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Sample records for early life-stage mortality

  1. Temperature influences selective mortality during the early life stages of a coral reef fish.

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    Tauna L Rankin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD, early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality.

  2. Externally driven mortality of cod early life stages in the central Baltic: hydrography vs. predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, Matthias

    pressure by clupeids on the early life stages of cod could have enhanced cod recruitment in recent years. The analyses are based on a large dataset of stomach content of clupeids, cod egg abundances from ichthyoplankton surveys, and hydrographic measurements. We investigate temporal and spatial variability...

  3. Early Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  4. Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cada, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified orality of fish eggs and larvae. This paper provides an analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) which indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment

  5. Chemical defense of early life stages of benthic marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Niels

    2002-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of factors affecting the survival of early life stages of marine invertebrates is critically important for understanding their population dynamics and the evolution of their diverse reproductive and life-history characteristics. Chemical defense is an important determinant of survival for adult stages of many sessile benthic invertebrates, yet relatively little consideration has been given to chemical defenses at the early life stages. This review examines the taxonomic breadth of early life-stage chemical defense in relation to various life-history and reproductive characteristics, as well as possible constraints on the expression of chemical defense at certain life stages. Data on the localization of defensive secondary metabolites in larvae and the fitness-related consequences of consuming even a small amount of toxic secondary metabolites underpin proposals regarding the potential for Müllerian and Batesian mimicry to occur among marine larvae. The involvement of microbial symbionts in the chemical defense of early life stages illustrates its complexity for some species. As our knowledge of chemical defenses in early life stages grows, we will be able to more rigorously examine connections among phylogeny, chemical defenses, and the evolution of reproductive and life-history characteristics among marine invertebrates.

  6. Organochlorine pesticides and thiamine in eggs of largemouth bass and American alligators and their relationship with early life-stage mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Wiebe, J.J.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Rauschenberger, H.R.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Johnson, W.E.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency has been linked to early mortality syndrome in salmonids in the Great Lakes. This study was conducted to compare thiamine concentrations in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) eggs from sites with high embryo mortality and high exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (Lakes Apopka and Griffin, and Emeralda Marsh, Florida, USA) to those from sites that have historically exhibited low embryo mortality and low OCPs (Lakes Woodruff and Orange, Florida). During June-July 2000, 20 alligator clutches were collected from these sites, artificially incubated, and monitored for embryo mortality. Thiamine and OCPs were measured in one egg/clutch. During February 2002, 10 adult female bass were collected from Emeralda Marsh and Lake Woodruff and mature ovaries analyzed for thiamine and OCP concentrations. Although ovaries from the Emeralda Marsh bass contained almost 1,000-fold more OCPs compared with the reference site, Lake Woodruff, there were no differences in thiamine concentrations between sites (11,710 vs. 11,857 pmol/g). In contrast, alligator eggs from the reference site had five times the amount of thiamine compared with the contaminated sites (3,123 vs. 617 pmol/g). Similarly, clutches with > 55% hatch rates had significantly higher concentrations of thiamine compared with clutches with eggs. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2004.

  7. Organochlorine pesticides and thiamine in eggs of largemouth bass and American alligators and their relationship with early life-stage mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Maria S; Wiebe, Jon J; Honeyfield, Dale C; Rauschenberger, Heath R; Hinterkopf, Joy P; Johnson, William E; Gross, Timothy S

    2004-10-01

    Thiamine deficiency has been linked to early mortality syndrome in salmonids in the Great Lakes. This study was conducted to compare thiamine concentrations in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) eggs from sites with high embryo mortality and high exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (Lakes Apopka and Griffin, and Emeralda Marsh, Florida, USA) to those from sites that have historically exhibited low embryo mortality and low OCPs (Lakes Woodruff and Orange, Florida). During June-July 2000, 20 alligator clutches were collected from these sites, artificially incubated, and monitored for embryo mortality. Thiamine and OCPs were measured in one egg/clutch. During February 2002, 10 adult female bass were collected from Emeralda Marsh and Lake Woodruff and mature ovaries analyzed for thiamine and OCP concentrations. Although ovaries from the Emeralda Marsh bass contained almost 1,000-fold more OCPs compared with the reference site, Lake Woodruff, there were no differences in thiamine concentrations between sites (11,710 vs. 11,857 pmol/g). In contrast, alligator eggs from the reference site had five times the amount of thiamine compared with the contaminated sites (3,123 vs. 617 pmol/g). Similarly, clutches with >55% hatch rates had significantly higher concentrations of thiamine compared with clutches with reproductive failure and recruitment of largemouth bass. The cause(s) of this thiamine deficiency are unknown but might be related to differences in the nutritional value of prey items across the sites studied and/or to the presence of high concentration of contaminants in eggs.

  8. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Tara A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (four day) exposures using three doses each of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and one year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embyos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting this is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2 and plasma T3 decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages after hatching are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild.

  9. Using physiology and behaviour to understand the responses of fish early life stages to toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, K A; McNeil, P L

    2012-12-01

    The use of early life stages of fishes (embryos and larvae) in toxicity testing has been in existence for a long time, generally utilizing endpoints such as morphological defects and mortality. Behavioural endpoints, however, may represent a more insightful evaluation of the ecological effects of toxicants. Indeed, recent years have seen a considerable increase in the use of behavioural measurements in early life stages reflecting a substantial rise in zebrafish Danio rerio early life-stage toxicity testing and the development of automated behavioural monitoring systems. Current behavioural endpoints identified for early life stages in response to toxicant exposure include spontaneous activity, predator avoidance, capture of live food, shoaling ability and interaction with other individuals. Less frequently used endpoints include measurement of anxiogenic behaviours and cognitive ability, both of which are suggested here as future indicators of toxicant disruption. For many simple behavioural endpoints, there is still a need to link behavioural effects with ecological relevance; currently, only a limited number of studies have addressed this issue. Understanding the physiological mechanisms that underlie toxicant effects on behaviour so early in life has received far less attention, perhaps because physiological measurements can be difficult to carry out on individuals of this size. The most commonly established physiological links with behavioural disruption in early life stages are similar to those seen in juveniles and adults including sensory deprivation (olfaction, lateral line and vision), altered neurogenesis and neurotransmitter concentrations. This review highlights the importance of understanding the integrated behavioural and physiological response of early life stages to toxicants and identifies knowledge gaps which present exciting areas for future research. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, T A; Iwanowicz, L R; McCormick, S D

    2014-07-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (4 day) exposures using three doses each of 17 α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17 β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and 1 year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embryos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting plasma Vtg is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2, and plasma T3 was decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  11. Hydrological and thermal effects of hydropeaking on early life stages of salmonids: A modelling approach for implementing mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Mulet, Roser; Saltveit, Svein Jakob; Alfredsen, Knut Tore

    2016-12-15

    Alterations in hydrological and thermal regimes can potentially affect salmonid early life stages development and survival. The dewatering of salmon spawning redds due to hydropeaking can lead to mortality in early life stages, with higher impact on the alevins as they have lower tolerance to dewatering than the eggs. Flow-related mitigation measures can reduce early life stage mortality. We present a set of modelling tools to assess impacts and mitigation options to minimise the risk of mortality in early life stages in hydropeaking rivers. We successfully modelled long-term hydrological and thermal alterations and consequences for development rates. We estimated the risk of early life stages mortality and assessed the cost-effectiveness of implementing three release-related mitigation options (A,B,C). The economic cost of mitigation was low and ranged between 0.7% and 2.6% of the annual hydropower production. Options reducing the flow during spawning (B and C) in addition to only release minimum flows during development (A) were considered more effective for egg and alevin survival. Options B and C were however constraint by water availability in the system for certain years, and therefore only option A was always feasible. The set of modelling tools used in this study were satisfactory and their applications can be useful especially in systems where little field data is available. Targeted measures built on well-informed modelling tools can be tested on their effectiveness to mitigate dewatering effects vs. the hydropower system capacity to release or conserve water for power production. Environmental flow releases targeting specific ecological objectives can provide better cost-effective options than conventional operational rules complying with general legislation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative toxicity of four crude oils to the early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, L.M.J.; Khan, C.W.; Akhtar, P.; Hodson, P.V.; Short, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Crude oil is a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in aquatic ecosystems. Fish that are chronically exposed to alkyl PAHs show dioxin-like toxicity characterized by the presence of blue sac disease (BSD) and the induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A). This study compared the relative toxicity of four crude oils (Scotian Light Crude, MESA, the synthetic Federated Crude, and Alaska North Slope Crude) to early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The study examined the influence of the four crudes in causing the disease in rainbow trout embryos living in simulated spawning beds with hydrocarbon-contaminated gravel. Each oil had different chemical characteristics and PAH concentrations. Mortality in the direct exposure experiment increased as the oil concentration increased. The same trend was observed for the BSD prevalence. The study showed that Scotian Light Crude was the least toxic, with BSD increasing only at the highest concentration. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Adriana P S; Rodrigues, Ricardo V; Sampaio, Luís A; Romano, Luis A; Tesser, Marcelo B

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20) from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching). Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were dehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm), but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm). From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia.

  14. Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA P.S. OTERO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20 from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching. Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were dehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm, but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm. From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia.

  15. Impacts of triclosan exposure on zebrafish early-life stage: Toxicity and acclimation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falisse, Elodie; Voisin, Anne-Sophie; Silvestre, Frédéric

    2017-08-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad spectrum antibacterial agent widely used in personal care products and present in most aquatic ecosystems. This study investigated the occurrence of triclosan acclimation and the biological mechanisms underlying the stress response triggered in early-life stage of zebrafish. Zebrafish eggs were first exposed to four different sublethal concentrations of TCS (2, 20, 50 and 100μg/L) for 7days following fertilization and subsequently exposed to a lethal concentration of TCS (1000μg/L). During the time-to-death exposure (TTD), mortality was continuously recorded to evaluate if increased resistance occurred. Overall, larvae exposed to 50μg/L of TCS demonstrated higher sensitivity, with delayed hatching and increased mortality during the sub-lethal exposure and significant lower mean time-to-death (TTD) value compared to the other groups. Interestingly, fish exposed to the highest concentration of TCS (100μg/L) presented a similar mean TTD value as controls and a significantly better survival in comparison with embryos exposed to 50μg/L, suggesting that acclimation process has been triggered at this concentration. Proteomic and enzymatic analyses were conducted on 7days post fertilization (dpf) larvae exposed to 50μg/L and 100μg/L of TCS giving insights into the functional changes triggered at those specific concentrations. TCS seemed to affect proteins involved in cytoskeleton, stress response, eyes and neuronal development. This was endorsed by the enzymatic results, which suggest impairment in glutathione metabolism and acute neurotoxicity. A significant 2.5-fold and 3-fold increase of AChE activity was observed following TCS exposure. Moreover, GPx activity was significantly increased whereas a significant inhibition of GR activity was observed, suggesting that de novo synthesis of reduced GSH might occur in order to maintain the ratio between reduced and oxidized GSH. Proteomic results revealed possible candidate protein involved in

  16. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  17. Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

  18. Biotic mortality factors affecting emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are highly dependent on life stage and host tree crown condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, D E; Duan, J J; Shrewsbury, P M

    2015-10-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a serious invasive forest pest in North America responsible for killing tens to hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced in the 1990 s. Although host-plant resistance and natural enemies are known to be important sources of mortality for EAB in Asia, less is known about the importance of different sources of mortality at recently colonized sites in the invaded range of EAB, and how these relate to host tree crown condition. To further our understanding of EAB population dynamics, we used a large-scale field experiment and life-table analyses to quantify the fates of EAB larvae and the relative importance of different biotic mortality factors at 12 recently colonized sites in Maryland. We found that the fates of larvae were highly dependent on EAB life stage and host tree crown condition. In relatively healthy trees (i.e., with a low EAB infestation) and for early instars, host tree resistance was the most important mortality factor. Conversely, in more unhealthy trees (i.e., with a moderate to high EAB infestation) and for later instars, parasitism and predation were the major sources of mortality. Life-table analyses also indicated how the lack of sufficient levels of host tree resistance and natural enemies contribute to rapid population growth of EAB at recently colonized sites. Our findings provide further evidence of the mechanisms by which EAB has been able to successfully establish and spread in North America.

  19. Sensitivity of early-life-stage golden trout to low pH and elevated aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLonay, A.J.; Little, E.E.; Woodward, F.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Farag, A.M.; Rabeni, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    Early-life-stage golden trout (Oncorhynchus aguabonita) were exposed to acid and Al to examine the response and determine the sensitivity of a western, alpine salmonid to conditions simulating an episodic pH depression. Freshly fertilized eggs, alevins, and swim-up larvae were exposed for 7 d to one of 12 combinations of pH and Al, and surviving fish were held to 40 d post-hatch to determine the effect of exposure on subsequent survival and recovery. Golden trout are sensitive to conditions simulating episodic acidification events typically observed in the field. Significant mortality occurred when the pH of test waters was below 5.0 in the absence of Al or when pH was 5.5 in the presence of 100 μg/L total Al. Behavioral impairments were sensitive indicators of low pH and Al stress. Impaired locomotory and feeding behavior occurred at pH 5.5 without Al and at Al concentrations ≥ μg/L. In contrast, growth, RNA-to-DNA ratio, and whole-body ion concentration were relatively less sensitive indicators of sublethal acid and Al stress

  20. Effect of water temperature on survival of early-life stages of marbled flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae in Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kodama, Keita; Oyama, Masaaki; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2017-07-01

    We investigated factors that might have disturbed the stock recovery of marbled flounder in Tokyo Bay by focusing on the early life stages. Field surveys in Tokyo Bay from 2006 to 2011 revealed that mature adult biomass increased from 2006 to 2008 and decreased thereafter. Meanwhile, larval and juvenile densities were high in 2006 and 2008 but low in other years. Discrepancies in the yearly trends of these parameters suggest that mortality during life stages between spawning and early larval phases might have affected the abundance of the subsequent life stages. Monthly mean water temperature between January and February, in which hatching and pelagic larvae occur in the bay, was lower in 2006 (8.6 °C) and 2008 (9.6 °C) than was observed in other years (10.4-11.4 °C). Significant negative correlation between water temperature and larval density implies that mortality during pre- and post-larval stages would be higher in warmer winter years (>10 °C). To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of water temperature on mortality and development in egg and larval stages under controlled laboratory conditions. Hatching rate was high in a water temperature range of 9.2-12.7 °C (66.6-82.5%), whereas it decreased in cooler (3.7% at 5.9 °C) or warmer (33.9% at 14.8 °C) conditions. Meanwhile, days from fertilization to hatching, size of larvae at hatching and survival rate of larvae after 18 d from hatching were monotonically and significantly decreased as water temperature was elevated. Combined evidence of the field and laboratory studies suggests that a warmer reproductive season (>10 °C) might induce mortalities of marbled flounder larvae in Tokyo Bay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  2. High-Resolution Lipidomics of the Early Life Stages of the Red Seaweed Porphyra dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Elisabete; Azevedo, Vitor; Melo, Tânia; Rego, Andreia M; V Evtuguin, Dmitry; Domingues, Pedro; Calado, Ricardo; Pereira, Rui; Abreu, Maria H; Domingues, Maria R

    2018-01-17

    Porphyra dioica is a commercial seaweed consumed all over the world, mostly in the shape of nori sheets used for "sushi" preparation. It is a well-known part of the Asian diet with health benefits, which have been associated, among others, to the high levels of n -3 and n- 6 fatty acids in this red alga. However, other highly valued lipids of Porphyra are polar lipids that remain largely undescribed and can have both nutritional value and bioactivity, thus could contribute to the valorization of this seaweed. In this context, the present work aims to identify the lipidome of two life cycle stages of the Atlantic species Porphyra dioica : the early life stage conchocelis produced in an indoor-nursery, and young blades produced outdoors using an integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) framework. Both the blades (gametophyte) and conchocelis (sporophyte) are commercialized in the food and cosmetics sectors. Liquid chromatography coupled to Q-Exactive high resolution-mass spectrometry (MS) platform was used to gain insight into the lipidome of these species. Our results allowed the identification of 110 and 100 lipid molecular species in the lipidome of the blade and conchocelis, respectively. These lipid molecular species were distributed as follows (blade/conchocelis): 14/15 glycolipids (GLs), 93/79 phospholipids (PLs), and 3/6 betaine lipids. Both life stages displayed a similar profile of GLs and comprised 20:4( n -6) and 20:5( n -3) fatty acids that contribute to n -3 and n -6 fatty acid pool recorded and rank among the molecular species with higher potential bioactivity. PLs' profile was different between the two life stages surveyed, mainly due to the number and relative abundance of molecular species. This finding suggests that differences between both life stages were more likely related with shifts in the lipids of extraplastidial membranes rather than in plastidial membranes. PLs contained n -6 and n -3 precursors and in both life stages of Porphyra

  3. High-Resolution Lipidomics of the Early Life Stages of the Red Seaweed Porphyra dioica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete da Costa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyra dioica is a commercial seaweed consumed all over the world, mostly in the shape of nori sheets used for “sushi” preparation. It is a well-known part of the Asian diet with health benefits, which have been associated, among others, to the high levels of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in this red alga. However, other highly valued lipids of Porphyra are polar lipids that remain largely undescribed and can have both nutritional value and bioactivity, thus could contribute to the valorization of this seaweed. In this context, the present work aims to identify the lipidome of two life cycle stages of the Atlantic species Porphyra dioica: the early life stage conchocelis produced in an indoor-nursery, and young blades produced outdoors using an integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA framework. Both the blades (gametophyte and conchocelis (sporophyte are commercialized in the food and cosmetics sectors. Liquid chromatography coupled to Q–Exactive high resolution-mass spectrometry (MS platform was used to gain insight into the lipidome of these species. Our results allowed the identification of 110 and 100 lipid molecular species in the lipidome of the blade and conchocelis, respectively. These lipid molecular species were distributed as follows (blade/conchocelis: 14/15 glycolipids (GLs, 93/79 phospholipids (PLs, and 3/6 betaine lipids. Both life stages displayed a similar profile of GLs and comprised 20:4(n-6 and 20:5(n-3 fatty acids that contribute to n-3 and n-6 fatty acid pool recorded and rank among the molecular species with higher potential bioactivity. PLs’ profile was different between the two life stages surveyed, mainly due to the number and relative abundance of molecular species. This finding suggests that differences between both life stages were more likely related with shifts in the lipids of extraplastidial membranes rather than in plastidial membranes. PLs contained n-6 and n-3 precursors and in both life stages of

  4. Effects of tributyltin on early life-stage, reproduction, and gonadal sex differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Yoshifumi; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Shintaku, Yoko; Iguchi, Taisen; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2018-07-01

    Tributyltin, an organotin compound, was used worldwide as an antifouling agent in aquatic environments and there has been much concern about the toxicological and ecotoxicological properties of organotin compounds. Even though it has been prohibited worldwide, tributyltin is still detected at low concentrations in aquatic environments. Here we investigated the effects of tributyltin on the early life-stage, reproduction, and gonadal sex differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). In adults, exposure to tributyltin at 3.82 μg/L suppressed fecundity and fertility and increased mortality. At 10.48 μg/L all medaka died by the sixth day of exposure. Exposure to tributyltin during early life-stages induced no significant differences in mortality or embryonic development, but growth was suppressed in groups exposed to 0.13 and 0.68 μg/L. Furthermore, there was no abnormal gonadal development in Japanese medaka exposed to tributyltin. These results provide evidence of the negative effects of tributyltin on reproduction in a teleost fish. Tributyltin did not affect gonadal sex differentiation in Japanese medaka, but fecundity and fertility were suppressed, although it is not clear whether this suppression resulted from the endocrine-disrupting action of tributyltin or its toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypoxia and acidification have additive and synergistic negative effects on the growth, survival, and metamorphosis of early life stage bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobler, Christopher J; DePasquale, Elizabeth L; Griffith, Andrew W; Baumann, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen zones in coastal and open ocean ecosystems have expanded in recent decades, a trend that will accelerate with climatic warming. There is growing recognition that low oxygen regions of the ocean are also acidified, a condition that will intensify with rising levels of atmospheric CO2. Presently, however, the concurrent effects of low oxygen and acidification on marine organisms are largely unknown, as most prior studies of marine hypoxia have not considered pH levels. We experimentally assessed the consequences of hypoxic and acidified water for early life stage bivalves (bay scallops, Argopecten irradians, and hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria), marine organisms of significant economic and ecological value and sensitive to climate change. In larval scallops, experimental and naturally-occurring acidification (pH, total scale  = 7.4-7.6) reduced survivorship (by >50%), low oxygen (30-50 µM) inhibited growth and metamorphosis (by >50%), and the two stressors combined produced additively negative outcomes. In early life stage clams, however, hypoxic waters led to 30% higher mortality, while acidified waters significantly reduced growth (by 60%). Later stage clams were resistant to hypoxia or acidification separately but experienced significantly (40%) reduced growth rates when exposed to both conditions simultaneously. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the consequences of low oxygen and acidification for early life stage bivalves, and likely other marine organisms, are more severe than would be predicted by either individual stressor and thus must be considered together when assessing how ocean animals respond to these conditions both today and under future climate change scenarios.

  6. Spatio-temporal variability in western Baltic cod early life stage survival mediated by egg buoyancy, hydrography and hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H-H.; Hüssy, K.; Huwer, B.

    2012-01-01

    Spatio-temporal variability in western Baltic cod early life stage survival mediated by egg buoyancy, hydrography and hydrodynamics. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 1744–1752.To disentangle the effects of different drivers on recruitment variability of marine fish, a spatially and temporally...... explicit understanding of both the spawning stock size and the early life stage dynamics is required. The objectives of this study are to assess the transport of western Baltic cod early life stages as well as the variability in environmentally-mediated survival along drift routes in relation to both...

  7. Recovery in eastern Baltic cod: is increased recruitment caused by decreased predation on early life stages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment...... in the second half of the 2000s, new analyses of stomach content of sprat and herring were conducted, to elucidate the contribution of changes in predation pressure on cod recruitment. Comparison of stomach contents of sprat and herring in 2004–2008 with data from the 1990s showed a similar diet composition...

  8. Environmental exposure of Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) early life stages to essential trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Aaron K; Dutton, Jessica; Sclafani, Matthew; Santangelo, Nicholas

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the accumulation Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, and Zn in Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) early life stages (egg, embryo and larvae) and compared the concentrations to the concentration of each element in sediment, pore water and overlying water for 5 sites across Long Island, NY. For the majority of the sites, all essential trace elements accumulated in the embryos and larvae. However, many of the embryos and larvae at specific sites presented different concentration patterns which had no apparent relationship with the local habitat sediment and water values. Generally, Cu, Fe, and Se sequentially increased from egg stage through larval stages for the majority of sites, while Co, Mn, and Ni only did for a few sites. Zinc also showed an increase across sites from embryo to larval stage, however was the only one to show a decrease in concentration from egg to embryo stage at all sites. Interestingly, Mn at Manhasset Bay presented embryo and larval stages to be 50 fold greater than all other sites while the egg stage showed similar values to other sites; this high degree of uptake could be due to a high concentration in the overlying water. All essential trace elements can be accumulated from the environment but greater concentrations may be influenced by abiotic factors and the predominant uptake route (aqueous versus diet) at each life stage. Future laboratory experiments are required to investigate factors that influence essential trace element accumulation and loss in horseshoe crab early life stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Toxicity of crude oil to early life stages of two fish species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, L.M.; Hodson, P.V. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Brown, R.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; King, T.; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2004-07-01

    Fish exposed to crude oil in their early life stages exhibit signs of dioxin-like toxicity which is linked to the presence of alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Exposure is characterized by the presence of blue-sac disease which manifests itself in edema, hemorrhaging, deformities and induction of CYP1A enzymes. In this study, the extent of CYP1A induction and BSD was compared in the early life stages of rainbow trout and Japanese medaka following exposure to two crude oils (Scotian Shelf and Alaskan North Slope Crude). Embryos were exposed to a broad range of concentrations of chemically enhanced water fractions of both oils which have unique PAH composition and chemical characteristics. It was assumed that Alaskan North Slope Crude would be more toxic than Scotian Shelf because it has a higher PAH concentration. The occurrence and severity of BSD was characterized along with the extent of PAH exposure. Preliminary results confirm that PAH exposure is greater for Alaskan North Slope Crude and that the responses of the two fish species were highly correlated.

  10. The effects of waterborne uranium on the hatching success, development, and survival of early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrachot, Stephanie; Simon, Olivier; Gilbin, Rodolphe

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of the radioactive metal uranium (U) on the embryonic development, hatching success, growth rate, and survival of juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio). We studied the effects of depleted uranium (20-500 μg L -1 of DU), inducing mainly chemical toxicity due to its low specific activity, and the combined effects of chemical and radiological toxicity by using a higher specific activity uranium isotope (20 and 100 μg L -1 of 233 U). Results showed that early life stages are significantly affected by uranium exposure through both chemical and combined (chemical and radiological) toxicity. Experiments showed significant effects of U on hatching success starting at the concentration of 250 μg L -1 of DU, causing a 42% delay in median hatching times relative to control. Furthermore, a reduction of growth (decrease in body length and weight) was observed followed by a high mortality of pro-larvae stage (up to 100% at DU concentrations of 250 μg L -1 upon a 15 day exposure). Bioaccumulation measurements highlighted that U was mainly localised in the chorion but penetrated in the embryo inside eggs at a higher concentration. The effects differed depending on the isotopic composition of the uranium: sublethal defects in the tail detachment process were more pronounced for 233 U than DU exposure, while the presence of 233 U specifically affected embryo development and led to higher mortality rates of the prolarvae. The results from this study showed that the early life stages of zebrafish seems to be more sensitive to uranium contamination than more mature stages, and underline the importance of including pro-larval stages into toxicity tests in order to improve the relevancy for environmental risk assessments

  11. Lethal toxicity of industrial chemicals to early life stages of Tilapia guineensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezemonye, L I N; Ogeleka, D F; Okieimen, F E

    2008-08-30

    The toxic effects of industrial chemicals on three early life stages of an economically important fish, Tilapia guineensis were investigated using the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) # 203 recommended semi-static renewal bioassay. The assessment was necessary for the uncontrollable disposal of Neatex (liquid detergent) and Norust CR 486 (corrosion inhibitor) into the Niger Delta environment of Nigeria. The estimated 96-h LC(50) for 7-, 14- and 28-day-old fish in Norust CR 486 exposure was considered "more toxic" than Neatex in all life stages and was dependent on species age, exposure duration and environment. In the fresh water test, for Neatex and Norust CR 486 exposures for day 7, 14 and 28, the 96-h LC50 were 8.79, 17.10 and 82.42 mg/l and 5.55, 13.58 and 20.21 mg/l, respectively. In the brackish test, 15.42 and 46.52 mg/l, not determined (ND) and 7.35, 13.95 and 24.50mg/l were obtained. Differential toxicity was observed in the fresh and brackish water fish for the two chemicals and controls at pchemicals provides a rationale for regulatory surveillance and monitoring of both chemicals in the fragile Niger Delta environment.

  12. Ontogeny and growth of early life stages of captive-bred European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Munk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    of viable eggs and larvae of European eel, providing the basis for studies on early life stages of this species in captivity. In this study, we describe and illustrate morphological characteristics of eggs, embryos, and larvae from fertilization to termination of the yolk sac stage and provide a comparison...... forms a large perivitelline space, reaching an egg diameter of 1.45 ± 0.12 mm at 3.0 to 3.5 h post fertilization. Embryonic development from fertilization to larval hatch lasted ~46–48 h at 20 °C with the larvae emerging in a relatively undeveloped stage with a protuberant yolk sac. During the period......-sustained aquaculture of this high-value and critically endangered species. Statement of relevance: European eel is a high-value species in aquaculture, however, production is presently hampered by reliance on wild caught fry. Captive production of glass eels will reopen markets in Europe and Asia, benefiting European...

  13. ABC transporters and xenobiotic defense systems in early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, Christian; Segner, Helmut; Fent, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Embryos of oviparous fish, in contrast to (ovo) viviparous species, develop in the aquatic environment, and therefore need solute transport systems at their body surfaces for maintaining internal homeostasis and defending against potentially harmful substances. We hypothesized that solute transporters undergo changes in tissue distribution from the embryo to the larval stage. We therefore studied the mRNA profiles of eight ABC transporters (abcb1a, abcb1b, abcc1, abcc2, abcc3, abcc4, abcc5, abcg2) and three solute carriers (oatp1d, putative oatp2 putative, mate1) in different body regions (head, yolk sac epithelium, abdominal viscera, skin/muscles) of developing rainbow trout. Additionally, we investigated mRNA levels of phase I (cyp1a, cyp3a) and phase II (gstp, putative ugt1, putative ugt2) biotransformation enzymes. The study covered the developmental period from the eleuthero-embryo stage to the first-feeding larval stage (1-20days post-hatch, dph). At 1dph, transcripts of abcc2, abcc4, abcg2, cyp3a, gstp, putative mate1, and putative oatp2 occurred primarily in the yolk sac epithelium, whereas at later stages expression of these genes was predominantly observed in the abdominal viscera. The functional activity of ABC transporters in fish early life stages was assessed by rhodamine B accumulation assays. Finally, we investigated the potential impact of xenobiotics (clotrimazole, clofibric acid) on the ABC and biotransformation systems of trout early life stages. While clofibric acid had no effect, clotrimazole lead to an increased rhodamine B accumulation. The results provide evidence that the transition from the eleuthero-embryo to the larval stage is accompanied by a major alteration in tissue expression of ABC transporters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Differences in critical thermal maxima and mortality across life stages of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorhees, Ashley S; Bradley, Timothy J

    2012-07-01

    Thermal limits to activity profoundly affect the abundance and distribution of ectothermic animals. Upper thermal limits to activity are typically reported as the critical thermal maximum (CT(max)), the temperature at which activity becomes uncontrolled. Thermolimit respirometry is a new technique that allows CT(max) to be quantified in small animals, such as insects, as the point of spiracular failure by measuring CO(2) release from the animal as temperature increases. Although prior studies have reported a characteristic pattern of CO(2) release for insects during thermolimit respirometry trials, no studies have been carried out to determine the universality of this pattern across development, or at what point death occurs along this pattern. Here, we compared the CT(max) and patterns of CO(2) release among three life stages of a beetle species, Tenebrio molitor, and mapped heat death onto these patterns. Our study is the first to report distinct patterns of CO(2) release in different life stages of an insect species during thermolimit respirometry. Our results show that CT(max) was significantly higher in adult beetles than in either larvae or pupae (P<0.001) and, similarly, death occurred at higher temperatures in adults than in larvae and pupae. We also found that death during heating closely follows CT(max) in these animals, which confirms that measuring the loss of spiracular control with thermolimit respirometry successfully identifies the point of physiological limitation during heat stress.

  15. Intrinsic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Activities in Early Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Jens C; Schultz, Bernadette; Fruth, Daniela; Fabian, Eric; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Hidding, Björn; Salinas, Edward R

    2017-09-01

    Early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio, zf) are gaining attention as an alternative invivo test system for drug discovery, early developmental toxicity screenings and chemical testing in ecotoxicological and toxicological testing strategies. Previous studies have demonstrated transcriptional evidence for xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME) during early zf development. However, elaborate experiments on XME activities during development are incomplete. In this work, the intrinsic activities of representative phase I and II XME were monitored by transformation of putative zf model substrates analyzed using photometry and high pressure liquid chromatography techniques. Six different defined stages of zf development (between 2.5 h postfertilization (hpf) to 120 hpf) were investigated by preparing a subcellular fraction from whole organism homogenates. We demonstrated that zf embryos as early as 2.5 hpf possess intrinsic metabolic activities for esterase, Aldh, Gst, and Cyp1a above the methodological detection limit. The activities of the enzymes Cyp3a and Nat were measurable during later stages in development. Activities represent dynamic patterns during development. The role of XME activities revealed in this work is relevant for the assessing toxicity in this test system and therefore contributes to a valuable characterization of zf embryos as an alternative testing organism in toxicology. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Adverse effects of the SSRI antidepressant sertraline on early life stages of marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-Calvar, Noelia; Canesi, Laura; Montagna, Michele; Faimali, Marco; Piazza, Veronica; Garaventa, Francesca

    2017-07-01

    Widespread contamination of coastal environments by emerging compounds includes low concentrations of pharmaceuticals. These pollutants are not currently incorporated in monitoring programs despite their effects on non-target organisms are very little documented. Among the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants, sertraline (SRT) is one of the most prescribed globally. In this work, earlier life stages of Amphibalanus amphitrite, Brachionus plicatilis and Mytilus galloprovincialis were exposed to environmental concentrations of SRT in order to study both sub-lethal and lethal responses in 24/48 h-tests. Low concentrations of SRT altered significantly swimming behavior in A. amphitrite and B. plicatilis giving 48 h-EC 50 (μg/L) of 113.88 and 282.23, respectively whereas higher values were observed for mortality and immobilization. EC 50 embryotoxicity with M. galloprovincialis was 206.80 μg/L. This work add new data about SRT ecotoxicity on marine invertebrates and confirms the applicability of behavioral endpoints to evaluate the environmental impact of antidepressants in marine organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterstein, Dana E; Tijerina, Pamella B; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B; Zelikoff, Judith T

    2016-04-12

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13-16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4-6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.

  18. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterstein, Dana E.; Tijerina, Pamella B.; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S.; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B.; Zelikoff, Judith T.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13–16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4–6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology. PMID:27077873

  19. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana E. Lauterstein

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13–16 mg/mL or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND 4–6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq. Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.

  20. Chromium Toxicity Test for Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Using Hanford Site Groundwater: Onsite Early Life-Stage Toxicity Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, Gregory W; Dauble, Dennis D; Chamness, Mickie A; Abernethy, Cary S; McKinstry, Craig A

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate site-specific effects for early life-stage (eyed eggs to free swimming juveniles) fall chinook salmon that might be exposed to hexavalent chromium from Hanford groundwater sources. Our exposure conditions included hexavalent chromium obtained from Hanford groundwater wells near the Columbia River, Columbia River water as the diluent, and locally adapted populations of fall chinook salmon. This report describes both a 96-hr pretest using rainbow trout eggs and an early life-stage test beginning with chinook salmon eggs

  1. A real-time PCR approach to detect predation on anchovy and sardine early life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuende, Elsa; Mendibil, Iñaki; Bachiller, Eneko; Álvarez, Paula; Cotano, Unai; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara

    2017-12-01

    Recruitment of sardine (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum, 1792) and anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus Linnaeus, 1758) is thought to be regulated by predation of their eggs and larvae. Predators of sardine and anchovy can be identified by visual taxonomic identification of stomach contents, but this method is time consuming, tedious and may underestimate predation, especially in small predators such as fish larvae. Alternatively, genetic tools may offer a more cost-effective and accurate alternative. Here, we have developed a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay based on TaqMan probes to simultaneously detect sardine and anchovy remains in gut contents of potential predators. The assay combines previously described and newly generated species-specific primers and probes for anchovy and sardine detection respectively, and allows the detection of 0,001 ng of target DNA (which corresponds to about one hundredth of the total DNA present in a single egg). We applied the method to candidate anchovy and sardine egg predators in the Bay of Biscay, Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) larvae. Egg predation observed was limited primarily to those stations where sardine and/or anchovy eggs were present. Our developed assay offers a suitable tool to understand the effects of predation on the survival of anchovy and sardine early life stages.

  2. Sensitivity to UV radiation in early life stages of the Mediterranean sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahon, Sarah [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); Castro Porras, Viviana A. [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); Pruski, Audrey M. [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); Charles, Francois [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France)], E-mail: charles@obs-banyuls.fr

    2009-03-01

    The sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis was used to investigate the impact of relevant levels of UV-B radiation on the early life stages of a common Mediterranean free spawning benthic species. Sperm, eggs and embryos were exposed to a range of UV radiation doses. The resulting endpoints were evaluated in terms of fertilisation success, development and survival rates. Above a weighted UV radiation dose of 0.0029 kJ m{sup -2}, fertilisation capability of irradiated sperm decreased rapidly. The exposure of the eggs to 0.0175 kJ m{sup -2} and more led to delayed and inhibited development with ensuing embryonic morphological abnormalities. One-day old larvae remained strongly sensitive to UV radiation as shown by the 50% decrease of the larval survival rate for a dose of 0.025 kJ m{sup -2} UVR. The elevated sensitivity of embryos to experimental UVR went along with a lack of significant amount of sunscreen compounds (e.g., mycosporine-like amino acids) in the eggs. The present results demonstrated that gamete viability and embryonic development may be significantly impaired by solar UV radiation in S. granularis, compromising in this way the reproduction of the species. Unless adaptive behavioural reproductive strategies exist, the influence of ambient UV radiation appears as a selective force for population dynamics of broadcast spawners in the shallow benthic Mediterranean environment.

  3. Sensitivity to UV radiation in early life stages of the Mediterranean sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahon, Sarah; Castro Porras, Viviana A.; Pruski, Audrey M.; Charles, Francois

    2009-01-01

    The sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis was used to investigate the impact of relevant levels of UV-B radiation on the early life stages of a common Mediterranean free spawning benthic species. Sperm, eggs and embryos were exposed to a range of UV radiation doses. The resulting endpoints were evaluated in terms of fertilisation success, development and survival rates. Above a weighted UV radiation dose of 0.0029 kJ m -2 , fertilisation capability of irradiated sperm decreased rapidly. The exposure of the eggs to 0.0175 kJ m -2 and more led to delayed and inhibited development with ensuing embryonic morphological abnormalities. One-day old larvae remained strongly sensitive to UV radiation as shown by the 50% decrease of the larval survival rate for a dose of 0.025 kJ m -2 UVR. The elevated sensitivity of embryos to experimental UVR went along with a lack of significant amount of sunscreen compounds (e.g., mycosporine-like amino acids) in the eggs. The present results demonstrated that gamete viability and embryonic development may be significantly impaired by solar UV radiation in S. granularis, compromising in this way the reproduction of the species. Unless adaptive behavioural reproductive strategies exist, the influence of ambient UV radiation appears as a selective force for population dynamics of broadcast spawners in the shallow benthic Mediterranean environment

  4. Amino and fatty acid dynamics of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vanessa M; Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Paula, José R; Couto, Ana; Bandarra, Narcisa; Anacleto, Patrícia; Marques, António; Rosa, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The oceans are becoming warmer, and the higher temperatures are expected to have a major impact on marine life at different levels of biological organization, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Thus, we hypothesize that the future warmer scenarios (here +3 °C) will affect the biochemical composition (amino acid - AA, and fatty acid-FA) of octopod (Octopus vulgaris) embryos and recently-hatched pelagic paralarvae. The main essential amino acids found in octopus embryos were arginine, leucine and lysine; while aspartic and glutamic acids, and taurine were the main non-essential amino acids. Palmitic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were the main FAs found in octopus tissues. Relevant ontogenetic changes were observed, namely a steep decrease in the content of many AAs, and a selective retention of FAs, thus evidencing the protein-based metabolism of these cephalopods. Temperature per si did not elicit significant changes in the overall FA composition, but was responsible for a significant decrease in the content of several AAs, indicating increased embryonic consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Developmental and physiological challenges of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repolho, Tiago; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Dionísio, Gisela; Trübenbach, Katja; Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The ability to understand and predict the effects of ocean warming (under realistic scenarios) on marine biota is of paramount importance, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Here we investigated the impact of predicted environmental warming (+3 °C) on the development, metabolism, heat shock response and antioxidant defense mechanisms of the early stages of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris. As expected, warming shortened embryonic developmental time by 13 days, from 38 days at 18 °C to 25 days at 21 °C. Concomitantly, survival decreased significantly (~29.9 %). Size at hatching varied inversely with temperature, and the percentage of smaller premature paralarvae increased drastically, from 0 % at 18 °C to 17.8 % at 21 °C. The metabolic costs of the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a free planktonic form increased significantly with warming, and HSP70 concentrations and glutathione S-transferase activity levels were significantly magnified from late embryonic to paralarval stages. Yet, despite the presence of effective antioxidant defense mechanisms, ocean warming led to an augmentation of malondialdehyde levels (an indicative of enhanced ROS action), a process considered to be one of the most frequent cellular injury mechanisms. Thus, the present study provides clues about how the magnitude and rate of ocean warming will challenge the buffering capacities of octopus embryos and hatchlings' physiology. The prediction and understanding of the biochemical and physiological responses to warmer temperatures (under realistic scenarios) is crucial for the management of highly commercial and ecologically important species, such as O. vulgaris.

  6. Immunity to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) following DNA vaccination of rainbow trout at an early life-stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Lorenzen, Ellen; Einer-Jensen, Katja

    2001-01-01

    -vaccination respectively, revealed that a highly protective and lasting immunity was established shortly after vaccination, in accordance with earlier experiments with larger fish. The defence mechanisms activated by the DNA vaccine are thus functional at an early life-stage in rainbow trout....

  7. Development of an alternative testing strategy for the fish early life-stage (FELS) test using the AOP framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, the fish early life-stage (FELS) test (OECD 210) is the primary guideline used to estimate chronic toxicity of regulated chemicals. Although already more cost-efficient than adult fish tests, the FELS test has some important drawbacks. Both industry and regulatory inst...

  8. Discovering and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways: Putting the research strategy into practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    In May 2012, a HESI-sponsored expert workshop yielded a proposed research strategy for systematically discovering, characterizing, and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as well as prioritizing AOP development in light of current restrictions ...

  9. Effect of Terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy at Environmental Concentrations on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Velisek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate effects of the triazine’s herbicide terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy on early life stage of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. through antioxidant indices, mortality, growth, development, and histopathology. Based on accumulated mortality in the experimental groups, lethal concentrations of terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy were estimated at 35-day LC50 = 10.9 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. By day 15, fish were exposed to 3.5 mg/L and by day 26, fish were exposed to 0.0029 mg/L; real environmental concentration in Czech rivers, 0.07 mg/L, 1.4 mg/L, and 3.5 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy, showed significantly lower mass and total length compared with controls. Based on inhibition of growth in the experimental groups, lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC = 0.002 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy and no observed effect concentration (NOEC = 0.0001 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. No significant negative effects on hatching or embryo viability were demonstrated at the concentrations tested, but significant differences in early ontogeny among groups were noted. Fish from the two highest tested concentrations showed a dose-related delay in development compared with the controls. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was significant lower in all groups testedly for terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy compared with the control group. At concentrations of 1.4 and 3.5 mg/L damage to caudal kidney tubules when compared to control fish was found.

  10. Alkyl PAH in crude oil cause chronic toxicity to early life stages of fish. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodson, P.V.; Khan, C.W.; Saravanabhavan, G.; Clarke, L.; Brown, R.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). School of Environmental Studies; Hollebone, B.; Wang, Z. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ; Short, J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Juneau, AK (United States). Auke Bay Lab; Lee, K.; King, T. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Centre for Offshore Oil and Gas Environmental Research

    2007-07-01

    In order to mitigate the risk to fisheries following an offshore oil spill, it is necessary to know the components of crude oil that are toxic. Chronic exposure of early life stages of fish to crude oil causes Blue Sac Disease, a syndrome characterized by induction of the cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) enzyme. In this study, effects-driven fractionation of Alaska North Slope Crude was used to identify the classes of compounds that cause CYP1A induction in juvenile rainbow trout and chronic toxicity to developing stages of Japanese medaka. Four fractions of compounds were created by low temperature vacuum distillation. This separated the constituents of oil according to their volatility within defined temperature ranges. The fractions were separated according to their boiling points. With a temperature range of 287-481 degrees C, fraction F3 was the only fraction as toxic as whole oil and induced CYPP1A enzymes of fish. Fractions containing specific classes of alkyl PAH were also collected. For all separations, the performance of the method was evaluated by the extent to which PAH were separated from aliphatics, resins and waxes, as well as by the quantitative recovery of mass in fractions and subfractions. The induction of CYP1A enzymes showed that PAH was present in all fractions that were highly toxic, but the toxicity tests indicated that not all fractions containing PAH were toxic. This research provided a scientific basis for comparing the risks of different crude oils based on chemical analyses that show the different proportions or amounts of PAH present. The results indicate which compounds of concern should be used to determine the extent and success of oil spill remediation, and provide a biological interpretation of chemical fingerprinting used to discriminate the sources of oil pollution. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Alkyl PAH in crude oil cause chronic toxicity to early life stages of fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodson, P.V.; Khan, C.W.; Saravanabhavan, G.; Clarke, L.; Brown, R.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). School of Environmental Studies; Hollebone, B.; Wang, Z. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ; Short, J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Juneau, AK (United States). Auke Bay Lab; Lee, K.; King, T. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Centre for Offshore Oil and Gas Environmental Research

    2007-07-01

    In order to mitigate the risk to fisheries following an offshore oil spill, it is necessary to know the components of crude oil that are toxic. Chronic exposure of early life stages of fish to crude oil causes Blue Sac Disease, a syndrome characterized by induction of the cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) enzyme. In this study, effects-driven fractionation of Alaska North Slope Crude was used to identify the classes of compounds that cause CYP1A induction in juvenile rainbow trout and chronic toxicity to developing stages of Japanese medaka. Four fractions of compounds were created by low temperature vacuum distillation. This separated the constituents of oil according to their volatility within defined temperature ranges. The fractions were separated according to their boiling points. With a temperature range of 287-481 degrees C, fraction F3 was the only fraction as toxic as whole oil and induced CYPP1A enzymes of fish. Fractions containing specific classes of alkyl PAH were also collected. For all separations, the performance of the method was evaluated by the extent to which PAH were separated from aliphatics, resins and waxes, as well as by the quantitative recovery of mass in fractions and subfractions. The induction of CYP1A enzymes showed that PAH was present in all fractions that were highly toxic, but the toxicity tests indicated that not all fractions containing PAH were toxic. This research provided a scientific basis for comparing the risks of different crude oils based on chemical analyses that show the different proportions or amounts of PAH present. The results indicate which compounds of concern should be used to determine the extent and success of oil spill remediation, and provide a biological interpretation of chemical fingerprinting used to discriminate the sources of oil pollution. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Effects of a homologous series of linear alcohol ethoxylate surfactants on fathead minnow early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, R E; Wong, D C; Dorn, P B; Rodgers, J H

    1999-11-01

    Effects of a homologous series of three primarily linear alcohol ethoxylate surfactants were studied in laboratory flow-through 28-day early-life-stage tests with fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas Rafinesque). Surfactants were a C(9-11), C(12-13), and C(14-15) with an average of 6, 6.5, and 7 ethylene oxide units per mole of alcohol, respectively. Average measured surfactant recoveries were 103%, 81%, and 79% of nominal concentrations for the C(9-11) EO 6, C(12-13) EO 6.5, and C(14-15) EO 7 studies, respectively. Embryo survival at 48 h was not adversely affected at any of the concentrations tested. Impaired hatching and deformed fry were observed only in the C(12-13) EO 6.5 study. The 28-day LC50 values were 4.87, 2.39, and 1.02 mg/L for the C(9-11) EO 6, C(12-13) EO 6.5, and C(14-15) EO 7 surfactants, respectively. The corresponding NOECs for survival were 1.01, 1.76, and 0.74 mg/L. Posthatch fry growth was more sensitive than survival for the C(12-13) EO 6.5 and C(14-15) EO 7 surfactants. Survival of posthatch fry decreased with increasing surfactant alkyl chain length. Twenty-eight-day laboratory data were compared to 96-h laboratory, 10-day laboratory and 30-day stream mesocosm data for fathead minnow previously determined for these surfactants. Survival endpoints from the different exposures were comparable and only varied within a factor of two. Similarity of results suggests that it is possible to effectively use 96-h, 10-day, or 28-day laboratory data to predict environmental effects concentrations of these surfactants for fish. http://link.springer-ny. com/link/service/journals/00244/bibs/37n4p536.html

  13. Toxic effects, bioconcentration and depuration of verapamil in the early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, Christoph, E-mail: steinbach@frov.jcu.cz [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Fedorova, Ganna [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Prokes, Miroslav [Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Kvetna 8, 603 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Grabicova, Katerina; Machova, Jana; Grabic, Roman; Valentova, Olga; Kroupova, Hana Kocour [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-01

    Verapamil is a pharmaceutical that belongs to a group of calcium channel blockers and is mainly used as a treatment of angina pectoris and arterial hypertension. Verapamil has been detected in aquatic environments in concentrations ranging from ng L{sup −1} to μg L{sup −1}. In the present study, a series of acute toxicity tests of verapamil on various developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were conducted. As a result, 96hLC{sub 50} values of verapamil were estimated at 16.4 ± 9.2, 7.3 ± 1.5 and 4.8 ± 0.2 mg L{sup −1} for embryos (E5–E9) and common carp larvae L2 and L5, respectively. Lethal concentrations of verapamil decreased with an increase in the age of the fish. Acute exposure to verapamil significantly reduced the heart rate in the embryos and larvae. In an embryo-larval toxicity test (sub-chronic exposure), the bioconcentration, depuration, and toxic effects of verapamil were assessed in common carp. The fish were exposed to verapamil in a concentration of 0.463 (environmentally relevant), 4.63, 46.3 and 463 μg L{sup −1}. Verapamil had no effect on the accumulated mortality, hatching, condition factor, growth or ontogeny of the fish in any of the tested concentrations. In carp exposed to 463 and 46.3 μg L{sup −1} of verapamil, significantly higher occurrences of malformations and edemas were observed compared to the control. The bioconcentration factor of verapamil in whole fish homogenates ranged between 6.6 and 16.6 and was therefore below the critical value for hazard substances (BCF > 500). The half-life and the 95% depuration time for the tested compound were estimated to be 10.2 ± 1.6 days and 44.2 ± 8.6 days, respectively. No effects of verapamil on the studied endpoints were observed at environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: • Study of the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of verapamil on early-life stages of common carp. • Acute exposure to verapamil reduced the heart rate in early-life stages of

  14. Toxic effects, bioconcentration and depuration of verapamil in the early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbach, Christoph; Fedorova, Ganna; Prokes, Miroslav; Grabicova, Katerina; Machova, Jana; Grabic, Roman; Valentova, Olga; Kroupova, Hana Kocour

    2013-01-01

    Verapamil is a pharmaceutical that belongs to a group of calcium channel blockers and is mainly used as a treatment of angina pectoris and arterial hypertension. Verapamil has been detected in aquatic environments in concentrations ranging from ng L −1 to μg L −1 . In the present study, a series of acute toxicity tests of verapamil on various developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were conducted. As a result, 96hLC 50 values of verapamil were estimated at 16.4 ± 9.2, 7.3 ± 1.5 and 4.8 ± 0.2 mg L −1 for embryos (E5–E9) and common carp larvae L2 and L5, respectively. Lethal concentrations of verapamil decreased with an increase in the age of the fish. Acute exposure to verapamil significantly reduced the heart rate in the embryos and larvae. In an embryo-larval toxicity test (sub-chronic exposure), the bioconcentration, depuration, and toxic effects of verapamil were assessed in common carp. The fish were exposed to verapamil in a concentration of 0.463 (environmentally relevant), 4.63, 46.3 and 463 μg L −1 . Verapamil had no effect on the accumulated mortality, hatching, condition factor, growth or ontogeny of the fish in any of the tested concentrations. In carp exposed to 463 and 46.3 μg L −1 of verapamil, significantly higher occurrences of malformations and edemas were observed compared to the control. The bioconcentration factor of verapamil in whole fish homogenates ranged between 6.6 and 16.6 and was therefore below the critical value for hazard substances (BCF > 500). The half-life and the 95% depuration time for the tested compound were estimated to be 10.2 ± 1.6 days and 44.2 ± 8.6 days, respectively. No effects of verapamil on the studied endpoints were observed at environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: • Study of the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of verapamil on early-life stages of common carp. • Acute exposure to verapamil reduced the heart rate in early-life stages of common carp. • The

  15. Heavy rare earth elements affect early life stages in Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula sea urchins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral, Rahime; Pagano, Giovanni; Siciliano, Antonietta; Gravina, Maria; Palumbo, Anna; Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana; Thomas, Philippe J.; Guida, Marco; Tommasi, Franca; Trifuoggi, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Background: Heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) have been scarcely studied for their toxicity, in spite of their applications in several technologies. Thus HREEs require timely investigations for their adverse health effects. Methods: Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula embryos and sperm were exposed to trichloride salts of five HREEs (Dy, Ho, Er, Yb and Lu) and to Ce(III) as a light REE (LREE) reference to evaluate: 1) developmental defects (% DD) in HREE-exposed larvae or in the offspring of HREE-exposed sperm; 2) mitotic anomalies; 3) fertilization success; and 4) reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Nominal HREE concentrations were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: HREEs induced concentration-related DD increases in P. lividus and A. lixula larvae, ranging from no significant DD increase at 10 −7 M HREEs up to ≅100% DD at 10 −5 M HREE. Larvae exposed to 10 −5 M Ce(III) resulted in less severe DD rates compared to HREEs. Decreased mitotic activity and increased aberration rates were found in HREE-exposed P. lividus embryos. Significant increases in ROS formation and NO levels were found both in HREE-exposed and in Ce(III) embryos, whereas only Ce(III), but not HREEs resulted in significant increase in MDA levels. Sperm exposure to HREEs (10 −5 –10 −4 M) resulted in a concentration-related decrease in fertilization success along with increase in offspring damage. These effects were significantly enhanced for Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III) and Yb(III), compared to Lu(III) and to Ce(III). Conclusion: HREE-associated toxicity affected embryogenesis, fertilization, cytogenetic and redox endpoints showing different toxicities of tested HREEs. - Highlights: • Different toxicities were exerted by five tested HREEs on sea urchin early life stages. • Sea urchin embryos and sperm were sensitive to HREE levels ranging from 1 to 100 μM, according to

  16. Heavy rare earth elements affect early life stages in Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula sea urchins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oral, Rahime [Ege University, Faculty of Fisheries, TR-35100 Bornova, İzmir (Turkey); Pagano, Giovanni, E-mail: gbpagano@tin.it [“Federico II” University of Naples, Department of Chemical Sciences, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples (Italy); Siciliano, Antonietta; Gravina, Maria [“Federico II” University of Naples, Department of Biology, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Palumbo, Anna; Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana [Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples (Italy); Thomas, Philippe J. [Environment and Climate Change Canada, Science & Technology Branch, National Wildlife Research Center – Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Guida, Marco [“Federico II” University of Naples, Department of Biology, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Tommasi, Franca [University of Bari, Department of Biology, Bari (Italy); Trifuoggi, Marco [“Federico II” University of Naples, Department of Chemical Sciences, I-80126 Naples (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    Background: Heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) have been scarcely studied for their toxicity, in spite of their applications in several technologies. Thus HREEs require timely investigations for their adverse health effects. Methods: Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula embryos and sperm were exposed to trichloride salts of five HREEs (Dy, Ho, Er, Yb and Lu) and to Ce(III) as a light REE (LREE) reference to evaluate: 1) developmental defects (% DD) in HREE-exposed larvae or in the offspring of HREE-exposed sperm; 2) mitotic anomalies; 3) fertilization success; and 4) reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Nominal HREE concentrations were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: HREEs induced concentration-related DD increases in P. lividus and A. lixula larvae, ranging from no significant DD increase at 10{sup −7} M HREEs up to ≅100% DD at 10{sup −5} M HREE. Larvae exposed to 10{sup −5} M Ce(III) resulted in less severe DD rates compared to HREEs. Decreased mitotic activity and increased aberration rates were found in HREE-exposed P. lividus embryos. Significant increases in ROS formation and NO levels were found both in HREE-exposed and in Ce(III) embryos, whereas only Ce(III), but not HREEs resulted in significant increase in MDA levels. Sperm exposure to HREEs (10{sup −5}–10{sup −4} M) resulted in a concentration-related decrease in fertilization success along with increase in offspring damage. These effects were significantly enhanced for Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III) and Yb(III), compared to Lu(III) and to Ce(III). Conclusion: HREE-associated toxicity affected embryogenesis, fertilization, cytogenetic and redox endpoints showing different toxicities of tested HREEs. - Highlights: • Different toxicities were exerted by five tested HREEs on sea urchin early life stages. • Sea urchin embryos and sperm were sensitive to HREE levels ranging from 1 to 100

  17. Proteomic responses reveal the differential effects induced by cadmium in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis at early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lanlan; Peng, Xiao; Yu, Deliang; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has become an important metal contaminant and posed severe risk on the organisms in the coastal environments of the Bohai Sea. Marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is widely distributed along the Bohai coast and consumed as seafood by local residents. Evidences indicate that the early stages of marine organisms are more sensitive to metal contaminants. In this study, we applied two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics to characterize the biological effects of Cd (50 μg L(-1)) in the early life stages (D-shape larval and juvenile) of mussels. The different proteomic responses demonstrated the differential responsive mechanisms to Cd exposure in these two early life stages of mussels. In details, results indicated that Cd mainly induced immune and oxidative stresses in both D-shape larval and juvenile mussels via different pathways. In addition, the significant up-regulation of triosephosphate isomerase and metallothionein confirmed the enhanced energy demand and mobilized detoxification mechanism in D-shape larval mussels exposed to Cd. In juvenile mussels, Cd exposure also induced clear apoptosis. Overall, this work suggests that Cd is a potential immune toxicant to mussel M. galloprovincialis at early life stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Developmental toxicity of PAH mixtures in fish early life stages. Part II: adverse effects in Japanese medaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihanic, Florane; Clérandeau, Christelle; Le Menach, Karyn; Morin, Bénédicte; Budzinski, Hélène; Cousin, Xavier; Cachot, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    In aquatic environments, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mostly occur as complex mixtures, for which risk assessment remains problematic. To better understand the effects of PAH mixture toxicity on fish early life stages, this study compared the developmental toxicity of three PAH complex mixtures. These mixtures were extracted from a PAH-contaminated sediment (Seine estuary, France) and two oils (Arabian Light and Erika). For each fraction, artificial sediment was spiked at three different environmental concentrations roughly equivalent to 0.5, 4, and 10 μg total PAH g(-1) dw. Japanese medaka embryos were incubated on these PAH-spiked sediments throughout their development, right up until hatching. Several endpoints were recorded at different developmental stages, including acute endpoints, morphological abnormalities, larvae locomotion, and genotoxicity (comet and micronucleus assays). The three PAH fractions delayed hatching, induced developmental abnormalities, disrupted larvae swimming activity, and damaged DNA at environmental concentrations. Differences in toxicity levels, likely related to differences in PAH proportions, were highlighted between fractions. The Arabian Light and Erika petrogenic fractions, containing a high proportion of alkylated PAHs and low molecular weight PAHs, were more toxic to Japanese medaka early life stages than the pyrolytic fraction. This was not supported by the toxic equivalency approach, which appeared unsuitable for assessing the toxicity of the three PAH fractions to fish early life stages. This study highlights the potential risks posed by environmental mixtures of alkylated and low molecular weight PAHs to early stages of fish development.

  19. Evaluation of whole-mount in situ hybridization as a tool for pathway-based toxicological research with early-life stage fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life stage fish can be more sensitive to chemical exposure than adult fish. Therefore, determining possible adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for early-life stages is crucial. To determine chemical effects and/or mechanisms of action in exposed fish embryos and larvae, whole-...

  20. Evaluation of whole mount in situ hybridization as a tool for pathway-based toxicological research in early-life stage fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life stage fish can be more sensitive to chemical exposure than mature, adult fish. Therefore, defining adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) relevant to early-life stages is critical for linking perturbations of key events during fish development to potential adverse outcomes of...

  1. Evaluation of whole mount in situ hybridization as a tool for pathway-based toxicological research in early-life stage fathead minnows (poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life stage fish can be more sensitive to chemical exposure than mature, adult fish. Therefore, defining adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) relevant to early-life stages is critical for linking perturbations of key events during fish development to potential adverse outcomes of...

  2. Small larvae in large rivers: observations on downstream movement of European grayling Thymallus thymallus during early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, C H A; Dokk, T; Haugen, T O; Kiffney, P M; Museth, J

    2017-06-01

    Behaviour of early life stages of the salmonid European grayling Thymallus thymallus was investigated by assessing the timing of larval downstream movement from spawning areas, the depth at which larvae moved and the distribution of juvenile fish during summer in two large connected river systems in Norway. Trapping of larvae moving downstream and electrofishing surveys revealed that T. thymallus larvae emerging from the spawning gravel moved downstream predominantly during the night, despite light levels sufficient for orientation in the high-latitude study area. Larvae moved in the water mostly at the bottom layer close to the substratum, while drifting debris was caught in all layers of the water column. Few young-of-the-year still resided close to the spawning areas in autumn, suggesting large-scale movement (several km). Together, these observations show that there may be a deliberate, active component to downstream movement of T. thymallus during early life stages. This research signifies the importance of longitudinal connectivity for T. thymallus in Nordic large river systems. Human alterations of flow regimes and the construction of reservoirs for hydropower may not only affect the movement of adult fish, but may already interfere with active movement behaviour of fish during early life stages. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Ocean Acidification Effects on the Early Life-Stages of Commercially Important Flatfish of the Northeast USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, R. C.; Habeck, E. A.; Candelmo, A. C.; Poach, M.; Wieczorek, D.; Phelan, B.; Caldarone, E.; Cooper, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    The limited available evidence about effects on finfish of high CO2 levels and acidification of our oceans suggests that effects will differ across fish species, be subtle, and interact with other stressors. A carefully planned, experimental framework was developed to cast an extensive yet strategic inferential net. Three key elements of our approach are the use of 1) multiple marine finfish species of relevance to the northeastern USA that differ in their ecologies including spawning season and habitat of early life-stages; 2) a wide yet realistic range of environmental conditions (i.e., concurrent manipulation of CO2 levels and water temperatures), and 3) a diverse set of response variables related to fish sensitivity to elevated CO2 levels, water temperatures, and their interactions. The response variable set reflects fish condition, fitness, and likelihood of recruitment, and includes measures of viability, physiology, histopathology, growth, development, and behavior expressed during fish early life-stages (i.e., gametes, embryos, and larvae). Early life-stages were chosen due to the anticipation of their vulnerability to acid-base challenges in their environment. To date, factorial experiments have been implemented on summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Initial results reveal survival of summer flounder embryos is compromised by pH 790 ppm). These results were similar across offspring groups (i.e., embryos from different parents). Winter flounder are larger at hatching when exposed to high CO2 levels in the coolest environment implemented in our experiments (range 4 to 10 ○C). Further responses of advanced larvae of both flounder species are currently being assessed for evidence of other whole body, component organ, and biochemical impairment. This study will aid researchers and resource managers in identifying species types, life-stages, and biotic responses that are most sensitive to the expected

  4. Uptake and effects of uranium nanoparticles on early life stage of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleiven, M.; Teien, H.C.; Lind, O.C.; Vaa Johnsen, I.; Oughton, D.; Salbu, B. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    Nanotechnology has been, and still is, a major scientific and economic growth area. Over the last decade, the awareness of nano-material as a potential human and environmental hazard has increased dramatically. Being a naturally occurring radionuclide, as well as the major fuel material used in nuclear energy power plants, many sources of uranium (U) are found in the environment. Uranium nanoparticles (NPs) can occur naturally (i.e., colloidal species), as incidental anthropogenic sources (e.g., debris from depleted U weapons and fuel manufacture and reprocessing), or can be intentionally synthesized for use as catalysts. Studies on environmental aspects of U NPs are rather scarce in literature. Thus, the focus of the present work was to obtain information on uptake and potential effects of U NPs on early life stage of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Eggs of Atlantic salmon were exposed to two types of U NPs, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and UO{sub 2}, as well as to uranyl ions, in natural soft water (TOC 4.5 mg/L) at pH 7.2. Two U NP exposure experiments during fertilization were performed, both with exposure for 24 h. The exposure period was followed by a depuration period in uncontaminated water (7 and 69 days of depuration, respectively). Exposure solutions were subject to a suite of techniques to characterize the exposure during the experiment. Dissection of eggs was performed prior to the determination of U to distinguish between U associated to the shell and U in the egg fluid. Results showed that U was highest in eggs exposed to uranyl, especially during the stage of swelling, and the uptake into the eggs increased with exposure time. The uptake of U in eggs exposed to U NPs was only minor, and may be due to U ions in exposure solutions or released from U-NPs, rather than an actual U NP uptake. However, on the surface of eggs exposed to U NPs large amounts of U NPs were deposited during the experimental duration period, potentially posing a risk over time. There were no

  5. EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF FLY ASH EXPOSURE ON FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES: FATHEAD MINNOW EMBRYO-LARVAL TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Elmore, Logan R [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    current technical manuscript); (3) additional laboratory experimentation focused on the potential effects of long-term exposures to fly ash on fish survival and reproductive competence; and (4) a combined field and laboratory study examining the in vitro developmental success of embryos and larvae obtained from fish exposed in vivo for over two years to fly ash in the Emory and Clinch Rivers. These fish reproduction and early life-stage studies are being conducted in conjunction with a broader biological monitoring program administered by TVA that includes a field study of the condition of larval fish in the Emory and Clinch Rivers along with assessments of water quality, sediment composition, ecotoxicological studies, terrestrial wildlife studies, and human and ecological risk assessment. Information and data generated from these studies will provide direct input into risk assessment efforts and will also complement and help support other phases of the overall biomonitoring program. Fish eggs, in general, are known to be capable of concentrating heavy metals and other environmental contaminants from water-borne exposures during embryonic development (Jezierska and others 2009), and fathead minnow embryos in particular have been shown to concentrate methylmercury (Devlin 2006) as well as other chemical toxicants. This technical report focuses on the responses of fathead minnow embryos to simple contact exposures to fly ash in laboratory toxicity tests adapted from a standard fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 7-d embryo-larval survival and teratogenicity test (method 1001.0 in EPA 2002) with mortality, hatching success, and the incidences of developmental abnormalities as measured endpoints.

  6. Effects of Environmental Contamination and Acute Toxicity of N-Nitrate on Early Life Stages of Endemic Arboreal Frog, Polypedates cruciger (Blyth, 1852).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balangoda, Anusha; Deepananda, K H M Ashoka; Wegiriya, H C E

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the potential toxic effects of environmentally relevant nitrate concentrations on development, growth, and mortality of early life stages of common hour-glass tree frog, Polypedates cruciger. Tadpoles from hatchlings through pre-adult were exposed to environmentally relevant nitrate concentrations detected in Mirissa, Sri Lanka. Newly hatched, external gill stage, and internal gill stage tadpoles were exposed to potassium nitrate for bioassay tests. No behavioral changes or abnormalities were observed in control and nitrate-induced group. However, detected environmental nitrate concentration significantly increased (p nitrate pollution than internal gill stage. The results suggest that environmentally relevant nitrate can cause mortality on the amphibian population in ecosystems associated with agro-pastoral activities through altering the growth and direct toxicological effects on the survivorship.

  7. Metabolomics and transcriptomics reveal the toxicity of difenoconazole to the early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Miaomiao; Zhu, Wentao; Wang, Dezhen; Qi, Suzhen; Wang, Yao; Yan, Jin; Dong, Kai; Zheng, Mingqi; Wang, Chengju

    2018-01-01

    Difenoconazole is widely used to inhibit the growth of fungi, but its residue in the water environment may threaten ecosystem and human health. Here, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and LC-MS/MS based metabolomics and transcriptomics approaches were used to assess the response of zebrafish to difenoconazole exposure. Early life stages of zebrafish were exposed to difenoconazole at environmentally relevant concentrations for 168h. Their comparison with the control group suggested an adverse development and disturbance of steroid hormones and VTG. KEGG pathway analysis identified five biological processes on the basis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), as well as altered metabolites and amino acids in zebrafish following difenoconazole exposure. These affected processes included energy metabolism, amino acids metabolism, lipid metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, and an immune-related pathway. Collectively, these results bring us closer to an incremental understanding of the toxic effects of difenoconazole on zebrafish in its early development, and lend support to the continued use of the early life stages of zebrafish as a classical model to evaluate underlying environmental risks of xenobiotics in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Sperm Activity and Early Life Stages of the Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Vihtakari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Larval stages are among those most vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA. Projected atmospheric CO2 levels for the end of this century may lead to negative impacts on communities dominated by calcifying taxa with planktonic life stages. We exposed Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm and early life stages to pHT levels of 8.0 (current pH and 7.6 (2100 level by manipulating pCO2 level (380 and 1000 ppm. Sperm activity was examined at ambient temperatures (16–17 °C using individual males as replicates. We also assessed the effects of temperature (ambient and ≈20 °C and pH on larval size, survival, respiration and calcification of late trochophore/early D-veliger stages using a cross-factorial design. Increased pCO2 had a negative effect on the percentage of motile sperm (mean response ratio R= 71% and sperm swimming speed (R= 74%, possibly indicating reduced fertilization capacity of sperm in low concentrations. Increased temperature had a more prominent effect on larval stages than pCO2, reducing performance (RSize = 90% and RSurvival = 70% and increasing energy demand (RRespiration = 429%. We observed no significant interactions between pCO2 and temperature. Our results suggest that increasing temperature might have a larger impact on very early larval stages of M. galloprovincialis than OA at levels predicted for the end of the century.

  9. Among-year variation in selection during early life stages and the genetic basis of fitness in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Froukje M; Ågren, Jon

    2018-04-19

    Incomplete information regarding both selection regimes and the genetic basis of fitness limits our understanding of adaptive evolution. Among-year variation in the genetic basis of fitness is rarely quantified, and estimates of selection are typically based on single components of fitness, thus potentially missing conflicting selection acting during other life-history stages. Here, we examined among-year variation in selection on a key life-history trait and the genetic basis of fitness covering the whole life cycle in the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We planted freshly-matured seeds of >200 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two locally-adapted populations (Italy and Sweden), and both parental genotypes at the native site of the Swedish population in three consecutive years. We quantified selection against the nonlocal Italian genotype, mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fitness and its components, and quantified selection on timing of germination during different life stages. In all three years, the local Swedish genotype outperformed the non-local Italian genotype. However, both the contribution of early life stages to relative fitness, and the effects of fitness QTL varied among years. Timing of germination was under conflicting selection through seedling establishment vs. adult survival and fecundity, and both the direction and magnitude of net selection varied among years. Our results demonstrate that selection during early life stages and the genetic basis of fitness can vary markedly among years, emphasizing the need for multi-year studies considering the whole life cycle for a full understanding of natural selection and mechanisms maintaining local adaptation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. USE OF MULTI-PHOTON LASER-SCANNING MICROSCOPY TO DESCRIBE THE DISTRIBUTION OF XENOBIOTIC CHEMICALS IN FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the mechanisms by which persistent bioaccumulative toxicants (PBTs) produce toxicity during fish early life stages (ELS), dose response relationships need to be determined in relation to the dynamic distribution of chemicals in sensitive tissues. In this stud...

  11. Investigating Alternatives to the Fish Early Life-Stage Test: A Strategy for Discovering and Annotating Adverse Outcome Pathways for Early Fish Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fish early life-stage (FELS) test (OECD Test Guideline 210) is the primary test used internationally to estimate chronic fish toxicity in support of ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs. As part of an on-going effort to develop efficient and cost-effec...

  12. Effect of mercury and cadmium on early life stages of Java medaka (Oryzias javanicus): A potential tropical test fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Ahmad; Yusof, Shahrizad

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Early life stages of Java medaka show high sensitivity to Cd and Hg. → Exposure of the early life stages caused several developmental impairments. → Java medaka is suitable to be established as test organism for ecotoxicology. → Results of testing using this fish reflect the environment of the tropical region. - Abstract: Several organisms have been used as indicators, bio-monitoring agents or test organisms in ecotoxicological studies. A close relative of the well established Japanese medaka, the Java medaka (Oryzias javanicus), has the potential to be a test organism. The fish is native to the estuaries of the Malaysian Peninsula, Thailand, Indonesia and Singapore. In this study, newly fertilised eggs were exposed to different concentrations of Cd and Hg. Observations were done on the development of the embryos. Exposure to low levels of Cd and Hg (0.01-0.05 ppm) resulted in several developmental disorders that led to death. Exposure to ≥1.0 ppm Cd resulted in immediate developmental arrest. The embryos of Java medaka showed tolerance to a certain extent when exposed to ≥1.0 ppm Hg compared to Cd. Based on the sensitivity of the embryos, Java medaka is a suitable test organism for ecotoxicology in the tropical region.

  13. Uncovering the exposure mechanisms of sunken heavy oil that makes it chronically toxic to early life stages of fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Young, G.; Lemire, B.; Hodson, P.

    2010-01-01

    A train derailment in 2005 caused the release of 150,000 litres of No. 6 heavy fuel oil into a lake in Alberta. The oil is a residue of the crude oil refinement process and contains 3-4 ringed alkylated forms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that are known to cause sub-lethal toxic responses during the early life stages of rainbow trout. Because the oil does not disperse well, oil patches still persist in near-shore sediments of the lake where fish spawn. This study assessed how the behaviour of heavy oil in water interacts with exposure and toxicity to the early life stages of fish. Daily renewal tests with heavy fuel oil coated on glass plate demonstrated higher levels of toxicity to trout embryos than oil that was mechanically or chemically dispersed. A flow-through oil gravel column was used to assess whether the toxic constituents of the heavy oil are transferred quickly enough to cause toxicity. The aim of the study was to develop exposure and toxicity test methods that accurately reflect the behaviour of heavy oil after a spill.

  14. Biomarkers as a tool to assess effects of chromium (VI): comparison of responses in zebrafish early life stages and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Inês; Oliveira, Rhaul; Lourenço, Joana; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe; Mendo, Sónia; Soares, A M V M

    2010-09-01

    The present work aims to compare the sensitivity of embryos and adult zebrafish to chromium (VI) (as potassium dichromate) focusing on biomarkers (cholinesterase, glutathione S-transferase and lactate dehydrogenase) as endpoints. Zebrafish eggs showed less sensitivity to Cr (VI) (96 h-LC50=145.7 mg/L) than adults (96 h-LC50=39.4 mg/L) probably due to the protective action of the chorion. However, biomarkers were much more responsive in larvae than in adults and gave clear indications about Cr (VI) mode of action: it seems to be neurotoxic (inhibited cholinesterase), to inhibit glutathione S-transferase activity and to interfere with cellular metabolic activity (changes in lactate dehydrogenase activity) in larvae. In adults, only glutathione S-transferase was responsive, showing a clear inhibition. The responsiveness of the analyzed biomarkers in larvae reinforces the idea of the usefulness of early life stage assays in the assessment of chemicals effects. Moreover, early life stage assays also contributed with relevant information regarding anomalies in larvae development and behavior. Further research should focus on the use of biomarkers to assess long term effects which are ecologically more relevant. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute toxicity of polyacrylamide flocculants to early life stages of freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczek, Sean B.; Cope, W. Gregory; McLaughlin, Richard A.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Polyacrylamide has become an effective tool for reducing construction-related suspended sediment and turbidity, which are considered to have significant adverse impacts on aquatic ecosystems and are a leading cause of the degradation of North American streams and rivers. However, little is known about the effects of polyacrylamide on many freshwater organisms, and prior to the present study, no information existed on the toxicity of polyacrylamide compounds to native freshwater mussels (family Unionidae), one of the most imperiled faunal groups globally. Following standard test guidelines, we exposed juvenile mussels (test duration 96 h) and glochidia larvae (test duration 24 h) to 5 different anionic polyacrylamide compounds and 1 non-ionic compound. Species tested included the yellow lampmussel (Lampsilis cariosa), an Atlantic Slope species that is listed as endangered in North Carolina; the Appalachian elktoe (Alasmidonta raveneliana), a federally endangered Interior Basin species; and the washboard (Megalonaias nervosa), a common Interior Basin species. We found that median lethal concentrations (LC50s) of polyacrylamide ranged from 411.7 to >1000 mg/L for glochidia and from 126.8 to >1000 mg/L for juveniles. All LC50s were orders of magnitude greater (2–3) than concentrations typically recommended for turbidity control (1–5 mg/L), regardless of their molecular weight or charge density. The results demonstrate that the polyacrylamide compounds tested were not acutely toxic to the mussel species and life stages tested, indicating minimal risk of short-term exposure from polyacrylamide applications in the environment. However, other potential uses of polyacrylamide in the environment (e.g., wastewater treatment, paper processing, mining, algae removal) and their chronic or sublethal effects remain uncertain and warrant additional investigation.

  16. Exposure to low dose benzo[a]pyrene during early life stages causes symptoms similar to cardiac hypertrophy in adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lixing; Gao, Dongxu; Zhang, Youyu; Wang, Chonggang; Zuo, Zhenghong

    2014-07-15

    Growing evidence indicates that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can lead to cardiac hypertrophy and recent research indicates that exposure to low dose crude oil during early embryonic development may lead to impacts on heart health at later life stages. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exposure during early life stages to low dose benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), as a high-ring PAH, would lead to cardiac hypertrophy at later life stages. Zebrafish were exposed to low dose BaP until 96 hpf, then transferred to clean water and maintained for a year before histological and molecular biological analysis. Our results showed that exposure to low level BaP during early life stages increased heart weight to body weight ratios and deposited collagen in the heart of adult zebrafish. ANP, BNP and c-Myc were also induced in the heart of adult zebrafish by BaP. These results proved that low level BaP exposure during early life stages caused symptoms similar to cardiac hypertrophy in adult zebrafish. Our results displayed an elevated expression of CdC42, RhoA, p-ERK1, 2 and Rac1. Therefore, the mechanism of the cardiac hypertrophy caused by BaP exposure during early life stages may be through inducing the expression of CdC42, RhoA and Rac1, together with activating ERK1, 2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Toxicity implications for early life stage Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) exposed to oxyfluorfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powe, Doris K; Dasmahapatra, Asok K; Russell, Joseph L; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the potential toxic effects of Oxyfluorfen (OXY), an herbicide used in agriculture, on the embryo-larval development of Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). Embryos (1-day postfertilization) and larvae (2-day posthatch) were exposed to OXY (0.5-8 mg/L) for 96 h and evaluated for mortality and hatching on embryos, and the mortality and growth on larvae during depuration. It was observed that the embryo-mortality was inconsistently altered by OXY; only the 2 mg/L group showed significant reduction on embryo survivability. However, larval-mortality was concentration-dependent and OXY exposure induced scoliosis-like phenotypic features in the surviving larvae; the calculated LC 50 was 5.238 mg/L. Our data further indicated that larval skeleton, both axial and appendicular, was the potential target site of OXY. Skeletal growth in larvae exposed to 2 mg/L was inhibited significantly until 1 week of depuration with regard to the linear lengths of neurocranium, Meckel's cartilage, caudal vertebrae (first 10) in the axial skeletons, and pectoral fin and urostyle in the appendicular skeletons. Moreover, the total protein content remained unaltered by OXY after 96 h exposure; while the RNA concentration was reduced significantly in larvae exposed to 2 mg/L. Expression analysis of several genes by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) showed significant upregulation of zic5, a zinc-finger type transcription regulator, at the transcription level. This study indicated that the scoliosis induced by OXY in Japanese medaka larvae was the result of stunted skeletal growth, probably because of deregulation of zinc-finger type transcription regulators, at the genomic level. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effects of mixture of pharmaceuticals on early life stages of tench (Tinca tinca)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stancová, V.; Plhalová, L.; Bartošková, M.; Živná, D.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Maršálek, P.; Blahová, J.; Škorič, M.; Svobodová, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, č. 253468 (2014), s. 253468 ISSN 2314-6133 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : waste-water treatment * trout Oncorhynchus mykiss * personal care products * rainbow trout * treatment plants * early ontogeny * aquatic environment * active compounds * Japanese medaka * Cyprinus carpio Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.579, year: 2014

  19. Effect of terbutryn at environmental concentrations on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velíšek, J.; Stará, A.; Máchová, J.; Dvořák, P.; Zusková, E.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Svobodová, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 1 (2012), s. 102-108 ISSN 0048-3575 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Triazine * Embryo–larval toxicity test * Lowest observed-effect concentration * No observed-effect concentration * Early development * Malformation Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 2.111, year: 2012

  20. The effects of metribuzin on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánová, S.; Doleželová, P.; Plhalová, L.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Maršálek, P.; Škorič, M.; Svobodová, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 2 (2012), s. 152-158 ISSN 0048-3575 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Fish * Embryo–larval toxicity test * LOEC * Triazine * Early development Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.111, year: 2012

  1. Role of Nutritional Factors at the Early Life Stages in the Pathogenesis and Clinical Course of Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Kagohashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition has been suggested as an important environmental factor other than viruses and chemicals in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D. Whereas various maternal dietary nutritional elements have been suggested and examined in T1D of both humans and experimental animals, the results largely remain controversial. In a series of studies using T1D model nonobese diabetic (NOD mice, maternal dietary n-6/n-3 essential fatty acid ratio during pregnancy and lactation period, that is, early life stages of the offspring, has been shown to affect pathogenesis of insulitis and strongly prevent overt T1D of the offspring, which is consistent with its preventive effects on other allergic diseases.

  2. Combined exposure to ambient UVB radiation and nitrite negatively affects survival of amphibian early life stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias, Guadalupe; Marco, Adolfo; Blaustein, Andrew R.

    2007-01-01

    Many aquatic species are sensitive to ambient levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) and chemical fertilizers. However, recent studies indicate that the interaction among multiple stressors acting simultaneously could be contributing to the population declines of some animal species. Therefore, we tested the potential synergistic effects between ambient levels of UVB and a contaminant, sodium nitrite in the larvae of two amphibian species, the common European toad Bufo bufo and the Iberian green frog Rana perezi. We studied R. perezi from both mountain and coastal populations to examine if populations of the same species varied in their response to stressors in different habitats. Both species were sensitive to the two stressors acting alone, but the interaction between the two stressors caused a multiplicative impact on tadpole survival. For B. bufo, the combination of UVB and nitrite was up to seven times more lethal than mortality for each stressor alone. In a coastal wetland, the combination of UVB and nitrite was four times more toxic for R. perezi than the sum of the effect on mortality for each stressor alone. One mg/L of nitrite killed half the population of R. perezi at Gredos Mountains at day 10 in the absence of UVB. In the presence of UVB, 50% of the tadpoles from the same experiment died at day 7. Similar toxic response were found for R. perezi in two highly contrasted environments suggesting this synergistic interaction can be a widespread phenomenon. The interaction of excess chemical fertilizers and manure with ambient UVB radiation could be contributing to the global decline of some amphibian species. We suggest that potential exposure to UVB radiation be accounted for when assessing water quality criteria regarding nitrite pollution

  3. Combined exposure to ambient UVB radiation and nitrite negatively affects survival of amphibian early life stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias, Guadalupe [Donana Biological Station, CSIC, Spanish Council for Scientific Research. P.O. Box 1056, Sevilla 41013 (Spain); Marco, Adolfo [Donana Biological Station, CSIC, Spanish Council for Scientific Research. P.O. Box 1056, Sevilla 41013 (Spain)], E-mail: amarco@ebd.csic.es; Blaustein, Andrew R. [Department of Zoology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, 97331 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Many aquatic species are sensitive to ambient levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) and chemical fertilizers. However, recent studies indicate that the interaction among multiple stressors acting simultaneously could be contributing to the population declines of some animal species. Therefore, we tested the potential synergistic effects between ambient levels of UVB and a contaminant, sodium nitrite in the larvae of two amphibian species, the common European toad Bufo bufo and the Iberian green frog Rana perezi. We studied R. perezi from both mountain and coastal populations to examine if populations of the same species varied in their response to stressors in different habitats. Both species were sensitive to the two stressors acting alone, but the interaction between the two stressors caused a multiplicative impact on tadpole survival. For B. bufo, the combination of UVB and nitrite was up to seven times more lethal than mortality for each stressor alone. In a coastal wetland, the combination of UVB and nitrite was four times more toxic for R. perezi than the sum of the effect on mortality for each stressor alone. One mg/L of nitrite killed half the population of R. perezi at Gredos Mountains at day 10 in the absence of UVB. In the presence of UVB, 50% of the tadpoles from the same experiment died at day 7. Similar toxic response were found for R. perezi in two highly contrasted environments suggesting this synergistic interaction can be a widespread phenomenon. The interaction of excess chemical fertilizers and manure with ambient UVB radiation could be contributing to the global decline of some amphibian species. We suggest that potential exposure to UVB radiation be accounted for when assessing water quality criteria regarding nitrite pollution.

  4. Using drift nets to capture early life stages and monitor spawning of the yangtze river chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Q.W.; Kynard, B.; Yang, D.G.; Chen, X.H.; Du, H.; Shen, L.; Zhang, H.

    2009-01-01

    A sampling system for capturing sturgeon eggs using a D-shaped bottom anchored drift net was used to capture early life stages (ELS) of Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis, and monitor annual spawning success at Yichang on the Yangtze River, 1996-2004, before and just after the Three Gorges Dam began operation. Captured were 96 875 ELS (early life stages: eggs, yolk-sac larvae = eleuthero embryos, and larvae); most were eggs and only 2477 were yolk-sac larvae. Most ELS were captured in the main river channel and inside the bend at the Yichang spawning reach. Yolk-sac larvae were captured for a maximum of 3 days after hatching began, indicating quick dispersal downstream. The back-calculated day of egg fertilization over the eight years indicated a maximum spawning window of 23 days (20 October-10 November). Spawning in all years was restricted temporally, occurred mostly at night and during one or two spawning periods, each lasting several days. The brief temporal spawning window may reduce egg predation by opportunistic predators by flooding the river bottom with millions of eggs. During 1996-2002, the percentage of fertilized eggs in an annual 20-egg sample was between 63.5 to 94.1%; however, in 2003 the percentage fertilized was only 23.8%. This sudden decline may be related to the altered environmental conditions at Yichang caused by operation of the Three Gorges Dam. Further studies are needed to monitor spawning and changes in egg fertilization in this threatened population. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Toxicity assessment of silver nanoparticles in Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) and starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) during early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banan, Ashkan; Kalbassi Masjed Shahi, Mohammad Reza; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Yazdani Sadati, Mohammad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in consumer products mainly due to their antimicrobial action. The rapidly increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) has driven more attention to their possible ecotoxicological effects. In this study, the acute toxicity of colloidal AgNPs was evaluated during the embryonic stage of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) and starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) at concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/L. Fertilized eggs (75 eggs per replicate) were exposed to aforementioned concentrations for 96 h in triplicate. 96-h LC50 values in Persian sturgeon and starry sturgeon were calculated as 0.163 and 0.158 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, in starry sturgeon, the short-term effects of AgNPs on the hatching rate, survival rate, and Ag accumulation during early life stages (before active feeding commences) were also analyzed at concentrations of 0, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/L of colloidal AgNPs. The highest silver accumulation occurred in larvae exposed to 0.1 mg/L AgNPs; however, the body burden of silver did not alter survival rate, and there were no significant differences among treatments. Based on the obtained results from the acute toxicity exposures, AgNPs induced a concentration-dependent toxicity in both species during early life stages, while complementary studies are suggested for investigating their short-term effects in detail.

  6. Effect of nitrite on early-life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupová, H.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Mácová, S.; Peňáz, Milan; Baruš, Vlastimil; Novotný, L.; Máchová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2010), s. 535-540 ISSN 0730-7268. [International Workshop on Aquatic Toxicology and Biomonitoring /1./. Vodňany, 27.08.2008-29.08.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Embryo–larval toxicity test * Lowest-observed-effect concentration * No-observed-effect concentration * Early development * Histopathology Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.026, year: 2010

  7. External gamma irradiation-induced effects in early-life stages of zebrafish, Danio rerio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnaire, B.; Cavalié, I.; Pereira, S.; Floriani, M.; Dubourg, N.; Camilleri, V.; Adam-Guillermin, C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma rays on zebrafish larvae. • Different techniques were used: gene expression, biochemistry, microscopy and macroscopical observations. • The results showed that gamma irradiation can alter embryo-larval development at several levels of organization. - Abstract: In the general context of validation of tools useful for the characterization of ecological risk linked to ionizing radiation, the effects of an external gamma irradiation were studied in zebrafish larvae irradiated for 96 h with two dose rates: 0.8 mGy/d, which is close to the level recommended to protect ecosystems from adverse effects of ionizing radiation (0.24 mGy/d) and a higher dose rate of 570 mGy/d. Several endpoints were investigated, such as mortality, hatching, and some parameters of embryo-larval development, immunotoxicity, apoptosis, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity and histological alterations. Results showed that an exposure to gamma rays induced an acceleration of hatching for both doses and a decrease of yolk bag diameter for the highest dose, which could indicate an increase of global metabolism. AChE activity decreased with the low dose rate of gamma irradiation and alterations were also shown in muscles of irradiated larvae. These results suggest that gamma irradiation can induce damages on larval neurotransmission, which could have repercussions on locomotion. DNA damages, basal ROS production and apoptosis were also induced by irradiation, while ROS stimulation index and EROD biotransformation activity were decreased and gene expression of acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase, cytochrome p450 and myeloperoxidase increased. These results showed that ionizing radiation induced an oxidative stress conducting to DNA damages. This study characterized further the modes of action of ionizing radiation in fish.

  8. External gamma irradiation-induced effects in early-life stages of zebrafish, Danio rerio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnaire, B., E-mail: beatrice.gagnaire@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Cavalié, I. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Pereira, S. [Neolys Diagnostics, Lyon 69373 (France); Floriani, M.; Dubourg, N.; Camilleri, V.; Adam-Guillermin, C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma rays on zebrafish larvae. • Different techniques were used: gene expression, biochemistry, microscopy and macroscopical observations. • The results showed that gamma irradiation can alter embryo-larval development at several levels of organization. - Abstract: In the general context of validation of tools useful for the characterization of ecological risk linked to ionizing radiation, the effects of an external gamma irradiation were studied in zebrafish larvae irradiated for 96 h with two dose rates: 0.8 mGy/d, which is close to the level recommended to protect ecosystems from adverse effects of ionizing radiation (0.24 mGy/d) and a higher dose rate of 570 mGy/d. Several endpoints were investigated, such as mortality, hatching, and some parameters of embryo-larval development, immunotoxicity, apoptosis, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity and histological alterations. Results showed that an exposure to gamma rays induced an acceleration of hatching for both doses and a decrease of yolk bag diameter for the highest dose, which could indicate an increase of global metabolism. AChE activity decreased with the low dose rate of gamma irradiation and alterations were also shown in muscles of irradiated larvae. These results suggest that gamma irradiation can induce damages on larval neurotransmission, which could have repercussions on locomotion. DNA damages, basal ROS production and apoptosis were also induced by irradiation, while ROS stimulation index and EROD biotransformation activity were decreased and gene expression of acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase, cytochrome p450 and myeloperoxidase increased. These results showed that ionizing radiation induced an oxidative stress conducting to DNA damages. This study characterized further the modes of action of ionizing radiation in fish.

  9. Acute effects of road salts and associated cyanide compounds on the early life stages of the unionid mussel Villosa iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfo, Tamara J; Cope, W Gregory; Young, George B; Jones, Jess W; Hua, Dan; Lingenfelser, Susan F

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of cyanide to the early life stages of freshwater mussels (order Unionida) has remained unexplored. Cyanide is known to be acutely toxic to other aquatic organisms. Cyanide-containing compounds, such as sodium ferrocyanide and ferric ferrocyanide, are commonly added to road deicing salts as anticaking agents. The purpose of the present study was to assess the acute toxicity of three cyanide compounds (sodium cyanide, sodium ferrocyanide, and ferric ferrocyanide), two road salts containing cyanide anticaking agents (Morton and Cargill brands), a brine deicing solution (Liquidow brand), and a reference salt (sodium chloride) on glochidia (larvae) and juveniles of the freshwater mussel Villosa iris. Sodium ferrocyanide and ferric ferrocyanide were not acutely toxic to glochidia and juvenile mussels at concentrations up to 1,000 mg/L and 100 mg/L, respectively. Lowest observed effect concentrations (LOECs) for these two chemicals ranged from 10 to >1,000 mg/L. Sodium cyanide was acutely toxic to juvenile mussels, with a 96-h median effective concentration (EC50) of 1.10 mg/L, although glochidia tolerated concentrations up to 10 mg/L. The EC50s for sodium chloride, Liquidow brine, Morton road salt, and Cargill road salt were not significantly different for tests within the same life stage and test duration (range, 1.66-4.92 g/L). These results indicate that cyanide-containing anticaking agents do not exacerbate the toxicity of road salts, but that the use of road salts and brine solutions for deicing or dust control on roads may warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  10. Apoptosis-related genes induced in response to ketamine during early life stages of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Luís M; Serafim, Cindy; Valentim, Ana M; Antunes, Luís M; Matos, Manuela; Coimbra, Ana M

    2017-09-05

    Increasing evidence supports that ketamine, a widely used anaesthetic, potentiates apoptosis during development through the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Defects in the apoptotic machinery can cause or contribute to the developmental abnormalities previously described in ketamine-exposed zebrafish. The involvement of the apoptotic machinery in ketamine-induced teratogenicity was addressed by assessing the apoptotic signals at 8 and 24 hpf following 20min exposure to ketamine at three stages of early zebrafish embryo development (256 cell, 50% epiboly and 1-4 somites stages). Exposure at the 256-cell stage to ketamine induced an up-regulation of casp8 and pcna at 8 hpf while changes in pcna at the mRNA level were observed at 24 hpf. After the 50% epiboly stage exposure, the mRNA levels of casp9 were increased at 8 and 24 hpf while aifm1 was affected at 24 hpf. Both tp53 and pcna expressions were increased at 8 hpf. After exposure during the 1-4 somites stage, no meaningful changes on transcript levels were observed. The distribution of apoptotic cells and the caspase-like enzymatic activities of caspase-3 and -9 were not affected by ketamine exposure. It is proposed that ketamine exposure at the 256-cell stage induced a cooperative mechanism between proliferation and cellular death while following exposure at the 50% epiboly, a p53-dependent and -independent caspase activation may occur. Finally, at the 1-4 somites stage, the defence mechanisms are already fully in place to protect against ketamine-insult. Thus, ketamine teratogenicity seems to be dependent on the functional mechanisms present in each developmental stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Testing lagoonal sediments with early life stages of the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana): An approach to assess sediment toxicity in the Venice Lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Marco; Bergamin, Martina; Delaney, Eugenia; Ghirardini, Annamaria Volpi; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2018-01-01

    The early-life stages of development of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa from egg to copepodite I is proposed as an endpoint for assessing sediment toxicity by exposing newly released eggs directly onto the sediment-water interface. A preliminary study of 5 sediment samples collected in the lagoon of Venice highlighted that the larval development rate (LDR) and the early-life stages (ELS) mortality endpoints with A. tonsa are more sensitive than the standard amphipod mortality test; moreover LDR resulted in a more reliable endpoint than ELS mortality, due to the interference of the sediment with the recovery of unhatched eggs and dead larvae. The LDR data collected in a definitive study of 48 sediment samples from the Venice Lagoon has been analysed together with the preliminary data to evaluate the statistical performances of the bioassay (among replicate variance and minimum significant difference between samples and control) and to investigate the possible correlation with sediment chemistry and physical properties. The results showed that statistical performances of the LDR test with A. tonsa correspond with the outcomes of other tests applied to the sediment-water interface (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryotoxicity test), sediments (Neanthes arenaceodentata survival and growth test) and porewater (S. purpuratus); the LDR endpoint did, however, show a slightly higher variance as compared with other tests used in the Lagoon of Venice, such as 10-d amphipod lethality test and larval development with sea urchin and bivalves embryos. Sediment toxicity data highlighted the high sensitivity and the clear ability of the larval development to discriminate among sediments characterized by different levels of contamination. The data of the definitive study evidenced that inhibition of the larval development was not affected by grain-size and the organic carbon content of the sediment; in contrast, a strong correlation between inhibition of the larval development

  12. Ocean Warming Enhances Malformations, Premature Hatching, Metabolic Suppression and Oxidative Stress in the Early Life Stages of a Keystone Squid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rui; Pimentel, Marta S.; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Teixeira, Tatiana; Trübenbach, Katja; Diniz, Mário

    2012-01-01

    Background The knowledge about the capacity of organisms’ early life stages to adapt to elevated temperatures is very limited but crucial to understand how marine biota will respond to global warming. Here we provide a comprehensive and integrated view of biological responses to future warming during the early ontogeny of a keystone invertebrate, the squid Loligo vulgaris. Methodology/Principal Findings Recently-spawned egg masses were collected and reared until hatching at present day and projected near future (+2°C) temperatures, to investigate the ability of early stages to undergo thermal acclimation, namely phenotypic altering of morphological, behavioural, biochemical and physiological features. Our findings showed that under the projected near-future warming, the abiotic conditions inside the eggs promoted metabolic suppression, which was followed by premature hatching. Concomitantly, the less developed newborns showed greater incidence of malformations. After hatching, the metabolic burst associated with the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a planktonic stage increased linearly with temperature. However, the greater exposure to environmental stress by the hatchlings seemed to be compensated by physiological mechanisms that reduce the negative effects on fitness. Heat shock proteins (HSP70/HSC70) and antioxidant enzymes activities constituted an integrated stress response to ocean warming in hatchlings (but not in embryos). Conclusions/Significance The stressful abiotic conditions inside eggs are expected to be aggravated under the projected near-future ocean warming, with deleterious effects on embryo survival and growth. Greater feeding challenges and the lower thermal tolerance limits of the hatchlings are strictly connected to high metabolic demands associated with the planktonic life strategy. Yet, we found some evidence that, in the future, the early stages might support higher energy demands by adjusting some cellular functional properties

  13. Photo-induced toxicity in early life stage fiddler crab (Uca longisignalis) following exposure to Deepwater Horizon oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damare, Leigh M; Bridges, Kristin N; Alloy, Matthew M; Curran, Thomas E; Soulen, Brianne K; Forth, Heather P; Lay, Claire R; Morris, Jeffrey M; Stoeckel, James A; Roberts, Aaron P

    2018-05-01

    The 2010 explosion of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil rig led to the release of millions of barrels of oil in the Gulf of Mexico. Oil in aquatic ecosystems exerts toxicity through multiple mechanisms, including photo-induced toxicity following co-exposure with UV radiation. The timing and location of the spill coincided with both fiddler crab reproduction and peak yearly UV intensities, putting early life stage fiddler crabs at risk of injury due to photo-induced toxicity. The present study assessed sensitivity of fiddler crab larvae to photo-induced toxicity during co-exposure to a range of environmentally relevant dilutions of high-energy water accommodated fractions of DWH oil, and either dark recovery period (duration: 17-h) in between. Survival was significantly decreased in treatments the presence of >10% UV and relatively low concentrations of oil. Results of the present study indicate fiddler crab larvae are sensitive to photo-induced toxicity in the presence of DWH oil. These results are of concern, as fiddler crabs play an important role as ecosystem engineers, modulating sediment biogeochemical processes via burrowing action. Furthermore, they occupy an important place in the food web in the Gulf of Mexico.

  14. The influence of environmental conditions on early life stages of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the central Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustups, Didzis; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Bergstrom, Ulf; Makarchouk, Andrej; Sics, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Flounder (Platichthys flesus) is a temperate marine fish that is well adapted to the brackish waters of the Baltic Sea. There are two sympatric flounder populations in the Baltic Sea, pelagic and demersal spawners, which differ in their spawning habitat and egg characteristics. In the present study, pelagic spawning flounder of the central Baltic Sea was studied. We examined whether variations in hydrological regime can explain fluctuations in flounder early life stages that have occurred over the past 30 years (1970-2005). Using generalized additive modeling to explain the abundance of flounder eggs and larvae in a Latvian ichthyoplankton dataset, we evaluate the hypothesis that the available reproductive volume, defined as the water column with dissolved oxygen larger than 1 ml/l and salinity between 10.6 and 12 PSU, affects the survival of flounder ichthyoplankton and determines recruitment success. Both reproductive volume and spawning stock biomass were significant factors determining flounder ichthyoplankton abundance. Different measures of water temperature did not contribute significantly to the variability of eggs or larvae. However, recruitment did not correlate to the supply of larvae. The findings presented in this study on the relationship between flounder reproduction, spawning stock biomass and reproductive volume, as well as the lack of correlation to recruitment, are valuable for the understanding of flounder ecology in the Baltic Sea, and for developing the management of the species.

  15. USE OF MULTI-PHOTON LASER SCANNING CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY TO DESCRIBE THE TISSUE DISTRIBUTION OF PBTS IN FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish early life stages (ELS) are more sensitive than juveniles or adults to many persistent bioaccumulative toxicants (PBTs). To better understand the mechanisms by which these chemicals produce toxicity during ELS, dose-response relationships need to be determined in relation t...

  16. Recovery of gonadal development in tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes after exposure to 17β-estradiol during early life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Liu, Bin; Meng, Zhen; Liu, Xinfu; Jia, Yudong; Yang, Zhi; Lei, Jilin

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) exposure on gonadal development in the tiger puff er ( Takifugu rubripes), which has a genetic sex determination system of male homogametic XY-XX. Tiger puff er larvae were exposed to 1, 10 and 100 μg/L E2 from 15 to 100 days post-hatch (dph) and then maintained in clean seawater until 400 dph. Changes in sex ratio, gonadal structure and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were monitored at 100, 160, 270 and 400 dph. Sex-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used to analyze the genetic sex of samples, except those at 100 dph. Exposure had a positive effect on the conversion of genetically male gonads into phenotypically female gonads at 100 dph. However, gonads from 60% of genetic XY males in the 1-μg/L E2 group and 100% in the 10-μg/L E2 group developed intersexual gonads at 160 dph; gonads of all genetic XY males in the two treatment groups reverted to testis by 270 dph. While 38%, 57% and 44% of gonads of XY fish in the 100-μg/L E2 group reverted to intersexual gonads at 160, 270 and 400 dph, respectively, none reverted to testis after E2 treatment. In addition, E2 exposure inhibited gonadal growth of both genetic sexes, as indicated by the clear dose-dependent decrease in GSI at 270 and 400 dph. The results showed that exposure to E2 during the early life stages of tiger puff er disrupted gonadal development, but that fish recovered after migration to clean seawater. The study suggests the potential use of tiger puff er as a valuable indicator species to evaluate the effects of environmental estrogens on marine fish, thereby protecting valuable fishery resources.

  17. Effects of ocean acidification on trace element accumulation in the early-life stages of squid Loligo vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T.; Reveillac, E.; Oberhaensli, F.; Teyssie, J.L.; Jeffree, R.; Gattuso, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We study radiotracer uptake in squid embryo and paralarvae under relevant pCO 2 . → We examine metal distribution and concentration factors in egg compartments. → Increasing pCO 2 affects eggshell shielding properties and metal uptake in animals. → Chemical signature in statoliths is modified by higher Zn incorporation under high pCO 2 . → Both element chemical properties and embryo physiology could account for the observed effects. - Abstract: The anthropogenic release of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into the atmosphere leads to an increase in the CO 2 partial pressure (pCO 2 ) in the ocean, which may reach 950 μatm by the end of the 21st century. The resulting hypercapnia (high pCO 2 ) and decreasing pH ('ocean acidification') are expected to have appreciable effects on water-breathing organisms, especially on their early-life stages. For organisms like squid that lay their eggs in coastal areas where the embryo and then paralarva are also exposed to metal contamination, there is a need for information on how ocean acidification may influence trace element bioaccumulation during their development. In this study, we investigated the effects of enhanced levels of pCO 2 (380, 850 and 1500 μatm corresponding to pH T of 8.1, 7.85 and 7.60) on the accumulation of dissolved 110m Ag, 109 Cd, 57 Co, 203 Hg, 54 Mn and 65 Zn radiotracers in the whole egg strand and in the different compartments of the egg of Loligo vulgaris during the embryonic development and also in hatchlings during their first days of paralarval life. Retention properties of the eggshell for 110m Ag, 203 Hg and 65 Zn were affected by the pCO 2 treatments. In the embryo, increasing seawater pCO 2 enhanced the uptake of both 110m Ag and 65 Zn while 203 Hg showed a minimum concentration factor (CF) at the intermediate pCO 2 . 65 Zn incorporation in statoliths also increased with increasing pCO 2 . Conversely, uptake of 109 Cd and 54 Mn in the embryo decreased as a function of increasing

  18. Effects of ocean acidification on trace element accumulation in the early-life stages of squid Loligo vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T., E-mail: tlacouel@gmail.com [INSU-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie de Villefranche, B.P. 28, 06234 Villefranche-sur-mer Cedex (France); International Atomic Energy Agency - Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC 98000 (Monaco); Reveillac, E. [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs) UMR 6250 CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, Institut du Littoral et de l' Environnement, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Oberhaensli, F.; Teyssie, J.L. [International Atomic Energy Agency - Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC 98000 (Monaco); Jeffree, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency - Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC 98000 (Monaco); School of the Environment, Science Faculty, University of Technology Sydney, NSW, 2007 (Australia); Gattuso, J.P. [INSU-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie de Villefranche, B.P. 28, 06234 Villefranche-sur-mer Cedex (France); Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Observatoire Oceanologique de Villefranche, 06230 Villefranche-sur-mer (France)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We study radiotracer uptake in squid embryo and paralarvae under relevant pCO{sub 2}. {yields} We examine metal distribution and concentration factors in egg compartments. {yields} Increasing pCO{sub 2} affects eggshell shielding properties and metal uptake in animals. {yields} Chemical signature in statoliths is modified by higher Zn incorporation under high pCO{sub 2}. {yields} Both element chemical properties and embryo physiology could account for the observed effects. - Abstract: The anthropogenic release of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into the atmosphere leads to an increase in the CO{sub 2} partial pressure (pCO{sub 2}) in the ocean, which may reach 950 {mu}atm by the end of the 21st century. The resulting hypercapnia (high pCO{sub 2}) and decreasing pH ('ocean acidification') are expected to have appreciable effects on water-breathing organisms, especially on their early-life stages. For organisms like squid that lay their eggs in coastal areas where the embryo and then paralarva are also exposed to metal contamination, there is a need for information on how ocean acidification may influence trace element bioaccumulation during their development. In this study, we investigated the effects of enhanced levels of pCO{sub 2} (380, 850 and 1500 {mu}atm corresponding to pH{sub T} of 8.1, 7.85 and 7.60) on the accumulation of dissolved {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 109}Cd, {sup 57}Co, {sup 203}Hg, {sup 54}Mn and {sup 65}Zn radiotracers in the whole egg strand and in the different compartments of the egg of Loligo vulgaris during the embryonic development and also in hatchlings during their first days of paralarval life. Retention properties of the eggshell for {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 203}Hg and {sup 65}Zn were affected by the pCO{sub 2} treatments. In the embryo, increasing seawater pCO{sub 2} enhanced the uptake of both {sup 110m}Ag and {sup 65}Zn while {sup 203}Hg showed a minimum concentration factor (CF) at the intermediate pCO{sub 2}. {sup 65}Zn

  19. Assessing the toxicity and risk of salt-impacted winter road runoff to the early life stages of freshwater mussels in the Canadian province of Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, R S; Rochfort, Q; McInnis, R; Exall, K; Gillis, P L

    2017-11-01

    In temperate urbanized areas where road salting is used for winter road maintenance, the level of chloride in surface waters has been increasing. While a number of studies have shown that the early-life stages of freshwater mussels are particularly sensitive to salt; few studies have examined the toxicity of salt-impacted winter road runoff to the early-life stages of freshwater mussels to confirm that chloride is the driver of toxicity in this mixture. This study examines the acute toxicity of field-collected winter road runoff to the glochidia of wavy-rayed lampmussels (Lampsilis fasciola) (48 h exposure) and newly released juvenile fatmucket mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) (road run-off created with moderately hard synthetic water (∼80 mg CaCO 3 /L) were 1177 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1011-1344 mg Cl - /L) and 2276 mg Cl - /L (95% CI: 1698-2854 mg Cl - /L), respectively. These effect concentrations correspond with the toxicity of chloride reported in other studies, indicating that chloride is likely the driver of toxicity in salt-impacted road-runoff, with other contaminants (e.g., metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) playing a de minimis role. Toxicity data from the current study and literature and concentrations of chloride in the surface waters of Ontario were used to conduct a probabilistic risk assessment of chloride to early-life stage freshwater mussels. The assessment indicated that chronic exposure to elevated chloride levels could pose a risk to freshwater mussels; further investigation is warranted to ensure that the most sensitive organisms are protected. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Experimental High Flow Releases and Increased Fluctuations in Flow from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lee's Ferry Reach of the Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Josh

    2010-05-01

    The abundance of adult fish populations is controlled by the growth and survival rates of early life stages. Evaluating the effects of flow regimes on early life stages is therefore critical to determine how these regimes affect the abundance of adult populations. Experimental high flow releases from Glen Canyon Dam, primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, AZ, have been conducted in 1996, 2004, and 2008. These flows potentially affect the Lee's Ferry reach rainbow trout population, located immediately downstream of the dam, which supports a highly valued fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Due to concerns about negative effects of high trout abundance on endangered native fish, hourly variation in flow from Glen Canyon Dam was experimentally increased between 2003 and 2005 to reduce trout abundance. This study reports on the effects of experimental high flow releases and fluctuating flows on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lee's Ferry reach based on monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance and growth of age-0 trout between 2003 and 2009. Data on spawn timing, spawning elevations, and intergravel temperatures were integrated in a model to estimate the magnitude and seasonal trend in incubation mortality resulting from redd dewatering due to fluctuations in flow. Experimental fluctuations from January through March promoted spawning at higher elevations where the duration of dewatering was longer and intergravel temperatures exceeded lethal thresholds. Flow-dependent incubation mortality rates were 24% (2003) and 50% (2004) in years with higher flow fluctuations, compared to 5-11% under normal operations (2006-2009). Spatial and temporal predictions of mortality were consistent with direct observations of egg mortality determined from the excavation of 125 redds. The amount of variation in backcalculated hatch

  1. Immigration and early life stages recruitment of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus) to an estuarine nursery: The influence of environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Eva; Ramos, Sandra; Elliott, Michael; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2016-01-01

    Connectivity between coastal spawning grounds and estuarine nurseries is a critical step in the life cycle of many fish species. Larval immigration and transport-associated physical-biological processes are determinants of recruitment success to nursery areas. The recruitment of the European flounder, Platichthys flesus, to estuarine nurseries located at the southern edge of the species distribution range, has been usually investigated during its juvenile stages, while estuarine recruitment during the earlier planktonic life stage remains largely unstudied. The present study investigated the patterns of flounder larval recruitment and the influence of environmental factors on the immigration of the early life stages to the Lima estuary (NW Portugal), integrating data on fish larvae and post-settlement individuals (< 50 mm length), collected over 7 years. Late-stage larvae arrived at the estuary between February and July and peak abundances were observed in April. Post-settlement individuals (< 50 mm) occurred later between April and October, whereas newly-settled ones (< 20 mm) were found only in May and June. Variables associated with the spawning, survival and growth of larvae in the ocean (sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a and inland hydrological variables) were the major drivers of flounder occurrence in the estuarine nursery. Although the adjacent coastal area is characterized by a current system with strong seasonality and mesoscale variability, we did not identify any influence of variables related with physical processes (currents and upwelling) on the occurrence of early life stages in the estuary. A wider knowledge on the influence of the coastal circulation variability and its associated effects upon ocean-estuarine connectivity is required to improve our understanding of the population dynamics of marine spawning fish that use estuarine nurseries.

  2. The elemental composition of purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) calcite and potential effects of pCO2 during early life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVigne, M.; Hill, T. M.; Sanford, E.; Gaylord, B.; Russell, A. D.; Lenz, E. A.; Hosfelt, J. D.; Young, M. K.

    2013-06-01

    Ocean acidification will likely have negative impacts on invertebrates producing skeletons composed of calcium carbonate. Skeletal solubility is partly controlled by the incorporation of "foreign" ions (e.g. magnesium) into the crystal lattice of these skeletal structures, a process that is sensitive to a variety of biological and environmental factors. Here we explore effects of life stage, oceanographic region of origin, and changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater (pCO2) on trace elemental composition in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus). We show that, similar to other urchin taxa, adult purple sea urchins have the ability to precipitate skeleton composed of a range of biominerals spanning low- to high-Mg calcites. Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios were substantially lower in adult spines compared to adult tests. On the other hand, trace elemental composition was invariant among adults collected from four oceanographically distinct regions spanning a range of carbonate chemistry conditions (Oregon, Northern California, Central California, and Southern California). Skeletons of newly settled juvenile urchins that originated from adults from the four regions exhibited intermediate Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca between adult spine and test endmembers, indicating that skeleton precipitated during early life stages is more soluble than adult spines and less soluble than adult tests. Mean skeletal Mg / Ca or Sr / Ca of juvenile skeleton did not vary with source region when larvae were reared under present-day, global-average seawater carbonate conditions (400 μatm; pHT = 8.02 ± 0.03 1 SD; Ωcalcite = 3.3 ± 0.2 1 SD). However, when reared under elevated pCO2 (900 μatm; pHT = 7.73 ± 0.03; Ωcalcite = 1.8 ± 0.1), skeletal Sr / Ca in juveniles exhibited increased variance across the four regions. Although larvae from the northern populations (Oregon, Northern California, Central California) did not exhibit differences in Mg or Sr

  3. The elemental composition of purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus calcite and potential effects of pCO2 during early life stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. LaVigne

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification will likely have negative impacts on invertebrates producing skeletons composed of calcium carbonate. Skeletal solubility is partly controlled by the incorporation of "foreign" ions (e.g. magnesium into the crystal lattice of these skeletal structures, a process that is sensitive to a variety of biological and environmental factors. Here we explore effects of life stage, oceanographic region of origin, and changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater (pCO2 on trace elemental composition in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We show that, similar to other urchin taxa, adult purple sea urchins have the ability to precipitate skeleton composed of a range of biominerals spanning low- to high-Mg calcites. Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios were substantially lower in adult spines compared to adult tests. On the other hand, trace elemental composition was invariant among adults collected from four oceanographically distinct regions spanning a range of carbonate chemistry conditions (Oregon, Northern California, Central California, and Southern California. Skeletons of newly settled juvenile urchins that originated from adults from the four regions exhibited intermediate Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca between adult spine and test endmembers, indicating that skeleton precipitated during early life stages is more soluble than adult spines and less soluble than adult tests. Mean skeletal Mg / Ca or Sr / Ca of juvenile skeleton did not vary with source region when larvae were reared under present-day, global-average seawater carbonate conditions (400 μatm; pHT = 8.02 ± 0.03 1 SD; Ωcalcite = 3.3 ± 0.2 1 SD. However, when reared under elevated pCO2 (900 μatm; pHT = 7.73 ± 0.03; Ωcalcite = 1.8 ± 0.1, skeletal Sr / Ca in juveniles exhibited increased variance across the four regions. Although larvae from the northern populations (Oregon, Northern California, Central California did not exhibit differences in Mg or Sr

  4. A comparison of gene transcription profiles of domesticated and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) at early life stages, reared under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicskei, Beatrix; Bron, James E; Glover, Kevin A; Taggart, John B

    2014-10-09

    Atlantic salmon have been subject to domestication for approximately ten generations, beginning in the early 1970s. This process of artificial selection will have created various genetic differences between wild and farmed stocks. Each year, hundreds of thousands of farmed fish escape into the wild. These escapees may interbreed with wild conspecifics raising concerns for both the fish-farming industry and fisheries managers. Thus, a better understanding of the interactions between domesticated and wild salmon is essential to the continued sustainability of the aquaculture industry and to the maintenance of healthy wild stocks. We compared the transcriptomes of a wild Norwegian Atlantic salmon population (Figgjo) and a Norwegian farmed strain (Mowi) at two life stages: yolk sac fry and post first-feeding fry. The analysis employed 44 k oligo-microarrays to analyse gene expression of 36 farmed, wild and hybrid (farmed dam x wild sire) individuals reared under identical hatchery conditions. Although some of the transcriptional differences detected overlapped between sampling points, our results highlighted the importance of studying various life stages. Compared to the wild population, the Mowi strain displayed up-regulation in mRNA translation-related and down regulation in nervous and immune system -related pathways in the sac fry, whereas up-regulation of digestive and endocrine activities, carbohydrate, energy, amino acid and lipid metabolism and down-regulation of environmental information processing and immune system pathways were evident in the feeding fry. Differentially regulated pathways that were common among life stages generally belonged to environmental information processing and immune system functional groups. In addition, we found indications of strong maternal effects, reinforcing the importance of including reciprocal hybrids in the analysis. In agreement with previous studies we showed that domestication has caused changes in the transcriptome of

  5. Investigating alternatives to the fish early-life stage test: a strategy for discovering and annotating adverse outcome pathways for early fish development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Daniel; Volz, David C; Embry, Michelle R; Ankley, Gerald T; Belanger, Scott E; Léonard, Marc; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanguay, Robert; Truong, Lisa; Wehmas, Leah

    2014-01-01

    The fish early-life stage (FELS) test (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] test guideline 210) is the primary test used internationally to estimate chronic fish toxicity in support of ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs. As part of an ongoing effort to develop efficient and cost-effective alternatives to the FELS test, there is a need to identify and describe potential adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) relevant to FELS toxicity. To support this endeavor, the authors outline and illustrate an overall strategy for the discovery and annotation of FELS AOPs. Key events represented by major developmental landmarks were organized into a preliminary conceptual model of fish development. Using swim bladder inflation as an example, a weight-of-evidence-based approach was used to support linkage of key molecular initiating events to adverse phenotypic outcomes and reduced young-of-year survival. Based on an iterative approach, the feasibility of using key events as the foundation for expanding a network of plausible linkages and AOP knowledge was explored and, in the process, important knowledge gaps were identified. Given the scope and scale of the task, prioritization of AOP development was recommended and key research objectives were defined relative to factors such as current animal-use restrictions in the European Union and increased demands for fish toxicity data in chemical management programs globally. The example and strategy described are intended to guide collective efforts to define FELS-related AOPs and develop resource-efficient predictive assays that address the toxicological domain of the OECD 210 test. © 2013 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  6. Early life stages of Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) are sensitive to fish feed containing the anti-parasitic drug diflubenzuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechmann, Renée Katrin; Lyng, Emily; Westerlund, Stig; Bamber, Shaw; Berry, Mark; Arnberg, Maj; Kringstad, Alfhild; Calosi, Piero; Seear, Paul J

    2018-05-01

    Increasing use of fish feed containing the chitin synthesis inhibiting anti-parasitic drug diflubenzuron (DFB) in salmon aquaculture has raised concerns over its impact on coastal ecosystems. Larvae of Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) were exposed to DFB medicated feed under Control conditions (7.0 °C, pH 8.0) and under Ocean Acidification and Warming conditions (OAW, 9.5 °C and pH 7.6). Two weeks' exposure to DFB medicated feed caused significantly increased mortality. The effect of OAW and DFB on mortality of shrimp larvae was additive; 10% mortality in Control, 35% in OAW, 66% in DFB and 92% in OAW + DFB. In OAW + DFB feeding and swimming activity were reduced for stage II larvae and none of the surviving larvae developed to stage IV. Two genes involved in feeding (GAPDH and PRLP) and one gene involved in moulting (DD9B) were significantly downregulated in larvae exposed to OAW + DFB relative to the Control. Due to a shorter intermoult period under OAW conditions, the OAW + DFB larvae were exposed throughout two instead of one critical pre-moult period. This may explain the more serious sub-lethal effects for OAW + DFB than DFB larvae. A single day exposure at 4 days after hatching did not affect DFB larvae, but high mortality was observed for OAW + DFB larvae, possibly because they were exposed closer to moulting. High mortality of shrimp larvae exposed to DFB medicated feed, indicates that the use of DFB in salmon aquaculture is a threat to crustacean zooplankton. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics of juvenile survivors reveal spatio-temporal differences in early life stage survival of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Böttcher, U.

    2014-01-01

    with previous modeling studies on the survival chances of early-stage larvae and with general spatio-temporal patterns of larval prey availability suggests that differences in survival are related to food availability during the early larval stage. Results are discussed in relation to the recruitment process...

  8. Emergence, development, and maturity of the gonad of two species of chitons "sea cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) through the early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Abadia-Chanona, Quetzalli Yasú

    2013-01-01

    This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or "early life stages" were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y = aX(b) . A total of 125 chitons (4≤TL≤40 mm, in total length "TL") were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r), close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods ("Pw" without gonad, "Pe" gonad emergence, and "Pf" gonadal sac formed) and four stages ("S0" gametocytogenesis, "S1" gametogenesis, "S2" mature, and "S3" spawning), respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13-14.32 mm, Pe 10.32-16.93 mm, Pf 12.99-25.01 mm, S0 16.08-24.34 mm (females) and 19.51-26.60 mm (males), S1 27.15-35.63 mm (females) and 23.45-32.27 mm (males), S2 24.48-40.24 mm (females) and 25.45-32.87 mm (males). Sexual differentiation (in S0) of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult) are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management.

  9. Emergence, development, and maturity of the gonad of two species of chitons "sea cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora through the early life stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Hernando Avila-Poveda

    Full Text Available This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or "early life stages" were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y = aX(b . A total of 125 chitons (4≤TL≤40 mm, in total length "TL" were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r, close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods ("Pw" without gonad, "Pe" gonad emergence, and "Pf" gonadal sac formed and four stages ("S0" gametocytogenesis, "S1" gametogenesis, "S2" mature, and "S3" spawning, respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13-14.32 mm, Pe 10.32-16.93 mm, Pf 12.99-25.01 mm, S0 16.08-24.34 mm (females and 19.51-26.60 mm (males, S1 27.15-35.63 mm (females and 23.45-32.27 mm (males, S2 24.48-40.24 mm (females and 25.45-32.87 mm (males. Sexual differentiation (in S0 of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management.

  10. Altered developmental timing in early life stages of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) exposed to p,p'-DDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Anita H., E-mail: anita.poulsen@uq.edu.au [The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), 39 Kessels Rd, Brisbane, Qld 4108 (Australia); Kawaguchi, So, E-mail: so.kawaguchi@aad.gov.au [Australian Antarctic Division, Channel Highway, Kingston, Tas 7050 (Australia); Leppaenen, Matti T., E-mail: matti.t.leppanen@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, Department of Biology, FIN-80101 (Finland); Kukkonen, Jussi V.K., E-mail: jussi.kukkonen@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, Department of Biology, FIN-80101 (Finland); Bengtson Nash, Susan M., E-mail: s.bengtsonnash@griffith.edu.au [The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), 39 Kessels Rd, Brisbane, Qld 4108 (Australia); Griffith University, Atmospheric Environment Research Centre, Brisbane, Qld 4111 (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are persistent, toxic and bioaccumulative anthropogenic organic chemicals, capable of undergoing long range environmental transport to remote areas including the Antarctic. p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) has been identified as a dominant POP accumulating in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba), which is a key Southern Ocean species. This study examined the developmental toxicity of p,p'-DDE via aqueous exposure to Antarctic krill larvae. p,p'-DDE exposure was found to stimulate developmental timing in the first three larval stages of Antarctic krill, while extended monitoring of larvae after a five day exposure period had ended, revealed delayed inhibitory responses during development to the fourth larval stage. Stimulatory responses were observed from the lowest p,p'-DDE body residue tested of 10.1 {+-} 3.0 {mu}mol/kg (3.2 {+-} 0.95 mg/kg) preserved wet weight, which is comparable to findings for temperate species and an order of magnitude lower than the exposure level found to cause sublethal behavioural effects in Antarctic krill. The delayed responses included increased mortality, which had doubled in the highest p,p'-DDE treatment (95 {+-} 8.9% mortality at 20 {mu}g/L p,p'-DDE) compared to the solvent control (44 {+-} 11% mortality) 2 weeks after end of exposure. Development of surviving metanauplius larvae to calyptopis 1 larvae was delayed by 2 days in p,p'-DDE exposed larvae compared with untreated larvae. Finally, the developmental success of surviving p,p'-DDE exposed larvae was reduced by 50 to 75% compared to the solvent control (100% developmental success). The lowest observed effect concentration for all delayed effects was 1 {mu}g/L, the lowest exposure concentration tested. These findings demonstrate the importance of delayed and indirect effects of toxicant exposure. Further, the findings of this study are important for environmental risk assessment

  11. Early Life-Stage Responses of a Eurythemal Estuarine Fish, Mummichog (Fundulus hetereoclitus) to Fixed and Fluctuating Thermal Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaifer, J.

    2016-02-01

    The mummichog (Fundulus hetereoclitus) is an intertidal spawning fish that ranges from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to northeastern Florida. A notoriously hardy species, adults can tolerate a wide range of temperature typical of inshore, estuarine waters. This experiment assessed how a wide range of constant and fluctuating temperatures affect the survival, development, and condition of embryos and young larvae. Captive adults were provided nightly with spawning substrates that were inspected each morning for fertilized eggs. Young ( 8 hr post-fertilization) embryos (N = 25 per population) were assigned to either one of a wide range of constant temperatures (8 to 34 °C) generated by a thermal gradient block (TGB), or to one of 10 daily oscillating temperature regimes that spanned the TGB's mid temperature (21 °C). Water was changed and populations inspected for mortalities and hatching at 12-hr intervals. Hatch dates and mortalities were recorded, and larvae were either anesthetized and measured for size by analyzing digital images, or evaluated for persistence in a food-free environment. Mummichog embryos withstood all but the coldest constant regimes and the entire range of fluctuating ones although age at hatching varied substantially within and among experimental populations. Embryos incubated at warmer temperatures hatched out earlier and at somewhat smaller sizes than those experiencing cooler temperatures. Temperatures experienced by embryos had an inverse effect on persistence of larvae relying on yolk nutrition alone. Mummichog exhibited an especially plastic response to thermal challenges which reflects the highly variable nursery habitat used by this species.

  12. Effect of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) on early life-stage development of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa at different temperatures and salinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Avdolli, Manola; Wollenberger, Leah

    2011-01-01

    a copepodite stage (DT(½) ) at the different conditions were calculated. The DT(½) values decreased from 296 h at 15°C to 89 h at 25°C and were also affected by salinity (126 h at 15‰ and 167 h at 30‰), whereas the light:dark regime and culture density influenced development only to a minor extent. BP1......Benzophenone (BP)-type ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in cosmetic and sunscreen products and can enter the aquatic environment. Therefore, we investigated the subchronic toxicity of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) on the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa in an early life......-stage development study. Since developmental endpoints depend on environmental conditions, a preceding study of A. tonsa development was performed at three temperatures, four salinities, four light:dark regimes, six food densities, and four culture densities. Times elapsed until 50% of the population had reached...

  13. Genotoxic, cytotoxic, developmental and survival effects of tritiated water in the early life stages of the marine mollusc, Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagger, Josephine A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Atienzar, Franck A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Jha, Awadhesh N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ajha@plymouth.ac.uk

    2005-09-10

    Using an integrated approach linking different levels of biological organisation, the genotoxic, cytotoxic, developmental and survival impact of tritiated water (HTO) were investigated in the embryo-larvae of marine mollusc Mytilus edulis. One-hour-old embryos were exposed to a range of concentrations (0.37-370 kBq ml{sup -1}) of HTO, which delivered a dose between 0.02 and 21.41 mGy over the exposure period for different end points. Detrimental effects, if any, were monitored at different levels of biological organisation (i.e. DNA, chromosomal, cellular and individual). Genotoxic effects were assessed using molecular and cytogenetic approaches which included analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosomal aberrations (Cabs). Cytotoxic effects were evaluated by determining the proliferative rate index (PRI) of the embryo-larval cells. Developmental and survival effects were also monitored every 24 h up to 72 h. Results in general indicated that HTO significantly increased cytogenetic damage, cytotoxicity, developmental abnormalities and mortality of the embryo-larvae as a function of concentration or radiation dose. The analysis of RAPD profiles also revealed qualitative effects in the HTO exposed population compared to controls. However, while the embryo-larvae showed dose or concentration dependent effects for mortality, developmental abnormalities and induction of SCEs, the dose-dependent effects were not apparent for Cabs and PRI at higher doses. The study contributes to our limited understanding of the impact of environmentally relevant radionuclides on non-human biota and emphasises the need for further investigations to elucidate potentially long term damage induced by persistent, low levels of other radionuclides on commercially and ecologically important species, in order to protect human and ecosystem health.

  14. Toward an adverse outcome pathway for impaired growth: Mitochondrial dysfunction impairs growth in early life stages of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolser, Derek G; Dreier, David A; Li, Erchao; Kroll, Kevin J; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Denslow, Nancy D

    2018-07-01

    Chemical contaminants present in the environment can affect mitochondrial bioenergetics in aquatic organisms and can have substantial effects on individual fitness. As early life stages of fish are particularly vulnerable to environmental contaminants, they are ideal models for examining the relationship between impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics (ATP-dependent respiration, basal oxidative respiration) and apical endpoints such as growth. Here, early life stages of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), an ecologically relevant North American species, were used to investigate the relationship between mitochondrial bioenergetics and growth following perturbation with model mitochondrial toxicants 2,4-dinitrophenol and octylamine. Fathead minnows were exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol and octylamine at 3 concentrations for 24 h and endpoints related to mitochondrial bioenergetics were measured with the Agilent Seahorse XFe24 Bioanalyzer. In order to link changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics to growth, fathead minnows were exposed to the same chemical contaminants for 7-14 days and growth was measured by measuring total length on a weekly basis. There was a significant correlation between decrease in average length at 14 days and basal respiration (r = 0.997, p = 0.050, n = 3), as well as maximal respiration (r = 0.998, p-value = 0.043, n = 3) for embryos exposed to 2,4 dinitrophenol. For octylamine, ATP production was highly correlated with average length at 7 days (p-value = 0.1) and spare respiratory capacity and average length at 14 days were highly correlated (p-value = 0.1). These data improve understanding of how mitochondrial toxicants impair growth in fish larvae and may be useful for developing an adverse outcome pathway for growth. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Excess Early Mortality in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often referred to as one of the most severe mental disorders, primarily because of the very high mortality rates of those with the disorder. This article reviews the literature on excess early mortality in persons with schizophrenia and suggests reasons for the high mortality...... as well as possible ways to reduce it. Persons with schizophrenia have an exceptionally short life expectancy. High mortality is found in all age groups, resulting in a life expectancy of approximately 20 years below that of the general population. Evidence suggests that persons with schizophrenia may...... not have seen the same improvement in life expectancy as the general population during the past decades. Thus, the mortality gap not only persists but may actually have increased. The most urgent research agenda concerns primary candidates for modifiable risk factors contributing to this excess mortality...

  16. Expression stability and selection of optimal reference genes for gene expression normalization in early life stage rainbow trout exposed to cadmium and copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekh, Kamran; Tang, Song; Niyogi, Som; Hecker, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Gene expression analysis represents a powerful approach to characterize the specific mechanisms by which contaminants interact with organisms. One of the key considerations when conducting gene expression analyses using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is the selection of appropriate reference genes, which is often overlooked. Specifically, to reach meaningful conclusions when using relative quantification approaches, expression levels of reference genes must be highly stable and cannot vary as a function of experimental conditions. However, to date, information on the stability of commonly used reference genes across developmental stages, tissues and after exposure to contaminants such as metals is lacking for many vertebrate species including teleost fish. Therefore, in this study, we assessed the stability of expression of 8 reference gene candidates in the gills and skin of three different early life-stages of rainbow trout after acute exposure (24h) to two metals, cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) using qPCR. Candidate housekeeping genes were: beta actin (b-actin), DNA directed RNA polymerase II subunit I (DRP2), elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1a), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), ribosomal protein L8 (RPL8), and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S). Four algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔCt method were employed to systematically evaluate the expression stability of these candidate genes under control and exposed conditions as well as across three different life-stages. Finally, stability of genes was ranked by taking geometric means of the ranks established by the different methods. Stability of reference genes was ranked in the following order (from lower to higher stability): HPRT

  17. Toxicity of smelter slag-contaminated sediments from Upper Lake Roosevelt and associated metals to early life stage White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of five smelter slag-contaminated sediments from the upper Columbia River and metals associated with those slags (cadmium, copper, zinc) was evaluated in 96-h exposures of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836) at 8 and 30 days post-hatch. Leachates prepared from slag-contaminated sediments were evaluated for toxicity. Leachates yielded a maximum aqueous copper concentration of 11.8 μg L−1 observed in sediment collected at Dead Man's Eddy (DME), the sampling site nearest the smelter. All leachates were nonlethal to sturgeon that were 8 day post-hatch (dph), but leachates from three of the five sediments were toxic to fish that were 30 dph, suggesting that the latter life stage is highly vulnerable to metals exposure. Fish maintained consistent and prolonged contact with sediments and did not avoid contaminated sediments when provided a choice between contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. White Sturgeon also failed to avoid aqueous copper (1.5–20 μg L−1). In water-only 96-h exposures of 35 dph sturgeon with the three metals, similar toxicity was observed during exposure to water spiked with copper alone and in combination with cadmium and zinc. Cadmium ranging from 3.2 to 41 μg L−1 or zinc ranging from 21 to 275 μg L−1 was not lethal, but induced adverse behavioral changes including a loss of equilibrium. These results suggest that metals associated with smelter slags may pose an increased exposure risk to early life stage sturgeon if fish occupy areas contaminated by slags.

  18. Interactive effects of ocean acidification, elevated temperature, and reduced salinity on early-life stages of the pacific oyster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ginger W K; Dineshram, R; Campanati, Camilla; Chan, Vera B S; Havenhand, Jon; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2014-09-02

    Ocean acidification (OA) effects on larvae are partially attributed for the rapidly declining oyster production in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. This OA effect is a serious concern in SE Asia, which produces >80% of the world's oysters. Because climate-related stressors rarely act alone, we need to consider OA effects on oysters in combination with warming and reduced salinity. Here, the interactive effects of these three climate-related stressors on the larval growth of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, were examined. Larvae were cultured in combinations of temperature (24 and 30 °C), pH (8.1 and 7.4), and salinity (15 psu and 25 psu) for 58 days to the early juvenile stage. Decreased pH (pH 7.4), elevated temperature (30 °C), and reduced salinity (15 psu) significantly delayed pre- and post-settlement growth. Elevated temperature lowered the larval lipid index, a proxy for physiological quality, and negated the negative effects of decreased pH on attachment and metamorphosis only in a salinity of 25 psu. The negative effects of multiple stressors on larval metamorphosis were not due to reduced size or depleted lipid reserves at the time of metamorphosis. Our results supported the hypothesis that the C. gigas larvae are vulnerable to the interactions of OA with reduced salinity and warming in Yellow Sea coastal waters now and in the future.

  19. Toxicity of sediment-associated substituted phenylamine antioxidants on the early life stages of Pimephales promelas and a characterization of effects on freshwater organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Ryan S; Parrott, Joanne L; Galicia, Melissa; Shires, Kallie; Sullivan, Cheryl; Toito, John; Bartlett, Adrienne J; Milani, Danielle; Gillis, Patty L; Balakrishnan, Vimal K

    2017-10-01

    Substituted phenylamine antioxidants (SPAs) are high production volume chemicals that are incorporated into a variety of commercial products (e.g., polymers, dyes, lubricants). There are few data on chronic toxicity of SPAs to fish and no data on the toxicity of SPAs to the early life stages of fish. The physicochemical properties of SPAs would suggest that if they were to enter an aquatic ecosystem they would partition into sediment. Therefore, the present study focused on investigating the chronic effect of sediment-associated SPAs to the early life stages of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Eggs and larvae were exposed to sediment spiked with diphenylamine (DPA), N-phenyl-1-napthylamine (PNA), N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DPPDA), or 4,4'-methylene-bis[N-sec-butylaniline] (MBA). The most sensitive endpoint for DPA, PNA, and DPPDA was total survival with 21-d median lethal concentrations (LC50s) based on concentration in overlying water of 1920, 74, and 35 μg/L, respectively. The most sensitive endpoint for MBA was growth with a 21-d median effective concentration (EC50) of 71 μg/L. The same endpoints were the most sensitive in terms of concentrations of DPA, PNA, DPPDA, and MBA in sediment (101, 54, 111, and 76 μg/g dry wt, respectively). Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were constructed for each SPA based on acute and chronic toxicity data generated in the present study and found in the literature. Overall, P. promelas was in the midrange of chronic sensitivity, with the most sensitive species being Tubifex tubifex. The SSDs indicate that DPA based on concentration in water is the least toxic to aquatic biota of the 4 SPAs investigated. The constructed SSDs indicate that a concentration in water and sediment of 1 μg/L and 1 μg/g dry weight, respectively, would be protective of >95% of the aquatic species tested. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2730-2738. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  20. Effects of the isoflavone genistein in early life stages of the Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis: role of the Survivin and proliferation versus apoptosis pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasquete, Carmen; Úbeda-Manzanaro, María; Ortiz-Delgado, Juan B

    2018-01-17

    Phytochemical flavonoids are widely distributed in the environment and are derived from many anthropogenic activities. The isoflavone genistein is a naturally occurring compound found in soya products that are habitual constituents of the aquafeeds. This isoflavone possesses oestrogenic biological activity and also apoptotic properties. The present study has been performed to determine the effects of the genistein in the early life stages of the flatfish Senegalese sole during the first month of larval life, and it is focused especially at the metamorphosis, analysing the expression transcript levels and the immunohistochemical protein patterns implicated in the cell proliferation and apoptosis pathways (proliferation cellular/PCNA, anti-apoptosis Survivin/BIRC-5, death receptors/Fas, and Caspases). The isoflavone genistein induced some temporal disrupting effects in several pro-apoptotic signalling pathways (Fas, CASP-6) at both genistein doses (3 mg/L and 10 mg/L), with increased Fas transcripts and also decreasing CASP-6 mRNA expression levels during metamorphic and post-metamorphic stages of the Senegalese sole. On the other hand, the anti-apoptotic BIRC-5 expression levels were weakly down-regulated with both the highest and lowest doses, but all of these imbalances were stabilised to the baseline levels. In early life stages of the controls, the constitutive basal transcript levels were temporarily and differentially expressed, reaching the highest levels at the pre-metamorphosis phase, as especially in endotrophic larvae (i.e. BIRC-5 mRNA), as well as in the metamorphic (i.e. CASP-6 mRNA) and post-metamorphic stages (i.e. Fas mRNA). In general, through development, continuous and progressive increases in the protein patterns of cell proliferation-PCNA (e.g. mitotic nuclei), anti-apoptotic Survivin (e.g. haematopoietic system, brain, digestive system, gills) and CASP-2 and -6 (e.g. brain, gills, kidney, digestive system, vascular systems, among others

  1. Use of multi-photon laser-scanning microscopy to describe the distribution of xenobiotic chemicals in fish early life stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornung, Michael W.; Cook, Philip M.; Flynn, Kevin M.; Lothenbach, Doug B.; Johnson, Rodney D.; Nichols, John W.

    2004-01-01

    To better understand the mechanisms by which persistent bioaccumulative toxicants (PBTs) produce toxicity during fish early life stages (ELS), dose-response relationships need to be understood in relation to the dynamic distribution of chemicals in sensitive tissues. In this study, a multi-photon laser scanning microscope (MPLSM) was used to determine the multi-photon excitation spectra of several polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and to describe chemical distribution among tissues during fish ELS. The multi-photon excitation spectra revealed intense fluorescent signal from the model fluorophore, pentamethyl-difluoro-boro-indacene (BODIPY[reg], less signal from benzo[a]pyrene and fluoranthene, and no detectable signal from pyrene. The imaging method was tested by exposing newly fertilized medaka (Oryzias latipes) eggs to BODIPY[reg] or fluoranthene for 6 h, followed by transfer to clean media. Embryos and larvae were then imaged through 5 days post-hatch. The two test chemicals partitioned similarly throughout development and differences in fluorescence intensity among tissues were evident to a depth of several hundred microns. Initially, the most intense signal was observed in the oil droplet within the yolk, while a moderate signal was seen in the portion of the yolk containing the yolk-platelets. As embryonic development progressed, the liver biliary system, gall bladder, and intestinal tract accumulated strong fluorescent signal. After hatch, once the gastrointestinal tract was completely developed, most of the fluorescent signal was cleared. The MPLSM is a useful tool to describe the tissue distribution of fluorescent PBTs during fish ELS

  2. A Multiplex PCR Assay for Differentiating Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) From Oriental Flower Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Early Life Stages and Excrement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S; Melzer, M J

    2017-04-01

    The coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros (L.), is a major pest of coconut and other palm trees. An incipient coconut rhinoceros beetle population was recently discovered on the island of Oahu, Hawaii and is currently the target of a large, mutiagency eradication program. Confounding this program is the widespread presence of another scarab beetle on Oahu, the oriental flower beetle, Protaetia orientalis (Gory and Percheron 1833). Eggs, early life stages, and fecal excrement of coconut rhinoceros beetle and oriental flower beetle are morphologically indistinguishable, thereby creating uncertainty when such specimens are discovered in the field. Here, we report the development of a multiplex PCR assay targeting cytochrome oxidase I of coconut rhinoceros beetle and oriental flower beetle that can rapidly detect and distinguish between these insects. This assay also features an internal positive control to ensure DNA of sufficient quantity and quality is used in the assay, increasing its reliability and reducing the chances of false negative results. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Taxonomy of the early life stages of arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) in the eastern Bering Sea, with notes on distribution and condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Forest, Lisa; Duffy-Anderson, J. T.; Heintz, R. A.; Matarese, A. C.; Siddon, E. C.; Smart, T. I.; Spies, I. B.

    2014-11-01

    Arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) are closely related flatfish species that co-occur in the eastern Bering Sea. As adults, arrowtooth flounder can be distinguished from Kamchatka flounder; however, larvae and early juveniles can only be indentified to the genus level due to morphological similarities. This has precluded studies of ecology for the early life stages of both species in the eastern Bering Sea. In this study, we developed a genetic technique to identify the larvae and early juveniles of the two species using mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Genetically identified specimens were then examined to determine a visual identification method based on pigment patterns and morphology. Specimens 6.0-12.0 mm SL and≥18.0 mm SL can be identified to the species level, but species identification of individuals 12.1-17.9 mm SL by visual means alone remains elusive. The distribution of larvae (<25.0 mm SL) of both arrowtooth flounder and Kamchatka flounder is similar in the eastern Bering Sea; however, juvenile (≥25.0 mm SL) Kamchatka flounder occur closer to the shelf break and in deeper water than juvenile arrowtooth flounder. Condition was determined for larvae and juveniles of each species by analyzing lipid content (%) and energy density (kJ/g dry mass). Kamchatka flounder larvae on average had higher lipid content than arrowtooth flounder larvae, but were also larger on average than arrowtooth flounder larvae in the summer. When corrected for length, both species had similar lipid content in the larval and juvenile stages.

  4. Effects of High-Flow Experiments from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lees Ferry Reach of the Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Josh; Kaplinski, Matthew; Melis, Theodore S.

    2010-01-01

    abundance was eightfold greater in 2008. We speculate that the 60-hour-long 2008 HFE (with peak magnitude about twice that of the annual peak flow during the previous 4 years) increased interstitial spaces in the gravel bed substrate and food availability or quality, leading to higher early survival of recently emerged trout and better growth of these fish through summer and fall. Abundance in 2009 was more than twofold higher than expected, given the estimated number of viable eggs deposited in that year, perhaps indicating that the effect of the 2008 HFE on early life stages was somewhat persistent. In a 3-week interval that spanned the November 2004 HFE, abundance of age-0 trout that were approximately 7 months old from hatch experienced about a threefold decline, compared to the approximately twofold decrease observed between November and December 2008. Abundance of age-0 trout that were approximately 10 months old from hatch was very similar across sampling trips that spanned the March 2008 HFE. It is uncertain whether the decline in abundance after the November 2004 HFE was the result of higher flow-induced mortality or higher flow-induced downstream dispersal. A focused monitoring effort in Marble Canyon (the reach immediately downstream of the Lees Ferry tailwater) before and after future HFEs is recommended to resolve this uncertainty. Relatively detailed monitoring of early life stages-such as the program described in this study-is essential to establish linkages between Glen Canyon Dam operations, or possibly other factors, and trends in the abundance of important nonnative and native fish populations living downstream within Grand Canyon National Park.

  5. Effects of the soya isoflavone genistein in early life stages of the Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis: Thyroid, estrogenic and metabolic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasquete, Carmen; Úbeda-Manzanaro, Maria; Ortiz-Delgado, Juan Bosco

    2017-09-01

    This study examines the effects induced by environmentally relevant concentrations of the isoflavone genistein (3mg/L and 10mg/L) during early life stages of the Senegalese sole. Throughout the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, several neurohormonal regulatory thyroid signalling patterns (thyroglobulin/Tg, thyroid peroxidase/TPO, transthyretin/TTR, thyroid receptors/TRβ, and iodothrynonine deiodinases, Dio2 and Dio3) were analysed. Furthermore, the expression patterns of estrogen receptor ERβ and haemoprotein Cyp1a were also evaluated. In the control larvae, progressive increases of constitutive hormonal signalling pathways have been evidenced from the pre-metamorphosis phase onwards, reaching the highest expression basal levels at the metamorphosis (Tg, TPO, Dio2) and/or during post-metamorphosis (TTR, TRβ, ERβ). When the early larvae were exposed to both genistein concentrations (3mg/L and 10mg/L), a statistically significant down-regulation of TPO, TTR and Tg mRNA levels was clearly detected at the metamorphic stages. In addition, the Dio2 and Dio3 transcript expression levels were also down and up-regulated when exposed to both genistein concentrations. In the larvae exposed to genistein, no statistically significant responses were recorded for the TRβ expression patterns. Nevertheless, the ERβ and Cyp1a transcript levels were up-regulated at the middle metamorphic stage (S2, at 16 dph) in the larvae exposed to high genistein concentrations and, only the ERβ was down-regulated (S1, at 12dph) at the lower doses. Finally, all these pointed out imbalances were only temporarily disrupted by exposure to genistein, since most of the modulated transcriptional signals (i.e. up or down-regulation) were quickly restored to the baseline levels. Additionally, the control and genistein-exposed Senegalese sole specimens showed characteristic ontogenetic patterns and completely suitable for an optimal development, metamorphosis, and growth. Copyright © 2017

  6. Effect of low ambient mineral concentrations on the accumulation of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus by early life stages of the air-breathing armoured catfish Megalechis personata (Siluriformes; Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.H.; Atsma, W.; Flik, G.; Bouwmeester, H.; Osse, J.W.M.

    1999-01-01

    he accumulation of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus was measured during an 8-week period in the early life stages of the air-breathing armoured catfish Megalechis personata acclimated to low-mineral fresh water (0.073 mmol l-1 calcium, 0.015 mmol l-1 magnesium, <0.001 mmol l-1 phosphate) and

  7. Natural growth and diet of known-age pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) early life stages in the upper Missouri River basin, Montana and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Haddix, T.M.; Holte, L.D.; Wilson, R.H.; Bartron, M.L.; Kalie, J.A.; DeHaan, P.W.; Ardren, W.R.; Holm, R.J.; Jaeger, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to anthropogenic modifications, the historic Missouri River provided ecological conditions suitable for reproduction, growth, and survival of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. However, little information is available to discern whether altered conditions in the contemporary Missouri River are suitable for feeding, growth and survival of endangered pallid sturgeon during the early life stages. In 2004 and 2007, nearly 600 000 pallid sturgeon free embryos and larvae were released in the upper Missouri River and survivors from these releases were collected during 2004–2010 to quantify natural growth rates and diet composition. Based on genetic analysis and known-age at release (1–17 days post-hatch, dph), age at capture (dph, years) could be determined for each survivor. Totals of 23 and 28 survivors from the 2004 and 2007 releases, respectively, were sampled. Growth of pallid sturgeon was rapid (1.91 mm day−1) during the initial 13–48 dph, then slowed as fish approached maximum length (120–140 mm) towards the end of the first growing season. The diet of young-of-year pallid sturgeon was comprised of Diptera larvae, Diptera pupae, and Ephemeroptera nymphs. Growth of pallid sturgeon from ages 1–6 years was about 48.0 mm year−1. This study provides the first assessment of natural growth and diet of young pallid sturgeon in the wild. Results depict pallid sturgeon growth trajectories that may be expected for naturally produced wild stocks under contemporary habitat conditions in the Missouri River and Yellowstone River.

  8. The toxicity of chlorpyrifos on the early life stage of zebrafish: a survey on the endpoints at development, locomotor behavior, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Liu, Zhenzhen; Peng, Tao; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most toxic pesticides in aquatic ecosystem, but its toxicity mechanisms to fish are still not fully understood. This study examined the toxicity targets of CPF in early life stage of zebrafish on the endpoints at developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity. Firstly, CPF exposure decreased the body length, inhibited the hatchability and heart rate, and resulted in a number of morphological abnormalities, primarily spinal deformities (SD) and pericardial edema (PE), in larval zebrafish. Secondly, the free swimming activities and the swimming behaviors of the larvae in response to the stimulation of light-to-dark photoperiod transition were significantly influenced by the exposure to 100 and 300 μg/L CPF. In addition, the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the transcription of some genes related to neurotoxicity were also influenced by CPF exposure. Thirdly, CPF exposure induced oxidative stress in the larval zebrafish. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased and the glutathione (GSH) contents decreased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner after the exposure to CPF for 96 hours post fertilization (hpf). CPF affected not only the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), but also the transcriptional levels of their respective genes. Finally, the mRNA levels of the main cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα), interferon (Ifn), interleukin-1 beta (Il-1β), interleukin 6 (Il6), complement factor 4 (C4) in the larvae increased significantly after the exposure to 100 or 300 μg/L CPF for 96 hpf, suggesting that the innate immune system disturbed by CPF in larvae. Taken together, our results suggested that CPF had the potential to cause developmental toxicity, behavior alterations, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in the larval zebrafish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. Influences of humic acid on the bioavailability of phenanthrene and alkyl phenanthrenes to early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yangzhi; Yang, Chenghu; Cheng, Pakkin; He, Xiaojing; Zhu, Yaxian; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The influences of humic acid (HA) on the environmental behavior and bioavailability of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkyl PAHs were investigated and compared using the early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma, O. melastigma). It was demonstrated that the binding affinity of parent phenanthrene (PHE) with HA was smaller than that of 3-methyl phenanthrene (3-MP) and 9-ethyl phenanthrene (9-EP). Furthermore, the bioaccumulation of the three PAHs and the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) were calculated to study the changes in bioavailability of PAHs in presence of HA. The results indicated that the addition of HA significantly decreased the bioaccumulation and toxicity of PAHs by decreasing free PAHs concentrations. The bioavailable fractions of HA-bound PAHs in bioaccumulation (α) and toxicity (β) were evaluated, indicating that the HA-bound 3-MP and 9-EP show higher bioavailability in bioaccumulation and lower bioavailability in toxicity relative to those of PHE. The β/α values were less than 1 for all PAH treatment groups containing HA, suggesting that the fraction of HA-bound PAHs contributing to bioaccumulation was higher than that of HA-bound PAHs inducing toxic effect. In addition, we proposed that the free PAHs generated by desorption from HA in the cell were toxic by showing that the β/α ratio values are correlated with the log K_O_W values (p = 0.007 and R"2 = 0.8355). Thus, oil spill risk assessments should consider both alkyl PAHs and the factors that influence the bioavailability and toxicity of PAHs in the natural aquatic environments. - Highlights: • Effects of HA on bioavailability of parent and alkyl PAHs were firstly compared. • Changes in the bioavailability due to HA depended on the alkylation of PAHs. • The bioavailable fractions of the HA-bound parent and alkyl PAHs were calculated. • The toxicity of HA-bound PAHs was related to the physicochemical properties of PAHs. - This study is the

  10. Underlying Motivations of Volunteering Across Life Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takashi; Keene, Jennifer R; Lu, Chi-Jung; Carr, Dawn C

    2017-03-01

    Volunteering is beneficial not only for individuals' well-being but also for society's well-being; yet only a fraction of U.S. citizens regularly engage in volunteer activities. This study examined how underlying motivations are associated with interest in volunteering for individuals in three major life phases: early, middle, and later adulthood. Data were collected from 1,046 adults who volunteered through nonprofit organizations in Nevada (USA). Exploratory factor analysis revealed that community service, career advancement, and well-being were common underlying motivations for individuals across life stages. However, generativity among the later adulthood group, and social networking among the early and middle adulthood groups were unique motivations for volunteering. Regression analysis showed that the community service motivation was significantly associated with individuals' interest in volunteering among all life stages. Simultaneously, generativity for the later adulthood group, and career advancement for the early adulthood group were unique motivations linked to their actual interest in volunteering.

  11. Sensitivity of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) early life stages to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxin and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Buckler, Justin A.; Nicks, Diane; Candrl, James; Claunch, Rachel; Gale, Robert W.; Puglis, Holly J.; Little, Edward E.; Linbo, Tiffany L.; Baker, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The aquatic food web of the Great Lakes has been contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) since the mid-20th century. Threats of PCB exposures to long-lived species of fish, such as lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), have been uncertain because of a lack of information on the relative sensitivity of the species. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity of early–life stage lake sturgeon to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure. Mortality, growth, morphological and tissue pathologies, swimming performance, and activity levels were used as assessment endpoints. Pericardial and yolk sac edema, tubular heart, yolk sac hemorrhaging, and small size were the most commonly observed pathologies in both TCDD and PCB-126 exposures, beginning as early as 4 d postfertilization, with many of these pathologies occurring in a dose-dependent manner. Median lethal doses for PCB-126 and TCDD in lake sturgeon were 5.4 ng/g egg (95% confidence interval, 3.9–7.4 ng/g egg) and 0.61 ng/g egg (0.47–0.82 ng/g egg), respectively. The resulting relative potency factor for PCB-126 (0.11) was greater than the World Health Organization estimate for fish (toxic equivalency factor = 0.005), suggesting that current risk assessments may underestimate PCB toxicity toward lake sturgeon. Swimming activity and endurance were reduced in lake sturgeon survivors from the median lethal doses at 60 d postfertilization. Threshold and median toxicity values indicate that lake sturgeon, like other Acipenser species, are more sensitive to PCB and TCDD than the other genus of sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus, found in North America. Indeed, lake sturgeon populations in the Great Lakes and elsewhere are susceptible to PCB/TCDD-induced developmental toxicity in embryos and reductions in swimming performance.

  12. Sensitivity of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid sturgeon (S. albus) early life stages to 3,30,4,40,5-pentachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckler, Justin; Candrl, James S.; McKee, Michael J.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Galat, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Concern exists that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may be contributing to the current decline of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and the US federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Waterborne exposures with newly fertilized eggs were used to assess developmental and morphological effects of 2 of the most potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), on early life stage shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. No dose-related effects of PCB-126 were observed on percent development or hatch in either species at concentrations as high as 1711 ng/g egg. Effects of TCDD on percent development were not assessed in shovelnose sturgeon. However, percent development was not affected by TCDD in pallid sturgeon, and percent hatch was unaffected by TCDD doses as high as 60 ng/g egg to 81 ng/g egg in either species. Morphological pathologies such as yolk sac edema and craniofacial deformities were typical of AhR agonist exposure and were similar in both species. Calculated PCB-126 50% lethal dose (LD50, 95% fiducial limits) values were 196 ng/g egg (188–203 ng/g) for shovelnose and 159 ng/g egg (122–199 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. Likewise, calculated TCDD LD50 values were 13 ng/g egg (11–15 ng/g) for shovelnose and 12 ng/g egg (10–14 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. These LD50 values are among the highest recorded in early life stage fish, suggesting that early life stage Scaphirhynchus sturgeon may be comparatively insensitive to AhR agonists.

  13. New records of early life-stages of cephalopods in the Chiloé Interior Sea Nuevos registros de estadios de vida tempranos de cefalópodos en el mar interior de Chiloé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Carrasco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Early life stages of cephalopods were sampled with zooplankton nets in southern Chile (41°-43°S during the CIMAR 11 Fiordos cruise, November 2005. A total of 52 individuals were collected, comprising three families (Octopodidae, Sepiolidae, Onychoteuthidae and four species (Robsonella fontaniana, Enteroctopus megalocyathus, Semirossia patagonica, an undetermined Onychoteuthidae species. Paralarvae of Octopodidae have been previously recorded in northern and southern Chile; however, for Sepiolidae and Onychoteuthidae, this is the first record of early life stages in Chilean waters.Estadios tempranos de cefalópodos fueron obtenidos con redes de zooplancton en el sur de Chile (41°-43°S durante el crucero CIMAR 11 Fiordos en noviembre de 2005. Un total de cincuenta y dos individuos fueron recolectados, comprendiendo tres familias (Octopodidae, Sepiolidae and Onychoteuthidae y cuatro especies (Robsonella fontaniana, Enteroctopus megalocyathus, Semirossia patagonica, y una especie indeterminada de Onychoteuthidae. Si bien existen descripciones previas de paralarvas de Octopodidae para el norte y sur de Chile, este trabajo provee el primer registro de estadios tempranos de vida de Sepiolidae y Onychoteuthidae para aguas chilenas.

  14. Alternatives to the Fish Early Life-Stage Test: A Research Strategy for Discovering and Annotating Adverse Outcome Pathways During Fish Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The OECD 210 fish early life]stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used to estimate chronic fish toxicity, as well as support ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs around the world. As a step toward developing alternatives to the FELS test, a HES...

  15. Environmental conditions, early life stages distributions and larval feeding of patagonian sprat Sprattusfuegensis and common sardine Strangomerabentincki in fjords and channels of the northern Chilean patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Tabit; Castro, Leonardo R.; Montecinos, Sandra; Gonzalez, Humberto E.; Soto, Samuel; Muñoz, Maria I.; Palma, Sergio

    2014-12-01

    We assessed ontogenetic changes in distribution and feeding of the Patagonian sprat Sprattus fuegensis and common sardine Strangomera bentincki, and their association with environmental characteristics (hydrography, larval food, gelatinous zooplankton predators), and actual feeding from inshore to offshore areas of the Chilean Patagonia. During the springs of 2007 and 2008, S. bentincki egg and larvae were present north of the Taitao Peninsula (47°S) and S. fuegensis was found to the south of the peninsula. Along the inshore-offshore axis, distributions also differed: while eggs and early larval stages of S. bentincki occurred inshore and seawards, larger larvae occurred mostly seawards. The opposite was observed in S. fuegensis. However, distributions of both species followed the same rule, determined by the size of their prey: eggs and early larval stages occurred in areas of higher abundance of small prey sizes, and larger larvae coincided with the highest abundances of larger prey sizes. No relationship was detected between potential gelatinous predators and the egg and larval distributions of both fish species. Mean ingested prey sizes in both species increased as larvae grew, while maintaining the capacity to feed on small sized items. This ontogenetic feeding pattern and the distributions linked to prey seem to be beneficial in order to take advantage of short term food pulses and to overcome the strong changes in environmental conditions east to west from fjords to open waters.

  16. Effects of alumina refinery wastewater and signature metal constituents at the upper thermal tolerance of: 2. The early life stages of the coral Acropora tenuis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negri, Andrew P.; Harford, Andrew J.; Parry, David L.; Dam, Rick A. van

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: →Methodology to assess relevant toxicants to sensitive early life histories of coral. → Explored the thermal sensitivity of fertilisation and larval metamorphosis in a coral. → First study to identify IC 50 s for Al, Ga and V in corals (at summer temperature). → First study to test the effects of an alumina outfall wastewater on coral. → Found additive effects of wastewater and high SST on fertilisation and metamorphosis. - Abstract: The success of early life history transitions of the coral Acropora tenuis were used as endpoints to evaluate thermal stress and the effects of wastewater discharged to a tropical marine environment. The studies assessed the effects of: (i) temperature; (ii) three signature metals of the wastewater, aluminium (Al), vanadium (V) and gallium (Ga); and (iii) the wastewater (at 27 o C and 32 o C) on fertilisation and larval metamorphosis. The median inhibition temperatures for fertilisation and metamorphosis were 32.8 o C and 33.0 o C, respectively. Fertilisation IC 50 s for Al, V and Ga were 2997, 2884 and 3430 μg L -1 , respectively. Metamorphosis IC 50 s for Al, V and Ga were 1945, 675 and 3566 μg L -1 , respectively. The wastewater only affected fertilisation and metamorphosis at moderate concentrations (IC 50 s = 63% and 67%, v/v, respectively, at 27 o C), posing a low risk to this species in the field. The effects of wastewater and temperature on fertilisation and metamorphosis were additive.

  17. Standard metabolic rates of early life stages of the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin), an estuarine turtle, suggest correlates between life history changes and the metabolic economy of hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Christopher L

    2018-04-01

    I estimated standard metabolic rates (SMR) using measurements of oxygen consumption rates of embryos and unfed, resting hatchlings of the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) three times during embryonic development and twice during the early post-hatching period. The highest observed SMRs occurred during mid to late embryonic development and the early post-hatching period when hatchlings were still reliant on yolk reserves provided by the mother. Hatchlings that were reliant on yolk displayed per capita SMR 135 % higher than when measured 25 calendar days later after they became reliant on exogenous resources. The magnitude of the difference in hatchling SMR between yolk-reliant and exogenously feeding stages was much greater than that attributed to costs of digestion (specific dynamic action) observed in another emydid turtle, suggesting that processing of the yolk was not solely responsible for the observed difference. The pre-feeding period of yolk reliance of hatchlings corresponds with the period of dispersal from the nesting site, suggesting that elevated SMR during this period could facilitate dispersal activities. Thus, I hypothesize that the reduction in SMR after the development of feeding behaviors may reflect an energy optimization strategy in which a high metabolic expenditure in support of development and growth of the embryo and dispersal of the hatchling is followed by a substantial reduction in metabolic expenditure coincident with the individual becoming reliant on exogenous resources following yolk depletion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimating the impact of petroleum substances on survival in ealry life stages of cod (Gadus morhua) using the Dynamic Energy Budget theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, T.C.; Nordtug, T.; Tamis, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the impact of accidental oil-spills on cod fisheries a model framework is developed in which a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model is applied to assess mortality caused by petroleum substances in early life stages. In this paper we report on a literature search and DEB analyses, aiming for

  19. Tritiated water exposure disrupts myofibril structure and induces mis-regulation of eye opacity and DNA repair genes in zebrafish early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcanjo, Caroline; Armant, Olivier; Floriani, Magali; Cavalie, Isabelle; Camilleri, Virginie; Simon, Olivier; Orjollet, Daniel; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Gagnaire, Béatrice

    2018-04-27

    Tritium ( 3 H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. In the environment, the most common form of tritium is tritiated water (HTO). The present study aimed to identify early biomarkers of HTO contamination through the use of an aquatic model, the zebrafish (Danio rerio). We used the zebrafish embryo-larvae model to investigate the modes of action of HTO exposure at dose rates of 0.4 and 4 mGy/h, dose rates expected to induce deleterious effects on fish. Zebrafish were exposed to HTO from 3 hpf (hours post fertilization) to 96 hpf. The transcriptomic effects were investigated 24 h and 96 h after the beginning of the contamination, using mRNAseq. Results suggested an impact of HTO contamination, regardless of the dose rate, on genes involved in muscle contraction (tnnt2d, tnni2a.4, slc6a1a or atp2a1l) and eye opacity (crygm2d9, crygmxl1, mipb or lim2.3) after 24 h of contamination. Interestingly, an opposite differential expression was highlighted in genes playing a role in muscle contraction and eye opacity in 24 hpf embryos when comparing dose rates, suggesting an onset of DNA protective mechanisms. The expression of h2afx and ddb2 involved in DNA repair was enhanced in response to HTO exposure. The entrainment of circadian clock and the response to H 2 O 2 signalling pathways were enriched at 96 hpf at 0.4 mGy/h and in both stages after 4 mGy/h. Genes involved in ROS scavenging were differentially expressed only after 24 h of exposure for the lowest dose rate, suggesting the onset of early protective mechanisms against oxidative stress. Effects highlighted on muscle at the molecular scale were confirmed at a higher biological scale, as electron microscopy observations revealed sarcomere impairments in 96 hpf larvae for both dose rates. Together with other studies, the present work provides useful data to better understand modes of action of tritium on zebrafish embryos-larvae. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Irradiation of rainbow trout at early life stages results in trans-generational effects including the induction of a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Richard W.; Seymour, Colin B.; Moccia, Richard D.; Mothersill, Carmel E.

    2016-01-01

    The bystander effect, a non-targeted effect (NTE) of radiation, which describes the response by non-irradiated organisms to signals emitted by irradiated organisms, has been documented in a number of fish species. However transgenerational effects of radiation (including NTE) have yet to be studied in fish. Therefore rainbow trout, which were irradiated as eggs at 48 h after fertilisation, eyed eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders, were bred to generate a F1 generation and these F1 fish were bred to generate a F2 generation. F1 and F2 fish were swam with non-irradiated bystander fish. Media from explants of F1 eyed eggs, F1 one year old fish gill and F1 two year old fish gill and spleen samples, and F2 two year old gill and spleen samples, as well as from bystander eggs/fish, was used to treat a reporter cell line, which was then assayed for changes in cellular survival/growth. The results were complex and dependent on irradiation history, age (in the case of the F1 generation), and were tissue specific. For example, irradiation of one parent often resulted in effects not seen with irradiation of both parents. This suggests that, unlike mammals, in certain circumstances maternal and paternal irradiation may be equally important. This study also showed that trout can induce a bystander effect 2 generations after irradiation, which further emphasises the importance of the bystander effect in aquatic radiobiology. Given the complex community structure in aquatic ecosystems, these results may have significant implications for environmental radiological protection. - Highlights: • We evaluated the transgenerational effect of early life irradiation in rainbow trout. • Trout irradiated as eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders were crossed. • A transgenerational effect was evident in two generations after irradiation. • F1 and F2 generation fish induced a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish. • The precise effects were tissue specific and dependent on

  1. Irradiation of rainbow trout at early life stages results in trans-generational effects including the induction of a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Richard W., E-mail: rich.wilson.smith@gmail.com [Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Seymour, Colin B. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Moccia, Richard D. [Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Mothersill, Carmel E. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    The bystander effect, a non-targeted effect (NTE) of radiation, which describes the response by non-irradiated organisms to signals emitted by irradiated organisms, has been documented in a number of fish species. However transgenerational effects of radiation (including NTE) have yet to be studied in fish. Therefore rainbow trout, which were irradiated as eggs at 48 h after fertilisation, eyed eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders, were bred to generate a F1 generation and these F1 fish were bred to generate a F2 generation. F1 and F2 fish were swam with non-irradiated bystander fish. Media from explants of F1 eyed eggs, F1 one year old fish gill and F1 two year old fish gill and spleen samples, and F2 two year old gill and spleen samples, as well as from bystander eggs/fish, was used to treat a reporter cell line, which was then assayed for changes in cellular survival/growth. The results were complex and dependent on irradiation history, age (in the case of the F1 generation), and were tissue specific. For example, irradiation of one parent often resulted in effects not seen with irradiation of both parents. This suggests that, unlike mammals, in certain circumstances maternal and paternal irradiation may be equally important. This study also showed that trout can induce a bystander effect 2 generations after irradiation, which further emphasises the importance of the bystander effect in aquatic radiobiology. Given the complex community structure in aquatic ecosystems, these results may have significant implications for environmental radiological protection. - Highlights: • We evaluated the transgenerational effect of early life irradiation in rainbow trout. • Trout irradiated as eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders were crossed. • A transgenerational effect was evident in two generations after irradiation. • F1 and F2 generation fish induced a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish. • The precise effects were tissue specific and dependent on

  2. Digestive enzyme ratios are good indicators of hatchling yolk reserve and digestive gland maturation in early life stages of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L.: application of these new tools in ecology and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Georges; Martinez, A S; Le Pabic, C; Le Bihan, E; Robin, J P; Koueta, N

    2018-01-01

    In Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), the digestive gland matures during the first month post-hatching, while a shift from intracellular acid to extracellular alkaline digestion occurs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of using enzymatic ratios for the description of digestive system maturation in early life stages of S. officinalis. Second, it is intended to apply these new tools as eco-physiological indicators for understanding the impact of cuttlefish eggs' life history from different spawning sites of the English Channel on digestive performance of juveniles. An experimental rearing was performed over 35 days after hatching (DAH) on juveniles from wild collected eggs in 2010 and 2011. Four digestive enzyme activities and their ratios [i.e., trypsin, cathepsin, acid (ACP), and alkaline (ALP) phosphatase, ALP/ACP, and trypsin/cathepsin] were studied along with histological features (e.g., internal yolk surface and digestive gland development). The two enzyme ratios were good indicators of digestive system maturation allowing the study of the digestive gland's development. They were highly correlated to juveniles' weight increase and histological features of the gland in early DAH. These ratios described more accurately the shift occurring between the intracellular acid and the extracellular alkaline modes of digestion in S. officinalis and were more specific than separated enzyme activities. Their application as eco-physiological tools revealed that enzyme ratios reflected yolk content and digestive gland development in new hatching juveniles. Finally, ALP/ACP ratio was shown to be a powerful tool to describe growth performance of S. officinalis which is useful for aquaculture optimization.

  3. Effects of maternal exposure to estrogen and PCB on different life stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Per-Erik; Westerlund, L; Billsson, K; Berg, A H [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cellular and Developmental Biology; Teh, S J; Hinton, D E [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology; Tysklind, M [Umeaa Univ., (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Nilsson, Jan; Eriksson, Lars-Ove [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Aquaculture

    1999-02-01

    PCBs have been found to impair both reproduction and development in fish. We have investigated the effects of 3 PCB congeners, 2,3,3`,4,4`,5,6-HpCB (PCB-190); 2,3,4,4`-TeCB (PCB-60); and 2,2`,4,6,6`-PeCB (PCB-104), and the estrogenic hormone 17{beta}-estradiol on fecundity, early life-stage mortality, gross morphology and histology of zebrafish (Danio rerio). While none of the studied substances reduced fecundity, they increased embryo and larval mortality. The most severe effects on viability were observed following treatment with 17{beta}-estradiol or the weakly estrogenic PCB-104. Following 17{beta}-estradiol or PCB-104 exposure, mortality continued through the yolksac absorption phase. PCB-60, on the other hand, resulted in mortality between the 30% epiboly stage and 75% epiboly stage. At the same time as embryos started to die, embryo development and hatching were delayed. PCB-190 showed only moderate effects on early-life stage mortality. The fish were reared until sexual maturation where after they were subjected to gross morphological and histological analyses. Changes in morphology were observed following PCB-104 and PCB-190 treatment. Both substances gave rise to craniofacial malformations while PCB-104 also led to lordosis in females and scoliosis in fish of both sexes. From histological analysis it was found that PCB-104 and 17{beta}-estradiol resulted in karyorrhexis and karyolysis in the kidney. Possible signs of bile stasis were observed following 17{beta}-estradiol and PCB-190 treatment. Some effects were observed on the gonads, including areas in the ovary showing atresia and limited failure of testicular spermatogenesis in 17{beta}-estradiol, PCB-104, and PCB-60 treated fish. While all studied substances resulted in effects on offspring, the observation that estrogenic substances are highly embryotoxic, raises concern that endocrine disrupting substances may severely reduce fish populations in polluted areas

  4. Which is the best environment for the development of the early life stages of fish during the dry season? Qual o melhor ambiente para o desenvolvimento das fases jovens de peixes durante a estação seca?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Henríques Esguícero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The main objective of this study was to investigate the quality of habitats for early life stages of fish in the Jacaré-Guaçu River, during the dry phase; METHODS: For assessing the quality of the habitats for the development of early life stages, the relative condition factor was applied to the juveniles of five species of fishes, captured in four different habitats (reservoir, floodplain lake, main river, and tributary. The juveniles were caught in macrophytes of the littoral zone by a rectangular sieve, in the dry season of 2008 and 2009; RESULTS: The species Astyanax altiparanae thrived similarly in the four habitats, and A. fasciatus, Hyphessobrycon eques, Hoplias malabaricus and Serrapinnus notomelas, showed higher values of relative condition factors in the reservoir and in the lake. Among the species, A. fasciatus showed the highest values of the relative condition factor in these two habitats; CONCLUSIONS: It is likely that the complexity of the macrophytes' stands and the current velocity were the main factors influencing the development of juveniles. It was found that a lower current velocity can propitiated the establishment of a greater richness of macrophytes, which in turn can influence positively the development of fish juveniles. Moreover, a higher current velocity ends in a higher energy demand for swimming.OBJETIVO: O objetivo principal deste estudo foi investigar a qualidade dos habitats para as primeiras fases de vida dos peixes no Rio Jacaré-Guaçu, durante a estação seca; MÉTODOS: Para avaliar a qualidade dos hábitats para o desenvolvimento das primeiras fases, o fator de condição relativo foi aplicado aos juvenis de cinco espécies de peixes, capturados em quatro habitats diferentes (reservatório, lago de planície de inundação, canal principal e tributário. Os juvenis foram coletados em macrófitas litorâneas com uma peneira retangular, na estação seca de 2008 e 2009; RESULTADOS: Somente Astyanax

  5. Life-Stage Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation discusses methods used to extrapolate from in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) toxicity data for an endocrine pathway to in vivo for early life stages in humans, and the use of a life stage PBPK model to address rapidly changing physiological parameters. Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs), in this case endocrine disruption during development, provide a biologically-based framework for linking molecular initiating events triggered by chemical exposures to key events leading to adverse outcomes. The application of AOPs to human health risk assessment requires extrapolation of in vitro HTS toxicity data to in vivo exposures (IVIVE) in humans, which can be achieved through the use of a PBPK/PD model. Exposure scenarios for chemicals in the PBPK/PD model will consider both placental and lactational transfer of chemicals, with a focus on age dependent dosimetry during fetal development and after birth for a nursing infant. This talk proposes a universal life-stage computational model that incorporates changing physiological parameters to link environmental exposures to in vitro levels of HTS assays related to a developmental toxicological AOP for vascular disruption. In vitro toxicity endpoints discussed are based on two mechanisms: 1) Fetal vascular disruption, and 2) Neurodevelopmental toxicity induced by altering thyroid hormone levels in neonates via inhibition of thyroperoxidase in the thyroid gland. Application of our Life-stage computati

  6. Life-Stage Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Model Applications to Screen Environmental Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation discusses methods used to extrapolate from in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) toxicity data for an endocrine pathway to in vivo for early life stages in humans, and the use of a life stage PBPK model to address rapidly changing physiological parameters. A...

  7. Teacher Concerns and Teacher Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Yan Fung

    2005-01-01

    This article examines teaching concerns at successive life stages among teachers with up to twenty years' or more teaching experience. Three concern stages are discerned. Nine common concern factors were found from factor-analysing thirty-three concern items. Results show that student discipline, relations with students, and students' learning and…

  8. Gamma radiation tolerance in different life stages of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paithankar, Jagdish Gopal; Deeksha, K; Patil, Rajashekhar K

    2017-04-01

    Insects are known to have higher levels of radiation tolerance than mammals. The fruit fly Drosophila provides opportunities for genetic analysis of radiation tolerance in insects. A knowledge of stage-specific sensitivity is required to understand the mechanisms and test the existing hypothesis of insect radiation tolerance. Drosophila melanogaster were irradiated using gamma rays at different life stages. Irradiation doses were chosen to start from 100-2200 Gy with increments of 100 Gy, with a dose rate of 12.5 and 25 Gy/min. The threshold of mortality, LD 50 and LD 100 1 h post-irradiation was recorded for larvae and adults and 24 h post-irradiation for eggs and after 2-3 days for early and late pupae. Total antioxidant capacity for all the life stages was measured using the phosphomolybdenum method. Twenty-four hours post-irradiation, 100% mortality was recorded for eggs at 1000 Gy. One hour post irradiation 100% mortality was recorded at 1300 Gy for first instar larvae, 1700 Gy for second instar larvae, 1900 Gy for feeding third instar larvae and 2200 Gy for non-feeding third instar larvae. Post-irradiation complete failure of emergence (100% mortality) was observed at 130 Gy for early pupae and 1500 Gy for late pupae; 100% mortality was observed at 1500 Gy for adults. The values of LD 50 were recorded as 452 Gy for eggs, 1049 Gy for first instar larvae, 1350 Gy for second instar larvae, 1265 Gy for feeding third instar larvae, 1590 Gy for non-feeding third instar larvae, 50 Gy for early pupae, 969 Gy for late pupae, 1228 Gy for adult males and 1250 Gy for adult females. Early pupae were found to be prone to radiation, whereas the non-feeding third instar larvae were most resistant among all stages. The chromosome number being constant and total antioxidant capacity being nearly constant in all stages, we suggest that high rate of cell division during early pupae makes this stage sensitive to radiation.

  9. An alternative method for assessing early mortality in contemporary populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, A S; Pike, I L

    1998-11-01

    Biological anthropologists are interested in a population's early mortality rates for a variety of reasons. Early mortality (infant or juvenile) is of obvious importance to those interested in demography, but early mortality statistics are useful for life history analysis, paleodemography, and human adaptability studies, among others. In general, the form of mortality statistics is derived from demography, where chronological age is the gold standard for statistical calculation and comparison. However, there are numerous problems associated with the collection, analysis, and interpretation of early mortality statistics based on age, particularly for anthropological research, which is often conducted in small or non-calendrical-age numerate populations. The infant mortality rate (IMR), for example, is notoriously difficult to determine in populations where accurate accounting of age is not routine, and yet it is widely used in demography, public health, medicine, and social science research. Here we offer an alternative to age-based early mortality statistics that makes use of human biologists' interest in, and skill at, assessing human growth and development. Our proposal is to use developmental stages of juveniles instead of relying exclusively on age as the basis for mortality statistics. Death or survival according to a developmental stage (such as crawling or weaning) may provide more accurate data that are also more closely related to the cause of death. Developmental stages have the added advantage of putting infants and children back at the center of the discussion of early mortality by focusing on their activities in relation to their environment. A case study from the Turkana population of Kenya illustrates the use of developmental stages in describing early mortality.

  10. Detection of early warning signals of forest mortality in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Kumar, M.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Massive forest mortality was observed in California during the most recent drought. Owing to complex interactions of physiological mechanisms under stress, prediction of climate-induced forest mortality using dynamic global vegetation models remains fraught with uncertainty. Given that forest ecosystems approaching mortality tend to exhibit reduction in resilience, we evaluate the time-varying resilience from time series of satellite images to detect early warning signals (EWSs) of mortality. Four metrics of EWSs are used: (1) low greenness, (2) high empirical autocorrelation of greenness, (3) high autocorrelation inferred using a Bayesian dynamic linear model considering the influence of seasonality and climate conditions, and (4) low recovery rate inferred from the drift term in the Langevin equation describing stochastic dynamics. Spatial accuracy and lead-time of these EWSs are evaluated by comparing the EWSs against observed mortality from aerial surveys conducted by the US Forest Service. Our results show that most forested areas in California that underwent mortality exhibit a EWS with a lead time of three months to two years ahead of observed mortality. Notably, EWS is also detected in some areas without mortality, suggesting reduced resilience during drought. Furthermore, the influence of the previous drought (2007-2009) may have propagated into the recent drought (2012-2016) through reduced resilience, hence contributing to the massive forest mortality observed recently. Methodologies developed in this study for detection of EWS will improve the near-term predictability of forest mortality, thus providing crucial information for forest and water resource management.

  11. Mortality of insect life stages during simulated heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    . Heat treatment for insect disinfestation uses elevated air temperatures that are lethal to stored-product insects. Heat treatment has been demonstrated in our research to offer a reduced-risk alternative to fumigation or residual pesticide use in empty bins. Heat is also compatible with organic gr...

  12. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Progam; Thyroid-Induced Chemical Imprinting in Early Life Stages and Assessment of Smoltification in Kokanee Salmon Implications for Operating Lake Roosevelt Kokanee Salmon Hatcheries; 1993 Supplement Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilson, Mary Beth; Galloway, Heather; Scholz, Allan T. (Eastern Washington University, Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Research Center, Cheney, WA)

    1994-06-01

    In 1991, two hatcheries were built to provide a kokanee salmon and rainbow trout fishery for Lake Roosevelt as partial mitigation for the loss of anadromous salmon and steelhead caused by construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The Sherman Creek Hatchery, located on a tributary of Lake Roosevelt to provide an egg collection and imprinting site, is small with limited rearing capability. The second hatchery was located on the Spokane Indian Reservation because of a spring water source that supplied cold, pure water for incubating and rearing eggs.`The Spokane Tribal Hatchery thus serves as the production facility. Fish reared there are released into Sherman Creek and other tributary streams as 7-9 month old fry. However, to date, returns of adult fish to release sites has been poor. If hatchery reared kokanee imprint to the hatchery water at egg or swim up stages before 3 months of age, they may not be imprinting as 7-9 month old fry at the time of stocking. In addition, if these fish undergo a smolt phase in the reservoir when they are 1.5 years old, they could migrate below Grand Coulee Dam and out of the Lake Roosevelt system. In the present investigation, which is part of the Lake Roosevelt monitoring program to assess hatchery effectiveness, kokanee salmon were tested to determine if they experienced thyroxine-induced chemical imprinting and smoltification similar to anadromous salmonids. Determination of the critical period for olfactory imprinting was determined by exposing kokanee to different synthetic chemicals (morpholine or phenethyl alcohol) at different life stages, and then measuring the ability to discriminate the chemicals as sexually mature adults. Whole body thyroxine content and blood plasma thyroxine concentration was measured to determine if peak thyroid activity coincided with imprinting or other morphological, physiological or behavioral transitions associated with smoltification.

  13. Seasonal variations of agar extracted from different life stages of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonality in yield, physical and chemical properties of the native agar from different life stages of Gracilaria cliftonii was investigated over a period of six seasons (autumn 2008–winter 2009). Agar yield and its properties varied as a function of seasons and life stages but there was no significant correlation between ...

  14. Effects of growth rate, size, and light availability on tree survival across life stages: a demographic analysis accounting for missing values and small sample sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas, Aristides; Evans, Matthew R

    2015-02-28

    Plant survival is a key factor in forest dynamics and survival probabilities often vary across life stages. Studies specifically aimed at assessing tree survival are unusual and so data initially designed for other purposes often need to be used; such data are more likely to contain errors than data collected for this specific purpose. We investigate the survival rates of ten tree species in a dataset designed to monitor growth rates. As some individuals were not included in the census at some time points we use capture-mark-recapture methods both to allow us to account for missing individuals, and to estimate relocation probabilities. Growth rates, size, and light availability were included as covariates in the model predicting survival rates. The study demonstrates that tree mortality is best described as constant between years and size-dependent at early life stages and size independent at later life stages for most species of UK hardwood. We have demonstrated that even with a twenty-year dataset it is possible to discern variability both between individuals and between species. Our work illustrates the potential utility of the method applied here for calculating plant population dynamics parameters in time replicated datasets with small sample sizes and missing individuals without any loss of sample size, and including explanatory covariates.

  15. Mental Vulnerability as a Predictor of Early Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eplov, Lene F.; Jørgensen, Torben; Segel, S.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that mental vulnerability (ie, a tendency to experience psychosomatic symptoms or inadequate interpersonal interactions) is associated with various diseases. The objective of our study is to evaluate whether mental vulnerability is a risk factor for early...... mortality. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 3 random samples of the population in Copenhagen County, Denmark selected in 1976, 1982-1984, and 1991 (n = 6435). Baseline data collection included measures of mental vulnerability, social factors, comorbidity, biologic risk markers (eg, blood...... of mortality as the result of natural causes. The association between mental vulnerability and survival was examined using Kaplan-Meir plots and Cox proportional-hazard models adjusting for possible confounding factors. RESULTS: With respect to mental vulnerability, 79% of the sample was classified...

  16. Sexual Maturity and Life Stage Influences Toxic Metal Accumulation in Croatian Brown Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Maja; Sekovanić, Ankica; Orct, Tatjana; Reljić, Slaven; Jurasović, Jasna; Huber, Đuro

    2018-02-01

    The influence of reproductive and (early) life stages on toxic metal levels was investigated in the brown bear (Ursus arctos), the largest mammalian predator species in Croatia. The purpose was to examine critical clusters in a population that might be at a higher risk of adverse health effects caused by metals as environmental contaminants. Levels of cadmium, mercury and lead in muscle, liver and kidney cortex of 325 male and 139 female bears, quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, were analysed according to distinct bear life stages (young: cub, yearling, subadult; mature: adult). Metal levels did not differ among sexes in young animals (< 4 years), except for mercury in muscles (higher in females), and adult females had higher cadmium and mercury. A trend of renal cadmium accumulation with age in immature male animals disappeared once they reached maturity, whereas for females this trend has only slowly declined in mature compared to immature bears. In early life stage (< 1 year), bear cubs had lower cadmium, comparable mercury, and higher lead in the kidneys than the bears of the following age category (yearlings). Due to a higher proportion of renal lead transfer from the mother to the cub compared with cadmium, it may be that the high burden of cadmium found in kidneys of older females has lower toxicological concern for their cubs than the lead content. Sex, reproductive, and life stages of bears were confirmed as important in assessing toxic metal burden.

  17. Air Pollution Mixtures: Health Effects across Life Stages

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The main objectives of the proposed Center are: 1) to investigate the acute and chronic health effects across life stages of six exposure metrics (short- and long-...

  18. Predicting Early Mortality After Hip Fracture Surgery: The Hip Fracture Estimator of Mortality Amsterdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karres, Julian; Kieviet, Noera; Eerenberg, Jan-Peter; Vrouenraets, Bart C

    2018-01-01

    Early mortality after hip fracture surgery is high and preoperative risk assessment for the individual patient is challenging. A risk model could identify patients in need of more intensive perioperative care, provide insight in the prognosis, and allow for risk adjustment in audits. This study aimed to develop and validate a risk prediction model for 30-day mortality after hip fracture surgery: the Hip fracture Estimator of Mortality Amsterdam (HEMA). Data on 1050 consecutive patients undergoing hip fracture surgery between 2004 and 2010 were retrospectively collected and randomly split into a development cohort (746 patients) and validation cohort (304 patients). Logistic regression analysis was performed in the development cohort to determine risk factors for the HEMA. Discrimination and calibration were assessed in both cohorts using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, and by stratification into low-, medium- and high-risk groups. Nine predictors for 30-day mortality were identified and used in the final model: age ≥85 years, in-hospital fracture, signs of malnutrition, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, current pneumonia, renal failure, malignancy, and serum urea >9 mmol/L. The HEMA showed good discrimination in the development cohort (AUC = 0.81) and the validation cohort (AUC = 0.79). The Hosmer-Lemeshow test indicated no lack of fit in either cohort (P > 0.05). The HEMA is based on preoperative variables and can be used to predict the risk of 30-day mortality after hip fracture surgery for the individual patient. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  19. Ultrasonographic appearance of early embryonic mortality in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Catone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic mortality is one of the main causes responsible of the decline in fertility that occurs in buffaloes during periods of increasing daylight length (out sexual breeding season. Transrectal ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis offers some advantages over palpation per rectum: earlier diagnosis of pregnancy/non-pregnancy, determination of embryo/fetus viability, reduction of misdiagnosis, and reduction of .potential. iatrogenic embryo/fetal attrition. Non pregnant buffaloes on Day 25 after AI showed higher Resistive Index (RI (P<0.05 and Pulsatility Index (P=0.07 values, registered on CL on Days 10 after AI, compared to pregnant buffaloes. RI values were significantly higher (P=0.02 in non pregnant buffaloes also on Day 45 after AI. Colour Doppler sonography could be used to gain specific information relating to the ovarian blood flow in predicting early embryonic loss and to describe the ultrasonographic features of early embryonic death in buffaloes.

  20. Early mortality experience in a large military cohort and a comparison of mortality data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Besa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete and accurate ascertainment of mortality is critically important in any longitudinal study. Tracking of mortality is particularly essential among US military members because of unique occupational exposures (e.g., worldwide deployments as well as combat experiences. Our study objectives were to describe the early mortality experience of Panel 1 of the Millennium Cohort, consisting of participants in a 21-year prospective study of US military service members, and to assess data sources used to ascertain mortality. Methods A population-based random sample (n = 256,400 of all US military service members on service rosters as of October 1, 2000, was selected for study recruitment. Among this original sample, 214,388 had valid mailing addresses, were not in the pilot study, and comprised the group referred to in this study as the invited sample. Panel 1 participants were enrolled from 2001 to 2003, represented all armed service branches, and included active-duty, Reserve, and National Guard members. Crude death rates, as well as age- and sex-adjusted overall and age-adjusted, category-specific death rates were calculated and compared for participants (n = 77,047 and non-participants (n = 137,341 based on data from the Social Security Administration Death Master File, Department of Veterans Affairs (VA files, and the Department of Defense Medical Mortality Registry, 2001-2006. Numbers of deaths identified by these three data sources, as well as the National Death Index, were compared for 2001-2004. Results There were 341 deaths among the participants for a crude death rate of 80.7 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 72.2,89.3 compared to 820 deaths and a crude death rate of 113.2 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: 105.4, 120.9 for non-participants. Age-adjusted, category-specific death rates highlighted consistently higher rates among study non-participants. Although there were advantages and

  1. Large birth size does not reduce the negative latent effects of harsh environmental conditions across life stages in two coral species.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, A.C.; Marhaver, K.L.; Chamberland, V.F.; Sandin, S.A.; Vermeij, M.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    When juveniles must tolerate harsh environments early in life, the disproportionate success of certain phenotypes across multiple early life stages will dramatically influence adult community composition and dynamics. In many species, large offspring have a higher tolerance for stressful

  2. Impaired swim bladder inflation in early-life stage fathead ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated whether inhibition of deiodinase, the enzyme which converts thyroxine (T4) to the more biologically-active form, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), would impact inflation of the posterior and/or anterior chamber of the swim bladder, processes previously demonstrated to be thyroid-hormone regulated. Two experiments were conducted using a model deiodinase inhibitor, iopanoic acid (IOP). In the first study, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) embryos were exposed to 0.6, 1.9, or 6.0 mg IOP/L or control water in a flow-through system until reaching 6 days post-fertilization (dpf) at which time posterior swim bladder inflation was assessed. To examine effects on anterior swim bladder inflation, a second study was conducted with 6 dpf larvae exposed to the same IOP concentrations until reaching 21 dpf. Fish from both studies were sampled for T4/T3 measurements, gene transcription analyses, and thyroid histopathology. In the embryo study, incidence and length of inflated posterior swim bladders were significantly reduced in the 6.0 mg/L treatment at 6 dpf. Incidence of inflation and length of anterior swim bladder in larval fish were significantly reduced in all IOP treatments at 14 dpf, but inflation recovered by 18 dpf. Throughout the larval study, whole body T4 concentrations were significantly increased and T3 concentrations were significantly decreased in all IOP treatments. Consistent with hypothesized compensatory responses, sig

  3. Quantifying predation on Baltic cod early life stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Schaber, Matthias; Eero, Margit

    2017-01-01

    Predation on cod (Gadus morhua) eggs by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus) is known to be one of the processes influencing reproductive success of the eastern Baltic cod and has been reported to have contributed to lack of recovery of the stock in the 1990s. This study quanti...

  4. Studies of the mortality of A-bomb survivors: report 7. Mortality, 1950-1978: part II. Mortality from causes other than cancer and mortality in early entrants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.; Brown, C.C.; Hoel, D.G.; Shull, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    Deaths in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (REFR) Life Span Study (LSS) sample have been determined for the 4 years 1975-1978, and mortality examined for the 28 years since 1950. An analysis of cancer mortality is presented separately. In this report, we examine whether mortality from causes other than cancer is also increased or whether a nonspecific acceleration of aging occurs. 1. Cumulative mortality from causes other than cancer, estimated by the life table method, does not increase with radiation dose in either city, in either sex, or in any of the five different age-at-the-time-of-bomb groups. 2. No specific cause of death, other than cancer, exhibits a significant relationship with A-bomb exposure. Thus there is still no evidence of a nonspecific acceleration of aging due to radiation in this cohort. 3. Mortality before the LSS sample was established has been reanalyzed using three supplementary mortality surveys to determine the magnitude of the possible bias from the exclusion of deaths prior to 1950. It is unlikely that such a bias seriously affects the interpretation of the radiation effects observed in the cohort after 1950. 4. No excess of deaths from leukemia or other malignant tumors is observed among early entrants into these cities in this cohort

  5. Habitat Fragmentation Drives Plant Community Assembly Processes across Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Yu, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the principal causes of biodiversity loss and hence understanding its impacts on community assembly and disassembly is an important topic in ecology. We studied the relationships between fragmentation and community assembly processes in the land-bridge island system of Thousand Island Lake in East China. We focused on the changes in species diversity and phylogenetic diversity that occurred between life stages of woody plants growing on these islands. The observed diversities were compared with the expected diversities from random null models to characterize assembly processes. Regression tree analysis was used to illustrate the relationships between island attributes and community assembly processes. We found that different assembly processes predominate in the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition (SS) vs. the saplings-to-trees transition (ST). Island area was the main attribute driving the assembly process in SS. In ST, island isolation was more important. Within a fragmented landscape, the factors driving community assembly processes were found to differ between life stage transitions. Environmental filtering had a strong effect on the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition. Habitat isolation and dispersal limitation influenced all plant life stages, but had a weaker effect on communities than area. These findings add to our understanding of the processes driving community assembly and species coexistence in the context of pervasive and widespread habitat loss and fragmentation. PMID:27427960

  6. Habitat filtering across tree life stages in tropical forest communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldeck, C. A.; Harms, K. E.; Yavitt, J. B.; John, R.; Turner, B. L.; Valencia, R.; Navarrete, H.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Kiratiprayoon, S.; Yaacob, A.; Supardi, M. N. N.; Davies, S. J.; Hubbell, S. P.; Chuyong, G. B.; Kenfack, D.; Thomas, D. W.; Dalling, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical tree communities are shaped by local-scale habitat heterogeneity in the form of topographic and edaphic variation, but the life-history stage at which habitat associations develop remains poorly understood. This is due, in part, to the fact that previous studies have not accounted for the widely disparate sample sizes (number of stems) that result when trees are divided into size classes. We demonstrate that the observed habitat structuring of a community is directly related to the number of individuals in the community. We then compare the relative importance of habitat heterogeneity to tree community structure for saplings, juveniles and adult trees within seven large (24–50 ha) tropical forest dynamics plots while controlling for sample size. Changes in habitat structuring through tree life stages were small and inconsistent among life stages and study sites. Where found, these differences were an order of magnitude smaller than the findings of previous studies that did not control for sample size. Moreover, community structure and composition were very similar among tree sub-communities of different life stages. We conclude that the structure of these tropical tree communities is established by the time trees are large enough to be included in the census (1 cm diameter at breast height), which indicates that habitat filtering occurs during earlier life stages. PMID:23843384

  7. Corticotropin-releasing hormone: Mediator of vertebrate life stage transitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yugo; Grommen, Sylvia V H; De Groef, Bert

    2016-03-01

    Hormones, particularly thyroid hormones and corticosteroids, play critical roles in vertebrate life stage transitions such as amphibian metamorphosis, hatching in precocial birds, and smoltification in salmonids. Since they synergistically regulate several metabolic and developmental processes that accompany vertebrate life stage transitions, the existence of extensive cross-communication between the adrenal/interrenal and thyroidal axes is not surprising. Synergies of corticosteroids and thyroid hormones are based on effects at the level of tissue hormone sensitivity and gene regulation. In addition, in representative nonmammalian vertebrates, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulates hypophyseal thyrotropin secretion, and thus functions as a common regulator of both the adrenal/interrenal and thyroidal axes to release corticosteroids and thyroid hormones. The dual function of CRH has been speculated to control or affect the timing of vertebrate life history transitions across taxa. After a brief overview of recent insights in the molecular mechanisms behind the synergic actions of thyroid hormones and corticosteroids during life stage transitions, this review examines the evidence for a possible role of CRH in controlling vertebrate life stage transitions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Proposed changes to the nomenclature of Ichthyophonus sp. life stages and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R M

    2013-10-01

    Much of the terminology describing Ichthyophonus sp. life stages and structures can be traced to the mistaken classification of this organism as a fungus. This misidentification led early investigators to use mycological terms for the structures they observed; while some terminology is not so easily explained, it appears to have been co-opted from the fields of botany and bacteriology. The purpose of this exercise is to attempt to standardize the terminology associated with Ichthyophonus and to bring it into agreement with terminology currently used to define similar life stages of other protists. The proposed changes are (1) spore/macrospore/mother spore to "schizont," (2) microspore/endospore to "merozoite," and (3) pseudohyphae to "hyphae" or "germ tube."

  9. Predictors of early neonatal mortality at a neonatal intensive care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    mortality and they have been the reasons for the wide variation in mortality rates among the health facilities reporting. Objective: ... A study in Indonesia about determinants of neonatal ..... antenatal visit, frequency of visits and administration of.

  10. Hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme and transporter gene expression through the life stages of the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice S Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs. No comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs has been carried out through life stages in any species. RESULTS: Using full-genome arrays, the mRNA expression of all XMETs and their regulatory proteins was examined during fetal (gestation day (GD 19, neonatal (postnatal day (PND 7, prepubescent (PND32, middle age (12 months, and old age (18 and 24 months in the C57BL/6J (C57 mouse liver and compared to adults. Fetal and neonatal life stages exhibited dramatic differences in XMET mRNA expression compared to the relatively minor effects of old age. The total number of XMET probe sets that differed from adults was 636, 500, 84, 5, 43, and 102 for GD19, PND7, PND32, 12 months, 18 months and 24 months, respectively. At all life stages except PND32, under-expressed genes outnumbered over-expressed genes. The altered XMETs included those in all of the major metabolic and transport phases including introduction of reactive or polar groups (Phase I, conjugation (Phase II and excretion (Phase III. In the fetus and neonate, parallel increases in expression were noted in the dioxin receptor, Nrf2 components and their regulated genes while nuclear receptors and regulated genes were generally down-regulated. Suppression of male-specific XMETs was observed at early (GD19, PND7 and to a lesser extent, later life stages (18 and 24 months. A number of female-specific XMETs exhibited a spike in expression centered at PND7. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis revealed dramatic differences in the expression of the XMETs, especially in the fetus and neonate that are partially dependent on gender-dependent factors. XMET expression can be used to predict life stage-specific responses to environmental chemicals and drugs.

  11. Size, growth, and size‐selective mortality of subyearling Chinook Salmon during early marine residence in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Madilyn M.; Connelly, Kristin A.; Gardner, Jennifer R.; Chamberlin, Joshua W.; Warheit, Kenneth I.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2018-01-01

    In marine ecosystems, survival can be heavily influenced by size‐selective mortality during juvenile life stages. Understanding how and when size‐selective mortality operates on a population can reveal underlying growth dynamics and size‐selective ecological processes affecting the population and thus can be used to guide conservation efforts. For subyearling Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Puget Sound, previous research reported a strong positive relationship between marine survival and body mass during midsummer in epipelagic habitats within Puget Sound, suggesting that early marine growth drives survival. However, a fine‐scale analysis of size‐selective mortality is needed to identify specific critical growth periods and habitats. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe occupancy patterns across estuarine delta, nearshore marine, and offshore epipelagic habitats in Puget Sound; (2) describe changes in FL and weight observed across habitats and time; (3) evaluate evidence for size‐selective mortality; and (4) illustrate how marine survival of the stocks studied may be affected by variation in July weight. In 2014 and 2015, we sampled FLs, weights, and scales from seven hatchery‐origin and two natural‐origin stocks of subyearling Chinook Salmon captured every 2 weeks during out‐migration and rearing in estuary, nearshore, and offshore habitats within Puget Sound. Natural‐origin stocks had more protracted habitat occupancy patterns than hatchery‐origin stocks and were smaller than hatchery‐origin stocks in both years. Regardless of origin, subyearlings were longer and heavier and grew faster in offshore habitats compared to estuary and nearshore habitats. For all stocks, we found little evidence of size‐selective mortality among habitats in Puget Sound. These patterns were consistent in both years. Finally, the weights of subyearlings sampled during July in the offshore habitat predicted Puget Sound‐wide marine

  12. Spatial Patterns and Interspecific Associations of Three Canopy Species at Different Life Stages in a Subtropical Forest,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Li; Shi-Guang Wei; Zhong-Liang Huang; Wan-Hui Ye; Hong-Lin Cao

    2008-01-01

    Spatial patterns of species at different life stages are an important aspect for understanding causal mechanisms that facilitate species co-existence.Using Ripley's univariate L(t) and bivariate L12(t) functions,we analyzed the spatial patterns and interspecific associations of three canopy species at different life history stages in a 20-ha subtropical forest plot in Dinghushan Nature Reserve.Based on diameter at breast height (DBH),four life stages were distinguished.Castanopsis chinensis and Schima superba showed a unimodal DBH distribution.Engelhardtia roxburghiana showed a bimodal curve.L(t) function analysis showed significantly aggregated distributions of all three species at later life stages and random distribution at early life stages at some scales.From the analysis of L12(t) function,the results showed the positive association was a dominant pattern for most species pairs at most scales but the intensity of association decreases with the increase of life stages.Juveniles of the three species had no negative intra- and interspecific associations with the older life stages.Only premature trees were suppressed by overmature trees at some scales.Considering these results,we found three canopy-dominant species that lacked regeneration.There was no direct competition occurring between understorey individuals.Young trees can grow well under conspecific species with two other species.Longevity and lack of regeneration led to a large number of trees stored in mature and overmature stages,therefore,intra-and inter-competition can be strong at later life stages.

  13. Relative Influence of Prior Life Stages and Habitat Variables on Dragonfly (Odonata: Gomphidae Densities among Lake Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alysa Remsburg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many aquatic species have discrete life stages, making it important to understand relative influences of the different habitats occupied within those populations. Although population demographics in one stage can carry over to spatially separated life stages, most studies of habitat associations have been restricted to a single life stage. Among Gomphidae dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera, recruitment via adult oviposition establishes initial population sizes of the aquatic larvae. However, spatial variability in larval survivorship could obscure the relationship between adult and larval densities. This study uses surveys conducted during 2005 and 2006 of Gomphidae larval, emergence, and adult stages from 22 lake sites in northern Wisconsin, USA, to investigate (1 whether the Gomphidae density of each life stage correlated spatially with that of the preceding life stage and (2 what habitat factors help explain variation in densities at each life stage. Results indicated that adult densities from the previous season helped predict densities of early-instar larvae. This finding suggests that oviposition site selection controlled the local larval distribution more than larval survivorship or movement. Late-instar larval densities helped predict densities of emerging Gomphidae later the same season, suggesting that variation in survivorship of final-instar larvae among sites is small relative to the variation in larval recruitment. This study demonstrates that locations with higher densities of odonates in the water also have higher densities of odonates on land. In addition to the densities of Gomphidae in previous life stages, water clarity helped predict larval densities, and riparian wetland vegetation helped predict emergent dragonfly densities.

  14. Integrating life stages into ecological niche models: a case study on tiger beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Angela; von Wehrden, Henrik; Assmann, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Detailed understanding of a species' natural history and environmental needs across spatial scales is a primary requisite for effective conservation planning, particularly for species with complex life cycles in which different life stages occupy different niches and respond to the environment at different scales. However, niche models applied to conservation often neglect early life stages and are mostly performed at broad spatial scales. Using the endangered heath tiger beetle (Cicindela sylvatica) as a model species, we relate presence/absence and abundance data of locally dispersing adults and sedentary larvae to abiotic and biotic variables measured in a multiscale approach within the geographic extent relevant to active conservation management. At the scale of hundreds of meters, fine-grained abiotic conditions (i.e., vegetation structure) are fundamental determinants of the occurrence of both life stages, whereas the effect of biotic factors is mostly contained in the abiotic signature. The combination of dense heath vegetation and bare ground areas is thus the first requirement for the species' preservation, provided that accessibility to the suitable habitat is ensured. At a smaller scale (centimetres), the influence of abiotic factors on larval occurrence becomes negligible, suggesting the existence of important additional variables acting within larval proximity. Sustained significant correlations between neighbouring larvae in the models provide an indication of the potential impact of neighbourhood crowding on the larval niche within a few centimetres. Since the species spends the majority of its life cycle in the larval stage, it is essential to consider the hierarchical abiotic and biotic processes affecting the larvae when designing practical conservation guidelines for the species. This underlines the necessity for a more critical evaluation of the consequences of disregarding niche variation between life stages when estimating niches and

  15. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Emma E; Essington, Timothy E; Kaplan, Isaac C

    2016-01-01

    Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1) the maximum stage vulnerability and (2) a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill-Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod-Limacina helicina, pink shrimp-Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab-Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake-Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species' vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate.

  16. Maternal, social and abiotic environmental effects on growth vary across life stages in a cooperative mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Sinead; Bateman, Andrew W; Mares, Rafael; Ozgul, Arpat; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2014-03-01

    Resource availability plays a key role in driving variation in somatic growth and body condition, and the factors determining access to resources vary considerably across life stages. Parents and carers may exert important influences in early life, when individuals are nutritionally dependent, with abiotic environmental effects having stronger influences later in development as individuals forage independently. Most studies have measured specific factors influencing growth across development or have compared relative influences of different factors within specific life stages. Such studies may not capture whether early-life factors continue to have delayed effects at later stages, or whether social factors change when individuals become nutritionally independent and adults become competitors for, rather than providers of, food. Here, we examined variation in the influence of the abiotic, social and maternal environment on growth across life stages in a wild population of cooperatively breeding meerkats. Cooperatively breeding vertebrates are ideal for investigating environmental influences on growth. In addition to experiencing highly variable abiotic conditions, cooperative breeders are typified by heterogeneity both among breeders, with mothers varying in age and social status, and in the number of carers present. Recent rainfall had a consistently marked effect on growth across life stages, yet other seasonal terms only influenced growth during stages when individuals were growing fastest. Group size and maternal dominance status had positive effects on growth during the period of nutritional dependence on carers, but did not influence mass at emergence (at 1 month) or growth at independent stages (>4 months). Pups born to older mothers were lighter at 1 month of age and subsequently grew faster as subadults. Males grew faster than females during the juvenile and subadult stage only. Our findings demonstrate the complex ways in which the external environment

  17. Embryo mortality and early post-oestrous cycle embryonic death ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Animal Science, University of Natal, P.O. Box 375, ... An estimate of embryo mortality (cycles longer than 28 days) was obtained from milk progesterone analysis and .... test, these differences were significant (P < 0,001). It.

  18. Early BCG-Denmark and Neonatal Mortality Among Infants Weighing <2500 g: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Aaby, Peter; Lund, Najaaraq

    2017-01-01

    ratios (MRRs). We had prespecified an analysis censoring follow-up at oral poliovirus vaccine campaigns. Results. Early administration of BCG-Denmark was associated with a nonsignificant reduction in neonatal mortality rate (MRR, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], .47–1.04) and a 34% reduction (0.......66; .44–1.00) when censoring for oral poliovirus vaccine campaigns. There was no reduction in mortality rate for noninfectious diseases, but a 43% reduction in infectious disease mortality rate (MRR, 0.57; 95% CI, .35–.93). A meta-analysis of 3 BCG trials showed that early BCG-Denmark reduced mortality...

  19. The Timing of Early Antibiotics and Hospital Mortality in Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Vincent X; Fielding-Singh, Vikram; Greene, John D; Baker, Jennifer M; Iwashyna, Theodore J; Bhattacharya, Jay; Escobar, Gabriel J

    2017-10-01

    Prior sepsis studies evaluating antibiotic timing have shown mixed results. To evaluate the association between antibiotic timing and mortality among patients with sepsis receiving antibiotics within 6 hours of emergency department registration. Retrospective study of 35,000 randomly selected inpatients with sepsis treated at 21 emergency departments between 2010 and 2013 in Northern California. The primary exposure was antibiotics given within 6 hours of emergency department registration. The primary outcome was adjusted in-hospital mortality. We used detailed physiologic data to quantify severity of illness within 1 hour of registration and logistic regression to estimate the odds of hospital mortality based on antibiotic timing and patient factors. The median time to antibiotic administration was 2.1 hours (interquartile range, 1.4-3.1 h). The adjusted odds ratio for hospital mortality based on each hour of delay in antibiotics after registration was 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.13) for each elapsed hour between registration and antibiotic administration. The increase in absolute mortality associated with an hour's delay in antibiotic administration was 0.3% (95% CI, 0.01-0.6%; P = 0.04) for sepsis, 0.4% (95% CI, 0.1-0.8%; P = 0.02) for severe sepsis, and 1.8% (95% CI, 0.8-3.0%; P = 0.001) for shock. In a large, contemporary, and multicenter sample of patients with sepsis in the emergency department, hourly delays in antibiotic administration were associated with increased odds of hospital mortality even among patients who received antibiotics within 6 hours. The odds increased within each sepsis severity strata, and the increased odds of mortality were greatest in septic shock.

  20. Early Mortality Experience in a Large Military Cohort and a Comparison of Mortality Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    population-based cohort study. Ann Epidemiol 2007, 17(7):525-532. 9. Wentworth DN, Neaton JD, Rasmussen WL: An evaluation of the Social Security...Health 1992, 82(8):1145-1447. 13. Calle EE, Terrell DD: Utility of the National Death Index for ascertainment of mortality among Cancer Prevention Study...Hynes DM: A primer and comparative review of major US mortality databases. Ann Epidemiol 2002, 12(7):462-468. 18. Sesso HD, Paffenbarger RS, Lee

  1. HPLC-MS Analysis of Lichen-Derived Metabolites in the Life Stages of Crambidia cephalica (Grote & Robinson).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Timothy J; Wagner, David L; Cooper, Bruce R; McCarty, Megan E; Zaspel, Jennifer M

    2017-01-01

    Tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae: Arctiini) are notable for their specialized associations with hosts that produce toxic secondary compounds, and are thus an ideal study system for understanding insect-plant interactions and the evolution of antipredatory defense. Likewise, their sister lineage (Arctiinae: Lithosiini) has been documented feeding on algae and lichens, and is known to sequester lichen-derived secondary compounds from the larval to adult stages. Prevalence of lichenivory in this early radiation (ca. 3000 species) may provide clues to the phylogenetic basis for storied chemical sequestration within all tiger moths. Despite the evolutionary significance of this trait, we lack a basic understanding of the extent of lichenivory among lithosiines, and the distribution of sequestered chemicals among life stages. The dynamics of chemical sequestration throughout the lifecycle for the lichen moth Crambidia cephalica were investigated by testing the hypothesis that lichen-derived metabolites are unequally distributed among life stages, and that laboratory-reared C. cephalica have less metabolite diversity than wild-caught individuals. Crambidia cephalica was reared on Physcia, and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Several putative lichen-derived metabolites were detected across three life stages, i.e., larval, pupal, and adult, and differences among life stages and lichen host were observed. These results provide evidence that multiple lichen-derived metabolites are sequestered by C. cephalica; some metabolites are retained through adulthood, and others are lost or modified in earlier life stages. The presence of differing lichen-derived metabolites across life stages may indicate functional properties of the metabolites for C. cephalica with regards to chemical protection from antagonists, and other physiological processes.

  2. An Upsurge in early childhood mortality in Kenya: A search for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study seeks to document recent trends in early childhood mortality in the country and to offer some plausible explanations for the upsurge in the trends. Data and information from various sources are used in this paper to achieve this purpose. The results obtained show that infant, child and under-five mortality rates had ...

  3. Early mortality and complications in hospitalized adult Californians with acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Gwendolyn; Jonas, Brian A; Li, Qian; Brunson, Ann; Wun, Ted; Keegan, Theresa H M

    2017-06-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impact of complications, sociodemographic and clinical factors on early mortality (death ≤60 days from diagnosis) in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients. Using data from the California Cancer Registry linked to hospital discharge records from 1999 to 2012, we identified patients aged ≥15 years with AML who received inpatient treatment (N = 6359). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of complications with early mortality, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, comorbidities and hospital type. Early mortality decreased over time (25·3%, 1999-2000; 16·8%, 2011-2012) across all age groups, but was higher in older patients (6·9%, 15-39, 11·4%, 40-54, 18·6% 55-65, and 35·8%, >65 years). Major bleeding [Odds ratio (OR) 1·5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·3-1·9], liver failure (OR 1·9, 95% CI 1·1-3·1), renal failure (OR 2·4, 95% CI 2·0-2·9), respiratory failure (OR 7·6, 95% CI 6·2-9·3) and cardiac arrest (OR 15·8, 95% CI 8·7-28·6) were associated with early mortality. Higher early mortality was also associated with single marital status, low neighbourhood socioeconomic status, lack of health insurance and comorbidities. Treatment at National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centres was associated with lower early mortality (OR 0·5, 95% CI 0·4-0·6). In conclusion, organ dysfunction, hospital type and sociodemographic factors impact early mortality. Further studies should investigate how differences in healthcare delivery affect early mortality. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Is a sedentary lifestyle an independent predictor for hospital and early mortality after elective cardiac surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyez, L; Biemans, I; Verkroost, M; van Swieten, H

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluates whether a sedentary lifestyle is an independent predictor for increased mortality after elective cardiac surgery. Three thousand one hundred fifty patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery between January 2007 and June 2012 completed preoperatively the Corpus Christi Heart Project questionnaire concerning physical activity (PA). Based on this questionnaire, 1815 patients were classified as active and 1335 patients were classified as sedentary. The endpoints of the study were hospital mortality and early mortality. The study population had a mean age of 69.7 ± 10.1 (19-95) years and a mean logistic EuroSCORE risk of 5.1 ± 5.6 (0.88-73.8). Sedentary patients were significantly older (p = 0.001), obese (p = 0.001), had a higher EuroSCORE risk (p = 0.001), and a higher percentage of complications. Hospital mortality (1.1 % versus 0.4 % (p = 0.014)) and early mortality (1.5 % versus 0.6 % (p = 0.006)) were significantly higher in the sedentary group compared with the active group. However, a sedentary lifestyle was not identified as an independent predictor for hospital mortality (p = 0.61) or early mortality (p = 0.70). Sedentary patients were older, obese and had a higher EuroSCORE risk. They had significantly more postoperative complications, higher hospital mortality and early mortality. Despite these results, sedentary behaviour could not be identified as an independent predictor for hospital or early mortality.

  5. Early tracheostomy in severe traumatic brain injury: evidence for decreased mechanical ventilation and increased hospital mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, C Michael; Cutrona, Anthony F; Gruber, Brian S; Calderon, Javier E; Ransom, Kenneth J; Flowers, Laurie L

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In the past, the authors performed a comprehensive literature review to identify all randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of early tracheostomy on severe brain injury outcomes. The search produced only two trials, one by Sugerman and another by Bouderka. Subjects and methods: The current authors initiated an Institutional Review Board-approved severe brain injury randomized trial to evaluate the impact of early tracheostomy on ventilator-associated pneumonia rates, intensive care unit (ICU)/ventilator days, and hospital mortality. Current study results were compared with the other randomized trials and a meta-analysis was performed. Results: Early tracheostomy pneumonia rates were Sugerman-48.6%, Bouderka-58.1%, and current study-46.7%. No early tracheostomy pneumonia rates were Sugerman-53.1%, Bouderka-61.3%, and current study-44.4%. Pneumonia rate meta-analysis showed no difference for early tracheostomy and no early tracheostomy (OR 0.89; p = 0.71). Early tracheostomy ICU/ventilator days were Sugerman-16 ± 5.9, Bouderka-14.5 ± 7.3, and current study-14.1 ± 5.7. No early tracheostomy ICU/ventilator days were Sugerman-19 ± 11.3, Bouderka-17.5 ± 10.6, and current study-17 ± 5.4. ICU/ventilator day meta-analysis showed 2.9 fewer days with early tracheostomy (p = 0.02). Early tracheostomy mortality rates were Sugerman-14.3%, Bouderka-38.7%, and current study-0%. No early tracheostomy mortality rates were Sugerman-3.2%, Bouderka-22.6%, and current study-0%. Randomized trial mortality rate meta-analysis showed a higher rate for early tracheostomy (OR 2.68; p = 0.05). Because the randomized trials were small, a literature assessment was undertaken to find all retrospective studies describing the association of early tracheostomy on severe brain injury hospital mortality. The review produced five retrospective studies, with a total of 3,356 patients. Retrospective study mortality rate meta-analysis demonstrated a larger mortality for early

  6. Comparative copper sensitivity between life stages of common subantarctic marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holan, Jessica R; King, Catherine K; Davis, Andrew R

    2018-03-01

    The development of environmental guidelines in the Antarctic and subantarctic is essential, because expansion of research, tourism, and fishing is placing these regions at increasing risk of contamination. Data are currently insufficient to create the region-specific guidelines needed for the unique conditions in these areas. To develop the most appropriate environmental guidelines, data from the most sensitive life stages of a species should be included to ensure effective protection throughout its life cycle. It is generally accepted that early life stages are more sensitive to contaminants. We compared the toxicity of copper between juvenile and adult life stages of 4 subantarctic marine invertebrates using sublethal and lethal endpoints. For 2 of the species tested, juveniles were more sensitive than adults. (The 7-d median effect concentration [EC50] values for the gastropod Laevilittorina caliginosa were 79 μg/L at the juvenile stage and 125 μg/L at the adult; for the flatworm Obrimoposthia ohlini, values were 190 μg/L at the juvenile stage and 300 μg/L at the adult.) For the isopod Limnoria stephenseni, juveniles were either more sensitive or of equal sensitivity to adults (7-d EC50 values: juvenile 278 μg/L and adult 320 μg/L). In contrast, for the bivalve Gaimardia trapesina, adults appeared to be more sensitive than young adults (7-d EC50 values: juvenile 23 μg/L and adult life history stages was observed, the present study contributes important information for the development of water quality guidelines in polar regions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:807-815. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  7. Does shared family background influence the impact of educational differences on early mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Grethe; Mortensen, Laust H; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms behind social differences in mortality rates have been debated. The authors examined the extent to which shared family background and health in early life could explain the association between educational status and all-cause mortality rates using a sibling design. The study......-cause mortality that was strongest for males, increased with younger birth cohorts, and tended to be strongest in the analyses of death before 45 years of age. The associations were attenuated slightly in the intersibling analyses and after adjustment for serious health conditions in early life. Hence, health...

  8. Innovative curriculum: Integrating the bio-behavioral and social science principles across the LifeStages in basic science years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lele Mookerjee, Anuradha; Fischer, Bradford D; Cavanaugh, Susan; Rajput, Vijay

    2018-05-20

    Behavioral and social science integration in clinical practice improves health outcomes across the life stages. The medical school curriculum requires an integration of the behavioral and social science principles in early medical education. We developed and delivered a four-week course entitled "LifeStages" to the first year medical students. The learning objectives of the bio-behavioral and social science principles along with the cultural, economic, political, and ethical parameters were integrated across the lifespan in the curriculum matrix. We focused on the following major domains: Growth and Brain Development; Sexuality, Hormones and Gender; Sleep; Cognitive and Emotional Development; Mobility, Exercise, Injury and Safety; Nutrition, Diet and Lifestyle; Stress and coping skills, Domestic Violence; Substance Use Disorders; Pain, Illness and Suffering; End of Life, Ethics and Death along with Intergenerational issues and Family Dynamics. Collaboration from the clinical and biomedical science departments led to the dynamic delivery of the course learning objectives and content. The faculty developed and led a scholarly discussion, using the case of a multi-racial, multi-generational family during Active Learning Group (ALG) sessions. The assessment in the LifeStages course involved multiple assessment tools: including the holistic assessment by the faculty facilitator inside ALGs, a Team-Based Learning (TBL) exercise, multiple choice questions and Team Work Assessment during which the students had to create a clinical case on a LifeStages domain along with the facilitators guide and learning objectives.

  9. Exogenous determinants of early-life conditions, and mortality later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    based on the estimation of duration models) indicate a significant negative causal effect of economic conditions early in life on individual mortality rates at higher ages. If the national economic performance in the year of birth exceeds its trend value (i.e., if the business cycle is favorable......) then the mortality rate later in life is lower. The implied effect on the median lifetime of those who survive until age 35 is about 10 months. A systematic empirical exploration of all macro-indicators reveals that economic conditions in the first years after birth also affect mortality rates later in life.......We analyze causal effects of conditions early in life on the individual mortality rate later in life. Conditions early in life are captured by transitory features of the macro-environment around birth, notably the state of the business cycle around birth, but also food price deviations, weather...

  10. Thermal Death Kinetics of Conogethes Punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) as Influenced by Heating Rate and Life Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lixia; Du, Yanli; Johnson, Judy A; Wang, Shaojin

    2015-10-01

    Thermal death kinetics of Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different life stages, heating rate, and temperature is essential for developing postharvest treatments to control pests in chestnuts. Using a heating block system (HBS), the most heat-tolerant life stage of C. punctiferalis and the effects of heating rate (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10°C/min) on insect mortality were determined. The thermal death kinetic data of fifth-instar C. punctiferalis were obtained at temperatures between 44 and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C/min. The results showed that the relative heat tolerance of C. punctiferalis was found to be fifth instars>pupae> third instars> eggs. To avoid the enhanced thermal tolerance of C. punctiferalis at low heating rates (0.1 or 0.5°C/min), a high heating rate of 5°C/min was selected to simulate the fast radio frequency heating in chestnuts and further determine the thermal death kinetic data. Thermal death curves of C. punctiferalis followed a 0th-order kinetic reaction model. The minimum exposure time to achieve 100% mortality was 55, 12, 6, and 3 min at 44, 46, 48, and 50°C, respectively. The activation energy for controlling C. punctiferalis was 482.15 kJ/mol with the z value of 4.09°C obtained from the thermal death-time curve. The information provided by thermal death kinetics for C. punctiferalis is useful in developing effective postharvest thermal treatment protocols for disinfesting chestnuts. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. External validation of the Emergency Trauma Score for early prediction of mortality in trauma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosse, Pieter; de Jong, Willem-Jan J.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Wendt, Klaus W.; Schep, Niels W.; Goslings, J. Carel

    2014-01-01

    The Emergency Trauma Score has been developed for early estimation of mortality risk in adult trauma patients with an Injury Severity Score of 16 or higher. Emergency Trauma Score combines four early predictors available at the trauma resuscitation room: age, Glasgow Coma Scale, base excess, and

  12. External Validation of the Emergency Trauma Score for Early Prediction of Mortality in Trauma Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosse, Pieter; de Jong, Willem-Jan J.; Wendt, Klaus W.; Schep, Niels W.; Goslings, J. Carel; Reitsma, J.

    Objectives: The Emergency Trauma Score has been developed for early estimation of mortality risk in adult trauma patients with an Injury Severity Score of 16 or higher. Emergency Trauma Score combines four early predictors available at the trauma resuscitation room: age, Glasgow Coma Scale, base

  13. Fertility and early-life mortality: Evidence from smallpox vaccination in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ager, Philipp; Hansen, Casper Worm; Jensen, Peter Sandholt

    2018-01-01

    The smallpox vaccination method was the paramount medical innovation of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. We exploit the introduction of the smallpox vaccine in Sweden to identify the causal effect of early-life mortality on fertility. Our analysis shows that parishes in counties with highe...... a small insignificant effect on the number of surviving children and natural population growth....

  14. The role of marriage in the causal pathway from economic conditions early in life to mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G.J.; Gupta, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the interplay between early-life conditions and marital status, as determinants of adult mortality. We use individual data from Dutch registers (years 1815-2000), combined with business cycle conditions in childhood as indicators of early-life conditions. The empirical analysis

  15. Impact of mild renal impairment on early postoperative mortality after open cardiac surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Abdel Ghani; Muath Al Nasar

    2010-01-01

    Preoperative severe renal impairment is included in the risk scores to predict outcome after open cardiac surgery. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of pr operative mild renal impairment on the early postoperative mortality after open heart surgery. Data of all cases of open cardiac surgery performed from January 2005 to June 2006 were collected. Cases with preoperative creatinine clearance below 60 mL/min were excluded from the study. Data were retrospectively analyzed to find the impact of renal impairment on short-term outcome. Of the 500 cases studied, 47 had preoperative creatinine clearance between 89-60 mL/min. The overall mortality in the study cases was 6.8%. The mortality was 28.7% in those who developed postoperative ARF, 33.3% in those who required dialysis and 40.8% in those with preoperative mild renal impairment. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that female gender (P = 0.01), preoperative mild renal impairment (P 0.007) as well as occurrence of multi organ failure (P < 0.001) were the only independent variables determining the early postoperative mortality after cardiac surgeries. Among them, preoperative mild renal impairment was the most significant and the best predictor for early postoperative mortality after cardiac surgery. Our study suggests that renal impairment remains a strong predictor of early mortality even after adjustment for several confounders (Author).

  16. The geography of early childhood mortality in England and Wales, 1881-1911

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannaliis Jaadla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considerable regional variation existed in 19th-century infant mortality (IMR in England and Wales. Objective: This study estimates early childhood mortality (ECMR for over 2,000 registration subdistricts (RSDs of England and Wales and analyses spatial and temporal variations in IMR and ECMR between 1881 and 1911. Methods: The combination of mortality statistics from the Registrar General and individual-level census data from the Integrated Census Microdata (I-CeM project is used to estimate spatial models of the relationship between early childhood death rates and a range of district-specific contextual variables. Results: All regions of England and Wales experienced noticeable decline in early childhood mortality, but the spatial patterns were remarkably persistent, with high mortality in London and in the mining and textile centres. The earlier decline of childhood than infant mortality produced a widening gap between them, and in early phases this development was concentrated along the East-Midlands coastal area from Suffolk to North Yorkshire, and in mid-Wales. This gap continued to widen, and in 1911 IMR was at least twice as high as ECMR in most parts of England and Wales. Conclusions: The changing spatial pattern of ECMR was influenced by a set of factors over and above those that influenced IMR, and these were related more to the disease environment than to social and economic influences. Contribution: These new estimates of early childhood mortality, at a finer spatial scale than previously possible, highlight the vast spatial variation in mortality in England and Wales. It is likely that these regional differences also manifest in variation in other demographic outcomes.

  17. Early warning score predicts acute mortality in stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljehult, J; Christensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Clinical deterioration and death among patients with acute stroke are often preceded by detrimental changes in physiological parameters. Systematic and effective tools to identify patients at risk of deterioration early enough to intervene are therefore needed. The aim of the study wa...... tool for identifying patients at risk of dying after acute stroke. Readily available physiological parameters are converted to a single score, which can guide both nurses and physicians in clinical decision making and resource allocation.......OBJECTIVES: Clinical deterioration and death among patients with acute stroke are often preceded by detrimental changes in physiological parameters. Systematic and effective tools to identify patients at risk of deterioration early enough to intervene are therefore needed. The aim of the study...

  18. Exogenous determinants of early-life conditions, and mortality later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-05-01

    We analyze causal effects of conditions early in life on the individual mortality rate later in life. Conditions early in life are captured by transitory features of the macro-environment around birth, notably the state of the business cycle around birth, but also food price deviations, weather indicators, and demographic indicators. We argue that these features can only affect high-age mortality by way of the individual early-life conditions. Moreover, they are exogenous from the individual point of view, which is a methodological advantage compared to the use of unique characteristics of the newborn individual or his or her family or household as early-life indicators. We collected national annual time-series data on the above-mentioned indicators, and we combine these to the individual data records from the Danish Twin Registry covering births in 1873-1906. The empirical analyses (mostly based on the estimation of duration models) indicate a significant negative causal effect of economic conditions early in life on individual mortality rates at higher ages. If the national economic performance in the year of birth exceeds its trend value (i.e., if the business cycle is favorable) then the mortality rate later in life is lower. The implied effect on the median lifetime of those who survive until age 35 is about 10 months. A systematic empirical exploration of all macro-indicators reveals that economic conditions in the first years after birth also affect mortality rates later in life.

  19. Spatial variation in density and size structure indicate habitat selection throughout life stages of two Southwestern Atlantic snappers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Alexandre; Hackradt, Carlos Werner; Ferreira, Beatrice Padovani

    2016-02-01

    The early life history of Lutjanus alexandrei and Lutjanus jocu in Southwestern Atlantic is still largely unknown. Habitat use of different life stages (i.e. size categories and densities) of the Brazilian snapper (L. alexandrei) and dog snapper (L. jocu) was examined in a tropical portion of NE coast of Brazil. Visual surveys were conducted in different shallow habitats (mangroves and reefs). Both snapper species showed higher densities in early life stages in mangrove habitat, with a clear increase in fish size from mangrove to adjacent reefs. Post-settler individuals were exclusively found in mangroves for both species. Juveniles of L. alexandrei were also registered only in mangroves, while sub-adult individuals were associated with both mangrove and reef habitats. Mature individuals of L. alexandrei were only observed in reef habitats. Juvenile and sub-adult individuals of the dog snapper were both associated with mangrove and reef habitats, with high densities registered in mangroves. Mature individuals of L. jocu were not registered in the study area. This pattern suggests preference for mangrove habitat in early life stages for both species. Ontogenetic movement between habitats was also recorded. This pattern denotes habitat selection across different life cycle of both species. Such information highlights the importance of directing management and conservation efforts to these habitats to secure the continuity of contribution to adult populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic parameters of resistance to Vibrio aestuarianus, and OsHV-1 infections in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, at three different life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azéma, Patrick; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Boudry, Pierre; Renault, Tristan; Travers, Marie-Agnès; Dégremont, Lionel

    2017-02-15

    In France, two main diseases threaten Pacific oyster production. Since 2008, Crassostrea gigas spat have suffered massive losses due to the ostreid herpesvirus OsHV-1, and since 2012, significant mortalities in commercial-size adults have been related to infection by the bacterium Vibrio aestuarianus. The genetic basis for resistance to V. aestuarianus and OsHV-1 and the nature of the genetic correlation between these two traits were investigated by using 20 half-sib sire families, each containing two full-sib families. For each disease, controlled infectious challenges were conducted using naïve oysters that were 3 to 26 months old. In addition, siblings were tested under field, pond and raceway conditions to determine whether laboratory trials reflected mortality events that occur in the oyster industry. First, we estimated the genetic basis of resistance to V. aestuarianus in C. gigas. Susceptibility to the infection was low for oysters in spat stage but increased with later life stages. Second, we confirmed a strong genetic basis of resistance to OsHV-1 infection at early stages and demonstrated that it was also strong at later stages. Most families had increased resistance to OsHV-1 infection from the spat to adult stages, while others consistently showed low or high mortality rates related to OsHV-1 infection, regardless of the life stage. Our third main finding was the absence of genetic correlations between resistance to OsHV-1 infection and resistance to V. aestuarianus infection. Selective breeding to enhance resistance to OsHV-1 infection could be achieved through selective breeding at early stages and would not affect resistance to V. aestuarianus infection. However, our results suggest that the potential to select for improved resistance to V. aestuarianus is lower. Selection for dual resistance to OsHV-1 and V. aestuarianus infection in C. gigas might reduce the impact of these two major diseases by selecting families that have the highest

  1. Early BCG-Denmark and Neonatal Mortality Among Infants Weighing <2500 g: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Aaby, Peter; Lund, Najaaraq

    2017-01-01

    -Denmark” (intervention group; n = 2083) or “control” (local policy for LW and no BCG-Denmark; n = 2089) at discharge from the maternity ward or at first contact with the health center. The infants were randomized (1:1) without blinding in blocks of 24. Data was analyzed in Cox hazards models providing mortality rate...... ratios (MRRs). We had prespecified an analysis censoring follow-up at oral poliovirus vaccine campaigns. Results. Early administration of BCG-Denmark was associated with a nonsignificant reduction in neonatal mortality rate (MRR, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], .47–1.04) and a 34% reduction (0......Background. BCG vaccine may reduce overall mortality by increasing resistance to nontuberculosis infections. In 2 randomized trials in Guinea-Bissau of early BCG-Denmark (Statens Serum Institut) given to low-weight (LW) neonates (mortality rates, we observed...

  2. Birth dimensions, parental mortality, and mortality in early adult age: a cohort study of Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Osler, Merete

    2004-01-01

    liver cirrhosis. Offspring birth dimensions showed an inverse association with parental mortality, which was most pronounced for maternal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The strong inverse association between birth dimensions and adult mortality, but lack of association between ponderal index and mortality...

  3. Intelligence and early life mortality: Findings from a longitudinal sample of youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M; Schwartz, Joseph A; Connolly, Eric J; Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed Said; Kobeisy, Ahmed Nezar; Barnes, J C; Boutwell, Brian B

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined whether adolescent IQ predicted risk for mortality by the age of 32. Analyses of data from the Add Health revealed that IQ was related to mortality risk, such that respondents with relatively lower IQs were significantly more likely to experience early life mortality when compared to respondents with relatively higher IQs. This association remained statistically significant even after controlling for a host of covariates such as race, gender, involvement in violent behaviors, levels of self-control, and poverty. The average IQ of deceased respondents was approximately 95, whereas the average IQ of living respondents was about 100.

  4. Lactate clearance cut off for early mortality prediction in adult sepsis and septic shock patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinto, R.; Widodo, D.; Pohan, H. T.

    2018-03-01

    Previous lactate clearance cut off for early mortality prediction in sepsis and septic shock patient was determined by consensus from small sample size-study. We investigated the best lactate clearance cut off and its ability to predict early mortality in sepsis and septic shock patients. This cohort study was conducted in Intensive Care Unit of CiptoMangunkusumo Hospital in 2013. Patients’ lactate clearance and eight other resuscitationendpoints were recorded, and theoutcome was observed during the first 120 hours. The clearance cut off was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and its ability was investigated with Cox’s proportional hazard regression analysis using other resuscitation endpoints as confounders. Total of 268 subjects was included, of whom 70 (26.11%) subjects died within the first 120 hours. The area under ROC of lactate clearance to predict early mortality was 0.78 (95% % confidence interval [CI] 0.71-0.84) with best cut off was <7.5% (sensitivity and specificity 88.99% and 81.4% respectively). Compared with group achieving lactate clearance target, group not achieving lactate clearance target had to increase early mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio 13.42; 95%CI 7.19-25.07). In conclusion, the best lactate clearance cut off as anearly mortality predictor in sepsis and septic shock patients is 7.5%.

  5. The impact of neighborhood walkability on walking: does it differ across adult life stage and does neighborhood buffer size matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Karen; Knuiman, Matthew; Nathan, Andrea; Giles-Corti, Billie; Christian, Hayley; Foster, Sarah; Bull, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    We explored the impact of neighborhood walkability on young adults, early-middle adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults' walking across different neighborhood buffers. Participants completed the Western Australian Health and Wellbeing Surveillance System Survey (2003-2009) and were allocated a neighborhood walkability score at 200m, 400m, 800m, and 1600m around their home. We found little difference in strength of associations across neighborhood size buffers for all life stages. We conclude that neighborhood walkability supports more walking regardless of adult life stage and is relevant for small (e.g., 200m) and larger (e.g., 1600m) neighborhood buffers. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  6. Detecting early warning signals of tree mortality in boreal North America using multiscale satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Brendan M; Solvik, Kylen; Hogg, Edward H; Ju, Junchang; Masek, Jeffrey G; Michaelian, Michael; Berner, Logan T; Goetz, Scott J

    2018-02-26

    Increasing tree mortality from global change drivers such as drought and biotic infestations is a widespread phenomenon, including in the boreal zone where climate changes and feedbacks to the Earth system are relatively large. Despite the importance for science and management communities, our ability to forecast tree mortality at landscape to continental scales is limited. However, two independent information streams have the potential to inform and improve mortality forecasts: repeat forest inventories and satellite remote sensing. Time series of tree-level growth patterns indicate that productivity declines and related temporal dynamics often precede mortality years to decades before death. Plot-level productivity, in turn, has been related to satellite-based indices such as the Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Here we link these two data sources to show that early warning signals of mortality are evident in several NDVI-based metrics up to 24 years before death. We focus on two repeat forest inventories and three NDVI products across western boreal North America where productivity and mortality dynamics are influenced by periodic drought. These data sources capture a range of forest conditions and spatial resolution to highlight the sensitivity and limitations of our approach. Overall, results indicate potential to use satellite NDVI for early warning signals of mortality. Relationships are broadly consistent across inventories, species, and spatial resolutions, although the utility of coarse-scale imagery in the heterogeneous aspen parkland was limited. Longer-term NDVI data and annually remeasured sites with high mortality levels generate the strongest signals, although we still found robust relationships at sites remeasured at a typical 5 year frequency. The approach and relationships developed here can be used as a basis for improving forest mortality models and monitoring systems. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Association between proximity to a health center and early childhood mortality in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Kashima

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between proximity to a health center and early childhood mortality in Madagascar, and to assess the influence of household wealth, maternal educational attainment, and maternal health on the effects of distance. METHODS: From birth records of subjects in the Demographic and Health Survey, we identified 12565 singleton births from January 2004 to August 2009. After excluding 220 births that lacked global positioning system information for exposure assessment, odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs for neonatal mortality and infant mortality were estimated using multilevel logistic regression models, with 12345 subjects (level 1, nested within 584 village locations (level 2, and in turn nested within 22 regions (level 3. We additionally stratified the subjects by the birth order. We estimated predicted probabilities of each outcome by a three-level model including cross-level interactions between proximity to a health center and household wealth, maternal educational attainment, and maternal anemia. RESULTS: Compared with those who lived >1.5-3.0 km from a health center, the risks for neonatal mortality and infant mortality tended to increase among those who lived further than 5.0 km from a health center; the adjusted ORs for neonatal mortality and infant mortality for those who lived >5.0-10.0 km away from a health center were 1.36 (95% CI: 0.92-2.01 and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.06-1.90, respectively. The positive associations were more pronounced among the second or later child. The distance effects were not modified by household wealth status, maternal educational attainment, or maternal health status. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that distance from a health center is a risk factor for early childhood mortality (primarily, infant mortality in Madagascar by using a large-scale nationally representative dataset. The accessibility to health care in remote areas would be a key factor to achieve

  8. Impact of aquatic insect life stage and emergence strategy on sensitivity to esfenvalerate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Katherine R; Jepson, Paul C; Jenkins, Jeffrey J

    2008-08-01

    We investigated the impact of aquatic insect life stage and emergence strategy on sensitivity to esfenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, using field-collected Brachycentrus americanus Banks (Trichoptera: Brachycentridae) and Cinygmula reticulata McDunnough (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae) insects. Final-instar C. reticulata emergence was observed for one week following three environmentally relevant, 48-h esfenvalerate exposures (0.005, 0.01, and 0.015 microg/L). Emergence was significantly depressed following exposure to esfenvalerate and resulted from an increase in nymph mortality during the emergence process. This experiment was duplicated for late-instar C. reticulata nymphs, which were similar in size to the final-instar nymphs but were not near emergence. Late-instar C. reticulata mayflies were approximately fivefold less sensitive to esfenvalerate exposures as gauged by one-week mortality rates. Brachycentrus americanus pupal mortality was significantly increased over that in controls following 48-h esfenvalerate exposures of 0.1 and 0.2 microg/L. These response concentrations correlated closely with those for case-abandonment rates of fourth-instar B. americanus larvae (a sublethal effect of esfenvalerate exposure). Pupal mortality rates were approximately 16-fold higher than those observed in larvae. Adult female egg weight as a percentage of total body weight was significantly decreased following pupal esfenvalerate exposures of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 microg/L. These findings suggest that exposure to esfenvalerate may impair hemimetabolous insect emergence behaviors and may decrease fecundity in holometabolous aquatic insects.

  9. Study of the biological effects of uranium exposure on zebra fish (D. rerio). Impact on life stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrachot, St.

    2009-05-01

    This work is part of an ongoing project (ENVIRHOM) started at IRSN in 2000, which consists in studying the environmental effects of radioactive substances at chronic low level of exposure. In this general frame, our aim was two fold: (i) to identify sensitivity of different critical life stages of zebra fish (fish of fresh water frequently used for tests standards in ecotoxicology) to uranium exposure and (ii) to evaluate underlying mechanisms. Experiments were conducted with eggs, larvae and genitors exposed to uranium at environmentally relevant concentrations (from 20 to 500 μg/L) in order to study survival, hatching of eggs, growth of larvae and reproduction of genitors. Bio-markers of exposure (i.e. U bioaccumulation) and bio-markers of effects at molecular level (i.e. genotoxic effects, reproductive-toxicity) were also measured. Sensitivity of fish to uranium was dependent of the life stage of development with the early life stage being the most sensitive to U either directly or maternally exposed. It underlines the relevance of including pro-larval stages for toxicity assessments in fish. Moreover drastic effects of uranium on reproductive success and DNA damages in the germ cells foretell a strong impact on the population for low concentration of exposure (20 μg/L). As it is increasingly recognized that population-level effects of toxic substances are more relevant in terms of ecological risk assessment, this study points out the need to include different life stages of organisms in eco-toxicological studies, especially the sensitive early stages. Moreover, it appears, through the comparative study of the radiological effects or by another isotope of the uranium of stronger radioactivity ( 233 U or by an irradiation with 137 Cs), that the effects of the uranium are due to its chemo-toxicity. (author)

  10. Early hospital mortality prediction of intensive care unit patients using an ensemble learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Aya; Bader-El-Den, Mohamed; McNicholas, James; Briggs, Jim

    2017-12-01

    Mortality prediction of hospitalized patients is an important problem. Over the past few decades, several severity scoring systems and machine learning mortality prediction models have been developed for predicting hospital mortality. By contrast, early mortality prediction for intensive care unit patients remains an open challenge. Most research has focused on severity of illness scoring systems or data mining (DM) models designed for risk estimation at least 24 or 48h after ICU admission. This study highlights the main data challenges in early mortality prediction in ICU patients and introduces a new machine learning based framework for Early Mortality Prediction for Intensive Care Unit patients (EMPICU). The proposed method is evaluated on the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II) database. Mortality prediction models are developed for patients at the age of 16 or above in Medical ICU (MICU), Surgical ICU (SICU) or Cardiac Surgery Recovery Unit (CSRU). We employ the ensemble learning Random Forest (RF), the predictive Decision Trees (DT), the probabilistic Naive Bayes (NB) and the rule-based Projective Adaptive Resonance Theory (PART) models. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. The explanatory variables included demographic, physiological, vital signs and laboratory test variables. Performance measures were calculated using cross-validated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) to minimize bias. 11,722 patients with single ICU stays are considered. Only patients at the age of 16 years old and above in Medical ICU (MICU), Surgical ICU (SICU) or Cardiac Surgery Recovery Unit (CSRU) are considered in this study. The proposed EMPICU framework outperformed standard scoring systems (SOFA, SAPS-I, APACHE-II, NEWS and qSOFA) in terms of AUROC and time (i.e. at 6h compared to 48h or more after admission). The results show that although there are many values missing in the first few hour of ICU admission

  11. Socioeconomic position in early life, birth weight, childhood cognitive function, and adult mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Andersen, A-M N; Due, P

    2003-01-01

    . The data were analysed using Cox regression. SETTING: The metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 7493 male singletons born in 1953, who completed a questionnaire with various cognitive measures, in school at age 12 years, and for whom birth certificates with data on birth and parental...... with all cause mortality. The association between father's social class and mortality attenuated (HR(working class)1.30 (1.08 to 1.56); HR(unknown class)1.81 (1.30 to 2.52)) after control for birth weight and cognitive function. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases and violent deaths was also......OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between socioeconomic position in early life and mortality in young adulthood, taking birth weight and childhood cognitive function into account. DESIGN: A longitudinal study with record linkage to the Civil Registration System and Cause of Death Registry...

  12. Cranial vault trauma and selective mortality in medieval to early modern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldsen, Jesper L; Milner, George R; Weise, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    to interpersonal violence in past populations. Three medieval to early modern Danish skeletal samples are used to estimate the effect of selective mortality on males with cranial vault injuries who survived long enough for bones to heal. The risk of dying for these men was 6.2 times higher than...

  13. Unemployment and early cause-specific mortality: a study based on the Swedish twin registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Margaretha; Nylén, Lotta; Floderus, Birgitta

    2004-01-01

    of sleeping pills or tranquilizers, and serious or long-lasting illness tended to strengthen the association between unemployment and early mortality. CONCLUSIONS: An increased risk of death from external causes implies a need for support for those experiencing unemployment, particularly susceptible...

  14. Mortality after discharge from the intensive care unit during the early weekend period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, N; Schierbeck, J; Pedersen, L

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a result of a shortage of intensive care capacity, patients may be discharged prematurely early during weekends which may lead to an increased mortality and risk of readmission to intensive care units (ICU). We examined whether discharge from the ICU during the first part...

  15. Early and late mortality of spontaneous hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, Marco; Terruso, Valeria; Famoso, Giorgia; Di Benedetto, Norma; Realmuto, Sabrina; Valentino, Francesca; Ragonese, Paolo; Savettieri, Giovanni; Aridon, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    Hemorrhagic transformation (HT), a complication of ischemic stroke (IS), might influence patient's prognosis. Our aim is to evaluate, in a hospital-based series of patients not treated with thrombolysis, the relationship between HT and mortality. We compared mortality of individuals with spontaneous HT with that of individuals without. Medical records of patients diagnosed with anterior IS were retrospectively reviewed. Outcome measures were 30- and 90-day survival after IS onset. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to construct survival curves. Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) for the main outcome measure (death). HT was stratified in hemorrhagic infarction and parenchymal hematoma (PH). We also evaluated the relationship between HT and the main mortality risk factors (gender, age, premorbid status, severity of stroke, and radiological features). Thirty days from stroke onset, 8.1% (19 of 233) of patients died. At multivariate analysis, PH (HR: 7.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1, 27.8) and low level of consciousness at admission (HR: 5.0, 95% CI: 1.3, 18.6) were significantly associated with death. At 3-month follow-up, mortality rate was 12.1% (28 of 232). At multivariate analysis, large infarct size (HR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.2, 6.0) and HT (HR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.0, 5.4) were independent risk factors for mortality. Parenchymal hematoma was, however, the strongest predictor of late mortality (HR: 7.9, 95% CI: 2.9, 21.4). Neurological status and infarct size play a significant role, respectively, in early and late mortality after IS. Parenchymal hematoma independently predicts both early and late mortality. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of stress at different life stages on physical health and the buffering effects of maternal sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Allison K; Simpson, Jeffry A; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Englund, Michelle M; Sung, Sooyeon

    2017-01-01

    Many studies indicate that early life stress leads to negative health outcomes in adulthood, and some suggest that high-quality parenting might buffer these effects. Most prior research, however, has relied on cross-sectional retrospective reports of stress and parenting. Our study tests how coder-rated stress and parenting quality assessed at different life stages predict adult health outcomes in a prospective, longitudinal study. Participants were 163 individuals in the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation studied since birth. Physical health was assessed at age 32 with body mass index, self-reports of symptoms and illnesses experienced, and self-ratings of overall physical health. Stress was assessed by coder-rated interviews involving participants or their mothers at 16 time points partitioned into 5 life stages: early childhood, middle childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, and at age 32 (when health was assessed). Parenting quality was measured by coder ratings of each mother's provision of sensitive, responsive support at 7 time points between birth and age 13. Early childhood, adolescent, and concurrent stress predicted adult health outcomes at age 32. Early childhood and adolescent stress, and adolescent and concurrent stress, both showed a "dual-risk" pattern, such that experiencing higher stress at both of these life stages predicted the worst health outcomes. Higher maternal sensitivity, however, buffered these deleterious effects. Our prospective data reveal that early childhood and adolescence are important developmental periods during which stress is influential for adult physical health. However, parenting interventions that promote greater sensitivity may help children in high-stress environments avoid negative adult health outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The impact of stress at different life stages on physical health and the buffering effects of maternal sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Allison K.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Carlson, Elizabeth A.; Englund, Michelle M.; Sung, Sooyeon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many studies indicate that early life stress leads to negative health outcomes in adulthood, and some suggest that high-quality parenting might buffer these effects. Most prior research, however, has relied on cross-sectional retrospective reports of stress and parenting. Our study tests how coder-rated stress and parenting quality assessed at different life stages predict adult health outcomes in a prospective, longitudinal study. Methods Participants were 163 individuals in the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (MLSRA) studied since birth. Physical health was assessed at age 32 with BMI, self-reports of symptoms and illnesses experienced, and self-ratings overall physical health. Stress was assessed by coder-rated interviews involving participants or their mothers at 16 time-points partitioned into five life stages: early childhood, middle childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, and at age 32 (when health was assessed). Parenting quality was measured by coder-ratings of each mother's provision of sensitive, responsive support at 7 time-points between birth and age 13. Results Early childhood, adolescent, and concurrent stress predicted adult health outcomes at age 32. Early childhood and adolescent stress, and adolescent and concurrent stress, both showed a “dual-risk” pattern, such that experiencing higher stress at both of these life stages predicted the worst health outcomes. Higher maternal sensitivity, however, buffered these deleterious effects. Conclusions Our prospective data reveals that early childhood and adolescence are important developmental periods during which stress is influential for adult physical health. However, parenting interventions that promote greater sensitivity may help children in high-stress environments avoid negative adult health outcomes. PMID:27669179

  18. Association of insect life stages using DNA sequences : the larvae of Philodytes umbrinus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera : Dytiscidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, KB; Alarie, Y; Wolfe, GW; Whiting, MF

    2005-01-01

    Insect life stages are known imperfectly in many cases, and classifications are based often on only one or a few semaphoronts of a species. This is unfortunate as information in alternative life stages often is useful for scientific study. Although recent examples of DNA in taxonomy have emphasized

  19. PAR and UVBR effects on photosynthesis, viability, growth and DNA in different life stages of two coexisting Gigartinales : implications for recruitment and zonation pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roleda, MY; van de Poll, WH; Hanelt, D; Wiencke, C

    2004-01-01

    The effects that ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280 to 400 nm) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400 to 700 nm) had on early life stages of Mastocarpus stellatus and Chondrus crispus were studied to determine if differences in UVR tolerance could influence their recruitment success on the

  20. Juvenile life stages of the brown alga Fucus serratus L. are more sensitive to combined stress from high copper concentration and temperature than adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Laurentius; Nielsen, Hanne Dalsgaard; Pedersen, Morten Foldager

    2014-01-01

    of high copper concentration was amplified by high temperature. We conclude that juveniles of F. serratus are more susceptible to environmental stressors than adult specimens and recommend therefore including early life stages when assessing the risk of exposure to toxic compounds. Considering...... the response of adult specimens only may lead to false conclusions regarding the ecological impact of environmental stress...

  1. Leap frog in slow motion: Divergent responses of tree species and life stages to climatic warming in Great Basin subalpine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian V. Smithers; Malcolm P. North; Constance I. Millar; Andrew M. Latimer

    2017-01-01

    In response to climate warming, subalpine treelines are expected to move up in elevation since treelines are generally controlled by growing season temperature. Where treeline is advancing, dispersal differences and early life stage environmental tolerances are likely to affect how species expand their ranges. Species with an establishment advantage will...

  2. Intelligence in early adulthood and mortality from natural and unnatural causes in middle-aged Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Rikke Hodal; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Avlund, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    High intelligence early in life has consistently been associated with decreased mortality, but the mechanisms are still not fully understood. In this cohort study, we examined the association between intelligence in early adulthood and later mortality from natural and unnatural causes taking birt...

  3. Radiation Exposure and Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer in Early NASA Astronauts: Space for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgart, S. R.; Little, M. P.; Campbell, L. J.; Milder, C. M.; Shavers, M. R.; Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z. S.

    2018-01-01

    Of the many possible health challenges posed during extended exploratory missions to space, the effects of space radiation on cardiovascular disease and cancer are of particular concern. There are unique challenges to estimating those radiation risks; care and appropriate and rigorous methodology should be applied when considering small cohorts such as the NASA astronaut population. The objective of this work was to establish whether there is evidence for excess cardiovascular disease or cancer mortality in an early NASA astronaut cohort and determine if a correlation exists between space radiation exposure and mortality.

  4. Early hospital readmission for gastrointestinal-related complications predicts long-term mortality after pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Caitlin W; Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Craig-Schapiro, Rebecca; Valero, Vicente; Cameron, John L; Eckhauser, Frederic E; Hirose, Kenzo; Makary, Martin A; Pawlik, Timothy M; Ahuja, Nita; Weiss, Matthew J; Wolfgang, Christopher L

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of early (30-day) hospital readmission (EHR) on mortality after pancreatectomy. Using a prospectively collected institutional database linked with a statewide dataset, we evaluated the association between EHR and overall mortality in all patients undergoing pancreatectomy at our tertiary institution (2005 to 2010). Of 595 pancreatectomy patients, EHR occurred in 21.5%. Overall mortality was 29.4% (median follow-up 22.7 months). Patients with EHR had decreased survival compared with those who were not readmitted (P = .011). On multivariate analysis adjusting for baseline group differences, EHR for gastrointestinal-related complications was a significant independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio 2.30, P = .001). In addition to known risk factors, 30-day readmission for gastrointestinal-related complications following pancreatectomy independently predicts increased mortality. Additional studies are necessary to identify surgical, medical, and social factors contributing to EHR, as well as interventions aimed at decreasing postpancreatectomy morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Early neonatal mortality in twin pregnancy: Findings from 60 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellizzi, Saverio; Sobel, Howard; Betran, Ana Pilar; Temmerman, Marleen

    2018-06-01

    Around the world, the incidence of multiple pregnancies reaches its peak in the Central African countries and often represents an increased risk of death for women and children because of higher rates of obstetrical complications and poor management skills in those countries. We sought to assess the association between twins and early neonatal mortality compared with singleton pregnancies. We also assessed the role of skilled birth attendant and mode of delivery on early neonatal mortality in twin pregnancies. We conducted a secondary analysis of individual level data from 60 nationally-representative Demographic and Health Surveys including 521 867 singleton and 14 312 twin births. We investigated the occurrence of deaths within the first week of life in twins compared to singletons and the effect of place and attendance at birth; also, the role of caesarean sections against vaginal births was examined, globally and after countries stratification per caesarean sections rates. A multi-level logistic regression was used accounting for homogeneity within country, and homogeneity within twin pairs. Early neonatal mortality among twins was significantly higher when compared to singleton neonates (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 7.0-8.3) in these 60 countries. Early neonatal mortality was also higher among twins than singletons when adjusting for birth weight in a subgroup analysis of those countries with data on birth weight (n = 20; less than 20% of missing values) (aOR = 2.8; 95% CI = 2.2-3.5). For countries with high rates (>15%) of caesarean sections (CS), twins delivered vaginally in health facility had a statistically significant (aOR = 4.8; 95% CI = 2.4-9.4) increased risk of early neonatal mortality compared to twins delivered through caesarean sections. Home twin births without SBA was associated with increased mortality compared with delivering at home with SBA (aOR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0-1.8) and

  6. Natural selection and sex differences in morbidity and mortality in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J C

    2000-01-07

    Both morbidity and mortality are consistently reported to be higher in males than in females in early life, but no explanation for these findings has been offered. This paper argues that the sex difference in early vulnerability can be attributed to the natural selection of optimal maternal strategies for maximizing lifetime reproductive success, as modelled previously by Trivers and Willard. These authors theorized that males and females offer different returns on parental investment depending on the state of the environment. Natural selection has therefore favoured maternal ability to manipulate offspring sex in response to environmental conditions in early life, as shown in variation in the sex ratio at birth. This argument can be extended to the whole period of parental investment until weaning. Male vulnerability in response to environmental stress in early life is predicted to have been favoured by natural selection. This vulnerability is most evident in the harsh conditions resulting from pre-term birth, but can also be seen in term infants, and manifests as greater morbidity and mortality persisting into early childhood. Malnutrition, interacting with infection after birth, is suggested as the fundamental trigger mechanism. The model suggests that whatever improvements are made in medical care, any environmental stress will always affect males more severely than females in early life. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  7. EARLY PREDICTORS OF 30-DAY MORTALITY INNON-ST-ELEVATION ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Rožič

    2008-09-01

    30-day mortality was 4.3 %. Between nonsurvivors and survivors there were significantdifferences in mean age, the incidence of arterial hypertension, positive family history ofcoronary artery disease, in mean admission systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse,mean admission troponin T, leukocyte count, CRP, creatinine and the incidence of admission heart failure. Multivariate logistic regression proved that most significant independent early predictor of 30-day mortality was admission heart failure (OR 41.21, 95 %CI 3.50 to 484.66, p = 0.003, followed by admission serum creatinine (OR 0.989, 95 %CI 0.981 to 0.997, p = 0.008 and troponin T (OR 0.263, 95 % CI 0.080 to 0.861.Conclusion Most significant independent predictor of 30-day mortality of patients with non-ST-elevation ACS, being 4.5 %, was heart failure on admission

  8. Early interdisciplinary hospital intervention for elderly patients with hip fractures : functional outcome and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Tarazona-Santabalbina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Hip fractures are associated with high levels of co-morbidity and mortality. Orthogeriatric units have been shown to be effective with respect to functional recovery and mortality reduction. The aim of this study is to document the natural history of early multidisciplinary intervention in elderly patients with hip fractures and to establish the prognostic factors of mortality and walking ability after discharge. METHODS: This observational, retrospective study was performed in an orthogeriatric care unit on patients aged >70 years with a diagnosis of hip fracture between 2004 and 2008. This study included 1363 patients with a mean age of 82.7 + 6.4 years. RESULTS: On admission to the unit, the average Barthel score of these patients was 77.2 + 27.8 points, and the average Charlson index score was 2.14 + 2.05. The mean length of stay was 8.9 + 4.26 days, and the readmission rate was 2.3%. The in-hospital mortality rate was 4.7%, and the mortality rates at one, six, and 12 months after discharge were 8.7%, 16.9%, and 25.9%, respectively. The Cox proportional hazards model estimated that male sex, Barthel scale, heart failure, and cognitive impairment were associated with an increased risk of death. With regard to functionality, 63.7% of the patients were able to walk at the time of discharge, whereas 77.4% and 80.1% were able to walk at one month and six months post-discharge, respectively. The factors associated with a worse functional recovery included cognitive impairment, performance status, age, stroke, Charlson score, and delirium during the hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: Early multidisciplinary intervention appears to be effective for the management of hip fracture. Age, male sex, baseline function, cognitive impairment and previous comorbidities are associated with a higher mortality rate and worse functional recovery.

  9. Bone marrow transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia: factors associated with early mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortin, M.M.; Gale, R.P.; Kay, H.E.; Rimm, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    Comprehensive data were reported to the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry, Milwaukee, regarding 156 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia who were treated with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation between 1978 and 1980. The minimum observation period was 15 months after transplant and most deaths occurred within the first six months. Prognostic factors were evaluated for associations with early mortality or life-threatening complications. Most early deaths were due to infections, interstitial pneumonitis, and graft-v-host disease (GVHD). Multivariate analyses disclosed five factors with significant associations with early death or a major cause of early death: (1) disease status; (2) dose-rate of irradiation; (3) drug used to prevent GVHD; (4) severity of GVHD; and (5) dose of marrow cells.It is emphasized that several of the important prognostic factors are within the control of the referring physician or the transplant team

  10. Mortality increase in late-middle and early-old age: heterogeneity in death processes as a new explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Yang, Yang Claire; Anderson, James J

    2013-10-01

    Deviations from the Gompertz law of exponential mortality increases in late-middle and early-old age are commonly neglected in overall mortality analyses. In this study, we examined mortality increase patterns between ages 40 and 85 in 16 low-mortality countries and demonstrated sex differences in these patterns, which also changed across period and cohort. These results suggest that the interaction between aging and death is more complicated than what is usually assumed from the Gompertz law and also challenge existing biodemographic hypotheses about the origin and mechanisms of sex differences in mortality. We propose a two-mortality model that explains these patterns as the change in the composition of intrinsic and extrinsic death rates with age. We show that the age pattern of overall mortality and the population heterogeneity therein are possibly generated by multiple dynamics specified by a two-mortality model instead of a uniform process throughout most adult ages.

  11. Differential metabolic responses in three life stages of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huifeng; Xu, Lanlan; Yu, Deliang; Ji, Chenglong

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most important metal contaminants in the Bohai Sea. In this work, NMR-based metabolomics was used to investigate the toxicological effects of Cd at an environmentally relevant concentration (50 µg L -1 ) in three different life stages (D-shape larval, juvenile and adult) of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. Results indicated that the D-shape larval mussel was the most sensitive life stage to Cd. The significantly different metabolic profiles meant that Cd induced differential toxicological effects in three life stages of mussels. Basically, Cd caused osmotic stress in all the three life stages via different metabolic pathways. Cd exposure reduced the anaerobiosis in D-shape larval mussels and disturbed lipid metabolism in juvenile mussels, respectively. Compared with the D-shape larval and juvenile mussels, the adult mussels reduced energy consumption to deal with Cd stress.

  12. Seasonal Variation in Solar Ultra Violet Radiation and Early Mortality in Extremely Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Ariel A; Smith, Kelly A; Rodgers, Mackenzie D; Phillips, Vivien; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2015-11-01

    Vitamin D production during pregnancy promotes fetal lung development, a major determinant of infant survival after preterm birth. Because vitamin D synthesis in humans is regulated by solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, we hypothesized that seasonal variation in solar UVB doses during fetal development would be associated with variation in neonatal mortality rates. This cohort study included infants born alive with gestational age (GA) between 23 and 28 weeks gestation admitted to a neonatal unit between 1996 and 2010. Three infant cohort groups were defined according to increasing intensities of solar UVB doses at 17 and 22 weeks gestation. The primary outcome was death during the first 28 days after birth. Outcome data of 2,319 infants were analyzed. Mean birth weight was 830 ± 230 g and median gestational age was 26 weeks. Mortality rates were significantly different across groups (p = 0.04). High-intensity solar UVB doses were associated with lower mortality when compared with normal intensity solar UVB doses (hazard ratio: 0.70; 95% confidence interval: 0.54-0.91; p = 0.01). High-intensity solar UVB doses during fetal development seem to be associated with risk reduction of early mortality in preterm infants. Prospective studies are needed to validate these preliminary findings. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. [Prognostic factors of early 30-day mortality in elderly patients admitted to an emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Erazo, Alexander; Cardona Arango, Doris

    The main aim of this study was to identify the variables related to early mortality in the elderly at the time of admission to the emergency department. Using probability sampling, the study included patients 60 years old or older of both genders who were admitted for observation to the emergency department of the University Hospital of Nariño, ¿Colombia? in 2015. Using a questionnaire designed for this study, some multidimensional features that affect the health of the elderly were collected (demographic, clinical, psychological, functional, and social variables). The patients were then followed-up for 30 days in order to determine the mortality rate during this time. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions and survival analysis were performed. Data were collected from 246 patients, with a mean age of 75.27 years and the majority female. The 30-day mortality rate was 15%. The variables most associated with death were: being female, temperature problems, initial diagnosis of neoplasia, and unable to walk independently in the emergency department. It is possible to determine the multidimensional factors present in the older patient admitted to an emergency department that could affect their 30-day mortality prognosis. and which should be intervened. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Early detection of emerging zoonotic diseases with animal morbidity and mortality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Isabelle-Anne; Ssebide, Benard J; Marra, Peter P

    2015-03-01

    Diseases transmitted between animals and people have made up more than 50% of emerging infectious diseases in humans over the last 60 years and have continued to arise in recent months. Yet, public health and animal disease surveillance programs continue to operate independently. Here, we assessed whether recent emerging zoonotic pathogens (n = 143) are known to cause morbidity or mortality in their animal host and if so, whether they were first detected with an animal morbidity/mortality event. We show that although sick or dead animals are often associated with these pathogens (52%), only 9% were first detected from an animal morbidity or mortality event prior to or concurrent with signs of illness in humans. We propose that an animal morbidity and mortality reporting program will improve detection and should be an essential component of early warning systems for zoonotic diseases. With the use of widespread low-cost technology, such a program could engage both the public and professionals and be easily tested and further incorporated as part of surveillance efforts by public health officials.

  15. Reliving Island Life: Staging Stories of the Blasket Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daithí Kearney

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Blasket Islands are located off the south-west coast of Ireland. No longer inhabited, the Great Blasket Island and its distinctive culture have been documented by a variety of writers and are celebrated today in an interpretative centre on the mainland and in performances by Siamsa Tíre, The National Folk Theatre of Ireland. “Siamsa” developed from local initiatives in North Kerry during the early 1960s and is located today in Tralee, Co. Kerry. It aims to present Irish folklore and folk culture through the medium of theatre involving music, song, dance and mime but invariably no dialogue. In this paper, I focus on the production Oiléan, based loosely on the stories of the Blasket Islanders, which was initially devised as part of the fiftieth anniversary commemoration of the departure of the last inhabitants of the islands in 2003.

  16. Determinants of infant and early childhood mortality levels and their decline in the Netherlands in the late nineteenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Wolleswinkel-van den Bosch (Judith); F.W.A. van Poppel (Frans); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To study the relative importance of various determinants of total and cause-specific infant and early childhood mortality rates and their decline in The Netherlands in the period 1875-1879 to 1895-1899. DATA AND METHODS: Mortality and population

  17. Total knee arthroplasty in patients with dialysis: Early complications and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hung Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Total hip arthroplasty (THA in patients on long-term hemodialysis may result in a high prevalence of complications which related to nature of the disease, and associated cardiovascular conditions. However, the result of total knee artrhopalsty (TKA in those patients is not clear. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the early mortality and complications of TKA performed in patients with dialysis. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 15 dialysis patients (18 knees who underwent TKA using antibiotic-loaded cement fixation. Fourteen patients had maintained hemodialysis and one patient had continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. The function of the knee was evaluated before operation and postoperatively using Knee Society evaluating system. Postoperative complications and mortality were recorded for all patients. The average follow up period was 25 months (6 to 59 months. Results: There were no mortalities including short-term (≤90 days or long-term (>90 days follow up. The mean knee and function scores improved from preoperative 36 points (27~46 and 19.4 points (10~35 to 79 points (68~87 and 81 points (70~95 respectively at the latest follow up. One (6.7% patient had early postoperative pneumonia (≤90 days. The late (>90 days complica-tion rate was 20% including 1 sepsis with toe gangrene, 1 recurrent stroke and 1 acute myocardiac infarction. There was no deep prosthetic joint infection or loosening of the components. Conclusion: TKA with antibiotic-loaded cement resulted in a substantial low short-term mortality and deep infections in 15 patients with dialysis. However, a longer term follow up is necessary.

  18. Recurrent sigmoid volvulus - early resection may obviate later emergency surgery and reduce morbidity and mortality.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Larkin, J O

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Acute sigmoid volvulus is a well recognised cause of acute large bowel obstruction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed our unit\\'s experience with non-operative and operative management of this condition. A total of 27 patients were treated for acute sigmoid volvulus between 1996 and 2006. In total, there were 62 separate hospital admissions. RESULTS: Eleven patients were managed with colonoscopic decompression alone. The overall mortality rate for non-operative management was 36.4% (4 of 11 patients). Fifteen patients had operative management (five semi-elective following decompression, 10 emergency). There was no mortality in the semi-elective cohort and one in the emergency surgery group. The overall mortality for surgery was 6% (1 of 15). Five of the seven patients managed with colonoscopic decompression alone who survived were subsequently re-admitted with sigmoid volvulus (a 71.4% recurrence rate). The six deaths in our overall series each occurred in patients with established gangrene of the bowel. With early surgical intervention before the onset of gangrene, however, good outcomes may be achieved, even in patients apparently unsuitable for elective surgery. Eight of the 15 operatively managed patients were considered to be ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) grade 4. There was no postoperative mortality in this group. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high rate of recurrence of sigmoid volvulus after initial successful non-operative management and the attendant risks of mortality from gangrenous bowel developing with a subsequent volvulus, it is our contention that all patients should be considered for definitive surgery after initial colonoscopic decompression, irrespective of the ASA score.

  19. North Kalimantan is Free From EMS (Early Mortality Syndrome) in the Shrimps

    OpenAIRE

    Lestiawan, Sab; Jati, Nugroho Sasongko; Wiro, Hermas

    2014-01-01

    The acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (AHPNS) or also known worldwide as early mortility syndrome (EMS) is very dangerous for the shrimps industry since it really strikes the shrimps by larvae size. The EMS attacks shrimps at 20 to 30 days of age and at 40 days of age as well. All the shrimps that are being infected will be dead righ away. The EMS has caused the significant economic losses in the shrimps industry due to the mass mortality of the shrimps in Vietnam (in the years of 2010...

  20. Paternal effects on early life history traits in Northwest Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroll, M.-M.; Peck, M.A.; Butts, Ian A.E.

    2013-01-01

    It is important to understand parental effects on early life history of fish as manifested, for example, in individual fitness of offspring. Immediately after fertilization, parental contributions (both genetic and non-genetic) to embryos will affect larval ontogeny, physiology, morphology...... and survival. In marine fish, rates of natural mortality are highest during early life and are negatively correlated with rates of growth and body size. In these early life stages (eggs, larvae, young juveniles) subtle differences in mortality can cause large differences in recruitment and year-class success...... and can serve as important sources of variation during early life stages in fishes. Overall, these findings have implications for furthering the understanding of recruitment variability and can be used to optimize reproductive output for the aquaculture industry. In addition, the data suggests...

  1. Acute oral toxicity of chemicals in terrestrial life stages of amphibians: Comparisons to birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Mark; Finnegan, Meaghean; Weltje, Lennart; Kosmala-Grzechnik, Sylwia; Gross, Melanie; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    Amphibians are currently the most threatened and rapidly declining group of vertebrates and this has raised concerns about their potential sensitivity and exposure to plant protection products and other chemicals. Current environmental risk assessment procedures rely on surrogate species (e.g. fish and birds) to cover the risk to aquatic and terrestrial life stages of amphibians, respectively. Whilst a recent meta-analysis has shown that in most cases amphibian aquatic life stages are less sensitive to chemicals than fish, little research has been conducted on the comparative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages. Therefore, in this paper we address the questions "What is the relative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages to acute chemical oral exposure when compared with mammals and birds?" and "Are there correlations between oral toxicity data for amphibians and data for mammals or birds?" Identifying a relationship between these data may help to avoid additional vertebrate testing. Acute oral amphibian toxicity data collected from the scientific literature and ecotoxicological databases were compared with toxicity data for mammals and birds. Toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages are generally sparse, as noted in previous reviews. Single-dose oral toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages were available for 26 chemicals and these were positively correlated with LD50 values for mammals, while no correlation was found for birds. Further, the data suggest that oral toxicity to terrestrial amphibian life stages is similar to or lower than that for mammals and birds, with a few exceptions. Thus, mammals or birds are considered adequate toxicity surrogates for use in the assessment of the oral exposure route in amphibians. However, there is a need for further data on a wider range of chemicals to explore the wider applicability of the current analyses and recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Size Scaling in Western North Atlantic Loggerhead Turtles Permits Extrapolation between Regions, but Not Life Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marn, Nina; Klanjscek, Tin; Stokes, Lesley; Jusup, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Sea turtles face threats globally and are protected by national and international laws. Allometry and scaling models greatly aid sea turtle conservation and research, and help to better understand the biology of sea turtles. Scaling, however, may differ between regions and/or life stages. We analyze differences between (i) two different regional subsets and (ii) three different life stage subsets of the western North Atlantic loggerhead turtles by comparing the relative growth of body width and depth in relation to body length, and discuss the implications. Results suggest that the differences between scaling relationships of different regional subsets are negligible, and models fitted on data from one region of the western North Atlantic can safely be used on data for the same life stage from another North Atlantic region. On the other hand, using models fitted on data for one life stage to describe other life stages is not recommended if accuracy is of paramount importance. In particular, young loggerhead turtles that have not recruited to neritic habitats should be studied and modeled separately whenever practical, while neritic juveniles and adults can be modeled together as one group. Even though morphometric scaling varies among life stages, a common model for all life stages can be used as a general description of scaling, and assuming isometric growth as a simplification is justified. In addition to linear models traditionally used for scaling on log-log axes, we test the performance of a saturating (curvilinear) model. The saturating model is statistically preferred in some cases, but the accuracy gained by the saturating model is marginal.

  3. Size Scaling in Western North Atlantic Loggerhead Turtles Permits Extrapolation between Regions, but Not Life Stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Marn

    Full Text Available Sea turtles face threats globally and are protected by national and international laws. Allometry and scaling models greatly aid sea turtle conservation and research, and help to better understand the biology of sea turtles. Scaling, however, may differ between regions and/or life stages. We analyze differences between (i two different regional subsets and (ii three different life stage subsets of the western North Atlantic loggerhead turtles by comparing the relative growth of body width and depth in relation to body length, and discuss the implications.Results suggest that the differences between scaling relationships of different regional subsets are negligible, and models fitted on data from one region of the western North Atlantic can safely be used on data for the same life stage from another North Atlantic region. On the other hand, using models fitted on data for one life stage to describe other life stages is not recommended if accuracy is of paramount importance. In particular, young loggerhead turtles that have not recruited to neritic habitats should be studied and modeled separately whenever practical, while neritic juveniles and adults can be modeled together as one group. Even though morphometric scaling varies among life stages, a common model for all life stages can be used as a general description of scaling, and assuming isometric growth as a simplification is justified. In addition to linear models traditionally used for scaling on log-log axes, we test the performance of a saturating (curvilinear model. The saturating model is statistically preferred in some cases, but the accuracy gained by the saturating model is marginal.

  4. Assessment of simple risk markers for early mortality among HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Inés; Andersen, Andreas; Furtado, Alcino

    2012-01-01

    risk factors for early mortality among HIV-infected patients; (2) to assess whether these markers could help identify patients to whom ART should be prioritised and (3) to determine if these markers may add information to CD4 cell count when VL is not available. Design: An observational study. Setting......PAR quartile. Conclusions: Irrespective of ART initiation and baseline CD4 count, MUAC and suPAR plasma levels were independent predictors of early mortality in this urban cohort. These markers could be useful in identifying patients at the highest risk of short-term mortality and may aid triage for ART when...

  5. Early warning score independently predicts adverse outcome and mortality in patients with acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael J; Neal, Christopher P; Ngu, Wee Sing; Dennison, Ashley R; Garcea, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prognostic value of established scoring systems with early warning scores in a large cohort of patients with acute pancreatitis. In patients presenting with acute pancreatitis, age, sex, American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) grade, Modified Glasgow Score, Ranson criteria, APACHE II scores and early warning score (EWS) were recorded for the first 72 h following admission. These variables were compared between survivors and non-survivors, between patients with mild/moderate and severe pancreatitis (based on the 2012 Atlanta Classification) and between patients with a favourable or adverse outcome. A total of 629 patients were identified. EWS was the best predictor of adverse outcome amongst all of the assessed variables (area under curve (AUC) values 0.81, 0.84 and 0.83 for days 1, 2 and 3, respectively) and was the most accurate predictor of mortality on both days 2 and 3 (AUC values of 0.88 and 0.89, respectively). Multivariable analysis revealed that an EWS ≥2 was independently associated with severity of pancreatitis, adverse outcome and mortality. This study confirms the usefulness of EWS in predicting the outcome of acute pancreatitis. It should become the mainstay of risk stratification in patients with acute pancreatitis.

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect both penetration and further life stage development of root-knot nematodes in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Christine; Geerinckx, Katleen; Mkandawire, Rachel; Panis, Bart; De Waele, Dirk; Elsen, Annemie

    2012-02-01

    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita poses a worldwide threat to agriculture, with an increasing demand for alternative control options since most common nematicides are being withdrawn due to environmental concerns. The biocontrol potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) against plant-parasitic nematodes has been demonstrated, but the modes of action remain to be unraveled. In this study, M. incognita penetration of second-stage juveniles at 4, 8 and 12 days after inoculation was compared in tomato roots (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Marmande) pre-colonized or not by the AMF Glomus mosseae. Further life stage development of the juveniles was also observed in both control and mycorrhizal roots at 12 days, 3 weeks and 4 weeks after inoculation by means of acid fuchsin staining. Penetration was significantly lower in mycorrhizal roots, with a reduction up to 32%. Significantly lower numbers of third- and fourth-stage juveniles and females accumulated in mycorrhizal roots, at a slower rate than in control roots. The results show for the first time that G. mosseae continuously suppresses root-knot nematodes throughout their entire early infection phase of root penetration and subsequent life stage development.

  7. Periodontitis and early mortality among adults treated with hemodialysis: a multinational propensity-matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruospo, Marinella; Palmer, Suetonia C; Wong, Germaine; Craig, Jonathan C; Petruzzi, Massimo; De Benedittis, Michele; Ford, Pauline; Johnson, David W; Tonelli, Marcello; Natale, Patrizia; Saglimbene, Valeria; Pellegrini, Fabio; Celia, Eduardo; Gelfman, Ruben; Leal, Miguel R; Torok, Marietta; Stroumza, Paul; Bednarek-Skublewska, Anna; Dulawa, Jan; Frantzen, Luc; Del Castillo, Domingo; Schon, Staffan; Bernat, Amparo G; Hegbrant, Jorgen; Wollheim, Charlotta; Gargano, Letizia; Bots, Casper P; Strippoli, Giovanni Fm

    2017-05-22

    Periodontitis is associated with cardiovascular mortality in the general population and adults with chronic diseases. However, it is unclear whether periodontitis predicts survival in the setting of kidney failure. ORAL-D was a propensity matched analysis in 3338 dentate adults with end-stage kidney disease treated in a hemodialysis network in Europe and South America designed to examine the association between periodontitis and all-cause and cardiovascular-related mortality in people on long-term hemodialysis. Participants were matched 1:1 on their propensity score for moderate to severe periodontitis assessed using the World Health Organization Community Periodontal Index. A random-effects Cox proportional hazards model was fitted with shared frailty to account for clustering of mortality risk within countries. Among the 3338 dentate participants, 1355 (40.6%) had moderate to severe periodontitis at baseline. After using propensity score methods to generate a matched cohort of participants with periodontitis similar to those with none or mild periodontal disease, moderate to severe periodontitis was associated with a lower risk of all-cause (9.1 versus 13.0 per 100 person years, hazard ratio 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.90) and cardiovascular (4.3 versus 6.9 per 100 person years, hazard ratio 0.67, 0.51 to 0.88) mortality. These associations were not changed substantially when participants were limited to those with 12 or more natural teeth and when accounting for competing causes of cardiovascular death. In contrast to the general population, periodontitis does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of early death in adults treated with hemodialysis.

  8. Early mortality estimates for different nuclear accidents. Final Phase I report, October 1977-April 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, F.F.

    1979-08-01

    Several studies have previously been made of the number of early deaths which might be expected in a population exposed to a cloud of radionuclides which could result from a nuclear accident. These analyses, however, have been limited to one accident scenario or to exposures involving limited numbers of radionuclides. The purpose of this Phase I study was to examine the existing data on the early health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and determined what, if any, new studies were needed to make reasonable estimates of early mortality after exposure of a population to a cloud of radionuclides of any type. The approach used in the Phase I project was to analyze the data bases available on the health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and document those which were adequate and useful. Using these data, a computer based simulation model was developed depicting exposure to a radioactive aerosol, the dose to an individual exposed to the aerosol and the probability of dying from early effects.

  9. Early mortality estimates for different nuclear accidents. Final Phase I report, October 1977-April 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.

    1979-08-01

    Several studies have previously been made of the number of early deaths which might be expected in a population exposed to a cloud of radionuclides which could result from a nuclear accident. These analyses, however, have been limited to one accident scenario or to exposures involving limited numbers of radionuclides. The purpose of this Phase I study was to examine the existing data on the early health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and determined what, if any, new studies were needed to make reasonable estimates of early mortality after exposure of a population to a cloud of radionuclides of any type. The approach used in the Phase I project was to analyze the data bases available on the health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and document those which were adequate and useful. Using these data, a computer based simulation model was developed depicting exposure to a radioactive aerosol, the dose to an individual exposed to the aerosol and the probability of dying from early effects

  10. Early kit mortality and growth in farmed mink are affected by litter size rather than nest climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Toke Munk; Malmkvist, Jens

    2017-01-01

    increased growth (P=0.026). Nest box temperature had little effect on early kit survival and growth, which could be due to dams’ additional maternal behaviour. Therefore, we cannot confirm that temperature is the primary reason for kit mortality, under the conditions of plenty straw access for maternal nest......We investigated the effects of nest box climate on early mink kit mortality and growth. We hypothesised that litters in warm nest boxes experience less hypothermia-induced mortality and higher growth rates during the 1st week of life. This study included data from 749, 1-year-old breeding dams...... building. Instead, prenatal and/or parturient litter size is the primary factor influencing early kit vitality. The results indicate that the focus should be on litter size and dam welfare around the times of gestation and birth to increase early kit survival in farmed mink....

  11. Long-Term Mortality Effect of Early Pacemaker Implantation After Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greason, Kevin L; Lahr, Brian D; Stulak, John M; Cha, Yong-Mei; Rea, Robert F; Schaff, Hartzell V; Dearani, Joseph A

    2017-10-01

    The need for pacemaker implantation is a well-described complication of aortic valve replacement. Not so well described is the effect such an event has on long-term outcome. This study reviewed a 21-year experience at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minnesota) with aortic valve replacement to understand the influence of early postoperative pacemaker implantation on long-term mortality rates more clearly. This study retrospectively reviewed the records of 5,842 patients without previous pacemaker implantation who underwent surgical aortic valve replacement from January 1993 through June 2014. The median age of these patients was 73 years (range, 65 to 79 years), the median ejection fraction was 62% (range, 53% to 68%), 3,853 patients were male (66%), and coronary artery bypass graft operation was performed in 2,553 (44%) of the patients studied. Early pacemaker implantation occurred in 146 patients (2.5%) within 30 days of surgical aortic valve replacement. The median follow-up of patients was 11.1 years (range, 5.8 to 16.5 years), and all-cause mortality rates were 2.4% at 30 days, 6.4% at 1 year, 23.1% at 5 years, 48.3% at 10 years, and 67.9% at 15 years postoperatively. Early pacemaker implantation was associated with an increased risk of death after multivariable adjustment for baseline patients' characteristics (hazard ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.20, 1.84; p pacemaker implantation as a complication of surgical aortic valve replacement is associated with an increased risk of long-term death. Valve replacement-related pacemaker implantation rates should be important considerations with respect to new valve replacement paradigms, especially in younger and lower-risk patients. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Air pollution in early life and adult mortality from chronic rheumatic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David I W; Osmond, Clive; Williams, Martin L; Jones, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a globally important cause of heart disease. The reasons for the continuing high prevalence of this disease are obscure, but it may have its origins in the poor social and economic conditions with which the disease has been consistently and strongly linked. Mortality studies from the UK have suggested the importance of adverse environmental factors in early life; these studies demonstrated specific geographical associations between high rates of chest infection during infancy and subsequent RHD. They raised the possibility that early air pollution, which is known to be strongly linked with chest infection during infancy, may predispose to RHD. We related estimates of air pollution and social conditions developed by Daly in 1951-52 for 78 urban areas in England and Wales to their subsequent RHD mortality rates at ages 35-74 in men and women during 1993-2012. There were strong relationships between domestic air pollution and RHD [relative risk per standard deviation (SD) increase in pollution 1.168, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.128 to 1.210, P air pollution association was independent of these; only overcrowding was separately linked with RHD. We present the first evidence of an association between air pollution in early life and RHD. Although there are several limitations to this study, the strength and consistency of the results, together with their biological plausibility, suggest a causal link. This deserves attention because it may have important consequences for the control of RHD in resource-poor countries where widespread use of biomass fuels and domestic pollution remain a problem. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  13. Exploring mechanisms of excess mortality with early fluid resuscitation: insights from the FEAST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Kathryn; George, Elizabeth C; Evans, Jennifer A; Kiguli, Sarah; Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Akech, Samuel O; Opoka, Robert O; Engoru, Charles; Nyeko, Richard; Mtove, George; Reyburn, Hugh; Brent, Bernadette; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Mpoya, Ayub; Prevatt, Natalie; Dambisya, Cornelius M; Semakula, Daniel; Ddungu, Ahmed; Okuuny, Vicent; Wokulira, Ronald; Timbwa, Molline; Otii, Benedict; Levin, Michael; Crawley, Jane; Babiker, Abdel G; Gibb, Diana M

    2013-03-14

    Early rapid fluid resuscitation (boluses) in African children with severe febrile illnesses increases the 48-hour mortality by 3.3% compared with controls (no bolus). We explored the effect of boluses on 48-hour all-cause mortality by clinical presentation at enrolment, hemodynamic changes over the first hour, and on different modes of death, according to terminal clinical events. We hypothesize that boluses may cause excess deaths from neurological or respiratory events relating to fluid overload. Pre-defined presentation syndromes (PS; severe acidosis or severe shock, respiratory, neurological) and predominant terminal clinical events (cardiovascular collapse, respiratory, neurological) were described by randomized arm (bolus versus control) in 3,141 severely ill febrile children with shock enrolled in the Fluid Expansion as Supportive Therapy (FEAST) trial. Landmark analyses were used to compare early mortality in treatment groups, conditional on changes in shock and hypoxia parameters. Competing risks methods were used to estimate cumulative incidence curves and sub-hazard ratios to compare treatment groups in terms of terminal clinical events. Of 2,396 out of 3,141 (76%) classifiable participants, 1,647 (69%) had a severe metabolic acidosis or severe shock PS, 625 (26%) had a respiratory PS and 976 (41%) had a neurological PS, either alone or in combination. Mortality was greatest among children fulfilling criteria for all three PS (28% bolus, 21% control) and lowest for lone respiratory (2% bolus, 5% control) or neurological (3% bolus, 0% control) presentations. Excess mortality in bolus arms versus control was apparent for all three PS, including all their component features. By one hour, shock had resolved (responders) more frequently in bolus versus control groups (43% versus 32%, P <0.001), but excess mortality with boluses was evident in responders (relative risk 1.98, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 4.17, P = 0.06) and 'non-responders' (relative risk 1

  14. Pneumonectomy for lung cancer: contemporary national early morbidity and mortality outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pascal A; Berbis, Julie; Baste, Jean-Marc; Le Pimpec-Barthes, Françoise; Tronc, François; Falcoz, Pierre-Emmanuel; Dahan, Marcel; Loundou, Anderson

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to determine contemporary early outcomes associated with pneumonectomy for lung cancer and to identify their predictors using a nationally representative general thoracic surgery database (EPITHOR). After discarding inconsistent files, a group of 4498 patients who underwent elective pneumonectomy for primary lung cancer between 2003 and 2013 was selected. Logistic regression analysis was performed on variables for mortality and major adverse events. Then, a propensity score analysis was adjusted for imbalances in baseline characteristics between patients with or without neoadjuvant treatment. Operative mortality was 7.8%. Surgical, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and infectious complications rates were 14.9%, 14.1%, 11.5%, and 2.7%, respectively. None of these complications were predicted by the performance of a neoadjuvant therapy. Operative mortality analysis, adjusted for the propensity scores, identified age greater than 65 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-2.9; P < .001), underweight body mass index category (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0; P = .009), American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 3 or greater (OR, 2.310; 95% CI, 1.615-3.304; P < .001), right laterality of the procedure (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-2.4; P = .011), performance of an extended pneumonectomy (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1; P = .018), and absence of systematic lymphadenectomy (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.1-7.8; P = .027) as risk predictors. Induction therapy (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9; P = .005) and overweight body mass index category (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9; P = .033) were protective factors. Several risk factors for major adverse early outcomes after pneumonectomy for cancer were identified. Overweight patients and those who received induction therapy had paradoxically lower adjusted risks of mortality. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Causes of mortality in early infantile epileptic encephalopathy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaelli, Graciane; de Souza Santos, Francisco; Borelli, Wyllians Vendramini; Pisani, Leonardo; Nunes, Magda Lahorgue; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; da Costa, Jaderson Costa

    2018-06-12

    Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy syndrome (EIEE), also known as Ohtahara syndrome, is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy syndrome defined by clinical features and electroencephalographic findings. Epileptic disorders with refractory seizures beginning in the neonatal period and/or early infancy have a potential risk of premature mortality, including sudden death. We aimed to identify the causes of death in EIEE and conducted a literature survey of fatal outcomes. We performed a literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science for data from inception until September 2017. The terms "death sudden," "unexplained death," "SUDEP," "lethal," and "fatal" and the medical subject heading terms "epileptic encephalopathy," "mortality," "death," "sudden infant death syndrome," and "human" were used in the search strategy. The EIEE case report studies reporting mortality were included. The search yielded 1360 articles. After screening for titles and abstracts and removing duplicate entries, full texts of 15 articles were reviewed. After reading full texts, 11 articles met the inclusion criteria (9 articles in English and 2 in Japanese, dated from 1976 to 2015). The review comprised 38 unique cases of EIEE, 17 of which had death as an outcome. In all cases, the suppression-burst pattern on electroencephalographies (EEGs) was common. Most cases (55%) involved male infants. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) age at onset of seizure was 19.6 ± 33 days. The mean (SD) age at death was 12.9 ± 14.1 months. Most infants (58.8%) survived less than one year. The cause of death was described only in eight (47%) patients; the cause was pneumonia/respiratory illness or sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). The results show EIEE as a severe disease associated with a premature mortality, evidenced by a very young age at death. Increasing interest in the detection of new molecular bases of EIEE is leading us to a better understanding of this severe

  16. A predictive model for early mortality after surgical treatment of heart valve or prosthesis infective endocarditis. The EndoSCORE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mauro, Michele; Dato, Guglielmo Mario Actis; Barili, Fabio; Gelsomino, Sandro; Santè, Pasquale; Corte, Alessandro Della; Carrozza, Antonio; Ratta, Ester Della; Cugola, Diego; Galletti, Lorenzo; Devotini, Roger; Casabona, Riccardo; Santini, Francesco; Salsano, Antonio; Scrofani, Roberto; Antona, Carlo; Botta, Luca; Russo, Claudio; Mancuso, Samuel; Rinaldi, Mauro; De Vincentiis, Carlo; Biondi, Andrea; Beghi, Cesare; Cappabianca, Giangiuseppe; Tarzia, Vincenzo; Gerosa, Gino; De Bonis, Michele; Pozzoli, Alberto; Nicolini, Francesco; Benassi, Filippo; Rosato, Francesco; Grasso, Elena; Livi, Ugolino; Sponga, Sandro; Pacini, Davide; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; De Martino, Andrea; Bortolotti, Uberto; Onorati, Francesco; Faggian, Giuseppe; Lorusso, Roberto; Vizzardi, Enrico; Di Giammarco, Gabriele; Marinelli, Daniele; Villa, Emmanuel; Troise, Giovanni; Picichè, Marco; Musumeci, Francesco; Paparella, Domenico; Margari, Vito; Tritto, Francesco; Damiani, Girolamo; Scrascia, Giuseppe; Zaccaria, Salvatore; Renzulli, Attilio; Serraino, Giuseppe; Mariscalco, Giovanni; Maselli, Daniele; Foschi, Massimiliano; Parolari, Alessandro; Nappi, Giannantonio

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this large retrospective study was to provide a logistic risk model along an additive score to predict early mortality after surgical treatment of patients with heart valve or prosthesis infective endocarditis (IE). From 2000 to 2015, 2715 patients with native valve endocarditis (NVE) or prosthesis valve endocarditis (PVE) were operated on in 26 Italian Cardiac Surgery Centers. The relationship between early mortality and covariates was evaluated with logistic mixed effect models. Fixed effects are parameters associated with the entire population or with certain repeatable levels of experimental factors, while random effects are associated with individual experimental units (centers). Early mortality was 11.0% (298/2715); At mixed effect logistic regression the following variables were found associated with early mortality: age class, female gender, LVEF, preoperative shock, COPD, creatinine value above 2mg/dl, presence of abscess, number of treated valve/prosthesis (with respect to one treated valve/prosthesis) and the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus, Fungus spp., Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and other micro-organisms, while Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. and other Staphylococci did not affect early mortality, as well as no micro-organisms isolation. LVEF was found linearly associated with outcomes while non-linear association between mortality and age was tested and the best model was found with a categorization into four classes (AUC=0.851). The following study provides a logistic risk model to predict early mortality in patients with heart valve or prosthesis infective endocarditis undergoing surgical treatment, called "The EndoSCORE". Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Detected troponin elevation is associated with high early mortality after lung resection for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tornout Fillip

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial infarction can be difficult to diagnose after lung surgery. As recent diagnostic criteria emphasize serum cardiac markers (in particular serum troponin we set out to evaluate its clinical utility and to establish the long term prognostic impact of detected abnormal postoperative troponin levels after lung resection. Methods We studied a historic cohort of patients with primary lung cancer who underwent intended surgical resection. Patients were grouped according to known postoperative troponin status and survival calculated by Kaplan Meier method and compared using log rank. Parametric survival analysis was used to ascertain independent predictors of mortality. Results From 2001 to 2004, a total of 207 patients underwent lung resection for primary lung cancer of which 14 (7% were identified with elevated serum troponin levels within 30 days of surgery, with 9 (64% having classical features of myocardial infarction. The median time to follow up (interquartile range was 22 (1 to 52 months, and the one and five year survival probabilities (95% CI for patients without and with postoperative troponin elevation were 92% (85 to 96 versus 60% (31 to 80 and 61% (51 to 71 versus 18% (3 to 43 respectively (p T stage and postoperative troponin elevation remained independent predictors of mortality in the final multivariable model. The acceleration factor for death of elevated serum troponin after adjusting for tumour stage was 9.19 (95% CI 3.75 to 22.54. Conclusion Patients with detected serum troponin elevation are at high risk of early mortality with or without symptoms of myocardial infarction after lung resection.

  18. Association Between Low IQ Scores and Early Mortality in Men and Women: Evidence From a Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenner, Matthew J; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2015-05-01

    Lower (versus higher) IQ scores have been shown to increase the risk of early mortality, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood and previous studies underrepresent individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and women. This study followed one third of all senior-year students (approximately aged 17) attending public high school in Wisconsin, U.S. in 1957 (n  =  10,317) until 2011. Men and women with the lowest IQ test scores (i.e., IQ scores ≤ 85) had increased rates of mortality compared to people with the highest IQ test scores, particularly for cardiovascular disease. Importantly, when educational attainment was held constant, people with lower IQ test scores did not have higher mortality by age 70 than people with higher IQ test scores. Individuals with lower IQ test scores likely experience multiple disadvantages throughout life that contribute to increased risk of early mortality.

  19. Prognostic indicators for early mortality after tracheostomy in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsikia, Afshin; Goodwin, Matthew; Wells, Zachary; Gauthier, Zoe; Bascom, Molli; Suh, Moon; Meloro, Beth; Ortiz, Jorge; Joshi, Amit R T

    2016-11-01

    Tracheostomy is indicated for patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. The aim of this study is to identify prognostic indicators for early mortality after tracheostomy to potentially avoid futility in the intensive care unit. Patients who underwent tracheostomy and died within 30 d of admission (futile group) were compared with patients who underwent tracheostomy and survived more than 30 d after admission (nonfutile group). Categorical data were analyzed using chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Continuous variables were analyzed using T-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. Prognostic factors were evaluated with univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Overall, 88.3% of patients underwent nonfutile tracheostomy, while 11.7% underwent futile tracheostomy. Serum albumin level (1.5 g/dL versus 1.9 g/dL, P = 0.040) and mechanical ventilation duration before procedure (10 versus 12 d, P = 0.029) were significantly less in the futile group. Hypoalbuminemia (tracheostomy in multivariable analysis. Hypoalbuminemia may serve as a prognostic indicator and risk factor for early mortality after tracheostomy. In patients with hypoalbuminemia, treatment of underlying disease processes and trending serum albumin level recovery in response to treatment may provide some insight to clinicians with regard to timing of tracheostomy. Better prognostic tools are still needed for critically ill patients to avoid futility in the intensive care unit. In this cohort, 88.3% of patients undergoing tracheostomy survived past 30 d. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Seed and seedling traits affecting critical life stage transitions and recruitment outcomes in dryland grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Seeding native plants is a key management practice to counter land degradation across the globe, yet the majority of seeding efforts fail, limiting the ability of this tool to accelerate ecosystem recovery. 2. Seedling recruitment requires transitions through several life stages, some of which ma...

  1. "Life Stage-Specific" Variations in Performance in Response to Age Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehman, Jessica A.; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2013-01-01

    In a test of life stage-specific responses to age-based stigma, older (n = 54, ages 62-92) and younger (n = 81, ages 17-22) adults were told that a task (Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-III block design) required either (a) speed/contemporary knowledge (YA; "youth advantage") or (b) life experience/wisdom (OA; "age…

  2. Risk assessment considerations for plant protection products and terrestrial life-stages of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltje, Lennart; Ufer, Andreas; Hamer, Mick; Sowig, Peter; Demmig, Sandra; Dechet, Friedrich

    2018-04-28

    Some amphibians occur in agricultural landscapes during certain periods of their life cycle and consequently might be exposed to plant protection products (PPPs). While the sensitivity of aquatic life-stages is considered to be covered by the standard assessment for aquatic organisms (especially fish), the situation is less clear for terrestrial amphibian life-stages. In this paper, considerations are presented on how a risk assessment for PPPs and terrestrial life-stages of amphibians could be conducted. It discusses available information concerning the toxicity of PPPs to terrestrial amphibians, and their potential exposure to PPPs in consideration of aspects of amphibian biology. The emphasis is on avoiding additional vertebrate testing as much as possible by using exposure-driven approaches and by making use of existing vertebrate toxicity data, where appropriate. Options for toxicity testing and risk assessment are presented in a flowchart as a tiered approach, progressing from a non-testing approach, to simple worst-case laboratory testing, to extended laboratory testing, to semi-field enclosure tests and ultimately to full-scale field testing and monitoring. Suggestions are made for triggers to progress to higher tiers. Also, mitigation options to reduce the potential for exposure of terrestrial life-stages of amphibians to PPPs, if a risk were identified, are discussed. Finally, remaining uncertainties and research needs are considered by proposing a way forward (road map) for generating additional information to inform terrestrial amphibian risk assessment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Phototoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to zebrafish (Danio rerio) is dependent on life stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo has been increasingly used as a model to evaluate toxicity of manufactured nanomaterials. Many studies indicate that the embryo chorion may protect animals from toxic effects of nanomaterials, suggesting that post-hatch life stages may be more s...

  4. Susceptibility of different life stage of Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis to cold treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests were carried out to examine the efficacy of different exposure intervals (2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d and 7 d) on different life stages (adults, pupae, larvae, eggs) of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), the confused flour beetle, and O. surinamensis (...

  5. Amphibians at risk? Susceptibility of terrestrial amphibian life stages to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühl, Carsten A; Pieper, Silvia; Weber, Brigitte

    2011-11-01

    Current pesticide risk assessment does not specifically consider amphibians. Amphibians in the aquatic environment (aquatic life stages or postmetamorphic aquatic amphibians) and terrestrial living juvenile or adult amphibians are assumed to be covered by the risk assessment for aquatic invertebrates and fish, or mammals and birds, respectively. This procedure has been evaluated as being sufficiently protective regarding the acute risk posed by a number of pesticides to aquatic amphibian life stages (eggs, larvae). However, it is unknown whether the exposure and sensitivity of terrestrial living amphibians are comparable to mammalian and avian exposure and sensitivity. We reviewed the literature on dermal pesticide absorption and toxicity studies for terrestrial life stages of amphibians, focusing on the dermal exposure pathway, that is, through treated soil or direct overspray. In vitro studies demonstrated that cutaneous absorption of chemicals is significant and that chemical percutaneous passage, P (cm/h), is higher in amphibians than in mammals. In vivo, the rapid and substantial uptake of the herbicide atrazine from treated soil by toads (Bufo americanus) has been described. Severe toxic effects on various amphibian species have been reported for field-relevant application rates of different pesticides. In general, exposure and toxicity studies for terrestrial amphibian life stages are scarce, and the reported data indicate the need for further research, especially in light of the global amphibian decline. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  6. Adaptive responses to salinity stress across multiple life stages in anuran amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albecker, Molly A; McCoy, Michael W

    2017-01-01

    In many regions, freshwater wetlands are increasing in salinity at rates exceeding historic levels. Some freshwater organisms, like amphibians, may be able to adapt and persist in salt-contaminated wetlands by developing salt tolerance. Yet adaptive responses may be more challenging for organisms with complex life histories, because the same environmental stressor can require responses across different ontogenetic stages. Here we investigated responses to salinity in anuran amphibians: a common, freshwater taxon with a complex life cycle. We conducted a meta-analysis to define how the lethality of saltwater exposure changes across multiple life stages, surveyed wetlands in a coastal region experiencing progressive salinization for the presence of anurans, and used common garden experiments to investigate whether chronic salt exposure alters responses in three sequential life stages (reproductive, egg, and tadpole life stages) in Hyla cinerea , a species repeatedly observed in saline wetlands. Meta-analysis revealed differential vulnerability to salt stress across life stages with the egg stage as the most salt-sensitive. Field surveys revealed that 25% of the species known to occur in the focal region were detected in salt-intruded habitats. Remarkably, Hyla cinerea was found in large abundances in multiple wetlands with salinity concentrations 450% higher than the tadpole-stage LC 50 . Common garden experiments showed that coastal (chronically salt exposed) populations of H. cinerea lay more eggs, have higher hatching success, and greater tadpole survival in higher salinities compared to inland (salt naïve) populations. Collectively, our data suggest that some species of anuran amphibians have divergent and adaptive responses to salt exposure across populations and across different life stages. We propose that anuran amphibians may be a novel and amenable natural model system for empirical explorations of adaptive responses to environmental change.

  7. The association between social network factors and mental health at different life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levula, Andrew; Wilson, Andrew; Harré, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Psychosocial factors are important determinants of an individual's health. This study examines the association between health scores and social network factors on mental health across different life stages. Data were drawn from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey for adolescents (n = 1739), adults (n = 10,309) and seniors (n = 2287). Hierarchical regression modelling was applied to examine effects within and across age groups. All the variables were derived from the self-completion questionnaire. The social network factors were statistically significant predictors of mental health outcomes for all three life stages. For adolescents, the three social network factors were statistically significant with social isolation having the largest impact (β = -.284, p social connection (β = .084, p social trust having a similar effect (β = .073, p social isolation had the highest impact (β = -.203, p social connection (β = .110, p social trust (β = .087, p social isolation (β = -.188, p social connection (β = .147, p social trust (β = .032, p social network factors, the models improved significantly with social isolation playing the most significant role across all life stages, whereas the other social network factors played a differentiated role depending upon the life stage. These findings have practical implications in the design of mental health interventions across different life stages.

  8. Sensitivity of UK butterflies to local climatic extremes: which life stages are most at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott Long, Osgur; Warren, Rachel; Price, Jeff; Brereton, Tom M; Botham, Marc S; Franco, Aldina M A

    2017-01-01

    There is growing recognition as to the importance of extreme climatic events (ECEs) in determining changes in species populations. In fact, it is often the extent of climate variability that determines a population's ability to persist at a given site. This study examined the impact of ECEs on the resident UK butterfly species (n = 41) over a 37-year period. The study investigated the sensitivity of butterflies to four extremes (drought, extreme precipitation, extreme heat and extreme cold), identified at the site level, across each species' life stages. Variations in the vulnerability of butterflies at the site level were also compared based on three life-history traits (voltinism, habitat requirement and range). This is the first study to examine the effects of ECEs at the site level across all life stages of a butterfly, identifying sensitive life stages and unravelling the role life-history traits play in species sensitivity to ECEs. Butterfly population changes were found to be primarily driven by temperature extremes. Extreme heat was detrimental during overwintering periods and beneficial during adult periods and extreme cold had opposite impacts on both of these life stages. Previously undocumented detrimental effects were identified for extreme precipitation during the pupal life stage for univoltine species. Generalists were found to have significantly more negative associations with ECEs than specialists. With future projections of warmer, wetter winters and more severe weather events, UK butterflies could come under severe pressure given the findings of this study. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  9. Life stage influences the resistance and resilience of black mangrove forests to winter climate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, Michael J.; Day, Richard H.; From, Andrew S.; McCoy, Megan L.; McLeod, Jennie L.; Kelleway, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    In subtropical coastal wetlands on multiple continents, climate change-induced reductions in the frequency and intensity of freezing temperatures are expected to lead to the expansion of woody plants (i.e., mangrove forests) at the expense of tidal grasslands (i.e., salt marshes). Since some ecosystem goods and services would be affected by mangrove range expansion, there is a need to better understand mangrove sensitivity to freezing temperatures as well as the implications of changing winter climate extremes for mangrove-salt marsh interactions. In this study, we investigated the following questions: (1) how does plant life stage (i.e., ontogeny) influence the resistance and resilience of black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) forests to freezing temperatures; and (2) how might differential life stage responses to freeze events affect the rate of mangrove expansion and salt marsh displacement due to climate change? To address these questions, we quantified freeze damage and recovery for different life stages (seedling, short tree, and tall tree) following extreme winter air temperature events that occurred near the northern range limit of A. germinans in North America. We found that life stage affects black mangrove forest resistance and resilience to winter climate extremes in a nonlinear fashion. Resistance to winter climate extremes was high for tall A. germinans trees and seedlings, but lowest for short trees. Resilience was highest for tall A. germinans trees. These results suggest the presence of positive feedbacks and indicate that climate-change induced decreases in the frequency and intensity of extreme minimum air temperatures could lead to a nonlinear increase in mangrove forest resistance and resilience. This feedback could accelerate future mangrove expansion and salt marsh loss at rates beyond what would be predicted from climate change alone. In general terms, our study highlights the importance of accounting for differential life stage responses and

  10. Serum phosphate predicts early mortality in adults starting antiretroviral therapy in Lusaka, Zambia: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C Heimburger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa have high rates of mortality in the initial weeks of treatment. We assessed the association of serum phosphate with early mortality among HIV-infected adults with severe malnutrition and/or advanced immunosuppression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An observational cohort of 142 HIV-infected adults initiating ART in Lusaka, Zambia with body mass index (BMI <16 kg/m(2 or CD4(+ lymphocyte count <50 cells/microL, or both, was followed prospectively during the first 12 weeks of ART. Detailed health and dietary intake history, review of systems, physical examination, serum metabolic panel including phosphate, and serum ferritin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP were monitored. The primary outcome was mortality. Baseline serum phosphate was a significant predictor of mortality; participants alive at 12 weeks had a median value of 1.30 mmol/L (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.04, 1.43, compared to 1.06 mmol/L (IQR: 0.89, 1.27 among those who died (p<0.01. Each 0.1 mmol/L increase in baseline phosphate was associated with an incremental decrease in mortality (AHR 0.83; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.95. The association was independent of other metabolic parameters and known risk factors for early ART-associated mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. While participant attrition represented a limitation, it was consistent with local program experience. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low serum phosphate at ART initiation was an independent predictor of early mortality among HIV patients starting ART with severe malnutrition or advanced immunosuppression. This may represent a physiologic phenomenon similar to refeeding syndrome, and may lead to therapeutic interventions that could reduce mortality.

  11. Toxicity of sulfide to early life stages of wild rice (Zizania palustris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Todhunter, Kevin; Fort, Troy D; Mathis, Michael B; Walker, Rachel; Hansel, Mike; Hall, Scott; Richards, Robin; Anderson, Kurt

    2017-08-01

    The sensitivity of wild rice (Zizania palustris) to sulfide is not well understood. Because sulfate in surface waters is reduced to sulfide by anaerobic bacteria in sediments and historical information indicated that 10 mg/L sulfate in Minnesota (USA) surface water reduced Z. palustris abundance, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency established 10 mg/L sulfate as a water quality criterion in 1973. A 21-d daily-renewal hydroponic study was conducted to evaluate sulfide toxicity to wild rice and the potential mitigation of sulfide toxicity by iron (Fe). The hydroponic design used hypoxic test media for seed and root exposure and aerobic headspace for the vegetative portion of the plant. Test concentrations were 0.3, 1.6, 3.1, 7.8, and 12.5 mg/L sulfide in test media with 0.8, 2.8, and 10.8 mg/L total Fe used to evaluate the impact of iron on sulfide toxicity. Visual assessments (i.e., no plants harvested) of seed activation, mesocotyl emergence, seedling survival, and phytoxicity were conducted 10 d after dark-phase exposure. Each treatment was also evaluated for time to 30% emergence (ET30), total plant biomass, root and shoot lengths, and signs of phytotoxicity at study conclusion (21 d). The results indicate that exposure of developing wild rice to sulfide at ≥3.1 mg sulfide/L in the presence of 0.8 mg/L Fe reduced mesocotyl emergence. Sulfide toxicity was mitigated by the addition of Fe at 2.8 mg/L and 10.8 mg/L relative to the control value of 0.8 mg Fe/L, demonstrating the importance of iron in mitigating sulfide toxicity to wild rice. Ultimately, determination of site-specific sulfate criteria taking into account factors that alter toxicity, including sediment Fe and organic carbon, are necessary. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2217-2226. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  12. Linking Early Life Stages: The First Step towards Lifecourse Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The abstract is the overview of a workshop proposed for inclusion in 2015 Society of Toxicology annual meeting program. The workshop will introduce the audience to lifecourse theory and speakers will provide examples of using PBPK models to link exposures and outcomes resulting ...

  13. The effects of ciprofloxacin on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Živná, D.; Plhalová, L.; Chromcová, L.; Blahová, J.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Skorič, M.; Maršálek, P.; Prášková, E.; Štěpánová, S.; Svobodová, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 7 (2016), s. 1733-1740 ISSN 0730-7268 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : fluoroquinolones * embryo-larval toxicity test * antioxidant enzymes * detoxifying enzymes * lipid peroxidation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.951, year: 2016

  14. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... expressed as calcium carbonate (mg CaCO3/liter). (10) “Loading” the ratio of biomass (grams of fish, wet..., empty shells, opaque embryos, and embryos with fungus or partial shells attached shall be removed and...

  15. The effects of atrazine exposure on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chromcová, L.; Blahová, J.; Plhalová, L.; Živná, D.; Štěpánová, S.; Prášková, E.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Zelníčková, L.; Škorič, M.; Svobodová, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, Suppl. 2 (2013), s. 95-101 ISSN 0172-780X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : embryo-larval toxicity test * LOEC * oxidative stress * TBARS * defense enzymes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.935, year: 2013

  16. DWH damage assessment on marine species - Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons (PAHs) to fish early life stages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecotox Program is at the forefront, nationally and internationally, of targeted research to characterize the impacts of petroleum hydrocarbons on NOAA trust...

  17. The effect of tramadol hydrochloride on early life stages of fish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sehonová, P.; Plhalová, L.; Blahová, J.; Beránková, P.; Doubková, V.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Tichý, F.; Večerek, V.; Svobodová, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 44, June (2016), s. 151-157 ISSN 1382-6689 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Aquatic contamination * Cyprinus carpio * Danio rerio * Oxidative stress * Toxicity test Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.313, year: 2016

  18. Effect of salicylic acid on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Živná, D.; Sehonová, P.; Plhalová, L.; Maršálek, P.; Blahová, J.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Divišová, L.; Stancová, V.; Dobšíková, R.; Tichý, F.; Široká, Z.; Svobodová, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2015), s. 319-325 ISSN 1382-6689 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Pharmaceutical residues * NSAIDs * Oxidative stress * Lipid peroxidation Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.187, year: 2015

  19. Early life stages of exotic gobiids as new hosts for unionid glochidia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlapanský, Luděk; Jurajda, Pavel; Janáč, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2016), s. 979-990 ISSN 0046-5070 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112; GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1768 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : fish larvae * Gobiidae * host–parasite interaction * invasive species * Unionidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.255, year: 2016

  20. Effects of selected tricyclic antidepressants on early-life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sehonová, P.; Plhalová, L.; Blahová, J.; Doubková, V.; Maršálek, P.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Tichý, F.; Skládaná, M.; Fiorino, E.; Mikula, P.; Večerek, V.; Faggio, C.; Svobodová, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 185, October (2017), s. 1072-1080 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Mixture toxicity * Amitriptyline * Nortriptyline * Clomipramine * Oxidative stress Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.208, year: 2016

  1. EARLY LIFE STAGE TOXICITY OF COPPER TO ENDANGERED AND SURROGATE FISH SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality criteria (WQC) for the protection of aquatic life have not explicitly considered the degree of protection afforded to aquatic species listed as endangered or threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (listed species) . Most WQCs are based primarily on respon...

  2. CBOS damage assessment on Pacific herring - Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons (PAHs) to fish early life stages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecotox Program is at the forefront, nationally and internationally, of targeted research to characterize the impacts of petroleum hydrocarbons on NOAA trust...

  3. Susceptibility of eastern oyster early life stages to road surface polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of chemical compounds that are mostly : anthropogenic in nature, and they can become persistent organic contaminants in aquatic : ecosystems. Runoff from impervious surfaces is one of the many ways ...

  4. Toxicity of naproxen sodium and its mixture with tramadol hydrochloride on fish early life stages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sehonová, P.; Plhalová, L.; Blahová, J.; Doubková, V.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Tichý, F.; Fiorino, E.; Faggio, C.; Svobodová, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 188, December (2017), s. 414-423 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Cyprinus carpio * Surface waters * Toxicity tests * Oxidative stress * LOEC Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.208, year: 2016

  5. The effects of diclofenac on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánová, S.; Prášková, E.; Chromcová, L.; Plhalová, L.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Blahová, J.; Svobodová, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2013), s. 454-460 ISSN 1382-6689 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Fish * Embryo–larval toxicity test * Oxidative stress * LOEC * NOEC Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.862, year: 2013

  6. Intelligence in early adulthood and mortality from natural and unnatural causes in middle-aged Danish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meincke, Rikke Hodal; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Avlund, Kirsten; Rosthøj, Susanne; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Osler, Merete

    2014-02-01

    High intelligence early in life has consistently been associated with decreased mortality, but the mechanisms are still not fully understood. In this cohort study, we examined the association between intelligence in early adulthood and later mortality from natural and unnatural causes taking birth weight, parental socioeconomic position, participants' own education and body mass index into account. 13 536 Danish men born in 1953 and 1959-1961 with data from birth certificates and intelligence test scores from conscription were followed until 2009. Information on vital status was obtained from the Civil Registration System. Mortality risks were analysed by the multiple Cox proportional hazards model. The risk of mortality from natural as well as unnatural causes was more than twice as high among men in the lowest scoring intelligence tertile (HRnatural deaths=2.24; 1.90-2.65 and HRunnatural deaths=2.67; 2.03-3.53). Adjusting for all covariates attenuated the estimates, but the association remained (HRnatural deaths=1.82; 1.48-2.25 and HRunnatural deaths=2.30; 1.63-3.25). In men, intelligence in early adulthood was inversely associated with midlife mortality from natural and unnatural causes. The associations remained after adjustments for a range of covariates.

  7. Life history traits influence the strength of distance- and density-dependence at different life stages of two Amazonian palms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Juanita; Carasco, Cecilia; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Simpson, Beryl B; Economo, Evan P

    2017-07-01

    Natural enemies are known to be important in regulating plant populations and contributing to species coexistence (Janzen-Connell effects). The strength of Janzen-Connell effects (both distance- and density-effects) varies across species, but the life history traits that may mediate such a variation are not well understood. This study examined Janzen-Connell effects across the life stages (seed through adult stages) of two sympatric palm species with distinct phenologies and shade tolerances, two traits that may mediate the strength and timing of Janzen-Connell effects. Populations of two common palm species, Attalea phalerata and Astrocaryum murumuru , were studied in Manu National Park, Peru. Seed predation experiments were conducted to assess Janzen-Connell effects at the seed stage. In the post-seed stages, spatial point pattern analyses of the distributions of individuals and biomass were used to infer the strength of distance- and density-effects. Seed predation was both negative distance- and density-dependent consistent with the Janzen-Connell effects. However, only seedling recruitment for asynchronously fruiting Attalea phalerata was depressed near adults while recruitment remained high for synchronously fruiting Astrocaryum murumuru , consistent with weak distance-effects. Negative density-effects were strong in the early stages for shade-intolerant Attalea phalerata but weak or absent in shade-tolerant Astrocaryum murumuru. Distance- and density-effects varied among the life stages of the two palm species in a manner that corresponded to their contrasting phenology and shade tolerance. Generalizing such connections across many species would provide a route to understanding how trait-mediated Janzen-Connell effects scale up to whole communities of species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Concomitant changes in radiation resistance and trehalose levels during life stages of Drosophila melanogaster suggest radio-protective function of trehalose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paithankar, Jagdish Gopal; Raghu, Shamprasad Varija; Patil, Rajashekhar K

    2018-04-20

    During development, various life stages of Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster) show different levels of resistance to gamma irradiation, with the early pupal stage being the most radiation sensitive. This provides us an opportunity to explore the biochemical basis of such variations. The present study was carried out to understand the mechanisms underlying radiation resistance during life stages of D. melanogaster. Homogenates from all the life stages of D. melanogaster were prepared at stipulated age. These homogenates were used for the determination of (1) enzymatic antioxidants: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, D. melanogaster glutathione peroxidase (DmGPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST); (2) reducing non-enzymatic antioxidants: total antioxidant capacity (TAC), reduced glutathione (GSH) and non-reducing non-enzymatic antioxidant trehalose; and (3) levels of protein carbonyl (PC) content. Age-dependent changes in radiation resistance and associated biochemical changes were also studied in young (2 d) and old (20 and 30 d) flies. TAC and GSH were found high in the early pupal stage, whereas catalase and DmGPx were found to increase in the early pupal stage. The non-feeding third instar (NFTI) larvae were found to have high levels of SOD and GST, besides NFTI larvae showed high levels of trehalose. A remarkable decrease was observed in radiation resistance and trehalose levels during the early pupal stage. The PC level was the highest during early pupal stage and was the lowest in NFTI larvae. Older flies showed high level of PC compared with young flies. In vitro increments in trehalose concentration correspond to reduced formation of PCs, suggesting a protective role of trehalose against free radicals. A strong correlation between levels of trehalose and PC formation suggests amelioration of proteome damage due to ionizing radiation (IR). Stages with high trehalose levels showed protected proteome and high radiation resistance, suggesting a

  9. Early and total neonatal mortality in relation to birth setting in the United States, 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B; Sapra, Katherine J; Brent, Robert L; Levene, Malcolm I; Arabin, Birgit; Chervenak, Frank A

    2014-10-01

    We examined neonatal mortality in relation to birth settings and birth attendants in the United States from 2006 through 2009. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-linked birth and infant death dataset in the United States from 2006 through 2009 were used to assess early and total neonatal mortality for singleton, vertex, and term births without congenital malformations delivered by midwives and physicians in the hospital and midwives and others out of the hospital. Deliveries by hospital midwives served as the reference. Midwife home births had a significantly higher total neonatal mortality risk than deliveries by hospital midwives (1.26 per 1000 births; relative risk [RR], 3.87 vs 0.32 per 1000; P home births of 41 weeks or longer (1.84 per 1000; RR, 6.76 vs 0.27 per 1000; P home births of women with a first birth (2.19 per 1000; RR, 6.74 vs 0.33 per 1000; P home births, neonatal mortality for first births was twice that of subsequent births (2.19 vs 0.96 per 1000; P home births compared with midwife hospital births was 9.32 per 10,000 births, and the excess early neonatal mortality was 7.89 per 10,000 births. Our study shows a significantly increased total and early neonatal mortality for home births and even higher risks for women of 41 weeks or longer and women having a first birth. These significantly increased risks of neonatal mortality in home births must be disclosed by all obstetric practitioners to all pregnant women who express an interest in such births. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of emamectin benzoate tolerance emergence in different life stages of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P G; Hammell, K L; Gettinby, G; Revie, C W

    2013-03-01

    Emamectin benzoate has been used to treat sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Recent evidence suggests a reduction in effectiveness in some locations. A major challenge in the detection of tolerance emergence can be the typically low proportion of resistant individuals in a population during the early phases. The objectives of this study were to develop a method for determining differences in temporal development of tolerance between sea lice life stages and to explore how these differences might be used to improve the monitoring of treatment effectiveness in a clinical setting. This study examined two data sets based on records of sea lice abundance following emamectin benzoate treatments from the west coast of Scotland (2002-2006) and from New Brunswick, Canada (2004-2008). Life stages were categorized into two groups (adult females and the remaining mobile stages) to examine the trends in mean abundance and treatment effectiveness. Differences in emamectin benzoate effectiveness were found between the two groups by year and location, suggesting that an important part of monitoring drug resistance development in aquatic ectoparasites may be the need to focus on key life stages. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Variations in active transport behavior among different neighborhoods and across adult life stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars Breum; Madsen, Thomas; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Built environment characteristics are closely related to transport behavior, but observed variations could be due to residents own choice of neighborhood called residential self-selection. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in neighborhood walkability and residential...... self-selection across life stages in relation to active transport behavior. METHODS: The IPEN walkability index, which consists of four built environment characteristics, was used to define 16 high and low walkable neighborhoods in Aarhus, Denmark (250.000 inhabitants). Transport behavior was assessed...... using the IPAQ questionnaire. Life stages were categorized in three groups according to age and parental status. A factor analysis was conducted to investigate patterns of self-selection. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out to evaluate the association between walkability...

  12. Analysis of Neurotransmitter Tissue Content of Drosophila melanogaster in Different Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a widely used model organism for studying neurological diseases with similar neurotransmission to mammals. While both larva and adult Drosophila have central nervous systems, not much is known about how neurotransmitter tissue content changes through development. In this study, we quantified tyramine, serotonin, octopamine, and dopamine in larval, pupal, and adult fly brains using capillary electrophoresis coupled to fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Tyramine and octopamine content varied between life stages, with almost no octopamine being present in the pupa, while tyramine levels in the pupa were very high. Adult females had significantly higher dopamine content than males, but no other neurotransmitters were dependent on sex in the adult. Understanding the tissue content of different life stages will be beneficial for future work comparing the effects of diseases on tissue content throughout development. PMID:25437353

  13. Women's job quality across family life stages: An analysis of female employees across 27 European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Piasna, A.; Plagnol, A.

    2017-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence on how working conditions affect women’s employment and fertility choices, despite a number of studies on the impact of individual-level and institutional factors. The article addresses this gap by examining how family life stages are related to particular aspects of job quality among employed women in 27 European countries. The central argument of the analysis is that high-quality jobs are conducive to both transitions to motherhood and employment after chi...

  14. Disparate patterns of thermal adaptation between life stages in temperate vs. tropical Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, B L; Gupta, T; Scavotto, R

    2018-02-01

    Many terrestrial ectothermic species exhibit limited variation in upper thermal tolerance across latitude. However, these trends may not signify limited adaptive capacity to increase thermal tolerance in the face of climate change. Instead, thermal tolerance may be similar among populations because behavioural thermoregulation by mobile organisms or life stages may buffer natural selection for thermal tolerance. We compared thermal tolerance of adults and embryos among natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster from a broad range of thermal habitats around the globe to assess natural variation of thermal tolerance in mobile vs. immobile life stages. We found no variation among populations in adult thermal tolerance, but embryonic thermal tolerance was higher in tropical strains than in temperate strains. We further report that embryos live closer to their upper thermal limits than adults - that is, thermal safety margins are smaller for embryos than adults. F1 hybrid embryos from crosses between temperate and tropical populations had thermal tolerance that matched that of tropical embryos, suggesting the dominance of heat-tolerant alleles. Together, our findings suggest that thermal selection has led to divergence in embryonic thermal tolerance but that selection for divergent thermal tolerance may be limited in adults. Further, our results suggest that thermal traits should be measured across life stages to better predict adaptive limits. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. A human life-stage physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic model for chlorpyrifos: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan Ned; Hinderliter, Paul M; Timchalk, Charles; Bartels, Michael J; Poet, Torka S

    2014-08-01

    Sensitivity to some chemicals in animals and humans are known to vary with age. Age-related changes in sensitivity to chlorpyrifos have been reported in animal models. A life-stage physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model was developed to predict disposition of chlorpyrifos and its metabolites, chlorpyrifos-oxon (the ultimate toxicant) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), as well as B-esterase inhibition by chlorpyrifos-oxon in humans. In this model, previously measured age-dependent metabolism of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon were integrated into age-related descriptions of human anatomy and physiology. The life-stage PBPK/PD model was calibrated and tested against controlled adult human exposure studies. Simulations suggest age-dependent pharmacokinetics and response may exist. At oral doses ⩾0.6mg/kg of chlorpyrifos (100- to 1000-fold higher than environmental exposure levels), 6months old children are predicted to have higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and higher levels of red blood cell cholinesterase inhibition compared to adults from equivalent doses. At lower doses more relevant to environmental exposures, simulations predict that adults will have slightly higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and greater cholinesterase inhibition. This model provides a computational framework for age-comparative simulations that can be utilized to predict chlorpyrifos disposition and biological response over various postnatal life stages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of visible light stress on chemical signaling in two life stages of Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin-Alvarado, L.; Cooney, E.; Bright, K.; Strom, S.

    2016-02-01

    The cosmopolitan marine phytoplankton species Emiliania huxleyi presents a digenetic heteromorphic life cycle, with the non-motile diploid phase bearing coccoliths and the flagellated haploid phase being non-calcified. E. huxleyi contains high concentrations of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), the precursor of dimethylsulphide (DMS). DMSP is a multifactorial compound; it acts as a compatible solute in cell metabolism and as a chemical signal influencing bacterial and protist behavior. In the atmosphere DMS enhances cloud formation influencing climate. However, little has been documented on E. huxleyi chemical signal responses to high light stress, and how this relates to the heteromorphic life cycle. To this end, low light acclimated cultures of both haploid and diploid E. huxleyi were exposed to high light for 2 hr and allowed to recover in low light for 2 hr. During and after these treatments, growth, photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), DMSP (intracellular and released) and cell chlorophyll content were measured. Our preliminary results suggest that presence of high light decreased Fv/Fm to a greater extent in haploid than in diploid (calcified) cells, while recovery of Fv/Fm was rapid in both life stages. The chlorophyll content and intracellular DMSP was not different in both life stages. However, the dissolved DMSP increased after light stress in diploid cells suggesting a possible advantage as antioxidant protection or another cellular function, such as grazing protection in this life stage.

  17. Fetal Origins of Life Stage Disease: A Zebrafish Model for the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the U.S., childhood obesity has more than doubled in children and quadrupled in adolescents in the past 30 years, affects 35% of adults, and costs the U.S. healthcare industry >$200 billion annually. The chemical environment in the womb may cause susceptibility to different life-stage and life-long metabolic diseases including obesity. The challenge is to understand if exposures during developmentally sensitive windows impact life-stage disease, such as obesity, by increasing adipose tissue mass. In vitro models lack the integrated systems approach needed to assess adipose development, while mammalian models are impractical in a screen of thousands of chemicals. Therefore, an obesogen screening method was developed to interrogate bioactivity using a full systems approach, in a vertebrate zebrafish model with complete metabolic activity, at a time when the full signaling repertoire is expressed and active, to optimally examine how chemical dose and duration impact life-stage adipose mass. A time-line for adipose depot formation was mapped in zebrafish 6−14 days post fertilization (dpf) using the lipophilic dye, Nile Red, in combination with fluorescent microscopy. Those time points were then used to investigate the impact of embryonic tributyltin chloride (TBT, a known obesogen) exposure (10nM daily renewal, 0−5dpf) on adipose mass. Fluorescent microscopy revealed adipose depots that were larger and appeared 2 days earlier in TBT treated compared to contro

  18. Sanitation, Stress, and Life Stage: A Systematic Data Collection Study among Women in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulland, Kristyna R S; Chase, Rachel P; Caruso, Bethany A; Swain, Rojalin; Biswal, Bismita; Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates how inadequate access to water and sanitation is linked to psychosocial stress, especially among women, forcing them to navigate social and physical barriers during their daily sanitation routines. We examine sanitation-related psychosocial stress (SRPS) across women's reproductive lives in three distinct geographic sites (urban slums, rural villages, and rural tribal villages) in Odisha, India. We explored daily sanitation practices of adolescent, newly married, pregnant, and established adult women (n = 60) and identified stressors encountered during sanitation. Responding to structured data collection methods, women ranked seven sanitation activities (defecation, urination, menstruation, bathing, post-defecation cleaning, carrying water, and changing clothes) based on stress (high to low) and level of freedom (associated with greatest freedom to having the most restrictions). Women then identified common stressors they encountered when practicing sanitation and sorted stressors in constrained piles based on frequency and severity of each issue. The constellation of factors influencing SRPS varies by life stage and location. Overall, sanitation behaviors that were most restricted (i.e., menstruation) were the most stressful. Women in different sites encountered different stressors, and the level of perceived severity varied based on site and life stage. Understanding the influence of place and life stage on SRPS provides a nuanced understanding of sanitation, and may help identify areas for intervention.

  19. Sanitation, Stress, and Life Stage: A Systematic Data Collection Study among Women in Odisha, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristyna R S Hulland

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence demonstrates how inadequate access to water and sanitation is linked to psychosocial stress, especially among women, forcing them to navigate social and physical barriers during their daily sanitation routines. We examine sanitation-related psychosocial stress (SRPS across women's reproductive lives in three distinct geographic sites (urban slums, rural villages, and rural tribal villages in Odisha, India. We explored daily sanitation practices of adolescent, newly married, pregnant, and established adult women (n = 60 and identified stressors encountered during sanitation. Responding to structured data collection methods, women ranked seven sanitation activities (defecation, urination, menstruation, bathing, post-defecation cleaning, carrying water, and changing clothes based on stress (high to low and level of freedom (associated with greatest freedom to having the most restrictions. Women then identified common stressors they encountered when practicing sanitation and sorted stressors in constrained piles based on frequency and severity of each issue. The constellation of factors influencing SRPS varies by life stage and location. Overall, sanitation behaviors that were most restricted (i.e., menstruation were the most stressful. Women in different sites encountered different stressors, and the level of perceived severity varied based on site and life stage. Understanding the influence of place and life stage on SRPS provides a nuanced understanding of sanitation, and may help identify areas for intervention.

  20. Early life stress affects mortality rate more than social behavior, gene expression or oxidative damage in honey bee workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueppell, Olav; Yousefi, Babak; Collazo, Juan; Smith, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Early life stressors can affect aging and life expectancy in positive or negative ways. Individuals can adjust their behavior and molecular physiology based on early life experiences but relatively few studies have connected such mechanisms to demographic patterns in social organisms. Sociality buffers individuals from environmental influences and it is unclear how much early life stress affects later life history. Workers of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) were exposed to two stressors, Varroa parasitism and Paraquat exposure, early in life. Consequences were measured at the molecular, behavioral, and demographic level. While treatments did not significantly affect levels of oxidative damage, expression of select genes, and titers of the common deformed wing virus, most of these measures were affected by age. Some of the age effects, such as declining levels of deformed wing virus and oxidative damage, were opposite to our predictions but may be explained by demographic selection. Further analyses suggested some influences of worker behavior on mortality and indicated weak treatment effects on behavior. The latter effects were inconsistent among the two experiments. However, mortality rate was consistently reduced by Varroa mite stress during development. Thus, mortality was more responsive to early life stress than our other response variables. The lack of treatment effects on these measures may be due to the social organization of honey bees that buffers the individual from the impact of stressful developmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Stent Thrombosis and Mortality After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dangas, George D; Schoos, Mikkel M.; Steg, Philippe Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early stent thrombosis (ST) within 30 days after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction is a serious event. We sought to determine the predictors of and risk of mortality after early ST according to procedural antithrombotic therapy...... with bivalirudin compared with heparin±GPI because of increased ST within 4 hours after primary percutaneous coronary intervention. However, the mortality attributable to early ST was significantly lower after bivalirudin than after heparin±GPI. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http....... METHODS AND RESULTS: In a patient-level pooled analysis from the Harmonizing Outcomes With Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction (HORIZONS-AMI) and European Ambulance Acute Coronary Syndrome Angiography (EUROMAX) trials, we examined 30-day outcomes in 4935 patients undergoing primary...

  2. What doesn't kill you makes you poorer: Adult wages and early-life mortality in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Nicholas; Spears, Dean

    2016-05-01

    A growing literature indicates that effects of early-life health on adult economic outcomes could be substantial in developing countries, but the magnitude of this effect is debated. We document a robust gradient between the early-life mortality environment to which men in India were locally exposed in their district and year of birth and the wages that they earn as adults. A 1 percentage point reduction in infant mortality (or 10 point reduction in IMR) in an infant's district and year of birth is associated with an approximately 2 percent increase in his subsequent adult wages. Consistent with theories and evidence in the literature, we find that the level of schooling chosen for a child does not mediate this association. Because of its consequences for subsequent wages, early-life health could also have considerable fiscal externalities; if so, public health investments could come at very low net present cost. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Serum Phosphate Predicts Early Mortality among Underweight Adults Starting ART in Zambia: A Novel Context for Refeeding Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Koethe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low body mass index (BMI at antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation is associated with early mortality, but the etiology is not well understood. We hypothesized that low pretreatment serum phosphate, a critical cellular metabolism intermediate primarily stored in skeletal muscle, may predict mortality within the first 12 weeks of ART. Methods. We prospectively studied 352 HIV-infected adults initiating ART in Lusaka, Zambia to estimate the odds of death for each 0.1 mmol/L decrease in baseline phosphate after adjusting for established predictors of mortality. Results. The distribution of phosphate values was similar across BMI categories (median value 1.2 mmol/L. Among the 145 participants with BMI <18.5 kg/m2, 28 (19% died within 12 weeks. Lower pretreatment serum phosphate was associated with increased mortality (odds ratio (OR 1.24 per 0.1 mmol/L decrement, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.47; P=0.01 after adjusting for sex, age, and CD4+ lymphocyte count. A similar relationship was not observed among participants with BMI ≥18.5 kg/m2 (OR 0.96, 95% CI: 0.76 to 1.21; P=0.74. Conclusions. The association of low pretreatment serum phosphate level and early ART mortality among undernourished individuals may represent a variant of the refeeding syndrome. Further studies of cellular metabolism in this population are needed.

  4. Geographical Accessibility to Obstetric and Neonatal Care and its Effect on Early Neonatal Mortality in Colombia, 2012-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Rojas Gualdrón

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The distribution of health resources influences early neonatal mortality, granting access to obstetric care which is a major public health problem. However, the geographical dimension of this influence has not been studied in Colombia. Objective: To describe the geographical accessibility to obstetric and neonatal care beds and its association with early neonatal mortality in Colombia and its municipalities. Method:An ecological study at municipal level was carried out. Ordinary least squares (OLS regression and a geographically weighted regression (GWR were used to explore statistical and spatial associations. Results: The municipalities in Colombia with Higher mortality tend to have lower geographical accessibility to obstetric and neonatal beds after controlling the fertility and economic characteristics of these municipalities. This association is significant only in municipalities of the west coast. The strength of this association decreases in inner municipalities. Discussion: The centralization of obstetric and neonatal beds in major municipalities around the central region leaves municipalities with high risk of mortality underserved. The decentralization of obstetric and neonatal healthcare resources is a mandatory issue in order to reduce geographical disparities in mortality and to improve neonatal survival, and a healthy beginning of life.

  5. Life stage differences in mammary gland gene expression profile in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, Petra; Sielker, Sonja; Wood, Charles E; Register, Thomas C; Lees, Cynthia J; Dewi, Fitriya N; Williams, J Koudy; Wagner, Janice D; Stefenelli, Ulrich; Cline, J Mark

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy of women in the developed world. To better understand its pathogenesis, knowledge of normal breast development is crucial, as BC is the result of disregulation of physiologic processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of reproductive life stages on the transcriptional profile of the mammary gland in a primate model. Comparative transcriptomic analyses were carried out using breast tissues from 28 female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) at the following life stages: prepubertal (n = 5), adolescent (n = 4), adult luteal (n = 5), pregnant (n = 6), lactating (n = 3), and postmenopausal (n = 5). Mammary gland RNA was hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip(®) Rhesus Macaque Genome Arrays. Differential gene expression was analyzed using ANOVA and cluster analysis. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed distinct separation of life stage groups. More than 2,225 differentially expressed mRNAs were identified. Gene families or pathways that changed across life stages included those related to estrogen and androgen (ESR1, PGR, TFF1, GREB1, AR, 17HSDB2, 17HSDB7, STS, HSD11B1, AKR1C4), prolactin (PRLR, ELF5, STAT5, CSN1S1), insulin-like growth factor signaling (IGF1, IGFBP1, IGFBP5), extracellular matrix (POSTN, TGFB1, COL5A2, COL12A1, FOXC1, LAMC1, PDGFRA, TGFB2), and differentiation (CD24, CD29, CD44, CD61, ALDH1, BRCA1, FOXA1, POSTN, DICER1, LIG4, KLF4, NOTCH2, RIF1, BMPR1A, TGFB2). Pregnancy and lactation displayed distinct patterns of gene expression. ESR1 and IGF1 were significantly higher in the adolescent compared to the adult animals, whereas differentiation pathways were overrepresented in adult animals and pregnancy-associated life stages. Few individual genes were distinctly different in postmenopausal animals. Our data demonstrate characteristic patterns of gene expression during breast development. Several of the pathways activated during pubertal development have been implicated in cancer

  6. Predictors of early mortality after rabbit antithymocyte globulin as first-line treatment in severe aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Elias H; Lima, Carlos B L; Dias, Danielle S P; Clé, Diego V; Bonduel, Mariana M; Sciuccati, Gabriela B; Medeiros, Larissa A; Oliveira, Michel M; Salvino, Marco A; Garanito, Marlene P; Blum Fonseca, Patricia B; Saad, Sara Teresinha O; Calado, Rodrigo T; Scheinberg, Phillip

    2017-11-01

    Despite being recommended as first-line immunosuppressive therapy in severe aplastic anemia (SAA), horse antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is still unavailable in many countries outside the USA. Rabbit ATG is more lymphocytoxic than horse ATG, and this might result in a higher incidence of severe infections and early mortality. This study was designed to identify the risk factors for early mortality and overall survival (OS) after rabbit ATG in patients with SAA. We retrospectively reviewed 185 patients with SAA who underwent rabbit ATG and cyclosporine. The incidence of death in 3 months following rabbit ATG therapy was 15.1% (28/185). Early mortality was mainly related to infectious complications, despite adequate antibiotic and/or antifungal treatment. Age > 35 years (odds ratio [OR] 5.06, P = 0.001) and baseline absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≤ 0.1 × 10 9 /L (OR 7.64, P  35 years (OR 1.88, P = 0.03), baseline ANC ≤ 0.1 × 10 9 /L (OR 2.65, P < 0.001), and lack of response to rabbit ATG (OR 11.40, P < 0.001) were independently associated with mortality. Alternative strategies are needed for the treatment of SAA patients in countries were horse ATG is unavailable, particularly for those at high risk for early mortality after rabbit ATG due to a higher age and very low pre-treatment neutrophil count.

  7. In silico repositioning-chemogenomics strategy identifies new drugs with potential activity against multiple life stages of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno J Neves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Morbidity and mortality caused by schistosomiasis are serious public health problems in developing countries. Because praziquantel is the only drug in therapeutic use, the risk of drug resistance is a concern. In the search for new schistosomicidal drugs, we performed a target-based chemogenomics screen of a dataset of 2,114 proteins to identify drugs that are approved for clinical use in humans that may be active against multiple life stages of Schistosoma mansoni. Each of these proteins was treated as a potential drug target, and its amino acid sequence was used to interrogate three databases: Therapeutic Target Database (TTD, DrugBank and STITCH. Predicted drug-target interactions were refined using a combination of approaches, including pairwise alignment, conservation state of functional regions and chemical space analysis. To validate our strategy, several drugs previously shown to be active against Schistosoma species were correctly predicted, such as clonazepam, auranofin, nifedipine, and artesunate. We were also able to identify 115 drugs that have not yet been experimentally tested against schistosomes and that require further assessment. Some examples are aprindine, gentamicin, clotrimazole, tetrabenazine, griseofulvin, and cinnarizine. In conclusion, we have developed a systematic and focused computer-aided approach to propose approved drugs that may warrant testing and/or serve as lead compounds for the design of new drugs against schistosomes.

  8. Modelling the beginning and end of a planktonic life stage — the distribution of cod eggs and settled juveniles in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höffle, Hannes; Munk, Peter

    2012-01-01

    distribution of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus), and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). Findings indicated that in the egg stage, the environment is more important for the probability of occurrence, while abundance is more under the control of spatial dependency. Modelling......The North Sea cod stock is close to the southern limit of the species’ range. Therefore, it might be vulnerable to future climate change. Direct as well as indirect effects of climate forcing may have the greatest effects on early life stages. Here we present a study on the distribution of cod...

  9. Serum Phosphate Predicts Early Mortality among Underweight Adults Starting ART in Zambia: A Novel Context for Refeeding Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koethe, John R.; Blevins, Meridith; Nyirenda, Christopher K.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Chiasera, Janelle M.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Zulu, Isaac; Heimburger, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Low body mass index (BMI) at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is associated with early mortality, but the etiology is not well understood. We hypothesized that low pretreatment serum phosphate, a critical cellular metabolism intermediate primarily stored in skeletal muscle, may predict mortality within the first 12 weeks of ART. Methods. We prospectively studied 352 HIV-infected adults initiating ART in Lusaka, Zambia to estimate the odds of death for each 0.1 mmol/L decrease in baseline phosphate after adjusting for established predictors of mortality. Results. The distribution of phosphate values was similar across BMI categories (median value 1.2 mmol/L). Among the 145 participants with BMI refeeding syndrome. Further studies of cellular metabolism in this population are needed. PMID:23691292

  10. Procalcitonin increase in early identification of critically ill patients at high risk of mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ulrik; Heslet, Lars; Jensen, Tom Hartvig

    2006-01-01

    To investigate day-by-day changes in procalcitonin and maximum obtained levels as predictors of mortality in critically ill patients.......To investigate day-by-day changes in procalcitonin and maximum obtained levels as predictors of mortality in critically ill patients....

  11. Early Life Conditions and Trends in Mortality at Later Life: Is There any Relationship?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Amiri (Masoud)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and gastric cancer have fallen during recent decades, especially in developed countries; however, IHD and stroke remain among the top leading causes of death in Europe. Furthermore, wide geographic variations in mortality rates and

  12. Scaling up implementation of ART: Organizational culture and early mortality of patients initiated on ART in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayah, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Scaling up the antiretroviral (ART) program in Kenya has involved a strategy of using clinical guidelines coupled with decentralization of treatment sites. However decentralization pushes clinical responsibility downwards to health facilities run by lower cadre staff. Whether the organizational culture in health facilities affects the outcomes despite the use of clinical guidelines has not been explored. This study aimed to demonstrate the relationship between organizational culture and early mortality and those lost to follow up (LTFU) among patients enrolled for HIV care. A stratified sample of 31 health facilities in Nairobi County offering ART services were surveyed. Data of patients enrolled on ART and LTFU for the 12 months ending 30th June 2013 were abstracted. Mortality and LTFU were determined and used to rank health facilities. In the facilities with the lowest and highest mortality and LTFU key informant interviews were conducted using a tool adapted from team climate assessment measurement questionnaire and competing value framework tool to assess organizational culture. The strength of association between early mortality, LTFU and organizational culture was tested. Half (51.8%) of the 5,808 patients enrolled into care in 31 health facilities over the 12-month study period were started on ART. Of these 48 (1.6% 95% CI 0.8%-2.4%) died within three months of starting treatment, while a further 125 (4.2% 95% CI 2.1%-6.6%) were LTFU giving an attrition rate of 5.7% (95% CI 3.3%-8.6%). Tuberculosis was the most common comorbidity associated with high early mortality and high LTFU. Organizational culture, specifically an adhocratic type was found to be associated with low early mortality and low LTFU of patients enrolled for HIV care (P = 0.034). The use of ART clinical guidelines in a decentralized health systems are not sufficient to achieve required service delivery outcomes. The attrition rate above would mean 85,000 Kenyans missing care based on current

  13. Reducing bias in population and landscape genetic inferences: the effects of sampling related individuals and multiple life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, William; Brocato, Emily R; Semlitsch, Raymond D; Eggert, Lori S

    2016-01-01

    In population or landscape genetics studies, an unbiased sampling scheme is essential for generating accurate results, but logistics may lead to deviations from the sample design. Such deviations may come in the form of sampling multiple life stages. Presently, it is largely unknown what effect sampling different life stages can have on population or landscape genetic inference, or how mixing life stages can affect the parameters being measured. Additionally, the removal of siblings from a data set is considered best-practice, but direct comparisons of inferences made with and without siblings are limited. In this study, we sampled embryos, larvae, and adult Ambystoma maculatum from five ponds in Missouri, and analyzed them at 15 microsatellite loci. We calculated allelic richness, heterozygosity and effective population sizes for each life stage at each pond and tested for genetic differentiation (F ST and D C ) and isolation-by-distance (IBD) among ponds. We tested for differences in each of these measures between life stages, and in a pooled population of all life stages. All calculations were done with and without sibling pairs to assess the effect of sibling removal. We also assessed the effect of reducing the number of microsatellites used to make inference. No statistically significant differences were found among ponds or life stages for any of the population genetic measures, but patterns of IBD differed among life stages. There was significant IBD when using adult samples, but tests using embryos, larvae, or a combination of the three life stages were not significant. We found that increasing the ratio of larval or embryo samples in the analysis of genetic distance weakened the IBD relationship, and when using D C , the IBD was no longer significant when larvae and embryos exceeded 60% of the population sample. Further, power to detect an IBD relationship was reduced when fewer microsatellites were used in the analysis.

  14. Reducing bias in population and landscape genetic inferences: the effects of sampling related individuals and multiple life stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Peterman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In population or landscape genetics studies, an unbiased sampling scheme is essential for generating accurate results, but logistics may lead to deviations from the sample design. Such deviations may come in the form of sampling multiple life stages. Presently, it is largely unknown what effect sampling different life stages can have on population or landscape genetic inference, or how mixing life stages can affect the parameters being measured. Additionally, the removal of siblings from a data set is considered best-practice, but direct comparisons of inferences made with and without siblings are limited. In this study, we sampled embryos, larvae, and adult Ambystoma maculatum from five ponds in Missouri, and analyzed them at 15 microsatellite loci. We calculated allelic richness, heterozygosity and effective population sizes for each life stage at each pond and tested for genetic differentiation (FST and DC and isolation-by-distance (IBD among ponds. We tested for differences in each of these measures between life stages, and in a pooled population of all life stages. All calculations were done with and without sibling pairs to assess the effect of sibling removal. We also assessed the effect of reducing the number of microsatellites used to make inference. No statistically significant differences were found among ponds or life stages for any of the population genetic measures, but patterns of IBD differed among life stages. There was significant IBD when using adult samples, but tests using embryos, larvae, or a combination of the three life stages were not significant. We found that increasing the ratio of larval or embryo samples in the analysis of genetic distance weakened the IBD relationship, and when using DC, the IBD was no longer significant when larvae and embryos exceeded 60% of the population sample. Further, power to detect an IBD relationship was reduced when fewer microsatellites were used in the analysis.

  15. A Human Life-Stage Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Model for Chlorpyrifos: Development and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jordan N.; Hinderliter, Paul M.; Timchalk, Charles; Bartels, M. J.; Poet, Torka S.

    2014-08-01

    Sensitivity to chemicals in animals and humans are known to vary with age. Age-related changes in sensitivity to chlorpyrifos have been reported in animal models. A life-stage physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model was developed to computationally predict disposition of CPF and its metabolites, chlorpyrifos-oxon (the ultimate toxicant) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), as well as B-esterase inhibition by chlorpyrifos-oxon in humans. In this model, age-dependent body weight was calculated from a generalized Gompertz function, and compartments (liver, brain, fat, blood, diaphragm, rapid, and slow) were scaled based on body weight from polynomial functions on a fractional body weight basis. Blood flows among compartments were calculated as a constant flow per compartment volume. The life-stage PBPK/PD model was calibrated and tested against controlled adult human exposure studies. Model simulations suggest age-dependent pharmacokinetics and response may exist. At oral doses ≥ 0.55 mg/kg of chlorpyrifos (significantly higher than environmental exposure levels), 6 mo old children are predicted to have higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and higher levels of red blood cell cholinesterase inhibition compared to adults from equivalent oral doses of chlorpyrifos. At lower doses that are more relevant to environmental exposures, the model predicts that adults will have slightly higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and greater cholinesterase inhibition. This model provides a computational framework for age-comparative simulations that can be utilized to predict CPF disposition and biological response over various postnatal life-stages.

  16. The mortality experience of early old-age and disability pensioners from unskilled - and semiskilled labour groups in Fredericia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Jeune, B

    1980-01-01

    Survival of early old-age and disability pensioners from unskilled and semiskilled labourers was compared with the employed workers from the same local trade union. All members receiving early old-age or disability pensions during the period October 1, 1969 to September 30, 1973 were assigned...... to the index group provided they were still alive September 30, 1973. 2 active workers were selected as controls for each pensioner according to the closest age match. The pensioners had about 7 times higher mortality risk than their active fellow workers in the follow-up period from September 30, 1973...

  17. Risk factors for and impact of respiratory failure on mortality in the early phase of acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Tilde; Kristensen, Marlene Østermark; Rysgaard, Sisse

    2016-01-01

    : Retrospective cohort study including 359 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis. Information was gathered from electronic patient records. We defined respiratory failure based on the modified Marshall scoring system in the revised Atlanta criteria. Predictors of respiratory failure were evaluated......, or pneumonia may develop respiratory failure, suggests that acute lung injury, possibly associated with systemic inflammation, may be important.......BACKGROUND: The incidence of respiratory failure and other respiratory complications in the early phase of acute pancreatitis (AP) is not well investigated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of respiratory failure, and its impact on mortality in the early phase AP. METHODS...

  18. Age-related inequalities in health and healthcare: the life stages approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker, Nancy S

    2017-05-16

    How should healthcare systems prepare to care for growing numbers and proportions of older people? Older people generally suffer worse health than younger people do. Should societies take steps to reduce age-related health inequalities? Some express concern that doing so would increase age-related inequalities in healthcare. This paper addresses this debate by (1) presenting an argument in support of three principles for distributing scarce resources between age groups; (2) framing these principles of age group justice in terms of life stages; and (3) indicating policy implications that merit further attention in light of rapidly aging societies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Tree rings provide early warning signals of jack pine mortality across a moisture gradient in the southern boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamet, S. D.; Chun, K. P.; Metsaranta, J. M.; Barr, A. G.; Johnstone, J. F.

    2015-08-01

    Recent declines in productivity and tree survival have been widely observed in boreal forests. We used early warning signals (EWS) in tree ring data to anticipate premature mortality in jack pine (Pinus banksiana)—an extensive and dominant species occurring across the moisture-limited southern boreal forest in North America. We sampled tree rings from 113 living and 84 dead trees in three soil moisture regimes (subxeric, submesic, subhygric) in central Saskatchewan, Canada. We reconstructed annual increments of tree basal area to investigate (1) whether we could detect EWS related to mortality of individual trees, and (2) how water availability and tree growth history may explain the mortality warning signs. EWS were evident as punctuated changes in growth patterns prior to transition to an alternative state of reduced growth before dying. This transition was likely triggered by a combination of severe drought and insect outbreak. Higher moisture availability associated with a soil moisture gradient did not appear to reduce tree sensitivity to stress-induced mortality. Our results suggest tree rings offer considerable potential for detecting critical transitions in tree growth, which are linked to premature mortality.

  20. Severely Elevated Blood Pressure and Early Mortality in Children with Traumatic Brain Injuries: The Neglected End of the Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M Austin; Borgman, Matthew A; Cannon, Jeremy W; Kuppermann, Nathan; Neff, Lucas P

    2018-05-01

    In adults with traumatic brain injuries (TBI), hypotension and hypertension at presentation are associated with mortality. The effect of age-adjusted blood pressure in children with TBI has been insufficiently studied. We sought to determine if age-adjusted hypertension in children with severe TBI is associated with mortality. This was a retrospective analysis of the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DoDTR) between 2001 and 2013. We included for analysis patients children >10 years or children ≤10 years. We performed multivariable logistic regression and Cox regression to determine if BP categories were associated with mortality. Of 4,990 children included in the DoDTR, 740 met criteria for analysis. Fifty patients (6.8%) were hypotensive upon arrival to the ED, 385 (52.0%) were normotensive, 115 (15.5%) had moderate hypertension, and 190 (25.7%) had severe hypertension. When compared to normotensive patients, moderate and severe hypertension patients had similar Injury Severity Scores, similar AIS head scores, and similar frequencies of neurosurgical procedures. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that hypotension (odd ratio [OR] 2.85, 95 confidence interval [CI] 1.26-6.47) and severe hypertension (OR 2.58, 95 CI 1.32-5.03) were associated with increased 24-hour mortality. Neither hypotension (Hazard ratio (HR) 1.52, 95 CI 0.74-3.11) nor severe hypertension (HR 1.65, 95 CI 0.65-2.30) was associated with time to mortality. Pediatric age-adjusted hypertension is frequent after severe TBI. Severe hypertension is strongly associated with 24-hour mortality. Pediatric age-adjusted blood pressure needs to be further evaluated as a critical marker of early mortality.

  1. Severely Elevated Blood Pressure and Early Mortality in Children with Traumatic Brain Injuries: The Neglected End of the Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Borgman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In adults with traumatic brain injuries (TBI, hypotension and hypertension at presentation are associated with mortality. The effect of age-adjusted blood pressure in children with TBI has been insufficiently studied. We sought to determine if age-adjusted hypertension in children with severe TBI is associated with mortality. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DoDTR between 2001 and 2013. We included for analysis patients 10 years or < 70mmHg + (2 × age for children ≤10 years. We performed multivariable logistic regression and Cox regression to determine if BP categories were associated with mortality. Results: Of 4,990 children included in the DoDTR, 740 met criteria for analysis. Fifty patients (6.8% were hypotensive upon arrival to the ED, 385 (52.0% were normotensive, 115 (15.5% had moderate hypertension, and 190 (25.7% had severe hypertension. When compared to normotensive patients, moderate and severe hypertension patients had similar Injury Severity Scores, similar AIS head scores, and similar frequencies of neurosurgical procedures. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that hypotension (odd ratio [OR] 2.85, 95 confidence interval [CI] 1.26–6.47 and severe hypertension (OR 2.58, 95 CI 1.32–5.03 were associated with increased 24-hour mortality. Neither hypotension (Hazard ratio (HR 1.52, 95 CI 0.74–3.11 nor severe hypertension (HR 1.65, 95 CI 0.65–2.30 was associated with time to mortality. Conclusion: Pediatric age-adjusted hypertension is frequent after severe TBI. Severe hypertension is strongly associated with 24-hour mortality. Pediatric age-adjusted blood pressure needs to be further evaluated as a critical marker of early mortality.

  2. Comparison of early thallium-201 scintigraphy and gated blood pool imaging for predicting mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, L.C.; Silverman, K.J.; Bulkley, B.H.; Kallman, C.H.; Mellits, E.D.; Weisfeldt, M.

    1983-01-01

    The extent of abnormality in early thallium-201 and gated cardiac blood pool scintigrams has been reported to be useful for predicting mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). To compare the two techniques, 91 patients admitted consecutively with evident or strongly suspected AMI underwent both imaging studies within 15 hours of the onset of symptoms. Patients with pulmonary edema or shock were excluded. AMI developed in 84% of patients, and 6-month mortality for the entire group was 16%. A thallium defect score of 7.0 or greater identified a subgroup of 14 patients with 64% 6-month mortality rate. Similarly, a left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or less identified a high-risk subgroup of 10 patients with a 6-month mortality of 60%. Mortality in the remaining patients was 8% for thallium score less than 7 and 11% for ejection fraction greater than 35%. The mortality rate was highest among patients who had concordant high-risk scintigrams (five of six, 83%), lowest in those with concordant low-risk studies (five of 64, 8%) and intermediate in those with discordant results (four of 11, 36%). Of a number of clinical variables, only the appearance of Q waves, peak creatine kinase greater than 1000 IU/I, and history of infarction were significantly associated with mortality. High-risk thallium or blood pool scintigraphic results were significantly more predictive and a thallium score of 7 or greater was more sensitive for detecting nonsurvivors than ejection fraction 35% or less at a similar level of specificity

  3. RISK FACTORS FOR THE EARLY NEONATAL MORTALITY IN NEWBORNS WITH VERY LOW AND EXTREMELY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Lebedeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim was to assess the association of perinatal factors with the early neonatal mortality in newborns with very low (VLBW and extremely low birth weight (ELBW.Methods: The statistical data was carried out, that is analysis of 17 perinatal factors of 28 newborns with an ELBW with gestation of 23–27 weeks and 18 newborns with a VLBW with gestation of 28–32 weeks, who died in the first 7 days of life. The comparison group consisted of 25 newborns with an ELBW and 56 children with a VLBW with gestation of 25–27 and 28–32 weeks, respectively, who survived the early neonatal period. The association of risk factors with the early neonatal mortality was assessed by means of a multiple-factor logistic regression analysis. A critical p error level was set equal to 0.05. Results: In newborns with a VLBW the increased risk of the early neonatal mortality depended on a gestation term (OR 4.40, 95% CI 1.56–11.71; р = 0.002 and emergency Caesarean section (OR 7.48, 95% CI 1.28–43.74; р = 0.008. A vaginal birth increased the survival chance (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.01–0.86; р = 0.032. Newborns with an ELBW had the following factors of the increased risk of the early neonatal mortality: gestational age (OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.06–7.73; р = 0.038, Apgar score at the 5th minute (OR 1.91, 95% CI 0.99–3.69; р = 0.050 and presence of chorioamnionitis (OR 5.45, 95% CI 1.0–29.53; p = 0.048. An elective Caesarean section increased the survival chance (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.001–0.44; p = 0.048. Conclusion: Summarizing the obtained data, we can conclude that besides a gestational age the risk of early neonatal mortality in newborns with a VLBW may be increased due to the emergency Caesarean section, with an ELBW — due to a low Apgar score at the 5th minute and the presence of mother's chorioamnionitis. A vaginal birth in newborns with a VLBW and an elective Caesarean section in children with an ELBW increase survival chances.

  4. Early postoperative mortality following cholecystectomy in the entire female population of Denmark, 1977-1981

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredesen, J; Jørgensen, T; Andersen, T F

    1992-01-01

    to women who had a simple hysterectomy. The mortality was significantly higher than in the general female population (p less than 0.05). Increased age, acute admission, admissions to hospital within 3 months prior to the index admission, the number of discharge diagnoses, and the geographical region were...... significantly associated with increased mortality. Exploration of the common bile duct was associated with higher mortality in the bivariate analysis, but the association disappeared when the number of discharge diagnoses was taken into account. Type of hospital and the population based cholecystectomy rate...

  5. Fatores de risco para mortalidade neonatal precoce Risk factors for early neonatal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Schoeps

    2007-12-01

    assess risk factors for early neonatal mortality. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was carried out with 146 early neonatal deaths and a sample of 313 controls obtained among survivals of the neonate period in the south region of the city of São Paulo, in the period of 8/1/2000 to 1/31/2001. Information was obtained through home interviews and hospital charts. Hierarchical assessment was performed in five groups with the following characteristics 1 socioeconomic conditions of mothers and families, 2 maternal psychosocial conditions, 3 obstetrical history and biological characteristics of mothers, 4 delivery conditions, 5 conditions of newborns RESULTS: Risk factors for early neonate mortality were: Group 1: poor education of household head (OR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.1;2.6, household located in a slum area (OR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.2;3.5 with up to one room (OR=2.2; 95% CI: 1.1;4.2; Group 2: mothers in recent union (OR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.0;4.2, unmarried mothers (OR=1.8; 95% CI: 1.1;3.0, and presence of domestic violence (OR=2.7; 95% CI: 1;6.5; Group 3: presence of complications in pregnancy (OR=8.2; 95% CI: 5.0;13.5, previous low birth weight (OR=2.4; 95% CI: 1.2;4.5, absence of pre-natal care (OR=16.1; 95% CI: 4.7;55.4, and inadequate pre-natal care (block 3 (OR=2.1; 95% CI: 2.0;3.5; Group 4: presence of clinical problems during delivery (OR=2.9; 95% CI: 1.4;5.1, mothers who went to hospital in ambulances (OR=3.8; 95% CI: 1.4;10.7; Group 5: low birth weight (OR=17.3; 95% CI: 8.4;35.6 and preterm live births (OR=8.8; 95% CI: 4.3;17.8. CONCLUSIONS: Additionally to proximal factors (low birth weight, preterm gestations, labor complications and unfavorable clinical conditions in gestation, the variables expressing social exclusion and presence of psychosocial factors were also identified. This context may affect the development of gestation and hinder the access of women to health services. Adequate prenatal care could minimize the effect of these variables.

  6. Is a sedentary lifestyle an independent predictor for hospital and early mortality after elective cardiac surgery?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noyez, L.; Biemans, I.; Verkroost, M.W.; Swieten, H.A. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates whether a sedentary lifestyle is an independent predictor for increased mortality after elective cardiac surgery. METHODS: Three thousand one hundred fifty patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery between January 2007 and June 2012 completed preoperatively the

  7. Determination of Partition coefficients for a Mixture of Volatile Organic Compounds in Rats and Humans at Different Life Stages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahle, Deidre A; Gearhart, Jeffrey M; Godfrey, Richard J; Mattie, David R; Cook, Robert S; Grisby, Claude C

    2004-01-01

    .... Partition coefficients (PCs) are an integral component of pharmacokinetic models and determining differences in tissue partitioning of volatile organic chemicals across life stages can help reduce the uncertainty in risk assessment...

  8. Geographic divergence in upper thermal limits across insect life stages: does behavior matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Heidi J; Higgins, Jessica K; Buckley, Lauren B; Kingsolver, Joel G

    2016-05-01

    Insects with complex life cycles vary in size, mobility, and thermal ecology across life stages. We examine how differences in the capacity for thermoregulatory behavior influence geographic differences in physiological heat tolerance among egg and adult Colias butterflies. Colias adults exhibit differences in morphology (wing melanin and thoracic setal length) along spatial gradients, whereas eggs are morphologically indistinguishable. Here we compare Colias eriphyle eggs and adults from two elevations and Colias meadii from a high elevation. Hatching success and egg development time of C. eriphyle eggs did not differ significantly with the elevation of origin. Egg survival declined in response to heat-shock temperatures above 38-40 °C and egg development time was shortest at intermediate heat-shock temperatures of 33-38 °C. Laboratory experiments with adults showed survival in response to heat shock was significantly greater for Colias from higher than from lower elevation sites. Common-garden experiments at the low-elevation field site showed that C. meadii adults initiated heat-avoidance and over-heating behaviors significantly earlier in the day than C. eriphyle. Our study demonstrates the importance of examining thermal tolerances across life stages. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that thermoregulatory behavior inhibits the geographic divergence of physiological traits in mobile stages, and suggest that sessile stages may evolve similar heat tolerances in different environments due to microclimatic variability or evolutionary constraints.

  9. A comparison of Frost expression among species and life stages of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, X; Zhang, J; Sinclair, Brent J

    2012-02-01

    Frost (Fst) is a gene associated with cold exposure in Drosophila melanogaster. We used real-time PCR to assess whether cold exposure induces expression of Fst in 10 different life stages of D. melanogaster, and adults of seven other Drosophila species. We exposed groups of individuals to 0 °C (2 h), followed by 1 h recovery (22 °C). Frost was significantly upregulated in response to cold in eggs, third instar larvae, and 2- and 5-day-old male and female adults in D. melanogaster. Life stages in which cold did not upregulate Fst had high constitutive expression. Frost is located on the opposite strand of an intron of Diuretic hormone (DH), but cold exposure did not upregulate DH. Frost orthologues were identified in six other species within the Melanogaster group (Drosophila sechellia, Drosophila simulans, Drosophila yakuba, Drosophila erecta, Drosophila ananassae and Drosophila mauritiana). Frost orthologues were upregulated in response to cold exposure in both sexes in adults of all of these species. The predicted structure of a putative Frost consensus protein shows highly conserved tandem repeats of motifs involved in cell signalling (PEST and TRAF2), suggesting that Fst might encode an adaptor protein involved in acute stress or apoptosis signalling in vivo. © 2011 The Authors. Insect Molecular Biology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Acute toxic effects of endosulfan sulfate on three life stages of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Venturella, John J; Shaddrick, Brian; Fulton, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, the primary degradation product of the insecticide endosulfan, was determined in three life stages of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). After 96 h exposure to endosulfan sulfate, the grass shrimp adult LC50 was 0.86 microg/L (95% CI 0.56-1.31), the grass shrimp larvae LC50 was 1.64 microg/L (95% CI 1.09-2.47) and the grass shrimp embryo LC50 was 45.85 microg/L (95% CI 23.72-88.61 microg/L). This was compared to the previously published grass shrimp 96-h LC50s for endosulfan. The toxicity of the two compounds was similar for the grass shrimp life stages with adults more sensitive than larvae and embryos. The presence of sediment in 24h endosulfan sulfate-exposures raised LC50s for both adult and larval grass shrimp but not significantly. The USEPA expected environmental concentrations (EEC) for total endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate and the calculations of risk quotients (RQ) based on the more sensitive adult grass shrimp 96-h LC50 clearly show that environmental concentrations equal to acute EECs would prove detrimental to grass shrimp or other similarly sensitive aquatic organisms. These results indicate that given the persistence and toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, future risk assessments should consider the toxicity potential of the parent compound as well as this degradation product.

  11. Inbreeding depression in an insect with maternal care: influences of family interactions, life stage and offspring sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, J; Kölliker, M

    2013-10-01

    Although inbreeding is commonly known to depress individual fitness, the severity of inbreeding depression varies considerably across species. Among the factors contributing to this variation, family interactions, life stage and sex of offspring have been proposed, but their joint influence on inbreeding depression remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that these three factors jointly shape inbreeding depression in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia. Using a series of cross-breeding, split-clutch and brood size manipulation experiments conducted over two generations, we first showed that sib mating (leading to inbred offspring) did not influence the reproductive success of earwig parents. Second, the presence of tending mothers and the strength of sibling competition (i.e. brood size) did not influence the expression of inbreeding depression in the inbred offspring. By contrast, our results revealed that inbreeding dramatically depressed the reproductive success of inbred adult male offspring, but only had little effect on the reproductive success of inbred adult female offspring. Overall, this study demonstrates limited effects of family interactions on inbreeding depression in this species and emphasizes the importance of disentangling effects of sib mating early and late during development to better understand the evolution of mating systems and population dynamics. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Detangling the Effects of Environmental Filtering and Dispersal Limitation on Aggregated Distributions of Tree and Shrub Species: Life Stage Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He-Ming; Wang, Zhang-Hua; Ma, Zun-Ping; Fang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The pervasive pattern of aggregated tree distributions in natural communities is commonly explained by the joint effect of two clustering processes: environmental filtering and dispersal limitation, yet little consensus remains on the relative importance of the two clustering processes on tree aggregations. Different life stages of examined species were thought to be one possible explanation of this disagreement, because the effect of environmental filtering and dispersal limitation are expected to increase and decrease with tree life stages, respectively. However, few studies have explicitly tested these expectations. In this study, we evaluated these expectations by three different methods (species-habitat association test based on Poisson Clustering model and spatial point pattern analyses based on Heterogeneous Poisson model and the jointly modeling approach) using 36 species in a 20-ha subtropical forest plot. Our results showed that the percentage of species with significant habitat association increased with life stages, and there were fewer species affected by dispersal limitation in later life stages compared with those in earlier stages. Percentage of variance explained by the environmental filtering and dispersal limitation also increases and decreases with life stages. These results provided a promising alternative explanation on the existing mixed results about the relative importance of the two clustering processes. These findings also highlighted the importance of plant life stages for fully understanding species distributions and species coexistence. PMID:27227538

  13. Early mortality after neonatal surgery: analysis of risk factors in an optimized health care system for the surgical newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Catré

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Anesthetic and operative interventions in neonates remain hazardous procedures, given the vulnerability of the patients in this pediatric population. The aim was to determine the preoperative and intraoperative factors associated with 30-day post-operative mortality and describe mortality outcomes following neonatal surgery under general anesthesia in our center. METHODS: Infants less than 28 days of age who underwent general anesthesia for surgery during an 11-year period (2000 - 2010 in our tertiary care pediatric center were retrospectively identified using the pediatric intensive care unit database. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify independent preoperative and intraoperative factors associated with 30-day post-operative mortality. RESULTS: Of the 437 infants in the study (median gestational age at birth 37 weeks, median birth weight 2,760 grams, 28 (6.4% patients died before hospital discharge. Of these, 22 patients died within the first post-operative month. Logistic regression analysis showed increased odds of 30-day post-operative mortality among patients who presented American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA score 3 or above (odds ratio 19.268; 95%CI 2.523 - 147.132 and surgery for necrotizing enterocolitis/gastrointestinal perforation (OR 5.291; 95%CI 1.962 - 14.266, compared to those who did not. CONCLUSION: The overall in-hospital mortality of 6.4% is within the prevalence reported for developed countries. Establishing ASA score 3 or above and necrotizing enterocolitis/gastrointestinal perforation as independent risk factors for early mortality in neonatal surgery may help clinicians to more adequately manage this high risk population.

  14. Identifying important life stages for monitoring and assessing risks from exposures to environmental contaminants: results of a World Health Organization review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Hubal, Elaine A; de Wet, Thea; Du Toit, Lilo; Firestone, Michael P; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; van Engelen, Jacqueline; Vickers, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we summarize exposure-related issues to consider in determining the most appropriate age ranges and life stages for risk assessment. We then propose a harmonized set of age bins for monitoring and assessing risks from exposures to chemicals for global use. The focus is on preconception through adolescence, though the approach should be applicable to additional life stages. A two-tiered set of early life age groups is recommended. The first tier involves the adoption of guidance similar to the childhood age groups recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, whereas the second tier consolidates some of those age groups to reduce the burden of developing age-specific exposure factors for different regions. While there is no single "correct" means of choosing a common set of age groups to use internationally in assessing early life exposure and risk, use of a set of defined age groups is recommended to facilitate comparisons of potential exposures and risks around the globe, the collection of data and analyses of aggregate exposure and cumulative risk. Application of these age groups for robust assessment of exposure and risk for specific populations will require region-specific exposure factors as well as local environmental monitoring data. Copyright © 2013 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Early kit mortality and growth in farmed mink are affected by litter size rather than nest climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, T M; Malmkvist, J

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the effects of nest box climate on early mink kit mortality and growth. We hypothesised that litters in warm nest boxes experience less hypothermia-induced mortality and higher growth rates during the 1st week of life. This study included data from 749, 1-year-old breeding dams with access to nesting materials. Kits were weighed on days 1 and 7, dead kits were collected daily from birth until day 7 after birth, and nest climate was measured continuously from days 1 to 6. We tested the influences of the following daily temperature (T) and humidity (H) parameters on the number of live-born kit deaths and kit growth: T mean, T min, T max, T var (fluctuation) and H mean. The nest microclimate experienced by the kits was buffered against the ambient climate, with higher temperatures and reduced climate fluctuation. Most (77.0%) live-born kit deaths in the 1st week occurred on days 0 and 1. Seven of 15 climate parameters on days 1 to 3 had significant effects on live-born kit mortality. However, conflicting effects among days, marginal effects and late effects indicated that climate was not the primary cause of kit mortality. Five of 30 climate parameters had significant effects on kit growth. Few and conflicting effects indicated that the climate effect on growth was negligible. One exception was that large nest temperature fluctuations on day 1 were associated with reduced deaths of live-born kit (P<0.001) and increased kit growth (P=0.003). Litter size affected kit vitality; larger total litter size at birth was associated with greater risks of kit death (P<0.001) and reduced growth (P<0.001). The number of living kits in litters had the opposite effect, as kits in large liveborn litters had a reduced risk of death (P<0.001) and those with large mean litter size on days 1 to 7 had increased growth (P=0.026). Nest box temperature had little effect on early kit survival and growth, which could be due to dams' additional maternal behaviour. Therefore, we

  16. The early IL-6 and IL-10 response in trauma is correlated with injury severity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, J; Christiansen, M; Tønnesen, E

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trauma has previously been shown to influence interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 levels, but the association of injury severity and mortality with IL-6 and IL-10 responses in the early phase of accidental trauma remains to be investigated. We wished to describe serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10...... in the first 24 h after trauma and to assess the relationship with severity of injury and mortality. METHODS: Prospective, descriptive cohort study in a Level 1 trauma centre, Copenhagen, Denmark. We included 265 consecutive adult trauma patients admitted directly from the accident scene during an 18-month...... period. Serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were measured upon arrival and at 6, 12, and 24 h after admittance using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between Injury Severity Score (ISS) and levels of IL-6 and IL-10. Analysis of variance was used...

  17. Childhood socioeconomic position and cause-specific mortality in early adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strand, Bjørn Heine; Kunst, Anton

    2007-01-01

    There is growing evidence that childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) influences adult health. The authors' aim was to describe the association between childhood SEP measures (parents' education, occupation, and income) and mortality, for both genders, and to assess to what extent this association

  18. Childhood socioeconomic position and cause-specific mortality in early adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.H. Strand; A.E. Kunst (Anton)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThere is growing evidence that childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) influences adult health. The authors' aim was to describe the association between childhood SEP measures (parents' education, occupation, and income) and mortality, for both genders, and to assess to what extent this

  19. Air Quality and Early-Life Mortality: Evidence from Indonesia's Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, Seema

    2009-01-01

    Smoke from massive wildfires blanketed Indonesia in late 1997. This paper examines the impact that this air pollution (particulate matter) had on fetal, infant, and child mortality. Exploiting the sharp timing and spatial patterns of the pollution and inferring deaths from "missing children" in the 2000 Indonesian Census, I find that the…

  20. Small valve area index: its influence on early mortality after mitral valve replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdanbakhsh, A. P.; van den Brink, R. B.; Dekker, Egbert; de Mol, B. A.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that mitral valve prosthesis-patient mismatch increases postoperative mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effect of mitral valve prosthesis-patient mismatch on survival in a cohort of consecutive patients after mitral valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis

  1. Effect of revaccination with BCG in early childhood on mortality: randomised trial in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, A.E.; Benn, Christine Stabell; Ravn, H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether BCG revaccination at 19 months of age reduces overall child mortality. Design Randomised trial, with follow-up to age 5. Setting A health project in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, which maintains a health and demographic surveillance system in an urban area with 90 000 inha...

  2. Myocardial revascularization with coronary endarterectomy. Stratification of risk factors for early mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atik Fernando Antibas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factors for mortality related to myocardial revascularization when performed in association with coronary endarterectomy. METHODS: We assessed retrospectively 353 patients who underwent 373 coronary endarterectomies between January '89 and November '98, representing 3.73% of the myocardial revascularizations in this period of time. The arteries involved were as follows: right coronary artery in 218 patients (58.45%; left anterior descending in 102 patients (27.35%; circumflex artery in 39 patients (10.46%; and diagonal artery in 14 patients (3.74%. We used 320 (85.79% venous grafts and 53 (14.21% arterial grafts. RESULTS: In-hospital mortality among our patients was 9.3% as compared with 5.7% in patients with myocardial revascularizations without endarterectomy (p=0.003. Cause of death was related to acute myocardial infarction in 18 (54.55% patients. The most significant risk factors for mortality identified were as follows: diabetes mellitus (p=0.001; odds ratio =7.168, left main disease (<0.001; 9.283, female sex (0.01; 3.111, acute myocardial infarction (0.02; 3.546, ejection fraction <35% (<0.001; 5.89, and previous myocardial revascularization (<0.001; 4.295. CONCLUSION: Coronary endarterectomy is related to higher mortality, and the risk factors involved are important elements of a poor outcome.

  3. Facility-based delivery and maternal and early neonatal mortality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    One of the most important ways to address some of the key factors ... services, facility-based delivery, facility delivery, institutional delivery ..... Percent of women reporting delivering in a health facility. Quintile* ranking of facility- based delivery. Maternal. Mortality. Ration. (MMR) per. 1000 Live. Births. African. MMR quintile*.

  4. Cardiovascular morbidity and early mortality cluster in parents of type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, L; Rossing, P; Nielsen, F S

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A familial predisposition was proposed to be a determinant of the increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. The insertion allele of an insertion/deletion polymorphism in the ACE (ACE/ID) gene seems to protect ag...

  5. Mapping hardwood mortality for the early detection of P. ramorum: an assessment of aerial surveys and object-oriented image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik Haunreiter; Zhanfeng Liu; Jeff Mai; Zachary Heath; Lisa Fischer

    2008-01-01

    Effective monitoring and identification of areas of hardwood mortality is a critical component in the management of sudden oak death (SOD). From 2001 to 2005, aerial surveys covering 13.5 million acres in California were conducted to map and monitor hardwood mortality for the early detection of Phytophthora ramorum, the pathogen responsible for SOD....

  6. Donor life stage influences juvenile American eel Anguilla rostrata attraction to conspecific chemical cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Schmucker, Andrew K.; Johnson, Nicholas; Hansen, Michael J.; Li, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the potential role of conspecific chemical cues in inland juvenile American eel Anguilla rostrata migrations by assessing glass eel and 1 year old elver affinities to elver washings, and elver affinity to adult yellow eel washings. In two-choice maze assays, glass eels were attracted to elver washings, but elvers were neither attracted to nor repulsed by multiple concentrations of elver washings or to yellow eel washings. These results suggest that A. rostrata responses to chemical cues may be life-stage dependent and that glass eels moving inland may use the odour of the previous year class as information to guide migration. The role of chemical cues and olfaction in eel migrations warrants further investigation as a potential restoration tool.

  7. Feeling connected to younger versus older selves: the asymmetric impact of life stage orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The concept of life-stage orientation is proposed. Youth is a period of time characterised by strong feelings and emotions, but weak reasoning and cognitive skill. Conversely, adulthood is characterised by strong rationality, but weak emotionality. Two studies revealed that merely bringing these concepts to mind changes real-time feelings and behaviour. Participants who were instructed to act like their "adult" selves exhibited greater self-control in a cold pressor test than control participants and those who acted like their "youth" selves (Experiment 1). However, being induced to feel connected to youth enhanced enjoyment for fun videos (Experiment 2). Hence, the extent to which people are oriented towards youth versus adulthood has asymmetric costs and benefits for the present. Connecting to youth boosts experiential capacities (in this case, enjoying oneself) at the cost of agency, whereas connecting to adulthood boosts agentic capacities (in this case, exerting will-power) at the cost of experience.

  8. Effect of revaccination with BCG in early childhood on mortality: randomised trial in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Adam Edvin; Benn, Christine Stabell; Ravn, Henrik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida Maria; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Whittle, Hilton; Aaby, Peter

    2010-03-15

    To determine whether BCG revaccination at 19 months of age reduces overall child mortality. Randomised trial, with follow-up to age 5. A health project in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, which maintains a health and demographic surveillance system in an urban area with 90 000 inhabitants. 2871 children aged 19 months to 5 years with low or no reactivity to tuberculin and who were not severely sick on the day of enrollment. BCG vaccination or no vaccination (control). Hazard ratios for mortality. 77 children died during follow-up. Compared with controls, the BCG revaccinated children had a hazard ratio of 1.20 (95% confidence interval 0.77 to 1.89). Two hundred and fifty children were admitted to hospital for the first time between enrollment and the end of the study, with an incidence rate ratio for BCG revaccinated children versus controls of 1.04 (0.81 to 1.33). The trial was stopped prematurely because of a cluster of deaths in the BCG arm of the study. This increase in mortality occurred at a time when many children had received missing vaccinations or vitamin A or iron supplementation; the hazard ratio for BCG revaccinated children compared with controls was 2.69 (1.05 to 6.88) in the period after these campaigns. Throughout the trial, the effect of BCG revaccination on mortality was significantly different (P=0.006) in children who had received diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) booster vaccination before enrollment (hazard ratio 0.36, 0.13 to 0.99) and children who had not received the booster before enrollment (1.78, 1.04 to 3.04). There was no overall beneficial effect of being revaccinated with BCG. The effect of BCG revaccination on mortality might depend on other health interventions. Trial registration Clinical Trials ICA4-CT-2002-10053-REVAC.

  9. Development of PBPK models for PFOA and PFOS for human pregnancy and lactation life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loccisano, Anne E; Longnecker, Matthew P; Campbell, Jerry L; Andersen, Melvin E; Clewell, Harvey J

    2013-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acid carboxylates and sulfonates (PFAA) have many consumer and industrial applications. Developmental toxicity studies in animals have raised concern about potential reproductive/developmental effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); however, in humans conflicting results have been reported for associations between maternal PFAA levels and these outcomes. Risk assessments and interpretation of available human data during gestation and lactation are hindered due to lack of a framework for understanding and estimating maternal, fetal, and neonatal pharmacokinetics (PK). Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models were developed for PFOA and PFOS for the gestation and lactation life stages in humans to understand how the physiological changes associated with development affect pharmacokinetics of these compounds in the mother, fetus, and infant. These models were derived from PBPK models for PFOA/PFOS that were previously developed for adult humans and rats during gestation and lactation and from existing human pregnancy and lactation models developed for other chemicals. The models simulated PFOA and PFOS concentrations in fetal, infant, and maternal plasma and milk, were compared to available data in humans, and also were used to estimate maternal exposure. The models reported here identified several research needs, which include (1) the identification of transporters involved in renal resorption to explain the multiyear half-lives of these compounds in humans, (2) factors affecting clearance of PFOA/PFOS during gestation and lactation, and (3) data to estimate clearance of PFOA/PFOS in infants. These models may help address concerns regarding possible adverse health effects due to PFOA/PFOS exposure in the fetus and infant and may be useful in comparing pharmacokinetics across life stages.

  10. Life-stage-associated remodelling of lipid metabolism regulation in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Gareth; Harvey, Thomas N; Gjuvsland, Arne; Jin, Yang; Thomassen, Magny; Lien, Sigbjørn; Leaver, Michael; Torgersen, Jacob S; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Vik, Jon Olav; Sandve, Simen R

    2018-03-01

    Atlantic salmon migrates from rivers to sea to feed, grow and develop gonads before returning to spawn in freshwater. The transition to marine habitats is associated with dramatic changes in the environment, including water salinity, exposure to pathogens and shift in dietary lipid availability. Many changes in physiology and metabolism occur across this life-stage transition, but little is known about the molecular nature of these changes. Here, we use a long-term feeding experiment to study transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism in Atlantic salmon gut and liver in both fresh- and saltwater. We find that lipid metabolism becomes significantly less plastic to differences in dietary lipid composition when salmon transitions to saltwater and experiences increased dietary lipid availability. Expression of genes in liver relating to lipogenesis and lipid transport decreases overall and becomes less responsive to diet, while genes for lipid uptake in gut become more highly expressed. Finally, analyses of evolutionary consequences of the salmonid-specific whole-genome duplication on lipid metabolism reveal several pathways with significantly different (p < .05) duplicate retention or duplicate regulatory conservation. We also find a limited number of cases where the whole-genome duplication has resulted in an increased gene dosage. In conclusion, we find variable and pathway-specific effects of the salmonid genome duplication on lipid metabolism genes. A clear life-stage-associated shift in lipid metabolism regulation is evident, and we hypothesize this to be, at least partly, driven by nondietary factors such as the preparatory remodelling of gene regulation and physiology prior to sea migration. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Changes in smoking behaviour among young women over life stage transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Liane; Dobson, Annette; Russell, Anne

    2004-08-01

    To examine changes in smoking behaviour among young women over four life stages: leaving home; employment or attending college or university; marriage; and parenthood. Young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health completed postal questionnaires in 1996 and 2000. Unmarried women who moved out of their parents' home between 1996 and 2000 had higher odds of adopting smoking than those who had not lived with their parents at either time (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.6). Married women had lower odds of resuming smoking after quitting (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7) than unmarried women. Women who were pregnant in 2000 had higher odds of quitting smoking (OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5-5.6) and women who were pregnant in 1996 and not in 2000 had higher odds of starting to smoke again (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.6-6.2) than women who were not pregnant. The odds of being a current smoker or adopting smoking were significantly greater for women who binge drank alcohol or used cannabis and other illicit drugs. Adoption, maintenance and cessation of smoking among young women is strongly related to major life stage transitions, illicit drug use and alcohol consumption. Life changes such as marriage and actual or contemplated pregnancy provide opportunities for targeted interventions to help women quit smoking and not relapse after having a baby. Legislation to control smoking on licensed premises would reduce the social pressure on women to smoke.

  12. Early-onset preeclampsia is associated with perinatal mortality and severe neonatal morbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, J.J.A. van; Heijst, A.F. van; Haan, A.F.J. de; Heijden, O.W.H. van der

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate neonatal outcomes of pregnancies complicated by early-onset preeclampsia (PE) and compare these outcomes to those of gestational age matched neonates born to mothers whose pregnancy was not complicated by early-onset PE. METHODS: We analyzed the outcome in 97 neonates born to

  13. Psychosocial factors and mortality in women with early stage endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telepak, Laura C; Jensen, Sally E; Dodd, Stacy M; Morgan, Linda S; Pereira, Deidre B

    2014-11-01

    Psychosocial factors have previously been linked with survival and mortality in cancer populations. Little evidence is available about the relationship between these factors and outcomes in gynaecologic cancer populations, particularly endometrial cancer, the fourth most common cancer among women. This study examined the relationship between several psychosocial factors prior to surgical resection and risk of all-cause mortality in women with endometrial cancer. The study utilized a non-experimental, longitudinal design. Participants were 87 women (Mage  = 60.69 years, SDage  = 9.12 years) who were diagnosed with T1N0-T3N2 endometrial cancer and subsequently underwent surgery. Participants provided psychosocial data immediately prior to surgery. Survival statuses 4-5 years post-diagnoses were abstracted via medical record review. Cox regression was employed for the survival analysis. Of the 87 women in this sample, 21 women died during the 4- to 5-year follow-up. Adjusting for age, presence of regional disease and medical comorbidity severity (known biomedical prognostic factors), greater use of an active coping style prior to surgery was significantly associated with a lower probability of all-cause mortality, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.78, p = .04. Life stress, depressive symptoms, use of self-distraction coping, receipt of emotional support and endometrial cancer quality of life prior to surgery were not significantly associated with all-cause mortality 4-5 years following diagnosis. Greater use of active coping prior to surgery for suspected endometrial cancer is associated with lower probability of all-cause mortality 4-5 years post-surgery. Future research should attempt to replicate these relationships in a larger and more representative sample and examine potential behavioural and neuroendocrine/immune mediators of this relationship. What is already known on this subject? Psychosocial factors have previously been linked with clinical outcomes in a

  14. Procalcitonin increase in early identification of critically ill patients at high risk of mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ulrik; Heslet, L; Jensen, TH

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate day-by-day changes in procalcitonin and maximum obtained levels as predictors of mortality in critically ill patients. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING:: Multidisciplinary intensive care unit at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital......, a tertiary reference hospital in Denmark. PATIENTS: Four hundred seventy-two patients with diverse comorbidity and age admitted to this intensive care unit. INTERVENTIONS: Equal in all patient groups: antimicrobial treatment adjusted according to the procalcitonin level. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Daily...... in the intensive care unit and in a 30-day follow-up period. A total of 3,642 procalcitonin measurements were evaluated in 472 critically ill patients. We found that a high maximum procalcitonin level and a procalcitonin increase for 1 day were independent predictors of 90-day all-cause mortality...

  15. Temperature multiscale entropy analysis: a promising marker for early prediction of mortality in septic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaioannou, V E; Pneumatikos, I A; Chouvarda, I G; Maglaveras, N K; Baltopoulos, G I

    2013-01-01

    A few studies estimating temperature complexity have found decreased Shannon entropy, during severe stress. In this study, we measured both Shannon and Tsallis entropy of temperature signals in a cohort of critically ill patients and compared these measures with the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, in terms of intensive care unit (ICU) mortality. Skin temperature was recorded in 21 mechanically ventilated patients, who developed sepsis and septic shock during the first 24 h of an ICU-acquired infection. Shannon and Tsallis entropies were calculated in wavelet-based decompositions of the temperature signal. Statistically significant differences of entropy features were tested between survivors and non-survivors and classification models were built, for predicting final outcome. Significantly reduced Tsallis and Shannon entropies were found in non-survivors (seven patients, 33%) as compared to survivors. Wavelet measurements of both entropy metrics were found to predict ICU mortality better than SOFA, according to a combination of area under the curve, sensitivity and specificity values. Both entropies exhibited similar prognostic accuracy. Combination of SOFA and entropy presented improved the outcome of univariate models. We suggest that reduced wavelet Shannon and Tsallis entropies of temperature signals may complement SOFA in mortality prediction, during the first 24 h of an ICU-acquired infection. (paper)

  16. Long-Term Outcome of an HIV-Treatment Programme in Rural Africa: Viral Suppression despite Early Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roos E. Barth

    2011-01-01

    Results. 63% of patients (466/735 have a fully suppressed HIV-RNA, a median of three years after treatment initiation. Early mortality was high: 14% died within 3 months after treatment start. 16% of patients experienced virological failure, but only 4% was switched to second-line ART. Male gender and a low performance score were associated with treatment failure; immunological failure was a poor predictor of virological failure. Conclusions. An “all or nothing” phenomenon was observed in this rural South African ART programme: high early attrition, but good virological control in those remaining in care. Continued efforts are needed to enrol patients earlier. Furthermore, the observed viro-immunological dissociation emphasises the need to make HIV-RNA testing more widely available.

  17. Early mortality in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a developing country: the role of malnutrition at diagnosis. A multicenter cohort MIGICCL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Trejo, Jorge Alfonso; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; Medina-Sansón, Aurora; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Amador-Sanchez, Raquel; Peñaloza-Gonzalez, José Gabriel; Alvarez-Rodriguez, Francisco Javier; Bolea-Murga, Victoria; Espinosa-Elizondo, Rosa Martha; de Diego Flores-Chapa, José; Pérez-Saldivar, Maria Luisa; Rodriguez-Zepeda, María Del Carmen; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa María; Núñez-Villegas, Nora Nancy; Velazquez-Aviña, Martha Margarita; Torres-Nava, José Refugio; Reyes-Zepeda, Nancy Carolina; González-Bonilla, César Raúl; Flores-Villegas, Luz Victoria; Rangel-López, Angélica; Rivera-Luna, Roberto; Paredes-Aguilera, Rogelio; Cárdenas-Cardós, Rocío; Martínez-Avalos, Armando; Gil-Hernández, Ana Elena; Duarte-Rodríguez, David Aldebarán; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2017-04-01

    The role of malnutrition at diagnosis as a predictor of early mortality in Mexican leukemia children remains controversial. The objective of present study was to investigate whether malnutrition was a predictor of early mortality during the first year of treatment in Mexican acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) children through the first population-based study. A total of 794 newly diagnosed ALL pediatric patients from public hospitals of Mexico City were enrolled. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model was constructed and adjusted by patient's age at diagnosis, gender, hospital of treatment, and socioeconomic status. Early mortality was high (12.1%) and malnutrition by different indicators was not associated with mortality at induction phase and at 6th month; a high risk of dying (RR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.08-4.01) was observed in the group of malnourished children with a high-risk ALL.

  18. Primary Life Stage Boron Isotope and Trace Elements Incorporation in Aposymbiotic Acropora millepora Coral under Ocean Acidification and Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry C. Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Early-life stages of reef-building corals are vital to coral existence and reef maintenance. It is therefore crucial to study juvenile coral response to future climate change pressures. Moreover, corals are known to be reliable recorders of environmental conditions in their skeletal materials. Aposymbiotic Acropora millepora larvae were cultured in different seawater temperature (27 and 29°C and pCO2 (390 and 750 μatm conditions to understand the impacts of “end of century” ocean acidification (OA and ocean warming (OW conditions on skeletal morphology and geochemistry. The experimental conditions impacted primary polyp juvenile coral skeletal morphology and growth resulting in asymmetric translucent appearances with brittle skeleton features. The impact of OA resulted in microstructure differences with decreased precipitation or lengthening of fasciculi and disorganized aragonite crystals that led to more concentrations of centers of calcifications. The coral skeletal δ11B composition measured by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS was significantly affected by pCO2 (p = 0.0024 and water temperature (p = 1.46 × 10−5. Reconstructed pH of the primary polyp skeleton using the δ11B proxy suggests a difference in coral calcification site and seawater pH consistent with previously observed coral pH up-regulation. Similarly, trace element results measured by laser ablation ICP-MS indicate the impact of pCO2. Primary polyp juvenile Sr/Ca ratio indicates a bias in reconstructed sea surface temperature (SST under higher pCO2 conditions. Coral microstructure content changes (center of calcification and fasciculi due to OA possibly contributed to the variability in B/Ca ratios. Our results imply that increasing OA and OW may lead to coral acclimation issues and species-specific inaccuracies of the commonly used Sr/Ca-SST proxy.

  19. Human amyloidogenic light chain proteins result in cardiac dysfunction, cell death, and early mortality in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shikha; Guan, Jian; Plovie, Eva; Seldin, David C; Connors, Lawreen H; Merlini, Giampaolo; Falk, Rodney H; MacRae, Calum A; Liao, Ronglih

    2013-07-01

    Systemic amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is associated with rapidly progressive and fatal cardiomyopathy resulting from the direct cardiotoxic effects of circulating AL light chain (AL-LC) proteins and the indirect effects of AL fibril tissue infiltration. Cardiac amyloidosis is resistant to standard heart failure therapies, and, to date, there are limited treatment options for these patients. The mechanisms underlying the development of cardiac amyloidosis and AL-LC cardiotoxicity are largely unknown, and their study has been limited by the lack of a suitable in vivo model system. Here, we establish an in vivo zebrafish model of human AL-LC-induced cardiotoxicity. AL-LC isolated from AL cardiomyopathy patients or control nonamyloidogenic LC protein isolated from multiple myeloma patients (Con-LC) was directly injected into the circulation of zebrafish at 48 h postfertilization. AL-LC injection resulted in impaired cardiac function, pericardial edema, and increased cell death relative to Con-LC, culminating in compromised survival with 100% mortality within 2 wk, independent of AL fibril deposition. Prior work has implicated noncanonical p38 MAPK activation in the pathogenesis of AL-LC-induced cardiotoxicity, and p38 MAPK inhibition via SB-203580 rescued AL-LC-induced cardiac dysfunction and cell death and attenuated mortality in zebrafish. This in vivo zebrafish model of AL-LC cardiotoxicity demonstrates that antagonism of p38 MAPK within the AL-LC cardiotoxic signaling response may serve to improve cardiac function and mortality in AL cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, this in vivo model system will allow for further study of the molecular underpinnings of AL cardiotoxicity and identification of novel therapeutic strategies.

  20. Three days in October of 1630: detailed examination of mortality during an early modern plague epidemic in Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, S R

    1989-01-01

    The epidemiology of medieval and early modern European plague remains highly controversial. It now seems likely that the epidemiology was not uniform throughout either the geographic or temporal boundaries of the plague in Western Europe. The Venetian plague of 1630 was extensively documented; day-by-day records were kept, and each mortality in the city was recorded in a set format. The days 23-25 October 1630, representing a period when mortality was beginning to increase sharply, are examined. In all, 1,163 deaths were recorded. They show a large preponderance of women; a mean age of 28, but a majority of cases clumped between ages 0 and 25 years; and an unequal sex ratio among children. Further, there was an identifiable smallpox epidemic raging simultaneously with plague, and more than one-quarter of all the deaths in this period of high mortality were clearly due to nonplague causes. Deaths due to wounds and associated with violence were prominent in one parish, which suggests that in times of plague the breakdown in the normal machinery of government, in everyday patterns of life, and possibly of mental well being resulted in an even more exaggerated death toll. These factors--violence, accidents, and other epidemics--have never been so definitively tied to a European plague epidemic. In addition, there are hints that plague has a marked proclivity to kill pregnant women--their deaths far outnumber those anticipated--and that plague was very localized at a given moment within Venice itself, even during times of peak mortality.

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi alkaline 2-DE: Optimization and application to comparative proteome analysis of flagellate life stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana Jaime M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trypanosoma cruzi, a flagellate protozoan, is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, a chronic illness that causes irreversible damage to heart and digestive tract in humans. Previous 2-DE analyses of T. cruzi proteome have not focused on basic proteins, possibly because of inherent difficulties for optimizing 2-DE in the alkaline pH range. However, T. cruzi wide pH range 2-DE gels have shown few visible spots in the alkaline region, indicating that the parasite either did not have an appreciable amount of alkaline proteins or that these proteins were underrepresented in the 2-DE gels. Results Different IEF conditions using 6–11 pH gradient strips were tested for separation of T. cruzi alkaline proteins. The optimized methodology described here was performed using anodic "paper bridge" sample loading supplemented by increased concentration of DTT and Triton X-100 on Multiphor II (GE Healthcare equipment and an electrode pad embedded in DTT- containing solution near the cathode in order to avoid depletion of reducing agent during IEF. Landmark proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting allowing the production of an epimastigote 2-DE map. Most identified proteins corresponded to metabolic enzymes, especially those related to amino acid metabolism. The optimized 2-DE protocol was applied in combination with the "two-in-one gel" method to verify the relative expression of the identified proteins between samples from epimastigote and trypomastigote life stages. Conclusion High resolution 2-DE gels of T. cruzi life forms were achieved using the optimized methodology and a partial epimastigote alkaline 2-DE map was built. Among 700 protein spots detected, 422 were alkaline with a pI above 7.0. The "two-in-one gel" method simplified the comparative analysis between T. cruzi life stages since it minimized variations in spot migration and silver-stained spot volumes. The comparative data were in agreement with

  2. Complex offspring size effects: variations across life stages and between species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhao; Hamel, Jean-François; Parrish, Christopher C; Mercier, Annie

    2015-03-01

    Classical optimality models of offspring size and number assume a monotonically increasing relationship between offspring size and performance. In aquatic organisms with complex life cycles, the size-performance function is particularly hard to grasp because measures of performance are varied and their relationships with size may not be consistent throughout early ontogeny. Here, we examine size effects in premetamorphic (larval) and postmetamorphic (juvenile) stages of brooding marine animals and show that they vary contextually in strength and direction during ontogeny and among species. Larger offspring of the sea anemone Urticina felina generally outperformed small siblings at the larval stage (i.e., greater settlement and survival rates under suboptimal conditions). However, results differed when analyses were conducted at the intrabrood versus across-brood levels, suggesting that the relationship between larval size and performance is mediated by parentage. At the juvenile stage (15 months), small offspring were less susceptible than large ones to predation by subadult nudibranchs and both sizes performed similarly when facing adult nudibranchs. In a sympatric species with a different life history (Aulactinia stella), all juveniles suffered similar predation rates by subadult nudibranchs, but smaller juveniles performed better (lower mortalities) when facing adult nudibranchs. Size differences in premetamorphic performance of U. felina were linked to total lipid contents of larvae, whereas size-specific predation of juvenile stages followed the general predictions of the optimal foraging strategy. These findings emphasize the challenge in gathering empirical support for a positive monotonic size-performance function in taxa that exhibit complex life cycles, which are dominant in the sea.

  3. Demographic Disequilibrium in Early Twentieth Century Thailand: Falling Mortality, Rising Fertility, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Gordon A

    2008-07-17

    Estimates of Thai crude birth and death rates date from 1920 when the former was around 20 per thousand higher than the latter, implying natural increase of 2 percent per annum. Such disequilibrium cannot have been the norm over the long term historical past, when population growth must have been comparatively slow. This paper explores the bases for likely past relative equilibrium between Siamese birth and death rates, then seeks to explain the disequilibrium apparent by 1920. Classic demographic transition theory postulates initially high birth and death rates, this equilibrium eventually being broken by falling mortality. In Thailand, however, there is likely to have been both significant mortality decline and appreciable fertility increase after 1850, as the virtual elimination of indigenous warfare, rapid growth of the export rice economy and the demise of slavery and corvée labour created a new domestic environment. Characterized by more dispersed, often frontier, settlement, this environment was unprecedentedly sedate and settled, afforded ordinary households a previously unknown level of control over their resources of labour, and generated optimism about prospects for the next generation.

  4. Differential impact of dimethoate on the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer Canestrini (Gamasida: Laelapidae) exposed at different life stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Krogh, P. H.

    The acute toxicity of dimethoate was examined on different life stages (larvae, protonymph, deutonymph, male and female) of the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer. The mites were exposed for 7 days in an artificial soil to 0, 2, 4, and 6 mg kg-1. A comparison of LC50 values ranked the sensitivity...... of the life stages to be: Larvae (LC50 = 3.8) > protonymph (LC50 = 5.3) > male (LC50 = 5.6) > deutonymph (LC50 = 7.1) > female (LC50 = 7.6). A life table response analysis may show how the results affect the population dynamics of H. aculeifer....

  5. Decreased early mortality associated with the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia at National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Gwendolyn; Wun, Ted; Muffly, Lori; Li, Qian; Brunson, Ann; Rosenberg, Aaron S; Jonas, Brian A; Keegan, Theresa H M

    2018-05-01

    To the authors' knowledge, few population-based studies to date have evaluated the association between location of care, complications with induction therapy, and early mortality in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using linked data from the California Cancer Registry and Patient Discharge Dataset (1999-2014), the authors identified adult (aged ≥18 years) patients with AML who received inpatient treatment within 30 days of diagnosis. A propensity score was created for treatment at a National Cancer Institute-designated cancer center (NCI-CC). Inverse probability-weighted, multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine associations between location of care, complications, and early mortality (death ≤60 days from diagnosis). Of the 7007 patients with AML, 1762 (25%) were treated at an NCI-CC. Patients with AML who were treated at NCI-CCs were more likely to be aged ≤65 years, live in higher socioeconomic status neighborhoods, have fewer comorbidities, and have public health insurance. Patients treated at NCI-CCs had higher rates of renal failure (23% vs 20%; P = .010) and lower rates of respiratory failure (11% vs 14%; P = .003) and cardiac arrest (1% vs 2%; P = .014). After adjustment for baseline characteristics, treatment at an NCI-CC was associated with lower early mortality (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.57). The impact of complications on early mortality did not differ by location of care except for higher early mortality noted among patients with respiratory failure treated at non-NCI-CCs. The initial treatment of adult patients with AML at NCI-CCs is associated with a 53% reduction in the odds of early mortality compared with treatment at non-NCI-CCs. Lower early mortality may result from differences in hospital or provider experience and supportive care. Cancer 2018;124:1938-45. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  6. Impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch on early and late mortality after aortic valve replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, Bart M.; Hamad, Mohamed A. Soliman; Bouma, Wobbe; Mariani, Massimo A.; Peels, Kathinka C.; van Dantzig, Jan-Melle; van Straten, Albert H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The influence of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) on survival after aortic valve replacement (AVR) remains controversial. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of PPM on early (30 days) after AVR or AVR combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (AVR with CABG). Methods:

  7. Early Detection and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Reduce Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herman, William H; Ye, Wen; Griffin, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the benefits of screening and early treatment of type 2 diabetes compared with no screening and late treatment using a simulation model with data from the ADDITION-Europe study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used the Michigan Model, a validated computer simulation model, an...

  8. Babies of the War: Effect of War Exposure Early in Life on Mortality Throughout Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, M.; van Ewijk, R.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that circumstances very early in our lives, and particularly during pregnancy, can affect our health for the remainder of life. Studies that have looked at this relationship have often used extreme situations, such as famines that occurred during wartime. Here we

  9. Life stages of an aphid living under similar thermal conditions differ in thermal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Hoffmann, Ary A; Xing, Kun; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2017-05-01

    Heat responses can vary ontogenetically in many insects with complex life cycles, reflecting differences in thermal environments they experience. Such variation has rarely been considered in insects that develop incrementally and experience common microclimates across stages. To test if there is a low level of ontogenetic variation for heat responses in one such species, the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae, basal tolerance [upper lethal temperature (ULT 50 ) and maximum critical temperature (CT max )], hardening capacity (CT max ) and hardening costs (adult longevity and fecundity) were measured across five stages (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th-instar nymphs and newly moulted adults). We found large tolerance differences among stages of this global pest species, and a tendency for the stage with lower heat tolerance to show a stronger hardening response. There were also substantial reproductive costs of hardening responses, with the level of stress experienced, and not the proximity of the exposed stage to the reproductive adult stage, influencing the magnitude of this cost. Hence hardening in this aphid may counter inherently low tolerance levels of some life stages but at a cost to adult longevity and fecundity. Our findings highlight the significance of ontogenetic variation in predicting responses of a species to climate change, even in species without a complex life cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of cold cues at different life stages on germination and flowering phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Matthew J; Friedman, Jannice

    2018-04-23

    The timing of major phenological transitions is critical to lifetime fitness, and life history theory predicts differences for annual and perennial plants. To correctly time these transitions, many plants rely on environmental cues such as exposure to extended periods of cold, which may occur at different stages throughout their lifetime. We studied the role of cold at different life stages, by jointly exposing seed (stratification) and rosettes (vernalization) to cold. We used 23 populations of Mimulus guttatus, which vary from annuals to perennials, and investigated how cold at one or both stages affected germination, flowering, growth, and biomass. We found that stratification and vernalization interact to affect life cycle transitions, and that cold at either stage could synchronize flowering phenology. For perennials, either stratification or vernalization is necessary for maximum flowering. We also found that germination timing covaried with later traits. Moreover, plants from environments with dissimilar climates displayed different phenological responses to stratification or vernalization. In general, cold is more important for seed germination in annuals and plants from environments with warm temperatures and variable precipitation. In contrast, cold is more important for flowering in perennials: it accelerates flowering in plants from lower precipitation environments, and it increases flowering proportion in plants from cooler, more stable precipitation environments. We discuss our findings in the context of the variable environments plants experience within a population and the variation encountered across the biogeographic native range of the species. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  11. Bioenergetic profiling of Trypanosoma cruzi life stages using Seahorse extracellular flux technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah-Simpson, Sheena; Pereira, Camila F A; Dumoulin, Peter C; Caradonna, Kacey L; Burleigh, Barbara A

    2016-08-01

    Energy metabolism is an attractive target for the development of new therapeutics against protozoan pathogens, including Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of human Chagas disease. Despite emerging evidence that mitochondrial electron transport is essential for the growth of intracellular T. cruzi amastigotes in mammalian cells, fundamental knowledge of mitochondrial energy metabolism in this parasite life stage remains incomplete. The Clark-type electrode, which measures the rate of oxygen consumption, has served as the traditional tool to study mitochondrial energetics and has contributed to our understanding of it in T. cruzi. Here, we evaluate the Seahorse XF(e)24 extracellular flux platform as an alternative method to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in isolated T. cruzi parasites. We report optimized assay conditions used to perform mitochondrial stress tests with replicative life cycle stages of T. cruzi using the XF(e)24 instrument, and discuss the advantages and potential limitations of this methodology, as applied to T. cruzi and other trypanosomatids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The oxygen consumption rates of different life stages of the endoparasitic nematode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willie van Aardt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxygen consumption rates of different life stages of the endoparasitic nematode, Pratylenchus zeae (Nematoda: Tylenchida during non- and post-anhydrobiosisPratylenchus zeae, widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, is an endoparasite in roots of maize and other crop plants. The nematode is attracted to plant roots by CO2 and root exudates and feeds primarily on cells of the root cortex, making channels and openings where the eggs are deposited, with the result that secondary infection occurs due to bacteria and fungi. Nothing is known about the respiration physiology of this nematode and how it manages to survive during dry seasons. To measure the oxygen consumption rate (VO2 of individual P. zeae (less than half a millimeter long, a special measuring technique namely Cartesian diver micro-respirometry was applied. The Cartesian divers were machined from Perspex, and proved to be more accurate to measure VO2 compared with heavier glass divers used in similar experiments on free living nematodes. An accuracy of better than one nanoliter of oxygen consumed per hour was achieved with a single P. zeae inside the diver. Cartesian diver micro-respirometry measurements are based in principle on the manometric changes that occur in a fl otation tube in a manometer set-up when oxygen is consumed by P. zeae and CO2 from the animal is chemically absorbed. VO2 was measured for eggs (length: < 0.05 mm, larvae (length: 0.36 mm and adults (length: 0.47 mm before induction to anhydrobiosis. P. zeae from infected maize roots were extracted and exposed aseptically to in vitro maize root cultures in a grow cabinet at 50 % to 60% relative humidity at 28 ºC using eggs, larvae and adults. VO2 was also measured for post-anhydrobiotic eggs, larvae and adults by taking 50 individuals, eggs and larvae from the culture and placing them in Petri-dishes with 1% agar/water to dry out for 11 days at 28 ºC and 50% relative humidity. The VO2 was measured

  13. Uptake and transformation of arsenic during the vegetative life stage of terrestrial fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearing, Michelle M.; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Many species of terrestrial fungi produce fruiting bodies that contain high proportions of arsenobetaine (AB), an arsenic compound of no known toxicity. It is unknown whether fungi produce or accumulate AB from the surrounding environment. The present study targets the vegetative life stage (mycelium) of fungi, to examine the role of this stage in arsenic transformations and potential formation of AB. The mycelia of three different fungi species were cultured axenically and exposed to AB, arsenate (As(V)) and dimethylarsinoyl acetic acid for 60 days. Agaricus bisporus was additionally exposed to hypothesized precursors for AB and the exposure time to As(V) and dimethlyarsinic acid was also extended to 120 days. The mycelia of all fungi species accumulated all arsenic compounds with two species accumulating significantly more AB than other compounds. Few biotransformations were observed in these experiments indicating that it is unlikely that the mycelium of the fungus is responsible for biosynthesizing AB. - Highlights: • Mycelia of terrestrial fungi were exposed to arsenobetaine (AB) and potential precursors. • Mycelium may be selectively accumulating AB and transporting it to fruiting bodies. • Mycelium did not biosynthesize AB. - Mycelia of edible mushrooms preferentially accumulate arsenobetaine but do not biosynthesize this non-toxic arsenical

  14. A Transcriptome Survey Spanning Life Stages and Sexes of the Harlequin Bug, Murgantia histrionica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Sparks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn, is an agricultural pest in the continental United States, particularly in southern states. Reliable gene sequence data are especially useful to the development of species-specific, environmentally friendly molecular biopesticides and effective biolures for this insect. Here, mRNAs were sampled from whole insects at the 2nd and 4th nymphal instars, as well as sexed adults, and sequenced using Illumina RNA-Seq technology. A global assembly of these data identified 72,540 putative unique transcripts bearing high levels of similarity to transcripts identified in other taxa, with over 99% of conserved single-copy orthologs among insects being detected. Gene ontology and protein family analyses were conducted to explore the functional potential of the harlequin bug’s gene repertoire, and phylogenetic analyses were conducted on gene families germane to xenobiotic detoxification, including glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases and cytochrome P450s. Genic content in harlequin bug was compared with that of the closely related invasive pest, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål. Quantitative analyses of harlequin bug gene expression levels, experimentally validated using quantitative real-time PCR, identified genes differentially expressed between life stages and/or sexes.

  15. Impact on early and late mortality after blood transfusion in coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Antonio Alceu dos; Sousa, Alexandre Gonçalves; Thomé, Hugo Oliveira de Souza; Machado, Roberta Longo; Piotto, Raquel Ferrari

    2013-03-01

    To assess the 30-day and 1-year mortality associated to the red blood cell transfusion after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. This procedure has been questioned by the international medical community, but it is still widely used in cardiac surgery. Therefore, it is needed more evidence of this medical practice in our country. We retrospectively analyzed 3,004 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting surgery between June 2009 and July 2010. Patients were divided into two groups: non-transfused and transfused. The transfused group totaled 1,888 (63%) and non-transfused 1,116 (37%). There were 129 deaths in 30 days, with 108 (84%) in the transfused group and 21 (16%) in the non-transfused (Pconservation strategies should be encouraged to reduce blood products transfusions.

  16. Determination of the Risk of Radiation-Associated Circulatory and Cancer Disease Mortality in a NASA Early Astronaut Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgart, S. R.; Chappell, L.; Milder, C. M.; Shavers, M. R.; Huff, J. L.; Little, M.; Patel, Z. S.

    2017-01-01

    Of the many possible health challenges posed during extended exploratory missions to space, the effects of space radiation on cardiovascular disease and cancer are of particular concern. There are unique challenges to estimating those radiation risks; care and appropriate and rigorous methodology should be applied when considering small cohorts such as the NASA astronaut population. The objective of this work was to determine if there was sufficient evidence for excess risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer in early NASA astronaut cohorts. NASA astronauts in selection groups 1-7 were chosen; this relatively homogeneous cohort consists of 73 white males, who unlike today's astronauts, maintained similar smoking and drinking habits to the general US population, and have published radiation doses. The participants flew in space on missions Mercury through Shuttle and received space radiation doses between 0-74.1 milligrays. Cause of death information was obtained from the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) program at NASA Johnson Space Center. Mortality was compared with the US male population. Trends of mortality with dose were assessed using a logistic model, fitted by maximum likelihood. Only 32 (43.84 percent) of the 73 early astronauts have died. Standard mortality ratios (SMRs) for cancer (n=7, SMR=43.4, 95 percent CI 17.8, 84.9), all circulatory disease (n=7, SMR=33.2, 95 percent CI 13.7, 65.0), and ischemic heart disease (IHD) (n=5, SMR=40.1, 95 percent CI 13.2, 89.4) were significantly lower than for the US white male population. For cerebrovascular disease, the upper confidence interval for SMR included 100, indicating it was not significantly different from the US population (n=2, SMR = 77.0, 95 percent CI 9.4, 268.2). The power of the study is low and remains below 10 percent even when risks 10 times those reported in the literature are assumed. Due to small sample size, there is currently insufficient statistical power to evaluate space

  17. Early post operative mortality of Total Correction of Tetralogy of Fallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Azari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since 1954, after the first surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF, several innovations have occurred in cardiac surgery, especially in children. One stage complete repair of TOF is currently possible even in infancy; however, complications such as hypoxemia, arrhythmia, cardiac dysfunction, sudden death, and valvular disorders may happen. In this study, we evaluated the results of complete surgical repair of TOF with pulmonary stenosis. Material and Methods: We assessed 74 cases of TOF with pulmonary stenosis that underwent surgery in Cardiac Surgical Ward of Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran from 2008 to 2010. Results: Mean age was 5.74±3.31 years and more than half of the patients were male. Mean perfusion and cross-clamping times were 55.45±15.06 and 42.63±9.07 min,respectively. The most common coexisting anomaly was atrial septal defect. Further, 83.7% of the patients were symptomatic, and history of spell attacks was positive in 24.3% of the cases. Arrhythmia was reported in 28.4% of the patients. Mortality rate was 12.2% in our study, which was higher in younger patients (P=0.022 or those with lower weight (P=0.008, longer perfusion time during cardiac surgery (P=0.009, or presence of associated cardiac anomalies (P=0.030. Conclusion: Outcomes and mortality rate of one-stage surgical repair of TOF with pulmonary stenosis was acceptable in our center, and arrhythmia was the most common postoperative complication

  18. Early mortality from external causes in Aboriginal mothers: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Fairthorne

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal loss can have a deep-rooted impact on families. Whilst a disproportionate number of Aboriginal women die from potentially preventable causes, no research has investigated mortality in Aboriginal mothers. We aimed to examine the elevated mortality risk in Aboriginal mothers with a focus on external causes. Methods We linked data from four state administrative datasets to identify all women who had a child from 1983 to 2010 in Western Australia and ascertained their Aboriginality, socio-demographic details, and their dates and causes of death prior to 2011. Comparing Aboriginal mothers with other mothers, we estimated the hazard ratios (HRs for death by any external cause and each of the sub-categories of accident, suicide, and homicide, and the corresponding age of their youngest child. Results Compared to non-Aboriginal mothers and after adjustment for parity, socio-economic status and remoteness, Aboriginal mothers were more likely to die from accidents [HR = 6.43 (95 % CI: 4.9, 8.4], suicide [HR = 3.46 (95 % CI: 2.2, 5.4], homicide [HR = 17.46 (95 % CI: 10.4, 29.2] or any external cause [HR = 6.61 (95 % CI: 5.4, 8.1]. For mothers experiencing death, the median age of their youngest child was 4.8 years. Conclusion During the study period, Aboriginal mothers were much more likely to die than other mothers and they usually left more and younger children. These increased rates were only partly explained by socio-demographic circumstances. Further research is required to examine the risk factors associated with these potentially preventable deaths and to enable the development of informed health promotion to increase the life chances of Aboriginal mothers and their children.

  19. Financial Insolvency as a Risk Factor for Early Mortality Among Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Scott D; Bansal, Aasthaa; Fedorenko, Catherine R; Blough, David K; Overstreet, Karen A; Shankaran, Veena; Newcomb, Polly

    2016-03-20

    Patients with cancer are more likely to file for bankruptcy than the general population, but the impact of severe financial distress on health outcomes among patients with cancer is not known. We linked Western Washington SEER Cancer Registry records with federal bankruptcy records for the region. By using propensity score matching to account for differences in several demographic and clinical factors between patients who did and did not file for bankruptcy, we then fit Cox proportional hazards models to examine the relationship between bankruptcy filing and survival. Between 1995 and 2009, 231,596 persons were diagnosed with cancer. Patients who filed for bankruptcy (n = 4,728) were more likely to be younger, female, and nonwhite, to have local- or regional- (v distant-) stage disease at diagnosis, and have received treatment. After propensity score matching, 3,841 patients remained in each group (bankruptcy v no bankruptcy). In the matched sample, mean age was 53.0 years, 54% were men, mean income was $49,000, and majorities were white (86%), married (60%), and urban (91%) and had local- or regional-stage disease at diagnosis (84%). Both groups received similar initial treatments. The adjusted hazard ratio for mortality among patients with cancer who filed for bankruptcy versus those who did not was 1.79 (95% CI, 1.64 to 1.96). Hazard ratios varied by cancer type: colorectal, prostate, and thyroid cancers had the highest hazard ratios. Excluding patients with distant-stage disease from the models did not have an effect on results. Severe financial distress requiring bankruptcy protection after cancer diagnosis appears to be a risk factor for mortality. Further research is needed to understand the process by which extreme financial distress influences survival after cancer diagnosis and to find strategies that could mitigate this risk. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  20. Evaluation of the short term 12 hour toxicity of 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) to multiple life stages of Venustaconcha ellipsiformis and Epioblasma triquetra and its host fish (Percina caprodes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Michael A; Newton, Teresa J; Hubert, Terrance D; Kaye, Cheryl A; Barnhart, M Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The present study evaluated the risk of 12-h exposures of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) to multiple life stages of the federally endangered snuffbox (Epioblasma triquetra) and its primary host fish the common logperch (Percina caprodes) as well as a surrogate to the snuffbox, the ellipse (Venustaconcha ellipsiformis). Life stages examined included free glochidia, 1-wk juveniles, and adults of the ellipse; free glochidia, glochidia on host fish, and 1-wk juveniles of the snuffbox; and adult logperch. Larval sea lampreys were also tested alongside adult ellipse and logperch for direct comparison. Survival exceeded 82% among all life stages in both mussel species at levels up to 1.8 times what would be applied during treatments, suggesting that routine sea lamprey control operations would not adversely affect mussels. However, substantial mortality of adult logperch was observed at TFM concentrations typically applied to streams, and loss of host fish could adversely affect snuffbox reproduction. In addition, TFM had no significant effect on the number of glochidia that metamorphosed on adult logperch. Although the snuffbox is not likely to be acutely affected from sea lamprey control operations, mitigation efforts to minimize impacts to the host fish should be considered. © 2015 SETAC.

  1. Haematobia irritans dataset of raw sequence reads from Illumina-based transcriptome sequencing of specific tissues and life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illumina HiSeq technology was used to sequence the transcriptome from various dissected tissues and life stages from the horn fly, Haematobia irritans. These samples include eggs (0, 2, 4, and 9 hours post-oviposition), adult fly gut, adult fly legs, adult fly malpighian tubule, adult fly ovary, adu...

  2. An idealized model for tree-grass coexistence in savannas : The role of life stage structure and fire disturbances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudena, Mara|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/340303867; D'Andrea, Fabio; Provenzale, A.

    2010-01-01

    1. We discuss a simple implicit-space model for the competition of trees and grasses in an idealized savanna environment. The model represents patch occupancy dynamics within the habitat and introduces life stage structure in the tree population, namely adults and seedlings. A tree can be

  3. Patterns of Social Interaction and Concepts of Interpersonal-Relating at Different Life-Stages in the Marquesas Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Mary

    This research report describes a study of Marquesas Islanders and how they interact with each other at different life stages from childhood, through youth and adulthood. Fieldwork for this study was conducted for a 10-month period on the island of 'Ua Pou, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. A small community of about 200 people in a valley on…

  4. Assessing the Sensitivity of Different Life Stages for Sexual Disruption in Roach (Rutilus rutilus) Exposed to Effluents from Wastewater Treatment Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liney, Katherine E.; Jobling, Susan; Shears, Jan A.; Simpson, Peter; Tyler, Charles R.

    2005-01-01

    Surveys of U.K. rivers have shown a high incidence of sexual disruption in populations of wild roach (Rutilus rutilus) living downstream from wastewater treatment works (WwTW), and the degree of intersex (gonads containing both male and female structural characteristics) has been correlated with the concentration of effluent in those rivers. In this study, we investigated feminized responses to two estrogenic WwTWs in roach exposed for periods during life stages of germ cell division (early life and the postspawning period). Roach were exposed as embryos from fertilization up to 300 days posthatch (dph; to include the period of gonadal sex differentiation) or as postspawning adult males, and including fish that had received previous estrogen exposure, for either 60 or 120 days when the annual event of germ cell proliferation occurs. Both effluents induced vitellogenin synthesis in both life stages studied, and the magnitude of the vitellogenic responses paralleled the effluent content of steroid estrogens. Feminization of the reproductive ducts occurred in male fish in a concentration-dependent manner when the exposure occurred during early life, but we found no effects on the reproductive ducts in adult males. Depuration studies (maintenance of fish in clean water after exposure to WwTW effluent) confirmed that the feminization of the reproductive duct was permanent. We found no evidence of ovotestis development in fish that had no previous estrogen exposure for any of the treatments. In wild adult roach that had previously received exposure to estrogen and were intersex, the degree of intersex increased during the study period, but this was not related to the immediate effluent exposure, suggesting a previously determined programming of ovotestis formation. PMID:16203238

  5. Early embryo mortality in natural human reproduction: What the data say [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin E. Jarvis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available How many human embryos die between fertilisation and birth under natural conditions? It is widely accepted that natural human embryo mortality is high, particularly during the first weeks after fertilisation, with total prenatal losses of 70% and higher frequently claimed. However, the first external sign of pregnancy occurs two weeks after fertilisation with a missed menstrual period, and establishing the fate of embryos before this is challenging. Calculations are additionally hampered by a lack of data on the efficiency of fertilisation under natural conditions. Four distinct sources are used to justify quantitative claims regarding embryo loss: (i a hypothesis published by Roberts & Lowe in The Lancet  is widely cited but has no practical quantitative value; (ii life table analyses give consistent assessments of clinical pregnancy loss, but cannot illuminate losses at earlier stages of development; (iii studies that measure human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG reveal losses in the second week of development and beyond, but not before; and (iv the classic studies of Hertig and Rock offer the only direct insight into the fate of human embryos from fertilisation under natural conditions. Re-examination of Hertig’s data demonstrates that his estimates for fertilisation rate and early embryo loss are highly imprecise and casts doubt on the validity of his numerical analysis. A recent re-analysis of hCG study data concluded that approximately 40-60% of embryos may be lost between fertilisation and birth, although this will vary substantially between individual women. In conclusion, natural human embryo mortality is lower than often claimed and widely accepted. Estimates for total prenatal mortality of 70% or higher are exaggerated and not supported by the available data.

  6. Prognostic indicators associated with early mortality of wild raptors admitted to a wildlife rehabilitation centre in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-López, Rafael A; Casal, Jordi; Darwich, Laila

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of the prognostic indicators of wildlife casualties is critical in wildlife rehabilitation practice, to optimize the use of economical resources, and to protect animal welfare. Few studies have been conducted in this field. To identify the prognostic indicators associated with raptor mortality during the first week of hospitalization. Complete medical records of 1722 wild raptor cases admitted to a wildlife rehabilitation centre from 1995 to 2007 were used. Regression models were created to determine mortality-related factors for different variables (order, sex, body condition (BC), clinical signs, and available haematological and biochemical parameters). In the bivariate analysis, the presence of nervous (OR = 11.9, 95%CI:5.1-27.6) or musculoskeletal (OR = 12.1, 95%CI:5.8-25.3) signs, a poor BC (OR = 32.9, 95%CI:19-81.2), and low values of packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin or total solids (TS), were all associated with early mortality. After adjusting variables in the multivariate model, BC was excluded due to co-linearity with other variables, and alteration of the nervous system was the only significant risk factor (OR = 4.0; 95%CI:1.9-8.8). In species specific analysis, poor prognosis was related to neurological signs in Athene noctua, poor BC in Strix aluco, trauma in Acciptiter nisus and Tyto alba, low PCV in Buteo buteo and Falco tinnunculus and low TS in Falco tinnunculus. Raptors with a poor BC, low values of PCV and those presenting with neurological signs, had the highest risk of dying in the first days of admittance. Thus, either medical care or humane euthanasia for poor prognosis should be performed to address animal welfare.

  7. Effects of baseline and early acquired thrombocytopaenia on long-term mortality in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with bivalirudin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ziad A; Qureshi, Yasir H; Karimi Galougahi, Keyvan; Poludasu, Shyam; Roye, Swathi; Krishnan, Prakash; Zalewski, Adrian; Shah, Zainab Z; Bhatti, Navdeep; Kalapatapu, Kumar; Mehran, Roxana; Dangas, George; Kini, Annapoorna S; Sharma, Samin K

    2016-04-08

    Bivalirudin use as a procedural anticoagulant in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with a lower incidence of thrombocytopaenia compared to other antithrombotic agents. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of baseline thrombocytopaenia and early changes in platelet counts among patients undergoing PCI with exclusive use of bivalirudin. We evaluated 7,505 patients who underwent PCI over a period of eight years. Patients who received unfractionated heparin and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors were specifically excluded. Eight hundred and fifty-eight (11.4%) patients had baseline thrombocytopaenia and 451 (6.0%) developed acquired thrombocytopaenia. After adjustment for potential covariates, moderate to severe acquired thrombocytopaenia was the strongest independent predictor (HR 4.34, 95% CI: 2.13-8.84; pevents, which included major adverse cardiac events and major bleeding complications. Age, male gender, baseline platelet count and intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) insertion were independent predictors of in-hospital acquired thrombocytopaenia. After a mean follow-up of 2.6±1.7 years, moderate to severe baseline thrombocytopaenia (HR 2.42, 95% CI: 1.79-3.29; p67 k) were significant predictors of mortality. In patients undergoing PCI with bivalirudin, moderate to severe baseline and acquired thrombocytopaenia along with severe changes in platelet count are associated with higher long-term mortality.

  8. Migration and health: a study of effects of early life experiences and current socio-economic situation on mortality of immigrants in Sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Klinthäll, Martin; Lindström, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Previous research has demonstrated mortality differences between immigrants and natives living in Sweden. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of early life conditions in the country of birth and current socio-economic conditions in adult life in Sweden on cardiovascular, cancer, all other cause and total mortality among immigrants and natives in Sweden. Design. The cohort data concerning individual demographic characteristics and socio-economic conditions stems fro...

  9. Impact of body mass index on breast cancer in accordance with the life-stage of women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Reiko [Division of Medical Nutrition, Department of Healthcare, Tokyo Health Care University, Tokyo (Japan); Saji, Shigehira [Department of Target Therapy Oncology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Toi, Masakazu, E-mail: toi@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Breast Surgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-10-04

    A large amount of epidemiological evidence suggests that the impact of body weight on breast cancer risk should be heterogeneous throughout the life-stage of women. At birth, high weight has been positively associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. While, the body mass index (a relative body weight; BMI kg/m{sup 2}) has been inversely associated with breast cancer risk among pre-menopausal women. The inverse trend had been observed in both Western and Asian population, with a relatively lower percentage of obesity and higher percentage of leanness, suggested that the inverse trend could be explained not only by the protective impact due to obesity, but also by the increased risk of breast cancer due to leanness. Among post-menopausal women, however, an elevated BMI has been positively associated with the development of breast cancer, particularly in the cases of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and progesterone receptor-positive (PR+) tumors. Currently, the mechanisms underlying the heterogeneous impacts between BMI on breast cancer risk and the life-stage of women remain poorly understood. We reviewed several proposed biological mechanisms that may contribute to the various impacts of relative body weight on breast cancer risk across life-stage. We also discussed the impact of BMI upon the outcome of endocrine therapy, particularly for aromatase inhibitor, in breast cancer patients. To prevent breast cancer incidence and recurrence, the desirable BMI of women may differ throughout their life-stage. To define the underlying mechanism for the various impacts of BMI in the context of breast cancer across various female life stages, further studies will be required.

  10. Impact of body mass index on breast cancer in accordance with the life-stage of women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Reiko; Saji, Shigehira; Toi, Masakazu

    2012-01-01

    A large amount of epidemiological evidence suggests that the impact of body weight on breast cancer risk should be heterogeneous throughout the life-stage of women. At birth, high weight has been positively associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. While, the body mass index (a relative body weight; BMI kg/m 2 ) has been inversely associated with breast cancer risk among pre-menopausal women. The inverse trend had been observed in both Western and Asian population, with a relatively lower percentage of obesity and higher percentage of leanness, suggested that the inverse trend could be explained not only by the protective impact due to obesity, but also by the increased risk of breast cancer due to leanness. Among post-menopausal women, however, an elevated BMI has been positively associated with the development of breast cancer, particularly in the cases of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and progesterone receptor-positive (PR+) tumors. Currently, the mechanisms underlying the heterogeneous impacts between BMI on breast cancer risk and the life-stage of women remain poorly understood. We reviewed several proposed biological mechanisms that may contribute to the various impacts of relative body weight on breast cancer risk across life-stage. We also discussed the impact of BMI upon the outcome of endocrine therapy, particularly for aromatase inhibitor, in breast cancer patients. To prevent breast cancer incidence and recurrence, the desirable BMI of women may differ throughout their life-stage. To define the underlying mechanism for the various impacts of BMI in the context of breast cancer across various female life stages, further studies will be required.

  11. Desiccation as a mitigation tool to manage biofouling risks: trials on temperate taxa to elucidate factors influencing mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Grant A; Prince, Madeleine; Cahill, Patrick L; Fletcher, Lauren M; Atalah, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The desiccation tolerance of biofouling taxa (adults and early life-stages) was determined under both controlled and 'realistic' field conditions. Adults of the ascidian Ciona spp. died within 24 h. Mortality in the adult blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis occurred within 11 d under controlled conditions, compared with 7 d when held outside. The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas was the most desiccation-tolerant taxon tested (up to 34 d under controlled conditions). Biofouling orientated to direct sunlight showed faster mortality rates for all the taxa tested. Mortality in Mytilus juveniles took up to 24 h, compared with 8 h for Ciona, with greater survival at the higher temperature (18.5°C) and humidity (~95% RH) treatment combination. This study demonstrated that desiccation can be an effective mitigation method for a broad range of fouling taxa, especially their early life-stages. Further work is necessary to assess risks from other high-risk species such as algae and cyst forming species.

  12. Aquatic toxicity of cartap and cypermethrin to different life stages of Daphnia magna and Oryzias latipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghee; Jung, Jinyong; Oh, Sorin; Choi, Kyungho

    2008-01-01

    Cartap and cypermethrin, which are among the most widely used pesticides in many countries, are considered safe because of their low mammalian toxicity and their low persistence in the environment. However, recent findings of endocrine-disrupting effects and developmental neurotoxicity have raised concerns about the potential ecological impacts of these pesticides. We evaluated the aquatic toxicity of cartap [S,S'-(2-dimethylaminotrimethylene) bis(thiocarbamate), unspecified hydrochloride] and cypermethrin [(RS)-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-(1RS,3RS,1RS,3SR)-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylate], both individually and combined, on different life stages of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna and a freshwater teleost, Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). The 96-hr Daphnia median effective concentrations (EC50s) for cartap and cypermethrin were 91.0 microg/L and 0.00061 microg/L, respectively. Rapid recovery of Daphnia was observed after short-term pulsed exposure to cartap and cypermethrin; there were no adverse effects on reproduction or survival 20 d after a 24 hr exposure to cartap up to 1240 microg/L and cypermethrin up to 1.9 microg/L. Chronic continuous exposure (for 21 d) of 7-d-old Daphnia to cypermethrin significantly reduced the intrinsic population growth rate in a concentration-dependent manner. However, because the intrinsic population growth rates were all above zero, populations did not decrease even at the highest experimental concentration of 200 ng/L. Exposure of Daphnia neonates (cartap or 40 microg/L of cypermethrin. The mixture of both compounds showed no synergistic toxicity. The extremely high acute-to-chronic ratio suggests that the standard acute lethal toxicity assessment might not reflect the true environmental hazards of these frequently used pesticides. Ecological hazard assessments of long-term low dose or pulsed exposures to cartap and cypermethrin may reveal more realistic consequences of these compounds in

  13. Adjunctive rifampicin to reduce early mortality from Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (ARREST: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thwaites Guy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia is a common and serious infection, with an associated mortality of ~25%. Once in the blood, S. aureus can disseminate to infect almost any organ, but bones, joints and heart valves are most frequently affected. Despite the infection’s severity, the evidence guiding optimal antibiotic therapy is weak: fewer than 1,500 patients have been included in 16 randomised controlled trials investigating S. aureus bacteraemia treatment. It is uncertain which antibiotics are most effective, their route of administration and duration, and whether antibiotic combinations are better than single agents. We hypothesise that adjunctive rifampicin, given in combination with a standard first-line antibiotic, will enhance killing of S. aureus early in the treatment course, sterilise infected foci and blood faster, and thereby reduce the risk of dissemination, metastatic infection and death. Our aim is to determine whether adjunctive rifampicin reduces all-cause mortality within 14 days and bacteriological failure or death within 12 weeks from randomisation. Methods We will perform a parallel group, randomised (1:1, blinded, placebo-controlled trial in NHS hospitals across the UK. Adults (≥18 years with S. aureus (meticillin-susceptible or resistant grown from at least one blood culture who have received ≤96 h of active antibiotic therapy for the current infection and do not have contraindications to the use of rifampicin will be eligible for inclusion. Participants will be randomised to adjunctive rifampicin (600-900mg/day; orally or intravenously or placebo for the first 14 days of therapy in combination with standard single-agent antibiotic therapy. The co-primary outcome measures will be all-cause mortality up to 14 days from randomisation and bacteriological failure/death (all-cause up to 12 weeks from randomisation. 940 patients will be recruited, providing >80% power to detect 45% and 30% reductions in

  14. Adjunctive rifampicin to reduce early mortality from Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (ARREST): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwaites, Guy; Auckland, Cressida; Barlow, Gavin; Cunningham, Richard; Davies, Gerry; Edgeworth, Jonathan; Greig, Julia; Hopkins, Susan; Jeyaratnam, Dakshika; Jenkins, Neil; Llewelyn, Martin; Meisner, Sarah; Nsutebu, Emmanuel; Planche, Tim; Read, Robert C; Scarborough, Matthew; Soares, Marta; Tilley, Robert; Török, M Estée; Williams, John; Wilson, Peter; Wyllie, Sarah; Walker, A Sarah

    2012-12-18

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia is a common and serious infection, with an associated mortality of ~25%. Once in the blood, S. aureus can disseminate to infect almost any organ, but bones, joints and heart valves are most frequently affected. Despite the infection's severity, the evidence guiding optimal antibiotic therapy is weak: fewer than 1,500 patients have been included in 16 randomised controlled trials investigating S. aureus bacteraemia treatment. It is uncertain which antibiotics are most effective, their route of administration and duration, and whether antibiotic combinations are better than single agents. We hypothesise that adjunctive rifampicin, given in combination with a standard first-line antibiotic, will enhance killing of S. aureus early in the treatment course, sterilise infected foci and blood faster, and thereby reduce the risk of dissemination, metastatic infection and death. Our aim is to determine whether adjunctive rifampicin reduces all-cause mortality within 14 days and bacteriological failure or death within 12 weeks from randomisation. We will perform a parallel group, randomised (1:1), blinded, placebo-controlled trial in NHS hospitals across the UK. Adults (≥ 18 years) with S. aureus (meticillin-susceptible or resistant) grown from at least one blood culture who have received ≤ 96 h of active antibiotic therapy for the current infection and do not have contraindications to the use of rifampicin will be eligible for inclusion. Participants will be randomised to adjunctive rifampicin (600-900 mg/day; orally or intravenously) or placebo for the first 14 days of therapy in combination with standard single-agent antibiotic therapy. The co-primary outcome measures will be all-cause mortality up to 14 days from randomisation and bacteriological failure/death (all-cause) up to 12 weeks from randomisation. 940 patients will be recruited, providing >80% power to detect 45% and 30% reductions in the two co-primary endpoints of death by

  15. Breast cancer: Early detection - increasing mortality rates; Mammacarcinom: Erfolgreiche Fruehdiagnose, steigende Mortalitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterok, E M [Universitaets-Frauenklinik, Erlangen (Germany); Siebzehnruebl, E [Universitaets-Frauenklinik, Erlangen (Germany); Schulz-Wendtland, R [Universitaets-Frauenklinik, Erlangen (Germany); Koch, T [Universitaets-Frauenklinik, Erlangen (Germany)

    1995-05-01

    Mammography, sonography and nmr imaging are the tools that will in all probability detect breast cancer at an early stage. NMR imaging is the most recently developed and most sophisticated high-tech method for the diagnosis of disorders of the mammary parenchyma. To ensure a better differentiation between benign and malignant changes, nmr imaging of the breast is carried out following paramagnetic opacification using intravenous gadolinium DTPA. Owing to their angiogenic potential and increased vascular permeability carcinomas are characterized by a significant contrast medium accumulation. The signal intensities of malignant tumours are therefore higher than those of the adjacent supporting and fatty tissues or the intact mammary parenchyma. (orig./VHE) [Deutsch] Die Diagnostik des fruehen Mammacarcinoms gelingt mit Hilfe der Mammographie, Sonographie und Kernspintomographie. Die Kernspintomographie stellt gegenwaertig das neueste und apparatetechnisch aufwendigste Verfahren zur Diagnostik der Mammaparenchymerkrankungen dar. Zur besseren Differenzierung von malignen und benignen Veraenderungen wird die Kernspintomographie der Brust nach intravenoeser Applikation des paramagnetischen Kontrastmittels Gadolinium-DTPA durchgefuehrt. Carcinome zeigen aufgrund ihrer angiogenetischen Potenz und ihrer erhoehten Gefaesswandpermeabilitaet eine signifikante Kontrastmittelanreicherung. Maligne Tumoren stellen sich deshalb signalreicher dar als das umliegende Stuetz-, Fettgewebe und gesundes Mammaparenchym. (orig./VHE)

  16. Reductions in Sepsis Mortality and Costs After Design and Implementation of a Nurse-Based Early Recognition and Response Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephen L.; Ashton, Carol M.; Kiehne, Lisa; Gigliotti, Elizabeth; Bell-Gordon, Charyl; Disbot, Maureen; Masud, Faisal; Shirkey, Beverly A.; Wray, Nelda P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sepsis is a leading cause of death, but evidence suggests that early recognition and prompt intervention can save lives. In 2005 Houston Methodist Hospital prioritized sepsis detection and management in its ICU. In late 2007, because of marginal effects on sepsis death rates, the focus shifted to designing a program that would be readily used by nurses and ensure early recognition of patients showing signs suspicious for sepsis, as well as the institution of prompt, evidence-based interventions to diagnose and treat it. Methods The intervention had four components: organizational commitment and data-based leadership; development and integration of an early sepsis screening tool into the electronic health record; creation of screening and response protocols; and education and training of nurses. Twice-daily screening of patients on targeted units was conducted by bedside nurses; nurse practitioners initiated definitive treatment as indicated. Evaluation focused on extent of implementation, trends in inpatient mortality, and, for Medicare beneficiaries, a before-after (2008–2011) comparison of outcomes and costs. A federal grant in 2012 enabled expansion of the program. Results By year 3 (2011) 33% of inpatients were screened (56,190 screens in 9,718 unique patients), up from 10% in year 1 (2009). Inpatient sepsis-associated death rates decreased from 29.7% in the preimplementation period (2006–2008) to 21.1% after implementation (2009–2014). Death rates and hospital costs for Medicare beneficiaries decreased from preimplementation levels without a compensatory increase in discharges to postacute care. Conclusion This program has been associated with lower inpatient death rates and costs. Further testing of the robustness and exportability of the program is under way. PMID:26484679

  17. Gut microbiota of an invasive subcortical beetle, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, across various life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana Vasanthakumar; Jo Handelsman; Patrick D. Schloss; Leah S. Bauer; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2008-01-01

    We characterized gut microbial communities in the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive phloem-feeding and wood-boring beetle that has caused extensive mortality to urban and forest ash trees. Analyses included both 16S rRNA gene-based and culture-based approaches. We estimated that the emerald ash borer gut harbors 44, 71,...

  18. Females are the brighter sex: Differences in external fluorescence across sexes and life stages of a crab spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Erin E; Masta, Susan E

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence is increasingly recognized to be widespread in nature. In particular, some arachnids fluoresce externally, and in spiders the hemolymph fluoresces. In this study, we examined the external fluorescence and the fluorophores of different sexes and life stages of the crab spider Misumena vatia (Clerk 1757), a sit-and-wait predator that feeds on insects as they visit flowers. We designed novel instrumentation to measure external fluorescence in whole specimens. We found that although males and females possess internal fluorophores with similar properties, the external expression of fluorescence varies across sexes and life stages. Spiders fluoresce brightly as immatures. Females maintain their brightness to adulthood, whereas males become increasingly dim as they mature. We suggest that external fluorescence likely contributes to visual signaling in these animals, and that it differs between the sexes as a result of differences in foraging ecology and behavior.

  19. Females are the brighter sex: Differences in external fluorescence across sexes and life stages of a crab spider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E Brandt

    Full Text Available Fluorescence is increasingly recognized to be widespread in nature. In particular, some arachnids fluoresce externally, and in spiders the hemolymph fluoresces. In this study, we examined the external fluorescence and the fluorophores of different sexes and life stages of the crab spider Misumena vatia (Clerk 1757, a sit-and-wait predator that feeds on insects as they visit flowers. We designed novel instrumentation to measure external fluorescence in whole specimens. We found that although males and females possess internal fluorophores with similar properties, the external expression of fluorescence varies across sexes and life stages. Spiders fluoresce brightly as immatures. Females maintain their brightness to adulthood, whereas males become increasingly dim as they mature. We suggest that external fluorescence likely contributes to visual signaling in these animals, and that it differs between the sexes as a result of differences in foraging ecology and behavior.

  20. Early Hospital Readmission is a Predictor of One-Year Mortality in Community-Dwelling Older Medicare Beneficiaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lum, H.D.; Studenski, S.A.; Degenholtz, H.B.; Hardy, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hospital readmission within thirty days is common among Medicare beneficiaries, but the relationship between rehospitalization and subsequent mortality in older adults is not known. OBJECTIVE: To compare one-year mortality rates among community-dwelling elderly hospitalized Medicare

  1. Integration of Life-Stage Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models with Adverse Outcome Pathways and Environmental Exposure Models to Screen for Environmental Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Life-stage Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to include descriptions of several life-stage events such as pregnancy, fetal development, the neonate and child growth. The overall modeling strategy was used for in vitro to in vivo (IVIVE) extrapolat...

  2. Impact of comorbidity on mortality: a cohort study of 62,591 Danish women diagnosed with early breast cancer, 1990-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Lotte Holm; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer, as well as other chronic disease, increases with age, older breast cancer patients being more likely than younger to suffer from other diseases at time of diagnosis. Our objective was to assess the effect of comorbidity on mortality after early breast cancer. 62......,591 women diagnosed with early breast cancer 1990-2008 were identified using the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Data were linked to the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish Register of Causes of Death. Main outcome measures were mortality from all causes, breast cancer, and non-breast...... cancer causes in relation to Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Compared with patients without comorbidity (CCI 0), the presence of comorbidity increased the risk of dying from breast cancer as well as other causes with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality of 1.45 (CI 95% 1...

  3. Socioeconomic position in early life, birth weight, childhood cognitive function, and adult mortality. A longitudinal study of Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Due, P

    2003-01-01

    . The data were analysed using Cox regression. SETTING: The metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 7493 male singletons born in 1953, who completed a questionnaire with various cognitive measures, in school at age 12 years, and for whom birth certificates with data on birth and parental...... with all cause mortality. The association between father's social class and mortality attenuated (HR(working class)1.30 (1.08 to 1.56); HR(unknown class)1.81 (1.30 to 2.52)) after control for birth weight and cognitive function. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases and violent deaths was also......OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between socioeconomic position in early life and mortality in young adulthood, taking birth weight and childhood cognitive function into account. DESIGN: A longitudinal study with record linkage to the Civil Registration System and Cause of Death Registry...

  4. Aspects of the morphology of the juvenile life stages of Paradiplozoon ichthyoxanthon Avenant-Oldewage, 2013 (Monogenea: Diplozoidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè; Milne, Simon John

    2014-06-01

    There are eight life stages in the life-cycle of Diplozoon paradoxum and limited knowledge of the life-cycle for other diplozoid genera exists. The aim of this study was to record the number of life-stages of Paradiplozoon ichthyoxanthon obtained from, Labeobarbus aeneus and Labeobarbus kimberlyensis, in the Vaal Dam from 2005 to 2007. Six larval life stages and one adult stage of P. ichtyoxanthon were identified from specimens collected in vitro and in situ. In vitro, eggs hatched after 21 days at 18°C. Eggs collected during winter were significantly larger than those laid during spring or summer. Paradiplozoon ichthyoxanthon oncomiracidia have peripheral eyes with pink pigmentation, a tubular anterior bladder-like structure, bicuspid basal pharynx valve and a branched digestive caecum and residual shell material or vitellaria in the caecum. Immature reproductive tissue connected to the ventral sucker and dorsal papillae were noted for the first time in diporpa. Large nervous ganglia and innervation of muscle were observed around the ventral sucker.

  5. Socio-economic patterning in early mortality of patients aged 0-49 years diagnosed with primary bone cancer in Great Britain, 1985-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, Karen; Feltbower, Richard G; James, Peter W; Libby, Gillian; Stiller, Charles; Norman, Paul; Gerrand, Craig; McNally, Richard J Q

    2018-04-01

    Studies have shown marked improvements in survival between 1981 and 2000 for Ewing sarcoma patients but not for osteosarcoma. This study aimed to explore socio-economic patterning in early mortality rates for both tumours. The study analysed all 2432 osteosarcoma and 1619 Ewing sarcoma cases, aged 0-49 years, diagnosed in Great Britain 1985-2008 and followed to 31/12/2009. Logistic regression models were used to calculate risk of dying within three months, six months, one year, three years and five years after diagnosis. Associations with Townsend deprivation score and its components were examined at small-area level. Urban/rural status was studied at larger regional level. For osteosarcoma, after age adjustment, mortality at three months, six months and one year was associated with higher area unemployment, OR = 1.05 (95% CI 1.00, 1.10), OR = 1.04 (95% CI 1.01, 1.08) and OR = 1.04 (95% CI 1.02, 1.06) respectively per 1% increase in unemployment. Mortality at six months was associated with greater household non-car ownership, OR = 1.02 (95% CI 1.00, 1.03). For Ewing sarcoma, there were no significant associations between mortality and overall Townsend score, nor its components for any time period. For both tumours increasing mortality was associated with less urban and more remote rural areas. This study found that for osteosarcoma, early mortality was associated with residence at diagnosis in areas of higher unemployment, suggesting risk of early death may be socio-economically determined. For both tumours, distance from urban centres may lead to greater risk of early death. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pain-to-hospital times, cardiovascular risk factors, and early intrahospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brković E

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eliana Brković,1 Katarina Novak,2,3 Livia Puljak3 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, 3Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia Background: The aim of the study was to analyze the most recent trends in myocardial infarction (MI care, the number of patients treated for MI and their outcomes, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and pain-to-hospital times in MI patients. Subjects and methods: For 778 patients treated for acute MI at the Coronary Care Unit (CCU of University Hospital Split, Croatia the following data were acquired: outcome during hospitalization (survived, deceased, cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, previous MI, smoking, and pain-to-CCU time. Results: Among 778 patients treated for acute MI, there were 291 (37% women and 487 (63% men. Forty-five patients (6% died during hospitalization, mostly due to cardiogenic shock. An association was found between early intrahospital mortality and the following risk factors: age >70 years, female sex, previous MI, and smoking. Median pain-to-call time was 2 hours, and median time from the onset of pain to arrival into the CCU was 4 hours. There were 59 (7.6% patients admitted to the CCU within recommended 90 minutes. Diabetic comorbidity was not associated with early death or with longer time from pain to emergency calls. Conclusion: Some of the risk factors associated with adverse outcomes in MI are modifiable. Prehospital delay of 4 hours observed in patients who suffered an MI is too long, and more effort should be devoted to investments in health care and education of the general public regarding chest pain symptoms. Keywords: prehospital delay, ischemic heart disease

  7. Tree mortality from fire and bark beetles following early and late season prescribed fires in a Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwilk, Dylan W.; Knapp, Eric E.; Ferrenberg, Scott; Keeley, Jon E.; Caprio, Anthony C.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last century, fire exclusion in the forests of the Sierra Nevada has allowed surface fuels to accumulate and has led to increased tree density. Stand composition has also been altered as shade tolerant tree species crowd out shade intolerant species. To restore forest structure and reduce the risk of large, intense fires, managers have increasingly used prescription burning. Most fires prior to EuroAmerican settlement occurred during the late summer and early fall and most prescribed burning has taken place during the latter part of this period. Poor air quality and lack of suitable burn windows during the fall, however, have resulted in a need to conduct more prescription burning earlier in the season. Previous reports have suggested that burning during the time when trees are actively growing may increase mortality rates due to fine root damage and/or bark beetle activity. This study examines the effects of fire on tree mortality and bark beetle attacks under prescription burning during early and late season. Replicated early season burn, late season burn and unburned control plots were established in an old-growth mixed conifer forest in the Sierra Nevada that had not experienced a fire in over 120 years. Although prescribed burns resulted in significant mortality of particularly the smallest tree size classes, no difference between early and late season burns was detected. Direct mortality due to fire was associated with fire intensity. Secondary mortality due to bark beetles was not significantly correlated with fire intensity. The probability of bark beetle attack on pines did not differ between early and late season burns, while the probability of bark beetle attack on firs was greater following early season burns. Overall tree mortality appeared to be primarily the result of fire intensity rather than tree phenology at the time of the burns. Early season burns are generally conducted under higher fuel moisture conditions, leading to less fuel

  8. Effectiveness of egg immersion in aqueous solutions of thiamine and thiamine analogs for reducing early mortality syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S.B.; Brown, L.R.; Brown, M.; Moore, K.; Villella, M.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Williston, B.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Tillitt, D.E.; Zajicek, J.L.; Wolgamood, M.

    2005-01-01

    Protocols used for therapeutic thiamine treatments in salmonine early mortality syndrome (EMS) were investigated in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush and coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch to assess their efficacy. At least 500 mg of thiamine HCl/L added to egg baths was required to produce a sustained elevation of thiamine content in lake trout eggs. Thiamine uptake from egg baths was not influenced by a pH ranging from 5.5 to 7.5 or by a water hardness between 2 and 200 mg CaCO3/L. There was poorer thiamine uptake when initial thiamine levels were low, suggesting that current treatment regimes may not be as effective when thiamine levels are severely depressed and that higher treatment doses are necessary. Exposure of eggs to the more lipid-soluble thiamine analog allithiamine (1,000 mg/L) during water hardening increased egg thiamine levels by 1.5-2.5 nmol/g and was completely effective at reversing EMS. Another more lipid-soluble thiamine analog, benfotiamine (100 mg/L), reduced EMS but did not produce detectable increases in egg thiamine content. Although benfotiamine may be more effective than thiamine at mitigating EMS, it is more expensive than thiamine HCl or allithiamine. In addition, there still needs to be a more thorough examination of dose-response relationships. We conclude that allithiamine is an alternative to the use of thiamine in egg baths as a therapeutic treatment for salmonid EMS. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  9. Gene transcription ontogeny of thyroid-axis development in early-life stage fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disruption of thyroid hormone signaling is a form of endocrine disruption that is of concern to both human health and ecosystems. Research is being conducted to define the biological targets chemicals may interact with to disrupt thyroid hormone signaling and the stages in develo...

  10. Toxicity of effluents from gasoline stations oil-water separators to early life stages of zebrafish Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Romulo Nepomuceno; Mariz, Célio Freire; Paulo, Driele Ventura de; Carvalho, Paulo S M

    2017-07-01

    Used petroleum hydrocarbons and gasoline stations runoff are significant sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to aquatic ecosystems. Samples of the final effluent of oil-water-separators were collected at gasoline stations in the metropolitan region of Recife, Brazil, before release to sewage or rainwater systems. Effluent soluble fractions (ESF) were prepared and bioassays were performed according to the Fish Embryo Toxicity Test. The test involved exposing zebrafish Danio rerio embryos to dilutions of the ESFs for 96 h, with daily examination of lethality and sublethal morphological effects integrated through the General Morphology Score (GMS), based on the achievement of developmental hallmarks. Frequencies of abnormalities were recorded after exposures. ESF LC50-96h (lethal concentration to 50% of exposed embryos) in the most toxic effluent achieved 8.9% (v/v), equivalent to 11 μg phenanthrene equivalents L -1 . GMS scores indicated significantly delayed embryo-larval development at ESF dilutions of 10% and 20% from effluents of all gas stations. Major abnormalities detected after the 96 h exposure included the presence of a yolk sac not fully absorbed coupled with the lack of an inflated swim bladder, lack of both pectoral fins, and the failure to develop a protruding mouth. Effective equivalent PAH concentrations that induce a 50% frequency of larvae without an inflated swim bladder (EC50) were 4.9 μg phenanthrene L -1 , 21.8 μg naphthalene L -1 , and 34.1 μg chrysene L -1 . This study shows that PAHs in ESFs from gas stations oil water separators are toxic to zebrafish, contributing to the toxicity of urban storm waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Crafting a gene expression timeline for the thyroid in the early-life stages of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis plays a number of critical roles in chordate physiology including regulation of metabolism, growth, and development. While the role of the HPT axis and thyroid hormone signaling in mammalian and amphibian development is well establis...

  12. An Evaluation of Molybdenum Toxicity to the Oligochaete, Tubifex tubifex, and Early-Life Stages of Brown Trout, Salmo trutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Brett T; Quinteros, Claudio; Burnett-Seidel, Charlene; Elphick, James R

    2017-06-01

    Limited data are available describing the aquatic toxicity of molybdenum in freshwater environments, making it difficult to assess the aquatic risk to freshwater organisms. In order to increase available information on the aquatic toxicity of molybdenum, a 96-h LC50 test with the oligochaete Tubifex tubifex and an 85-day development test using brown trout, Salmo trutta, were conducted. The T. tubifex test resulted in an LC50 value of 2782 mg/L. No adverse effects were observed on brown trout survival or length in the concentrations tested, however an IC10 value for growth (wet weight) was determined to be 202 mg/L. Whole body fish tissue concentrations for molybdenum increased in all treatment concentrations tested, although bioconcentration factors decreased at greater exposure concentrations, and ranged from 0.13 at an exposure concentration of 20 mg/L to 0.04 at an exposure of 1247 mg/L. A body burden of 26.0 mg/kg was associated with reduced wet weight.

  13. Strong Effects of Temperature on the Early Life Stages of a Cold Stenothermal Fish Species, Brown Trout (Salmo trutta L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réalis-Doyelle, Emilie; Pasquet, Alain; De Charleroy, Daniel; Fontaine, Pascal; Teletchea, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Temperature is the main abiotic factor that influences the life cycle of poikilotherms. The present study investigated the thermal tolerance and phenotypic plasticity of several parameters (development time, morphometric measures, bioenergetics) for both embryos and fry of a cold stenothermal fish species, brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in order to allow for a holistic evaluation of the potential effects of temperature. Five temperatures (4°C, 6°C, 8°C, 10°C, and 12°C) were tested, and the effects of temperature were analyzed at three stages: hatching, emergence, and first food intake. A mean of 5,440 (S.E. ± 573) eggs, coming from seven females and seven males (seven families) captured close to Linkebeek (Belgium), were used for each temperature. Maximum survival of well-formed fry at first food intake and better use of energy budget were found at 6°C and 8°C, temperatures at which the possible contribution to the next generation should therefore be greatest. At 12°C, the experimental population fell dramatically (0.9% survival rate for well-formed fry at first food intake), and fry had almost no yolk sac at first food intake. The present results on survival at 12°C are in accordance with predictions of a sharp decrease in brown trout numbers in France over the coming decades according to climate change projections (1°C to 5°C temperature rise by 2100 for France). At 10°C, there was also a lower survival rate (55.4% at first food intake). At 4°C, the survival rate was high (76.4% at first food intake), but the deformity rate was much higher (22% at first food intake) than at 6°C, 8°C, and 10°C. The energetic budget showed that at the two extreme temperatures (4°C and 12°C) there was less energy left in the yolk sac at first food intake, suggesting a limited ability to survive starvation.

  14. NeemAzal T/S – toxicity to early-life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chromcová, L.; Blahová, J.; Živná, D.; Plhalová, L.; Casuscelli di Tocco, F.; Divišová, L.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Faggio, C.; Tichý, F.; Svobodová, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2015), s. 23-30 ISSN 0375-8427 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Neemazal T/S * embryo-larval toxicity test * azadirachtin * oxidative stress * histopathology * insecticide Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.560, year: 2015

  15. Use of various acute, sublethal and early life-stage tests to evaluate the toxicity of refinery effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherry, J.; Scott, B.; Dutka, B.

    1997-01-01

    The toxicities of effluents from three Ontario, Canada, refineries were assessed with microbes, plants, invertebrates, and fish. Acute toxicity was assessed by the Microtox test, an assay based on electron transport activity in submitochondrial particles, and Daphnia magna (water flea); growth of Selenastrum capricornutum (alga); growth of Lemna minor (aquatic plant); germination of Lactuca sativa (nonaquatic plant); survival, growth, and maturation of Panagrellus redivivus (nematode); and genotoxicity in the SOS-Chromotest. Only the Microtox test and the submitochondrial particle test detected acute toxicity in the effluent samples. Reduced survival and sublethal responses were caused by some effluents, but not all effluents were toxic, and none caused a response in all of the tests applied. The results suggest that the effluent treatment systems used at Ontario refineries have largely eliminated acute toxicity to the organisms in their test battery. Although reduced survival and sublethal effects were detected in some of the effluents, the effects were minor. Some of the tests provided evidence, albeit weak, of variations in the responses of the test organisms to a temporal series of effluent samples. Not unexpectedly, there were also minor differences in the responses of the tests to effluents from the three refineries. The fathead minnow test seems to be a sensitive indicator of the sublethal toxicity of Ontario refinery effluents

  16. Impaired swim bladder inflation in early-life stage fathead minnows exposed to a deiodinase inhibitor, iopanoic acid (presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated whether inhibition of deiodinase, the enzyme which converts thyroxine (T4) to the more biologically-active form, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), would impact inflation of the posterior and/or anterior chamber of the swim bladder, processes previously ...

  17. Impaired swim bladder inflation in early-life stage fathead minnows exposed to a deiodinase inhibitor, iopanoic acid (article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated whether inhibition of deiodinase, the enzyme which converts thyroxine (T4) to the more biologically-active form, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), would impact inflation of the posterior and/or anterior chamber of the swim bladder, processes previously ...

  18. Impaired swim bladder inflation in early-life stage fathead minnows exposed to a deiodinase inhibitor, iopanoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thyroid axis plays a critical role in teleost fish development. The present study investigated whether inhibition of deiodinase, the enzyme which converts thyroxine (T4), to the more biologically-active form, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), would impact inflation of the posteri...

  19. Gene transcription ontogeny of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid-axis development in early-life stage fathead minnow and zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disruption of thyroid hormone signaling is a form of endocrine disruption that is of concern to both human health and ecosystems. Research is being conducted to define the biological targets chemicals may interact with to disrupt thyroid hormone signaling and the stages in develo...

  20. Toxic effects, bioconcentration and depuration of verapamil in the early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steinbach, C.; Fedorova, G.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Grabicová, K.; Máchová, J.; Grabic, R.; Valentová, O.; Kocour Kroupová, H.

    461-462, 461-462 (2013), s. 198-206 ISSN 0048-9697 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Bioconcentration * Embryo-larval test * Half-life time * Heart rate * Verapamil Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 3.163, year: 2013

  1. Husbandry streaa during early life stages affects the stress response and health status of juvenile sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varsamos, S.; Flik, G.; Pepin, S.E.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Breuil, G.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In aquaculture management it is important to establish objective criteria to assess health and welfare of the fish. Here we show that European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) confronted with husbandry-associated stress (tank cleaning, i.e. scrubbing, and water temperature variation) during

  2. Effect of early versus late or no tracheostomy on mortality and pneumonia of critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siempos, Ilias I; Ntaidou, Theodora K; Filippidis, Filippos T; Choi, Augustine M K

    2015-02-01

    Delay of tracheostomy for roughly 2 weeks after translaryngeal intubation of critically ill patients is the presently recommended practice and is supported by findings from large trials. However, these trials were suboptimally powered to detect small but clinically important effects on mortality. We aimed to assess the benefit of early versus late or no tracheostomy on mortality and pneumonia in critically ill patients who need mechanical ventilation. We systematically searched PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Web of Science, DOAJ, the Cochrane Library, references of relevant articles, scientific conference proceedings, and grey literature up to Aug 31, 2013, to identify randomised controlled trials comparing early tracheostomy (done within 1 week after translaryngeal intubation) with late (done any time after the first week of mechanical ventilation) or no tracheostomy and reporting on mortality or incidence of pneumonia in critically ill patients under mechanical ventilation. Our primary outcomes were all-cause mortality during the stay in the intensive-care unit and incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Mortality during the stay in the intensive-care unit was a composite endpoint of definite intensive-care-unit mortality, presumed intensive-care-unit mortality, and 28-day mortality. We calculated pooled odds ratios (OR), pooled risk ratios (RR), and 95% CIs with a random-effects model. All but complications analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. Analyses of 13 trials (2434 patients, 648 deaths) showed that all-cause mortality in the intensive-care unit was not significantly lower in patients assigned to the early versus the late or no tracheostomy group (OR 0·80, 95% CI 0·59-1·09; p=0·16). This result persisted when we considered only trials with a low risk of bias (511 deaths; OR 0·80, 95% CI 0·59-1·09; p=0·16; eight trials with 1934 patients). Incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia was lower in mechanically ventilated patients assigned

  3. Association between oxidative stress index and post-CPR early mortality in cardiac arrest patients: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Hasan; Türkdoğan, Kenan Ahmet; Zorlu, Ali; Aydın, Hüseyin; Kurt, Recep; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2015-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a series of lifesaving actions that improve the chance of survival following cardiac arrest (CA). Many clinical and laboratory parameters, such as the presence of asystole, out-of-hospital CPR, and duration of cardiac arrest, are associated with failed CPR in patients with CA. Asystole is a state of no cardiac electrical activity, along with the absence of contractions of the myocardium and absence of cardiac output. Oxidative stress index (OSI), which is the ratio of total oxidative status to total antioxidant status, increases by ischemia-reperfusion injury. We investigated whether OSI levels in patients with CA could predict early mortality after CPR. This study has a prospective observational cohort design. Five patients with a history of cancer, four patients who developed hemolysis in their blood, six patients who were transferred to our hospital from other hospitals, and six patients in whom blood samples for OSI could not be stored properly were excluded. Finally, a total of 90 in-hospital or out-of-hospital CA patients and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers as the control group were evaluated prospectively. The patients were classified according to the CPR response into a successful group (n=46) and a failed group (n=44). Comparisons between groups were performed using one-way ANOVA with post hoc analysis by Tukey's HSD or independent samples t-test and the Kruskal-Wallis tests or Mann- Whitney U test for normally and abnormally distributed data, respectively. Also, we used chi-square test, Spearman's correlation test, univariate and multible logistic regression analyses, and receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. OSI was 3.0±4.0, 5.6±4.3, and 8.7±3.8 in the control group, the successful CPR group, and the failed CPR group, respectively (pOSI on admission, ischemia-modified albumin, presence of asystole, mean duration of cardiac arrest, out-of-hospital CPR, pH, and potassium and sodium levels were

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid cytokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph N Jarvis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the host immune response during cryptococcal meningitis (CM is of critical importance for the development of immunomodulatory therapies. We profiled the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF immune-response in ninety patients with HIV-associated CM, and examined associations between immune phenotype and clinical outcome. CSF cytokine, chemokine, and macrophage activation marker concentrations were assayed at disease presentation, and associations between these parameters and microbiological and clinical outcomes were examined using principal component analysis (PCA. PCA demonstrated a co-correlated CSF cytokine and chemokine response consisting primarily of Th1, Th2, and Th17-type cytokines. The presence of this CSF cytokine response was associated with evidence of increased macrophage activation, more rapid clearance of Cryptococci from CSF, and survival at 2 weeks. The key components of this protective immune-response were interleukin (IL-6 and interferon-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 levels also made a modest positive contribution to the PC1 score. A second component of co-correlated chemokines was identified by PCA, consisting primarily of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α. High CSF chemokine concentrations were associated with low peripheral CD4 cell counts and CSF lymphocyte counts and were predictive of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS. In conclusion CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and IRIS in HIV-associated CM. We speculate that the presence of even minimal Cryptococcus-specific Th1-type CD4+ T-cell responses lead to increased recruitment of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS, more effective activation of CNS macrophages and microglial cells, and faster organism clearance; while high CNS chemokine levels may predispose to over recruitment or inappropriate recruitment of immune cells to the CNS and

  5. RETRACTED: Effect of early versus late or no tracheostomy on mortality of critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siempos, Ilias I; Ntaidou, Theodora K; Filippidis, Filippos T; Choi, Augustine M K

    2014-06-26

    Delay of tracheostomy for roughly 2 weeks after translaryngeal intubation of critically ill patients is the presently recommended practice and is supported by findings from large trials. However, these trials were suboptimally powered to detect small but clinically important effects on mortality. We aimed to assess the mortality benefit of early versus late or no tracheostomy in critically ill patients who need mechanical ventilation. We systematically searched PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Web of Science, DOAJ, the Cochrane Library, references of relevant articles, scientific conference proceedings, and grey literature up to Aug 31, 2013, to identify randomised controlled trials comparing early tracheostomy (done within 1 week after translaryngeal intubation) with late (done any time after the first week of mechanical ventilation) or no tracheostomy and reporting on mortality or incidence of pneumonia in critically ill patients under mechanical ventilation. Our primary outcomes were all-cause mortality during the stay in the intensive-care unit and incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. We calculated pooled odds ratios (OR), pooled risk ratios (RR), and 95% CIs with a random-effects model. All but complications analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. Analyses of 13 trials (2434 patients, 800 deaths) showed that all-cause mortality in the intensive-care unit was significantly lower in patients assigned to the early versus the late or no tracheostomy group (OR 0·72, 95% CI 0·53-0·98; p=0·04). This finding represents an 18% reduction in the relative risk of death, translating to a 5% absolute improvement in survival (from 65% to 70%). This result persisted when we considered only trials with a low risk of bias (663 deaths; OR 0·68, 95% CI 0·49-0·95; p=0·02; eight trials with 1934 patients). There was no evidence of a difference between the compared groups for 1-year mortality (788 deaths; RR 0·93, 95% CI 0·85-1·02; p=0·14; three trials with

  6. Effects of pyrene exposure and temperature on early development of two co-existing Arctic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenvald, Julie Cornelius; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Hjorth, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Oil exploration is expected to increase in the near future in Western Greenland. At present, effects of exposure to oil compounds on early life-stages of the ecologically important Calanus spp. are unknown. We investigated the effects of the oil compound pyrene, on egg hatching and naupliar...... with temperature at high pyrene concentration in C. finmarchicus. Both Calanus species were affected by pyrene exposure but C. finmarchicus was more sensitive compared to C. glacialis. Lowered growth rate and increased mortality of the naupliar stages entail reduced recruitment to copepod populations. Exposure...

  7. Diapause in the Boll Weevil (Coleopetra: Curculionidae) : Life-Stage Sensitivity to Enviromental Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terence L. Wagner; Eric J. Villavaso; Jefferey L. Willers

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the diapause response in naturally occurring boll weevils under field and simulated field environments of north Mississippi. Squares containing early-stage weevils were collected in July, August, and September and subsamples from each group were installed into similar dynamic environments in the laboratory. In this manner, some weevils experienced...

  8. Long-term use of amiodarone before heart transplantation significantly reduces early post-transplant atrial fibrillation and is not associated with increased mortality after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivinius R

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rasmus Rivinius,1 Matthias Helmschrott,1 Arjang Ruhparwar,2 Bastian Schmack,2 Christian Erbel,1 Christian A Gleissner,1 Mohammadreza Akhavanpoor,1 Lutz Frankenstein,1 Fabrice F Darche,1 Patrick A Schweizer,1 Dierk Thomas,1 Philipp Ehlermann,1 Tom Bruckner,3 Hugo A Katus,1 Andreas O Doesch1 1Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, 2Department of Cardiac Surgery, Heidelberg University Hospital, 3Institute for Medical Biometry and Informatics, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Background: Amiodarone is a frequently used antiarrhythmic drug in patients with end-stage heart failure. Given its long half-life, pre-transplant use of amiodarone has been controversially discussed, with divergent results regarding morbidity and mortality after heart transplantation (HTX.Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term use of amiodarone before HTX on early post-transplant atrial fibrillation (AF and mortality after HTX.Methods: Five hundred and thirty patients (age ≥18 years receiving HTX between June 1989 and December 2012 were included in this retrospective single-center study. Patients with long-term use of amiodarone before HTX (≥1 year were compared to those without long-term use (none or <1 year of amiodarone. Primary outcomes were early post-transplant AF and mortality after HTX. The Kaplan–Meier estimator using log-rank tests was applied for freedom from early post-transplant AF and survival.Results: Of the 530 patients, 74 (14.0% received long-term amiodarone therapy, with a mean duration of 32.3±26.3 months. Mean daily dose was 223.0±75.0 mg. Indications included AF, Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. Patients with long-term use of amiodarone before HTX had significantly lower rates of early post-transplant AF (P=0.0105. Further, Kaplan–Meier analysis of freedom from early post-transplant AF showed significantly lower rates of AF in this

  9. Evaluating the long-term consequences of air pollution in early life: geographical correlations between coal consumption in 1951/1952 and current mortality in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David I W; Osmond, Clive; Southall, Humphrey; Aucott, Paula; Jones, Alexander; Holgate, Stephen T

    2018-04-27

    To evaluate associations between early life air pollution and subsequent mortality. Geographical study. Local government districts within England and Wales. Routinely collected geographical data on the use of coal and related solid fuels in 1951-1952 were used as an index of air pollution. We evaluated the relationship between these data and both all-cause and disease-specific mortality among men and women aged 35-74 years in local government districts between 1993 and 2012. Domestic (household) coal consumption had the most powerful associations with mortality. There were strong correlations between domestic coal use and all-cause mortality (relative risk per SD increase in fuel use 1.124, 95% CI 1.123 to 1.126), and respiratory (1.238, 95% CI 1.234 to 1.242), cardiovascular (1.138, 95% CI 1.136 to 1.140) and cancer mortality (1.073, 95% CI 1.071 to 1.075). These effects persisted after adjustment for socioeconomic indicators in 1951, current socioeconomic indicators and current pollution levels. Coal was the major cause of pollution in the UK until the Clean Air Act of 1956 led to a rapid decline in consumption. These data suggest that coal-based pollution, experienced over 60 years ago in early life, affects human health now by increasing mortality from a wide variety of diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Analysis of early mortality rates of survivors exposed within Japanese wooden houses in Hiroshima by exposed distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru; Ohkita, Takeshi.

    1986-01-01

    Mortality for 3,215 A-bomb survivors who were exposed in Japanese wooden houses at ≤ 1,300 m from the hypocenter on August 6, 1945 was examined. An overall mortality was 51 % (1,640/3,215 survivors) within 61 days after the exposure. According to the distance from the hypocenter, it was 100 % in A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤ 600 m, and 20 % in those exposed between 1,201 m and 1,300 m. The mortality decreased with increasing the distance from the hypocenter. In conjunction with the duration after the exposure and the distance from the hypocenter, the mortality was 100 % 12 days after the exposure in survivors exposed at ≤ 600 m. In survivors exposed at > 800 m, the mortality tended to be higher two weeks after the exposure than immediately after that. The distance from the hypocenter causing 50 per cent mortality was estimated to be 1,026 m from August 6 to October 5; 1,002 m from August 6 to September 10; 887 m from August 7 to September 10; and 867 m from August 20 to September 16. However, these figures were probably lower than the real mortality rates, since no information was available when whole family died. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Using Human Life Stage PBPK/PD Model Predictions of Perchlorate-Induced Iodide Inhibition to Inform Risk Assessment in Sensitive Populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mattie, David R; Sterner, Teresa R; Merrill, Elaine A; Clewell, Rebecca A

    2006-01-01

    .... Recently, existing physiologically based pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models across life-stages in rat and in adult human were expanded to describe inhibition kinetics during-perinatal development in humans...

  12. Life History Consequences of the Facultative Expression of a Dispersal Life Stage in the Phoretic Bulb Mite (Rhizoglyphus robini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques A Deere

    Full Text Available Life history traits play an important role in population dynamics and correlate, both positively and negatively, with dispersal in a wide range of taxa. Most invertebrate studies on trade-offs between life history traits and dispersal have focused on dispersal via flight, yet much less is known about how life history trade-offs influence species that disperse by other means. In this study, we identify effects of investing in dispersal morphology (dispersal expression on life history traits in the male dimorphic bulb mite (Rhizoglyphus robini. This species has a facultative juvenile life stage (deutonymph during which individuals can disperse by phoresy. Further, adult males are either fighters (which kill other mites or benign scramblers. Here, in an experiment, we investigate the effects of investing in dispersal on size at maturity, sex and male morph ratio, and female lifetime reproductive success. We show that life history traits correlate negatively with the expression of the dispersal stage. Remarkably, all males that expressed the dispersal life stage developed into competitive fighters and none into scramblers. This suggests that alternative, male reproductive strategies and dispersal should not be viewed in isolation but considered concurrently.

  13. Species Turnover across Different Life Stages from Seedlings to Canopy Trees in Swamp Forests of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa G. Fontes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes driving the assembly of swamp forest communities have been poorly explored. We analyzed natural regeneration and adult tree communities data of a swamp gallery forest in Central Brazil to discuss the role of ecological filters in shaping plant species turnover in a successional gradient. Species data of 120 plots were used to assess species turnover between natural regeneration and adult tree communities. Our analyses were based on 4995 individuals belonging to 72 species. Community patterns were discerned using ordination analyses. A clear floristic turnover among plant life stages was distinguished. Regeneration community of swamp forests was richer in species composition than the adult community. Tree species commonly found in nonflooded gallery forests were present in the regeneration plots but not in the adult community. Differences in the floristic composition of these two strata suggest that not all species in the seedling stage can stand permanent flooding conditions and only a few tolerant species survive to become adult trees. We propose that natural disturbances play an important role by altering limiting resources, allowing seeds of nonflooded forest species to germinate. This paper elucidates the turnover between plant life stages in swamp forests and suggests mechanisms that may shape these communities.

  14. Occurrence of the off-host life stages of Tunga penetrans (Siphonaptera) in various environments in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardi, P M; Calheiros, C M L; Campelo-Junior, E B; Duarte, E M; Heukelbach, J; Feldmeier, H

    2010-06-01

    To explore the local transmission dynamics of Tunga penetrans in brazil, 134 soil samples from various environments were collected in three different endemic regions of the country and checked for the presence of the flea's larvae, pupae and adults. the samples, which came from an urban slum in the north-east, a village of xavante indians in the central-west and a community of yanomami indians living in traditional longhouses (malocas) in the north, were categorized as indoor, outdoor or indoor-outdoor (the latter representing samples collected in the malocas). The proportion of samples found positive for T. penetrans was lowest in the slum (9.3%) and highest in the Yanomami village (32.0%; P=0.01). Soil samples collected below bedsteads or hammocks or from the indoor resting places of dogs were significantly more likely to be positive than the indoor samples collected at other sites (65.0% v. 35.0%; P=0.02). There was no evidence indicating that the presence of T. penetrans in a soil sample was markedly affected by soil temperature, air temperature or air humidity. As no life stages of T. penetrans were found in any outdoor sample, it seems likely that, in resource-poor settings in Brazil, most transmission of T. penetrans occurs indoors. Control measures against the off-host life stages of T. penetrans should therefore be targeted at particular indoor micro-environments.

  15. Natural variability of biochemical biomarkers in the macro-zoobenthos: Dependence on life stage and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarduelli, Lucia; Giacchini, Roberto; Parenti, Paolo; Migliorati, Sonia; Di Brisco, Agnese Maria; Vighi, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Biomarkers are widely used in ecotoxicology as indicators of exposure to toxicants. However, their ability to provide ecologically relevant information remains controversial. One of the major problems is understanding whether the measured responses are determined by stress factors or lie within the natural variability range. In a previous work, the natural variability of enzymatic levels in invertebrates sampled in pristine rivers was proven to be relevant across both space and time. In the present study, the experimental design was improved by considering different life stages of the selected taxa and by measuring more environmental parameters. The experimental design considered sampling sites in 2 different rivers, 8 sampling dates covering the whole seasonal cycle, 4 species from 3 different taxonomic groups (Plecoptera, Perla grandis; Ephemeroptera, Baetis alpinus and Epeorus alpicula; Tricoptera, Hydropsyche pellucidula), different life stages for each species, and 4 enzymes (acetylcholinesterase, glutathione S-transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and catalase). Biomarker levels were related to environmental (physicochemical) parameters to verify any kind of dependence. Data were statistically elaborated using hierarchical multilevel Bayesian models. Natural variability was found to be relevant across both space and time. The results of the present study proved that care should be paid when interpreting biomarker results. Further research is needed to better understand the dependence of the natural variability on environmental parameters. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3158-3167. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  16. [Calcium and bone metabolism across women's life stages. Bone metabolism of women in primary amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Tsuyoshi

    For development of the bone during adolescence, the increased estrogen plays an important role especially in young women as well as GH/IGF-Ⅰ system. Although primary amenorrhea can be caused by various pathological factors, almost of cases have a dysfunction of estrogen secretory systems. For Turner syndrome, which is well-known disease with primary amenorrhea,it is generally recommended that the estrogen therapy is started at adolescence and gradually increased up to adult dose level. Recently studies about the adequate dose of estrogen and the adequate age of adult dose in Turner syndrome revealed that intervention with adult dose of estrogen is required as soon as possible for gaining better bone mineral. In the point of view for bone fragility at the future, early diagnosis and adequate intervention for primary amenorrhea is important.

  17. Left ventricular ejection fraction to predict early mortality in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Xavier; Théroux, Pierre

    2005-08-01

    Improvement in risk stratification of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a gateway to a more judicious treatment. This study examines whether the routine determination of left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) adds significant prognostic information to currently recommended stratifiers. Several predictors of inhospital mortality were prospectively characterized in a registry study of 1104 consecutive patients, for whom an EF was determined, who were admitted for an ACS. Multiple regression models were constructed using currently recommended clinical, electrocardiographic, and blood marker stratifiers, and values of EF were incorporated into the models. Age, ST-segment shifts, elevation of cardiac markers, and the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score all predicted mortality (P model improved the prediction of mortality (C statistic 0.73 vs 0.67). The odds of death increased by a factor of 1.042 for each 1% decrement in EF. By receiver operating curves, an EF cutoff of 48% provided the best predictive value. Mortality rates were 3.3 times higher within each TIMI risk score stratum in patients with an EF of 48% or lower as compared with those with higher. The TIMI risk score predicts inhospital mortality in a broad population of patients with ACS. The further consideration of EF adds significant prognostic information.

  18. Leap frog in slow motion: Divergent responses of tree species and life stages to climatic warming in Great Basin subalpine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, Brian V; North, Malcolm P; Millar, Constance I; Latimer, Andrew M

    2018-02-01

    In response to climate warming, subalpine treelines are expected to move up in elevation since treelines are generally controlled by growing season temperature. Where treeline is advancing, dispersal differences and early life stage environmental tolerances are likely to affect how species expand their ranges. Species with an establishment advantage will colonize newly available habitat first, potentially excluding species that have slower establishment rates. Using a network of plots across five mountain ranges, we described patterns of upslope elevational range shift for the two dominant Great Basin subalpine species, limber pine and Great Basin bristlecone pine. We found that the Great Basin treeline for these species is expanding upslope with a mean vertical elevation shift of 19.1 m since 1950, which is lower than what we might expect based on temperature increases alone. The largest advances were on limber pine-dominated granitic soils, on west aspects, and at lower latitudes. Bristlecone pine juveniles establishing above treeline share some environmental associations with bristlecone adults. Limber pine above-treeline juveniles, in contrast, are prevalent across environmental conditions and share few environmental associations with limber pine adults. Strikingly, limber pine is establishing above treeline throughout the region without regard to site characteristic such as soil type, slope, aspect, or soil texture. Although limber pine is often rare at treeline where it coexists with bristlecone pine, limber pine juveniles dominate above treeline even on calcareous soils that are core bristlecone pine habitat. Limber pine is successfully "leap-frogging" over bristlecone pine, probably because of its strong dispersal advantage and broader tolerances for establishment. This early-stage dominance indicates the potential for the species composition of treeline to change in response to climate change. More broadly, it shows how species differences in dispersal

  19. Accentuated lines in the enamel of primary incisors from skeletal remains: A contribution to the explanation of early childhood mortality in a medieval population from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żądzińska, Elżbieta; Lorkiewicz, Wiesław; Kurek, Marta; Borowska-Strugińska, Beata

    2015-07-01

    Physiological disruptions resulting from an impoverished environment during the first years of life are of key importance for the health and biological status of individuals and populations. Studies of growth processes in archaeological populations point to the fact that the main causes of childhood mortality in the past are to be sought among extrinsic factors. Based on this assumption, one would expect random mortality of children, with the deceased individuals representing the entire subadult population. The purpose of this study is to explore whether differences in early childhood survival are reflected in differences in deciduous tooth enamel, which can provide an insight into the development of an individual during prenatal and perinatal ontogeny. Deciduous incisors were taken from 83 individuals aged 2.0-6.5 years from a medieval inhumation cemetery dated AD 1300-1600. Prenatal and postnatal enamel formation time, neonatal line width, and the number of accentuated lines were measured using an optical microscope. The significantly wider neonatal line and the higher frequency of accentuated lines in the enamel of the incisors of children who died at the age of 2-3 years suggest the occurrence of stronger or more frequent stress events in this group. These results indicate that in skeletal populations mortality was not exclusively determined by random external factors. Individuals predisposed by an unfavorable course of prenatal and perinatal growth were more likely to die in early childhood. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Five-year evolution of reperfusion strategies and early mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Carlos; Bochaton, Thomas; Flocard, Elodie; Serre, Patrice; Tomasevic, Danka; Mewton, Nathan; Bonnefoy-Cudraz, Eric

    2017-10-01

    To assess 5-year evolutions in reperfusion strategies and early mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Using data from the French RESCUe network, we studied patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated in mobile intensive care units between 2009 and 2013. Among 2418 patients (median age 62 years; 78.5% male), 2119 (87.6%) underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention and 299 (12.4%) pre-hospital thrombolysis (94.0% of whom went on to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention). Use of primary percutaneous coronary intervention increased from 78.4% in 2009 to 95.9% in 2013 ( P trend 90 minutes delay group (83.0% in 2009 to 97.7% in 2013; P trend <0.001 versus 34.1% in 2009 to 79.2% in 2013; P trend <0.001). In-hospital (4-6%) and 30-day (6-8%) mortalities remained stable from 2009 to 2013. In the RESCUe network, the use of primary percutaneous coronary intervention increased from 2009 to 2013, in line with guidelines, but there was no evolution in early mortality.

  1. Early diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination associated with higher female mortality and no difference in male mortality in a cohort of low birthweight children: an observational study within a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Roth, Adam; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida Maria; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Lausch, Karen Rokkedal; Lund, Najaaraq; Rasmussen, Julie; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Whittle, Hilton; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2012-08-01

    Studies from low-income countries have suggested that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine provided after Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a negative effect on female survival. The authors examined the effect of DTP in a cohort of low birthweight (LBW) infants. 2320 LBW newborns were visited at 2, 6 and 12 months of age to assess nutritional and vaccination status. The authors examined survival until the 6-month visit for children who were DTP vaccinated and DTP unvaccinated at the 2-month visit. Two-thirds of the children had received DTP at 2 months and 50 deaths occurred between the 2-month and 6-month visits. DTP vaccinated children had a better anthropometric status for all indices than DTP unvaccinated children. Small mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) was the strongest predictor of mortality. The death rate ratio (DRR) for DTP vaccinated versus DTP unvaccinated children differed significantly for girls (DRR 2.45; 95% CI 0.93 to 6.45) and boys (DRR 0.53; 95% CI 0.23 to 1.20) (p=0.018, homogeneity test). Adjusting for MUAC, the overall effect for DTP vaccinated children was 2.62 (95% CI 1.34 to 5.09); DRR was 5.68 (95% CI 1.83 to 17.7) for girls and 1.29 (95% CI 0.56 to 2.97) for boys (p=0.023, homogeneity test). While anthropometric indices were a strong predictor of mortality among boys, there was little or no association for girls. Surprisingly, even though the children with the best nutritional status were vaccinated early, early DTP vaccination was associated with increased mortality for girls.

  2. Use of cumulative mortality data in patients with acute myocardial infarction for early detection of variation in clinical practice: observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrance, R A; Dorsch, M F; Sapsford, R J; Mackintosh, A F; Greenwood, D C; Jackson, B M; Morrell, C; Robinson, M B; Hall, A S

    2001-08-11

    Use of cumulative mortality adjusted for case mix in patients with acute myocardial infarction for early detection of variation in clinical practice. Observational study. 20 hospitals across the former Yorkshire region. All 2153 consecutive patients with confirmed acute myocardial infarction identified during three months. Variable life-adjusted displays showing cumulative differences between observed and expected mortality of patients; expected mortality calculated from risk model based on admission characteristics of age, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure. The performance of two individual hospitals over three months was examined as an example. One, the smallest district hospital in the region, had a series of 30 consecutive patients but had five more deaths than predicted. The variable life-adjusted display showed minimal variation from that predicted for the first 15 patients followed by a run of unexpectedly high mortality. The second example was the main tertiary referral centre for the region, which admitted 188 consecutive patients. The display showed a period of apparently poor performance followed by substantial improvement, where the plot rose steadily from a cumulative net lives saved of -4 to 7. These variations in patient outcome are unlikely to have been revealed during conventional audit practice. Variable life-adjusted display has been integrated into surgical care as a graphical display of risk-adjusted survival for individual surgeons or centres. In combination with a simple risk model, it may have a role in monitoring performance and outcome in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

  3. Parent-Teacher Association, Soup Kitchen, Church, or the Local Civic Club? Life Stage Indicators of Volunteer Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Dawn C; King, Katherine; Matz-Costa, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Gaps in existing literature hinder our knowledge of how life stage-related identities (e.g., worker, parent, student, etc.) influence individuals' decisions about whether and how to get involved in community service. Interventions to increase volunteerism throughout the life course require a more nuanced understanding of this relationship. We use multinomial logistic models to analyze how life phase factors relate to involvement in different types of voluntary organizations across the adult life course in the Chicago Community Adult Health Study. Half of the adults did not volunteer. Those who did volunteer were categorized as charitable, youth-oriented, religious, civic, or multidomain volunteers. Age, employment, family structure, demographics, and self-rated health differentially predicted volunteering in specific domains. Findings from this study suggest that recruitment and retention efforts employed by different nonprofit organizations may be more effective if they take into consideration the life phase factors that enhance or detract from likelihood of engagement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Sensitivity of Calanus spp. copepods to environmental changes in the North Sea using life-stage structured models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maar, Marie; Møller, Eva Friis; Gürkan, Zeren

    2013-01-01

    Sea because it allows them to utilize the spring bloom more efficiently and independently of the timing and amount of oceanic inflow. The combination of lower temperatures, higher overwintering and oceanic inflow simulating the situation in the 1960s largely favoured C. finmarchicus and their relative......, overwintering and oceanic inflow in the North Sea. Life-stage structured models are validated against CPR data and vertical distributions north of the Dogger Bank in the North Sea for the reference year 2005. The model shows that 1) ± 2°C changes from the current level mainly influence the seasonal patterns...... and not the relative occurrence of the two species, 2) changes due to oceanic inflow mainly appeared in the northern and southern part of the North Sea connected to the NE Atlantic and not in the central part and 3) the abundance of Calanus species were very sensitive to the degree of overwintering within the North...

  5. Hunting billbug (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) life cycle and damaging life stage in North Carolina, with notes on other billbug species abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doskocil, J P; Brandenburg, R L

    2012-12-01

    In the southeastern United States, hunting billbug, Sphenophorus venatus vestitus Chittenden, adults are often observed in turfgrass, but our knowledge of their biology and ecology is limited. Field surveys and experiments were conducted to determine the species composition, life cycle, damaging life stage, and distribution of billbugs within the soil profile in turfgrass in North Carolina. Linear pitfall trapping revealed six species of billbug, with the hunting billbug making up 99.7% of all beetles collected. Data collected from turf plus soil sampling suggest that hunting billbugs have two overlapping generations per year in North Carolina and that they overwinter as both adults and larvae. Field experiments provided evidence that adult hunting billbugs are capable of damaging warm season turfgrasses.

  6. Elvis to Eminem: quantifying the price of fame through early mortality of European and North American rock and pop stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Mark A; Hennell, Tom; Lushey, Clare; Hughes, Karen; Tocque, Karen; Ashton, John R

    2007-10-01

    Rock and pop stars are frequently characterised as indulging in high-risk behaviours, with high-profile deaths amongst such musicians creating an impression of premature mortality. However, studies to date have not quantified differences between mortality experienced by such stars and general populations. This study measures survival rates of famous musicians (n = 1064) from their point of fame and compares them to matched general populations in North America and Europe. We describe and utilise a novel actuarial survival methodology which allows quantification of excess post-fame mortality in pop stars. Individuals from North America and Europe performing on any album in the All-Time Top 1000 albums from the music genres rock, punk, rap, R&B, electronica and new age. From 3 to 25 years post fame, both North American and European pop stars experience significantly higher mortality (more than 1.7 times) than demographically matched populations in the USA and UK, respectively. After 25 years of fame, relative mortality in European (but not North American) pop stars begins to return to population levels. Five-year post-fame survival rates suggest differential mortality between stars and general populations was greater in those reaching fame before 1980. Pop stars can suffer high levels of stress in environments where alcohol and drugs are widely available, leading to health-damaging risk behaviour. However, their behaviour can also influence would-be stars and devoted fans. Collaborations between health and music industries should focus on improving both pop star health and their image as role models to wider populations.

  7. Reduced Mortality With Partial-Breast Irradiation for Early Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidya, Jayant S., E-mail: jayant.vaidya@ucl.ac.uk [Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Department of Surgery, Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Department of Surgery, Whittington Health, London (United Kingdom); Bulsara, Max [Department of Biostatistics, University of Notre Dame, Fremantle, WA (Australia); Wenz, Frederik [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Centre Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Coombs, Nathan [Department of Surgery, Great Western Hospital, Swindon (United Kingdom); Singer, Julian [Department of Clinical Oncology, The Princess Alexandra Hospital, Harlow (United Kingdom); Ebbs, Stephen [Croydon University Hospital, Croydon (United Kingdom); Massarut, Samuele [National Cancer Institute, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, Aviano (Italy); Saunders, Christobel [School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA (Australia); Douek, Michael [Department of Surgery, Kings College London, London (United Kingdom); Williams, Norman R. [Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Joseph, David [Departments of Radiation Oncology, and Surgery, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA (Australia); Tobias, Jeffrey S. [Department of Clinical Oncology, University College London Hospitals, London (United Kingdom); Baum, Michael [Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: With earlier detection and more effective treatment, mortality from breast cancer continues to fall and it has become increasingly important to reduce the toxicity of treatments. Partial-breast radiation therapy, which focuses radiation to the tumor bed, may achieve this aim. We analyzed mortality differences in randomized trials of partial-breast irradiation (PBI). Methods and Materials: We included data from published randomized trials of PBI (alone or as part of a risk-adapted approach) versus whole-breast irradiation (WBI) for invasive breast cancer suitable for breast-conserving therapy. We identified trials using PubMed and Google searches with the terms “partial breast irradiation” OR “intraoperative radiotherapy” OR “IMRT” OR (“accelerated” AND “radiation”) AND “randomised/randomized,” as well as through discussion with colleagues in the field. We calculated the proportion of patients who had events in each randomized arm at 5 years' follow-up and created a forest plot using Stata, version 14.1. Results: We identified 9 randomized trials of PBI versus WBI in invasive breast cancer; 5-year outcomes were available for non–breast cancer mortality in 5 trials (n=4489) and for breast cancer mortality in 4 trials (n=4231). The overall mortality was 4.9%. There was no detectable heterogeneity between the trials for any of the outcomes. There was no difference in the proportion of patients dying of breast cancer (difference, 0.000% [95% confidence interval (CI), −0.7 to +0.7]; P=.999). Non–breast cancer mortality with PBI was lower than with WBI (difference, 1.1% [95% CI, −2.1% to −0.2%]; P=.023). Total mortality with PBI was also lower than with WBI (difference, 1.3% [95% CI, −2.5% to 0.0%]; P=.05). Conclusions: Use of PBI instead of WBI in selected patients results in a lower 5-year non–breast cancer and overall mortality, amounting to a 25% reduction in relative terms. This information should be included when

  8. Reduced Mortality With Partial-Breast Irradiation for Early Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, Jayant S.; Bulsara, Max; Wenz, Frederik; Coombs, Nathan; Singer, Julian; Ebbs, Stephen; Massarut, Samuele; Saunders, Christobel; Douek, Michael; Williams, Norman R.; Joseph, David; Tobias, Jeffrey S.; Baum, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: With earlier detection and more effective treatment, mortality from breast cancer continues to fall and it has become increasingly important to reduce the toxicity of treatments. Partial-breast radiation therapy, which focuses radiation to the tumor bed, may achieve this aim. We analyzed mortality differences in randomized trials of partial-breast irradiation (PBI). Methods and Materials: We included data from published randomized trials of PBI (alone or as part of a risk-adapted approach) versus whole-breast irradiation (WBI) for invasive breast cancer suitable for breast-conserving therapy. We identified trials using PubMed and Google searches with the terms “partial breast irradiation” OR “intraoperative radiotherapy” OR “IMRT” OR (“accelerated” AND “radiation”) AND “randomised/randomized,” as well as through discussion with colleagues in the field. We calculated the proportion of patients who had events in each randomized arm at 5 years' follow-up and created a forest plot using Stata, version 14.1. Results: We identified 9 randomized trials of PBI versus WBI in invasive breast cancer; 5-year outcomes were available for non–breast cancer mortality in 5 trials (n=4489) and for breast cancer mortality in 4 trials (n=4231). The overall mortality was 4.9%. There was no detectable heterogeneity between the trials for any of the outcomes. There was no difference in the proportion of patients dying of breast cancer (difference, 0.000% [95% confidence interval (CI), −0.7 to +0.7]; P=.999). Non–breast cancer mortality with PBI was lower than with WBI (difference, 1.1% [95% CI, −2.1% to −0.2%]; P=.023). Total mortality with PBI was also lower than with WBI (difference, 1.3% [95% CI, −2.5% to 0.0%]; P=.05). Conclusions: Use of PBI instead of WBI in selected patients results in a lower 5-year non–breast cancer and overall mortality, amounting to a 25% reduction in relative terms. This information should be included when

  9. Structure and dynamics of the gut bacterial microbiota of the bark beetle, Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) across their life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-Roblero, Carlos Iván; Hernández-García, Juan Alfredo; Gonzalez-Escobedo, Roman; Soto-Robles, L Viridiana; Rivera-Orduña, Flor N; Zúñiga, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Bark beetles play an important role as agents of natural renovation and regeneration in coniferous forests. Several studies have documented the metabolic capacity of bacteria associated with the gut, body surface, and oral secretions of these insects; however, little is known about how the bacterial community structure changes during the life cycle of the beetles. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of the bacterial community of the gut of the bark beetle D. rhizophagus during the insect's life cycle using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 4 bacterial phyla, 7 classes, 15 families and 23 genera were identified. The α-diversity was low, as demonstrated in previous studies. The dominant bacterial taxa belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae families. This low α-diversity can be attributed to the presence of defensive chemical compounds in conifers or due to different morpho-physiological factors in the gut of these insects acting as strong selective factors. Members of the genera Rahnella, Serratia, Pseudomonas and Propionibacterium were found at all life stages, and the first three genera, particularly Rahnella, were predominant suggesting the presence of a core microbiome in the gut. Significant differences in β-diversity were observed, mainly due to bacterial taxa present at low frequencies and only in certain life stages. The predictive functional profiling indicated metabolic pathways related to metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrates, and membrane transport as the most significant in the community. These differences in the community structure might be due to several selective factors, such as gut compartmentalization, physicochemical conditions, and microbial interactions.

  10. Feasibility of Classifying Life Stages and Searching for the Determinants: Results from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 1996-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi-Sheng; Wu, Hau-Tieng; Wu, Chao-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Life stages are not clearly defined and significant determinants for the identification of stages are not discussed. This study aims to test a data-driven approach to define stages and to identify the major determinants. This study analyzed the data on the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey interviewees from 1996 to 2011 in the United States. This study first selected features with the Spearman's correlation to remove redundant variables and to increase computational feasibility. The retained 430 variables were log transformed, if applicable. Sixty-four nominal variables were replaced with 164 binominal variables. This led to 525 variables that were available for principal component analysis (PCA). Life stages were proposed to be periods of ages with significantly different values of principal components (PCs). After retaining subjects followed throughout the panels, 244,089 were eligible for PCA, and the number of civilians was estimated to be 4.6 billion. The age ranged from 0 to 90 years old (mean = 35.88, 95% CI = 35.67-36.09). The values of the first PC were not significant from age of 6 to 13, 30 to 41, 46 to 60, and 76 to 90 years (adjusted p  > 0.5), and the major determinants were related to functional status, employment, and poverty. Important stages and their major determinants, including the status of functionality and cognition, income, and marital status, can be identified. Identifying stages of stability or transition will be important for research that relies on a research population with similar characteristics to draw samples for observation or intervention. This study sets an example of defining stages of transition and stability across ages with social and health data. Among all available variables, cognitive limitations, income, and poverty are important determinants of these stages.

  11. Structure and dynamics of the gut bacterial microbiota of the bark beetle, Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae across their life stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Iván Briones-Roblero

    Full Text Available Bark beetles play an important role as agents of natural renovation and regeneration in coniferous forests. Several studies have documented the metabolic capacity of bacteria associated with the gut, body surface, and oral secretions of these insects; however, little is known about how the bacterial community structure changes during the life cycle of the beetles. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of the bacterial community of the gut of the bark beetle D. rhizophagus during the insect's life cycle using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 4 bacterial phyla, 7 classes, 15 families and 23 genera were identified. The α-diversity was low, as demonstrated in previous studies. The dominant bacterial taxa belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae families. This low α-diversity can be attributed to the presence of defensive chemical compounds in conifers or due to different morpho-physiological factors in the gut of these insects acting as strong selective factors. Members of the genera Rahnella, Serratia, Pseudomonas and Propionibacterium were found at all life stages, and the first three genera, particularly Rahnella, were predominant suggesting the presence of a core microbiome in the gut. Significant differences in β-diversity were observed, mainly due to bacterial taxa present at low frequencies and only in certain life stages. The predictive functional profiling indicated metabolic pathways related to metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrates, and membrane transport as the most significant in the community. These differences in the community structure might be due to several selective factors, such as gut compartmentalization, physicochemical conditions, and microbial interactions.

  12. Low hemorrhage-related mortality in trauma patients in a Level I trauma center employing transfusion packages and early thromboelastography-directed hemostatic resuscitation with plasma and platelets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär I; Sørensen, Anne Marie Møller; Larsen, Claus F

    2013-01-01

    (ISS), transfusion therapy, and mortality were registered. Hemostatic resuscitation was based on a massive transfusion protocol encompassing transfusion packages and thromboelastography (TEG)-guided therapy. RESULTS: A total of 182 patients were included (75% males, median age 43 years, ISS of 17, 92....... Nonsurvivors had lower clot strength by kaolin-activated TEG and TEG functional fibrinogen and lower kaolin-tissue factor-activated TEG α-angle and lysis after 30 minutes compared to survivors. None of the TEG variables were independent predictors of massive transfusion or mortality. CONCLUSION: Three......-fourths of the patients transfused with plasma or PLTs within 24 hours received these in the first 2 hours. Hemorrhage caused 14% of the deaths. We introduced transfusion packages and early TEG-directed hemostatic resuscitation at our hospital 10 years ago and this may have contributed to reducing hemorrhagic trauma...

  13. Inhaled /sup 147/Pm and/or total-body gamma radiation: Early mortality and morbidity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipy, R.E.; Lauhala, K.E.; McGee, D.R.; Cannon, W.C.; Buschbom, R.L.; Decker, J.R.; Kuffel, E.G.; Park, J.F.; Ragan, H.A.; Yaniv, S.S.; Scott, B.R.

    1989-05-01

    Rats were given doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation and/or lung burdens of /sup 147/Pm (in fused aluminosilicate particles) within lethal ranges in an experiment to determine and compare morbidity and mortality responses for the radiation insults within 1 year after exposure. Radiation-induced morbidity was assessed by measuring changes in body weights, hematologic parameters, and pulmonary-function parameters. Acute mortality and morbidity from inhaled promethium were caused primarily by radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis that occurred more than 53 days after exposure. Acute mortality and morbidity from total-body gamma irradiation occurred within 30 days of exposure and resulted from the bone-marrow radiation syndrome. Gamma radiation caused transient morbidity, reflected by immediately depressed blood cell levels and by reduced body weight gain in animals that survived the acute gamma radiation syndrome. Inhaled promethium caused a loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function, but its only effect on blood cell levels was lymphocytopenia. Combined gamma irradiation and promethium lung burdens were synergistic, in that animals receiving both radiation insults had higher morbidity and mortality rates than would be predicted based on the effect of either kind of radiation alone. Promethium lung burdens enhanced the effect of gamma radiation in rats within the first 30 days of exposure, and gamma radiation enhanced the later effect of promethium lung burdens. 70 refs., 68 figs., 21 tabs.

  14. Effect of early detection and treatment on malaria related maternal mortality on the north-western border of Thailand 1986-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose McGready

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality is high in developing countries, but there are few data in high-risk groups such as migrants and refugees in malaria-endemic areas. Trends in maternal mortality were followed over 25 years in antenatal clinics prospectively established in an area with low seasonal transmission on the north-western border of Thailand.All medical records from women who attended the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit antenatal clinics from 12(th May 1986 to 31(st December 2010 were reviewed, and maternal death records were analyzed for causality. There were 71 pregnancy-related deaths recorded amongst 50,981 women who attended antenatal care at least once. Three were suicide and excluded from the analysis as incidental deaths. The estimated maternal mortality ratio (MMR overall was 184 (95%CI 150-230 per 100,000 live births. In camps for displaced persons there has been a six-fold decline in the MMR from 499 (95%CI 200-780 in 1986-90 to 79 (40-170 in 2006-10, p<0.05. In migrants from adjacent Myanmar the decline in MMR was less significant: 588 (100-3260 to 252 (150-430 from 1996-2000 to 2006-2010. Mortality from P. falciparum malaria in pregnancy dropped sharply with the introduction of systematic screening and treatment and continued to decline with the reduction in the incidence of malaria in the communities. P. vivax was not a cause of maternal death in this population. Infection (non-puerperal sepsis and P. falciparum malaria accounted for 39.7 (27/68 % of all deaths.Frequent antenatal clinic screening allows early detection and treatment of falciparum malaria and substantially reduces maternal mortality from P. falciparum malaria. No significant decline has been observed in deaths from sepsis or other causes in refugee and migrant women on the Thai-Myanmar border.

  15. The experience of work-life balance across family-life stages in Switzerland: a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wepfer, Ariane G; Brauchli, Rebecca; Jenny, Gregor J; Hämmig, Oliver; Bauer, Georg F

    2015-12-24

    The division of paid and unpaid labor in families continues to be highly gendered with men doing more paid work and women doing more unpaid care work. This is especially true for life stages with young children. Our study investigates the subjective experience of demands in the work and the private domain and the experience of work-life balance across family-life stages as a consequence of this gendered division of labor. We used data from a survey study on work-life issues and health in four large companies in Switzerland (N = 3664). In line with our hypotheses, subjective work and private demands were predicted by an interaction of family-life stages and gender. Specifically, during the primary child-rearing family-life stages, women experience more private demands than men while men experience more work demands, regardless of level of employment. Furthermore, women who work part time experience more work-life balance than women who work full time and more than men who work part or full time during the primary child-rearing family-life stages. Results are discussed in terms of a gendered work-life experience across the life course and the need for part-time work for both genders. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning our results' implications for public health considerations.

  16. A SURVEY OF SIZES AND WEIGHTS OF BEMISIA TABACI(HOMOPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE)B BIOTYPE LIFE STAGES FROM FIELD GROWN COTTON AND CANTALOUPES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-chiChu; JamesS.Buckner; KamilKarut; ThomasP.Freeman; DennisR.Nelson; ThomasJ.Henneberryl

    2003-01-01

    Size and weight measurements were made for all the life stages of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) B biotype from field grown cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) and cantaloupe ( Cucumis melo L., var. cantalupensis )in Phoenix, AZ and Fargo, ND, USA in 2000 and 2001. Nymphal volumes were derived from the measurements.The average nymphal volume increase for settled 1 st to the late 4th instar was exponential. The greatest increase in body volume occurred during development from the 3rd to early 4th instar. Nymphs on cotton leaves were wider,but not longer compared with those on cantaloupe. Ventral and dorsal depth ratios of nymphal bodies from 1st tolate 4th instars from cantaloupe leaves were significantly greater compared with those from cotton leaves. During nymphal development from 1st to 4th instar, the average (from the two host species) ventral body half volume in-creased by nearly 51 times compared with an increase of 28 times for the dorsal body half volume. Adult female and male average lengths, from heads to wing tips, were 1 126 μm and 953 μm, respectively. Average adult fe-male and male weights were 39 and 17 μg, respectively. Average widths, lengths, and weights of eggs from cottonand cantaloupe were, 99 μm, 197 μm, and 0.8 μg, respectively. Average widths, lengths, and weights for exu-viae of non-parasitized nymphs from both cotton and cantaloupe were 492 μm, 673 μm, and 1.20 μg, respective-ly; and widths, lengths, and weights of parasitized nymph exuviae were 452 μm, 665 μm, and 3.62 μg, respec-tively. Both exuviae from non-parasitized and parasitized nymphs from cotton leaves were wider, longer, and heavier than those from cantaloupe leaves.

  17. Early Mortality Was Highly and Strongly Associated with Functional Status in Incident Japanese Hemodialysis Patients: A Cohort Study of the Large National Dialysis Registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Yazawa

    Full Text Available Although dialysis is typically started in an effort to prolong survival, mortality is reportedly high in the first few months. However, it remains unclear whether this is true in Japanese patients who tend to have a better prognosis than other ethnicities, and if health conditions such as functional status (FS at initiation of dialysis influence prognosis.We investigated the epidemiology of early death and its association with FS using Japanese national registry data in 2007, which included 35,415 patients on incident dialysis and 7,664 with FS data. The main outcome was early death, defined as death within 3 months after initiation of hemodialysis (HD. The main predictor was FS at initiation of HD. Levels of functional disability were categorized as follows: severe (bedridden, moderate (overt difficulties in exerting basic activities of daily living, or mild/none (none or some functional disabilities.Early death remained relatively common, especially among elderly patients (overall: 7.1%; those aged ≥80 years: 15.8%. Severely and even only a moderately impaired FS were significantly associated with early death after starting dialysis (adjusted risk ratios: 3.93 and 2.38, respectively. The incidence of early death in those with impaired FS increased with age (36.5% in those with severely impaired FS and aged ≥80 years.Early death after starting dialysis was relatively common, especially among the elderly, even in Japanese patients. Further, early death was significantly associated with impaired FS at initiation of HD.