. In addition, we show that Dscr1 trisomy attenuates nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) accompanied by upregulation of the p15{sup Ink4b} tumor suppressor and reduction of cell proliferation in early PanIN lesions. Our data suggest that attenuation of calcineurin–NFAT signaling in neoplastic pancreatic ductal epithelium by a single extra copy of Dscr1 is sufficient to inhibit the progression of early PanIN lesions driven by oncogenic Kras, and thus may be a potential mechanism underlying reduced incidence of pancreatic cancer in Down syndrome individuals.

  3. Trisomy of the Dscr1 gene suppresses early progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia driven by oncogenic Kras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jang Choon; Shin, Jimin; Baek, Kwan-Hyuck

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A single extra copy of Dscr1 restrains progression of PanIN-1A to PanIN-1B lesions. •Dscr1 trisomy attenuates calcineurin–NFAT pathway in neoplastic ductal epithelium. •Dscr1 trisomy leads to upregulation of p15 INK4b in neoplastic ductal epithelium. •A single extra copy of Dscr1 reduces epithelial proliferation in early PanIN lesions. •Dscr1 trisomy may protect Down syndrome individuals from pancreatic cancer. -- Abstract: Individuals with Down syndrome exhibit remarkably reduced incidence of most solid tumors including pancreatic cancer. Multiple mechanisms arising from the genetic complexity underlying Down syndrome has been suggested to contribute to such a broad cancer protection. In this study, utilizing a genetically engineered mouse model of pancreatic cancer, we demonstrate that trisomy of the Down syndrome critical region-1 (Dscr1), an endogenous calcineurin inhibitor localized on chromosome 21, suppresses the progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-1A (PanIN-1A) to PanIN-1B lesions without affecting the initiation of PanIN lesions mediated by oncogenic Kras G12D . In addition, we show that Dscr1 trisomy attenuates nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) accompanied by upregulation of the p15 Ink4b tumor suppressor and reduction of cell proliferation in early PanIN lesions. Our data suggest that attenuation of calcineurin–NFAT signaling in neoplastic pancreatic ductal epithelium by a single extra copy of Dscr1 is sufficient to inhibit the progression of early PanIN lesions driven by oncogenic Kras, and thus may be a potential mechanism underlying reduced incidence of pancreatic cancer in Down syndrome individuals

  4. Amyloidosis Associated with Neoplastic Diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-09-21

    Sep 21, 1974 ... A barium meal revealed a 5-cm filling defect in the mid-oesophagus, and the gastric mucosa appeared irregular. On ECG, atrial fibrillation was ... the facial nerve with regional lymphadenopathy. Blood pressure was 130/90 mmHg. The liver was palpable 4 cm below the right costal margin. The ECG was ...

  5. Amyloidosis Associated with Neoplastic Diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-09-21

    Sep 21, 1974 ... adrenals, pancreas, a salivary gland, in a small scar in the myocardium, and in .... Biopsy specimens obtained through colonoscopy de- monstrated the ... cancer, found amyloidosis in 16, establishing an in- cidence of 0,4%.

  6. Photodetection of early cancer by laser-induced fluorescence of a tumor-selective dye: apparatus design and realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagnieres, Georges A.; Depeursinge, Christian D.; Monnier, Philippe; Savary, Jean-Francois; Cornaz, Piet F.; Chatelain, Andre; van den Bergh, Hubert

    1990-07-01

    An apparatus is designed and realized to detect "early" cancer at the surface of the hollow organs in the human body by endoscopic means. The tumor is localized by the laser induced fluorescence of a dye (HPD) which concentrates selectively in the neoplastic tissue after intravenous injection. Fluorescence contrast between the tumor and its normal surroundings is enhanced by subtracting the background autofluorescence which occurs in both types of tissue. This is done by means of 2-color digital images manipulation in real-time. Preliminary clinical tests of the apparatus demonstrated the detection of carcinoma in situ in the esophagus.

  7. Surgical pathology of epilepsy-associated non-neoplastic cerebral lesions: a brief introduction with special reference to hippocampal sclerosis and focal cortical dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hajime; Hori, Tomokatsu; Vinters, Harry V.

    2014-01-01

    Among epilepsy-associated non-neoplastic lesions, mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (mTLE-HS) and malformation of cortical development (MCD) including focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), are the two most frequent causes of drug-resistant focal epilepsies constituting about 50% of all surgical pathology of epilepsy. Several distinct histological patterns have been historically recognized in both HS and FCD, and several studies have tried to perform clinicopathological correlation; results, however, have been controversial, particularly in terms of postsurgical seizure outcome. Recently, the International League Against Epilepsy constituted a Task Forces of Neuropathology and FCD within the Commission on Diagnostic Methods, to establish an international consensus of histological classification of HS and FCD, respectively, based on agreement with the recognition of the importance of defining a histopathological classification system that reliably has some clinicopathological correlation. Such consensus classifications are likely to facilitate future clinicopathological study. Meanwhile, we reviewed neuropathology of 41 surgical cases of mTLE, and confirmed three type/patterns of HS along with no HS, based on the qualitative evaluation of the distribution and severity of neuronal loss and gliosis within hippocampal formation; i.e., HS type 1 (61%) equivalent to ‘classical’ Ammon’s horn sclerosis, HS type 2 (2%) representing CA1 sclerosis, HS type 3 (17%) equivalent to end folium sclerosis, and no HS (19%). Furthermore we performed a neuropathological comparative study on mTLE-HS and dementia associated HS (d-HS) in elderly, and confirmed that neuropathological features differ between mTLE-HS and d-HS in the distribution of hippocampal neuronal loss and gliosis, morphology of reactive astrocytes and their protein expression, and presence of concomitant neurodegenerative changes particularly Alzheimer type and TDP-43 pathologies. These

  8. MR imaging and ultrasonography findings of early myositis ossificans: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Ryeol; Park, So Young; Jin, Wook; Won, Kyu Yeoun

    2016-01-01

    Myositis ossificans (MO) is a benign soft tissue lesion with non-neoplastic heterotopic bone formation. MO in the intermediate and mature stages can be easily diagnosed if characteristic imaging findings such as a peripheral zonal pattern of ossification with variable thickness is observed. However, it is difficult to correctly diagnose early MO because it can mimic malignancy clinically, radiologically, and histopathologically. We report a case of early pseudosarcomatous phase of non-traumatic MO with atypical imaging findings. A 59-year-old woman presented with pain followed by a mass in the left thigh within a week. MR imaging and ultrasonography showed an intramuscular lesion with preserved muscle fascicles in the vastus lateralis muscle. Intralesional ossification or calcification was not seen on ultrasonography. A diagnosis of myositis ossificans was made by ultrasonographically guided biopsy. (orig.)

  9. MR imaging and ultrasonography findings of early myositis ossificans: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ryeol [Jeju National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Jeju-si, Jeju Special Self-Governing Province (Korea, Republic of); Park, So Young; Jin, Wook [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Won, Kyu Yeoun [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Myositis ossificans (MO) is a benign soft tissue lesion with non-neoplastic heterotopic bone formation. MO in the intermediate and mature stages can be easily diagnosed if characteristic imaging findings such as a peripheral zonal pattern of ossification with variable thickness is observed. However, it is difficult to correctly diagnose early MO because it can mimic malignancy clinically, radiologically, and histopathologically. We report a case of early pseudosarcomatous phase of non-traumatic MO with atypical imaging findings. A 59-year-old woman presented with pain followed by a mass in the left thigh within a week. MR imaging and ultrasonography showed an intramuscular lesion with preserved muscle fascicles in the vastus lateralis muscle. Intralesional ossification or calcification was not seen on ultrasonography. A diagnosis of myositis ossificans was made by ultrasonographically guided biopsy. (orig.)

  10. The effect of postirradiation holding at 22 degrees C on the repair of sublethal, potentially lethal and potentially neoplastic transforming damage in gamma-irradiated HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redpath, J.L.; Antoniono, R.J.; Mendonca, M.S.; Sun, C.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of postirradiation holding at 22 degrees C on cell growth, progression of cells through the cell cycle, and the repair of sublethal, potentially lethal and potentially neoplastic transforming damage in γ-irradiated HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells has been examined. Cell growth and cell cycle progression were essentially stopped at this reduced temperature. Cell survival was dramatically reduced by holding confluent cultures for 6 h at 22 degrees C, as opposed to 37 degrees C, after 7.5 Gy γ radiation delivered at a rate of 2 Gy/min. Return of the cells to 37 degrees C for 6 h after holding at 22 degrees C did not result in increased survival. A similar effect was obtained when the cells were held at 22 degrees C between split-dose irradiation of log-phase cultures where no increase in survival was observed over a split-dose interval of 4 h. In this case a partial increase in survival was observed upon returning the cells to 37 degrees C for 3 h after holding at 22 degrees C for the first 3 h of the split-dose interval. Neoplastic transformation frequency was not enhanced by holding confluent cultures for 6 h at 22 degrees C after 7.5 Gy γ radiation. This is consistent with previous observations that misrepair of potentially neoplastic transforming damage already occurs at 37 degrees C. The overall results are interpreted in terms of the reduced temperature favoring misrepair, rather than inhibition of repair, of sublethal, potentially lethal and potentially transforming radiation damage. 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  11. The impact of religiosity and individual prayer activities on advanced cancer patients' health: is there any difference in function of whether or not receiving palliative anti-neoplastic therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro; Yennurajalingam, Sriram; Hui, David

    2014-12-01

    Consecutive patients (n = 221) presenting for initial consultation at a palliative care outpatient clinic were prospectively interviewed and then followed until death. Individual prayer activity (IPA) and global religion scores were associated with quality of life, symptoms, inflammatory markers, and survival. Analyses were adjusted for whether patients were still receiving anti-neoplastic therapies (ANTs) or not. Higher religion scores were associated with lower levels of inflammation in advanced cancer patients still undergoing ANTs. Additionally, higher IPA was an independent good prognostic factor in patients on active ANTs. Further studies are necessary to confirm these findings and to investigate possible biological mechanisms involved.

  12. New Dimensional Staging of Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw Allowing a Guided Surgical Treatment Protocol: Long-Term Follow-Up of 266 Lesions in Neoplastic and Osteoporotic Patients from the University of Bari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta Franco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ is the most serious side effect in patients receiving bisphosphonates (BPs for neoplastic disease and osteoporosis. The aim of this study is to propose a new dimensional stage classification, guiding the surgical treatment of BRONJ patients, and to evaluate the success rate of this new management. From 2004 to 2013, 203 neoplastic and osteoporotic patients with 266 BRONJ lesions were referred to the Odontostomatology Unit of the University of Bari. All patients underwent surgery after suspension of BPs therapy and antibiotic treatment. The surgical procedure was complemented by piezosurgery and followed by the application of hyaluronate and amino acids. The new dimensional staging suggests the choice of the surgical approach, and allows the prediction of postoperative complications and soft and hard tissues healing time, guiding the surgical treatment protocol. This protocol could be a successful management strategy for BRONJ, considering the low recurrences rate and the good stabilisation of the surgical sites observed after a long-term follow-up.

  13. Early or Premature Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email updates Enter email Submit Early or premature menopause Menopause that happens before age 40 is called ... What is the difference between early and premature menopause? Early or premature menopause happens when ovaries stop ...

  14. Early hospital discharge and early puerperal complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Villalobos, Dolores; Hernández-Garduño, Adolfo; Salinas, Aarón; González, Dolores; Walker, Dilys; Rojo-Herrera, Guadalupe; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the association between time of postpartum discharge and symptoms indicative of complications during the first postpartum week. Women with vaginal delivery at a Mexico City public hospital, without complications before the hospital discharge, were interviewed seven days after delivery. Time of postpartum discharge was classified as early (25 hours). The dependent variable was defined as the occurrence and severity of puerperal complication symptoms. Out of 303 women, 208 (68%) were discharged early. However, women with early discharge and satisfactory prenatal care had lower odds of presenting symptoms in early puerperium than women without early discharge and inadequate prenatal care (OR 0.36; 95% confidence intervals = 0.17-0.76). There was no association between early discharge and symptoms of complications during the first postpartum week; the odds of complications were lower for mothers with early discharge and satisfactory prenatal care.

  15. Regulation of protein kinase C-related kinase (PRK) signalling by the TPα and TPβ isoforms of the human thromboxane A2 receptor: Implications for thromboxane- and androgen- dependent neoplastic and epigenetic responses in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Aine G; Mulvaney, Eamon P; Kinsella, B Therese

    2017-04-01

    The prostanoid thromboxane (TX) A 2 and its T Prostanoid receptor (the TP) are increasingly implicated in prostate cancer (PCa). Mechanistically, we recently discovered that both TPα and TPβ form functional signalling complexes with members of the protein kinase C-related kinase (PRK) family, AGC- kinases essential for the epigenetic regulation of androgen receptor (AR)-dependent transcription and promising therapeutic targets for treatment of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Critically, similar to androgens, activation of the PRKs through the TXA 2 /TP signalling axis induces phosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr11 (H3Thr11), a marker of androgen-induced chromatin remodelling and transcriptional activation, raising the possibility that TXA 2 -TP signalling can mimic and/or enhance AR-induced cellular changes even in the absence of circulating androgens such as in CRPC. Hence the aim of the current study was to investigate whether TXA 2 /TP-induced PRK activation can mimic and/or enhance AR-mediated cellular responses in the model androgen-responsive prostate adenocarcinoma LNCaP cell line. We reveal that TXA 2 /TP signalling can act as a neoplastic- and epigenetic-regulator, promoting and enhancing both AR-associated chromatin remodelling (H3Thr11 phosphorylation, WDR5 recruitment and acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16) and AR-mediated transcriptional activation (e.g of the KLK3/prostate-specific antigen and TMPRSS2 genes) through mechanisms involving TPα/TPβ mediated-PRK1 and PRK2, but not PRK3, signalling complexes. Overall, these data demonstrate that TPα/TPβ can act as neoplastic and epigenetic regulators by mimicking and/or enhancing the actions of androgens within the prostate and provides further mechanistic insights into the role of the TXA 2 /TP signalling axis in PCa, including potentially in CRPC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The FDA approved PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 enhances in vitro the anti-neoplastic efficacy of Axitinib against c-myc-amplified high-risk medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Michael; Craveiro, Rogerio B; Velz, Julia; Olschewski, Martin; Casati, Anna; Schönberger, Stefan; Pietsch, Torsten; Dilloo, Dagmar

    2018-04-01

    Aberrant receptor kinase signalling and tumour neovascularization are hallmarks of medulloblastoma development and are both considered valuable therapeutic targets. In addition to VEGFR1/2, expression of PDGFR α/β in particular has been documented as characteristic of metastatic disease correlating with poor prognosis. Therefore, we have been suggested that the clinically approved multi-kinase angiogenesis inhibitor Axitinib, which specifically targets these kinases, might constitute a promising option for medulloblastoma treatment. Indeed, our results delineate anti-neoplastic activity of Axitinib in medulloblastoma cell lines modelling the most aggressive c-myc-amplified Non-WNT/Non-SHH and SHH-TP53-mutated tumours. Exposure of medulloblastoma cell lines to Axitinib results in marked inhibition of proliferation and profound induction of cell death. The differential efficacy of Axitinib is in line with target expression of medulloblastoma cells identifying VEGFR 1/2, PDGFR α/β and c-kit as potential markers for drug application. The high specificity of Axitinib and the consequential low impact on the haematopoietic and immune system render this drug ideal multi-modal treatment approaches. In this context, we demonstrate that the clinically available PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 enhances the anti-neoplastic efficacy of Axitinib against c-myc-amplified medulloblastoma. Our findings provide a rational to further evaluate Axitinib alone and in combination with other therapeutic agents for the treatment of most aggressive medulloblastoma subtypes. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  17. Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…

  18. Early and Late Onset Side Effects of Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Borgia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic Therapy (PDT is a non-invasive treatment successfully used for neoplastic, inflammatory and infectious skin diseases. One of its strengths is represented by the high safety profile, even in elderly and/or immuno-depressed subjects. PDT, however, may induce early and late onset side effects. Erythema, pain, burns, edema, itching, desquamation, and pustular formation, often in association with each other, are frequently observed in course of exposure to the light source and in the hours/days immediately after the therapy. In particular, pain is a clinically relevant short-term complication that also reduces long-term patient satisfaction. Rare complications are urticaria, contact dermatitis at the site of application of the photosensitizer, and erosive pustular dermatosis. Debated is the relationship between PDT and carcinogenesis: the eruptive appearance of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC in previously treated areas has been correlated to a condition of local and/or systemic immunosuppression or to the selection of PDT-resistant SCC. Here we review the literature, with particular emphasis to the pathogenic hypotheses underlying these observations.

  19. Early discharge following birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid M. S.; Kronborg, Hanne; Knight, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    .26–0.48) and primiparous compared to multiparous had an OR of 0.22 (CI 0.17–0.29) for early discharge. Other predictors for early discharge were: no induction of labour, no epidural painkiller, bleeding less than 500 ml during delivery, higher gestational age, early expected discharge and positive breastfeeding experience...

  20. Activation status of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling in normal and neoplastic breast tissues: relationship to HER2/neu expression in human and mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Khalil

    Full Text Available Wnt/ß-catenin signaling is strongly implicated in neoplasia, but the role of this pathway in human breast cancer has been controversial. Here, we examined Wnt/ß-catenin pathway activation as a function of breast cancer progression, and tested for a relationship with HER2/neu expression, using a human tissue microarray comprising benign breast tissues, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, and invasive carcinomas. Cores were scored for membranous ß-catenin, a key functional component of adherens junctions, and for nucleocytoplasmic ß-catenin, a hallmark of Wnt/ß-catenin pathway activation. Only 82% of benign samples exhibited membrane-associated ß-catenin, indicating a finite frequency of false-negative staining. The frequency of membrane positivity was similar in DCIS samples, but was significantly reduced in carcinomas (45%, P<0.001, consistent with loss of adherens junctions during acquisition of invasiveness. Negative membrane status in cancers correlated with higher grade (P = 0.04 and estrogen receptor-negative status (P = 0.03, both indices of poor prognosis. Unexpectedly, a substantial frequency of nucleocytoplasmic ß-catenin was observed in benign breast tissues (36%, similar to that in carcinomas (35%. Positive-staining basal nuclei observed in benign breast may identify putative stem cells. An increased frequency of nucleocytoplasmic ß-catenin was observed in DCIS tumors (56%, suggesting that pathway activation may be an early event in human breast neoplasia. A correlation was observed between HER2/neu expression and nucleocytoplasmic ß-catenin in node-positive carcinomas (P = 0.02. Furthermore, cytoplasmic ß-catenin was detected in HER2/neu-induced mouse mammary tumors. The Axin2(NLSlacZ mouse strain, a previously validated reporter of mammary Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, was utilized to define in vivo transcriptional consequences of HER2/neu-induced ß-catenin accumulation. Discrete hyperplastic foci observed in mammary

  1. The human T-lymphotropic virus type I tax gene can cooperate with the ras oncogene to induce neoplastic transformation of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzatti, R; Vogel, J; Jay, G

    1990-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have linked infection by the human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) with the development of adult T-cell leukemia. The low penetrance of the virus and the long latency for disease manifestation are factors that obscure the role of HTLV-I infection in oncogenesis. We have used an in vitro transformation assay system to determine directly whether the HTLV-I tax gene has transformation potential. Transfection of the tax gene alone into early-passage rat embryo fibroblasts did not induce morphological alterations. However, cotransfection of tax with the selectable marker plasmid pRSVneo gave rise to G418-resistant colonies that could be established as immortalized cell lines. Cotransfection of tax with the ras oncogene into rat embryo fibroblasts gave rise to foci of transformed cells that were highly tumorigenic in nude mice. These data represent a direct demonstration of the oncogenic potential of the tax gene in nonlymphoid cells and establish HTLV-I as a transforming virus.

  2. Expressão de genes relacionados à função adrenocortical no estado de caquexia neoplásica = Expression of genes related to the adrenocortical function in the neoplastic cachexia process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole de Angelis Scripes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A glândula adrenal tem papel fundamental na resposta neuroendócrina,especialmente em situações em que há comprometimento da homeostasia. No processo de caquexia neoplásica, há prejuízo da homeostasia por alterações nutricionais e metabólicas do câncer em estágio avançado, envolvendo a resposta do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal. Neste trabalho, foi utilizado um modelo animal de caquexia induzida pelo tumor de Walker-256 em ratos Wistar. Os animais (n=4 foram sacrificados dez dias após a inoculação de células tumorais e a glândula adrenal foi removida. O RNA foi extraído para o estudo da expressão de genes relacionados ao controle da esteroidogênese por RT-PCR semiquantitativa. A análise dos dados demonstrou expressão significativamente reduzida dos genes MC2R (receptor tipo 2 para melacortina, 3ßHSD I (3β-hidroxiesteroidedesidrogenase tipo I e TSPO (proteína translocadora em animais com caquexia neoplásica(valores de P=0,037; 0,0097 e 0,052, respectivamente, revelando falência do córtex da adrenal.The adrenal gland plays a crucial role in the neuroendocrine response, especially in situations where homeostasis is disturbed. In the neoplastic cachexia process, there is homeostasis impairment by nutritional and metabolic alterations of advanced-stage cancer, involving hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis response. In thisassignment, an experimental model of cachexia induced by Walker-256 tumor was performed in Wistar rats. Animals (n=4 were sacrificed 10 days after inoculation of tumor cells, and the adrenal glands were excised. The RNA was isolated for the study of gene expression related to the steroidogenesis control by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Data analysis showed a significant reduced expression of MC2R (melancortin type 2 receptor, 3ßHSD I (3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I and TSPO (translocator protein genes in animals with neoplastic cachexia (P=0.037, 0.0097 and 0.052, respectively, revealing

  3. Regulation of apoptosis by low serum in cells of different stages of neoplastic progression: enhanced susceptibility after loss of a senescence gene and decreased susceptibility after loss of a tumor suppressor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, G A; Lang, J E; Maronpot, R R; Barrett, J C

    1994-08-01

    A cell culture model system has been used to study the susceptibility of cells to apoptotic cell death during different stages of neoplastic progression. This system consists of normal diploid Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells, two preneoplastic cell lines [tumor suppressor stage I (sup +I) and non-tumor suppressor stage II (sup -II)], and hamster tumor cell lines. Stage I preneoplastic cells are nontumorigenic immortal clones that suppress tumorigenicity when hybridized to tumor cells, whereas stage II cells have lost the ability to suppress tumorigenicity in cell hybrids. We refer to these two types of preneoplastic cells as sup +I and sup -II, respectively. Neoplastic progression is generally associated with cellular alterations in growth factor responsiveness. Therefore, to study the regulation of apoptosis in the system described above, cells were cultured in low serum (0.2%) as a means of withdrawing growth factors. In low serum, normal SHE cells were quiescent (labeling index of 0.2%), with little cell death. The sup +I cells showed a relatively low labeling index (1.6%) but, in contrast to the normal cells, died at a high rate (55% cell loss after 48 h) by apoptosis, as evidenced by morphology, DNA fragmentation, and in situ end-labeling of fragmented DNA. The apoptotic cells did not go through a replicative cycle while in low serum, implying that apoptosis was initiated in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. The sup -II cell line showed a high labeling index (40%) after 48 h, but cell growth was balanced by cell death that occurred at approximately the same rate. The cells died, however, predominantly by necrosis. The tumor cell lines continued to proliferate in low serum, with high labeling indices (ranging from 27% to 43%) and a low level of apoptotic or necrotic cell death. To determine the relative ability of these cells to survive in vivo, normal SHE cells, sup +I cells, and sup -II cells were injected s.c. into nude mice. At 5 or 21 days after

  4. Mucosal Proliferations in Completely Examined Fallopian Tubes Accompanying Ovarian Low-grade Serous Tumors: Neoplastic Precursor Lesions or Normal Variants of Benign Mucosa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolsky, Rebecca J; Price, Matt A; Zaloudek, Charles J; Rabban, Joseph T

    2018-05-01

    cytologically resembled the epithelial component of SBT or LGSC. Mucosal proliferations were identified in subsets of all populations, including the control populations. Overall, type 1 proliferations were in 28% to 61% of all patients and type 2 alterations in 4% to 16%. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of type 1 or type 2 proliferations between the class of ovarian serous tumors (benign, SBT, LGSC), between early and advanced stage SBT, or between patients with any ovarian serous tumor and the control population of nonserous diagnoses. Type 3 alterations were only identified in patients with advanced stage SBT/LGSC and not in any early stage SBT or cystadenoma. These findings suggest that type 3 alterations floating in the fallopian tube lumen represent exfoliation of tumor cells from ovarian and/or peritoneal origin. Our study did not identify a mucosal-based proliferation of the fallopian tubes that was specific to ovarian low-grade serous tumors. Cytologically bland mucosal proliferations appear to be common in fallopian tubes from patients of all ages and unrelated to ovarian tumorigenesis. A consensus on diagnostic criteria and terminology for these types of proliferations is needed, as well as further study into their etiology, including possible association with hormonal environment.

  5. A eudesmane-type sesquiterpene isolated from Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass. combats three hallmarks of cancer cells: Unrestricted proliferation, escape from apoptosis and early metastatic outgrowth in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaschke, Michael; McKinnon, Ruxandra; Nguyen, Chi Huu; Holzner, Silvio; Zehl, Martin; Atanasov, Atanas Georgiev; Schelch, Karin; Krieger, Sigurd; Diaz, Rene; Frisch, Richard; Feistel, Björn; Jäger, Walter; Ecker, Gerhard F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PO-1 perturbs cell cycle regulators and progression. • PO-1 inhibits HL-60 cell expansion. • PO-1 and PO-2 attenuate tumour cell intravasation through the endothelial barrier. - Abstract: Pluchea odorata is ethno pharmaceutically used to treat inflammation-associated disorders. The dichloromethane extract (DME) was tested in the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema assay investigating its effect on inflammation that was inhibited by 37%. Also an in vitro anti-neoplastic potential was reported. However, rather limited information about the bio-activity of purified compounds and their cellular mechanisms are available. Therefore, two of the most abundant eudesmanes in P. odorata were isolated and their anti-neoplastic and anti-intravasative activities were studied. HL-60 cells were treated with P. odorata compounds and metabolic activity, cell number reduction, cell cycle progression and apoptosis induction were correlated with relevant protein expression. Tumour cell intravasation through lymph endothelial monolayers was measured and potential causal mechanisms were analyzed by Western blotting. Compound PO-1 decreased the metabolic activity of HL-60 cells (IC 50 = 8.9 μM after 72 h) and 10 μM PO-1 induced apoptosis, while PO-2 showed just weak anti-neoplastic activities at concentrations beyond 100 μM. PO-1 arrested the cell cycle in G1 and this correlated with induction of JunB expression. Independent of this mechanism 25 μM PO-1 decreased MCF-7 spheroid intravasation through the lymph endothelial barrier. Hence, PO-1 inhibits an early step of metastasis, impairs unrestricted proliferation and induces apoptosis at low micromolar concentrations. These results warrant further testing in vivo to challenge the potential of PO-1 as novel lead compound

  6. A eudesmane-type sesquiterpene isolated from Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass. combats three hallmarks of cancer cells: Unrestricted proliferation, escape from apoptosis and early metastatic outgrowth in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, Michael [Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20 (Austria); McKinnon, Ruxandra [Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nguyen, Chi Huu [Department of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20 (Austria); Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Diagnostics, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Holzner, Silvio [Department of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20 (Austria); Zehl, Martin [Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Atanasov, Atanas Georgiev [Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schelch, Karin [Department of Medicine I, Institute of Cancer Research, Comprehensive Cancer Centre Vienna, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Krieger, Sigurd [Department of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20 (Austria); Diaz, Rene; Frisch, Richard [Institute for Ethnobiology, Playa Diana, San José/Petén (Guatemala); Feistel, Björn [Finzelberg GmbH & Co. KG, Koblenzer Strasse 48-54, D-56626 Andernach (Germany); Jäger, Walter [Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Diagnostics, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Ecker, Gerhard F. [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Division of Drug Design and Medicinal Chemistry, University of Vienna, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); and others

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • PO-1 perturbs cell cycle regulators and progression. • PO-1 inhibits HL-60 cell expansion. • PO-1 and PO-2 attenuate tumour cell intravasation through the endothelial barrier. - Abstract: Pluchea odorata is ethno pharmaceutically used to treat inflammation-associated disorders. The dichloromethane extract (DME) was tested in the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema assay investigating its effect on inflammation that was inhibited by 37%. Also an in vitro anti-neoplastic potential was reported. However, rather limited information about the bio-activity of purified compounds and their cellular mechanisms are available. Therefore, two of the most abundant eudesmanes in P. odorata were isolated and their anti-neoplastic and anti-intravasative activities were studied. HL-60 cells were treated with P. odorata compounds and metabolic activity, cell number reduction, cell cycle progression and apoptosis induction were correlated with relevant protein expression. Tumour cell intravasation through lymph endothelial monolayers was measured and potential causal mechanisms were analyzed by Western blotting. Compound PO-1 decreased the metabolic activity of HL-60 cells (IC{sub 50} = 8.9 μM after 72 h) and 10 μM PO-1 induced apoptosis, while PO-2 showed just weak anti-neoplastic activities at concentrations beyond 100 μM. PO-1 arrested the cell cycle in G1 and this correlated with induction of JunB expression. Independent of this mechanism 25 μM PO-1 decreased MCF-7 spheroid intravasation through the lymph endothelial barrier. Hence, PO-1 inhibits an early step of metastasis, impairs unrestricted proliferation and induces apoptosis at low micromolar concentrations. These results warrant further testing in vivo to challenge the potential of PO-1 as novel lead compound.

  7. Early Transcendental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cowell, Simon; Poulin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In Early Transcendentals (The American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 104, No 7) Steven Weintraub presents a rigorous justifcation of the "early transcendental" calculus textbook approach to the exponential and logarithmic functions. However, he uses tools such as term-by-term differentiation of infinite series. We present a rigorous treatment of the early transcendental approach suitable for a first course in analysis, using mainly the supremum property of the real numbers.

  8. Detecção de lesões neoplásicas induzidas em mucosa oral de hamster utilizando espectroscopia de fluorescência Detection of induced neoplastic lesions in the oral mucosa of hamsters using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landulfo Silveira Junior

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho teve por objetivo a utilização da técnica de espectroscopia de fluorescência induzida por laser para a caracterização de tecido normal e neoplásico em mucosa jugal de hamster, visando diagnosticar tecidos neoplásicos in vivo. MÉTODOS: O carcinógeno DMBA foi aplicado na bochecha direita de 31 hamsters com 150 ± 10g, três vezes por semana durante 12 semanas. Um animal foi mantido como controle (sem aplicação da droga. Após este período, os animais foram submetidos à espectroscopia de fluorescência induzida por laser de argônio (488nm, acoplado a um cabo de fibras ópticas. A autofluorescência do tecido foi guiada pelo cabo de fibras e analisada por um espectrógrafo e uma câmera CCD 1024X256 pixels, cobrindo a faixa espectral de 550nm a 700nm. Os espectros foram coletados na área da lesão induzida e na bochecha contralateral (normal de todos os animais, além do animal de controle. Subseqüente à espectroscopia, foi realizada a biópsia da lesão para a análise histopatológica. Dois algoritmos de diagnóstico dos espectros de tecido neoplásico, baseados na razão entre regiões espectrais e na técnica de análise das componentes principais (PCA foram implementados. RESULTADOS: Foi demonstrada a existência de um pico intenso na região de 630nm nos tecidos neoplásicos (atribuído à protoporfirina IX, quando comparados com o tecido normal. O algoritmo baseado na razão entre regiões espectrais obteve 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade. O algoritmo baseado na PCA obteve 94% e 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: Este trabalho indica que a autofluorescência de tecidos da mucosa oral poderá ser utilizada como uma técnica não-invasiva de diagnóstico, com alta sensibilidade e especificidade.OBJECTIVE: This work analyzes use of the Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy technique for characterization of normal and neoplastic tissue in the oral mucosa of

  9. Stroboscopy and imaging in interdisciplinary diagnosis of early stages of carcinoma of the larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigenzahn, W.; Denk, D.M.; Fruehwald, F.

    1998-01-01

    The laryngostroboscopy is regarded to be the most important functional investigation in laryngologic and phoniatric diagnostics. She allows an analysis of vocal fold vibrations during phonation. Stroboscopic evaluations permit to early detect infiltrative processes of the vocal folds. Superficial alterations of the mucous membrane that invade into the muscle cause a phonatory 'standstill' of the vocal fold in the stroboscopy, i.e. a complete lack of vibratory motion. If such a phonatory standstill persists for more than 2 or 3 weeks, a biopsy via microlaryngoscopy is indicated for diagnostic purposes. In comparison to stroboscopy, imaging techniques are not of such great significance in early laryngeal cancer. But in case of suspected infiltration of the tumor a further diagnostic evaluation with CT or MRI is necessary to detect possible neoplastic invasion of the laryngeal cartilage or of extralaryngeal structures. In this paper, we present the principle of laryngostroboscopy, the examination procedure and the stroboscopic parameters. Case reports of early laryngeal cancer illustrate the interdisciplinary diagnostic procedure with CT, MRI and stroboscopy. (orig.) [de

  10. Early Retirement Payoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D.; Lovenheim, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    As public budgets have grown tighter over the past decade, states and school districts have sought ways to control the growth of spending. One increasingly common strategy employed to rein in costs is to offer experienced teachers with high salaries financial incentives to retire early. Although early retirement incentive (ERI) programs have been…

  11. Early Modern Philosophical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Bunge (Wiep)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe occurrence of an entry on early modern philosophical systems in an encyclopaedia of Neo-Latin studies is fraught with complications, if only on account of the gradual disappearance during the early modern period of Latin as the main vehicle of philosophical communication. What

  12. Early Intervention in Budapest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallai, Maria; Katona, Ferenc; Balogh, Erzsebet; Schultheisz, Judit; Deveny, Anna; Borbely, Sjoukje

    2000-01-01

    This article presents five models of early intervention used in Budapest. Diagnostic and treatment methods used by the Pediatric Institute and the Conductive Education System are described, along with the Deveny Special Manual Technique and Gymnastic Method, the Gezenguz method and techniques used in the Early Developmental Center. (CR)

  13. The early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigman, G.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses the physics of the early universe: the production and survival of relics from the big bang. The author comments on relic WIMPs as the dark matter in the universe. The remainder of this discussion is devoted to a review of the status of the only predictions from the early evolution of the universe that are accessible to astronomical observation: primordial nucleosynthesis

  14. Early College High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    For at-risk students who stand little chance of going to college, or even finishing high school, a growing number of districts have found a solution: Give them an early start in college while they still are in high school. The early college high school (ECHS) movement that began with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 10 years ago…

  15. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  16. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  17. Revisiting the structure of the anti-neoplastic glucans of Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin. Structural analysis of the extracellular and boiling water extract-derived glucans of the vaccine substrains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinadayala, Premkumar; Lemassu, Anne; Granovski, Pierre; Cérantola, Stéphane; Winter, Nathalie; Daffé, Mamadou

    2004-03-26

    The attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), used worldwide to prevent tuberculosis and leprosy, is also clinically used as an immunotherapeutic agent against superficial bladder cancer. An anti-tumor polysaccharide has been isolated from the boiling water extract of the Tice substrain of BCG and tentatively characterized as consisting primarily of repeating units of 6-linked-glucosyl residues. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacterial species produce a glycogen-like alpha-glucan composed of repeating units of 4-linked glucosyl residues substituted at some 6 positions by short oligoglucosyl units that also exhibits an anti-tumor activity. Therefore, the impression prevails that mycobacteria synthesize different types of anti-neoplastic glucans or, alternatively, the BCG substrains are singular in producing a unique type of glucan that may confer to them their immunotherapeutic property. The present study addresses this question through the comparative analysis of alpha-glucans purified from the extracellular materials and boiling water extracts of three vaccine substrains. The polysaccharides were purified, and their structural features were established by mono- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the enzymatic and chemical degradation products of the purified compounds. The glucans isolated by the two methods from the three substrains of BCG were shown to exhibit identical structural features shared with the glycogen-like alpha-glucan of M. tuberculosis and other mycobacteria. Incidentally, we observed an occasional release of dextrans from Sephadex columns that may explain the reported occurrence of 6-substituted alpha-glucans in mycobacteria.

  18. In vivo fluorescence imaging of an orthotopic rat bladder tumor model indicates differential uptake of intravesically instilled near-infrared labeled 2-deoxyglucose analog by neoplastic urinary bladder tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Daqing; Davis, Carole A.; Hurst, Robert E.; Slaton, Joel W.

    2017-02-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most expensive cancers to manage due to frequent recurrences requiring life-long surveillance and treatment. A near-infrared labeled 2-deoxy-d-glucose probe IRDye800CW-DG targeting glucose metabolism pathway has shown to enhance the sensitivity of diagnosing several types of cancers as tested on tumor models not including bladder tumor. This pilot study has explored differential uptake of intravesically administered IRDye800CW-DG in an orthotopic rat bladder tumor model. Twenty-five female Fischer rats were randomly grouped to four conditions: no-tumor-control (n=3), no-tumor-control intravesically instilled with IRDye800CWDG (n=6), rats bearing GFP-labeled AY-27 rat bladder urothelial cell carcinoma cells and washed with saline (n=5), and rats bearing AY-27 tumors and intravesically instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=11). Near-infrared fluorescence was measured from the opened bladder wall of anesthetized rat at an excitation wavelength of 750nm and an emission wavelength of 776nm, by using an in-house fluorescence imaging system. There is no statistically significant difference of the peak fluorescence intensity among the no-tumor-control bladders (n=3), the no-tumorcontrol bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=6), and the GFP-labeled AY-27 treated bladders washed by saline (n=5). When compared to that of the no-tumor-control bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=6), the fluorescence intensity of GFP-labeled AY-27 treated bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG and with histology confirmed neoplastic bladder tissue (n=11) was remarkably more intense (3.34 fold of over the former) and was also statistically significant (pbladder tissues suggests the potential for cystoscopy-adaptation to enhance diagnosis and guiding surgical management of flat urinary bladder cancer.

  19. Early detection of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor Ketil; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background During the last decades we have seen a new focus on early treatment of psychosis. Several reviews have shown that duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is correlated to better outcome. However, it is still unknown whether early treatment will lead to a better long-term outcome....... This study reports the effects of reducing DUP on 5-year course and outcome. Method During 1997–2000 a total of 281 consecutive patients aged >17 years with first episode non-affective psychosis were recruited, of which 192 participated in the 5-year follow-up. A comprehensive early detection (ED) programme...... and cognitive factors and for global assessment of functioning for social functioning at 5-year follow-up. The ED group also had more contacts with friends. Regression analysis did not find that these differences could be explained by confounders. Conclusions Early treatment had positive effects on clinical...

  20. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  1. Guideline for Early Interventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vries, de, Maaike

    2006-01-01

    .... During the last years, the demand for early interventions has been increasing. International literature has shown that the psychosocial effects of disaster and military deployment may last for years...

  2. Early Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  3. Cancer treatment - early menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premature menopause; Ovarian insufficiency - cancer ... Cancer treatments that can cause early menopause include: Surgery. Having both ovaries removed causes menopause to happen right away. If you are age 50 or younger, your provider may ...

  4. Early intervention in psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csillag, Claudio; Nordentoft, Merete; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Early intervention in psychosis (EIP) is a well-established approach with the intention of early detection and treatment of psychotic disorders. Its clinical and economic benefits are well documented. This paper presents basic aspects of EIP services, discusses challenges to their implementa......AIM: Early intervention in psychosis (EIP) is a well-established approach with the intention of early detection and treatment of psychotic disorders. Its clinical and economic benefits are well documented. This paper presents basic aspects of EIP services, discusses challenges...... benefits alone is not enough to promote implementation, as economic arguments and political and social pressure have shown to be important elements in efforts to achieve implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Users' narratives, close collaboration with community organizations and support from policy-makers and known...

  5. Earth's early biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding our own early biosphere is essential to our search for life elsewhere, because life arose on Earth very early and rocky planets shared similar early histories. The biosphere arose before 3.8 Ga ago, was exclusively unicellular and was dominated by hyperthermophiles that utilized chemical sources of energy and employed a range of metabolic pathways for CO2 assimilation. Photosynthesis also arose very early. Oxygenic photosynthesis arose later but still prior to 2.7 Ga. The transition toward the modern global environment was paced by a decline in volcanic and hydrothermal activity. These developments allowed atmospheric O2 levels to increase. The O2 increase created new niches for aerobic life, most notably the more advanced Eukarya that eventually spawned the megascopic fauna and flora of our modern biosphere.

  6. Mercury's Early Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Klima, R. L.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, compositional information, and geochemical models are providing a better understanding of Mercury's early geologic history, and allow us to place it in the context of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  7. Embracing early literacy indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik; Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2010-01-01

    Abstract til paper om early literacy indikatorer. Det paper abstractet er knyttet til var en del af et inviteret, selvorganiseret symposium som afrapporterede EASE-projektet (www.ease-eu.com) på OMEP's 26. verdenskongres.......Abstract til paper om early literacy indikatorer. Det paper abstractet er knyttet til var en del af et inviteret, selvorganiseret symposium som afrapporterede EASE-projektet (www.ease-eu.com) på OMEP's 26. verdenskongres....

  8. Influence of Alternative Tubulin Inhibitors on the Potency of a Epirubicin-Immunochemotherapeutic Synthesized with an Ultra Violet Light-Activated Intermediate: Influence of incorporating an internal/integral disulfide bond structure and Alternative Tubulin/Microtubule Inhibitors on the Cytotoxic Anti-Neoplastic Potency of Epirubicin-(C3-amide)-Anti-HER2/neu Synthesized Utilizing a UV-Photoactivated Anthracycline Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, C P; Jones, Toni; Bear, Ryan

    2012-11-01

    Immunochemotherapeutics, epirubicin-(C 3 - amide )-SS-[anti-HER2/ neu ] with an internal disulfide bond, and epirubicin-(C 3 - amide )-[anti-HER2/ neu ] were synthesized utilizing succinimidyl 2-[(4,4'-azipentanamido) ethyl]-1,3'-dithioproprionate or succinimidyl 4,4-azipentanoate respectively. Western blot analysis was used to determine the presence of any immunoglobulin fragmentation or IgG-IgG polymerization. Retained HER2/ neu binding characteristics of epirubicin-(C 3 - amide )-[anti-HER2/ neu ] and epirubicin-(C 3 - amide )-SS-[anti-HER2/ neu ] were validated by cell-ELISA using a mammary adenocarcinoma (SKBr-3) population that highly over-expresses trophic HER2/ neu receptor complexes. Cytotoxic anti-neoplastic potency of epirubicin-(C 3 - amide )-[anti-HER2/ neu ] and epirubicin-(C 3 - amide )-SS-[anti-HER2/ neu ] between epirubicin-equivalent concentrations of 10 -10 M and 10 -6 M was determined by measuring the vitality/proliferation of chemotherapeutic-resistant mammary adenocarcinoma (SKBr-3 cell type). Cytotoxic anti-neoplastic potency of benzimidazoles (albendazole, flubendazole, membendazole) and griseofulvin were assessed between 0-to-2 μg/ml and 0-to-100 μg/ml respectively while mebendazole and griseofulvin were analyzed at fixed concentrations of 0.35 μg/ml and 35 g/ml respectively in dual combination with gradient concentrations of epirubicin-(C 3 - amide )-[anti-HER2/ neu ] and epirubicin-(C 3 - amide )-SS-[anti-HER2/ neu ]. Cytotoxic anti-neoplastic potency for epirubicin-(C 3 - amide )-[anti-HER2/ neu ] and epirubicin-(C 3 - amide )-SS-[anti-HER2/ neu ] against chemotherapeutic-resistant mammary adenocarcinoma (SKBr-3) was nearly identical at epirubicin-equivalent concentrations of 10 -10 M and 10 -6 M. The benzimadazoles also possessed cytotoxic anti-neoplastic activity with flubendazole and albendazole being the most and least potent respectively. Similarly, griseofulvin had cytotoxic anti-neoplastic activity and was more potent than

  9. Who Gets Early Tracheostomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the benefits of early tracheostomy in patients dependent on ventilators are well established, the reasons for variation in time from intubation to tracheostomy remain unclear. We identified clinical and demographic disparities in time to tracheostomy. METHODS: We performed a level 3 retrospective prognostic study by querying the University HealthSystem Consortium (2007-2010) for adult patients receiving a tracheostomy after initial intubation. Time to tracheostomy was designated early ( 10 days). Cohorts were stratified by time to tracheostomy and compared using univariate tests of association and multivariable adjusted models. RESULTS: A total of 49,191 patients underwent tracheostomy after initial intubation: 42% early (n = 21,029) and 58% late (n = 28,162). On both univariate and multivariable analyses, women, blacks, Hispanics, and patients receiving Medicaid were less likely to receive an early tracheostomy. Patients in the early group also experienced lower rates of mortality (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.79-0.88). CONCLUSIONS: Early tracheostomy was associated with increased survival. Yet, there were still significant disparities in time to tracheostomy according to sex, race, and type of insurance. Application of evidence-based algorithms for tracheostomy may reduce unequal treatment and improve overall mortality rates. Additional research into this apparent bias in referral/rendering of tracheostomy is needed. PMID:26313324

  10. Submandibular Gland Involvement in Early Stage Oral Cavity Carcinomas: Can the Gland be left behind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, K.; Ashfaq, M.; Ahmed, A.; Khan, M.; Azhar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of submandibular gland involvement in early oral cavity tumors. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: ENT Department, CMH, Rawalpindi, from January 2008 to December 2011. Methodology: Data of 110 oral cavity tumors operated over 2008 - 2011 was retrieved from ENT OPD, tumor registry in AFIP and from Head and Neck Oncology Forum Registry. Cases of oral cavity tumors that had undergone elective neck dissections were retrospectively studied for invasion of the submandibular gland, TNM Staging, perineural, perivascular, lymphovascular invasion, site specific frequency of oral cavity tumors and frequency of lymph node metastasis. Results: Tumors of tongue were the most common constituting 42%, squamous cell carcinoma was the histological diagnosis in 90% cases. Sixty eight (61.8%) cases were node negative. Selective neck dissection was done in 55.5% of the cases. Submandibular gland was involved in 2 cases (1.8%). Conclusion: Submandibular gland metastasis from early oral cavity tumors is rare; any neoplastic involvement of the gland usually occurs via direct spread. (author)

  11. High soluble CD30, CD25 and IL-6 may identify patients with worse survival in CD30+ cutaneous lymphomas and early mycosis fungoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadin, Marshall E.; Pavlov, Igor; Delgado, Julio C.; Vonderheid, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Histopathology alone cannot predict outcome of patients with CD30+ primary cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders (CD30CLPD) and early mycosis fungoides (MF). To test the hypothesis that serum cytokines/cytokine receptors provide prognostic information in these disorders, we measured soluble CD30 (sCD30), sCD25, and selected cytokines in cell cultures and sera of 116 patients with CD30CLPD and 96 patients with early MF followed up to 20 years. Significant positive correlation was found between sCD30 levels and sCD25, CD40L, IL-6, and IL-8, suggesting CD30+ neoplastic cells secrete these cytokines, but not Th2 cytokines. In vitro studies confirmed sCD30, sCD25, IL-6 and IL-8 are secreted by CD30CLPD-derived cell lines. CD30CLPD patients with above normal sCD30 and sCD25 had worse overall and disease-related survivals, but only sCD30 retained significance in Cox models that included advanced age. High sCD30 also identified patients with worse survival in early MF. Increased IL-6 and IL-8 correlated with poor disease-related survival in CD30CLPD patients, We conclude that: (1) neoplastic cells of some CD30CLPD patients do not resemble Th2 cells, (2) high serum sCD30, sCD25, IL-6, and perhaps IL-8 levels may provide prognostic information useful for patient management. PMID:22071475

  12. Redefining early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Savio G; Windsor, John A

    2016-01-01

    The problem is that current definitions of early gastric cancer allow the inclusion of regional lymph node metastases. The increasing use of endoscopic submucosal dissection to treat early gastric cancer is a concern because regional lymph nodes are not addressed. The aim of the study was thus to critically evaluate current evidence with regard to tumour-specific factors associated with lymph node metastases in "early gastric cancer" to develop a more precise definition and improve clinical management. A systematic and comprehensive search of major reference databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library) was undertaken using a combination of text words "early gastric cancer", "lymph node metastasis", "factors", "endoscopy", "surgery", "lymphadenectomy" "mucosa", "submucosa", "lymphovascular invasion", "differentiated", "undifferentiated" and "ulcer". All available publications that described tumour-related factors associated with lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer were included. The initial search yielded 1494 studies, of which 42 studies were included in the final analysis. Over time, the definition of early gastric cancer has broadened and the indications for endoscopic treatment have widened. The mean frequency of lymph node metastases increased on the basis of depth of infiltration (mucosa 6% vs. submucosa 28%), presence of lymphovascular invasion (absence 9% vs. presence 53%), tumour differentiation (differentiated 13% vs. undifferentiated 34%) and macroscopic type (elevated 13% vs. flat 26%) and tumour diameter (≤2 cm 8% vs. >2 cm 25%). There is a need to re-examine the diagnosis and staging of early gastric cancer to ensure that patients with one or more identifiable risk factor for lymph node metastases are not denied appropriate chemotherapy and surgical resection.

  13. Viral Oncolytic Therapeutics for Neoplastic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    centrigugation and washed with DMSO twice and with water 5 times (1 ml/mg each solvent ). Hydrophilic pegylated particles were obtained on the basis of...were modified with p- hydroxyphenylpropionic acid with full modification of the aminogroups. The modification was carried out in dimethylsulfoxide ... DMSO ) using a 2x excess of Bolton-Hunter reagent in the presence of 0.1% 4- Dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) overnight. The particles were isolated by

  14. Neoplastic transformation induced by carbon ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettega, Daniela; Calzolari, Paola; Hessel, Petra; Stucchi, Claudio G; Weyrather, Wilma K

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare the oncogenic potential of carbon ion beams and conventional photon beams for use in radiotherapy. The HeLa X human skin fibroblast cell line CGL1 was irradiated with carbon ions of three different energies (270, 100, and 11.4 MeV/u). Inactivation and transformation data were compared with those for 15 MeV photons. Inactivation and transformation frequencies for the 270 MeV/u carbon ions were similar to those for 15-MeV photons. The maximal relative biologic effectiveness (RBE(alpha)) values for 100MeV/u and 11.4 MeV/u carbon ions, respectively, were as follows: inactivation, 1.6 +/- 0.2 and 6.7 +/- 0.7; and transformation per surviving cell, 2.5 +/- 0.6 and 12 +/- 3. The curve for dose-transformation per cell at risk exhibited a maximum that was shifted toward lower doses at lower energies. Transformation induction per cell at risk for carbon ions in the entrance channel was comparable to that for photons, whereas for the lower energies, 100 MeV/u and 11 MeV/u, which are representative of the energies delivered to the tumor margins and volume, respectively, the probability of transformation in a single cell was greater than it was for photons. In addition, at isoeffective doses with respect to cell killing, the 11.4-MeV/u beam was more oncogenic than were photons.

  15. Late neoplastic changes following medical irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    New additions since 1968 to the literature on radiation carcinogenesis in man support the earlier conclusion of an approximately linear increase in cancer incidence in a broad intermediate dose range for most sites of cancer. Questions are raised regarding the nature of the dose-response relation at very low and at very high dose exposures. Analyses of some data on exposure to radiation from internal deposits of radioactive material suggest that the dose-response curve at low and intermediate ranges is concave up, implying a smaller effect per unit exposure at very low doses than at intermediate ranges. Data on exposure to the very high but anatomically limited doses of radiation used in cancer therapy give conflicting results, suggesting in one report a continuation of the linear relation into the high-dose range. Other reports suggest a lesser effect per unit dose at high doses than at intermediate doses. Extensive laboratory studies of exposure of experimental animals indicate that over broad dose ranges, exceptions to simple linear relations are the rule, and that factors of dose rate and fractionation also affect the dose-response relation

  16. Viral Oncolytic Therapeutics for Neoplastic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Massachusetts General Hospital RICHARD BRINGHURST, M.D. 55 FRUIT ST BOSTON...Martuza. The cell lines were tested for mycoplasma, Hoechst DNA staining, PCR, and culture testing for contaminant bacteria, yeast, and fungi ...complication of breast cancer affects 5-8% of patients when circulating cancer cells seed in the meninges. Their subsequent growth causes severe

  17. Early Dementia Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the population of the world increases, there will be larger numbers of people with dementia and an emerging need for prompt diagnosis and treatment. Early dementia screening is the process by which a patient who might be in the prodromal phases of a dementing illness is determined as having, or not having, the hallmarks of a neurodegenerative condition. The concepts of mild cognitive impairment, or mild neurocognitive disorder, are useful in analyzing the patient in the prodromal phase of a dementing disease; however, the transformation to dementia may be as low as 10% per annum. The search for early dementia requires a comprehensive clinical evaluation, cognitive assessment, determination of functional status, corroborative history and imaging (including MRI, FDG-PET and maybe amyloid PET, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination assaying Aβ1–42, T-τ and P-τ might also be helpful. Primary care physicians are fundamental in the screening process and are vital in initiating specialist investigation and treatment. Early dementia screening is especially important in an age where there is a search for disease modifying therapies, where there is mounting evidence that treatment, if given early, might influence the natural history—hence the need for cost-effective screening measures for early dementia.

  18. Early cosmology constrained

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul [Institute of Cosmos Sciences, University of Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí Franquès, 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bellini, Emilio [University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Pigozzo, Cassio [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Heavens, Alan F., E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: emilio.bellini@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: cpigozzo@ufba.br, E-mail: a.heavens@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: raul.jimenez@icc.ub.edu [Imperial Centre for Inference and Cosmology (ICIC), Imperial College, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-01

    We investigate our knowledge of early universe cosmology by exploring how much additional energy density can be placed in different components beyond those in the ΛCDM model. To do this we use a method to separate early- and late-universe information enclosed in observational data, thus markedly reducing the model-dependency of the conclusions. We find that the 95% credibility regions for extra energy components of the early universe at recombination are: non-accelerating additional fluid density parameter Ω{sub MR} < 0.006 and extra radiation parameterised as extra effective neutrino species 2.3 < N {sub eff} < 3.2 when imposing flatness. Our constraints thus show that even when analyzing the data in this largely model-independent way, the possibility of hiding extra energy components beyond ΛCDM in the early universe is seriously constrained by current observations. We also find that the standard ruler, the sound horizon at radiation drag, can be well determined in a way that does not depend on late-time Universe assumptions, but depends strongly on early-time physics and in particular on additional components that behave like radiation. We find that the standard ruler length determined in this way is r {sub s} = 147.4 ± 0.7 Mpc if the radiation and neutrino components are standard, but the uncertainty increases by an order of magnitude when non-standard dark radiation components are allowed, to r {sub s} = 150 ± 5 Mpc.

  19. Disruptive cell cycle regulation involving epigenetic downregulation of Cdkn2a (p16Ink4a) in early-stage liver tumor-promotion facilitating liver cell regeneration in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Takuma; Wang, Liyun; Yafune, Atsunori; Kimura, Masayuki; Ohishi, Takumi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Cell cycle aberration was immunohistochemically examined in relation to preneoplastic liver cell foci expressing glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) at early stages of tumor-promotion in rats with thioacetamide (TAA), a hepatocarcinogen facilitating liver cell regeneration. Immunoexpression of p16 Ink4a following exposure to other hepatocarcinogens/promoters and its DNA methylation status were also analyzed during early and late tumor-promotion stages. GST-P + liver cell foci increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis when compared with surrounding liver cells. In concordance with GST-P + foci, checkpoint proteins at G 1 /S (p21 Cip1 , p27 Kip1 and p16 Ink4a ) and G 2 /M (phospho-checkpoint kinase 1, Cdc25c and phospho-Wee1) were either up- or downregulated. Cellular distribution within GST-P + foci was either increased or decreased with proteins related to G 2 -M phase or DNA damage (topoisomerase IIα, phospho-histone H2AX, phospho-histone H3 and Cdc2). In particular, p16 Ink4a typically downregulated in GST-P + foci and regenerative nodules at early tumor-promotion stage with hepatocarcinogens facilitating liver cell regeneration and in neoplastic lesions at late tumor-promotion stage with hepatocarcinogens/promoters irrespective of regenerating potential. Hypermethylation at exon 2 of Cdkn2a was detected at both early- and late-stages. Thus, diverse disruptive expression of G 1 /S and G 2 /M proteins, which allows for clonal selection of GST-P + foci, results in the acquisition of multiple aberrant phenotypes to disrupt checkpoint function. Moreover, increased DNA-damage responses within GST-P + foci may be the signature of genetic alterations. Intraexonic hypermethylation may be responsible for p16 Ink4a -downregulation, which facilitates cell cycle progression in early preneoplastic lesions produced by repeated cell regeneration and late-stage neoplastic lesions irrespective of the carcinogenic mechanism.

  20. Early Islamic Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan

    After more than a century of neglect, a profound revolution is occurring in the way archaeology addresses and interprets developments in the social history of early Islamic Syria-Palestine. This concise book offers an innovative assessment of social and economic developments in Syria-Palestine sh......After more than a century of neglect, a profound revolution is occurring in the way archaeology addresses and interprets developments in the social history of early Islamic Syria-Palestine. This concise book offers an innovative assessment of social and economic developments in Syria......-Palestine shortly before, and in the two centuries after, the Islamic expansion (the later sixth to the early ninth century AD), drawing on a wide range of new evidence from recent archaeological work. Alan Walmsley challenges conventional explanations for social change with the arrival of Islam, arguing...

  1. Early breastfeeding problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feenstra, Maria Monberg; Kirkeby, Mette Jørgine; Thygesen, Marianne

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Breastfeeding problems are common and associated with early cessation. Stilllength of postpartum hospital stay has been reduced. This leaves new mothers to establish breastfeeding at home with less support from health care professionals. The objective was to explore mothers’ perspectives...... on when breastfeeding problems were the most challenging and prominent early postnatal. The aim was also toidentify possible factors associated with the breastfeeding problems. Methods In a cross-sectional study, a mixed method approach was used to analyse postal survey data from 1437 mothers with full...... term singleton infants. Content analysis was used to analyse mothers’ open text descriptions of their most challenging breastfeeding problem. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for early breastfeeding problems according to sociodemographic- and psychosocial factors. Results...

  2. Early Intervention in Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorry, Patrick D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early intervention for potentially serious disorder is a fundamental feature of healthcare across the spectrum of physical illness. It has been a major factor in the reductions in morbidity and mortality that have been achieved in some of the non-communicable diseases, notably cancer and cardiovascular disease. Over the past two decades, an international collaborative effort has been mounted to build the evidence and the capacity for early intervention in the psychotic disorders, notably schizophrenia, where for so long deep pessimism had reigned. The origins and rapid development of early intervention in psychosis are described from a personal and Australian perspective. This uniquely evidence-informed, evidence-building and cost-effective reform provides a blueprint and launch pad to radically change the wider landscape of mental health care and dissolve many of the barriers that have constrained progress for so long. PMID:25919380

  3. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens represent a serious threat during early life. Importantly, even though the immune system of newborns may be characterized as developmentally immature, with a propensity to develop Th2 immunity, significant CD8+ T-cell responses may still be elicited in the context of optimal...... the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...... cytotoxicity of the elicited memory CD8+ T cells, as well as the potential of these cells to respond to secondary infections and confer protection. We further tested the impact of maternal immunity against our replication-deficient adenoviral vector during early life vaccination. Overall, our results indicate...

  4. Early anaerobic metabolisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian

    2006-01-01

    probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity......Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were...... of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent...

  5. 75 FR 20830 - Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Early Learning AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Education... meetings and written submissions, is seeking input from State agencies responsible for early learning and... assistance providers, researchers of early learning, stakeholders who work with early learning and...

  6. Cognitive Development in Early Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Chari; Elkind, David

    Some studies of early readers are discussed. It is pointed out that study of early readers has relevance for practical and theoretical issues in psychology and education. Of interest in this document are the following questions: (1) Are there any special talents or traits distinguishing early from non-early readers? (2) Do children who read early…

  7. Introduction to "Early psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGorry, Patrick; Nordentoft, Merete; Simonsen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    warrants careful analysis. The Third International Early Psychosis Conference proved to be a watershed and was the largest and most vibrant meeting to that point. This preface aims to set the scene for a selection of contributions, derived from the array of new evidence reported in Copenhagen, and recently...

  8. Early Functional Abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jakob; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    Early Functional Abilities (EFA), - en skala til evaluering af behandlingsforløb af svært hjerneskadede patienter i forbindelse med tidlig rehabilitering. Formål At monitorere og dokumentere rehabiliteringsforløbet for svært hjerneskadede patienter, hvor funktionsniveauet endnu ikke kan registreres...

  9. Early Islamic Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    This book presents a new interpretation of social and economic developments in Syria-Palestine in the decades before and during the two centuries after the Islamic expansion into the region (roughly the later 6th to the early 9th century AD). Drawing on a wide range of evidence from recent...

  10. Teaching polymorphism early

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Is it possible to teach dynamic polymorphism early? What techniques could facilitate teaching it in Java. This panel will bring together people who have considered this question and attempted to implement it in various ways, some more completely than others. It will also give participants...

  11. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results

  12. Characteristics of early psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, P.F.; Emck, C.; van Engeland, H.

    2006-01-01

    There is little research on characteristics related to course and prognosis of early-onset psychosis. The present article aims to advance our knowledge of this disorder for the purpose of proper diagnosis and treatment. It focuses on premorbid and prodromal characteristics, treatment history,

  13. Early practice: neurotology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Joseph T; Vrabec, Jeffrey T

    2015-04-01

    Besides technical and surgical proficiency, some of the most important skills for a young Neurotologist to refine include communication and critical thinking abilities. This Early Practice article provides perspectives on common challenges and career development from a current Neurotology fellow and his mentor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Early Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Development of a design methodology that can handle the vast design space in early building design. •A global design space is modelled from extensive Monte Carlo simulations. •Sensitivity analysis methods applied to guide decision-makers. •Interactive visualizations help the multi-act...

  15. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  16. Study of morphological alterations of the adrenal glands in the neoplastic cachexia Estudo das alterações morfológicas da glândula adrenal na caquexia neoplásica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Longo Mazzuco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced cancer occurs with nutritional and metabolic alterations that characterize neoplastic cachexia. When homeostasis is compromised, the adrenal glands have a fundamental role in the neuroendocrine response. Our purpose in this research was to study morphological alterations of the adrenal glands in the development of cancer associated to cachexia. Cachexia experimental model induced by Walker 256 tumor in Wistar rats, was used. Animals were sacrificed 12 days after tumor cells inoculation and adrenal glands removal for histopathologic analysis by means of hematoxylin and eosin stain. Nutritional parameters, cachexia index and adrenal glands weight, were evaluated. Animals with tumor presented cachexia index of 16,6 ± 4%. Adrenal glands average weight was significantly higher in the tumor group (40 mg ± 10 than in the control group (25 mg ± 3. Adrenal cortex of animals with cachexia showed hypertrophy of the zona fasciculata and reticular layer, with voluminous spongiocytes; vascular congestion and stasis were observed in the medullar region. Results were similar in the pair and ad libitum-fed groups. Animals with cancer cachexia showed compromised morphology of the adrenal glands which showed alterations related to stress response, suggesting increased cathecolamine secretion and activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis.   Advanced cancer occurs with nutritional and metabolic alterations that characterize neoplastic cachexia. When homeostasis is compromised, the adrenal glands have a fundamental role in the neuroendocrine response. Our purpose in this research was to study morphological alterations of the adrenal glands in the development of cancer associated to cachexia. Cachexia experimental model induced by Walker 256 tumor in Wistar rats, was used. Animals were sacrificed 12 days after tumor cells inoculation and adrenal glands removal for histopathologic analysis by means of hematoxylin and eosin stain. Nutritional

  17. CEACAM6 is upregulated by Helicobacter pylori CagA and is a biomarker for early gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Supriya; Samanta, Animesh; Sharma, Neel; Tan, Kar Tong; Yang, Henry; Voon, Dominic C.; Pang, Brendan; Teh, Ming; Murata-Kamiya, Naoko; Hatakeyama, Masanori; Chang, Young-Tae; Yong, Wei Peng; Ito, Yoshiaki; Ho, Khek Yu; Tan, Patrick; Soong, Richie; Koeffler, Phillip H.; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Jeyasekharan, Anand D.

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of gastric cancers saves lives, but remains a diagnostic challenge. In this study, we aimed to identify cell-surface biomarkers of early gastric cancer. We hypothesized that a subset of plasma membrane proteins induced by the Helicobacter pylori oncoprotein CagA will be retained in early gastric cancers through non-oncogene addiction. An inducible system for expression of CagA was used to identify differentially upregulated membrane protein transcripts in vitro. The top hits were then analyzed in gene expression datasets comparing transcriptome of gastric cancer with normal tissue, to focus on markers retained in cancer. Among the transcripts enriched upon CagA induction in vitro, a significant elevation of CEACAM6 was noted in gene expression datasets of gastric cancer. We used quantitative digital immunohistochemistry to measure CEACAM6 protein levels in tissue microarrays of gastric cancer. We demonstrate an increase in CEACAM6 in early gastric cancers, when compared to matched normal tissue, with an AUC of 0.83 for diagnostic validity. Finally, we show that a fluorescently conjugated CEACAM6 antibody binds avidly to freshly resected gastric cancer xenograft samples and can be detected by endoscopy in real time. Together, these results suggest that CEACAM6 upregulation is a cell surface response to H. pylori CagA, and is retained in early gastric cancers. They highlight a novel link between CEACAM6 expression and CagA in gastric cancer, and suggest CEACAM6 to be a promising biomarker to aid with the fluorescent endoscopic diagnosis of early neoplastic lesions in the stomach. PMID:27421133

  18. Early prenatal syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Rathod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis in pregnancy still remains a challenge despite the availability of adequate diagnostic tests for serological screening and penicillin therapy. We report a case of 2 month old female infant who presented with runny nose, papulosquamous lesions over both palms and soles and perianal erosions since 1 month after birth. Cutaneous examination revealed moist eroded areas in the perianal region and fine scaly lesions over palms and soles. Radiograph of both upper limbs and limbs revealed early periosteal changes in lower end of humerus and lower end of tibia. Diagnosis of early pre-natal syphilis was confirmed by Child′s Serum Rapid Plasma Reagin Antibody test [S.RPR] being positive with 1:64 dilution while that of mother was 1:8.

  19. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  20. Mapping the early Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    From its unique vantage point 900 kilometres above the earth's surface, NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite has a privileged view of cosmic background radiation - the remnants of the early (radiation-dominated) Universe which followed the Big Bang some ten Gigayears ago, and possibly some subsequent history. In this way astroparticle physicists get a first peek at the quantum cosmology which moulded the infant Universe

  1. Earthquake Early Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Yang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Because of Taiwan’s unique geographical environment, earthquake disasters occur frequently in Taiwan. The Central Weather Bureau collated earthquake data from between 1901 and 2006 (Central Weather Bureau, 2007) and found that 97 earthquakes had occurred, of which, 52 resulted in casualties. The 921 Chichi Earthquake had the most profound impact. Because earthquakes have instant destructive power and current scientific technologies cannot provide precise early warnings in advance, earthquake ...

  2. Coaching in Early Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeroth, Carrie; Sarama, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Falling scores in math have prompted a renewed interest in math instruction at early ages. By their own admission, early childhood educators are generally underprepared and not always comfortable teaching math. Professional development (PD) in early mathematics is widely considered a main way to increase teachers' skills and efficacy (e.g., Guskey, 2000; Hyson & Woods, 2014; Munby, Russell, & Martin, 2001; Piasta, Logan, Pelatti, Capps, & Petrill, 2015; Richardson & Placier, 2001; Sarama, Clements, Wolfe, & Spitler, 2016; Sarama & DiBiase, 2004; Zaslow, 2014). However, it has been documented that stand-alone PD is not as effective in changing practice (e.g., Biancarosa & Bryk, 2011; Garet et al., 2008; Guskey, 2000; Hyson & Woods, 2014; Institute of Medicine and National Research Council, 2015; Joyce & Showers, 2002; Zaslow, 2014). Site-embedded ongoing support in the form of coaching or mentoring has been shown to be critical for successful implementation (Neuman & Cunningham, 2009; Powell, Diamond, Burchinal, & Koehler, 2010). In this chapter, we describe coaching models and abstract characteristics of effective coaching from the research. With this background, we provide an in-depth view of the coaching aspect of two large empirical studies in early mathematics. We introduce the theoretical framework from which the coaching models for these projects were developed and describe the research on which they were based. We then summarize how the planned models were instantiated and challenges to their implementation within each project. In the final section, we summarize what we have learned and described implications and challenges for the field. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early prevention of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating...

  4. Hands of early primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Doug M; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Godinot, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of primates continue to be the subject of debate. Though anatomy of the skull and inferred dietary shifts are often the focus, detailed studies of postcrania and inferred locomotor capabilities can also provide crucial data that advance understanding of transitions in early primate evolution. In particular, the hand skeleton includes characteristics thought to reflect foraging, locomotion, and posture. Here we review what is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record. Additionally, we provide new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms. Finally, we discuss implications of these data for understanding locomotor transitions during the origin and early evolutionary history of primates. Known plesiadapiform species cannot be differentiated from extant primates based on either intrinsic hand proportions or hand-to-body size proportions. Nonetheless, the presence of claws and a different metacarpophalangeal [corrected] joint form in plesiadapiforms indicate different grasping mechanics. Notharctines and cercamoniines have intrinsic hand proportions with extremely elongated proximal phalanges and digit rays relative to metacarpals, resembling tarsiers and galagos. But their hand-to-body size proportions are typical of many extant primates (unlike those of tarsiers, and possibly Teilhardina, which have extremely large hands). Non-adapine adapiforms and omomyids exhibit additional carpal features suggesting more limited dorsiflexion, greater ulnar deviation, and a more habitually divergent pollex than observed plesiadapiforms. Together, features differentiating adapiforms and omomyiforms from plesiadapiforms indicate increased reliance on vertical prehensile-clinging and grasp-leaping, possibly in combination with predatory behaviors in

  5. Early Detection Of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V B Bhatnagar

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Farly detection of cancer is based upon three fundamental assumptions, firstly that the trea'ment of benign and precancerous lesions reduces the incidence of cancer, secondly, that the treatment of in situ cancers is conducive to total cure and thirdly that early diagnosis and management of invasive cancer ensures be.ter survival. When patient seeks medical advice for vague symptoms, which could however be due to a possible malignant tumour at a particular site, the alert clinician should investigate the patient immediately to exclude cancer. At this stage cancer is usually not significantly advanced. Currently the U. I. C. C. (International Union for Cancer Control} is studying the epidemiology of cancers in various countries The importance of this is two folds : Firstly by focussing attention on a section of population vulnerable to a particular cancer an early detection is facilitated Secondly by changing the causative factors responsible to a particular cancer, the incidence of that cancer can be reduced e. g. reduction in lung cancer following campaigns against ciguette smoking and reductioi in breast cancer after campaigns for advocating breast feeding of infants, lowering fat consumption and encouraging self palpation of breast regularly. Indeed early diagnosis of cancer implies diagnosis of cancer in almost a symptomatic stage It involves motiva’ion of the population towards acquisitio : of knowledge, attitude and practice.. Epidemiologies and clinicians should be able to recognise high risk cases exposed to particular neoplasia and knowledge of alarming symptoms should be pro- pogated for wide publicity through common available media and means. Probable cases should have regular clhrcal examination periodically and relevant investigations including radiological, imaging techniques and Bio-Chemical examination should be undertaken as and when desired Suspicious lesions should be investigated by specific tests including smear cytology

  6. PHOBOS, the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephans, George S. F.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michalowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.

    2002-06-01

    The PHOBOS detector, one of the two small experiments at RHIC, focuses on measurements of charged particle multiplicity over almost the full phase space and identified particles near mid-rapidity. Results will be presented from the early RHIC gold--gold runs at nucleon--nucleon center of mass energies of 56 and 130 GeV as well as the recently concluded run at the full RHIC energy of 200 GeV.

  7. Mapping the early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-06-15

    From its unique vantage point 900 kilometres above the earth's surface, NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite has a privileged view of cosmic background radiation - the remnants of the early (radiation-dominated) Universe which followed the Big Bang some ten Gigayears ago, and possibly some subsequent history. In this way astroparticle physicists get a first peek at the quantum cosmology which moulded the infant Universe.

  8. Early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongen, J.A. van

    1989-01-01

    The therapy of early breast cancer has been changing during the last decennium. It requires a multi-disciplinary approach and in each of these disciplines improvements have been implemented. The result is that treatment schedules can now be adapted to specific subgroups. In this review early breast cancer is defined as operable disease, using the criteria set out by Haagensen. Emphasis is given to describing the new developments in prognostic criteria, since these form the basis for creating subgroups for specific treatment schedules. Distinction is made between the factors relating to growth rate and those relating to metastatic potential. Data on screening promises a beneficial effect of the implementation of screening in national health care programs. Important shifts are seen in treatment schedules; the place of postoperative radiotherapy after classic ablative treatment is being challenged, whereas it plays a major role in the new breast conserving therapy schedules. The data mentioned in the review suggest that a large proportion of 'operable' cases can be treated with breast conservation but details in the technique of breast conserving therapy are still under investigation. They form a major part of the coming prospective studies in breast cancer. Improvements in reconstruction techniques, creating better cosmetic results, make reconstruction more competitive with breast conserving therapy. The use of chemotherapy and endocrine manipulation in early breast cancer has now been clearly confirmed by the overview technique by the Peto-group, thanks to all efforts of individual trialists together. (orig.)

  9. Early intervention as a catalyst for effective early childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of positive attitudes towards children with disabilities in a country like Ghana. ... As Ghana strides towards mainstreaming early childhood education in the quest ... an integrated, inclusive and effective early intervention programme becomes ...

  10. Infusing Early Childhood Mental Health into Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabert, John C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…

  11. Malignant acanthosis nigricans: an early diagnostic clue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, M.; Shah, A.A.; Bari, A.U.

    2010-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is characterized by velvety, hyper pigmented, verrucosus, symmetric and occasionally pruritic plaques along with papillomatous lesions which have a special predilection for neck, axillae, groin, umbilicu and mucosal regions. Rarely, it presents as a para neoplastic syndrome and prompts a thorough search for an internal malignancy. We present here a case of malignant acanthosis nigricans seen in an elderly patient who was found to have underlying adenocarcinoma of the lower end of esophagus. After diagnosing associated malignancy, he was referred for further evaluation and subsequent surgical resection of tumour. (author)

  12. Quantitative attenuation analysis for identification of early Barrett's neoplasia in volumetric laser endomicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Anne-Fre; Faber, Dirk J.; de Bruin, Daniel M.; Weusten, Bas L.; Meijer, Sybren L.; Bergman, Jacques J.; Curvers, Wouter L.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2017-08-01

    Early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus (BE) is difficult to detect. Volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) incorporates optical coherence tomography, providing a circumferential scan of the esophageal wall layers. The attenuation coefficient (μVLE) quantifies decay of detected backscattered light versus depth, and could potentially improve BE neoplasia detection. The aim is to investigate feasibility of μVLE for identification of early BE neoplasia. In vivo and ex vivo VLE scans with histological correlation from BE patients ± neoplasia were used. Quantification by μVLE was performed manually on areas of interest (AoIs) to differentiate neoplasia from nondysplastic (ND)BE. From ex vivo VLE scans from 16 patients (13 with neoplasia), 68 AoIs were analyzed. Median μVLE values (mm-1) were 3.7 [2.1 to 4.4 interquartile range (IQR)] for NDBE and 4.0 (2.5 to 4.9 IQR) for neoplasia, not statistically different (p=0.82). Fourteen in vivo scans were used: nine from neoplastic and five from NDBE patients. Median μVLE values were 1.8 (1.5 to 2.6 IQR) for NDBE and 2.1 (1.9 to 2.6 IQR) for neoplasia, with no statistically significant difference (p=0.37). In conclusion, there was no significant difference in μVLE values in VLE scans from early neoplasia versus NDBE. Future studies with a larger sample size should explore other quantitative methods for detection of neoplasia during BE surveillance.

  13. Processos proliferativos gengivais não neoplásicos em paciente sob tratamento ortodôntico Non-neoplastic proliferative gingival processes in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irineu Gregnanin Pedron

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a aparatologia ortodôntica dificulta a higiene bucal e pode contribuir para a formação de lesões gengivais, como os processos proliferativos gengivais não neoplásicos. Essas lesões, dependendo de alguns fatores - como o tempo de evolução, constituintes histopatológicos e condições bucais -, podem ser reversíveis, em alguns casos, por meio da orientação sobre higiene bucal e da terapia periodontal básica. Entretanto, na maioria das vezes há necessidade de tratamento cirúrgico. OBJETIVO: o propósito deste trabalho é relatar o caso de uma paciente portadora de aparatologia ortodôntica fixa que apresentou duas lesões gengivais distintas, diagnosticadas como granuloma piogênico e hiperplasia gengival inflamatória. Foram discutidas as características clínicas e histopatológicas, incidência e frequência, modalidades terapêuticas e prevenção de ambas as lesões, demonstrando a importância do encaminhamento do material colhido ao exame histopatológico, dada a possibilidade de diversas hipóteses diagnósticas. Em ambas as lesões foi realizada a exérese cirúrgica. RESULTADOS: a lesão na arcada superior, diagnosticada como granuloma piogênico, apresentou recorrência, sendo necessária terapia periodontal básicae repetiçãodoprocedimento cirúrgico. Alesão na arcada inferior foi diagnosticada como hiperplasia gengival, sendo removida cirurgicamente e acompanhada clinicamente, com prescrição de orientação da higiene bucal ao pacienteINTRODUCTION: Orthodontic appliances render oral hygiene difficult and may contribute to the development of gingival lesions such as non-neoplastic proliferative gingival processes. These lesions, depending on such factors as development time, histopathological components and oral conditions may be reversible in some cases - through oral hygiene advice and basic periodontal therapy. In most cases, however, surgical treatment is required. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this

  14. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  15. History of early atomic clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, N.F.

    2005-01-01

    This review of the history of early atomic clocks includes early atomic beam magnetic resonance, methods of separated and successive oscillatory fields, microwave absorption, optical pumping and atomic masers. (author)

  16. Early prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  17. Tattoo-Associated Skin Reaction: The Importance of an Early Diagnosis and Proper Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Andrea; Campolmi, Piero; Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Conti, Rossana; Bruscino, Nicola; Gola, Massimo; Ermini, Stefano; Massi, Daniela; Moretti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Tattoo is going to be a very common practice especially among young people and we are witnessing a gradual increase of numerous potential complications to tattoo placement which are often seen by physicians, but generally unknown to the public. The most common skin reactions to tattoo include a transient acute inflammatory reaction due to trauma of the skin with needles and medical complications such as superficial and deep local infections, systemic infections, allergic contact dermatitis, photodermatitis, granulomatous and lichenoid reactions, and skin diseases localized on tattooed area (eczema, psoriasis, lichen, and morphea). Next to these inflammatory skin reactions we have to consider also the possibility of the development of cutaneous conditions such as pseudolymphomatous reactions and pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. The aim of this study is to underline the importance of an early diagnosis by performing a histological examination especially when we are in front of suspected papulonodular lesions arising from a tattoo, followed by a proper treatment, since cutaneous neoplastic evolution is known to be a rare but possible complication. PMID:25147796

  18. Affinity fluorescence-labeled peptides for the early detection of cancer in Barrett's esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Lu, Shaoying; Piraka, Cyrus; Appelman, Henry; Kwon, Rich; Soetikno, Roy; Kaltenbach, Tonya; Wang, Thomas D.

    2009-02-01

    Fluorescence-labeled peptides that affinity bind to neoplastic mucsosa are promising for use as a specific contrast agent in the detection of pre-malignant tissue in the esophagus. This method is can be used to identify expression of biological markers associated with dysplasia on endoscopic imaging as a guide for biopsy and represents a novel method for the early detection and prevention of cancer. We demonstrate the use of phage display to select affinity peptides and identify the sequence "ASYNYDA" that binds with high target-to-background ratio to dysplastic esophageal mucosa compared to that of intestinal metaplasia. Validation of preferential binding is demonstrated for neoplasia in the setting of Barrett's esophagus. An optimal tradeoff between sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 85% was found at the relative threshold of 0.60 with a target-to-background ratio of 1.81 and an area under the ROC curve of 0.87. Peptides are a novel class of ligand for targeted detection of pre-malignant mucosa for purposes of screening and surveillance.

  19. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  20. Why Recruits Separate Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    our sample were reportedly unable to adjust to the military environment due to social or emotional immaturity. This problem was especially prevalent...Table 9. Table 9 REASONS FOR EARLY SEPARATION 1. Mental health. Phobias , suicide threats and attempts, emotional immaturity, and personality and...hliurfl’lutf t’ htrtiuug tht .’ plinittol piioL’m.9 evIn’ thfll I b’ r i’lli. vre’.Ilv ifao~ , ýI ll.tv ill it](- rv ’: 111nil tln1 (i~..󈧏 4 P A W4.11

  1. Early modern mathematical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jim

    2011-12-01

    In considering the appropriate use of the terms "science" and "scientific instrument," tracing the history of "mathematical instruments" in the early modern period is offered as an illuminating alternative to the historian's natural instinct to follow the guiding lights of originality and innovation, even if the trail transgresses contemporary boundaries. The mathematical instrument was a well-defined category, shared across the academic, artisanal, and commercial aspects of instrumentation, and its narrative from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century was largely independent from other classes of device, in a period when a "scientific" instrument was unheard of.

  2. Early solar physics

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J

    1970-01-01

    Early Solar Physics reviews developments in solar physics, particularly the advent of solar spectroscopy and the discovery of relationships between the various layers of the solar atmosphere and between the different forms of solar activity. Topics covered include solar observations during 1843; chemical analysis of the solar atmosphere; the spectrum of a solar prominence; and the solar eclipse of December 12, 1871. Spectroscopic observations of the sun are also presented. This book is comprised of 30 chapters and begins with an overview of ideas about the sun in the mid-nineteenth century, fo

  3. Early and late motherhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Lausten, Mette

    2009-01-01

    The study investigates parental child rearing methods, structural factors relating to the family during adolescence geographic segregation, individual resource deficits and social background of first time late live births among 32 to 37 years old women and compare to teenagers before becoming...... economic and social gradient for first-time teenage mothers. Teenagers who had experienced family separation or who were formerly in out-of-home care in particular had an increased risk of early childbearing. Results showed that teenage mothers were in every respect in a more disadvantaged position than...

  4. Early Reading and Concrete Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Cindy L. Howes; Goldstein, David

    1980-01-01

    Indicated that early readers are more likely to be advanced in cognitive development than are nonearly-reading peers. After one year of formal reading instruction, early readers maintained their advantage in reading achievement. Measures of concrete operations were found to predict reading achievement for early and nonearly readers. (Author/DB)

  5. Early Childhood Workforce Index, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitebook, Marcy; McLean, Caitlin; Austin, Lea J. E.

    2016-01-01

    The State of the Early Childhood Workforce (SECW) Initiative is a groundbreaking multi-year project to shine a steady spotlight on the nation's early childhood workforce. The SECW Initiative is designed to challenge entrenched ideas and policies that maintain an inequitable and inadequate status quo for early educators and for the children and…

  6. Radiation early warning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.; Kloesch, W.; Stadtmann, H.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype station for a Radiation Early Warning Network has been designed and set up at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. This unit was developed to measure all relevant parameters necessary to detect and track radioactive contamination at an early stage. The station consists of the following components: Radiation measuring channel for ambient gamma dose rate. Meteorological measurement channels for air temperature and humidity, wind direction and wind speed, and precipitation. Data processing and storage unit. The system is capable of unattended operation and data acquisition even under adverse environmental conditions. Connection to a central processing platform may be achieved via leased line, dial up over public switched telephone network (PSTN), or radio-frequency transmission. The remote station will continue acquiring and storing data for at least a month, even if the communications link is broken. Multiple stations can be combined to form a network, providing detailed information about radiological and meteorological data at each site. Thus increased ambient radiation levels may be discovered, tracked, and forecasted based on calculations using current and local weather data

  7. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since the spec......Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since...... acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable......-29 months. For the two children, the phonetic structure of the first ten words to occur is compared with that of the last ten words to occur before 30 months of age, and with that of ten words in between. Measures related to the sonority envelope, viz. sonority types and in particular sonority rises...

  8. HPV16 early gene E5 specifically reduces miRNA-196a in cervical cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chanzhen; Lin, Jianfei; Li, Lianqin; Zhang, Yonggang; Chen, Weiling; Cao, Zeyi; Zuo, Huancong; Chen, Chunling; Kee, Kehkooi

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16, which is responsible for greater than 50% of cervical cancer cases, is the most prevalent and lethal HPV type. However, the molecular mechanisms of cervical carcinogenesis remain elusive, particularly the early steps of HPV infection that may transform normal cervical epithelium into a pre-neoplastic state. Here, we report that a group of microRNAs (microRNAs) were aberrantly decreased in HPV16-positive normal cervical tissues, and these groups of microRNAs are further reduced in cervical carcinoma. Among these miRNAs, miR196a expression is the most reduced in HPV16-infected tissues. Interestingly, miR196a expression is low in HPV16-positive cervical cancer cell lines but high in HPV16-negative cervical cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we found that only HPV16 early gene E5 specifically down-regulated miRNA196a in the cervical cancer cell lines. In addition, HoxB8, a known miR196a target gene, is up-regulated in the HPV16 cervical carcinoma cell line but not in HPV18 cervical cancer cell lines. Various doses of miR196a affected cervical cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. Altogether, these results suggested that HPV16 E5 specifically down-regulates miR196a upon infection of the human cervix and initiates the transformation of normal cervix cells to cervical carcinoma. PMID:25563170

  9. CYR61 and TAZ Upregulation and Focal Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition May Be Early Predictors of Barrett's Esophagus Malignant Progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Cardoso

    Full Text Available Barrett's esophagus is the major risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. It has a low but non-neglectable risk, high surveillance costs and no reliable risk stratification markers. We sought to identify early biomarkers, predictive of Barrett's malignant progression, using a meta-analysis approach on gene expression data. This in silico strategy was followed by experimental validation in a cohort of patients with extended follow up from the Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa de Francisco Gentil EPE (Portugal. Bioinformatics and systems biology approaches singled out two candidate predictive markers for Barrett's progression, CYR61 and TAZ. Although previously implicated in other malignancies and in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotypes, our experimental validation shows for the first time that CYR61 and TAZ have the potential to be predictive biomarkers for cancer progression. Experimental validation by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry confirmed the up-regulation of both genes in Barrett's samples associated with high-grade dysplasia/adenocarcinoma. In our cohort CYR61 and TAZ up-regulation ranged from one to ten years prior to progression to adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus index samples. Finally, we found that CYR61 and TAZ over-expression is correlated with early focal signs of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Our results highlight both CYR61 and TAZ genes as potential predictive biomarkers for stratification of the risk for development of adenocarcinoma and suggest a potential mechanistic route for Barrett's esophagus neoplastic progression.

  10. Early postoperative and late metabolic morbidity after pancreatic resections: An old and new challenge for surgeons - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beger, Hans G; Mayer, Benjamin

    2018-02-16

    The metrics for measuring early postoperative morbidity after resection of pancreatic neoplastic tumors are overall morbidity, severe surgery-related morbidity, frequency of reoperation and reintervention, in-hospital, 30-day and 90-day mortality and length of hospital stay. Thirty-day readmission after discharge is additionally an indispensable criterion to assess quality of surgery. The metrics for surgery-associated long-term results after pancreatic resections are survival times, new onset of diabetes (DM), impaired glucose tolerance, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, body mass index and GI motility dysfunctions. Following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) performed on pancreatic normo-glycemic patients for malignant and benign tumors, 4-30% develop postoperative new onset of diabetes. Long-term persistence of diabetes mellitus is observed after surgery for benign tumors in 14% and in 15.5% of patients after cancer resection. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency after PD is observed in the early postoperative period in 23-80% of patients. Persistence of exocrine dysfunctions exists in 25% and 49% of patients. Following left-sided pancreatic resection, new onset DM is observed in 14% of cases; an exocrine insufficiency persisting in the long-term outcome is observed in 16-28% of patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early-Onset Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnenberg, Elles; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Kate, Mara Ten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early-onset dementia (EOD) is a rare condition, with an often atypical clinical presentation, and it may therefore be challenging to diagnose. Specialized memory clinics vary in the type of patients seen, diagnostic procedures applied, and the pharmacological treatment given. The aim...... of this study was to investigate quality-of-care indicators in subjects with EOD from 3 tertiary memory clinics in 3 European countries. METHODS: We included 1325 newly diagnosed EOD patients, ages 65 years or younger, between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2013, from the Danish Dementia Registry...... (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen), the Swedish Dementia Registry ("SveDem", Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm), and the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (VU University Medical Center). RESULTS: The frequency of EOD among all dementia patients was significantly lower in Copenhagen (410, 20%) and Stockholm (284, 21...

  12. Early-stage cervical carcinoma, radical hysterectomy, and sexual function. A longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille T; Groenvold, Mogens; Klee, Marianne C

    2004-01-01

    with an age-matched control group from the general population. RESULTS: Compared with control women, patients experienced severe orgasmic problems and uncomfortable sexual intercourse due to a reduced vaginal size during the first 6 months after RH, severe dyspareunia during the first 3 months, and sexual......BACKGROUND: Limited knowledge exists concerning the impact of radical hysterectomy (RH) alone on the sexual function of patients with early-stage cervical carcinoma. The authors investigated the longitudinal course of self-reported sexual function after RH. METHODS: The current study was comprised...... dissatisfaction during the 5 weeks after RH. A persistent lack of sexual interest and lubrication were reported throughout the first 2 years after RH. Long-term lack of sexual interest and insufficient vaginal lubrication were confirmed by the patient's self-reported changes 12 months after RH compared...

  13. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratila, M.; Rosu, S.

    2014-03-01

    Oral maxillo-facial region cancer carries major importance in the tumour pathology of the organism being characterized by a high frequency as well as by the variety of the clinical anatomical and topographic forms through which it is presented. Over 60% of labial carcinoma begins as an asymptomatic ulceration, therefore patients do not pay due attention, considering it a "rebellious thrush" and they make a specialized medical appointment in an advanced stage of the tumor. In this study we pursued the frequency of the lip cancer pathology compared to the total CMF; the distribution the lip cancer by sex and age in patients who submitted to the specialized service; the originating environment of the patient with lip cancer; the anatomical location of the lip cancer; the frequency of relapses after treatment; the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. The study was performed at the Clinic of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babes" Timişoara and pursued statistical aspects of the lip cancer incidence over a period of five years (2007-2012). Pre- and postoperative patients were monitored constantly, registering in individual sheets the evolution of the disease, monitoring the relapses after treatment and the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. As shown in the statistics made in the last five years (2007-2012), from a total of 8135 cases with CMF pathology hospitalized in the Timisoara surgery clinic, 163 cases, or 2%, were cancer of the lip. Analyzing the gender distribution shows that males represent 81% of cases while the remaining 19% were found in women. From the study of age distribution, we found that the number of cases increases with age: 153 cases over 60 years old and 58 cases between 20 - 60 years. Personal statistics from the 212 cases of cancer of the lip reveal that 143 (67%) patients were from the rural areas and 69 (33%) from urban areas. Neoplastic pathology is constantly increasing both

  14. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor Babeş Timişoara, Piaţa Eftimie Murgu No. 2, 300041 (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Maxillo-facial surgeon, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Victor Babeş Timişoara, Piaţa Eftimie Murgu No. 2, 300041 (Romania))" >Fratila, M; Victor Babeş Timişoara, Piaţa Eftimie Murgu No. 2, 300041 (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Maxillo-facial surgeon, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Victor Babeş Timişoara, Piaţa Eftimie Murgu No. 2, 300041 (Romania))" >Rosu, S

    2014-01-01

    . Neoplastic pathology is constantly increasing both in frequency as well as in the therapeutic problems raised. In the face and oral cavity cancer catagory, lip represents 2% of all cases and 19-25% of the total facial cancer area. Lip cancer is one of the localizations that, when detected early, can benefit from an effective therapy with high chances of healing. In order to achieve a complex treatment, interdisciplinary collaboration is required, only thus being able to determine both the therapeutic methods as well as their association

  15. Gene expression profiling reveals underlying molecular mechanisms of the early stages of tamoxifen-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogribny, Igor P.; Bagnyukova, Tetyana V.; Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Muskhelishvili, Levan; Rodriguez-Juarez, Rocio; Kovalchuk, Olga; Han Tao; Fuscoe, James C.; Ross, Sharon A.; Beland, Frederick A.

    2007-01-01

    Tamoxifen is a widely used anti-estrogenic drug for chemotherapy and, more recently, for the chemoprevention of breast cancer. Despite the indisputable benefits of tamoxifen in preventing the occurrence and re-occurrence of breast cancer, the use of tamoxifen has been shown to induce non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which is a life-threatening fatty liver disease with a risk of progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In recent years, the high-throughput microarray technology for large-scale analysis of gene expression has become a powerful tool for increasing the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis and for identifying new biomarkers with diagnostic and predictive values. In the present study, we used the high-throughput microarray technology to determine the gene expression profiles in the liver during early stages of tamoxifen-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis. Female Fisher 344 rats were fed a 420 ppm tamoxifen containing diet for 12 or 24 weeks, and gene expression profiles were determined in liver of control and tamoxifen-exposed rats. The results indicate that early stages of tamoxifen-induced liver carcinogenesis are characterized by alterations in several major cellular pathways, specifically those involved in the tamoxifen metabolism, lipid metabolism, cell cycle signaling, and apoptosis/cell proliferation control. One of the most prominent changes during early stages of tamoxifen-induced hepatocarcinogenesis is dysregulation of signaling pathways in cell cycle progression from the G 1 to S phase, evidenced by the progressive and sustained increase in expression of the Pdgfc, Calb3, Ets1, and Ccnd1 genes accompanied by the elevated level of the PI3K, p-PI3K, Akt1/2, Akt3, and cyclin B, D1, and D3 proteins. The early appearance of these alterations suggests their importance in the mechanism of neoplastic cell transformation induced by tamoxifen

  16. Manipulating early pig embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Reichelt, B

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of established surgical procedures for embryo recovery and transfer, the early pig embryo can be subjected to various manipulations aimed at a long-term preservation of genetic material, the generation of identical multiplets, the early determination of sex or the alteration of the genetic make-up. Most of these procedures are still at an experimental stage and despite recent considerable progress are far from practical application. Normal piglets have been obtained after cryopreservation of pig blastocysts hatched in vitro, whereas all attempts to freeze embryos with intact zona pellucida have been unsuccessful. Pig embryos at the morula and blastocyst stage can be bisected microsurgically and the resulting demi-embryos possess a high developmental potential in vitro, whereas their development in vivo is impaired. Pregnancy rates are similar (80%) but litter size is reduced compared with intact embryos and twinning rate is approximately 2%. Pig blastomeres isolated from embryos up to the 16-cell stage can be grown in culture and result in normal blastocysts. Normal piglets have been born upon transfer of blastocysts derived from isolated eight-cell blastomeres, clearly underlining the totipotency of this developmental stage. Upon nuclear transfer the developmental capacity of reconstituted pig embryos is low and culture. Sex determination can be achieved either by separation of X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa by flow cytometry or by analysing the expression of the HY antigen in pig embryos from the eight-cell to morula stage. Microinjection of foreign DNA has been successfully used to alter growth and development of transgenic pigs, and to produce foreign proteins in the mammary gland or in the bloodstream, indicating that pigs can be used as donors for valuable human pharmaceutical proteins. Another promising area of gene transfer is the increase of disease resistance in transgenic lines of pigs. Approximately 30% of pig spermatozoa bind

  17. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; David Mintner; Wendy Moore; Jimmy O. Ong; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Kalapi D. Sheth; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

    2001-05-17

    The overall objective of this project is the three-phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) that produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: Electric power (or heat); Fuels; and Chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or some other carbonaceous feedstock, such as petroleum coke. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II. This objective has now been accomplished. A specific site, Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas, has been selected as the location best suited for the EECP. The accomplishments of Phase I are discussed in detail in this Phase I Concept Report. A RD and T Plan and a preliminary project financing plan have been developed and are submitted separately from this report.

  18. The Early Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Gerald

    2013-04-01

    Stuart Freedman obtained his PhD at Berkley with an experimental thesis providing very strong evidence against theories requiring local hidden variables. He then came to Princeton in 1972 and began collaboration on a search for second-class currents. These measurements are quite difficult as the effects are the order of 1%, demonstrating Freedman's drive to take on hard but important experiments. After carrying out some relatively standard nuclear physics measurements he moved on to Stanford in 1976. There, Freedman was involved in identifying measurements sensitive to the existence of light axions. He also carried out searches for various exotica that might be produced from cosmic rays or the SLAC beam stop. During this time he was collaborating with us at Argonne investigating nuclear parity violation and time-like axial beta decay. In 1982 Freedman came to Argonne where he worked on fundamental issues in neutron beta decay. He also initiated what was to become one of his trademarks, demonstrating that surprising peaks in the e^+-e^- spectrum observed in very heavy ion collisions were spurious. He further launched his first neutrino oscillation experiment. This period of early research was marked by a remarkable diversity of subject matter and approach.

  19. Early diagnosis of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Babic-Erceg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A 25-years old man from Zagreb, Croatia, was admitted to the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases four days after the onset of symptoms such as fever, intense pain in the calves and anuria. The patient owned a rabbit and, before the onset of the disease, repaired some rubber pipes damaged by rodents. At admission, he had a severe clinical picture with fever, hypotension, jaundice, immobility, and pain in leg muscles. Treatment with ceftriaxone was initiated in combination with volume restitution. Renal failure soon ensued. Consequently continuous venovenous hemodiaphiltration therapy was performed. Due to acute respiratory distress syndrome, the patient was mechanically ventilated. The patient’s condition gradually improved and he recovered fully from multi-organ failure. Diagnosis was confirmed by a microscopic agglutination test (MAT covering 15 leptospira serovars and real-time polymerase-chain reaction (PCR. The first serum sample taken on day 6 tested negative for leptospira, while PCR showed positive results for leptospiral DNA. The second serum sample taken on day 13 tested positive for serovar Canicola serogroup Canicola, serovar Patoc, serovar Grippotyphosa serogroup Grippotyphosa and serovar Tarassovi serogroup Tarassovi (titre 4000, 4000, 1000 and 2000, respectively, while PCR was negative. This report highlights the benefits of combining MAT and PCR methods in early diagnosis of leptospirosis.

  20. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William K. Davis

    2001-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD and T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation

  1. BAX-mediated cell death affects early germ cell loss and incidence of testicular teratomas in Dnd1(Ter/Ter) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Matthew S; Coveney, Douglas; Batchvarov, Iordan; Nadeau, Joseph H; Capel, Blanche

    2009-04-15

    A homozygous nonsense mutation (Ter) in murine Dnd1 (Dnd1(Ter/Ter)) results in a significant early loss of primordial germ cells (PGCs) prior to colonization of the gonad in both sexes and all genetic backgrounds tested. The same mutation also leads to testicular teratomas only on the 129Sv/J background. Male mutants on other genetic backgrounds ultimately lose all PGCs with no incidence of teratoma formation. It is not clear how these PGCs are lost or what factors directly control the strain-specific phenotype variation. To determine the mechanism underlying early PGC loss we crossed Dnd1(Ter/Ter) embryos to a Bax-null background and found that germ cells were partially rescued. Surprisingly, on a mixed genetic background, rescued male germ cells also generated fully developed teratomas at a high rate. Double-mutant females on a mixed background did not develop teratomas, but were fertile and produced viable off-spring. However, when Dnd1(Ter/Ter) XX germ cells developed in a testicular environment they gave rise to the same neoplastic clusters as mutant XY germ cells in a testis. We conclude that BAX-mediated apoptosis plays a role in early germ cell loss and protects from testicular teratoma formation on a mixed genetic background.

  2. Is credit for early action credible early action?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfe, C.; Michaelowa, A.; Dutschke, M.

    1999-12-01

    Credit for early action as a tool for greenhouse gas emissions reduction is compared with various market instruments as a means of narrowing the gap between projected emissions and those of the Kyoto Protocol. Market instruments work by creating a market price for emissions and use the market to encourage reductions at the lowest price, which is done by placing limits on greenhouse gas emissions and allowing the market to decide where reductions occur, or by imposing a carbon tax or emissions charge. While they can be applied within a sector, they are usually used to encourage reductions throughout the economy or across large sectors. Credit for early action also creates an incentive for emissions reductions throughout the economy or at least across many sectors. Credit for early action tools do not work by either imposing a carbon tax or emissions charge or placing limits on emissions, rather they promise that entities that take action against greenhouse gases prior to the imposition of a carbon tax or emissions limits will receive a credit against future taxes or limits. An overview is provided of the Kyoto Protocol and the rationale for taking early action, and a review is included of the theory and specific proposals for market instruments and credit for early action. A comparative analysis is provided of these approaches by examining their relative efficiency, environmental effectiveness, and impacts on the redistribution of wealth. Credit for early action is viewed as problematic on a number of counts and is seen as an interim strategy for imposition while political support for market instruments develop. The environmental effectiveness of credit for early action is very difficult to predict, and credit for early action programs do not yield the lowest cost emissions reductions. Credit for early action programs will not achieve compliance with the Kyoto Protocol at the lowest cost, and credits for early action will increase the compliance costs for those who

  3. Early tetrapod relationships revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, Marcello; Coates, Michael I; Quicke, Donald L J

    2003-05-01

    In an attempt to investigate differences between the most widely discussed hypotheses of early tetrapod relationships, we assembled a new data matrix including 90 taxa coded for 319 cranial and postcranial characters. We have incorporated, where possible, original observations of numerous taxa spread throughout the major tetrapod clades. A stem-based (total-group) definition of Tetrapoda is preferred over apomorphy- and node-based (crown-group) definitions. This definition is operational, since it is based on a formal character analysis. A PAUP* search using a recently implemented version of the parsimony ratchet method yields 64 shortest trees. Differences between these trees concern: (1) the internal relationships of aïstopods, the three selected species of which form a trichotomy; (2) the internal relationships of embolomeres, with Archeria crassidisca and Pholiderpeton scut collapsed in a trichotomy with a clade formed by Anthracosaurus russelli and Pholiderpeton attheyi; (3) the internal relationships of derived dissorophoids, with four amphibamid species forming an unresolved node with a clade consisting of micromelerpetontids and branchiosaurids and a clade consisting of albanerpetontids plus basal crown-group lissamphibians; (4) the position of albenerpetontids and Eocaecilia micropoda, which form an unresolved node with a trichotomy subtending Karaurus sharovi, Valdotriton gracilis and Triadobatrachus massinoti; (5) the branching pattern of derived diplocaulid nectrideans, with Batrachiderpeton reticulatum and Diceratosaurus brevirostris collapsed in a trichotomy with a clade formed by Diplocaulus magnicornis and Diploceraspis burkei. The results of the original parsimony run--as well as those retrieved from several other treatments of the data set (e.g. exclusion of postcranial and lower jaw data; character reweighting; reverse weighting)--indicate a deep split of early tetrapods between lissamphibian- and amniote-related taxa. Colosteids, Crassigyrinus

  4. Early onset sebaceous carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltreider Sara A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular sebaceous carcinoma can masquerade as benign lesions resulting in delay of diagnosis. Early recognition is even more difficult in young patients where the disease rarely occurs. Here, we provide a clinicopathological correlation of ocular sebaceous carcinoma in a young individual lacking history of hereditary cancer or immunosuppression. Findings A detailed histopathological study including p53 DNA sequencing was performed on an aggressive sebaceous carcinoma presenting in a healthy 32 year-old Caucasian woman. She had no history of retinoblastoma, evidence for a hereditary cancer syndrome, or radiation therapy. However, she potentially was at risk for excessive UV light exposure. A detailed review of the literature is also provided. A moderately well differentiated sebaceous carcinoma was established histopathologically arising from the meibomian gland of the upper eyelid. In most areas, the cytoplasm contained small but distinct Oil-red-O positive vacuoles. Direct sequencing of p53 identified a G:C→A:T mutation at a dipyrimidine site. The mutation results in substitution of arginine for the highly conserved glycine at residue 199 located at the p53 dimer-dimer interface. Energy minimization structural modeling predicts that G199R will neutralize negative charges contributed by nearby inter- and intramonomeric glutamate residues. Discussion This study points to the importance of recognizing that sebaceous carcinoma can occur in young patients with no evidence for hereditary cancer risk or radiation therapy. The G199R substitution is anticipated to alter the stability of the p53 tetrameric complex. The role of UV light in the etiology of sebaceous carcinoma deserves further study. Our findings, taken together with those of others, suggest that different environmental factors could lead to the development of sebaceous carcinoma in different patients.

  5. Early determinants of mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental adversities in pre- and early postnatal life may have life-long consequences. Based upon a series of epidemiological and clinical studies and natural experiments, this review describes how the early life environment may affect psychological functions and mental disorders later in life.

  6. Early Childhood Education in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lisa K.

    1989-01-01

    Describes early childhood education in Taiwan, focusing on living patterns and child care arrangements, the position of the individual within the family and community, and the application of cultural norms to early childhood education. Compares the behavior of Chinese preschool children to that of American preschool children. (RJC)

  7. Cell Analysis and Early Diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramaniam, Vinod; Jones, Val

    2006-01-01

    In an era of aging populations and rising health-care costs, the shift of medical paradigms towards rapid, accurate, early diagnoses of diseases is inevitable. In addition to further development of ultrasensitive in vitro tests, the focus of attention in both diagnostics and the early drug discovery

  8. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  9. Early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijna eHadders-Algra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP. CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity in the brain reaches its summit. Variations in timing of the damage not only result in different lesions, but also in different neuroplastic reactions and different associated neuropathologies. This turns CP into a heterogeneous entity. This may mean that the best early diagnostics and the best intervention methods may differ for various subgroups of children with CP. Next, the paper addresses possibilities for early diagnosis. It discusses the predictive value of neuromotor and neurological exams, neuro-imaging techniques and neurophysiological assessments. Prediction is best when complementary techniques are used in longitudinal series. Possibilities for early prediction of CP differ for infants admitted to neonatal intensive care and other infants. In the former group best prediction is achieved with the combination of neuro-imaging and the assessment of general movements, in the latter group best prediction is based on carefully documented milestones and neurological assessment. The last part reviews early intervention in infants developing CP. Most knowledge on early intervention is based on studies in high risk infants without CP. In these infants early intervention programs promote cognitive development until preschool age; motor development profits less. The few studies on early intervention in infants developing CP suggest that programs that stimulate all aspects of infant development by means of family coaching are most promising. More research is

  10. Early Maternal Time Investment and Early Child Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Del Bono, Emilia; Francesconi, Marco; Kelly, Yvonne; Sacker, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Using large longitudinal survey data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, this paper estimates the relationship between maternal time inputs and early child development. We find that maternal time is a quantitatively important determinant of skill formation and that its effect declines with child age. There is evidence of long-term effects of early maternal time inputs on later outcomes, especially in the case of cognitive skill development. In the case of non-cognitive development, the evide...

  11. Depletion of HPV16 early genes induces autophagy and senescence in a cervical carcinogenesis model, regardless of viral physical state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Jennifer E; Saini, Harpreet K; Murray, Matthew J; Caffarel, Maria M; van Dongen, Stijn; Ward, Dawn; Barker, Emily M; Scarpini, Cinzia G; Groves, Ian J; Stanley, Margaret A; Enright, Anton J; Pett, Mark R; Coleman, Nicholas

    2013-11-01

    In cervical carcinomas, high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) may be integrated into host chromosomes or remain extra-chromosomal (episomal). We used the W12 cervical keratinocyte model to investigate the effects of HPV16 early gene depletion on in vitro cervical carcinogenesis pathways, particularly effects shared by cells with episomal versus integrated HPV16 DNA. Importantly, we were able to study the specific cellular consequences of viral gene depletion by using short interfering RNAs known not to cause phenotypic or transcriptional off-target effects in keratinocytes. We found that while cervical neoplastic progression in vitro was characterized by dynamic changes in HPV16 transcript levels, viral early gene expression was required for cell survival at all stages of carcinogenesis, regardless of viral physical state, levels of early gene expression or histology in organotypic tissue culture. Moreover, HPV16 early gene depletion induced changes in host gene expression that were common to both episome-containing and integrant-containing cells. In particular, we observed up-regulation of autophagy genes, associated with enrichment of senescence and innate immune-response pathways, including the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). In keeping with these observations, HPV16 early gene depletion induced autophagy in both episome-containing and integrant-containing W12 cells, as evidenced by the appearance of autophagosomes, punctate expression of the autophagy marker LC3, conversion of LC3B-I to LC3B-II, and reduced levels of the autophagy substrate p62. Consistent with the reported association between autophagy and senescence pathways, HPV16 early gene depletion induced expression of the senescence marker beta-galactosidase and increased secretion of the SASP-related protein IGFBP3. Together, these data indicate that depleting HR-HPV early genes would be of potential therapeutic benefit in all cervical carcinogenesis pathways, regardless of viral

  12. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; Ming He; James F. Stevens; Centha A. Davis; Michael Henley; Jerome Mayer; Harry Tsang; Jimell Erwin; Jennifer Adams; Michael Tillman; Chris Taylor; Marjan J. Roos; Robert F. Earhart

    2004-01-27

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The potential technical and economic risks to the EECP from Task 2.5 can be mitigated by demonstrating that the end-use products derived from the upgrading of the F-T synthesis total liquid product can meet or exceed current specifications for the

  13. Early vision and visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT, based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constructs of FIT, like types of visual search and the role of the attention. The following review describes the main studies of early vision and visual attention.

  14. FAA Loran early implementation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    The Early Implementation Project (EIP), established by FAA Administrator Admiral : Donald C. Engen, was the initial step in the process of Loran integration into the : National Airsace System (NAS). The EIP was designed to give the FAA and the Loran ...

  15. Hypertension presenting early in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Melvin, Audrey; Kinsley, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Paraganglioma in pregnancy is an exceedingly rare and potentially life?threatening diagnosis. It is important that the clinicians consider secondary causes when women present with hypertension in early pregnancy.

  16. Early onset type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, A; Thomsen, R W; Nielsen, J S

    2018-01-01

    was more frequent and meeting physical activity recommendations less likely in persons with early-onset type 2 DM. CONCLUSIONS: We found a clear age-gradient, with increasing prevalence of clinical and behavioural risk factors the younger the onset age of type 2 DM. Younger persons with early-onset type 2......AIM: To examine the association between early onset of type 2 diabetes (DM) and clinical and behavioural risk factors for later diabetes complications. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5115 persons with incident type 2 DM enrolled during 2010-2015 in the Danish Centre for Strategic...... Research in Type 2 Diabetes-cohort. We compared risk factors at time of diagnosis among those diagnosed at ≤45 years (early-onset) with diagnosis age 46-55, 56-65 (average-onset = reference), 66-75, and >75 years (late-onset). Prevalence ratios (PRs) were computed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Poor...

  17. [Early management of cerebrovascular accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libot, Jérômie; Guillon, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    A cerebrovascular accident requires urgent diagnosis and treatment.The management of a stroke must be early and adapted in order to improve the overall clinical outcome and lower the risk of mortality.

  18. Early Identification of Reading Difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Early screening for reading difficulties before the onset of instruction is desirable because it allows intervention that is targeted at prevention rather than remediation of reading difficulties. However, early screening may be too inaccurate to effectively allocate resources to those who need...... them. The present study compared the accuracy of early screening before the onset of formal reading instruction with late screening six months into the first year of instruction. The study followed 164 Danish students from the end of Grade 0 to the end of Grade 2. Early screening included measures...... of phonemic awareness, rapid naming, letter knowledge, paired associate learning, and reading. Late screening included only reading. Results indicated that reading measures improved substantially as predictors over the first six months of Grade 1, to the point where late reading measures alone provided...

  19. Early Retiree Reinsurance Program Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Early Retiree Reinsurance Program (ERRP) was established by section 1102 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the Affordable Care Act) enacted on...

  20. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; J. Erwin; Matthew G. Banks; Terry L. Ullman

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 identified as potential technical risks to the EECP the fuel/engine performance and emissions of the F-T diesel fuel products. Hydrotreating the neat F-T diesel product reduces potentially reactive olefins, oxygenates, and acids

  1. Early Intervention in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieta, Eduard; Salagre, Estela; Grande, Iria; Carvalho, André F; Fernandes, Brisa S; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Tohen, Mauricio; Suppes, Trisha

    2018-05-01

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disorder that affects more than 1% of the world population and usually has its onset during youth. Its chronic course is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, making bipolar disorder one of the main causes of disability among young and working-age people. The implementation of early intervention strategies may help to change the outcome of the illness and avert potentially irreversible harm to patients with bipolar disorder, as early phases may be more responsive to treatment and may need less aggressive therapies. Early intervention in bipolar disorder is gaining momentum. Current evidence emerging from longitudinal studies indicates that parental early-onset bipolar disorder is the most consistent risk factor for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies also indicate that a full-blown manic episode is often preceded by a variety of prodromal symptoms, particularly subsyndromal manic symptoms, therefore supporting the existence of an at-risk state in bipolar disorder that could be targeted through early intervention. There are also identifiable risk factors that influence the course of bipolar disorder, some of them potentially modifiable. Valid biomarkers or diagnosis tools to help clinicians identify individuals at high risk of conversion to bipolar disorder are still lacking, although there are some promising early results. Pending more solid evidence on the best treatment strategy in early phases of bipolar disorder, physicians should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of each intervention. Further studies will provide the evidence needed to finish shaping the concept of early intervention. AJP AT 175 Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future April 1925: Interpretations of Manic-Depressive Phases Earl Bond and G.E. Partridge reviewed a number of patients with manic-depressive illness in search of a unifying endo-psychic conflict. They concluded that understanding either phase of illness was "elusive" and

  2. Early vision and visual attention

    OpenAIRE

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2003-01-01

    The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT), based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constru...

  3. Early diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiglazov, V.F.

    1989-01-01

    Modern data are presentd on epidemology etiopathogensis and statistics of breast cancer. Home and international clinical and histological classifications is given. Much attention is paid to the methods for early diagnosis of pretumor diseases and breast cancer: clinical roentgenomammography, thrmography and computerized tomomammography. The role of self-examination in cancer early detection has been analyzed. Special attention is paid to system of detection of minimal and unpalpable form of breast cancer, screening of these tumors. 113 refs.; 60 figs.; 6 tabs

  4. Early presentation of primary glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faguer, R; Tanguy, J-Y; Rousseau, A; Clavreul, A; Menei, P

    2014-08-01

    Clinical and neuroimaging findings of glioblastomas (GBM) at an early stage have rarely been described and those tumors are most probably under-diagnosed. Furthermore, their genetic alterations, to our knowledge, have never been previously reported. We report the clinical as well as neuroimaging findings of four early cases of patients with GBM. In our series, early stage GBM occurred at a mean age of 57 years. All patients had seizures as their first symptom. In all early stages, MRI showed a hyperintense signal on T2-weighted sequences and an enhancement on GdE-T1WI sequences. A hyperintense signal on diffusion sequences with a low ADC value was also found. These early observed occurrences of GBM developed rapidly and presented the MRI characteristics of classic GBM within a few weeks. The GBM size was multiplied by 32 in one month. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated the de novo nature of these tumors, i.e. absence of mutant IDH1 R132H protein expression, which is a diagnostic marker of low-grade diffuse glioma and secondary GBM. A better knowledge of early GBM presentation would allow a more suitable management of the patients and may improve their prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. [Autism: An early neurodevelopmental disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet-Brilhault, F

    2017-04-01

    With approximately 67 million individuals affected worldwide, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disorder (United Nations, 2011), with a prevalence estimated to be 1/100. In France ASD affects approximately 600,000 individuals (from childhood to adulthood, half of whom are also mentally retarded), who thus have a major handicap in communication and in adapting to daily life, which leads autism to be recognized as a national public health priority. ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects several domains (i.e., socio-emotional, language, sensori-motor, executive functioning). These disorders are expressed early in life with an age of onset around 18 months. Despite evidence suggesting a strong genetic link with ASD, the genetic determinant remains unclear. The clinical picture is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and the presence of restrictive and repetitive behaviors (DSM-5, ICD-10). However, in addition to these two main dimensions there is significant comorbidity between ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or with genetic and medical conditions. One of the diagnostic features of ASD is its early emergence: symptoms must begin in early childhood for a diagnosis to be given. Due to brain plasticity, early interventions are essential to facilitate clinical improvement. Therefore, general practitioners and pediatricians are on the front line to detect early signs of ASD and to guide both medical explorations and early rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Avaliação do dano oxidativo ao DNA de células normais e neoplásicas da mucosa cólica de doentes com câncer colorretal Evaluation of DNA oxidative damage in normal and neoplastic cells of colonic mucosa in patients with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Lima Ribeiro

    2007-12-01

    levels of oxidative damage to the DNA in cells isolated from the colon mucosa in colorectal patients, and to compare normal and neoplastic tissues and make correlations with anatomopathological variables. METHOD: Thirty colorectal adenocarcinoma patients (eighteen women of mean age 60.6 ± 15.5 years who consecutively underwent operations performed by the same surgical team between 2005 and 2006 were studied. The oxidative damage to the DNA was evaluated by means of the alkaline version of the comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis, from fragments of normal and neoplastic colon tissue that were obtained immediately after removal of the surgical specimen. The extent of breakages of the DNA helices was assessed using an image intensification method, on 200 randomly chosen cells (100 from each tissue sample, by means of the Komet 5.5 program. The Tail Moment (T.M measured in each cell quantitatively represented the extent of the oxidative damage to the DNA. The statistical analysis on the variables considered was performed by means of the Student t, chi-squared and Kruskal-Wallis tests, with a significance level of 5% (p<0.05. RESULTS: It was found that, for all the patients studied, the cells obtained from the neoplastic tissue presented oxidative damage to the DNA that was greater than in the cells from normal tissue. The cells isolated from the neoplastic mucosal tissue of the colon presented extension of DNA strand breakage significantly greater (T.M. = 2.532 ± 0.945 than did the cells isolated from normal tissue (T.M. = 1.056 ± 0.460 (p=0.00001; C.I. 95%: -1.7705 to -1.1808. It was found that the patients at earlier stages of the Dukes and TNM classifications presented higher levels of oxidative damage than did those at more advanced stages (p=0.04 and p=0.001, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The cells obtained from normal tissue of colorectal cancer patients presented signs of oxidative damage to the cell DNA, although at significant lower levels than in the

  7. Early Learner Engagement in the Clinical Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent calls for medical education reform advocate for the integration of knowledge with clinical experience through early clinical immersion. Yet, early learners rarely are invited to participate in workplace activities and early clinical experiences remain largely observational.

  8. High levels of aromatic amino acids in gastric juice during the early stages of gastric cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Deng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early-stage gastric cancer is mostly asymptomatic and can easily be missed easily by conventional gastroscopy. Currently, there are no useful biomarkers for the early detection of gastric cancer, and their identification of biomarkers is urgently needed. METHODS: Gastric juice was obtained from 185 subjects that were divided into three groups: non-neoplastic gastric disease (NGD, advanced gastric cancer and early gastric cancer (EGC. The levels of aromatic amino acids in the gastric juice were quantitated using high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The median values (25th to 75th percentile of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in the gastric juice were 3.8 (1.7-7.5 µg/ml, 5.3 (2.3-9.9 µg/ml and 1.0 (0.4-2.8 µg/ml in NGD; 19.4 (5.8-72.4 µg/ml, 24.6 (11.5-73.7 µg/ml and 8.3 (2.1-28.0 µg/ml in EGC. Higher levels of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in the gastric juice were observed in individuals of EGC groups compared those of the NGD group (NGD vs. EGC, P<0.0001. For the detection of EGC, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs of each biomarker were as follows: tyrosine, 0.790 [95% confidence interval (CI, 0.703-0.877]; phenylalanine, 0.831 (95% CI, 0.750-0.911; and tryptophan, 0.819 (95% CI, 0.739-0.900. The sensitivity and specificity of phenylalanine were 75.5% and 81.4%, respectively, for detection of EGC. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that high levels of aromatic amino acids in the gastric juice were associated with gastric cancer (adjusted β coefficients ranged from 1.801 to 4.414, P<0.001. CONCLUSION: Increased levels of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in the gastric juice samples were detected in the early phase of gastric carcinogenesis. Thus, tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in gastric juice could be used as biomarkers for the early detection of gastric cancer. A gastric juice analysis is an efficient, economical and convenient method for

  9. Physical and chemical stability of proflavine contrast agent solutions for early detection of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawedia, Jitesh D; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Myers, Alan L; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R; Kramer, Mark A; Gillenwater, Ann M; Culotta, Kirk S

    2016-02-01

    Proflavine hemisulfate solution is a fluorescence contrast agent to visualize cell nuclei using high-resolution optical imaging devices such as the high-resolution microendoscope. These devices provide real-time imaging to distinguish between normal versus neoplastic tissue. These images could be helpful for early screening of oral cancer and its precursors and to determine accurate margins of malignant tissue for ablative surgery. Extemporaneous preparation of proflavine solution for these diagnostic procedures requires preparation in batches and long-term storage to improve compounding efficiency in the pharmacy. However, there is a paucity of long-term stability data for proflavine contrast solutions. The physical and chemical stability of 0.01% (10 mg/100 ml) proflavine hemisulfate solutions prepared in sterile water was determined following storage at refrigeration (4-8℃) and room temperature (23℃). Concentrations of proflavine were measured at predetermined time points up to 12 months using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. Proflavine solutions stored under refrigeration were physically and chemically stable for at least 12 months with concentrations ranging from 95% to 105% compared to initial concentration. However, in solutions stored at room temperature increased turbidity and particulates were observed in some of the tested vials at 9 months and 12 months with peak particle count reaching 17-fold increase compared to baseline. Solutions stored at room temperature were chemically stable up to six months (94-105%). Proflavine solutions at concentration of 0.01% were chemically and physically stable for at least 12 months under refrigeration. The solution was chemically stable for six months when stored at room temperature. We recommend long-term storage of proflavine solutions under refrigeration prior to diagnostic procedure. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Telomere lengthening early in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Bailey, Susan M; Okuka, Maja; Muñoz, Purificación; Li, Chao; Zhou, Lingjun; Wu, Chao; Czerwiec, Eva; Sandler, Laurel; Seyfang, Andreas; Blasco, Maria A; Keefe, David L

    2007-12-01

    Stem cells and cancer cells maintain telomere length mostly through telomerase. Telomerase activity is high in male germ line and stem cells, but is low or absent in mature oocytes and cleavage stage embryos, and then high again in blastocysts. How early embryos reset telomere length remains poorly understood. Here, we show that oocytes actually have shorter telomeres than somatic cells, but their telomeres lengthen remarkably during early cleavage development. Moreover, parthenogenetically activated oocytes also lengthen their telomeres, thus the capacity to elongate telomeres must reside within oocytes themselves. Notably, telomeres also elongate in the early cleavage embryos of telomerase-null mice, demonstrating that telomerase is unlikely to be responsible for the abrupt lengthening of telomeres in these cells. Coincident with telomere lengthening, extensive telomere sister-chromatid exchange (T-SCE) and colocalization of the DNA recombination proteins Rad50 and TRF1 were observed in early cleavage embryos. Both T-SCE and DNA recombination proteins decrease in blastocyst stage embryos, whereas telomerase activity increases and telomeres elongate only slowly. We suggest that telomeres lengthen during the early cleavage cycles following fertilization through a recombination-based mechanism, and that from the blastocyst stage onwards, telomerase only maintains the telomere length established by this alternative mechanism.

  11. Routine Early Angioplasty after Fibrinolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Liang, Bo; Mei, Qibing

    2009-01-01

    patients in the group that underwent routine early PCI than in the group that received standard treatment received clopidogrel (Ppatients who undergo PCI, as well as in those who do not, is well established,1...... with early beta-blocker therapy is taken into consideration.3 The overall benefit of clopidogrel and beta-blocker therapy could have influenced the outcome in patients who underwent early PCI. These facts leave the conclusion of the TRANSFER-AMI trial still highly uncertain.......To the Editor: Cantor et al. report that there is a significantly reduced rate of ischemic complications among patients with myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation who are transferred for PCI within 6 hours after fibrinolysis. However, Table 2 of the article shows that significantly more...

  12. Expressão de genes relacionados à função adrenocortical no estado de caquexia neoplásica - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i2.6759 Expression of genes related to the adrenocortical function in the neoplastic cachexia process- DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i2.6759

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Ehara Watanabe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A glândula adrenal tem papel fundamental na resposta neuroendócrina, especialmente em situações em que há comprometimento da homeostasia. No processo de caquexia neoplásica, há prejuízo da homeostasia por alterações nutricionais e metabólicas do câncer em estágio avançado, envolvendo a resposta do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal. Neste trabalho, foi utilizado um modelo animal de caquexia induzida pelo tumor de Walker-256 em ratos Wistar. Os animais (n=4 foram sacrificados dez dias após a inoculação de células tumorais e a glândula adrenal foi removida. O RNA foi extraído para o estudo da expressão de genes relacionados ao controle da esteroidogênese por RT-PCR semiquantitativa. A análise dos dados demonstrou expressão significativamente reduzida dos genes MC2R (receptor tipo 2 para melacortina, 3ßHSD I (3ß-hidroxiesteroide-desidrogenase tipo I e TSPO (proteína translocadora em animais com caquexia neoplásica (valores de P=0,037; 0,0097 e 0,052, respectivamente, revelando falência do córtex da adrenal.The adrenal gland plays a crucial role in the neuroendocrine response, especially in situations where homeostasis is disturbed. In the neoplastic cachexia process, there is homeostasis impairment by nutritional and metabolic alterations of advanced-stage cancer, involving hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis response. In this assignment, an experimental model of cachexia induced by Walker-256 tumor was performed in Wistar rats. Animals (n=4 were sacrificed 10 days after inoculation of tumor cells, and the adrenal glands were excised. The RNA was isolated for the study of gene expression related to the steroidogenesis control by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Data analysis showed a significant reduced expression of MC2R (melancortin type 2 receptor, 3ßHSD I (3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I and TSPO (translocator protein genes in animals with neoplastic cachexia (P=0.037, 0.0097 and 0.052, respectively, revealing

  13. Brachytherapy in early prostate cancer--early experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, B O; Bailen, J L; Albrink, F H; Steinbock, G S; Cornett, M S; Benson, D C; Schmied, W K; Medley, R N; Spanos, W J; Paris, K J; Koerner, P D; Gatenby, R A; Wilson, D L; Meyer, R

    1999-01-01

    Use of brachytherapy with radioactive seeds in the management of early prostate cancer is commonly used in the United States. The early experience has been reported from the prostate treatment centers in Seattle for the last 10 years. In this manuscript we are reporting our early experience of 150 radioactive seed implantations in early stage prostate cancer using either Iodine 125 or Palladium 103 seeds. The average age of the patient is 66 years and the median Gleason score is 5.4 with a median PSA of 6. A brief description of the evolution of the treatment of prostate cancer as well as the preparation for the seed implantation using the volume study with ultrasound of the prostate, pubic arch study using CT scan of the pelvis and the complete planning using the treatment planning computers are discussed. We also have described the current technique which is used in our experience based on the Seattle guidelines. We plan a follow-up report with the results of the studies with longer follow-up.

  14. Early diagnosis of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherrer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Unanimity does not exist about the utility and organisation of screening procedures for early diagnosis of lung cancer. We describe a low cost structue of screening, requiring only a minimum of compliance from the elderly smoker and ex-smoker. At 4 months interval, radiographs, sputum cytologies and eventual fiberbronchoscopies are realized in all that elderly smokers and ex-smokers which begin to present one of the first early lung cancer signs or symptoms (loss of weight, hemoptoe, thoracic pain and others). (orig.) [de

  15. Shocks in the Early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen, Ue-Li; Turok, Neil

    2016-09-23

    We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations of the kind observed on very large scales today, it also leads to the production of shocks in the radiation fluid of the very early Universe. Shocks cause departures from local thermal equilibrium as well as create vorticity and gravitational waves. For a scale-invariant spectrum and standard model physics, shocks form for temperatures 1  GeVUniverse as early as 10^{-30}  sec after the big bang.

  16. Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy with early retrograde release of the neurovascular bundle and endopelvic fascia sparing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Augusto Monteiro Lins de Albuquerque

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RAP is the dominant minimally invasive surgical treatment for patients with localized prostate cancer. The introduction of robotic assistance has the potential to improve surgical outcomes and reduce the steep learning curve associated with conventional laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. The purpose of this video is to demonstrate the early retrograde release of the neurovascular bundle without open the endopelvic fascia during RAP. Materials and Methods A 51-year old male, presenting histological diagnosis of prostate adenocarcinoma, Gleason 6 (3+3, in 4 cores of 12, with an initial PSA=3.41ng/dl and the digital rectal examination demonstrating a prostate with hardened nodule in the right lobe of the prostate base (clinical stage T2a. Surgical treatment with the robot-assisted technique was offered as initial therapeutic option and the critical technical point was the early retrograde release of the neurovascular bundle with endopelvic fascia preservation, during radical prostatectomy. Results The operative time was of 89 minutes, blood loss was 100ml. No drain was left in the peritoneal cavity. The patient was discharged within 24 hours. There were no intraoperative or immediate postoperative complications. The pathological evaluation revealed prostate adenocarcinoma, Gleason 6, with free surgical margins and seminal vesicles free of neoplastic involvement (pathologic stage T2a. At 3-month-follow-up, the patient lies with undetectable PSA, continent and potent. Conclusion This is a feasible technique combining the benefits of retrograde release of the neurovascular bundle, the preservation of the pubo-prostatic collar and the preservation of the antero-lateral cavernous nerves.

  17. Early-delayed radiation rhombencephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nightingale, S.; Dawes, P.J.D.K.; Cartlidge, N.E.F.; Newcastle upon Tyne Univ.

    1982-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman developed an early-delayed rhombencephalopathy 7 weeks after completing a course of radiotherapy to a glomus jugulare tumour. The clinical features, comprising nystagmus, skew strabismus, unilateral facial weakness, dysarthria and ataxia, are compared with four previously reported patients with this syndrome. (author)

  18. Early stage fuel cell funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Early stage venture funding requires an in depth understanding of both current and future markets as well as the key technical hurdles that need to be overcome for new technology to commercialize into successful products for mass markets. As the leading fuel cell and hydrogen investor, Chrysalix continuously reviews global trends and new technologies, evaluates them with industry leaders worldwide and tries to match them up with the best possible management teams when selecting its early stage investments. Chrysalix Energy Limited Partnership is an early-stage venture capital firm focusing on fuel cell and related fueling technology companies and is a private equity joint venture between Ballard Power Systems, BASF Venture Capital, The BOC Group, The Boeing Company, Duke Energy, Mitsubishi Corporation and Shell Hydrogen. Operating independently, Chrysalix offers a unique value proposition to its clients throughout the business planning, start-up and operations phases of development. Chrysalix provides early-stage funding to new companies as well as management assistance, technological knowledge, organized networking with industry players and experience in the management of intellectual property. (author)

  19. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  20. Uganda Early Generation Seed Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, A.; Ntare, Bonny

    2016-01-01

    One of the major bottlenecks limiting farmers’ access to good quality seed for food crops in Uganda is the shortage of early generation seed (EGS - breeder and foundation) to produce sufficient quantities of certified and/or quality declared) to satisfy the needs of farmers. A national study was

  1. Early and Late Retirement Exits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal…

  2. Defeating cancer with early detection

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    A meeting of scientists and industry experts will hold an open review of the Three Dimension Complete Body Screening System (3D-CBS) on the 1st of July 2003. This new imaging technlogy is potentially powerful and safe enough to offer routine screening of healthy patients for early signs of cancer (1 page).

  3. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  4. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  5. Early Childhood Education in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Gilbert R.; Dittman, Laura

    This article discusses the move toward greater equality of educational opportunity in Scandinavia with particular emphasis on early childhood education. The increasing demand for preschool education in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden is related to low birth rates together with increased employment of women and the general demand for equality…

  6. Galaxies in the Early Universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Jens-Kristian

    Understanding how galaxies evolved from the early Universe through cosmic time is a fundamental part of modern astrophysics. In order to study this evolution it is important to sample the galaxies at various times in a consistent way through time. In regular luminosity selected samples, our...

  7. Glucocorticoids in early rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everdingen, Amalia A. van

    2002-01-01

    For 50 years, glucocorticoids (GC) are used for symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the last decade, results from clinical studies of treatment with GC as additional therapy to long-acting antirheumatic drugs in patients with early RA suggested also disease-modifying properties of

  8. Internationalism in Early Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Patrick

    1985-01-01

    Explores the nature and scope of internationalism in early 19th century adult education, using as a context the lyceums and mechanics' institutes of Britain and North America. The contacts involved newspaper and journal accounts, the personal advocacy of former members, written advice from promoters and administrators, and the contributions of…

  9. Management of early pregnancy loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graziosi, G. C. M.; Mol, B. W.; Ankum, W. M.; Bruinse, H. W.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: In order to assess the available evidence on the management of early pregnancy loss, we performed a meta-analysis on the subject. Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for randomized studies reporting on the effectiveness of expectant management, misoprostol treatment or curettage.

  10. Physics of the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinkhamer, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis, the author has assembled his papers on elementary particle physics which are of importance for studying cosmology viz. the physics of the early universe. A rather detailed introduction reviewing basic principles and current trends in the relation particle physics/cosmology precedes the papers. (Auth.)

  11. Electromigration early resistance increase measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, J.; Flinn, P.A.; Maloney, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    An early resistance change measurement set-up, using an AC bridge technique, has been developed, and measurements have been performed. Large sample-to-sample variations occur. The characteristic time for the resistance change curve is shorter for resistance increase (under current stress) than for

  12. Early Learning Theories Made Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglovsky, Miriam; Daly, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Go beyond reading about early learning theories and see what they look like in action in modern programs and teacher practices. With classroom vignettes and colorful photographs, this book makes the works of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky, Abraham Maslow, John Dewey, Howard Gardner, and Louise Derman-Sparks visible, accessible, and easier…

  13. Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lulu

    2017-07-05

    Early-stage cancer detection could reduce breast cancer death rates significantly in the long-term. The most critical point for best prognosis is to identify early-stage cancer cells. Investigators have studied many breast diagnostic approaches, including mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, computerized tomography, positron emission tomography and biopsy. However, these techniques have some limitations such as being expensive, time consuming and not suitable for young women. Developing a high-sensitive and rapid early-stage breast cancer diagnostic method is urgent. In recent years, investigators have paid their attention in the development of biosensors to detect breast cancer using different biomarkers. Apart from biosensors and biomarkers, microwave imaging techniques have also been intensely studied as a promising diagnostic tool for rapid and cost-effective early-stage breast cancer detection. This paper aims to provide an overview on recent important achievements in breast screening methods (particularly on microwave imaging) and breast biomarkers along with biosensors for rapidly diagnosing breast cancer.

  14. Early Signs of Entrepreneurial Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavinina, Larisa V.

    2008-01-01

    Although successful entrepreneurship is important for the economic prosperity of any society, one should acknowledge that entrepreneurial giftedness is terra incognita from a research viewpoint. This article analyzes early manifestations of entrepreneurial giftedness in the cases of Richard Branson, Michael Dell, and Bill Gates and thus opens a…

  15. FUNdamental Movement in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linley

    2001-01-01

    Noting that the development of fundamental movement skills is basic to children's motor development, this booklet provides a guide for early childhood educators in planning movement experiences for children between 4 and 8 years. The booklet introduces a wide variety of appropriate practices to promote movement skill acquisition and increased…

  16. IDEA and Early Childhood Inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara J.; Rapport, Mary Jane K.

    This paper discusses 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that promote the inclusion of children with disabilities in general early childhood education settings. The evolution of inclusion policy is explored and changes in disability terminology are described. Amended provisions are then explained and include:…

  17. Melanoma early detection and awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainstein, Alberto; Algarra, Salvador Martin; Bastholt, Lars

    2014-01-01

    to increase public awareness and favor early diagnosis. Awareness campaigns, doctor education, and screening of high-risk subjects have all contributed to improve disease outcome in developed countries. The role of primary care physicians is particularly relevant in this regard. Developing countries...

  18. Early Childhood Inclusion in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Aram, Dorit; Margalit, Malka

    2016-01-01

    This article describes conceptual aspects, current policies and practices, and research representing the Israeli perspective regarding early childhood inclusion (ECI) at preschool ages (3-6 years). We review legislative, historical, attitudinal, philosophical, practical, empirical, and cultural issues regarding ECI in Israel. Finally, we focus on…

  19. Reduplication Facilitates Early Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Skarabela, Barbora

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that early word segmentation is aided by infants' tendency to segment words with repeated syllables ("reduplication"). Twenty-four nine-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing one novel reduplicated word and one novel non-reduplicated word. Their central fixation times in response to…

  20. Early Childhood Inclusion in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Coral R.

    2016-01-01

    From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…

  1. HPLC: Early and Recent Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, Barry L.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a perspective on what it was like in the early days of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and several of the key developments. Focuses on the advances in HPLC generally, and more specifically for the biological sciences, that were necessary for the method to reach the preeminent stage of today. Contains 20 references. (JRH)

  2. Early Children's Literature and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased longevity is a worldwide phenomenon placing emphasis on the need for preparation for life's later years. Today's children will be the older adults of tomorrow. A resource that can help to educate them about aging and prepare them for the long life ahead is early children's literature (Preschool-Primary). This literature can provide…

  3. Vantage point - Early warning flaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinden, Donna

    2014-08-28

    USING AN EARLY warning score (EWS) system should improve the detection of acutely deteriorating patients. Under such a system, a score is allocated to each of six physiological measurements including respiratory rate and oxygen saturations, which are aggregated to produce an overall score. An aggregated score of seven or higher prompts nursing staff to refer a patient for emergency assessment.

  4. The Integrated Early Childhood Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Suzanne

    This textbook provides an outline of an integrated curriculum for early childhood education. Part 1 discusses the human element in school: the child and the teacher and child development. Part 2 contains the curriculum itself and covers the subjects of language, mathematics, science, social studies, art, music, and movement. Guidelines provide…

  5. Natural course of early COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhee CK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chin Kook Rhee,1 Kyungjoo Kim,1 Hyoung Kyu Yoon,2 Jee-Ae Kim,3 Sang Hyun Kim,4 Sang Haak Lee,5 Yong Bum Park,6 Ki-Suck Jung,7 Kwang Ha Yoo,8 Yong Il Hwang7 1Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 3Pharmaceutical Policy Evaluation Research Team, Research Institution, 4Big Data Division, Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, Wonju, 5Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, St Paul’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 6Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, 7Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, 8Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background and objective: Few studies have examined the natural course of early COPD. The aim of this study was to observe the natural course of early COPD patients. We also aimed to analyze medical utilization and costs for early COPD during a 6-year period. Methods: Patients with early COPD were selected from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES data. We linked the KNHANES data of patients with early COPD to National Health Insurance data. Results: A total of 2,397 patients were enrolled between 2007 and 2012. The mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 was 78.6%, and the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D index value was 0.9. In total, 110 patients utilized health

  6. Fabrication and evaluation of novel zeolite membranes to control the neoplastic activity and anti-tumoral drug treatments in human breast cancer cells. Part 1: Synthesis and characterization of Pure Zeolite Membranes and Mixed Matrix Membranes for adhesion and growth of cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavolaro, Palmira, E-mail: p.tavolaro@unical.it [Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Cubo 4/c, 87036 Rende (Italy); Martino, Guglielmo [Department Di.B.E.S.T. (Biologia, Ecologia, Scienze della Terra), Unit of Physiology, University of Calabria, Cubo 4/c, 87036 Rende (Italy); Andò, Sebastiano [Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Cubo 4/c, 87036 Rende (Italy); Tavolaro, Adalgisa [Research Institute on Membrane Technology, Unit of Zeolite Membranes, ITM-CNR, University of Calabria, Cubo 17/c, 87036 Rende (Italy)

    2016-12-01

    Novel pure and hybrid zeolite membranes were prepared with appropriate different physicochemical characteristics such as frameworks, hydrophilicity, crystal size, chemical composition, acid-base properties (Point of Zero Charge, PZC) and surface morphology and used in inorganic cell/scaffold constructs. Because the control of cell interactions, as the adhesion, proliferation, remodelling and mobility, is important for differentiation and progression of tumors, this work focused on response of cancer cells adhered and grown on synthesized zeolite surfaces in order to study the influence of these scaffolds in controlled conditions. We have selected the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line as model tumor cell lines. This study showed that all the zeolite membranes synthesized are excellent scaffolds because they are very selective materials to support the adhesion and growth of neoplastic cells. All zeolite scaffolds were characterized by FESEM, FTIR ATR, XRD, AFM, PZC and contact angle analyses. Cell adhesion, viability and morphology were measured by count, MTT assay and FESEM microphotography analysis, at various incubation times. - Highlights: • Novel pure and hybrid zeolite scaffolds were developed. • PZMs and MMMs were characterized and used with human cancer cells. • A systematic study of zeolite scaffolds influence on cell adhesion and morphology was performed. • The PZC value of zeolite membranes controls the cell-cell and scaffold-cell interactions.

  7. Detecção imunoistoquímica das oncoproteínas p21ras, c-myc E p53 no carcinoma hepatocelular e no tecido hepático não-neoplásico Immunohistochemical detection of p21ras, c-myc and p53 oncoproteins in hepatocellular carcinoma and in non-neoplastic liver tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Nunes Pannain

    2004-12-01

    oncoproteins in hepatocellular carcinoma and non neoplastic tissue. Association of the immunoreactivity of these markers with histological grades and patterns, hepatitis B and C were additionally studied. METHODS: Detection of oncoproteins p21ras, c-myc and p53 was performed immunohistochemically in hepatocellular carcinoma (47 cases and surrounding non neoplastic liver tissue (40 cases. RESULTS: Oncoproteins p21ras, c-myc and p53 were detected in 44,7%, 53,2% and 36,2% of the hepatocellular carcinoma cases, respectively. The p21ras and c-myc immunoreactivity has shown a significant association. However there was no association of p21ras, c-myc and p53 detection with hepatitis B and C virus infections, histological grades and patterns. The same significant association between p21ras and c-myc was observed in non-neoplastic tissue with cirrhosis when compared with tissue without it. The p53 immunoreactivity was negative in all non-neoplastic liver tissue samples. CONCLUSIONS: The immunoreactivity detection of p21ras, c-myc and p53 corroborates previous evidence of their detection in hepatocellular carcinoma that suggest the participation of these proteins in human hepatocarcinogenesis. The significant association between p21ras and c-myc oncoproteins in hepatocellular carcinoma and in cirrhosis can point to an interaction between them mainly, in hepatocarcinogenesis that occurs through cirrhosis.

  8. Fabrication and evaluation of novel zeolite membranes to control the neoplastic activity and anti-tumoral drug treatments in human breast cancer cells. Part 1: Synthesis and characterization of Pure Zeolite Membranes and Mixed Matrix Membranes for adhesion and growth of cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavolaro, Palmira; Martino, Guglielmo; Andò, Sebastiano; Tavolaro, Adalgisa

    2016-01-01

    Novel pure and hybrid zeolite membranes were prepared with appropriate different physicochemical characteristics such as frameworks, hydrophilicity, crystal size, chemical composition, acid-base properties (Point of Zero Charge, PZC) and surface morphology and used in inorganic cell/scaffold constructs. Because the control of cell interactions, as the adhesion, proliferation, remodelling and mobility, is important for differentiation and progression of tumors, this work focused on response of cancer cells adhered and grown on synthesized zeolite surfaces in order to study the influence of these scaffolds in controlled conditions. We have selected the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line as model tumor cell lines. This study showed that all the zeolite membranes synthesized are excellent scaffolds because they are very selective materials to support the adhesion and growth of neoplastic cells. All zeolite scaffolds were characterized by FESEM, FTIR ATR, XRD, AFM, PZC and contact angle analyses. Cell adhesion, viability and morphology were measured by count, MTT assay and FESEM microphotography analysis, at various incubation times. - Highlights: • Novel pure and hybrid zeolite scaffolds were developed. • PZMs and MMMs were characterized and used with human cancer cells. • A systematic study of zeolite scaffolds influence on cell adhesion and morphology was performed. • The PZC value of zeolite membranes controls the cell-cell and scaffold-cell interactions.

  9. Famines in Africa: is early warning early enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeyon Janet Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the second Sahelian famine in 1984–1985, major investments were made to establish Early Warning Systems. These systems help to ensure that timely warnings and vulnerability information are available to decision makers to anticipate and avert food crises. In the recent crisis in the Horn of Africa, alarming levels of acute malnutrition were documented from March 2010, and by August 2010, an impending food crisis was forecast. Despite these measures, the situation remained unrecognised, and further deteriorated causing malnutrition levels to grow in severity and scope. By the time the United Nations officially declared famine on 20 July 2011, and the humanitarian community sluggishly went into response mode, levels of malnutrition and mortality exceeded catastrophic levels. At this time, an estimated 11 million people were in desperate and immediate need for food. With warnings of food crises in the Sahel, South Sudan, and forecast of the drought returning to the Horn, there is an immediate need to institutionalize change in the health response during humanitarian emergencies. Early warning systems are only effective if they trigger an early response.

  10. Pompe Disease: Early Diagnosis and Early Treatment Make a Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Hsiu Chien

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease type II or acid maltase deficiency is a lysosomal disorder in which acid α-glucosidase (GAA deficiencies lead to intralysosomal accumulation of glycogen in all tissues; most notably in skeletal muscles. Both the patient's age at the onset of Pompe disease symptoms and the rate of deterioration caused by the disease can vary considerably. In classical infant-onset Pompe disease (IOPD, symptoms start very early in life, and death occurs soon afterward if the disease remains untreated. In later-onset Pompe disease, symptoms are slower to appear, and patients often progress to wheelchair confinement and eventual respiratory failure. A diagnosis can be made by screening for GAA in dried blood samples, followed either by GAA assessment in lymphocytes or in fibroblasts or by the genetic analysis of mutations. Treatment by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT with alglucosidase alfa was approved for human use in 2006. In classical IOPD, treatment significantly lengthens survival and improves motor development and cardiac function. The sooner ERT begins, the better are the results. Newborn screening aims to take advantage of different technologies for diagnosing and treating newborns early on and it yields better outcomes. However, newborns diagnosed early and other long-term survivors may encounter fresh problems, making up a new phenotype of IOPD patients. Further modifications of the treatment, such as a decrease in immune responses to ERT, a higher dosage, a better uptake formulation, and gene therapy delivered locally or systemically are being explored.

  11. Abnormal early cleavage events predict early embryo demise: sperm oxidative stress and early abnormal cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruel, Victoria; Klooster, Katie; Barker, Christopher M; Pera, Renee Reijo; Meyers, Stuart

    2014-10-13

    Human embryos resulting from abnormal early cleavage can result in aneuploidy and failure to develop normally to the blastocyst stage. The nature of paternal influence on early embryo development has not been directly demonstrated although many studies have suggested effects from spermatozoal chromatin packaging, DNA damage, centriolar and mitotic spindle integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. The goal of this study was to determine whether early developmental events were affected by oxidative damage to the fertilizing sperm. Survival analysis was used to compare patterns of blastocyst formation based on P2 duration. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrate that relatively few embryos with short (P2 times reached blastocysts, and the two curves diverged beginning on day 4, with nearly all of the embryos with longer P2 times reaching blastocysts by day 6 (p < .01). We determined that duration of the 2nd to 3rd mitoses were sensitive periods in the presence of spermatozoal oxidative stress. Embryos that displayed either too long or too short cytokineses demonstrated an increased failure to reach blastocyst stage and therefore survive for further development. Although paternal-derived gene expression occurs later in development, this study suggests a specific role in early mitosis that is highly influenced by paternal factors.

  12. Do schizophrenia patients age early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, Venkataram; Kalmady, Sunil V; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Ravi, Vasanthapuram; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2014-08-01

    The etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia is poorly understood. Within the proposed "neurodegeneration paradigm", observations have been put forth for "accelerated aging" in this disorder. This proposition is largely based on the neuroscience research that demonstrates progressive changes in brain as well as other systemic abnormalities supportive of faster aging process in patients with this disorder. In this review, we have summarized the literature related to the concept of early aging in schizophrenia. These studies include P300 abnormalities & visual motion discrimination, neuroimaging findings, telomere dynamics as well as neuropathology of related brain regions. We also propose a role of vitamin D, neuroimmunological changes and elevated oxidative stress as well as mitochondrial dysfunction in addition to the above factors with 'vitamin-D deficiency' as the central paradox. Put together, the evidence supporting early aging in schizophrenia is compelling and this requires further systematic studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nanotechnology for Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Won Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment.

  14. Early intervention services in psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csillag, Claudio; Nordentoft, Merete; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Early intervention (EI) in psychosis is a comprehensive and evidence-based approach aimed at detection and treatment of psychotic symptoms in their early stages. This paper presents core features and noteworthy aspects of the evidence basis and limitations of EI, the importance of programme ....... Wider dissemination of EI services will probably benefit from better integration of potential funders, promotion of joint targets and shared financial or budgetary incentives....... overcome these difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Funding for mental health in general and for EI services appears low relative to need. One key argument for better funding for EI can be found in its favourable cost-effectiveness, but not all stakeholders beyond mental health administrators are aware of this...

  15. Aneuploidy involving chromosome 1 may be an early predictive marker of intestinal type gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L. [Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Ynysmaerdy, Llantrisant CF72 8XR (United Kingdom); Somasekar, A. [Institute of Life Science, Swansea School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea SA28PP (United Kingdom); Neath Port Talbot Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust, Baglan Way, Port Talbot SA12 7BX (United Kingdom); Davies, D.J.; Cronin, J.; Doak, S.H. [Institute of Life Science, Swansea School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea SA28PP (United Kingdom); Alcolado, R. [Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Ynysmaerdy, Llantrisant CF72 8XR (United Kingdom); Williams, J.G. [Neath Port Talbot Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust, Baglan Way, Port Talbot SA12 7BX (United Kingdom); Griffiths, A.P. [Department of Histopathology, Morriston Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust, Morriston, SA66NL (United Kingdom); Baxter, J.N. [Department of Surgery, Morriston Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust, Morriston, SA66NL (United Kingdom); Jenkins, G.J.S., E-mail: g.j.jenkins@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Life Science, Swansea School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea SA28PP (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-02

    Intestinal type gastric cancer is a significant cause of mortality, therefore a better understanding of its molecular basis is required. We assessed if either aneuploidy or activity of the oncogenic transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B), increased incrementally during pre-malignant gastric histological progression and also if they correlated with each other in patient samples, as they are both induced by oxygen free radicals. In a prospective study of 54 (aneuploidy) and 59 (NF-{kappa}B) consecutive patients, aneuploidy was assessed by interphase fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) for chromosome 1. NF-{kappa}B was assessed by expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), and in a subset, by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for active p65. Aneuploidy levels increased incrementally across the histological series. 2.76% of cells with normal histology (95% CI, 2.14-3.38%) showed background levels of aneuploidy, this increased to averages of 3.78% (95% CI, 3.21-4.35%), 5.89% (95% CI, 3.72-8.06%) and 7.29% (95% CI, 4.73-9.85%) of cells from patients with gastritis, Helicobacter pylori positive gastritis and atrophy/intestinal metaplasia (IM) respectively. IL-8 expression was only increased in patients with current H. pylori infection. NF-{kappa}B analysis showed some increased p65 activity in inflamed tissues. IL-8 expression and aneuploidy level were not linked in individual patients. Aneuploidy levels increased incrementally during histological progression; were significantly elevated at very early stages of neoplastic progression and could well be linked to cancer development and used to assess cancer risk. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced in early gastric cancer are presumably responsible for the stepwise accumulation of this particular mutation, i.e. aneuploidy. Hence, aneuploidy measured by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) coupled to brush cytology, would be worthy of consideration as a predictive marker in gastric cancer and could be

  16. Aneuploidy involving chromosome 1 may be an early predictive marker of intestinal type gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.; Somasekar, A.; Davies, D.J.; Cronin, J.; Doak, S.H.; Alcolado, R.; Williams, J.G.; Griffiths, A.P.; Baxter, J.N.; Jenkins, G.J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal type gastric cancer is a significant cause of mortality, therefore a better understanding of its molecular basis is required. We assessed if either aneuploidy or activity of the oncogenic transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), increased incrementally during pre-malignant gastric histological progression and also if they correlated with each other in patient samples, as they are both induced by oxygen free radicals. In a prospective study of 54 (aneuploidy) and 59 (NF-κB) consecutive patients, aneuploidy was assessed by interphase fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) for chromosome 1. NF-κB was assessed by expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), and in a subset, by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for active p65. Aneuploidy levels increased incrementally across the histological series. 2.76% of cells with normal histology (95% CI, 2.14-3.38%) showed background levels of aneuploidy, this increased to averages of 3.78% (95% CI, 3.21-4.35%), 5.89% (95% CI, 3.72-8.06%) and 7.29% (95% CI, 4.73-9.85%) of cells from patients with gastritis, Helicobacter pylori positive gastritis and atrophy/intestinal metaplasia (IM) respectively. IL-8 expression was only increased in patients with current H. pylori infection. NF-κB analysis showed some increased p65 activity in inflamed tissues. IL-8 expression and aneuploidy level were not linked in individual patients. Aneuploidy levels increased incrementally during histological progression; were significantly elevated at very early stages of neoplastic progression and could well be linked to cancer development and used to assess cancer risk. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced in early gastric cancer are presumably responsible for the stepwise accumulation of this particular mutation, i.e. aneuploidy. Hence, aneuploidy measured by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) coupled to brush cytology, would be worthy of consideration as a predictive marker in gastric cancer and could be clinically useful in pre

  17. Cosmology and the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Di Bari, Pasquale

    2018-01-01

    This book discusses cosmology from both an observational and a strong theoretical perspective. The first part focuses on gravitation, notably the expansion of the universe and determination of cosmological parameters, before moving onto the main emphasis of the book, the physics of the early universe, and the connections between cosmological models and particle physics. Readers will gain a comprehensive account of cosmology and the latest observational results, without requiring prior knowledge of relativistic theories, making the text ideal for students.

  18. Early laparotomy after lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Pia; Zemtsovski, Mikhail; Perch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal complications after lung transplantation have been reported with incidence rates ranging from 3% to 51%, but the reasons are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the correlations between pulmonary diseases leading to lung transplantation and early gastrointestinal...... for time on mechanical ventilation. Among pulmonary diseases and demographics of the patients, no other risk factors were identified for laparotomy. CONCLUSIONS: A1AD was the only significant risk factor identified for gastrointestinal complications that required laparotomy within 3 months after lung...

  19. The early days of incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, M.

    1995-05-01

    Landfills reaching capacity, beaches fouled with trash, neighborhood residents protesting waste disposal sites in their backyards, and municipalities forced to recycle. Sound familiar? These issues might have been taken from today`s headlines, but they were also problems facing mechanical engineers a century ago. Conditions such as these were what led engineers to design the first incinerators for reducing the volume of municipal garbage, as well as for producing heat and electricity. The paper discusses these early days.

  20. Interpersonal relationships in early adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Kočevar, Zala

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal relationships in early adulthood, in people aged 25 to 30 vary considerably among individuals. Some place emphasis on partnership, and others on relations with friends. Even the relationship with parents and siblings are experienced by young adults in a variety of ways. Some have frequent and regular contact with their parents while some no longer have any relationship with their parents. These are two frequent situations hiding much more in between. Relationships are complex an...

  1. Supporting Families through Early Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy McConkey

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Internationally early intervention programmes for infants and preschoolers with disabilities have proved to be remarkably successful. In many countries, they began with teachers for visually impaired or hearing impaired children visiting the family home to teach parents how they could overcome the child's impairments. The logic of early intervention was inequitable. For example, the sooner children with visual impairments learnt to be independently mobile, then the greater their potential to learn and to kad an ordinary life. In time, this philosophy was extended to children with neurological and developmental delays, such as mental retardation, although success could be variable. In part, many different factors contributed to this variability: the form the interventions took, the extent of family involvement in the intervention and the lack of sensitivity of the measures used to assess a child's progress, to name but three. Perhaps the most extensive and intensive Early intervention schemes have been in the United States with their Head Start programmes. They were aimed at promoting the educational potential of preschoolers from deprived socio - economic backgrounds. Although the first phase of programmes had varying success, those in the second phase yielded impressive results which were mainly attributed to a greater focus on parental participation and links forged with the school system. Recently in developing countries, priority has been given to establishing early intervention as a means of creating new styles of family-based and community-based service in these countries in contrast to the hospital or institutional-services that were a legacy from a previous generation. Although formal evaluations are largely lacking, informal reports have been broadly enthusiastic. In sum, early intervention is no longer a new approach to developmental disabilities. It is an approach of proven effectiveness with children who have different impairments

  2. Early detection of first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven.......Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven....

  3. Early Identification of Psychosis: A Primer

    OpenAIRE

    Early Psychosis Initiative of British Columbia

    2000-01-01

    This document is an educational resource concerning the early identification of psychosis. Primary topics addressed include: an outline of the importance of early intervention; signs and symptoms of psychosis; and strategies for recognizing psychosis.  

  4. Peering Into an Early Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    Thirteen billion years ago, early galaxies ionized the gas around them, producing some of the first light that brought our universe out of its dark ages. Now the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has provided one of the first detailed looks into the interior of one of these early, distant galaxies.Sources of LightArtists illustration of the reionization of the universe (time progresses left to right), in which ionized bubbles that form around the first sources of light eventually overlap to form the fully ionized universe we observe today. [Avi Loeb/Scientific American]For the first roughly hundred million years of its existence, our universe expanded in relative darkness there were no sources of light at that time besides the cosmic microwave background. But as mass started to condense to form the first objects, these objects eventually shone as the earliest luminous sources, contributing to the reionization of the universe.To learn about the early production of light in the universe, our best bet is to study in detail the earliest luminous sources stars, galaxies, or quasars that we can hunt down. One ideal target is the galaxy COSMOS Redshift 7, known as CR7 for short.Targeting CR7CR7 is one of the oldest, most distant galaxies known, lying at a redshift of z 6.6. Its discovery in 2015 and subsequent observations of bright, ultraviolet-emitting clumps within it have led to broad speculation about the source of its emission. Does this galaxy host an active nucleus? Or could it perhaps contain the long-theorized first generation of stars, metal-free Population III stars?To determine the nature of CR7 and the other early galaxies that contributed to reionization, we need to explore their gas and dust in detail a daunting task for such distant sources! Conveniently, this is a challenge that is now made possible by ALMAs incredible capabilities. In a new publication led by Jorryt Matthee (Leiden University, the Netherlands), a team of scientists now

  5. THE IMPORTANCE OF INVESTMENTS IN EARLY EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    DUMITRESCU Alexandra; CONSTANTINESCU Adrian; TACHE Ileana

    2012-01-01

    The early education is analyzed as being the most profitable investment in education (R. Cuhna). early education supports later learning opportunities. The economic dimension of early education takes into account the fact that the necessary investment for a child to benefit from early education services is rather low when looking at the cost (both economic and social) generated by a child who misses this education level, not necessarily because of the late education start but because of the l...

  6. Early diagnosis of the Spondyloarthropathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Naranjo, Luis Alonso; Londono, John D; Valle, Rafael Raul

    2005-01-01

    Spondyloarthropathies are a cluster of chronic inflammatory diseases that primarily include ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis; arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel diseases and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathies. The most common subgroups of spondyloarthropathies are ankylosing spondylitis and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy. The diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis is mainly based on unequivocal radiographic sacroiliitis of at least grade 2 bilaterally or grade 3 unilaterally. How ever, in the early phase of disease, conventional radiographs are often too insensitive to show sacroiliitis and it usually takes several years for definite radiographic sacroiliitis to evolve. Thus, the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis is a commonly delayed by 8 to 11 years after the onset of symptoms. As a result, diagnosing axial spondyloarthropathy in the absence of radiographic sacroiliitis is very difficult to rheumatologists. In the early phase of disease, HLA B27 test and magnetic resonance imaging of sacroiliac joints may be helpful to the early diagnosis. In the presence of chronic low back pain the probability of axial spondyloarthropathy is about 5% and is about 14% if the back pain is inflammatory. The presence of = 3 features of spondyloarthropathy (heel pain, uveitis, dactylitis, positive family history, alternating buttock pain, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, asymmetrical arthritis, positive response to anti-inflammatory drugs) increase the probability of axial spondyloarthropathy to 90%. Both, the positive HLA B27 and magnetic resonance imaging with signs of sacroiliitis increase the probability of spondyloarthropathy, particularly in patients without spondyloarthropathies features or with only 1 or 2 features. Since ankylosing spondylitis in association with psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease is often HLA B27 negative, this test is of limited value under theses circumstances. Is important to consider that

  7. Observations of Early Optical Afterglows

    OpenAIRE

    Roming, Peter W. A.; Mason, Keith O.

    2006-01-01

    The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) has performed extensive follow-up on 71 Swift Burst Alert Telescope triggered gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in its first ten months of operations. In this paper, we discuss some of the UV and optical properties of UVOT detected afterglows such as XRF 050406, the bright GRB 050525A, the high redshift GRB 050730, the early flaring GRB 050801, and others. We also discuss some of the implications of why 75% of GRB afterglows observed by UVOT in less than ...

  8. Early discharge hospital at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Bradley, Daniela C; Iliffe, Steve; Doll, Helen A; Broad, Joanna; Gladman, John; Langhorne, Peter; Richards, Suzanne H; Shepperd, Sasha

    2017-06-26

    Early discharge hospital at home is a service that provides active treatment by healthcare professionals in the patient's home for a condition that otherwise would require acute hospital inpatient care. This is an update of a Cochrane review. To determine the effectiveness and cost of managing patients with early discharge hospital at home compared with inpatient hospital care. We searched the following databases to 9 January 2017: the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and EconLit. We searched clinical trials registries. Randomised trials comparing early discharge hospital at home with acute hospital inpatient care for adults. We excluded obstetric, paediatric and mental health hospital at home schemes.   DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane and EPOC. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the body of evidence for the most important outcomes. We included 32 trials (N = 4746), six of them new for this update, mainly conducted in high-income countries. We judged most of the studies to have a low or unclear risk of bias. The intervention was delivered by hospital outreach services (17 trials), community-based services (11 trials), and was co-ordinated by a hospital-based stroke team or physician in conjunction with community-based services in four trials.Studies recruiting people recovering from strokeEarly discharge hospital at home probably makes little or no difference to mortality at three to six months (risk ratio (RR) 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 1.48, N = 1114, 11 trials, moderate-certainty evidence) and may make little or no difference to the risk of hospital readmission (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.66, N = 345, 5 trials, low-certainty evidence). Hospital at home may lower the risk of living in institutional setting at six months (RR 0.63, 96% CI

  9. Early detection of congenital syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagalakshmi Chowdhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Late congenital syphilis is a very rare clinical entity, and its early diagnosis and treatment is essential. Dental findings often provide valuable evidence for the diagnosis of late congenital syphilis. It occurs due to the transmission of the disease from an infected mother to her fetus through placenta. This long forgotten disease continues to effect pregnant women resulting in perinatal morbidity and mortality. Congenital syphilis is a preventable disease, and its presence reflects a failure of prenatal care delivery system, as well as syphilis control programs. We are reporting a case of late congenital syphilis with only Hutchinson′s teeth.

  10. Early history of military radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that soon after Roentgen's discovery, physicians in the armed services of the major powers grasped the importance of x-ray sin military surgery. By May of 1896, radiographic examinations were being performed on Italian soldiers returning from the ill-fated Ethiopian campaign. Initially, radiographs were used for foreign body localization and the detection of fractures; later, a full range of diagnostic services was offered. The early challenges of obtaining x-ray examinations in the field - fragility of tubes and plates, mobility of machines and patients, and unpredictability of radiation dosage - became the basis for innovations that would fundamentally alter the daily practice of radiology in civilian life

  11. Can Prostate Specific Antigen Be Used as New Biomarker for Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Shiryazdi

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Plasma PSA level is not a reliable biomarker to diagnose breast cancer, though regarding existing scientific evidence, more comprehensive studies are required to consider other features of malignant samples so as to evaluate the role of PSA in differentiating breast neoplastic lesions in a more meticulous way based on the degree of tumor differentiation.

  12. Examining Text Complexity in the Early Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Koons, Heather H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core raises the stature of texts to new heights, creating a hubbub. The fuss is especially messy at the early grades, where children are expected to read more complex texts than in the past. But early-grades teachers have been given little actionable guidance about text complexity. The authors recently examined early-grades texts to…

  13. Ethics dilemmas of early detection of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the ethics dilemmas of the early detection of overweight and obesity. Methods: Analysis of the ethical aspects of early detection. Results: The early detection of overweight and obesity entails a number of ethical dilemmas because it may both be helpful and harmful. It may help...

  14. Early identification and intervention in cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Anna; Greisen, Gorm; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    Infants with possible cerebral palsy (CP) are commonly assumed to benefit from early diagnosis and early intervention, but substantial evidence for this is lacking. There is no consensus in the literature on a definition of 'early', but this review focuses on interventions initiated within...

  15. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    A policy-to-practice paper is presented of early childhood inclusion in England. The article aims to report the benefits of early intervention services and early childhood inclusion for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), document the chronology of policy development, and discuss research evidence about…

  16. Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the growth of technology use in early learning settings, the U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services collaborated in the development of the "Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief" to promote developmentally appropriate use of technology in homes and early learning…

  17. Early infection and prognosis after acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J

    2001-01-01

    Infection is a frequent complication in the early course of acute stroke and may adversely affect stroke outcome. In the present study, we investigate early infection developing in patients within 3 days of admission to the hospital and its independent relation to recovery and stroke outcome....... In addition, we identify predictors for early infections, infection subtypes, and their relation to initial stroke severity....

  18. Early Smoking, Education, and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and labor market performance. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for males. The effect of early smoking on initial labor market

  19. Early Archaean collapse basins, a habitat for early bacterial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, W.

    For a better definition of the sedimentary environment in which early life may have flourished during the early Archaean, understanding of the basin geometry in terms of shape, depth, and fill is a prerequisite. The basin fill is the easiest to approach, namely from the well exposed, low-grade metamorphic 3.4 - 3.5 Ga rock successions in the greenstone belts of the east Pilbara (Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt and North Pole Dome) in West Australia and of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (Buck Ridge volcano-sedimentary complex) in South Africa. They consist of mafic to ultramafic volcanic rocks, largely pillow basalts, with distinct intercalations of intermediate to felsic intrusive and volcanic rocks and of silicious sediments. The, partly volcaniclastic, silicious sediments of the Buck Ridge and North Pole volcano-sedimentary complexes form a regressive-transgressive sequence. They were deposited close to base level, and experienced occasional emersion. Both North Pole Chert and the chert of the Kittys Gap volcano-sedimentary complex in the Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt preserve the flat-and-channel architecture of a shallow tidal environment. Thickness and facies distribution appear to be genetically linked to systems, i.e. arrays, of syn-depositionally active, extensional faults. Structures at the rear, front and bottoms of these fault arrays, and the fault vergence from the basin margin towards the centre characterize the basins as due to surficial crustal collapse. Observations in the Pilbara craton point to a non-linear plan view and persistence for the basin-defining fault patterns over up to 50 Ma, during which several of these fault arrays became superposed. The faults linked high-crustal level felsic intrusions within the overall mafic rock suite via porphyry pipes, black chert veins and inferred hydrothermal circulations with the overlying felsic lavas, and more importantly, with the cherty sediments. Where such veins surfaced, high-energy breccias, and in the

  20. Avaliação da expressão tecidual do gene de reparo MLH1 e dos níveis de dano oxidativo ao DNA em doentes com câncer colorretal Evaluation of expression of mismatch repair gene MLH1 and levels of oxidative DNA damage in normal and neoplastic tissues of patients with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Real Martinez

    2009-09-01

    form the DNA, allowing mutations in controlling genes of the cell cycle. The cells have a defense system represented by the DNA mismatch repair genes that correct the errors of matching prevent the development of DNA mutations. Few studies have evaluated the relationship between oxidative DNA damage and the tissue expression of mismatch repair genes. AIM: The aim of the present study was evaluate the levels of oxidative DNA and the tissue expression of MLH1 mismatch repair gene in the cells of normal and neoplastic colonic mucosa of patients with colorectal cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Were studied 44 patients with diagnosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma. Were excluded patients with hereditary colorectal cancer, with colorectal cancer associate with inflammatory bowel diseases and those undergoing neoadjuvant radioquimiotherapy. To evaluate the levels of oxidative DNA damage was used the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay evaluating 100 cells obtained from normal and neoplastic tissues. For the evaluation of the tissue expression of MLH1 gene was employed the technique of polymerase chain reaction in real time (RT-PCR with primer specifically designed for MLH1 gene. The comparison among the levels of DNA oxidative stress and expression of MLH1 mismatch repair gene in normal and neoplastic tissues was done by Student t test adopting a significance level of 5% (p< 0.05. RESULTS: The levels of oxidative DNA damage in tumor tissue were significantly higher when compared to the level of the normal tissue (p = 0.0001. The tissue expression of MLH1 mismatch repair gene in tumor tissue was significantly lower when compared to normal tissue (p=0.02. CONCLUSION: The mismatch repair gene MLH1 are less expressed in tumor tissue and inversely related to levels of oxidative DNA damage.