WorldWideScience

Sample records for early life stage

  1. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  2. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  3. Good daily habits during the early stages of life determine success throughout life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kohyama

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses hypothesis that sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during the early stages of life are indispensable to a successful life. Successful life was defined according to the famous cohort studies of Mischel's and Dunedin. To assess the hypothesis, neuronal elements presumably affecting early daily habits and successful life are reviewed. The effect of sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during early stages of life on the development of the prefrontal cortex has been found to be the key issue to verify the hypothesis. Socioeconomic status is found to be another issue to be studied.

  4. In vivo research using early life stage models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Rita; Bhogal, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    Scientists, for a variety of reasons, need to carry out in vivo research. Since experiments that require the use of adult animals pose various logistical, economical and ethical issues, the use of embryonic and larval forms of some organisms are potentially attractive alternatives. Early life stages are appealing because, in general, large numbers of individuals can be maintained in relatively simple housing, minimising costs, and their use involves fewer legal formalities. With this succinct review, we aim to provide an overview of different biological issues that have been successfully explored with the help of eggs, embryos and larvae from the frog, zebrafish and chicken.

  5. Quality of life of Lithuanian women with early stage breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ostapenko Valerijus; Veseliunas Jonas; Bulotiene Giedre

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In the last decades, there have been no studies carried out in Lithuania on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the quality of life of Lithuanian women with the early stage of breast cancer nine months after surgery and its dependence on surgical strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy and the social and demographic status of the patients. Methods Seventy-seven patients with early stage breast cancer filled in the ...

  6. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  7. Sensitivity of early life stages of white sturgeon, rainbow trout, and fathead minnow to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, David W; Oellers, Johanna; Doering, Jon A; Hollert, Henner; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (WS; Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in several parts of the United States and Canada, attributed primarily to poor recruitment caused by degradation of habitats, including pollution with contaminants such as metals. Little is known about sensitivity of WS to contaminants or metals such as copper (Cu). Here, acute (96 h) mortalities of WS early life stages due to exposure to Cu under laboratory conditions are reported. Two standard test species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), were exposed in parallel to determine relative sensitivity among species. Swim-up larvae [15 days post-hatch (dph)] and early juveniles (40-45 dph) of WS were more sensitive to Cu (LC(50) = 10 and 9-17 μg/L, respectively) than were yolksac larvae (8 dph; LC(50) = 22 μg/L) and the later juvenile life stage (100 dph; LC(50) = 54 μg/L). WS were more sensitive to Cu than rainbow trout and fathead minnow at all comparable life stages tested. Yolksac larvae of rainbow trout and fathead minnow were 1.8 and 4.6 times, respectively, more tolerant than WS, while swim-up and juvenile life stages of rainbow trout were between 1.4- and 2.4-times more tolerant than WS. When plotted in a species sensitivity distribution with other fishes, the mean acute toxicity value for early life stage WS was ranked between the 1st and 2nd centile. The WS life stage of greatest Cu sensitivity coincides with the beginning of active feeding and close association with sediment, possibly increasing risk. WS early life stages are sensitive to aqueous copper exposure and site-specific water quality guidelines and criteria should be evaluated closely to ensure adequate protection.

  8. Recovery in eastern Baltic cod: is increased recruitment caused by decreased predation on early life stages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment in the s......Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment...

  9. Quality of life of Lithuanian women with early stage breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bulotiene, Giedre; Veseliunas, Jonas; Ostapenko, Valerijus

    2007-01-01

    Background In the last decades, there have been no studies carried out in Lithuania on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the quality of life of Lithuanian women with the early stage of breast cancer nine months after surgery and its dependence on surgical strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy and the social and demographic status of the patients. Methods Seventy-seven patients with early stage breast cancer filled in the FACT-An q...

  10. Implementation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in the early stages of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees...... of the paper is a definition of the requirements for performance measurement techniques and a performance measurement environment necessary to support life cycle evaluation throughout the evaluation of early stages of a product system....... of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around the state-of-the-art in eco-design, from literature and personal experience and further provides eco-design life cycle assessment strategies. The result...

  11. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  12. Temperature influences selective mortality during the early life stages of a coral reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauna L Rankin

    Full Text Available For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD, early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality.

  13. Effects of Columbia River water on early life-stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompsett, Amber R; Vardy, David W; Higley, Eric; Doering, Jon A; Allan, Marcie; Liber, Karsten; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-03-01

    The white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population that resides in the Columbia River in British Columbia (BC), Canada, has suffered recruitment failures for more than three decades. During the summers of 2008 and 2009, studies were performed to determine whether exposure to water downstream of a metal smelter in Trail, BC affected survival or growth of early life-stages of white sturgeon through 60+ days post-fertilization (dpf). In both years, there were no significant differences in survival of fish that were exposed to water from downstream compared to water from upstream of the smelter. At 20-21dpf, average mortality was 2.4 percent and 12 percent in upstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively, which was similar to the average mortality of 3.8 percent and 7.2 percent in downstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Relatively great mortality after 20-21dpf complicated analysis of the subchronic exposure, but use of a survival analysis indicated that the average fish died at 25-29dpf, regardless of whether the water to which they were exposed came from upstream or downstream of the smelter. In addition, measured concentrations of metals in river water were less than the threshold for adverse effects on early life stages of white sturgeon. Based upon these analyses, it is not likely that current concentrations of metals in the Columbia River in southern BC are adversely affecting survival of early life stages of white sturgeon larvae.

  14. Early life stages of plaice Pleuronectes platessa in cold-water nurseries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Martinho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plaice Pleuronectes platessa (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the most important commercial flatfish in the European continent, whose captures have reduced considerably in recent decades due to the high pressure of fisheries. Despite the wide distribution of this species, most studies have focused on the North Sea, its central area of occurrence, and very little information is available concerning the populations living at the northern limit of its distribution. Age determination is essential to study population dynamics of commercially important species such as plaice, and can be inferred through otolith microstructure analysis. The aim of this work was to investigate the timing of early life events (spawning, larval, metamorphosis and settlement stage duration and growth of juvenile plaice in two cold-water nursery areas in northern Norway (Valosen estuary and Storfjord. A latitudinal cline was observed in the main life-history events, such as spawning, and the onset of larval and metamorphosis stages. Settlement to benthic habitats (which coincides with metamorphosis was estimated to have occurred between mid-May and early-September (peak from the end May and mid July in the Valosen, and between the end of May and early July (peak in June in the Storfjord. In the Storfjord area, larval and metamorphosis stage duration seemed to be shorter, probably due to a reduced window of opportunity for growth and survival at the northernmost extremes. Size at settlement was negatively related with hatch day, implying that the older larvae were larger at settlement, a consequence of higher fecundity of females earlier in the spawning season. A significant relationship between size at settlement and total length reinforced this evidence. The results demonstrate the influence of latitude in the early life stages of plaice, mainly by the regulatory effect of temperature in the growth and survival of larvae and juveniles.

  15. Quality of life of Lithuanian women with early stage breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostapenko Valerijus

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decades, there have been no studies carried out in Lithuania on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the quality of life of Lithuanian women with the early stage of breast cancer nine months after surgery and its dependence on surgical strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy and the social and demographic status of the patients. Methods Seventy-seven patients with early stage breast cancer filled in the FACT-An questionnaire twice: one week and nine months after the surgery. The main age of the patients was 53.1 ± 10.6 years. We distinguished the mastectomy group and breast conserving treatment (BCT group with/without chemotherapy. The groups were identical in their social and demographic status (age, education, occupation and marital status. Changes in the quality of life in these groups were compared nine months after surgery. Results Nine months after surgery, the overall quality of life was found worse in both mastectomy and BCT groups. Changes were induced by the worsening of the emotional and social well-being. The quality of life became worse in the mastectomy plus chemotherapy sample. No changes were detected in the mastectomy group without chemotherapy. In addition, the multivariate analysis showed that the marital status was quite a significant determinant of the functional well-being. Conclusion Nine months after surgery, the study revealed a worsening of the overall quality of life in both groups of patients – those who had undergone mastectomy and BCT. The quality of life became considerably worse in the mastectomy plus chemotherapy group. Marital status was found to exert the most considerable influence on the women's quality of life in comparison with other social and demographic factors.

  16. Quality of life of Lithuanian women with early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulotiene, Giedre; Veseliunas, Jonas; Ostapenko, Valerijus

    2007-06-26

    In the last decades, there have been no studies carried out in Lithuania on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the quality of life of Lithuanian women with the early stage of breast cancer nine months after surgery and its dependence on surgical strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy and the social and demographic status of the patients. Seventy-seven patients with early stage breast cancer filled in the FACT-An questionnaire twice: one week and nine months after the surgery. The main age of the patients was 53.1 +/- 10.6 years. We distinguished the mastectomy group and breast conserving treatment (BCT) group with/without chemotherapy. The groups were identical in their social and demographic status (age, education, occupation and marital status). Changes in the quality of life in these groups were compared nine months after surgery. Nine months after surgery, the overall quality of life was found worse in both mastectomy and BCT groups. Changes were induced by the worsening of the emotional and social well-being. The quality of life became worse in the mastectomy plus chemotherapy sample. No changes were detected in the mastectomy group without chemotherapy. In addition, the multivariate analysis showed that the marital status was quite a significant determinant of the functional well-being. Nine months after surgery, the study revealed a worsening of the overall quality of life in both groups of patients--those who had undergone mastectomy and BCT. The quality of life became considerably worse in the mastectomy plus chemotherapy group. Marital status was found to exert the most considerable influence on the women's quality of life in comparison with other social and demographic factors.

  17. Toxicity of chlorine dioxide to early life stages of marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hose, J.E.; Di Fiore, D.; Parker, H.S.; Sciarrotta, T.

    1989-03-01

    With increasing interest in minimizing exposure to chlorine, many electric generating and water treatment plants are exploring the use of alternative biocides such as chlorine dioxide. Unlike chlorine, chlorine dioxide does not react with ambient organic compounds to form potentially carcinogenic trihalomethanes such as chloroform. However, the toxicity of chlorine dioxide to aquatic organisms has received little study. No information exists on chlorine toxicity to marine organisms. Furthermore, West Coast electric power stations usually discharge chlorine intermittently once or twice daily and substantial mixing of receiving water occurs between treatments. Therefore, this study sought to obtain information on chlorine dioxide toxicity using an exposure schedule typical of generating stations which discharge into the marine environment. Early life history stages of a plant, invertebrate and fish were tested since these stages are generally acknowledged to be most sensitive to toxicants and are the stages that are most likely to be exposed to the effluent.

  18. Ontogeny and growth of early life stages of captive-bred European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Munk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    -sustained aquaculture of this high-value and critically endangered species. Statement of relevance: European eel is a high-value species in aquaculture, however, production is presently hampered by reliance on wild caught fry. Captive production of glass eels will reopen markets in Europe and Asia, benefiting European...... of viable eggs and larvae of European eel, providing the basis for studies on early life stages of this species in captivity. In this study, we describe and illustrate morphological characteristics of eggs, embryos, and larvae from fertilization to termination of the yolk sac stage and provide a comparison...... with additional commercially important eel species. Furthermore, we model growth during the critical first phase in larval ontogeny, i.e. the yolk sac stage, and test for maternal effects. The eggs of A. anguilla typically have numerous oil droplets that coalesce into a single large oil droplet, while the zygote...

  19. Toxicity of naproxen sodium and its mixture with tramadol hydrochloride on fish early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Blahova, Jana; Doubkova, Veronika; Prokes, Miroslav; Tichy, Frantisek; Fiorino, Emma; Faggio, Caterina; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2017-08-31

    Pharmaceuticals occur in water bodies as a consequence of their incomplete removal during waste water treatment processes. The occurence of pharmaceuticals in surface waters as well as their possible impact on aquatic vertebrates have received considerable attention in recent years. However, there is still a lack of informations on the chronic effects of widely used drugs as well as their possible mixture toxicity on non-target aquatic vertebrates as well as their possible mixture toxicity. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of naproxen sodium on early life stages of fish and evaluate its mixture toxicity with tramadol hydrochloride, which was assessed in our earlier study as a single substance. Two embryo-larval toxicity tests with common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were performed according to the OECD guideline 210 (Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test) in order to assess the subchronic toxicity of naproxen sodium and tramadol hydrochlorid-naproxen sodium mixture at the concentrations of 10; 50; 100 and 200 μg/L. These experiments were conducted for 32 days. The subchronic exposure to naproxen sodium and naproxen sodium and tramadol hydrochloride mixture had a strong effect on the early life stages of common carp. Hatching, developmental rate, morphology, histopathology and, in the case of the naproxen sodium and tramadol hydrochloride mixture, mortality were influenced. The bioindicators of oxidative stress were also influenced. The LOEC was determined at 10 μg/L for both naproxen sodium and naproxen sodium and tramadol hydrochloride mixture. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Effect of salicylic acid on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivna, Dana; Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Prokes, Miroslav; Divisova, Lenka; Stancova, Vlasta; Dobsikova, Radka; Tichy, Frantisek; Siroka, Zuzana; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2015-07-01

    Environmental concentrations of pharmaceutical residues are often low; nevertheless, they are designed to have biological effects at low doses. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of salicylic acid on the growth and development of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) early life stages with respect to antioxidant defence enzymes. An embryo-larval toxicity test lasting 34 days was performed according to OECD guidelines 210 (Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test). The tested concentrations were 0.004, 0.04, 0.4, 4 and 20mg/l of salicylic acid. Hatching, early ontogeny, and both morphometric and condition characteristics were significantly influenced by subchronic exposure to salicylic acid. Also, changes in antioxidant enzyme activity and an increase in lipid peroxidation were observed. The LOEC value was found to be 0.004 mg/l salicylic acid. The results of our study confirm the suggestion that subchronic exposure to salicylic acid at environmental concentrations can have significant effects on aquatic vertebrates.

  1. Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on the Early Life Stages of Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debusschere, Elisabeth; De Coensel, Bert; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Botteldooren, Dick; Hostens, Kris; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenically generated underwater noise in the marine environment is ubiquitous, comprising both intense impulse and continuous noise. The installation of offshore wind farms across the North Sea has triggered a range of ecological questions regarding the impact of anthropogenically produced underwater noise on marine wildlife. Our interest is on the impact on the "passive drifters," i.e., the early life stages of fish that form the basis of fish populations and are an important prey for pelagic predators. This study deals with the impact of pile driving and operational noise generated at offshore wind farms on Dicentrarchus labrax (sea bass) larvae.

  2. Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Clemmesen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to atmospheric accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 in surface seawater increases and the pH decreases. This process known as ocean acidification might have severe effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. The present study addresses the effect of ocean acidification on early developmental stages, the most sensitive stages in life history, of the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.. Eggs of the Atlantic herring were fertilized and incubated in artificially acidified seawater (pCO2 1260, 1859, 2626, 2903, 4635 μatm and a control treatment (pCO2 480 μatm until the main hatch of herring larvae occurred. The development of the embryos was monitored daily and newly hatched larvae were sampled to analyze their morphometrics, and their condition by measuring the RNA/DNA ratios. Elevated pCO2 neither affected the embryogenesis nor the hatch rate. Furthermore the results showed no linear relationship between pCO2 and total length, dry weight, yolk sac area and otolith area of the newly hatched larvae. For pCO2 and RNA/DNA ratio, however, a significant negative linear relationship was found. The RNA concentration at hatching was reduced at higher pCO2 levels, which could lead to a decreased protein biosynthesis. The results indicate that an increased pCO2 can affect the metabolism of herring embryos negatively. Accordingly, further somatic growth of the larvae could be reduced. This can have consequences for the larval fish, since smaller and slow growing individuals have a lower survival potential due to lower feeding success and increased predation mortality. The regulatory mechanisms necessary to compensate for effects of hypercapnia could therefore lead to lower larval survival. Since the recruitment of fish seems to be determined during the early life stages, future research on the factors influencing these stages are of great importance in fisheries science.

  3. Density-dependent coral recruitment displays divergent responses during distinct early life-history stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doropoulos, Christopher; Evensen, Nicolas R; Gómez-Lemos, Luis A; Babcock, Russell C

    2017-05-01

    Population growth involves demographic bottlenecks that regulate recruitment success during various early life-history stages. The success of each early life-history stage can vary in response to population density, interacting with intrinsic (e.g. behavioural) and environmental (e.g. competition, predation) factors. Here, we used the common reef-building coral Acropora millepora to investigate how density-dependence influences larval survival and settlement in laboratory experiments that isolated intrinsic effects, and post-settlement survival in a field experiment that examined interactions with environmental factors. Larval survival was exceptionally high (greater than 80%) and density-independent from 2.5 to 12 days following spawning. By contrast, there was a weak positive effect of larval density on settlement, driven by gregarious behaviour at the highest density. When larval supply was saturated, settlement was three times higher in crevices compared with exposed microhabitats, but a negative relationship between settler density and post-settlement survival in crevices and density-independent survival on exposed surfaces resulted in similar recruit densities just one month following settlement. Moreover, a negative relationship was found between turf algae and settler survival in crevices, whereas gregarious settlement improved settler survival on exposed surfaces. Overall, our findings reveal divergent responses by coral larvae and newly settled recruits to density-dependent regulation, mediated by intrinsic and environmental interactions.

  4. Embryotoxicity of nitrophenols to the early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Zeynep; Şişman, Turgay; Yazıcı, Zehra; Altıkat, Aysun Özen

    2016-08-01

    The nitrophenols (NPs) are water-soluble compounds. These compounds pose a significant health threat since they are priority environmental pollutants. In this study, 2-Nitrophenol (2NP) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) were examined for embryo and early life stage toxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Acute toxicity and teratogenicity of 2NP and DNP were tested for 4 days using zebrafish embryos. The typical lesions observed were no somite formation, incomplete eye and head development, tail curvature, weak pigmentation (≤48 hours postfertilization (hpf)), kyphosis, scoliosis, yolk sac deformity, and nonpigmentation (72 hpf). Also, embryo and larval mortality increased and hatching success decreased. The severity of abnormalities and mortalities were concentration- and compound-dependent. Of the compounds tested, 2,4-DNP was found to be highly toxic to the fish embryos following exposure. The median lethal concentrations and median effective concentrations for 2NP are 18.7 mg/L and 7.9 mg/L, respectively; the corresponding values for DNP are 9.65 mg/L and 3.05 mg/L for 48 h. The chorda deformity was the most sensitive endpoint measured. It is suggested that the embryotoxicity may be mediated by an oxidative phosphorylation uncoupling mechanism. This article is the first to describe the teratogenicity and embryotoxicity of two NPs to the early life stages of zebrafish.

  5. The effect of tramadol hydrochloride on early life stages of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Blahova, Jana; Berankova, Petra; Doubkova, Veronika; Prokes, Miroslav; Tichy, Frantisek; Vecerek, Vladimir; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform the fish embryo acute toxicity test (FET) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the early-life stage toxicity test on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with tramadol hydrochloride. The FET was performed using the method inspired by the OECD guideline 236. Newly fertilized zebrafish eggs were exposed to tramadol hydrochloride at concentrations of 10; 50; 100 and 200μg/l for a period of 144h. An embryo-larval toxicity test on C. carpio was performed according to OECD guideline 210 also with tramadol hydrochloride at concentrations 10; 50; 100 and 200μg/l for a period of 32 days. Hatching was significantly influenced in both acute and subchronic toxicity assays. Subchronic exposure also influenced early ontogeny, both morphometric and condition characteristics and caused changes in antioxidant enzyme activity. The LOEC value was found to be 10μg/l tramadol hydrochloride.

  6. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana E. Lauterstein

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13–16 mg/mL or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND 4–6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq. Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.

  7. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterstein, Dana E; Tijerina, Pamella B; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B; Zelikoff, Judith T

    2016-04-12

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13-16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4-6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.

  8. Modeling polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioaccumulation and metabolism in time-variable early life-stage exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Rooni; McGrath, Joy A; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2008-07-01

    Recent laboratory investigations into the bioaccumulation and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have focused on low-level, time-variable exposures to early life-stage fish. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon body-burden residues reported in these studies were lower than critical body-burden residues predicted by the target lipid model (TLM). To understand this discrepancy, a time-variable uptake and depuration model of PAH bioaccumulation was developed. Kinetic constants were fit using measured exposure and tissue concentrations. The resulting lipid-water partition coefficients (K(LW)) were uncorrelated with the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(OW))--a qualitatively unrealistic finding considering that numerous studies have reported a positive correlation between the two. Because PAHs are known to be metabolized, the comparison of K(LW) with K(OW) suggests that metabolism may be occurring in early life-stage fish. Therefore, the uptake and depuration model was modified to include metabolism while assuming linearity of K(LW) with K(OW). Calculated metabolism rates were positively correlated with K(OW)--a finding qualitatively similar to those of other studies. The present study provides a reasonable explanation for the discrepancy between the TLM predictions and the measured toxic effect levels. Given the time-variable exposure concentrations, the maximum measured body burdens used to relate to toxic effects may be underestimated. In addition, the maximum body burden of parent PAH plus metabolites may be a better measure in relating tissue concentrations to toxic effects. Incorporating these refinements in relating body burdens to toxic effects may result in a better comparison between TLM predictions and measured effect levels.

  9. Dose-Dependent Early Life Stage Toxicities in Xenopus laevis Exposed In Ovo to Selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Anita J; Muscatello, Jorgelina R; Janz, David M

    2015-11-17

    Selenium (Se) is a developmental toxicant in oviparous vertebrates. The adverse reproductive effects of Se toxicity have been predominantly investigated in fishes and birds with only a few studies focusing on amphibians. The objective of this study was to determine tissue-based toxicity thresholds for early life stage Se toxicities in Xenopus laevis as a consequence of in ovo exposure through maternal transfer of dietary Se. Following a 68-day dietary exposure to food augmented with l-selenomethionine (SeMet) at measured concentrations of 0.7 (control), 10.9, 30.4, or 94.2 μg Se/g dry mass (d.m.), adult female X. laevis were bred with untreated males, and resulting embryos were incubated until 5 days postfertilization (dpf). The measured Se concentrations in eggs were 1.6, 10.8, 28.1, and 81.7 μg Se/g d.m., respectively. No biologically significant effects were observed on fertilization success, hatchability, or mortality in offspring. Frequency and severity of morphological abnormalities were significantly greater in 5 dpf tadpoles from the highest exposure group when compared to the control, with eye lens abnormalities being the most prominent of all abnormalities. The estimated EC10 value for frequency of total early life stage abnormalities was 44.9 μg Se/g egg d.m., which suggests that this amphibian species is less sensitive to in ovo Se exposure than most of the fish species studied to date.

  10. Developmental and physiological challenges of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repolho, Tiago; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Dionísio, Gisela; Trübenbach, Katja; Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The ability to understand and predict the effects of ocean warming (under realistic scenarios) on marine biota is of paramount importance, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Here we investigated the impact of predicted environmental warming (+3 °C) on the development, metabolism, heat shock response and antioxidant defense mechanisms of the early stages of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris. As expected, warming shortened embryonic developmental time by 13 days, from 38 days at 18 °C to 25 days at 21 °C. Concomitantly, survival decreased significantly (~29.9 %). Size at hatching varied inversely with temperature, and the percentage of smaller premature paralarvae increased drastically, from 0 % at 18 °C to 17.8 % at 21 °C. The metabolic costs of the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a free planktonic form increased significantly with warming, and HSP70 concentrations and glutathione S-transferase activity levels were significantly magnified from late embryonic to paralarval stages. Yet, despite the presence of effective antioxidant defense mechanisms, ocean warming led to an augmentation of malondialdehyde levels (an indicative of enhanced ROS action), a process considered to be one of the most frequent cellular injury mechanisms. Thus, the present study provides clues about how the magnitude and rate of ocean warming will challenge the buffering capacities of octopus embryos and hatchlings' physiology. The prediction and understanding of the biochemical and physiological responses to warmer temperatures (under realistic scenarios) is crucial for the management of highly commercial and ecologically important species, such as O. vulgaris.

  11. Part 2: Potencies and interactions of polybrominated aromatic hydrocarbons in rainbow trout early life stage mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornung, M.W.; Zabel, E.W.; Peterson, R.E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Safe, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and diphenylethers (PBDPES) in aquatic environments may pose a risk to fish early life stage survival. Following rainbow trout egg microinjection, the potencies of these polybrominated aromatic hydrocarbons were determined using fish specific toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). TEFs are defined as the ratio of TCDD LD{sub 50} to brominated congener LD{sub 50}. Sac fry stage specific TCDD like toxicity included yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, multifocal hemorrhages and craniofacial malformations. TEFs of active congeners were: 2,3,7,8-TBDF = 0.23; 2,3,4,7,8-PBDF = 0.069; 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxBDD = 0.009. No signs of toxicity with 2,2{prime},4,4{prime}-TBDPE, 2,2{prime},3,4,4{prime}-PBDPE, or 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5-PBDPE occurred at egg concentrations up to 126,37 {mu}g/g. Since these congeners occur as complex mixtures, the potential for additive, antagonistic, or synergistic interactions must also be determined for accurate risk assessment. Graded doses of 2,3,7,8-TBDD or 1,2,3,7,8-PBDD alone, or graded doses of fixed ratios of the two congeners were injected into newly fertilized rainbow trout eggs. Separate dose response curves were determined for each ratio and each individual congener. Isobolographic analysis supports the hypothesis that these congeners act additively.

  12. Amino and fatty acid dynamics of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vanessa M; Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Paula, José R; Couto, Ana; Bandarra, Narcisa; Anacleto, Patrícia; Marques, António; Rosa, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The oceans are becoming warmer, and the higher temperatures are expected to have a major impact on marine life at different levels of biological organization, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Thus, we hypothesize that the future warmer scenarios (here +3 °C) will affect the biochemical composition (amino acid - AA, and fatty acid-FA) of octopod (Octopus vulgaris) embryos and recently-hatched pelagic paralarvae. The main essential amino acids found in octopus embryos were arginine, leucine and lysine; while aspartic and glutamic acids, and taurine were the main non-essential amino acids. Palmitic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were the main FAs found in octopus tissues. Relevant ontogenetic changes were observed, namely a steep decrease in the content of many AAs, and a selective retention of FAs, thus evidencing the protein-based metabolism of these cephalopods. Temperature per si did not elicit significant changes in the overall FA composition, but was responsible for a significant decrease in the content of several AAs, indicating increased embryonic consumption.

  13. Effects of mixture of pharmaceuticals on early life stages of tench (Tinca tinca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancova, Vlasta; Plhalova, Lucie; Bartoskova, Marta; Zivna, Dana; Prokes, Miroslav; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitous occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment results in concern about potential adverse the effects on nontarget organisms. In water, drugs are present in complex mixtures, in which complicated interactions affect toxicity of single components. The purpose of this study was to examine effect of 35-day-long exposure to mixture of ibuprofen, diclofenac, and carbamazepine on the mortality, growth, early ontogeny, and histopathological changes in tench (Tinca tinca). Early life stage toxicity test was carried out using a modified protocol according to OECD guideline 210. Exposure to mixture of pharmaceuticals at concentration of 60 μg · L(-1) for each substance was associated with significant increase in mortality, as well as significant increase in growth and elevated incidence of malformations. Any of the tested concentrations resulted in histopathological changes of liver, kidney, skin, or gill. After fourteen days of exposure there was short-term delay of development related to increased concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the mixture (2, 20, and 60 μg · L(-1)). Environmentally relevant concentrations (0.02; and 0.2 μg · L(-1)) used in this experiment did not result in toxic impairment of tench.

  14. Effects of Mixture of Pharmaceuticals on Early Life Stages of Tench (Tinca tinca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Stancova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment results in concern about potential adverse the effects on nontarget organisms. In water, drugs are present in complex mixtures, in which complicated interactions affect toxicity of single components. The purpose of this study was to examine effect of 35-day-long exposure to mixture of ibuprofen, diclofenac, and carbamazepine on the mortality, growth, early ontogeny, and histopathological changes in tench (Tinca tinca. Early life stage toxicity test was carried out using a modified protocol according to OECD guideline 210. Exposure to mixture of pharmaceuticals at concentration of 60 μg·L−1 for each substance was associated with significant increase in mortality, as well as significant increase in growth and elevated incidence of malformations. Any of the tested concentrations resulted in histopathological changes of liver, kidney, skin, or gill. After fourteen days of exposure there was short-term delay of development related to increased concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the mixture (2, 20, and 60 μg·L−1. Environmentally relevant concentrations (0.02; and 0.2 μg·L−1 used in this experiment did not result in toxic impairment of tench.

  15. Environmental control on early life stages of flatfishes in the Lima Estuary (NW Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Sandra; Ré, Pedro; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2009-06-01

    Several flatfishes spawn in oceanic waters and pelagic larvae are transported inshore to settle in the nursery areas, usually estuaries, where they remain during their juvenile life. Nursery areas appear as extremely important habitats, not only for juveniles but also for the earlier planktonic larval fish. Yet, the majority of nursery studies tend to focus only on one development stage, missing an integrative approach of the entire early life that fishes spent within a nursery ground. Thus, the present study assessed the influence of environmental parameters on the dynamics of the larval and juvenile flatfishes, throughout their nursery life in the Lima Estuary. Between April 2002 and April 2004, fortnightly subsurface ichthyoplankton samples were collected and juveniles were collected from October 2003 until September 2005. Larval assemblages comprised nine flatfish species, while only six were observed among the juvenile assemblages. Solea senegalensis and Platichthys flesus were the most abundant species of both fractions of the Lima Estuary flatfishes. Larval flatfish assemblages varied seasonally, without relevant differences between lower and middle estuary. Platichthys flesus dominated the spring samples and summer and autumn periods were characterized by an increase of overall abundance and diversity of larval flatfishes, mainly S. senegalensis, associated with temperature increase and reduced river flow. On the contrary, during the winter abundance sharply decreased, as a consequence of higher river run-off that might compromised the immigration of incompetent marine larvae. Juvenile flatfishes were more abundant in the middle and upper areas of the estuary, but the species richness was higher near the river mouth. Sediment type, distance from the river mouth, salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen were identified as the main environmental factors structuring the juvenile flatfish assemblages. Juveniles were spatially discrete, with the most abundant

  16. Chromium Toxicity Test for Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Using Hanford Site Groundwater: Onsite Early Life-Stage Toxicity Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Gregory W.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Chamness, Michele A.; Abernethy, Cary S.; McKinstry, Craig A.

    2001-07-10

    The objective of this study was to evaluate site-specific effects for early life-stage (eyed eggs to free swimming juveniles) fall chinook salmon that might be exposed to hexavalent chromium from Hanford groundwater sources. Our exposure conditions included hexavalent chromium obtained from Hanford groundwater wells near the Columbia River, Columbia River water as the diluent, and locally adapted populations of fall chinook salmon. This report describes both a 96-hr pretest using rainbow trout eggs and an early life-stage test beginning with chinook salmon eggs.

  17. Application of molecular endpoints in early life stage salmonid environmental biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlatt, Vicki L; Sherrard, Ryan; Kennedy, Chris J; Elphick, James R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2016-04-01

    Molecular endpoints can enhance existing whole animal bioassays by more fully characterizing the biological impacts of aquatic pollutants. Laboratory and field studies were used to examine the utility of adopting molecular endpoints for a well-developed in situ early life stage (eyed embryo to onset of swim-up fry) salmonid bioassay to improve diagnostic assessments of water quality in the field. Coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) were exposed in the laboratory to the model metal (zinc, 40μg/L) and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pyrene, 100μg/L) in water to examine the resulting early life stage salmonid responses. In situ field exposures and bioassays were conducted in parallel to evaluate the water quality of three urban streams in British Columbia (two sites with anthropogenic inputs and one reference site). The endpoints measured in swim-up fry included survival, deformities, growth (weight and length), vitellogenin (vtg) and metallothionein (Mt) protein levels, and hepatic gene expression (e.g., metallothioneins [mta and mtb], endocrine biomarkers [vtg and estrogen receptors, esr] and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes [cytochrome P450 1A3, cyp1a3 and glutathione transferases, gstk]). No effects were observed in the zinc treatment, however exposure of swim-up fry to pyrene resulted in decreased survival, deformities and increased estrogen receptor alpha (er1) mRNA levels. In the field exposures, xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (cyp1a3, gstk) and zinc transporter (zntBigM103) mRNA were significantly increased in swim-up fry deployed at the sites with more anthropogenic inputs compared to the reference site. Cluster analysis revealed that gene expression profiles in individuals from the streams receiving anthropogenic inputs were more similar to each other than to the reference site. Collectively, the results obtained in this study suggest that molecular endpoints may be useful, and potentially more sensitive, indicators of site

  18. Spatial distribution of sardine and anchovy early life stages along the eastern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zorica

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite long-term investigations of the Adriatic Sea in general and extensive research on sardine and anchovy as ecologically and economically important fish species, knowledge concerning their spawning ecology, precisely their possible spawning grounds, is still incomplete. Therefore, two scientific surveys (January, July 2012 were performed, as target species spawn during different periods of the year (sardine - October to April (Sinovčić et al., 2007 and anchovy - April to September (Zorica et al., 2013. Throughout these surveys, standard vertical plankton tows were made during the daylight at 72 stations in January and 60 stations in July using a WP2 sampler (mouth opening, 0.255 m2; mesh size, 0.200 mm. WP2 net was put vertically down during the calm sea to a depth of 100 m or to 5 m above the seabed in relatively shallow marine area (less than 100 m. Plankton samples were preserved in 4% buffered formalin and transported to the laboratory where they were analysed. Throughout ichtyoplankton analysis of samples collected during the winter survey a total of 506 sardine eggs and 348 larvae were sorted out. The mean sardine egg and larval abundance in the analysed period at positive stations was 57.8 +/- 77.4 eggs/m2 and 29 +/- 25.85 larvae/m2, with peaks of 396 eggs/m2 and 108 larvae/m2 at positive sampling stations. Concerning the summer survey and anchovy early life stages from obtained samples 1489 anchovy eggs and 1036 larvae were isolated. Average abundance of anchovy eggs and larvae was 145.26 +/- 201.27eggs/m2 and 115.11+/- 162.32 larvae/m2, respectively. The highest values of mentioned parameters at positive stations were 800 eggs/m2 and 952 larvae/m2. According to obtained results and their processing within Ocean Data View (odv.awi.de, revile that both species during 2012 spawn above the whole continental shelf and the areas of higher early life stages abundance overlap.

  19. Early life-stage mortalities of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) exposed to polychlorinated diphenyl ethers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, C.D.; Metcalfe, T.L. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Environmental and Resource Studies Program; Cormier, J.A. [St. Francis Xavier Univ., Antigonish, Nova Scotia (Canada). Chemistry Dept.; Huestis, S.Y.; Niimi, A.J. [Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, Ontario (Canada). Fisheries and Oceans

    1997-08-01

    Polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) are a group of compounds that resemble polychlorinated dibenzofurans in structure that have been detected at ppb concentrations in fish from the Great Lakes. The objective of this project was to determine the toxicological significance of PCDE residues in fish. PCDE congener 77 (3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorodiphenyl ether), congener 71 (2,3{prime},4{prime},6-tetrachlorodiphenyl ether), congener 118 (2,3{prime}4,4{prime},5-pentachlorodiphenyl ether), and congener 105 (2,3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-pentachlorodiphenyl) were tested for toxicity with early life stages (ELS) of Japanese medaka, Oryzias latipes. These embryotoxicity data showed that the mono-ortho congeners 105 and 118 and the non-ortho congener 77 were embryotoxic to medaka. However, the toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) estimated for congeners 105, 77, and 118 relative to 2,3,7,8-TCDD were relatively low at 0.00056, 0.00003, and 0.00001, respectively. PCDE compounds were isolated in a fraction prepared from a bulk extract of Lake Ontario lake trout. In this fraction, congeners 99 (2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentaCDE), 153 (2,2{prime},4,m4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexaCDE), 154 (2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,6{prime}-hexaCDE), and 163 (2,3,3{prime},4{prime},5,6-hexaCDE) comprised 81.3% of total PCDEs, while congeners 77, 71, 118, and 105 comprised only 1.1% of total PCDEs. The LC50 for embryotoxicity of this fraction was equivalent to 15.5 ng/ml of total PCDEs. Toxicopathic lesions noted in medaka embryos exposed to either individual PCDEs or the lake trout extract included vascular hemorrhage but no edematous lesions. Medaka fry did not exhibit symptoms of hyperexcitability prior to death, as has been noted for ELS of lake trout exhibiting swim-up syndrome. These data indicate that PCDEs in Lake Ontario lake trout have the potential to induce toxic effects in early life stages of fish.

  20. Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Richterová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60 g L-1 on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250 μg L-1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 μg L-1 gamma-cyhalothrin. All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50 μg L-1 died soon after hatching; at 25 μg L-1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5 μg L-1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes.

  1. Efficiency of eugenol as anesthetic for the early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A.P. Ribeiro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In aquaculture, activities with anesthetic compounds are usually used in order to ensure the welfare of farmed fish, allowing handling out of water with decreased trauma by stress. Presently, there is no information about anesthetic action of eugenol in early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. The objective of this study was to evaluate different concentrations of eugenol for larvae and juveniles of Nile tilapia. Sixty animals were used for each group of weight, group I = 0.02 g; group II = 0.08 g; group III = 0.22 g; group IV = 2.62 g; and group V = 11.64 g. The eugenol concentrations tested were 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 and 175 mg L-1. No mortality was reported during the tests with eugenol. Tilapia larvae with 0.02 g and juveniles around 11.64 g can be anesthetized with eugenol concentrations between 150 and 175 mg L-1, since they determine the shortest sedation time (23 and 72 seconds, for the group of lowest and highest weights, respectively.

  2. Effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of coral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, Andrew [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia)]. E-mail: a.negri@aims.gov.au; Vollhardt, Claudia [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia); Humphrey, Craig [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia); Heyward, Andrew [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia); Jones, Ross [Centre for Marine Studies, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Queensland Health Scientific Services, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains 4108 (Australia); Eaglesham, Geoff [Bermuda Biological Station for Research, Inc, Ferry Reach, St George' s GE 01 (Bermuda); Fabricius, Katharina [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    The effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of broadcast spawning and brooding corals were examined in laboratory experiments. Fertilisation of Acropora millepora and Montipora aequituberculata oocytes were not inhibited at diuron concentrations of up to 1000{mu}gl{sup -1}. Metamorphosis of symbiont-free A. millepora larvae was only significantly inhibited at 300{mu}gl{sup -1} diuron. Pocillopora damicornis larvae, which contain symbiotic dinoflagellates, were able to undergo metamorphosis after 24h exposure to diuron at 1000{mu}gl{sup -1}. Two-week old P. damicornis recruits on the other hand were as susceptible to diuron as adult colonies, with expulsion of symbiotic dinoflagellates (bleaching) evident at 10{mu}gl{sup -1} diuron after 96h exposure. Reversible metamorphosis was observed at high diuron concentrations, with fully bleached polyps escaping from their skeletons. Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence techniques demonstrated a reduction in photosynthetic efficiency ({delta}F/F{sub m}{sup '}) in illuminated P. damicornis recruits after a 2h exposure to 1{mu}gl{sup -1} diuron. The dark-adapted quantum yields (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) also declined, indicating chronic photoinhibition and damage to photosystem II.

  3. Toxicity of sulfate and chloride to early life stages of wild rice (Zizania palustris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael B; Walker, Rachel; Tuominen, Lindsey K; Hansel, Mike; Hall, Scott; Richards, Robin; Grattan, S R; Anderson, Kurt

    2014-12-01

    Despite the importance of wild rice (Zizania palustris) in the Great Lakes region of North America, its sensitivity to sulfate is not well understood. A 21-d hydroponic experiment was performed to determine the toxicity of sulfate to wild rice seeds and seedlings. Effects of 6 sulfate concentrations ranging from 10 mg/L to 5000 mg/L and of chloride salts at equivalent conductivity were evaluated to determine whether adverse effects were attributable to sulfate or to conductivity-related stress. Sulfate treatment decreased root length, shoot length, and leaf number, and increased phytotoxic effects at concentrations of 5000 mg/L relative to a 50 mg/L control. The time to 30% mesocotyl emergence decreased at 2500 mg/L sulfate, indicating a potential stimulatory effect. Sulfate exposures of ≤ 5000 mg/L had no effect on 5 additional end points. Multiple regression analysis indicated that most observed changes could be attributed to conductivity-related stress rather than sulfate per se, with the exception of shoot length and leaf number. Chloride was more toxic than sulfate, as determined by root length and phytotoxicity. In summary, sulfate concentrations below 5000 mg/L did not adversely affect early-life stage wild rice during a 21-d period, and effects at 5000 mg/L sulfate were attributable to conductivity-related stress rather than sulfate toxicity in 2 of 4 end points.

  4. Efficiency of eugenol as anesthetic for the early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Paula A P; Miranda-Filho, Kleber C; Melo, Daniela C de; Luz, Ronald K

    2015-03-01

    In aquaculture, activities with anesthetic compounds are usually used in order to ensure the welfare of farmed fish, allowing handling out of water with decreased trauma by stress. Presently, there is no information about anesthetic action of eugenol in early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The objective of this study was to evaluate different concentrations of eugenol for larvae and juveniles of Nile tilapia. Sixty animals were used for each group of weight, group I = 0.02 g; group II = 0.08 g; group III = 0.22 g; group IV = 2.62 g; and group V = 11.64 g. The eugenol concentrations tested were 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 and 175 mg L-1. No mortality was reported during the tests with eugenol. Tilapia larvae with 0.02 g and juveniles around 11.64 g can be anesthetized with eugenol concentrations between 150 and 175 mg L-1, since they determine the shortest sedation time (23 and 72 seconds, for the group of lowest and highest weights, respectively).

  5. Lethal and sublethal toxicity of didecyldimethylammonium chloride in early life stages of white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Swee Joo; Wong, Cecilia; Furtula, Vesna; Teh, Foo-Ching

    2003-09-01

    This study was conducted to describe the acute lethality and latent toxicity of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) on early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Fish responses to 0, 10, 50, 100, 250, 500 microg/L concentrations of DDAC were determined using a 96-h standard static renewal method for acute toxicity testing, with three replicates per concentration. Twenty fish per replicate were tested for 3, 11, and 42-d-old larvae, and 7 fish per replicate were tested for 78-d-old juveniles. Following exposure, survival and growth were evaluated in exposed fish raised in clean water for 2 weeks. The 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values for DDAC were 10.0 to 50.0, 58.5, and 99.7 microg/L for 3, 11, and 42-d-old larvae and 100 to 250 microg/L for 78-d-old juveniles. Significant decreases in larval growth and survival were noted at all tested concentrations and in all sturgeon age groups. Results of this study reveal age- and concentration-dependent responses to DDAC. Among the age groups tested, the 3-d-old larvae were the most sensitive group. Results also revealed that 96-h lethality testing alone is not adequate for determining the toxicity of DDAC to white sturgeon.

  6. SURVIVAL AND QUALITY OF LIFE AFTER STEREOTACTIC OR 3D-CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY FOR INOPERABLE EARLY-STAGE LUNG CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widder, Joachim; Postmus, Douwe; Ubbels, Jan F.; Wiegman, Erwin M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate survival and local recurrence after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) or threedimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) administered for early-stage primary lung cancer and to investigate longitudinal changes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) parameters

  7. Spatio-temporal variability in western Baltic cod early life stage survival mediated by egg buoyancy, hydrography and hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H-H.; Hüssy, K.; Huwer, B.

    2012-01-01

    Spatio-temporal variability in western Baltic cod early life stage survival mediated by egg buoyancy, hydrography and hydrodynamics. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 1744–1752.To disentangle the effects of different drivers on recruitment variability of marine fish, a spatially and temporally...

  8. Estrogenic endpoints in fish early life-stage tests: luciferase and vitellogenin induction in estrogen-responsive transgenic zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, R.; Mutsaerds, E.; Druke, J.; Roode, de D.F.; Murk, A.J.; Burg, van der B.; Legler, J.

    2006-01-01

    This study incorporated specific endpoints for estrogenic activity in the early life-stage (ELS) test, as described in Guideline 210 of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and traditionally used for toxicity screening of chemicals. A transgenic zebrafish model expressing an est

  9. USE OF MULTIPHOTON LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY TO IMAGE BENZO[A]PYRENE AND METABOLITES IN FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiphoton laser scanning micrsocopy holds promise as a tool to study the tissue distribution of environmental chemical contaminants during fish early life stage development. One such chemical for which this is possible is benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a polyaromatic hydrocarbon that a...

  10. Initial investigation of a hypothesized link between thyroid peroxidase inhibition and fish early-life stage toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  11. SURVIVAL AND QUALITY OF LIFE AFTER STEREOTACTIC OR 3D-CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY FOR INOPERABLE EARLY-STAGE LUNG CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widder, Joachim; Postmus, Douwe; Ubbels, Jan F.; Wiegman, Erwin M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate survival and local recurrence after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) or threedimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) administered for early-stage primary lung cancer and to investigate longitudinal changes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) parameters afte

  12. Developmental toxicity of PAH mixtures in fish early life stages. Part II: adverse effects in Japanese medaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihanic, Florane; Clérandeau, Christelle; Le Menach, Karyn; Morin, Bénédicte; Budzinski, Hélène; Cousin, Xavier; Cachot, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    In aquatic environments, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mostly occur as complex mixtures, for which risk assessment remains problematic. To better understand the effects of PAH mixture toxicity on fish early life stages, this study compared the developmental toxicity of three PAH complex mixtures. These mixtures were extracted from a PAH-contaminated sediment (Seine estuary, France) and two oils (Arabian Light and Erika). For each fraction, artificial sediment was spiked at three different environmental concentrations roughly equivalent to 0.5, 4, and 10 μg total PAH g(-1) dw. Japanese medaka embryos were incubated on these PAH-spiked sediments throughout their development, right up until hatching. Several endpoints were recorded at different developmental stages, including acute endpoints, morphological abnormalities, larvae locomotion, and genotoxicity (comet and micronucleus assays). The three PAH fractions delayed hatching, induced developmental abnormalities, disrupted larvae swimming activity, and damaged DNA at environmental concentrations. Differences in toxicity levels, likely related to differences in PAH proportions, were highlighted between fractions. The Arabian Light and Erika petrogenic fractions, containing a high proportion of alkylated PAHs and low molecular weight PAHs, were more toxic to Japanese medaka early life stages than the pyrolytic fraction. This was not supported by the toxic equivalency approach, which appeared unsuitable for assessing the toxicity of the three PAH fractions to fish early life stages. This study highlights the potential risks posed by environmental mixtures of alkylated and low molecular weight PAHs to early stages of fish development.

  13. Reviewing the Effects of Ocean Acidification on Sexual Reproduction and Early Life History Stages of Reef-Building Corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Albright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is a relatively young yet rapidly developing scientific field. Assessing the potential response(s of marine organisms to projected near-future OA scenarios has been at the forefront of scientific research, with a focus on ecosystems (e.g., coral reefs and processes (e.g., calcification that are deemed particularly vulnerable. Recently, a heightened emphasis has been placed on evaluating early life history stages as these stages are generally perceived to be more sensitive to environmental change. The number of acidification-related studies focused on early life stages has risen dramatically over the last several years. While early life history stages of corals have been understudied compared to other marine invertebrate taxa (e.g., echinoderms, mollusks, numerous studies exist to contribute to our status of knowledge regarding the potential impacts of OA on coral recruitment dynamics. To synthesize this information, the present paper reviews the primary literature on the effects of acidification on sexual reproduction and early stages of corals, incorporating lessons learned from more thoroughly studied taxa to both assess our current understanding of the potential impacts of OA on coral recruitment and to inform and guide future research in this area.

  14. Ocean acidification effects in the early life-stages of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Chambers

    2013-08-01

    -facial features were affected by CO2 levels that changed with ages of larvae. Skeletal elements of larvae from ambient CO2 environments were comparable or smaller than those from elevated CO2 environments when younger (14 d and 21 d post-hatching but larger at older ages (28 d. The degree of impairment in the early life-stages of summer flounder due to elevated CO2 levels suggests that this species will be challenged by ocean acidification in the near future. Further experimental comparative studies on marine fish are warranted in order to identify the species, life-stages, ecologies, and responses that are most sensitive to increased levels of CO2 and acidity in near-future ocean waters, and a strategy is proposed for achieving these goals.

  15. Hydrological and thermal effects of hydropeaking on early life stages of salmonids: A modelling approach for implementing mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Mulet, Roser; Saltveit, Svein Jakob; Alfredsen, Knut Tore

    2016-12-15

    Alterations in hydrological and thermal regimes can potentially affect salmonid early life stages development and survival. The dewatering of salmon spawning redds due to hydropeaking can lead to mortality in early life stages, with higher impact on the alevins as they have lower tolerance to dewatering than the eggs. Flow-related mitigation measures can reduce early life stage mortality. We present a set of modelling tools to assess impacts and mitigation options to minimise the risk of mortality in early life stages in hydropeaking rivers. We successfully modelled long-term hydrological and thermal alterations and consequences for development rates. We estimated the risk of early life stages mortality and assessed the cost-effectiveness of implementing three release-related mitigation options (A,B,C). The economic cost of mitigation was low and ranged between 0.7% and 2.6% of the annual hydropower production. Options reducing the flow during spawning (B and C) in addition to only release minimum flows during development (A) were considered more effective for egg and alevin survival. Options B and C were however constraint by water availability in the system for certain years, and therefore only option A was always feasible. The set of modelling tools used in this study were satisfactory and their applications can be useful especially in systems where little field data is available. Targeted measures built on well-informed modelling tools can be tested on their effectiveness to mitigate dewatering effects vs. the hydropower system capacity to release or conserve water for power production. Environmental flow releases targeting specific ecological objectives can provide better cost-effective options than conventional operational rules complying with general legislation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Proteomic responses reveal the differential effects induced by cadmium in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis at early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lanlan; Peng, Xiao; Yu, Deliang; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has become an important metal contaminant and posed severe risk on the organisms in the coastal environments of the Bohai Sea. Marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is widely distributed along the Bohai coast and consumed as seafood by local residents. Evidences indicate that the early stages of marine organisms are more sensitive to metal contaminants. In this study, we applied two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics to characterize the biological effects of Cd (50 μg L(-1)) in the early life stages (D-shape larval and juvenile) of mussels. The different proteomic responses demonstrated the differential responsive mechanisms to Cd exposure in these two early life stages of mussels. In details, results indicated that Cd mainly induced immune and oxidative stresses in both D-shape larval and juvenile mussels via different pathways. In addition, the significant up-regulation of triosephosphate isomerase and metallothionein confirmed the enhanced energy demand and mobilized detoxification mechanism in D-shape larval mussels exposed to Cd. In juvenile mussels, Cd exposure also induced clear apoptosis. Overall, this work suggests that Cd is a potential immune toxicant to mussel M. galloprovincialis at early life stages.

  17. Sensitivity of the early-life stages of freshwater mollusks to neonicotinoid and butenolide insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, R S; de Solla, S R; Holman, E A M; Osborne, R; Robinson, S A; Bartlett, A J; Maisonneuve, F J; Gillis, P L

    2016-11-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides can be transported from agricultural fields, where they are used as foliar sprays or seed treatments, to surface waters by surface or sub-surface runoff. Few studies have investigated the toxicity of neonicotinoid or the related butenolide insecticides to freshwater mollusk species. The current study examined the effect of neonicotinoid and butenolide exposures to the early-life stages of the ramshorn snail, Planorbella pilsbryi, and the wavy-rayed lampmussel, Lampsilis fasciola. Juvenile P. pilsbryi were exposed to imidacloprid, clothianidin, or thiamethoxam for 7 or 28 d and mortality, growth, and biomass production were measured. The viability of larval (glochidia) L. fasciola was monitored during a 48 h exposure to six neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, clothianidin, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, or dinotefuran), or a butenolide (flupyradifurone). The 7-d LC50s of P. pilsbryi for imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam were ≥4000 μg/L and the 28-d LC50s were ≥182 μg/L. Growth and biomass production were considerably more sensitive endpoints than mortality with EC50s ranging from 33.2 to 122.0 μg/L. The 48-h LC50s for the viability of glochidia were ≥456 μg/L for all seven insecticides tested. Our data indicate that neonicotinoid and butenolide insecticides pose less of a hazard with respect to mortality of the two species of mollusk compared to the potential hazard to other non-target aquatic insects. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral toxicity of carbofuran on Oreochromis niloticus early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, P C; Luchmann, K H; Ribeiro, A B; Veras, M M; Correa, J R M B; Nogueira, A J; Bainy, A C D; Carvalho, P S M

    2011-10-01

    Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at 9 days post-hatch were exposed in semi-static experiments to the carbamate insecticide carbofuran, which is applied in agricultural systems in Brazil. Although the molecular mechanism of carbofuran toxicity is well known, a detailed understanding of the ecological mechanisms through which carbofuran effects can propagate towards higher levels of biological organization in fish is incomplete. Mortality rates were quantified for larvae exposed for 96 h to 8.3, 40.6, 69.9, 140, 297 and 397 μg/L carbofuran, and the LC(50) 96 h was 214.7 μg/L. In addition, the biochemical biomarker cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral biomarkers related to vision, swimming, prey capture and predator avoidance were quantified in individual larvae, as well as their growth in weight. The behavioral parameters were quantified by analysis of digitally recorded videos of individual larvae within appropriate experimental setups. The activity of the enzyme cholinesterase decreased after exposure to carbofuran with a lowest observed effects concentration (LOEC) of 69.9 μg/L. Visual acuity deficits were detected after carbofuran exposure with a LOEC of 40.6 μg/L. Swimming speed decreased with carbofuran exposure, with a LOEC of 397.6 μg/L. The number of attacks to prey (Daphnia magna nauplii) decreased in larvae exposed to carbofuran, with a LOEC of 397.6 μg/L. Growth in weight was significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner, and all carbofuran groups exhibited a statistically significant decrease in growth when compared to controls (pcarbofuran, and the LOEC was 69.9 μg/L. These results show that exposure of sensitive early life stages of tilapia O. niloticus to sublethal concentrations of carbofuran can affect fundamental aspects of fish larval ecology that are relevant to recruitment of fish populations, and that can be better understood by the application of behavioral biomarkers.

  19. Effect of ocean acidification on the early life stages of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. R. Heip

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Several experiments have shown a decrease of growth and calcification of organisms at decreased pH levels but relatively few studies have focused on early life stages which are believed to be more sensitive to environmental disturbances such as hypercapnia. Here, we present experimental data demonstrating that the growth of planktonic mussel (Mytilus edulis larvae is significantly affected by a decrease of pH to a level expected for the end of the century. Even though there was no significant effect of a 0.25–0.34 pH unit decrease on hatching and mortality rates during the first 2 days of development nor during the following 13-day period prior to settlement, final shells were, respectively, 4.5±1.3 and 6.0±2.3% smaller at pHNBS~7.8 than at a control pHNBS of ~8.1. Moreover, a decrease of 12.0±5.4% of shell thickness was observed. More severe impacts were found with a decrease of ~0.5 pHNBS unit during the first 2 days of development which could be attributed to a decrease of calcification due toslight undersaturation of seawater with respect to aragonite. Indeed, important effects on both hatching and D-veliger shell growth were found. Hatching rates were 24±4% lower while D-veliger shells were 12.7±0.9% smaller at pHNBS~7.6 than at a control pHNBS of ~8.1. Although these results show that blue mussel larvae are still able to develop a shell in seawater undersaturated with respect to aragonite, decreases of hatching rates and shell growth suggest a negative impact of ocean acidification on the future survival of bivalve populations potentially leading to significant ecological and economical losses.

  20. Exxon Valdez to Deepwater Horizon: comparable toxicity of both crude oils to fish early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incardona, John P; Swarts, Tanya L; Edmunds, Richard C; Linbo, Tiffany L; Aquilina-Beck, Allisan; Sloan, Catherine A; Gardner, Luke D; Block, Barbara A; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2013-10-15

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico was the largest oil spill in United States history. Crude oils are highly toxic to developing fish embryos, and many pelagic fish species were spawning in the northern Gulf in the months before containment of the damaged Mississippi Canyon 252 (MC252) wellhead (April-July). The largest prior U.S. spill was the 1989 grounding of the Exxon Valdez that released 11 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude oil (ANSCO) into Prince William Sound. Numerous studies in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill defined a conventional crude oil injury phenotype in fish early life stages, mediated primarily by toxicity to the developing heart. To determine whether this type of injury extends to fishes exposed to crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon - MC252 incident, we used zebrafish to compare the embryotoxicity of ANSCO alongside unweathered and weathered MC252 oil. We also developed a standardized protocol for generating dispersed oil water-accommodated fractions containing microdroplets of crude oil in the size range of those detected in subsurface plumes in the Gulf. We show here that MC252 oil and ANSCO cause similar cardiotoxicity and photo-induced toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Morphological defects and patterns of cytochrome P450 induction were largely indistinguishable and generally correlated with polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) composition of each oil type. Analyses of embryos exposed during different developmental windows provided additional insight into mechanisms of crude oil cardiotoxicity. These findings indicate that the impacts of MC252 crude oil on fish embryos and larvae are consistent with the canonical ANSCO cardiac injury phenotype. For those marine fish species that spawned in the northern Gulf of Mexico during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident, the established literature can therefore inform the assessment of natural resource injury in the form of potential year-class losses.

  1. Tough adults, frail babies: an analysis of stress sensitivity across early life-history stages of widely introduced marine invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Carmen Pineda

    Full Text Available All ontogenetic stages of a life cycle are exposed to environmental conditions so that population persistence depends on the performance of both adults and offspring. Most studies analysing the influence of abiotic conditions on species performance have focussed on adults, while studies covering early life-history stages remain rare. We investigated the responses of early stages of two widely introduced ascidians, Styela plicata and Microcosmus squamiger, to different abiotic conditions. Stressors mimicked conditions in the habitats where both species can be found in their distributional ranges and responses were related to the selection potential of their populations by analysing their genetic diversity. Four developmental stages (egg fertilisation, larval development, settlement, metamorphosis were studied after exposure to high temperature (30°C, low salinities (26 and 22‰ and high copper concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µg/L. Although most stressors effectively led to failure of complete development (fertilisation through metamorphosis, fertilisation and larval development were the most sensitive stages. All the studied stressors affected the development of both species, though responses differed with stage and stressor. S. plicata was overall more resistant to copper, and some stages of M. squamiger to low salinities. No relationship was found between parental genetic composition and responses to stressors. We conclude that successful development can be prevented at several life-history stages, and therefore, it is essential to consider multiple stages when assessing species' abilities to tolerate stress. Moreover, we found that early development of these species cannot be completed under conditions prevailing where adults live. These populations must therefore recruit from elsewhere or reproduce during temporal windows of more benign conditions. Alternatively, novel strategies or behaviours that increase overall reproductive success

  2. Tough adults, frail babies: an analysis of stress sensitivity across early life-history stages of widely introduced marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, M Carmen; McQuaid, Christopher D; Turon, Xavier; López-Legentil, Susanna; Ordóñez, Víctor; Rius, Marc

    2012-01-01

    All ontogenetic stages of a life cycle are exposed to environmental conditions so that population persistence depends on the performance of both adults and offspring. Most studies analysing the influence of abiotic conditions on species performance have focussed on adults, while studies covering early life-history stages remain rare. We investigated the responses of early stages of two widely introduced ascidians, Styela plicata and Microcosmus squamiger, to different abiotic conditions. Stressors mimicked conditions in the habitats where both species can be found in their distributional ranges and responses were related to the selection potential of their populations by analysing their genetic diversity. Four developmental stages (egg fertilisation, larval development, settlement, metamorphosis) were studied after exposure to high temperature (30°C), low salinities (26 and 22‰) and high copper concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µg/L). Although most stressors effectively led to failure of complete development (fertilisation through metamorphosis), fertilisation and larval development were the most sensitive stages. All the studied stressors affected the development of both species, though responses differed with stage and stressor. S. plicata was overall more resistant to copper, and some stages of M. squamiger to low salinities. No relationship was found between parental genetic composition and responses to stressors. We conclude that successful development can be prevented at several life-history stages, and therefore, it is essential to consider multiple stages when assessing species' abilities to tolerate stress. Moreover, we found that early development of these species cannot be completed under conditions prevailing where adults live. These populations must therefore recruit from elsewhere or reproduce during temporal windows of more benign conditions. Alternatively, novel strategies or behaviours that increase overall reproductive success might be

  3. Effects of food restriction across stages of juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and adult life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J W Y; Kölliker, M

    2014-11-01

    Organisms have to allocate limited resources among multiple life-history traits, which can result in physiological trade-offs, and variation in environmental conditions experienced during ontogeny can influence reproduction later in life. Food restriction may lead to an adaptive reallocation of the limited resources among traits as a phenotypically plastic adjustment, or it can act as an overall constraint with detrimental effects throughout reproductive life. In this study, we investigated experimentally the effects of food restriction during different stages of the juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and reproductive success in females and males of the European earwig Forficula auricularia. Individuals either received limited or unlimited access to food across three different stages of development (fully crossed) allowing us to identify sensitive periods during development and to test both additive and interactive effects of food limitation across stages on development and reproduction. Food restriction during the early and late juvenile stage had additive negative effects on juvenile survival and adult body weight. With regard to reproductive success of females which produce up to two clutches in their lifetime, restriction specifically in the late juvenile stage led to smaller first and second clutch size, lower probability of second clutch production and reduced hatching success in the second clutch. Reproductive success of females was not significantly affected when their male mates experienced food restriction during their development. Our findings in general support the 'silver-spoon' hypothesis in that food restriction during juvenile development poses constraints on development and reproduction throughout life.

  4. Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Sperm Activity and Early Life Stages of the Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Vihtakari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Larval stages are among those most vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA. Projected atmospheric CO2 levels for the end of this century may lead to negative impacts on communities dominated by calcifying taxa with planktonic life stages. We exposed Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm and early life stages to pHT levels of 8.0 (current pH and 7.6 (2100 level by manipulating pCO2 level (380 and 1000 ppm. Sperm activity was examined at ambient temperatures (16–17 °C using individual males as replicates. We also assessed the effects of temperature (ambient and ≈20 °C and pH on larval size, survival, respiration and calcification of late trochophore/early D-veliger stages using a cross-factorial design. Increased pCO2 had a negative effect on the percentage of motile sperm (mean response ratio R= 71% and sperm swimming speed (R= 74%, possibly indicating reduced fertilization capacity of sperm in low concentrations. Increased temperature had a more prominent effect on larval stages than pCO2, reducing performance (RSize = 90% and RSurvival = 70% and increasing energy demand (RRespiration = 429%. We observed no significant interactions between pCO2 and temperature. Our results suggest that increasing temperature might have a larger impact on very early larval stages of M. galloprovincialis than OA at levels predicted for the end of the century.

  5. TRIM E3 ligases interfere with early and late stages of the retroviral life cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep D Uchil

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of the TRIpartite interaction Motif (TRIM family of E3 ligases have been shown to exhibit antiviral activities. Here we report a near comprehensive screen for antiretroviral activities of 55 TRIM proteins (36 human, 19 mouse. We identified approximately 20 TRIM proteins that, when transiently expressed in HEK293 cells, affect the entry or release of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV, murine leukemia virus (MLV, or avian leukosis virus (ALV. While TRIM11 and 31 inhibited HIV entry, TRIM11 enhanced N-MLV entry by interfering with Ref1 restriction. Strikingly, many TRIM proteins affected late stages of the viral life cycle. Gene silencing of endogenously expressed TRIM 25, 31, and 62 inhibited viral release indicating that they play an important role at late stages of the viral life cycle. In contrast, downregulation of TRIM11 and 15 enhanced virus release suggesting that these proteins contribute to the endogenous restriction of retroviruses in cells.

  6. Apoptosis-related genes induced in response to ketamine during early life stages of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Luís M; Serafim, Cindy; Valentim, Ana M; Antunes, Luís M; Matos, Manuela; Coimbra, Ana M

    2017-09-05

    Increasing evidence supports that ketamine, a widely used anaesthetic, potentiates apoptosis during development through the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Defects in the apoptotic machinery can cause or contribute to the developmental abnormalities previously described in ketamine-exposed zebrafish. The involvement of the apoptotic machinery in ketamine-induced teratogenicity was addressed by assessing the apoptotic signals at 8 and 24 hpf following 20min exposure to ketamine at three stages of early zebrafish embryo development (256 cell, 50% epiboly and 1-4 somites stages). Exposure at the 256-cell stage to ketamine induced an up-regulation of casp8 and pcna at 8 hpf while changes in pcna at the mRNA level were observed at 24 hpf. After the 50% epiboly stage exposure, the mRNA levels of casp9 were increased at 8 and 24 hpf while aifm1 was affected at 24 hpf. Both tp53 and pcna expressions were increased at 8 hpf. After exposure during the 1-4 somites stage, no meaningful changes on transcript levels were observed. The distribution of apoptotic cells and the caspase-like enzymatic activities of caspase-3 and -9 were not affected by ketamine exposure. It is proposed that ketamine exposure at the 256-cell stage induced a cooperative mechanism between proliferation and cellular death while following exposure at the 50% epiboly, a p53-dependent and -independent caspase activation may occur. Finally, at the 1-4 somites stage, the defence mechanisms are already fully in place to protect against ketamine-insult. Thus, ketamine teratogenicity seems to be dependent on the functional mechanisms present in each developmental stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of ocean acidification on the early life stages of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazeau, F.; Gattuso, J.-P.; Dawber, C.; Pronker, A. E.; Peene, F.; Peene, J.; Heip, C. H. R.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2010-07-01

    Several experiments have shown a decrease of growth and calcification of organisms at decreased pH levels. There is a growing interest to focus on early life stages that are believed to be more sensitive to environmental disturbances such as hypercapnia. Here, we present experimental data, acquired in a commercial hatchery, demonstrating that the growth of planktonic mussel (Mytilus edulis) larvae is significantly affected by a decrease of pH to a level expected for the end of the century. Even though there was no significant effect of a 0.25-0.34 pH unit decrease on hatching and mortality rates during the first 2 days of development nor during the following 13-day period prior to settlement, final shells were respectively 4.5±1.3 and 6.0±2.3% smaller at pHNBS~7.8 (pCO2~1100-1200 μatm) than at a control pHNBS of ~8.1 (pCO2~460-640 μatm). Moreover, a decrease of 12.0±5.4% of shell thickness was observed after 15d of development. More severe impacts were found with a decrease of ~0.5 pHNBS unit during the first 2 days of development which could be attributed to a decrease of calcification due to a slight undersaturation of seawater with respect to aragonite. Indeed, important effects on both hatching and D-veliger shell growth were found. Hatching rates were 24±4% lower while D-veliger shells were 12.7±0.9% smaller at pHNBS~7.6 (pCO2~1900 μatm) than at a control pHNBS of ~8.1 (pCO2~540 μatm). Although these results show that blue mussel larvae are still able to develop a shell in seawater undersaturated with respect to aragonite, the observed decreases of hatching rates and shell growth could lead to a significant decrease of the settlement success. As the environmental conditions considered in this study do not necessarily reflect the natural conditions experienced by this species at the time of spawning, future studies will need to consider the whole larval cycle (from fertilization to settlement) under environmentally relevant conditions in order to

  8. Early life stages of fish and the relationships with zooplankton in a tropical Brazilian reservoir: Lake Monte Alegre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschiatti, A J; Arcifa, M S

    2002-02-01

    For evaluating the trophic relationship between early life stages of fish and zooplankton in Lake Monte Alegre, fish distribution and feeding habits have been studied in areas with and without macrophytes. In the first of these areas, 356 specimens belonging to 8 species, mostly juveniles, were caught by a sieve. Another 35 specimens, belonging to 4 species, were caught by gill nets and seine in areas lacking macrophytes. Their diets were composed of aquatic insects, microcrustaceans, rotifers, detritus, and other aquatic invertebrates. Microcrustacean prey were mainly littoral or benthic dwellers, found in the highest proportion in specimens of 7-20 mm SL. Most fish species have parental care, which could explain the absence of planktonic larvae. Early life stages of fish do not exert a predation pressure on the lake zooplankton.

  9. Early life stages of fish and the relationships with zooplankton in a tropical Brazilian reservoir: Lake Monte Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MESCHIATTI A. J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available For evaluating the trophic relationship between early life stages of fish and zooplankton in Lake Monte Alegre, fish distribution and feeding habits have been studied in areas with and without macrophytes. In the first of these areas, 356 specimens belonging to 8 species, mostly juveniles, were caught by a sieve. Another 35 specimens, belonging to 4 species, were caught by gill nets and seine in areas lacking macrophytes. Their diets were composed of aquatic insects, microcrustaceans, rotifers, detritus, and other aquatic invertebrates. Microcrustacean prey were mainly littoral or benthic dwellers, found in the highest proportion in specimens of 7-20 mm SL. Most fish species have parental care, which could explain the absence of planktonic larvae. Early life stages of fish do not exert a predation pressure on the lake zooplankton.

  10. Toxicity of copper to early-life stage Kootenai River white sturgeon, Columbia River white sturgeon, and rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, E E; Calfee, R D; Linder, G

    2012-10-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) populations throughout western North America are in decline, likely as a result of overharvest, operation of dams, and agricultural and mineral extraction activities in their watersheds. Recruitment failure may reflect the loss of early-life stage fish in spawning areas of the upper Columbia River, which are contaminated with metals from effluents associated with mineral-extraction activities. Early-life stage white sturgeon (A. transmontanus) from the Columbia River and Kootenai River populations were exposed to copper during 96-h flow-through toxicity tests to determine their sensitivity to the metal. Similar tests were conducted with rainbow trout (RBT [Oncorhynchus mykiss]) to assess the comparative sensitivity of this species as a surrogate for white sturgeon. Exposures were conducted with a water quality pH 8.1-8.3, hardness 81-119 mg/L as CaCO(2), and dissolved organic carbon 0.2-0.4 mg/L. At approximately 30 days posthatch (dph), sturgeon were highly sensitive to copper with median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values ranging from 4.1 to 6.8 μg/L compared with 36.5 μg/L for 30 dph RBT. White sturgeon at 123-167 dph were less sensitive to copper with LC(50) values ranging from 103.7 to 268.9 μg/L. RBT trout, however, remained more sensitive to copper at 160 dph with an LC(50) value of 30.9 μg/L. The results indicate that high sensitivity to copper in early-life stage white sturgeon may be a factor in recruitment failure occurring in the upper Columbia and Kootenai rivers. When site-specific water-quality criteria were estimated using the biotic ligand model (BLM), derived values were not protective of early-life stage fish, nor were estimates derived by water-hardness adjustment.

  11. The decline of venture capital investment in early-stage life sciences poses a challenge to continued innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jonathan J

    2015-02-01

    A key element required for translating new knowledge into effective therapies is early-stage venture capital that finances the work needed to identify a lead molecule or medical device prototype and to develop it to the proof-of-concept stage. This early investment is distinguished by great uncertainty over whether the molecule or prototype is safe and effective, the stability of the regulatory standards to which clinical trials are designed, and the likelihood that large follow-on investments for commercial development can be secured. Regulatory and reimbursement policies have a profound impact on the amount of capital and the types of life science projects that investors pursue. In this article I analyze several recent trends in early-stage venture capital funding, describe how these trends are influenced by regulatory and reimbursement policies, and discuss the role of policy makers in bringing new treatments to market. Policy makers can foster renewed private investment into critically needed early-stage products by increasing Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding and public support for clinical trials in targeted areas of interest; creating regulatory pathways to enable early testing of experimental compounds in limited populations; and offering economic incentives for investors and developers in designated therapeutic areas.

  12. Patterns of use of the Mar Chiquita lagoon (Buenos Aires, Argentina) and adjacent coastal area by fish early life stages.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Daniel O.

    2014-01-01

    The role of the Mar Chiquita lagoon and its adjacent coastal area as nursery ground for fish larvae and juveniles and the factors which regulate their recruitment process, was evaluated. To do so, we analyzed the fish early life stages composition and spatio-temporal variation over the marine-estuarine gradient of the lagoon and its relationship with environmental factors; the diel variation of these stages in the immediate area at the mouth of the lagoon; and the source of the organic carbon...

  13. Morphological and morphometric aspects of early life stages of piabanha Brycon gouldingi (Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, F; Makino, L C; Neumann, E; Nakaghi, L S O

    2015-05-01

    Adult specimens of piabanha Brycon gouldingi were collected from Rio das Mortes (Mato Grosso, Brazil), adapted to captivity and induced to spawn at Buriti Fisheries (Nova Mutum, MT, Brazil). The early developmental stages of B. gouldingi were then characterized. Samples were collected at pre-determined times from oocyte extrusion to total yolk absorption. Oocyte diameter, total larval length (LT ) and yolk-sac volume were measured. The mean ± s.d. duration of embryo developmental of B. gouldingi was 13·90 ± 0·06 h at 26·40 ± 1·13° C. The mean ± s.d. oocyte diameter was 1·13 ± 0·06 mm with 54% of oocytes ranging from 1·11 to 1·20 mm. Seven stages characterized the early developmental phase of this species: zygote, cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula, histogenesis-organogenesis and hatching, with unique features related to each stage. At hatching, the larvae measured 3·40 ± 0·07 mm, presented an elongated shape with yolk-sac volume of 0·46 ± 0·08 µl, non-pigmented eyes and exhibited swimming ability. When the yolk was completely absorbed at 55 h post-hatch, mean ± larval LT was 6·68 ± 0·65 mm, the eyes were highly pigmented and the teeth were visible. These are the first reported findings on the initial developmental stages of B. gouldingi and could be used to improve captive breeding management and conservation practices. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Non-lethal effects of an invasive species in the marine environment: the importance of early life-history stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Marc; Turon, Xavier; Marshall, Dustin J

    2009-04-01

    Studies examining the effects of invasive species have focussed traditionally on the direct/lethal effects of the invasive on the native community but there is a growing recognition that invasive species may also have non-lethal effects. In terrestrial systems, non-lethal effects of invasive species can disrupt early life-history phases (such as fertilisation, dispersal and subsequent establishment) of native species, but in the marine environment most studies focus on adult rather than early life-history stages. Here, we examine the potential for an introduced sessile marine invertebrate (Styela plicata) to exert both lethal and non-lethal effects on a native species (Microcosmus squamiger) across multiple early life-history stages. We determined whether sperm from the invasive species interfered with the fertilisation of eggs from the native species and found no effect. However, we did find strong effects of the invasive species on the post-fertilisation performance of the native species. The invasive species inhibited the settlement of native larvae and, in the field, the presence of the invasive species was associated with a ten-fold increase in the post-settlement mortality of the native species, as well as an initial reduction of growth in the native. Our results suggest that larvae of the native species avoid settling near the invasive species due to reduced post-settlement survival in its presence. Overall, we found that invasive species can have complex and pervasive effects (both lethal and non-lethal) across the early life-history stages of the native species, which are likely to result in its displacement and to facilitate further invasion.

  15. Microbial ecology and host-microbiota interactions during early life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Cernada, Maria; Baüerl, Christine; Vento, Máximo; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    The role of human microbiota has been redefined during recent years and its physiological role is now much more important than earlier understood. Intestinal microbial colonization is essential for the maturation of immune system and for the developmental regulation of the intestinal physiology. Alterations in this process of colonization have been shown to predispose and increase the risk to disease later in life. The first contact of neonates with microbes is provided by the maternal microbiota. Moreover, mode of delivery, type of infant feeding and other perinatal factors can influence the establishment of the infant microbiota. Taken into consideration all the available information it could be concluded that the exposure to the adequate microbes early in gestation and neonatal period seems to have a relevant role in health. Maternal microbial environment affects maternal and fetal immune physiology and, of relevance, this interaction with microbes at the fetal-maternal interface could be modulated by specific microbes administered to the pregnant mother. Indeed, probiotic interventions aiming to reduce the risk of immune-mediated diseases may appear effective during early life. PMID:22743759

  16. Microbial ecology and host-microbiota interactions during early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Cernada, Maria; Baüerl, Christine; Vento, Máximo; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    The role of human microbiota has been redefined during recent years and its physiological role is now much more important than earlier understood. Intestinal microbial colonization is essential for the maturation of immune system and for the developmental regulation of the intestinal physiology. Alterations in this process of colonization have been shown to predispose and increase the risk to disease later in life. The first contact of neonates with microbes is provided by the maternal microbiota. Moreover, mode of delivery, type of infant feeding and other perinatal factors can influence the establishment of the infant microbiota. Taken into consideration all the available information it could be concluded that the exposure to the adequate microbes early in gestation and neonatal period seems to have a relevant role in health. Maternal microbial environment affects maternal and fetal immune physiology and, of relevance, this interaction with microbes at the fetal-maternal interface could be modulated by specific microbes administered to the pregnant mother. Indeed, probiotic interventions aiming to reduce the risk of immune-mediated diseases may appear effective during early life.

  17. Trait canalization analysis of water quality, temperature, and developmental associations with early life stages of two fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Thomas P

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of trait robustness based on environmental fluctuation in ontogenetic life stages are needed to evaluate stability and trait response during critical developmental events. Hardness, alkalinity, acidity, light intensity, and thermal differences were studied for trait canalization variation in morphometric, meristic, ontogenetic processes, and pigment characteristics. Trait canalization was observed with no statistical differences (p > 0.05) in mixed random two-way ANOVA comparisons between various block and treatment effects for hardness, alkalinity or acidity. Thermal block variation differences in six measures, including mandible length, yolk sac length, midpostanal depth, and head width, incubation, and hatching length, varied significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with declining temperatures. Water quality and thermal attributes exhibited trait canalization and did not increase character state variation in the early life stage morphological expression, which result in stable phenotypic inheritance rather than variable environmental conditions during embryonic and larval development.

  18. Hypoxia and acidification have additive and synergistic negative effects on the growth, survival, and metamorphosis of early life stage bivalves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Gobler

    Full Text Available Low oxygen zones in coastal and open ocean ecosystems have expanded in recent decades, a trend that will accelerate with climatic warming. There is growing recognition that low oxygen regions of the ocean are also acidified, a condition that will intensify with rising levels of atmospheric CO2. Presently, however, the concurrent effects of low oxygen and acidification on marine organisms are largely unknown, as most prior studies of marine hypoxia have not considered pH levels. We experimentally assessed the consequences of hypoxic and acidified water for early life stage bivalves (bay scallops, Argopecten irradians, and hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria, marine organisms of significant economic and ecological value and sensitive to climate change. In larval scallops, experimental and naturally-occurring acidification (pH, total scale  = 7.4-7.6 reduced survivorship (by >50%, low oxygen (30-50 µM inhibited growth and metamorphosis (by >50%, and the two stressors combined produced additively negative outcomes. In early life stage clams, however, hypoxic waters led to 30% higher mortality, while acidified waters significantly reduced growth (by 60%. Later stage clams were resistant to hypoxia or acidification separately but experienced significantly (40% reduced growth rates when exposed to both conditions simultaneously. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the consequences of low oxygen and acidification for early life stage bivalves, and likely other marine organisms, are more severe than would be predicted by either individual stressor and thus must be considered together when assessing how ocean animals respond to these conditions both today and under future climate change scenarios.

  19. Ocean warming enhances malformations, premature hatching, metabolic suppression and oxidative stress in the early life stages of a keystone squid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rui; Pimentel, Marta S; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Teixeira, Tatiana; Trübenbach, Katja; Diniz, Mário

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge about the capacity of organisms' early life stages to adapt to elevated temperatures is very limited but crucial to understand how marine biota will respond to global warming. Here we provide a comprehensive and integrated view of biological responses to future warming during the early ontogeny of a keystone invertebrate, the squid Loligo vulgaris. Recently-spawned egg masses were collected and reared until hatching at present day and projected near future (+2°C) temperatures, to investigate the ability of early stages to undergo thermal acclimation, namely phenotypic altering of morphological, behavioural, biochemical and physiological features. Our findings showed that under the projected near-future warming, the abiotic conditions inside the eggs promoted metabolic suppression, which was followed by premature hatching. Concomitantly, the less developed newborns showed greater incidence of malformations. After hatching, the metabolic burst associated with the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a planktonic stage increased linearly with temperature. However, the greater exposure to environmental stress by the hatchlings seemed to be compensated by physiological mechanisms that reduce the negative effects on fitness. Heat shock proteins (HSP70/HSC70) and antioxidant enzymes activities constituted an integrated stress response to ocean warming in hatchlings (but not in embryos). The stressful abiotic conditions inside eggs are expected to be aggravated under the projected near-future ocean warming, with deleterious effects on embryo survival and growth. Greater feeding challenges and the lower thermal tolerance limits of the hatchlings are strictly connected to high metabolic demands associated with the planktonic life strategy. Yet, we found some evidence that, in the future, the early stages might support higher energy demands by adjusting some cellular functional properties to increase their thermal tolerance windows.

  20. Ocean warming enhances malformations, premature hatching, metabolic suppression and oxidative stress in the early life stages of a keystone squid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Rosa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The knowledge about the capacity of organisms' early life stages to adapt to elevated temperatures is very limited but crucial to understand how marine biota will respond to global warming. Here we provide a comprehensive and integrated view of biological responses to future warming during the early ontogeny of a keystone invertebrate, the squid Loligo vulgaris. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Recently-spawned egg masses were collected and reared until hatching at present day and projected near future (+2°C temperatures, to investigate the ability of early stages to undergo thermal acclimation, namely phenotypic altering of morphological, behavioural, biochemical and physiological features. Our findings showed that under the projected near-future warming, the abiotic conditions inside the eggs promoted metabolic suppression, which was followed by premature hatching. Concomitantly, the less developed newborns showed greater incidence of malformations. After hatching, the metabolic burst associated with the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a planktonic stage increased linearly with temperature. However, the greater exposure to environmental stress by the hatchlings seemed to be compensated by physiological mechanisms that reduce the negative effects on fitness. Heat shock proteins (HSP70/HSC70 and antioxidant enzymes activities constituted an integrated stress response to ocean warming in hatchlings (but not in embryos. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The stressful abiotic conditions inside eggs are expected to be aggravated under the projected near-future ocean warming, with deleterious effects on embryo survival and growth. Greater feeding challenges and the lower thermal tolerance limits of the hatchlings are strictly connected to high metabolic demands associated with the planktonic life strategy. Yet, we found some evidence that, in the future, the early stages might support higher energy demands by adjusting some cellular

  1. The influence of family pattern abnormalities in the early stages of life on the course of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Marcin; Sobolewska-Włodarczyk, Aleksandra; Stec-Michalska, Krystyna; Fichna, Jakub; Wiśniewska-Jarosińska, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) belong to the group of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), chronic immune mediated diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with significant negative impact on patients' quality of life. CD and UC are related with the development of chronic inflammatory lesions in the GI tract, causing digestive and absorption disorders. Typical symptoms of IBD are: abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and weight loss. In addition, IBD are often associated with the extraintestinal manifestations, including arthritis and dermatoses. While the cause of IBD is still not fully understood, the psychological aspects are regarded as possible trigger factors. Moreover, most recent studies suggest that family pattern abnormalities associated with stress at the early stages of life may strongly affect health balance. In this paper, the most relevant studies focusing on the association between early life stress and IBD, found in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and EMBASE are discussed. Possible effects of the early life stress on IBD progression and response to undertaken therapies are analyzed. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. Ocean acidification increases copper toxicity to the early life history stages of the polychaete Arenicola marina in artificial seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anna L; Mangan, Stephanie; Ellis, Robert P; Lewis, Ceri

    2014-08-19

    The speciation and therefore bioavailability of the common pollutant copper is predicted to increase within the pH range anticipated under near-future ocean acidification (OA), hence the potential exists for copper toxicity to marine organisms to also increase. We investigated the impact of OA (seawater pH values of 7.77 (pCO2 1400 μatm) and 7.47 (pCO2 3000 μatm)) upon copper toxicity responses in early life history stages of the polychaete Arenicola marina and found both synergistic and additive toxicity effects of combined exposures depending on life history stage. The toxicity of copper on sperm DNA damage and early larval survivorship was synergistically increased under OA conditions. Larval survival was reduced by 24% when exposed to both OA and copper combined compared to single OA or copper exposures. Sperm motility was negatively affected by both OA and copper singularly with additive toxicity effects of the two stressors when combined. Fertilization success was also negatively affected by both OA and copper individually, but no additive effects when exposed as combined stressors were present for this stage. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that OA will act to increase the toxicity of copper to marine organisms, which has clear implications for coastal benthic ecosystems suffering chronic metal pollution as pCO2 levels rise and drive a reduction in seawater pH.

  3. The effects of waterborne uranium on the hatching success, development, and survival of early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourrachot, Stephanie [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et Ecotoxicologie, IRSN, Cadarache, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)], E-mail: stephanie.bourrachot@irsn.fr; Simon, Olivier; Gilbin, Rodolphe [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et Ecotoxicologie, IRSN, Cadarache, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2008-10-20

    In this study, we investigated the effects of the radioactive metal uranium (U) on the embryonic development, hatching success, growth rate, and survival of juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio). We studied the effects of depleted uranium (20-500 {mu}g L{sup -1} of DU), inducing mainly chemical toxicity due to its low specific activity, and the combined effects of chemical and radiological toxicity by using a higher specific activity uranium isotope (20 and 100 {mu}g L{sup -1} of {sup 233}U). Results showed that early life stages are significantly affected by uranium exposure through both chemical and combined (chemical and radiological) toxicity. Experiments showed significant effects of U on hatching success starting at the concentration of 250 {mu}g L{sup -1} of DU, causing a 42% delay in median hatching times relative to control. Furthermore, a reduction of growth (decrease in body length and weight) was observed followed by a high mortality of pro-larvae stage (up to 100% at DU concentrations of 250 {mu}g L{sup -1} upon a 15 day exposure). Bioaccumulation measurements highlighted that U was mainly localised in the chorion but penetrated in the embryo inside eggs at a higher concentration. The effects differed depending on the isotopic composition of the uranium: sublethal defects in the tail detachment process were more pronounced for {sup 233}U than DU exposure, while the presence of {sup 233}U specifically affected embryo development and led to higher mortality rates of the prolarvae. The results from this study showed that the early life stages of zebrafish seems to be more sensitive to uranium contamination than more mature stages, and underline the importance of including pro-larval stages into toxicity tests in order to improve the relevancy for environmental risk assessments.

  4. Photoenhanced toxicity of a carbamate insecticide to early life stage anuran amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaga, A.; Little, E.E.; Rabeni, C.F.; Ellersieck, Mark R.

    1998-01-01

    African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) and gray tree frog (Hyla versicolor) embryos and tadpoles were exposed to sublethal levels of carbaryl, a broad-spectrum insecticide, and ultraviolet radiation to determine interactive and sublethal effects. Ultraviolet intensity (UV-B [285-320 nm] plus LIV-A [321-400 nm]) was controlled with various types of plastic filters and quantified with a scanning spectroradiometer. Significant differences in swimming activity and mortality of both species were evident during the 96-h experiments. Ultraviolet-B radiation alone and carbaryl in the presence of UV-B significantly decreased swimming activity of both species. As little as 1.5% intensity of ambient solar UV-B radiation photoactivated carbaryl. Toxicity of 7.5 mg/L earbaryl increased by 10-fold in the presence of UV-B in all species and life stages tested. Our results indicate that photoenhancement by solar UV-B radiation should be considered when evaluating the toxicity of contaminants to amphibians and other organisms.

  5. Evidence of Olfactory Imprinting at an Early Life Stage in Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett, Nolan N; Hinch, Scott G; Dittman, Andrew H; Yun, Sang-Seon

    2016-11-09

    Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) navigate towards spawning grounds using olfactory cues they imprinted on as juveniles. The timing at which imprinting occurs has been studied extensively, and there is strong evidence that salmon imprint on their natal water during the parr-smolt transformation (PST). Researchers have noted, however, that the life histories of some species of Pacific salmon could necessitate imprinting prior to the PST. Juvenile pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) spend less time in fresh water than any other species of Pacific salmon, and presumably must imprint on their natal water at a very young age. The time at which imprinting occurs in this species, however, has not been experimentally tested. We exposed juvenile pink salmon as alevins to phenethyl alcohol (PEA) or control water, reared these fish to adulthood, and then tested their behavioural responses to PEA to determine whether the fish successfully imprinted. We found that pink salmon exposed to PEA as alevins were attracted to the chemical as adults, suggesting that imprinting can occur during this stage. Our finding provides some of the first evidence to support the long-standing belief that imprinting can occur in pink salmon prior to the PST.

  6. Sex-specific gene expression in early life stage fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) throughout development and after exposure to synthetic hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is evidence that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during early life stages can alter sex differentiation in fishes. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) are commonly used as a model fish species in endocrine disruption studies. However, limited knowledge...

  7. Characteristics of juvenile survivors reveal spatio-temporal differences in early life stage survival of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Böttcher, U.

    2014-01-01

    The spatio-temporal origin of surviving juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua was investigated by coupling age information from otolith microstructure analysis and hydrodynamic modeling, which allowed backtracking of drift routes in time and space. The suitability of hydrodynamic modeling for drift...... simulations of early life stages of Baltic cod up to the pelagic juvenile stage was validated by comparing model simulations with the catch distribution from a survey targeting pelagic juveniles, and mortality rates and hatch date distributions of pelagic and demersal juveniles were estimated. Hatch dates...... and hatch locations of juvenile survivors showed distinct patterns which did not agree well with the abundance and spatial distribution of eggs, suggesting marked spatio-temporal differences in larval survival. The good agreement of the spatio-temporal origin of survivors from this field investigation...

  8. Quality of life, urogynecological morbidity, and lymphedema after radical vaginal trachelectomy for early-stage cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøding, Ligita Paskeviciute; Ottosen, Christian; Mosgaard, Berit Jul

    2015-01-01

    assess quality of life after RVT with focus on urogynecological morbidity and lymphedema. Furthermore, the aim of this study was to compare results with those in women treated with radical abdominal hysterectomy (RAH) and with age-matched control women from the general population. METHODS AND MATERIALS...... severe lymphedema of the legs as assessed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Cervical Cancer Module. The Global Health Status scores of the RVT patients improved over time but were significantly lower than in the healthy controls during...... the entire observation time (P = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with RVT for early-stage cervical cancer had persistent bladder emptying problems and lymphedema comparable to those experienced by patients treated with RAH and significantly higher than those reported by healthy control women....

  9. Life cycle assessment as decision support tool in early stage development of a new technology for wastewater resource recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Linda L.; Valverde Perez, Borja; Damgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used in the field of wastewater treatment where the focus has been to identify environmental trade-offs of current technologies. In a novel approach, we use LCA to support early stage research and development of a biochemical system for wastewater....... The environmental performance of the system has been evaluated through life cycle assessment using EASETECH software. For the chosen scenarios, TRENS reduces global warming up to 15% and marine eutrophication impacts up to 9% compared to conventional treatment. This is due to the TRENS system’s lower aeration......-renewable phosphorus. However, the resource recovery may come at the cost of unintended environmental impacts. One promising recovery system, referred to as TRENS, consists of an enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery system (EBP2R) connected to a photobioreactor. We present the environmental impact...

  10. Which is the best environment for the development of the early life stages of fish during the dry season?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Henríques Esguícero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The main objective of this study was to investigate the quality of habitats for early life stages of fish in the Jacaré-Guaçu River, during the dry phase; METHODS: For assessing the quality of the habitats for the development of early life stages, the relative condition factor was applied to the juveniles of five species of fishes, captured in four different habitats (reservoir, floodplain lake, main river, and tributary. The juveniles were caught in macrophytes of the littoral zone by a rectangular sieve, in the dry season of 2008 and 2009; RESULTS: The species Astyanax altiparanae thrived similarly in the four habitats, and A. fasciatus, Hyphessobrycon eques, Hoplias malabaricus and Serrapinnus notomelas, showed higher values of relative condition factors in the reservoir and in the lake. Among the species, A. fasciatus showed the highest values of the relative condition factor in these two habitats; CONCLUSIONS: It is likely that the complexity of the macrophytes' stands and the current velocity were the main factors influencing the development of juveniles. It was found that a lower current velocity can propitiated the establishment of a greater richness of macrophytes, which in turn can influence positively the development of fish juveniles. Moreover, a higher current velocity ends in a higher energy demand for swimming.

  11. Effects of triclosan on the early life stages and reproduction of medaka Oryzias latipes and induction of hepatic vitellogenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Naomi; Hirano, Masashi; Matsuoka, Munekazu; Shiratsuchi, Hideki; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Takao, Yuji; Arizono, Koji

    2004-04-14

    Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether) is widely used as antibacterial agent in various industrial products, such as textile goods, soap, shampoo, liquid toothpaste and cosmetics, and often detected in wastewater effluent. In this study, the effects of TCS on the early life stages and reproduction of medaka (Oryzias latipes) were investigated. The 96-h median lethal concentration value of TCS for 24-h-old larvae was 602 microg/l. The hatchability and time to hatching in fertilized eggs exposed to 313 microg/l TCS for 14 days were significantly decreased and delayed, respectively. An assessment of the effects of a TCS 21-day exposure period on the reproduction of paired medaka showed no significant differences in the number of eggs produced and fertility among the control and 20, 100 and 200 microg/l TCS treatment groups. However, concentrations of hepatic vitellogenin were increased significantly in males treated with TCS at 20 and 100 microg/l. In the F(1) generations, although the hatching of embryos in the 20 microg/l treatment showed adverse effects, there was no dose-response relationship between hatchability and TCS treatment levels. These results suggest that TCS has high toxicity on the early life stages of medaka, and that the metabolite of TCS may be a weak estrogenic compound with the potential to induce vitellogenin in male medaka but with no adverse effect on reproductive success and offspring.

  12. Acute toxicity of polyacrylamide flocculants to early life stages of freshwater mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczek, Sean B; Cope, W Gregory; McLaughlin, Richard A; Kwak, Thomas J

    2017-04-11

    Polyacrylamide has become an effective tool for reducing construction-related suspended sediment and turbidity, which are considered to have significant adverse impacts on aquatic ecosystems and are a leading cause of the degradation of North American streams and rivers. However, little is known about the effects of polyacrylamide on many freshwater organisms, and prior to the present study, no information existed on the toxicity of polyacrylamide compounds to native freshwater mussels (family Unionidae), one of the most imperiled faunal groups globally. Following standard test guidelines, we exposed juvenile mussels (test duration 96 h) and glochidia larvae (test duration 24 h) to 5 different anionic polyacrylamide compounds and 1 non-ionic compound. Species tested included the yellow lampmussel (Lampsilis cariosa), an Atlantic Slope species that is listed as endangered in North Carolina; the Appalachian elktoe (Alasmidonta raveneliana), a federally endangered Interior Basin species; and the washboard (Megalonaias nervosa), a common Interior Basin species. We found that median lethal concentrations (LC50s) of polyacrylamide ranged from 411.7 to >1000 mg/L for glochidia and from 126.8 to >1000 mg/L for juveniles. All LC50s were orders of magnitude greater (2-3) than concentrations typically recommended for turbidity control (1-5 mg/L), regardless of their molecular weight or charge density. The results demonstrate that the polyacrylamide compounds tested were not acutely toxic to the mussel species and life stages tested, indicating minimal risk of short-term exposure from polyacrylamide applications in the environment. However, other potential uses of polyacrylamide in the environment (e.g., wastewater treatment, paper processing, mining, algae removal) and their chronic or sublethal effects remain uncertain and warrant additional investigation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-7. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is

  13. Implementation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in the early stages of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2003-01-01

    of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around the state-of-the-art in eco-design, from literature and personal experience and further provides eco-design life cycle assessment strategies. The result...

  14. Effects of subchronic exposure of early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to copper, cadmium, and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, David W; Tompsett, Amber R; Sigurdson, Jacinda L; Doering, Jon A; Zhang, Xiaowei; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2011-11-01

    Populations of sturgeon (Acipenseridae) are declining in many places in the world because of several potential factors, including overharvesting, habitat alteration, and pollution. In North America, populations of the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) have been experiencing poor annual recruitment in major river systems for more than three decades. Metal pollution has been hypothesized as a potential contributing factor to the poor recruitment in some of the water bodies. In general, little is known about the toxicity of metals such as Cu, Cd, and Zn to white sturgeon and their potential influence on survival of embryos and juveniles. The present study was conducted to establish baseline toxicity data for the subchronic exposure of early life stages of white sturgeon to Cu, Cd, and Zn that can be used in metal-related risk assessments. Embryos, larvae, and fry were exposed to increasing concentrations of dissolved Cu, Cd, or Zn for 66 d using laboratory-based flow-through exposure systems. Hatching success was greater than 79% for all controls, and no significant differences were observed among treatment groups or between treatments and controls. Chronic lethal concentrations at which 20% mortality occurred (LC20s) for Cd (1.5 µg/L), Cu (5.5 µg/L), and Zn (112 µg/L) obtained for white sturgeon in the present study were comparable to those of sensitive salmonid species. Based on LC20 values for 19 or 58 d posthatch white sturgeon, the United States national ambient water quality criteria and the Canadian water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life that have been established for Cd, Cu, and Zn protect white sturgeon early life stages.

  15. Toxic effects, bioconcentration and depuration of verapamil in the early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, Christoph, E-mail: steinbach@frov.jcu.cz [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Fedorova, Ganna [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Prokes, Miroslav [Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Kvetna 8, 603 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Grabicova, Katerina; Machova, Jana; Grabic, Roman; Valentova, Olga; Kroupova, Hana Kocour [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-01

    Verapamil is a pharmaceutical that belongs to a group of calcium channel blockers and is mainly used as a treatment of angina pectoris and arterial hypertension. Verapamil has been detected in aquatic environments in concentrations ranging from ng L{sup −1} to μg L{sup −1}. In the present study, a series of acute toxicity tests of verapamil on various developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were conducted. As a result, 96hLC{sub 50} values of verapamil were estimated at 16.4 ± 9.2, 7.3 ± 1.5 and 4.8 ± 0.2 mg L{sup −1} for embryos (E5–E9) and common carp larvae L2 and L5, respectively. Lethal concentrations of verapamil decreased with an increase in the age of the fish. Acute exposure to verapamil significantly reduced the heart rate in the embryos and larvae. In an embryo-larval toxicity test (sub-chronic exposure), the bioconcentration, depuration, and toxic effects of verapamil were assessed in common carp. The fish were exposed to verapamil in a concentration of 0.463 (environmentally relevant), 4.63, 46.3 and 463 μg L{sup −1}. Verapamil had no effect on the accumulated mortality, hatching, condition factor, growth or ontogeny of the fish in any of the tested concentrations. In carp exposed to 463 and 46.3 μg L{sup −1} of verapamil, significantly higher occurrences of malformations and edemas were observed compared to the control. The bioconcentration factor of verapamil in whole fish homogenates ranged between 6.6 and 16.6 and was therefore below the critical value for hazard substances (BCF > 500). The half-life and the 95% depuration time for the tested compound were estimated to be 10.2 ± 1.6 days and 44.2 ± 8.6 days, respectively. No effects of verapamil on the studied endpoints were observed at environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: • Study of the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of verapamil on early-life stages of common carp. • Acute exposure to verapamil reduced the heart rate in early-life stages of

  16. Impact of modified radical mastectomy on health-related quality of life in women with early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Negin; Soltanipour, Sohail; Talei, Abdolrasol

    2012-08-01

    Systematic reviews favor a better body image and sexual activity in patients who have undergone conservative breast surgery (BCS) compared to modified radical mastectomy (MRM). In those patients with the same survival, MRM remains the surgical choice among both surgeons and patients in Iran as well as in many other countries. This cross-sectional study focuses on health-related quality of life in early stage breast cancer patients following BCS and MRM. From all post-op patients who referred to the Motahari Clinic, Shiraz, Iran, we used a convenient sampling method to select 160 MRM patients and 127 who underwent BCS. Translated copies of the EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 3) and the EORTC QLQ-BR23 questionnaires, in addition to a third questionnaire which was customized and prepared for this study, were completed by the patients under our supervision The two groups were compared by a multivariate method (Hotelling's trace test) after controlling for variables with unequal values such as disease stage, hormonal and radiotherapy treatments, and patients' role in the choice of surgery. We noted a significant difference (P quality of life.

  17. Theory of Mind and its neuropsychological and Quality of Life correlates in the early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Trojsi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the potential impairment of Theory of Mind (ToM (i.e., the ability to represent cognitive and affective mental states to both self and others and the clinical, neuropsychological and Quality of Life (QoL correlates of these cognitive abnormalities in the early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, a multisystem neurodegenerative disease recently recognized as a part of the same clinical and pathological spectrum of frontotemporal lobar degeneration.Twenty-two consecutive, cognitively intact ALS patients, and 15 healthy controls, underwent assessment of executive, verbal comprehension, visuospatial, behavioural and QoL measures, as well as of the ToM abilities by Emotion Attribution Task (EAT, Advanced Test of ToM (ATT and Eyes Task (ET.ALS patients obtained significantly lower scores than controls on EAT and ET. No significant difference was found between the two groups on ATT. As regard to type of ALS onset, patients with bulbar onset performed worse than those with spinal onset on ET. Correlation analysis revealed that EAT and ET were positively correlated with education, memory prose, visuo-spatial performances and Mental Health scores among QoL items.Our results suggest that not only cognitive but also affective subcomponents of ToM may be impaired in the early stages of ALS, with significant linkage to disease onset and dysfunctions of less executively demanding conditions, causing potential impact on patients' Mental Health.

  18. Theory of Mind and Its Neuropsychological and Quality of Life Correlates in the Early Stages of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojsi, Francesca; Siciliano, Mattia; Russo, Antonio; Passaniti, Carla; Femiano, Cinzia; Ferrantino, Teresa; De Liguoro, Stefania; Lavorgna, Luigi; Monsurrò, Maria R.; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Santangelo, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the potential impairment of Theory of Mind (ToM; i.e., the ability to represent cognitive and affective mental states to both self and others) and the clinical, neuropsychological and Quality of Life (QoL) correlates of these cognitive abnormalities in the early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a multisystem neurodegenerative disease recently recognized as a part of the same clinical and pathological spectrum of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Twenty-two consecutive, cognitively intact ALS patients, and 15 healthy controls, underwent assessment of executive, verbal comprehension, visuospatial, behavioral, and QoL measures, as well as of the ToM abilities by Emotion Attribution Task (EAT), Advanced Test of ToM (ATT), and Eyes Task (ET). ALS patients obtained significantly lower scores than controls on EAT and ET. No significant difference was found between the two groups on ATT. As regard to type of ALS onset, patients with bulbar onset performed worse than those with spinal onset on ET. Correlation analysis revealed that EAT and ET were positively correlated with education, memory prose, visuo-spatial performances, and “Mental Health” scores among QoL items. Our results suggest that not only “cognitive” but also “affective” subcomponents of ToM may be impaired in the early stages of ALS, with significant linkage to disease onset and dysfunctions of less executively demanding conditions, causing potential impact on patients’ “Mental Health.” PMID:28018269

  19. Responses to various exposure durations of levonorgestrel during early-life stages of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overturf, Matthew D; Huggett, Duane B

    2015-04-01

    Pharmaceuticals are routinely detected in the environment; and several of these compounds have been extensively researched due to their potential impacts to the endocrine system of aquatic organisms. The negative reproductive consequences of synthetic progestins in teleost species have only recently been investigated. The current study examined different exposure periods that may be most sensitive for levonorgestrel (LNG) in early-life stages of fathead minnow larvae. Larvae were exposed to a single concentration of LNG (125ng/L) for different durations from fertilized egg through 28 days post hatch (dph) with growth and mRNA expression of FSH, 3β-HSD, 20β-HSD, and CYP19a1 measured. Regardless of the duration of exposure, LNG significantly decreased growth in the fathead minnow larvae at day 28. For both 20β-HSD and CYP19a1, mRNA expression was decreased following LNG exposure durations ≥7 days. 3β-HSD and FSH showed similar trends after exposure to LNG with later stages of development exhibiting decreased expression. 20β-HSD and 3β-HSD were the only transcripts to remain down regulated once larvae were moved to clean water after the 7-14dph LNG exposure. This study is the first to investigate the effects of exposure time to a synthetic progestin on developing fish. Future research is needed to understand what impacts these changes have on adult stages of development.

  20. Using drift nets to capture early life stages and monitor spawning of the yangtze river chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Q.W.; Kynard, B.; Yang, D.G.; Chen, X.H.; Du, H.; Shen, L.; Zhang, H.

    2009-01-01

    A sampling system for capturing sturgeon eggs using a D-shaped bottom anchored drift net was used to capture early life stages (ELS) of Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis, and monitor annual spawning success at Yichang on the Yangtze River, 1996-2004, before and just after the Three Gorges Dam began operation. Captured were 96 875 ELS (early life stages: eggs, yolk-sac larvae = eleuthero embryos, and larvae); most were eggs and only 2477 were yolk-sac larvae. Most ELS were captured in the main river channel and inside the bend at the Yichang spawning reach. Yolk-sac larvae were captured for a maximum of 3 days after hatching began, indicating quick dispersal downstream. The back-calculated day of egg fertilization over the eight years indicated a maximum spawning window of 23 days (20 October-10 November). Spawning in all years was restricted temporally, occurred mostly at night and during one or two spawning periods, each lasting several days. The brief temporal spawning window may reduce egg predation by opportunistic predators by flooding the river bottom with millions of eggs. During 1996-2002, the percentage of fertilized eggs in an annual 20-egg sample was between 63.5 to 94.1%; however, in 2003 the percentage fertilized was only 23.8%. This sudden decline may be related to the altered environmental conditions at Yichang caused by operation of the Three Gorges Dam. Further studies are needed to monitor spawning and changes in egg fertilization in this threatened population. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Developmental exposure to organophosphate flame retardants elicits overt toxicity and alters behavior in early life stage zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishaw, Laura V; Hunter, Deborah L; Padnos, Beth; Padilla, Stephanie; Stapleton, Heather M

    2014-12-01

    Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are common replacements for the phased-out polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and have been detected at high concentrations in environmental samples. OPFRs are structurally similar to organophosphate pesticides and may adversely affect the developing nervous system. This study evaluated the overt toxicity, uptake, and neurobehavioral effects of tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TDBPP) in early life stage zebrafish. Chlorpyrifos was used as a positive control. For overt toxicity and neurobehavioral assessments, zebrafish were exposed from 0 to 5 days postfertilization (dpf). Hatching, death, or malformations were evaluated daily. Teratogenic effects were scored by visual examination on 6 dpf. To evaluate uptake and metabolism, zebrafish were exposed to 1 µM of each organophosphate (OP) flame retardant and collected on 1 and 5 dpf to monitor accumulation. Larval swimming activity was measured in 6 dpf larvae to evaluate neurobehavioral effects of exposures below the acute toxicity threshold. TDBPP elicited the greatest toxicity at >1 µM. TDCPP and chlorpyrifos were overtly toxic at concentrations ≥10 µM, TCEP, and TCPP were not overtly toxic at the doses tested. Tissue concentrations increased with increasing hydrophobicity of the parent chemical after 24 h exposures. TDCPP and TDBPP and their respective metabolites were detected in embryos on 5 dpf. For all chemicals tested, developmental exposures that were not overtly toxic significantly altered larval swimming activity. These data indicate that OPFRs adversely affect development of early life stage zebrafish.

  2. Contribution of commonly analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to potential toxicity in early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, H.; Ishaq, R.; Tjarnlund, U.; Akerman, G.; Grunder, K.; Bandh, C.; Broman, D.; Balk, L. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Environmental Science

    2006-06-15

    The potential toxicity of sediment extracts from a contaminated bay in Sweden was investigated through a series of bio-effect-directed fractionation experiments. The aim of the study was to determine the contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to potential toxicity in early life stages of rainbow trout. The connection between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and toxicopathic effects caused by environmental polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) mixtures was also investigated. Although samples from PAC polluted areas cause mortalities and toxicopathic effects, the mechanisms of toxicity have been established for only a few PACs. Ten samples of the top 10 cm of bottom sediment were collected from the polluted bay. A synthetic PAC mixture was prepared with 17 commonly analyzed PAHs in amounts equimolar to those found in the sediment PAC fraction. The synthetic PAC mixture was injected into eggs in 3 graded doses corresponding to the analyzed amount of PAHs in the sediment PAC fraction. Ten subfractions were isolated from the sediment PAC fraction and from the synthetic PAC mixture. Toxicopathic variables and hepatic Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities were recorded in larvae. Abnormalities in newly hatched larvae included hemorrhages in the yolk sac, head, trunk and tail region; edemas in the yolk sac; pericardium, and fins; and asymmetric yolk sacs. The 17 PAHs were unable to account for the toxicopathic effects, and could explain less than 4 per cent of the total EROD induction. Results indicated that mortalities caused by complex environmental PAC mixtures may involve mechanisms other than AhR mediation. Only a small percentage of the potential toxicity from a polluted sediment sample to early life stages of fish could be attributed to the 17 PAHs. It was concluded that the lack of a clear relationship between toxicopathic effects and EROD induction emphasizes the need for a battery of bio-markers for estimating environmental risk. 30 refs

  3. Later Life Changes in Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Behavioral Functions After Low-Dose Prenatal Irradiation at Early Organogenesis Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathi, Ramya; Manda, Kailash

    2017-05-01

    To investigate long-term changes in behavioral functions of mice after exposure to low-dose prenatal radiation at an early organogenesis stage. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were irradiated (20 cGy) at postcoitus day 5.5. The male and female offspring were subjected to different behavioral assays for affective, motor, and cognitive functions at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Behavioral functions were further correlated with the population of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons and immature neurons in hippocampal dentate gyrus. Prenatally exposed mice of different age groups showed a sex-specific pattern of sustained changes in behavioral functions. Male mice showed significant changes in anxiety-like phenotypes, learning, and long-term memory at age 3 months. At 6 months of age such behavioral functions were recovered to a normal level but could not be sustained at age 12 months. Female mice showed an appreciable recovery in almost all behavioral functions at 12 months. Patterns of change in learning and long-term memory were comparable to the population of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons and doublecortin-positive neurons in hippocampus. Our finding suggests that prenatal (early organogenesis stage) irradiation even at a lower dose level (20 cGy) is sufficient to cause potential changes in neurobehavioral function at later stages of life. Male mice showed relatively higher vulnerability to radiation-induced neurobehavioral changes as compared with female. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anorectal Function and Quality of Life in Patients With Early Stage Rectal Cancer Treated With Chemoradiation and Local Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Patricio B; Renfro, Lindsay A; Carrero, Xiomara W; Shi, Qian; Strombom, Paul L; Chow, Oliver; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about anorectal function and quality of life after chemoradiation followed by local excision, which is an alternative to total mesorectal excision for selected patients with early rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess anorectal function and health-related quality of life of patients with T2N0 rectal cancer who were treated with an alternative approach. This was a prospective, phase II trial. The study was multicentric (American College of Surgeons Oncology Group trial Z6041). Patients with stage cT2N0 rectal adenocarcinomas were treated with an oxaliplatin/capecitabine-based chemoradiation regimen followed by local excision. Anorectal function and quality of life were assessed at enrollment and 1 year postoperatively with the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index, Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life scale, and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal Questionnaire. Results were compared, and multivariable analysis was performed to identify predictors of outcome. Seventy-one patients (98%) were evaluated at enrollment and 66 (92%) at 1 year. Compared with baseline, no significant differences were found on Fecal Incontinence Severity Index scores at 1 year. Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life results were significantly worse in the lifestyle (p embarrassment (p = 0.002) domains. There were no differences in the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy overall score, but the physical well-being subscale was significantly worse and emotional well-being was improved after surgery. Treatment with the original chemoradiation regimen predicted worse depression/self-perception and embarrassment scores in the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life, and male sex was predictive of worse scores in the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy overall score and trial outcome index. Small sample size, relatively short follow-up, and absence of information before cancer diagnosis were study limitations. Chemoradiation followed by local

  5. Subtle effects of environmental stress observed in the early life stages of the Common frog, Rana temporaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Rebecca; Martin, Francis L.; Jones, Kevin C.; Shore, Richard F.; Halsall, Crispin J.

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide amphibian populations are declining due to habitat loss, disease and pollution. Vulnerability to environmental contaminants such as pesticides will be dependent on the species, the sensitivity of the ontogenic life stage and hence the timing of exposure and the exposure pathway. Herein we investigated the biochemical tissue ‘fingerprint’ in spawn and early-stage tadpoles of the Common frog, Rana temporaria, using attenuated total reflection-Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy with the objective of observing differences in the biochemical constituents of the respective amphibian tissues due to varying water quality in urban and agricultural ponds. Our results demonstrate that levels of stress (marked by biochemical constituents such as glycogen that are involved in compensatory metabolic mechanisms) can be observed in tadpoles present in the pond most impacted by pollution (nutrients and pesticides), but large annual variability masked any inter-site differences in the frog spawn. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy is capable of detecting differences in tadpoles that are present in selected ponds with different levels of environmental perturbation and thus serves as a rapid and cost effective tool in assessing stress-related effects of pollution in a vulnerable class of organism. PMID:28317844

  6. Buccal apparatus and gastrointestinal tract dimensions associated to the diet of early life stages of Centropomus undecimalis (Centropomidae, Actinopterygii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela M. S Araújo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to compare the buccal apparatus and gastrointestinal tract of early life stages of Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch, 1792, and relate them to its diet. A total of 190 individuals collected with a channel net in the Catuama estuary (07º40'9.9''S, 34º50'36.7''W, northern coast of the state of Pernambuco, were examined. Morphometrical and meristic data were analyzed for the two initial developmental periods (larval and juvenile. Their digestive tube was morphologically characterized and its content identified. The longest transverse axis of food items was measured, and compared to the standard length (SL and mouth gape size (D of the individuals. Body measurement regressions differed significantly (p<0.001 between larvae and juveniles. The stomachs with food content (n=118 individuals presented a proportion of 62% full and 30% empty (being 8% damaged. They differed in relation to the fullness level and presented a coiled shape when empty. The number of food items in relation to SL and D did not present an evident correlation. Larvae (SL<10 mm feed on small copepods, while juveniles (SL=11.1 to 64.7 mm ingest larvae of various decapod species, showing a distinct diet between these initial developmental stages.

  7. Saltatory ontogeny of fishes and sensitive early life stages for ecotoxicology tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Scott E; Balon, Eugene K; Rawlings, Jane M

    2010-04-15

    Fish display a wide range of developmental ontogenies. These distinctions have taxonomic, evolutionary, and ecological importance in addition to practical implications on the use of fish in aquatic toxicity tests. With respect to animal welfare, vertebrates are afforded protected or non-protected status in the European Union based upon whether they feed endogenously off the yolk or exogenously by procurement and ingestion of food. The concept of saltatory ontogeny suggests development is not gradual but proceeds in leaps separated by a series of stable developmental states. In this context, endogenous/exogenous feeding also distinguishes the developmental phases of embryo (egg), eleutheroembryo (feeding off the yolk sac) and larvae (exogenous feeding) in fish. The recent proposal for the Fish Embryo Test (FET) as an animal alternative to the standard fish acute toxicity test (OECD 203 and equivalent tests) puts a clear focus on the need to identify the non-protected and protected life intervals in test species as well as their sensitivities which coincides with the developmental phases identified in saltatory ontogeny. In this paper we described a method to quantify embryo, eleutheroembryo, and larva phases in Danio rerio, the zebrafish. Danio eleutheroembryos preyed upon 5 different protozoan species (Euglena, Euplotes, Paramecium aurelia, Paramecium bursaria and Paramecium multimicronucleatum) between 24 and 48hr following hatching (85-95% of fish, n=20 per species, 25 degrees C). Based upon these data it is recommended that testing of developing zebrafish embryos should be terminated between 24 and 48hr after hatching in order to be compliant with existing animal welfare legislation within Europe.

  8. Effect of nitrite on early-life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroupova, Hana; Prokes, Miroslav; Macova, Stanislava; Penaz, Milan; Barus, Vlastimil; Novotny, Ladislav; Machova, Jana

    2010-03-01

    A one-month chronic exposure of common carp larvae and embryos to nitrite revealed significant (p < 0.01) differences in total accumulated mortality in fish exposed to 33, 67, and 330 mg/L NO(2)(-) compared with controls. At the highest concentration, all fish died within 8 d of exposure. On the basis of accumulated mortality in the experimental groups, lethal concentrations of nitrite were estimated at 29 d LC50 = 88 mg/L NO(2)(-); lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) = 28 mg/L NO(2)(-); and no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) = 7 mg/L NO(2)(-). Fulton's condition factor values were significantly lower in fish from all experimental groups compared with controls. By day 12, fish exposed to 33 and 67 mg/L NO(2)(-) had significantly lower mass and total length compared with controls. No significant negative effects of nitrite at the concentrations tested (0.7-330 mg/L NO(2)(-), at 10 mg/L Cl(-)) on hatching or embryo viability were demonstrated, but significant differences in early ontogeny among groups were noted. Fish from all the concentrations showed a dose-related delay in development compared with the controls. Lordosis, kyphosis, scoliosis, and body shortening were observed at all concentrations and in controls, as was yolk sac deformation and edema, eye deformation, and cardiac edema. The incidence of these malformations was positively correlated with nitrite concentration. Histopathology revealed epidermal spongiosis; edema and hyperplasia of the gill epithelium, including hypertrophy and hyperplasia of eosinophilic granular cells (chloride cells); and interstitial edema of skeletal muscle in fish exposed to 67 mg/L NO(2)(-). Similar, but milder, changes were observed at lower nitrite concentrations.

  9. Some aspects in early life stage of climbing perch, Anabas testudineus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponpanom Promkaew

    2005-02-01

    volume 10 liters containing 1,000 larvae aged 1 days post-hatching (just before the mouth opened. They were fed with rotifer at a density of 10 ind/ml. Twenty larvae were collected at random from the aquarium at 2-hourly intervals, preserved in 10% buffered formalin, and then dissected to determine the presence of rotifer in the digestive tract. The digestive tracts were fixed at 32 hr of hatching at water temperatures of 27.0-30.5ºC, and measured477.63±47.80 mm in mouth height. The average number of rotifer in the digestive tract at the start of feeding was 1.50 individual/larva. A starvation experiment was carried out using a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10 liters with three replications. Two hundred newly hatched larvae were kept without feeding. Larvae started to die at 216 hr and totally died within 348 hr after hatching at water temperature ranging between 27.0 and 30.5ºC. The feeding scheme experiments were done in a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10 liters containing 500 of two-day old larvae (stage at first feeding. It was found that larval climbing perch aged 3- 10 days (average total length 3.02-4.97 mm consumed rotifer. The larvae of age 8-15 days (average total length 3.94-12.60 mm consumed Moina. The larvae of age 8-10 days (average total length 3.94-4.97 mmconsumed both rotifer and Moina. The larvae of age 11-day (average total length 5.51 mm consumed only Moina. The larvae of age 14-15 days (average total length 7.34-12.60 mm consumed both Moina and artificial feed. Larvae aged more than 16 days consumed only artificial feed. Determining the daily food uptake by the larvae and juveniles was done in a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10 liters containing 100 larvae. The larvae consumed the living food organism i.e. rotifer or Moina depending on larval stage, with density of rotifer 100 individual/ml or with density of Moina 10 individual/ml. The amount of food intake was calculated based on changes of food density in the

  10. Toxicity of short-term copper exposure to early life stages of red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liang; Huang, Wei; Liu, Jinhu; Ye, Zhenjiang; Dou, Shuozeng

    2010-09-01

    Acute (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 mg Cu/L) and chronic (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.12 mg Cu/L) toxicity tests of Cu with embryonic and larval red sea bream, Pagrus major, were carried out to investigate their biological responses to Cu exposure in static water at 18 +/- 1 degrees C (dissolved organic carbon, 1.8 +/- 0.65 mg C/L; hardness, 6,183 +/- 360 mg CaCO3/L; salinity, 33 +/- 1 per thousand). The 24- and 48-h LC50 (median lethal concentration) values of Cu for embryos were 0.23 and 0.15 mg/L, whereas the 48-, 72-, and 96-h LC50 values for larvae were 0.52, 0.19, and 0.13 mg/L, respectively, suggesting that embryos were more sensitive to Cu toxicity than larvae. Copper exposures at > or =0.06 mg concentrations caused low hatching success, a delay in the time to hatching of embryos, and reductions in the growth and yolk absorption of the larvae, whereas high mortality and morphological malformations occurred in the embryos and larvae at > or =0.08 mg/L concentrations. Copper concentration did not significantly affect the heart rate of the embryos, but it significantly decreased the heart rate of the newly hatched larvae when the Cu concentration was > or =0.08 mg/L, suggesting that Cu at high concentrations could induce heartbeat disturbances in red sea bream more easily at the larval stage than at the embryonic stage. Hatching success, time to hatching, growth rate, morphological abnormality, yolk absorption, and heart rate were Cu concentration-dependent and could be effective endpoints for evaluating Cu toxicity to the early life stages of red sea bream in nature.

  11. Assessment of early life stage mahi-mahi windows of sensitivity during acute exposures to Deepwater Horizon crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Edward M; Pasparakis, Christina; Schlenker, Lela S; Yao, Zongli; Bodinier, Charlotte; Stieglitz, John D; Hoenig, Ronald; Morris, Jeffrey M; Benetti, Daniel D; Grosell, Martin

    2017-01-27

    Windows of exposure to a weathered Deepwater Horizon oil sample (slick A) were examined for early life stage mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) to determine whether there are developmental periods of enhanced sensitivity during the course of a standard 96-h bioassay. Survival was assessed at 96 h following oil exposures ranging from 2 h to 96 h and targeting 3 general periods of development, namely the prehatch phase, the period surrounding hatch, and the posthatch phase. In addition, 3 different oil preparations were used: high- and low-energy water accommodated fractions of oil and very thin surface slicks of oil (∼1 μm). The latter 2 were used to distinguish between effects due to direct contact with the slick itself and the water underlying the slick. Considering the data from all 3 exposure regimes, it was determined that the period near or including hatch was likely the most sensitive. Furthermore, toxicity was not enhanced by direct contact with slick oil. These findings are environmentally relevant given that the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons eliciting mortality from exposures during the sensitive periods of development were below or near concentrations measured during the active spill phase. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-9. © 2016 SETAC.

  12. Effects of sodium chloride on chronic silver toxicity to early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethloff, Gail M; Naddy, Rami B; Gorsuch, Joseph W

    2007-08-01

    The chronic (early life stage) toxicity of silver to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was determined in flow-through exposures. Rainbow trout embryos were exposed to silver (as AgNO3) from 48 h or less postfertilization to 30 d postswimup in soft water in the presence and absence of 49 mg/L of NaCl (30 mg/L of Cl). The studies determined effect levels for rainbow trout exposed throughout an extended development period and assessed possible protective effects of sodium chloride. Lowest-observed-effect concentrations were greater than 1.25 microg/L of dissolved silver for survival, mean day to hatch, mean day to swimup, and whole-body sodium content in both studies. Whole-body silver concentrations increased significantly at 0.13 microg/L of dissolved silver in unmodified water and at 1.09 microg/L of dissolved silver in amended water. The maximum-acceptable toxicant concentration for growth was greater than 1.25 microg/L of dissolved silver in unmodified water and 0.32 microg/L of dissolved silver in amended water. Whole-body silver concentrations were more sensitive than survival and growth end points in unmodified water. Interpretation of sodium chloride effects on chronic silver toxicity to rainbow trout was complicated by differences in measured effect levels that were potentially the result of strain differences between test organisms in the two studies.

  13. Effect of Terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy at Environmental Concentrations on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Velisek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate effects of the triazine’s herbicide terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy on early life stage of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. through antioxidant indices, mortality, growth, development, and histopathology. Based on accumulated mortality in the experimental groups, lethal concentrations of terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy were estimated at 35-day LC50 = 10.9 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. By day 15, fish were exposed to 3.5 mg/L and by day 26, fish were exposed to 0.0029 mg/L; real environmental concentration in Czech rivers, 0.07 mg/L, 1.4 mg/L, and 3.5 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy, showed significantly lower mass and total length compared with controls. Based on inhibition of growth in the experimental groups, lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC = 0.002 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy and no observed effect concentration (NOEC = 0.0001 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. No significant negative effects on hatching or embryo viability were demonstrated at the concentrations tested, but significant differences in early ontogeny among groups were noted. Fish from the two highest tested concentrations showed a dose-related delay in development compared with the controls. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was significant lower in all groups testedly for terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy compared with the control group. At concentrations of 1.4 and 3.5 mg/L damage to caudal kidney tubules when compared to control fish was found.

  14. Survival and Quality of Life After Stereotactic or 3D-Conformal Radiotherapy for Inoperable Early-Stage Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Joachim, E-mail: j.widder@rt.umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Postmus, Douwe [Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Ubbels, Jan F.; Wiegman, Erwin M.; Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate survival and local recurrence after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) or three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) administered for early-stage primary lung cancer and to investigate longitudinal changes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) parameters after either treatment. Methods and Materials: Two prospective cohorts of inoperable patients with T1-2N0M0 primary lung tumors were analyzed. Patients received 70 Gy in 35 fractions with 3D-CRT or 60 Gy in three to eight fractions with SABR. Global quality of life (GQOL), physical functioning (PF), and patient-rated dyspnea were assessed using the respective dimensions of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Questionnaire-C30 and LC13. HRQOL was analyzed using multivariate linear mixed-effects modeling, survival and local control (LC) using the Kaplan-Meier method, Cox proportional hazards analysis, and Fine and Gray multivariate competing risk analysis as appropriate. Results: Overall survival (OS) was better after SABR compared with 3D-CRT with a HR of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-4.8; p < 0.01). 3D-CRT conferred a subhazard ratio for LC of 5.0 (95% CI: 1.7-14.7; p < 0.01) compared with SABR. GQOL and PF were stable after SABR (p = 0.21 and p = 0.62, respectively). Dyspnea increased after SABR by 3.2 out of 100 points (95% CI: 1.0-5.3; p < 0.01), which is clinically insignificant. At 1 year, PF decreased by an excess of 8.7 out of 100 points (95% CI: 2.8-14.7; p < 0.01) after 3D-CRT compared with SABR. Conclusion: In this nonrandomized comparison of two prospective cohorts of medically inoperable patients with Stage I lung cancer, OS and LC were better after SABR. GQOL, PF, and patient-rated dyspnea were stable after SABR, whereas PF decreased after 3D-CRT approaching clinical significance already at 1 year.

  15. EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF FLY ASH EXPOSURE ON FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES: FATHEAD MINNOW EMBRYO-LARVAL TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Elmore, Logan R [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash in an 84-acre complex of the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Steam Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits extended as far as 4 miles upstream (Emory River mile 6) of the Plant, and some ash was carried as far downstream as Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}4 miles downstream of the Tennessee River confluence with the Clinch River). A byproduct of coal burning power plants, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be toxic to biological systems. The effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to be the effects of specific ash constituents, especially selenium, on fish early life stages. Uptake by adult female fish of fly ash constituents through the food chain and subsequent maternal transfer of contaminants to the developing eggs is thought to be the primary route of selenium exposure to larval fish (Woock and others 1987, Coyle and others 1993, Lemly 1999, Moscatello and others 2006), but direct contact of the fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash constituents in river water and sediments is also a potential risk factor (Woock and others 1987, Coyle and others 1993, Jezierska and others 2009). To address the risk of fly ash from the Kingston spill to the reproductive health of downstream fish populations, ORNL has undertaken a series of studies in collaboration with TVA including: (1) a field study of the bioaccumulation of fly ash constituents in fish ovaries and the reproductive condition of sentinel fish species in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers affected by the fly ash spill; (2) laboratory tests of the potential toxicity of fly ash from the spill area on fish embryonic and larval development (reported in the

  16. Estimating the impact of petroleum substances on survival in early life stages of cod (Gadus morhua) using the dynamic energy budget theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klok, Chris; Nordtug, Trond; Tamis, Jacqueline E

    2014-10-01

    To estimate the impact of accidental oil-spills on cod fisheries a model framework is developed in which a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model is applied to assess mortality caused by petroleum substances in early life stages. In this paper we report on a literature search and DEB analyses, aiming for cod specific DEB-parameters. Furthermore, we explored the relevance of Fathead minnow DEB-parameters as surrogate by comparing LC50 values calculated from DEB-parameters with literature. Cod specific DEB-parameters could not be estimated based on available literature. LC50 values calculated from Fathead minnow DEB-parameters were higher than literature LC50 for early life stages of fish. Applying an extrapolation factor of 50 to the DEB-parameters resulted in LC50 values that were below literature irrespective of life stage. Therefore, we propose to use the last as an estimate for early life stages in cod and recommend relevant experiments with individual petroleum substances on cod. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of chemotherapy on health-related quality of life among early-stage ovarian cancer survivors: a study from the population-based PROFILES registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhugwandass, C.S.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Pijlman, B.; Ezendam, N.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is wide variation in the application of adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Our aim was to assess differences in health-related quality of life (hrqol) between patients with early-stage ovarian cancer who did or did not receive chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment. Methods All patients diagnosed with early-stage ovarian cancer between 2000 and 2010 within the population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry (n = 191) were enrolled in this study. Patients were requested to complete questionnaires, including the cancer-specific (qlq-C30) and ovarian cancer-specific (qlq-OV28) quality of life measures from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Primary outcome measures were the generic-and cancer-specific domain scores for hrqol in ovarian cancer survivors. Results Of the 107 patients (56%) who returned the questionnaires, 57 (53.3%) had received adjuvant chemotherapy and 50 (46.7%) had been treated with surgery alone. Significant differences in hrqol between those groups were found in the symptom scales for peripheral neuropathy, attitude toward sickness, and financial situation, with worse scores in the chemotherapy group. Conclusions Results of our study show that patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy have a significantly worse score for 3 aspects of hrqol. Efforts should be made to reduce use of adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage ovarian cancer. Moreover, preventive strategies to improve long-term quality of life for those who need adjuvant chemotherapy should be explored. PMID:28050144

  18. Recovery of gonadal development in tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes after exposure to 17β-estradiol during early life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Liu, Bin; Meng, Zhen; Liu, Xinfu; Jia, Yudong; Yang, Zhi; Lei, Jilin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) exposure on gonadal development in the tiger puff er (Takifugu rubripes), which has a genetic sex determination system of male homogametic XY-XX. Tiger puff er larvae were exposed to 1, 10 and 100 μg/L E2 from 15 to 100 days post-hatch (dph) and then maintained in clean seawater until 400 dph. Changes in sex ratio, gonadal structure and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were monitored at 100, 160, 270 and 400 dph. Sex-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used to analyze the genetic sex of samples, except those at 100 dph. Exposure had a positive effect on the conversion of genetically male gonads into phenotypically female gonads at 100 dph. However, gonads from 60% of genetic XY males in the 1-μg/L E2 group and 100% in the 10-μg/L E2 group developed intersexual gonads at 160 dph; gonads of all genetic XY males in the two treatment groups reverted to testis by 270 dph. While 38%, 57% and 44% of gonads of XY fish in the 100-μg/L E2 group reverted to intersexual gonads at 160, 270 and 400 dph, respectively, none reverted to testis after E2 treatment. In addition, E2 exposure inhibited gonadal growth of both genetic sexes, as indicated by the clear dose-dependent decrease in GSI at 270 and 400 dph. The results showed that exposure to E2 during the early life stages of tiger puff er disrupted gonadal development, but that fish recovered after migration to clean seawater. The study suggests the potential use of tiger puff er as a valuable indicator species to evaluate the effects of environmental estrogens on marine fish, thereby protecting valuable fishery resources.

  19. Effects of atrazine and chlorothalonil on the reproductive success, development, and growth of early life stage sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Gas, Lindsay M; Ross, Peter S; Walker, Janessa; Marlatt, Vicki L; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2017-05-01

    The effects of 2 currently used commercial pesticide formulations on Pacific sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), from fertilization to emergence, were evaluated in a gravel-bed flume incubator that simulated a natural streambed. Embryos were exposed to atrazine at 25 µg/L (low atrazine) or atrazine at 250 µg/L (high atrazine) active ingredient (a.i.), and chlorothalonil at 0.5 µg/L (low chlorothalonil) or chlorothalonil at 5 µg/L a.i. (high chlorothalonil) and examined for effects on developmental success and timing, as well as physical and biochemical growth parameters. Survival to hatch was reduced in the high chlorothalonil group (55% compared with 83% in controls), accompanied by a 24% increase in finfold deformity incidence. Reduced alevin condition factor (2.9-5.4%) at emergence and elevated triglyceride levels were seen in chlorothalonil-exposed fish. Atrazine exposure caused premature hatch (average high atrazine time to 50% hatch [H50] = 100 d postfertilization [dpf]), and chlorothalonil exposure caused delayed hatch (high chlorothalonil H50 = 108 dpf; controls H50 = 102 dpf). All treatments caused premature emergence (average time to 50% emergence [E50]: control E50 = 181 dpf, low chlorothalonil E50 = 175 dpf, high chlorothalonil E50 = 174 dpf, high atrazine E50 = 175 dpf, low atrazine E50 = 174 dpf), highlighting the importance of using a gravel-bed incubator to examine this subtle, but critical endpoint. These alterations indicate that atrazine and chlorothalonil could affect survival of early life stages of sockeye salmon in the wild. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1354-1364. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  20. Knowledge and communication skills to entrepreneurs in the early stages of the organizational life cycle of Adizes

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo de Carli; Alexandre Meira de Vasconcelos; Álvaro Guillermo Rojas Lezana

    2014-01-01

    This article identifies the communication skills and knowledge necessary to the entrepreneur during the growth phase of the organizational life cycle of Adizes (2004): Courtship, Infancy, Go-go, Adolescence and Prime. This is a theoretical prescriptive study based on OLC model of Adizes and theoretical and empirical articles on communication and entrepreneurship. It was observed that, at each stage, the entrepreneur must access it and / or develop it for the organization to survive and advanc...

  1. Growth inhibition in early life-stage tests predicts full life-cycle toxicity effects of lead in the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munley, Kathleen M; Brix, Kevin V; Panlilio, Jennifer; Deforest, David K; Grosell, Martin

    2013-03-15

    The freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is the most sensitive freshwater organism tested to date for several metals (Co, Cu, Pb, Ni) based on 28 d early life-stage (ELS) tests in which growth was the most sensitive endpoint. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has expressed concern that growth in 28 d ELS tests with mollusks may overpredict toxicity because of the potential for recovery in a full life-cycle (LC) test. Consequently, the USEPA only accepts the survival endpoint for these tests in establishing water quality criteria (WQC). To address this concern, the current study aimed to test the sensitivity of L. stagnalis to Pb in a 56 d full LC test evaluating survival, growth, reproductive and embryonic growth endpoints and compare the estimated effect levels to those established using the 28 d ELS test design. The most sensitive endpoints in this study were 28 d growth and 56 d egg mass production, both with a NOEC of Snails exposed to 1.0 and 2.7 μg L(-1) Pb showed full and partial recovery from growth inhibition between 28 and 56 d. While this recovery supports the USEPA's concern about the 28 d growth endpoint; considering the reproductive lifespan of L. stagnalis and the recovery dose-response, we conclude that the 28 d growth endpoint will be within a factor of 3 of full LC endpoints. This is consistent with the level of precision previously determined for fish ELS tests, which the USEPA accepts for WQC derivation, and suggests that tests using 28 d ELS growth endpoint for L. stagnalis may be acceptable for inclusion in WQC derivation.

  2. Effects of ocean acidification on trace element accumulation in the early-life stages of squid Loligo vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T., E-mail: tlacouel@gmail.com [INSU-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie de Villefranche, B.P. 28, 06234 Villefranche-sur-mer Cedex (France); International Atomic Energy Agency - Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC 98000 (Monaco); Reveillac, E. [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs) UMR 6250 CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, Institut du Littoral et de l' Environnement, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Oberhaensli, F.; Teyssie, J.L. [International Atomic Energy Agency - Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC 98000 (Monaco); Jeffree, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency - Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC 98000 (Monaco); School of the Environment, Science Faculty, University of Technology Sydney, NSW, 2007 (Australia); Gattuso, J.P. [INSU-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie de Villefranche, B.P. 28, 06234 Villefranche-sur-mer Cedex (France); Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Observatoire Oceanologique de Villefranche, 06230 Villefranche-sur-mer (France)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We study radiotracer uptake in squid embryo and paralarvae under relevant pCO{sub 2}. {yields} We examine metal distribution and concentration factors in egg compartments. {yields} Increasing pCO{sub 2} affects eggshell shielding properties and metal uptake in animals. {yields} Chemical signature in statoliths is modified by higher Zn incorporation under high pCO{sub 2}. {yields} Both element chemical properties and embryo physiology could account for the observed effects. - Abstract: The anthropogenic release of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into the atmosphere leads to an increase in the CO{sub 2} partial pressure (pCO{sub 2}) in the ocean, which may reach 950 {mu}atm by the end of the 21st century. The resulting hypercapnia (high pCO{sub 2}) and decreasing pH ('ocean acidification') are expected to have appreciable effects on water-breathing organisms, especially on their early-life stages. For organisms like squid that lay their eggs in coastal areas where the embryo and then paralarva are also exposed to metal contamination, there is a need for information on how ocean acidification may influence trace element bioaccumulation during their development. In this study, we investigated the effects of enhanced levels of pCO{sub 2} (380, 850 and 1500 {mu}atm corresponding to pH{sub T} of 8.1, 7.85 and 7.60) on the accumulation of dissolved {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 109}Cd, {sup 57}Co, {sup 203}Hg, {sup 54}Mn and {sup 65}Zn radiotracers in the whole egg strand and in the different compartments of the egg of Loligo vulgaris during the embryonic development and also in hatchlings during their first days of paralarval life. Retention properties of the eggshell for {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 203}Hg and {sup 65}Zn were affected by the pCO{sub 2} treatments. In the embryo, increasing seawater pCO{sub 2} enhanced the uptake of both {sup 110m}Ag and {sup 65}Zn while {sup 203}Hg showed a minimum concentration factor (CF) at the intermediate pCO{sub 2}. {sup 65}Zn

  3. Single and joint toxic effects of five selected pesticides on the early life stages of zebrafish (Denio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Lv, Lu; Yu, Yijun; Yang, Guiling; Xu, Zhenlan; Wang, Qiang; Cai, Leiming

    2017-03-01

    Instead of individual ones, pesticides are usually detected in water environment as mixtures of contaminants. Laboratory tests were conducted in order to investigate the effects of individual and joint pesticides (phoxim, atrazine, chlorpyrifos, butachlor and λ-cyhalothrin) on zebrafish (Denio rerio). Results from 96-h semi-static toxicity test indicated that λ-cyhalothrin had the greatest toxicity to the three life stages (embryonic, larval and juvenile stages) of D. rerio with LC50 values ranging from 0.0031 (0.0017-0.0042) to 0.38 (0.21-0.53) mg a.i. L(-1), followed by butachlor and chlorpyrifos with LC50 values ranging from 0.45 (0.31-0.59) to 1.93 (1.37-3.55) and from 0.28 (0.13-0.38) to 13.03 (7.54-19.71) mg a.i. L(-1), respectively. In contrast, atrazine showed the least toxicity with LC50 values ranging from 6.09 (3.34-8.35) to 34.19 (24.42-51.9) mg a.i. L(-1). The larval stage of D. rerio was a vulnerable period to most of the selected pesticides in the multiple life stages tested. Pesticide mixtures containing phoxim and λ-cyhalothrin exerted synergistic effects on the larvae of D. rerio. Moreover, the binary mixture of phoxim-atrazine also displayed synergistic response to zebrafish. It has been assumed that most chemicals are additive in toxicity. Therefore, it is crucial to clarify the synergistic interaction for pesticide regulators and environment managers. In the present study, our data provided a clear picture on ecological risk of these pesticide mixtures to aquatic organisms. Moreover, joint effects play a more important role than individual ones, which require more attention when defining standard for water environment quality and risk assessment protocols.

  4. Epigenetics of gestational diabetes mellitus and offspring health: the time for action is in early stages of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnen, Harald; Zechner, Ulrich; Haaf, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The epidemic increase of type 2 diabetes and obesity in developed countries cannot be explained by overnutrition, physical inactivity and/or genetic factors alone. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that an adverse intrauterine environment, in particular a shortage or excess of nutrients is associated with increased risks for many complex diseases later in life. An impressive example for the 'fetal origins of adult disease' is gestational diabetes mellitus which usually presents in 1% to >10% of third trimester pregnancies. Intrauterine hyperglycemia is not only associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality, but also with increased lifelong risks of the exposed offspring for obesity, metabolic, cardiovascular and malignant diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that fetal overnutrition (and similarly undernutrition) lead to persistent epigenetic changes in developmentally important genes, influencing neuroendocrine functions, energy homeostasis and metabolism. The concept of fetal programming has important implications for reproductive medicine. Because during early development the epigenome is much more vulnerable to environmental cues than later in life, avoiding adverse environmental factors in the periconceptional and intrauterine period may be much more important for the prevention of adult disease than any (i.e. dietetic) measures in infants and adults. A successful pregnancy should not primarily be defined by the outcome at birth but also by the health status in later life.

  5. Emergence, development, and maturity of the gonad of two species of chitons "sea cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora through the early life stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Hernando Avila-Poveda

    Full Text Available This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or "early life stages" were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y = aX(b . A total of 125 chitons (4≤TL≤40 mm, in total length "TL" were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r, close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods ("Pw" without gonad, "Pe" gonad emergence, and "Pf" gonadal sac formed and four stages ("S0" gametocytogenesis, "S1" gametogenesis, "S2" mature, and "S3" spawning, respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13-14.32 mm, Pe 10.32-16.93 mm, Pf 12.99-25.01 mm, S0 16.08-24.34 mm (females and 19.51-26.60 mm (males, S1 27.15-35.63 mm (females and 23.45-32.27 mm (males, S2 24.48-40.24 mm (females and 25.45-32.87 mm (males. Sexual differentiation (in S0 of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management.

  6. Effect of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) on early life-stage development of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa at different temperatures and salinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Avdolli, Manola; Wollenberger, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Benzophenone (BP)-type ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in cosmetic and sunscreen products and can enter the aquatic environment. Therefore, we investigated the subchronic toxicity of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) on the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa in an early life-stage devel......Benzophenone (BP)-type ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in cosmetic and sunscreen products and can enter the aquatic environment. Therefore, we investigated the subchronic toxicity of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) on the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa in an early life......-stage development study. Since developmental endpoints depend on environmental conditions, a preceding study of A. tonsa development was performed at three temperatures, four salinities, four light:dark regimes, six food densities, and four culture densities. Times elapsed until 50% of the population had reached...... a copepodite stage (DT(½) ) at the different conditions were calculated. The DT(½) values decreased from 296 h at 15°C to 89 h at 25°C and were also affected by salinity (126 h at 15‰ and 167 h at 30‰), whereas the light:dark regime and culture density influenced development only to a minor extent. BP1...

  7. Acute toxicity of current and alternative oil spill chemical dispersants to early life stage blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pie, Hannah V; Mitchelmore, Carys L

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute toxicity of five oil spill chemical dispersants on the ecologically and economically important coastal and estuarine species, blue crab Callinectes sapidus. Static, non-renewal 48 h acute toxicity tests were performed on stage-II blue crab zoea. The median lethal concentration (LC50) was calculated for each dispersant at 24 h and 48 h using nominal concentrations for each dispersant tested. The 48 h LC50 values from the most to the least toxic ranged from 10.1 mg L(-1) for Dispersit SPC 1000 to 76.5 mg L(-1) for Orca. For all dispersants, the swimming activity and mobility of larvae decreased with increasing dispersant concentration within 24h of exposure and reached relative immobility at concentrations below LC50 values. These results show that the dispersants examined in this study are only slightly toxic after 48 h exposure to the earliest life stage of blue crabs that might likely be exposed to dispersants in the environment, with the exception of Dispersit SPC 1000 that bordered between slightly and moderately toxic. Although the dispersants themselves appear to not cause substantial acute toxicity, sublethal and potentially delayed impacts, such as, reduced mobility or food source availability could indirectly remove larvae from the population and need to be further examined, as do larval responses in standard chronic toxicity tests. Furthermore, dispersants are not released into the environment in isolation and so the impact of dispersed-oil using these dispersant formulations also needs to be investigated to translate into real-world situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The elemental composition of purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus calcite and potential effects of pCO2 during early life stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. LaVigne

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification will likely have negative impacts on invertebrates producing skeletons composed of calcium carbonate. Skeletal solubility is partly controlled by the incorporation of "foreign" ions (e.g. magnesium into the crystal lattice of these skeletal structures, a process that is sensitive to a variety of biological and environmental factors. Here we explore effects of life stage, oceanographic region of origin, and changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater (pCO2 on trace elemental composition in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We show that, similar to other urchin taxa, adult purple sea urchins have the ability to precipitate skeleton composed of a range of biominerals spanning low- to high-Mg calcites. Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios were substantially lower in adult spines compared to adult tests. On the other hand, trace elemental composition was invariant among adults collected from four oceanographically distinct regions spanning a range of carbonate chemistry conditions (Oregon, Northern California, Central California, and Southern California. Skeletons of newly settled juvenile urchins that originated from adults from the four regions exhibited intermediate Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca between adult spine and test endmembers, indicating that skeleton precipitated during early life stages is more soluble than adult spines and less soluble than adult tests. Mean skeletal Mg / Ca or Sr / Ca of juvenile skeleton did not vary with source region when larvae were reared under present-day, global-average seawater carbonate conditions (400 μatm; pHT = 8.02 ± 0.03 1 SD; Ωcalcite = 3.3 ± 0.2 1 SD. However, when reared under elevated pCO2 (900 μatm; pHT = 7.73 ± 0.03; Ωcalcite = 1.8 ± 0.1, skeletal Sr / Ca in juveniles exhibited increased variance across the four regions. Although larvae from the northern populations (Oregon, Northern California, Central California did not exhibit differences in Mg or Sr

  9. The elemental composition of purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) calcite and potential effects of pCO2 during early life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVigne, M.; Hill, T. M.; Sanford, E.; Gaylord, B.; Russell, A. D.; Lenz, E. A.; Hosfelt, J. D.; Young, M. K.

    2013-06-01

    Ocean acidification will likely have negative impacts on invertebrates producing skeletons composed of calcium carbonate. Skeletal solubility is partly controlled by the incorporation of "foreign" ions (e.g. magnesium) into the crystal lattice of these skeletal structures, a process that is sensitive to a variety of biological and environmental factors. Here we explore effects of life stage, oceanographic region of origin, and changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater (pCO2) on trace elemental composition in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus). We show that, similar to other urchin taxa, adult purple sea urchins have the ability to precipitate skeleton composed of a range of biominerals spanning low- to high-Mg calcites. Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios were substantially lower in adult spines compared to adult tests. On the other hand, trace elemental composition was invariant among adults collected from four oceanographically distinct regions spanning a range of carbonate chemistry conditions (Oregon, Northern California, Central California, and Southern California). Skeletons of newly settled juvenile urchins that originated from adults from the four regions exhibited intermediate Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca between adult spine and test endmembers, indicating that skeleton precipitated during early life stages is more soluble than adult spines and less soluble than adult tests. Mean skeletal Mg / Ca or Sr / Ca of juvenile skeleton did not vary with source region when larvae were reared under present-day, global-average seawater carbonate conditions (400 μatm; pHT = 8.02 ± 0.03 1 SD; Ωcalcite = 3.3 ± 0.2 1 SD). However, when reared under elevated pCO2 (900 μatm; pHT = 7.73 ± 0.03; Ωcalcite = 1.8 ± 0.1), skeletal Sr / Ca in juveniles exhibited increased variance across the four regions. Although larvae from the northern populations (Oregon, Northern California, Central California) did not exhibit differences in Mg or Sr

  10. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria

    2016-01-01

    the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...... cytotoxicity of the elicited memory CD8+ T cells, as well as the potential of these cells to respond to secondary infections and confer protection. We further tested the impact of maternal immunity against our replication-deficient adenoviral vector during early life vaccination. Overall, our results indicate...

  11. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  12. Temperature modulates the response of the thermophilous sea urchin Arbacia lixula early life stages to CO2-driven acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianguzza, Paola; Visconti, Giulia; Gianguzza, Fabrizio; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Sarà, Gianluca; Dupont, Sam

    2014-02-01

    The increasing abundances of the thermophilous black sea urchin Arbacia lixula in the Mediterranean Sea are attributed to the Western Mediterranean warming. However, few data are available on the potential impact of this warming on A. lixula in combination with other global stressors such as ocean acidification. The aim of this study is to investigate the interactive effects of increased temperature and of decreased pH on fertilization and early development of A. lixula. This was tested using a fully crossed design with four temperatures (20, 24, 26 and 27 °C) and two pH levels (pHNBS 8.2 and 7.9). Temperature and pH had no significant effect on fertilization and larval survival (2d) for temperature <27 °C. At 27 °C, the fertilization success was very low (<1%) and all larvae died within 2d. Both temperature and pH had effects on the developmental dynamics. Temperature appeared to modulate the impact of decreasing pH on the % of larvae reaching the pluteus stage leading to a positive effect (faster growth compared to pH 8.2) of low pH at 20 °C, a neutral effect at 24 °C and a negative effect (slower growth) at 26 °C. These results highlight the importance of considering a range of temperatures covering today and the future environmental variability in any experiment aiming at studying the impact of ocean acidification.

  13. Impact of dispersant on early life stages of the water flea Daphnia magna and the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Maryam; Rodriguez, Rachel; Boettcher, Anne; Powers, Sean; Geitner, Nick; Ladner, David A; Rikard, Scott; Whelton, Andrew J

    2017-06-27

    In response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, over 1 million gallons of dispersant were applied in Gulf of Mexico offshore waters; Corexit 9500 was the most applied dispersant. The impact on organisms in nearshore and freshwaters has received little scrutiny. Acute 48 h toxicity of Corexit 9500 and a new hyperbranched polyethylenimine (HPEI) dispersant-like compound were evaluated for the freshwater indicator organism, Daphnia magna and for larval and early spat stages of the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. For D. magna, Corexit 9500 demonstrated toxicity (EC50 of 0.14 [0.13, 0.15] ppm) similar to the 10-kDa HPEI (EC50 of 0.16 [0.12, 0.19] ppm). HPEI toxicity increased as a function of molecular weight (1.2 to 750 kDa). The 10 kDa size HPEI was further investigated because it dispersed crude oil with equal effectiveness as Corexit. For Corexit, 100% oyster mortality was detected for the ≤0.2-mm size classes and mortality >50% for the 0.3- and 0.7-mm size classes at the two greatest concentrations (25 and 50 ppm). HPEI (10 kDa) exhibited low mortality rates (<30%) for all concentrations for all oyster size classes except the 0.1-mm class. Although mortality rates for this size class were up to 60%, mortality was still less than the mortality caused by Corexit 9500. The low toxicity of HPEI polymers for C. virginica in comparison with Corexit 9500 suggests that HPEI polymers warrant further study. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Testing lagoonal sediments with early life stages of the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana): An approach to assess sediment toxicity in the Venice Lagoon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picone, Marco; Bergamin, Martina; Delaney, Eugenia

    2018-01-01

    The early-life stages of development of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa from egg to copepodite I is proposed as an endpoint for assessing sediment toxicity by exposing newly released eggs directly onto the sediment-water interface. A preliminary study of 5 sediment samples collected in the lag......The early-life stages of development of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa from egg to copepodite I is proposed as an endpoint for assessing sediment toxicity by exposing newly released eggs directly onto the sediment-water interface. A preliminary study of 5 sediment samples collected...... with sea urchin and bivalves embryos. Sediment toxicity data highlighted the high sensitivity and the clear ability of the larval development to discriminate among sediments characterized by different levels of contamination. The data of the definitive study evidenced that inhibition of the larval...... development was not affected by grain-size and the organic carbon content of the sediment; in contrast, a strong correlation between inhibition of the larval development and the sediment concentrations of some metals (Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn), acid-volatile sulphides (AVS), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs...

  15. Morphogenesis of early stage melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Clément; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma early detection is possible by simple skin examination and can insure a high survival probability when successful. However it requires efficient methods for identifying malignant lesions from common moles. This paper provides an overview first of the biological and physical mechanisms controlling melanoma early evolution, and then of the clinical tools available today for detecting melanoma in vivo at an early stage. It highlights the lack of diagnosis methods rationally linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic properties of the tissue, which define the malignancy of the tumor. The possible inputs of multiscale models for improving these methods are shortly discussed.

  16. Taxonomy of the early life stages of arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) in the eastern Bering Sea, with notes on distribution and condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Forest, Lisa; Duffy-Anderson, J. T.; Heintz, R. A.; Matarese, A. C.; Siddon, E. C.; Smart, T. I.; Spies, I. B.

    2014-11-01

    Arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) are closely related flatfish species that co-occur in the eastern Bering Sea. As adults, arrowtooth flounder can be distinguished from Kamchatka flounder; however, larvae and early juveniles can only be indentified to the genus level due to morphological similarities. This has precluded studies of ecology for the early life stages of both species in the eastern Bering Sea. In this study, we developed a genetic technique to identify the larvae and early juveniles of the two species using mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Genetically identified specimens were then examined to determine a visual identification method based on pigment patterns and morphology. Specimens 6.0-12.0 mm SL and≥18.0 mm SL can be identified to the species level, but species identification of individuals 12.1-17.9 mm SL by visual means alone remains elusive. The distribution of larvae (larvae and juveniles of each species by analyzing lipid content (%) and energy density (kJ/g dry mass). Kamchatka flounder larvae on average had higher lipid content than arrowtooth flounder larvae, but were also larger on average than arrowtooth flounder larvae in the summer. When corrected for length, both species had similar lipid content in the larval and juvenile stages.

  17. Study for the change of health-related quality of life in women with early stage breast cancer, one year after the diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki E. Kοutsopοulοu-Sofikiti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Health - related quality of life of women with breast cancer is defined as the subjective evaluation of the effect of the disease and its treatment to physical, psychological and social level of functioning and well-being.The aim of the present study was to estimate the change of health- related quality of life at patients with early- stage breast cancer one year after the diagnosis and the initial therapeutic intervention.Material – method: The material of the study was 181 patients age between 28 to 88 years with breast cancer stage II. The entry criteria were: 1 females with breast cancer stage II, who would have been in need of adjuvant therapy after the initial operational intervention. 2 Moreover, they should not have been hospitalized for the same reason in the past and they should have a satisfying ability in communication. The data collection was made with the use of the QLQ C-30 questionnaire of the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC in association with the module for the breast cancer (module Br23.The data collection was realized through interviews conducted by the researchers at two different time points: at the diagnosis point and the one year after the diagnosis. It was an easy sample.Results: To sum up, health- related quality of life was estimated as worse in the first year after diagnosis and the initial therapeutic intervention. Furthermore, remarkable was, the deterioration of symptoms (fatigue, pain, nausea, sleep loss, appetite loss, constipation, dyspnoea. The deterioration was also visible to the patients’ body image and to the treatment side effects of adjuvant therapies.Conclusions: The breast cancer influences negatively health- related quality of life in patients with early stage breast cancer. After the completion of the adjuvant therapies, there are major problems like fatigue, pain and aggravated body image, which make patients suffer. The altered body image provokes stress and

  18. Towards a more sustainable transport infrastructure: how spatial geological data can be utilized to improve early stage Life cycle assessment of road infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline; Miliutenko, Sofiia; Björklund, Anna; Mörtberg, Ulla; Olofsson, Bo; Toller, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    Environmental impacts during the life cycle stages of transport infrastructure are substantial, including among other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as resource and energy use. For transport infrastructure to be sustainable, such issues need to be integrated in the planning process. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is required by the European Union (EU) in order to ensure that all environmental aspects are considered during planning of road infrastructure projects. As a part of this process, the European Commission has suggested the use of the tool life cycle assessment (LCA) for assessing life cycle energy use and GHG emissions. When analyzing life cycle impacts of the road infrastructure itself, it was shown that earthworks and materials used for the road construction have a big share in the total energy use and GHG emissions. Those aspects are largely determined by the geological conditions at the site of construction: parameters such as soil thickness, slope, bedrock quality and soil type. The geological parameters determine the amounts of earthworks (i.e. volumes of soil and rock that will be excavated and blasted), transportation need for excavated materials as well as the availability of building materials. The study presents a new geographic information system (GIS)-based approach for utilizing spatial geological data in three dimensions (i.e. length, width and depth) in order to improve estimates on earthworks during the early stages of road infrastructure planning. Three main methodological steps were undertaken: mass balance calculation, life cycle inventory analysis and spatial mapping of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use. The proposed GIS-based approach was later evaluated by comparing with the actual values of extracted material of a real road construction project. The results showed that the estimate of filling material was the most accurate, while the estimate for excavated soil and blasted rock had a wide variation from

  19. Social motility of African trypanosomes is a property of a distinct life-cycle stage that occurs early in tsetse fly transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Simon; Knüsel, Sebastian; Gunasekera, Kapila; Vu, Xuan Lan; Roditi, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    The protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma brucei is transmitted between mammals by tsetse flies. The first compartment colonised by trypanosomes after a blood meal is the fly midgut lumen. Trypanosomes present in the lumen-designated as early procyclic forms-express the stage-specific surface glycoproteins EP and GPEET procyclin. When the trypanosomes establish a mature infection and colonise the ectoperitrophic space, GPEET is down-regulated, and EP becomes the major surface protein of late procyclic forms. A few years ago, it was discovered that procyclic form trypanosomes exhibit social motility (SoMo) when inoculated on a semi-solid surface. We demonstrate that SoMo is a feature of early procyclic forms, and that late procyclic forms are invariably SoMo-negative. In addition, we show that, apart from GPEET, other markers are differentially expressed in these two life-cycle stages, both in culture and in tsetse flies, indicating that they have different biological properties and should be considered distinct stages of the life cycle. Differentially expressed genes include two closely related adenylate cyclases, both hexokinases and calflagins. These findings link the phenomenon of SoMo in vitro to the parasite forms found during the first 4-7 days of a midgut infection. We postulate that ordered group movement on plates reflects the migration of parasites from the midgut lumen into the ectoperitrophic space within the tsetse fly. Moreover, the process can be uncoupled from colonisation of the salivary glands. Although they are the major surface proteins of procyclic forms, EP and GPEET are not essential for SoMo, nor, as shown previously, are they required for near normal colonisation of the fly midgut.

  20. Social motility of African trypanosomes is a property of a distinct life-cycle stage that occurs early in tsetse fly transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Imhof

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma brucei is transmitted between mammals by tsetse flies. The first compartment colonised by trypanosomes after a blood meal is the fly midgut lumen. Trypanosomes present in the lumen-designated as early procyclic forms-express the stage-specific surface glycoproteins EP and GPEET procyclin. When the trypanosomes establish a mature infection and colonise the ectoperitrophic space, GPEET is down-regulated, and EP becomes the major surface protein of late procyclic forms. A few years ago, it was discovered that procyclic form trypanosomes exhibit social motility (SoMo when inoculated on a semi-solid surface. We demonstrate that SoMo is a feature of early procyclic forms, and that late procyclic forms are invariably SoMo-negative. In addition, we show that, apart from GPEET, other markers are differentially expressed in these two life-cycle stages, both in culture and in tsetse flies, indicating that they have different biological properties and should be considered distinct stages of the life cycle. Differentially expressed genes include two closely related adenylate cyclases, both hexokinases and calflagins. These findings link the phenomenon of SoMo in vitro to the parasite forms found during the first 4-7 days of a midgut infection. We postulate that ordered group movement on plates reflects the migration of parasites from the midgut lumen into the ectoperitrophic space within the tsetse fly. Moreover, the process can be uncoupled from colonisation of the salivary glands. Although they are the major surface proteins of procyclic forms, EP and GPEET are not essential for SoMo, nor, as shown previously, are they required for near normal colonisation of the fly midgut.

  1. Acute toxicity of three fire-retardant and two fire-suppressant foam formulations to the early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; McDonald, Susan F.; Summers, Cliff H.; Linder, G.; Krest, S.; Sparling, D.; Little, E.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted with five early life stages of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to determine the acute toxicities of five fire-fighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Eyed egg, embryo–larvae, swim-up fry, and 60- and 90-d posthatch juveniles were exposed to three fire retardants (Fire-Trol LCG-R, Fire-Trol GTS-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex). Swim-up fry were generally the most sensitive life stage, whereas the eyed-egg was the least sensitive. Toxicity of fire-fighting formulations was greater in hard water than in soft water for all life stages tested with Fire-Trol GTS-R and Silv-Ex and for 90-d-old juveniles tested with Fire-Trol LCG-R. The fire-suppressant foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. The 96-h median lethal concentrations (LC50s) were ranked from the most toxic to the least toxic formulation as follows (ranges are the lowest and highest 96-h LC50 calculated for each formulation): Phos-Chek WD-881 (11–44 mg/L), Silv-Ex (11–78 mg/L), Phos-Chek D75-F (218–>3,600 mg/L), Fire-Trol GTS-R (207–>6,000 mg/L), and Fire-Trol LCG-R (872–>10,000 mg/L). Toxicity values suggest that accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect fish populations.

  2. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria;

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens represent a serious threat during early life. Importantly, even though the immune system of newborns may be characterized as developmentally immature, with a propensity to develop Th2 immunity, significant CD8+ T-cell responses may still be elicited in the context of optimal...... priming. Replication deficient adenoviral vectors have been demonstrated to induce potent CD8+ T-cell response in mice, primates and humans. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether replication-deficient adenovectors could overcome the risk of overwhelming antigen stimulation during...... the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...

  3. Altered quality of life in the early stages of chronic hepatitis C is due to the virus itself

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Edna; Porto-Ferreira, Francisco Augusto; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Dias Teixeira, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is impaired in chronic viral hepatitis and a direct role of the virus, although suggested, has not been demonstrated. Our aim was to evaluate HRQOL at blood donation before knowledge of the diagnosis of both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) so as to elucidate this matter.

  4. Postoperative pain and quality of life after lobectomy via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery or anterolateral thoracotomy for early stage lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Morten; Jørgensen, Ole Dan; Kronborg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    (1:1) to lobectomy via four-port VATS or anterolateral thoracotomy. After surgery, we applied identical surgical dressings to ensure masking of patients and staff. Postoperative pain was measured with a numeric rating scale (NRS) six times per day during hospital stay and once at 2, 4, 8, 12, 26...... died during the follow-up period (three in the VATS group and six in the thoracotomy group). INTERPRETATION: VATS is associated with less postoperative pain and better quality of life than is anterolateral thoracotomy for the first year after surgery, suggesting that VATS should be the preferred......BACKGROUND: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is used increasingly as an alternative to thoracotomy for lobectomy in the treatment of early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer, but remains controversial and worldwide adoption rates are low. Non-randomised studies have suggested that VATS...

  5. Early diagnosis of early stage lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Debeljak

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the detection of premalignant changes of bronchial mucosa and early stages of lung cancer frequent chest X-ray, spiral low dose computed tomography, fluorescence bronchoscopy, sputum cytology (also with automated systems with genetic and molecular changes in the sputum cells and bronchial mucosa were used. These screening methods of the high-risk groups for lung cancer achieved: earlier diagnosis of lung cancer in lower stage, higher operability, longer 5-year survival, but without mortality reduction.Conclusions: In the clinical practice we can examine higher risk groups for lung cancer in randomised control trials with multimodality approach: frequent chest low-dose fast spiral computed tomography, sputum cytology with genetic and molecular examinations and fluorescence bronchoscopy. Smoking cessation remains the best means to achieve mortality reduction from lung cancer.

  6. Life Satisfaction across Four Stages of Adult Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medley, Morris L.

    1980-01-01

    For men life satisfaction was related to age stage in a monotonic increasing fashion. Life satisfaction scores remained relatively constant across the age stages for women. Family life and standard of living were found to be significant determinants of life satisfaction, for both sexes at each stage of adulthood. (Author)

  7. Acute toxicity of copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in laboratory and Columbia River water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, David W; Santore, Robert; Ryan, Adam; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in North America. This is attributed, primarily, to poor recruitment, and white sturgeon are listed as threatened or endangered in several parts of British Columbia, Canada, and the United States. In the Columbia River, effects of metals have been hypothesized as possible contributing factors. Previous work has demonstrated that early life stage white sturgeon are particularly sensitive to certain metals, and concerns over the level of protectiveness of water quality standards are justified. Here we report results from acute (96-h) toxicity tests for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) from parallel studies that were conducted in laboratory water and in the field with Columbia River water. Water effect ratios (WERs) and sensitivity parameters (i.e., median lethal accumulations, or LA50s) were calculated to assess relative bioavailability of these metals in Columbia River water compared to laboratory water, and to elucidate possible differences in sensitivity of early life stage white sturgeon to the same concentrations of metals when tested in the different water sources. For Cu and Pb, white sturgeon toxicity tests were initiated at two life stages, 8 and 40 days post-hatch (dph), and median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranged between 9-25 μg Cu/L and 177-1,556 μg Pb/L. LC50s for 8 dph white sturgeon exposed to Cd in laboratory water and river water were 14.5 and 72 μg/L, respectively. Exposure of 8 dph white sturgeon to Zn in laboratory and river water resulted in LC50s of 150 and 625 μg/L, respectively. Threshold concentrations were consistently less in laboratory water compared with river water, and as a result, WERs were greater than 1 in all cases. In addition, LA50s were consistently greater in river water exposures compared with laboratory exposures in all paired tests. These results, in combination with results from the biotic ligand model, suggest that the observed

  8. An evaluation of fish early life stage tests for predicting reproductive and longer-term toxicity from plant protection product active substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James R; Maynard, Samuel K; Crane, Mark

    2014-08-01

    The chronic toxicity of chemicals to fish is routinely assessed by using fish early life stage (ELS) test results. Fish full life cycle (FLC) tests are generally required only when toxicity, bioaccumulation, and persistence triggers are met or when there is a suspicion of potential endocrine-disrupting properties. This regulatory approach is based on a relationship between the results of fish ELS and FLC studies first established more than 35 yrs ago. Recently, this relationship has been challenged by some regulatory authorities, and it has been recommended that more substances should undergo FLC testing. In addition, a project proposal has been submitted to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to develop a fish partial life cycle (PLC) test including a reproductive assessment. Both FLC and PLC tests are animal- and resource-intensive and technically challenging and should therefore be undertaken only if there is clear evidence that they are necessary for coming to a regulatory decision. The present study reports on an analysis of a database of paired fish ELS and FLC endpoints for plant protection product active substances from European Union draft assessment reports and the US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs Pesticide Ecotoxicity Database. Analysis of this database shows a clear relationship between ELS and FLC responses, with similar median sensitivity across substances when no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) are compared. There was also no indication that classification of a substance as a mammalian reproductive toxicant leads to more sensitive effects in fish FLC tests than in ELS tests. Indeed, the response of the ELS tests was generally more sensitive than the most sensitive reproduction NOEC from a FLC test. This analysis indicates that current testing strategies and guidelines are fit for purpose and that there is no need for fish full or partial life cycle tests for most plant protection

  9. Life With and Without Coding: Two Methods for Early-Stage Data Analysis in Qualitative Research Aiming at Causal Explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Gläser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research aimed at "mechanismic" explanations poses specific challenges to qualitative data analysis because it must integrate existing theory with patterns identified in the data. We explore the utilization of two methods—coding and qualitative content analysis—for the first steps in the data analysis process, namely "cleaning" and organizing qualitative data. Both methods produce an information base that is structured by categories and can be used in the subsequent search for patterns in the data and integration of these patterns into a systematic, theoretically embedded explanation. Used as a stand-alone method outside the grounded theory approach, coding leads to an indexed text, i.e. both the original text and the index (the system of codes describing the content of text segments are subjected to further analysis. Qualitative content analysis extracts the relevant information, i.e. separates it from the original text, and processes only this information. We suggest that qualitative content analysis has advantages compared to coding whenever the research question is embedded in prior theory and can be answered without processing knowledge about the form of statements and their position in the text, which usually is the case in the search for "mechanismic" explanations. Coding outperforms qualitative content analysis in research that needs this information in later stages of the analysis, e.g. the exploration of meaning or the study of the construction of narratives. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs130254

  10. Supervised physical exercise improves VO2max, quality of life, and health in early stage breast cancer patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casla, Soraya; López-Tarruella, Sara; Jerez, Yolanda; Marquez-Rodas, Iván; Galvão, Daniel A; Newton, Robert U; Cubedo, Ricardo; Calvo, Isabel; Sampedro, Javier; Barakat, Rubén; Martín, Miguel

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer patients suffer impairment in cardiorespiratory fitness after treatment for primary disease, affecting patients' health and survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of a pragmatic exercise intervention to improve cardiorespiratory fitness of breast cancer patients after primary treatment. Between February 2013 and December 2014, 94 women with early stage (I-III) breast cancer, 1-36 months post-chemotherapy, and radiotherapy were randomly assigned to an intervention program (EX) combining supervised aerobic and resistance exercise (n = 44) or usual care (CON) (n = 45) for 12 weeks. Primary study endpoint was VO2max. Secondary endpoints were muscle strength, shoulder range of motion, body composition, and quality of life (QoL). Assessments were undertaken at baseline, 12-week, and 6-month follow-ups. Eighty-nine patients aged 29-69 years were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. The EX group showed significant improvements in VO2max, muscle strength, percent fat, and lean mass (p ≤ 0.001 in all cases) and QoL compared with usual care (CON). Apart from body composition, improvements were maintained for the EX at 6-month follow-up. There were no adverse events during the testing or exercise intervention program. A combined exercise intervention produced considerable improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, physical function, and quality of life in breast cancer patients previously treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Importantly, most of these benefits were maintained 6 months after ceasing the supervised exercise intervention.

  11. Objectively Assessed Exercise Behavior in Chinese Patients with Early-Stage Cancer: A Predictor of Perceived Benefits, Communication with Doctors, Medical Coping Modes, Depression and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhunzhun; Zhang, Lanfeng; Shi, Songsong; Xia, Wenkai

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to identify factors associated with objectively assessed exercise behavior in Chinese patients with early-stage cancer. Three hundred and fifty one cancer patients were recruited from the Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical College and the Nantong Tumor Hospital. One-way ANOVA, Pearson Chi-square tests and regression analysis were employed to identify the correlations between physical exercise and the measured factors. The results showed that occupation type (χ2 = 14.065; p = 0.029), monthly individual monthly income level (χ2 = 24.795; p = 0.003), BMI (χ2 = 15.709; p = 0.015) and diagnosis (χ2 = 42.442; p Benefit Finding (BF) (F = 24.651; p communication with doctors (F = 15.285; p benefit finding, medical coping modes, communication with doctors, social support, depression and quality of life were significantly correlated with exercise. The variance in several psychosocial factors (benefit finding, medical coping modes, the communication with doctors, depression and quality of life) could be explained by exercise. Psychosocial factors should be addressed and examined over time when evaluating the effect of physical exercise that is prescribed as a clinically relevant treatment.

  12. Comparison of quality of life after stereotactic body radiotherapy and surgery for early-stage prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz Alan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the long-term efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT becomes established and other prostate cancer treatment approaches are refined and improved, examination of quality of life (QOL following prostate cancer treatment is critical in driving both patient and clinical treatment decisions. We present the first study to compare QOL after SBRT and radical prostatectomy, with QOL assessed at approximately the same times pre- and post-treatment and using the same validated QOL instrument. Methods Patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with either radical prostatectomy (n = 123 Spanish patients or SBRT (n = 216 American patients. QOL was assessed using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC grouped into urinary, sexual, and bowel domains. For comparison purposes, SBRT EPIC data at baseline, 3 weeks, 5, 11, 24, and 36 months were compared to surgery data at baseline, 1, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Differences in patient characteristics between the two groups were assessed using Chi-squared tests for categorical variables and t-tests for continuous variables. Generalized estimating equation (GEE models were constructed for each EPIC scale to account for correlation among repeated measures and used to assess the effect of treatment on QOL. Results The largest differences in QOL occurred in the first 1–6 months after treatment, with larger declines following surgery in urinary and sexual QOL as compared to SBRT, and a larger decline in bowel QOL following SBRT as compared to surgery. Long-term urinary and sexual QOL declines remained clinically significantly lower for surgery patients but not for SBRT patients. Conclusions Overall, these results may have implications for patient and physician clinical decision making which are often influenced by QOL. These differences in sexual, urinary and bowel QOL should be closely considered in selecting the right treatment

  13. Toxicity of smelter slag-contaminated sediments from Upper Lake Roosevelt and associated metals to early life stage White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of five smelter slag-contaminated sediments from the upper Columbia River and metals associated with those slags (cadmium, copper, zinc) was evaluated in 96-h exposures of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836) at 8 and 30 days post-hatch. Leachates prepared from slag-contaminated sediments were evaluated for toxicity. Leachates yielded a maximum aqueous copper concentration of 11.8 μg L−1 observed in sediment collected at Dead Man's Eddy (DME), the sampling site nearest the smelter. All leachates were nonlethal to sturgeon that were 8 day post-hatch (dph), but leachates from three of the five sediments were toxic to fish that were 30 dph, suggesting that the latter life stage is highly vulnerable to metals exposure. Fish maintained consistent and prolonged contact with sediments and did not avoid contaminated sediments when provided a choice between contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. White Sturgeon also failed to avoid aqueous copper (1.5–20 μg L−1). In water-only 96-h exposures of 35 dph sturgeon with the three metals, similar toxicity was observed during exposure to water spiked with copper alone and in combination with cadmium and zinc. Cadmium ranging from 3.2 to 41 μg L−1 or zinc ranging from 21 to 275 μg L−1 was not lethal, but induced adverse behavioral changes including a loss of equilibrium. These results suggest that metals associated with smelter slags may pose an increased exposure risk to early life stage sturgeon if fish occupy areas contaminated by slags.

  14. Effect of mindfulness based stress reduction on immune function, quality of life and coping in women newly diagnosed with early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witek-Janusek, Linda; Albuquerque, Kevin; Chroniak, Karen Rambo; Chroniak, Christopher; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Mathews, Herbert L

    2008-08-01

    This investigation used a non-randomized controlled design to evaluate the effect and feasibility of a mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) program on immune function, quality of life (QOL), and coping in women recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Early stage breast cancer patients, who did not receive chemotherapy, self-selected into an 8-week MBSR program or into an assessment only, control group. Outcomes were evaluated over time. The first assessment was at least 10 days after surgery and prior to adjuvant therapy, as well as before the MBSR start-up. Further assessments were mid-MBSR, at completion of MBSR, and at 4-week post-MBSR completion. Women with breast cancer enrolled in the control group (Non-MBSR) were assessed at similar times. At the first assessment (i.e., before MBSR start), reductions in peripheral blood mononuclear cell NK cell activity (NKCA) and IFN-gamma production with increases in IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 production and plasma cortisol levels were observed for both the MBSR and Non-MBSR groups of breast cancer patients. Over time women in the MBSR group re-established their NKCA and cytokine production levels. In contrast, breast cancer patients in the Non-MBSR group exhibited continued reductions in NKCA and IFN-gamma production with increased IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 production. Moreover, women enrolled in the MBSR program had reduced cortisol levels, improved QOL, and increased coping effectiveness compared to the Non-MBSR group. In summary, MBSR is a program that is feasible for women recently diagnosed with early stage breast cancer and the results provide preliminary evidence for beneficial effects of MBSR; on immune function, QOL, and coping.

  15. A Prospective Longitudinal Clinical Trial Evaluating Quality of Life After Breast-Conserving Surgery and High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garsa, Adam A.; Ferraro, Daniel J.; DeWees, Todd A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Deshields, Teresa L. [Department of Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Margenthaler, Julie A.; Cyr, Amy E. [Department of Surgery, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Naughton, Michael [Department of Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Aft, Rebecca [Department of Surgery, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Department of Surgery, John Cochran Veterans Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Gillanders, William E.; Eberlein, Timothy [Department of Surgery, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Matesa, Melissa A.; Ochoa, Laura L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Zoberi, Imran, E-mail: izoberi@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To prospectively examine quality of life (QOL) of patients with early stage breast cancer treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between March 2004 and December 2008, 151 patients with early stage breast cancer were enrolled in a phase 2 prospective clinical trial. Eligible patients included those with Tis-T2 tumors measuring ≤3 cm excised with negative surgical margins and with no nodal involvement. Patients received 3.4 Gy twice daily to a total dose of 34 Gy. QOL was measured using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30, version 3.0, and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires. The QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires were evaluated during pretreatment and then at 6 to 8 weeks, 3 to 4 months, 6 to 8 months, and 1 and 2 years after treatment. Results: The median follow-up was 55 months. Breast symptom scores remained stable in the months after treatment, and they significantly improved 6 to 8 months after treatment. Scores for emotional functioning, social functioning, and future perspective showed significant improvement 2 years after treatment. Symptomatic fat necrosis was associated with several changes in QOL, including increased pain, breast symptoms, systemic treatment side effects, dyspnea, and fatigue, as well as decreased role functioning, emotional functioning, and social functioning. Conclusions: HDR multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy was well tolerated, with no significant detrimental effect on measured QOL scales/items through 2 years of follow-up. Compared to pretreatment scores, there was improvement in breast symptoms, emotional functioning, social functioning, and future perspective 2 years after treatment.

  16. Identification of Larval Pacific Lampreys (Lampetra Tridentata), River Lampreys (L. Ayresi) and Western Brook Lampreys (L. Richardson) and Thermal Requirements of Early Life History Stages of Lampreys : Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeuwig, Michael H.

    2003-02-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). In particular: (1) we examined the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics in identification of larval lampreys, specifically pigmentation patterns, and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stages of lampreys, and (2) we examined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stages of Columbia River Basin lampreys.

  17. Nitrogen excretion and expression of urea cycle enzymes in the atlantic cod (Gadus morhua l.): a comparison of early life stages with adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick; Wright

    1999-10-01

    For many years, the urea cycle was considered to be relatively unimportant in the life history of most teleost fishes. In previous studies, we were surprised to find that newly hatched freshwater rainbow trout embryos had relatively high activities of the key urea cycle enzyme, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III (CPSase III), and other enzymes in the pathway, whereas adult trout had much lower or non-detectable activities. The present study tested the hypothesis that urea cycle enzyme expression is unique to early stages of rainbow trout. In marine Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) embryos, CPSase III, ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTCase), glutamine synthetase (GSase) and arginase activities were all expressed prior to hatching. Urea excretion was detected shortly after fertilization and rates were high relative to those of ammonia excretion (50-100 % of total nitrogen excreted as urea nitrogen; total=ammonia+urea). Urea concentration was relatively constant in embryos, but ammonia concentration increased by about fourfold during embryogenesis. Two populations of cod embryos were studied (from Newfoundland and New Brunswick), and significant differences in enzyme activities and excretion rates were detected between the two populations. In adult cod, CPSase III was not detectable in liver, white muscle, intestine and kidney tissues, but OTCase, GSase and arginase were present. Adult cod excreted about 17 % of nitrogenous waste as urea. Taken together, these data indicate that early urea cycle enzyme expression is not unique to rainbow trout but is also a feature of Atlantic cod development, and possibly other teleosts. The relatively high urea excretion rates underline the importance of urea as the primary nitrogen excretory product in Atlantic cod during early embryogenesis.

  18. Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Early Life-History Stages and Settlement of the Coral-Eating Sea Star Acanthaster planci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthicke, Sven; Pecorino, Danilo; Albright, Rebecca; Negri, Andrew Peter; Cantin, Neal; Liddy, Michelle; Dworjanyn, Symon; Kamya, Pamela; Byrne, Maria; Lamare, Miles

    2013-01-01

    Coral reefs are marine biodiversity hotspots, but their existence is threatened by global change and local pressures such as land-runoff and overfishing. Population explosions of coral-eating crown of thorns sea stars (COTS) are a major contributor to recent decline in coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef. Here, we investigate how projected near-future ocean acidification (OA) conditions can affect early life history stages of COTS, by investigating important milestones including sperm motility, fertilisation rates, and larval development and settlement. OA (increased pCO2 to 900–1200 µatm pCO2) significantly reduced sperm motility and, to a lesser extent, velocity, which strongly reduced fertilization rates at environmentally relevant sperm concentrations. Normal development of 10 d old larvae was significantly lower under elevated pCO2 but larval size was not significantly different between treatments. Settlement of COTS larvae was significantly reduced on crustose coralline algae (known settlement inducers of COTS) that had been exposed to OA conditions for 85 d prior to settlement assays. Effect size analyses illustrated that reduced settlement may be the largest bottleneck for overall juvenile production. Results indicate that reductions in fertilisation and settlement success alone would reduce COTS population replenishment by over 50%. However, it is unlikely that this effect is sufficient to provide respite for corals from other negative anthropogenic impacts and direct stress from OA and warming on corals. PMID:24358240

  19. Impacts of ocean acidification on early life-history stages and settlement of the coral-eating sea star Acanthaster planci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Uthicke

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are marine biodiversity hotspots, but their existence is threatened by global change and local pressures such as land-runoff and overfishing. Population explosions of coral-eating crown of thorns sea stars (COTS are a major contributor to recent decline in coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef. Here, we investigate how projected near-future ocean acidification (OA conditions can affect early life history stages of COTS, by investigating important milestones including sperm motility, fertilisation rates, and larval development and settlement. OA (increased pCO2 to 900-1200 µatm pCO2 significantly reduced sperm motility and, to a lesser extent, velocity, which strongly reduced fertilization rates at environmentally relevant sperm concentrations. Normal development of 10 d old larvae was significantly lower under elevated pCO2 but larval size was not significantly different between treatments. Settlement of COTS larvae was significantly reduced on crustose coralline algae (known settlement inducers of COTS that had been exposed to OA conditions for 85 d prior to settlement assays. Effect size analyses illustrated that reduced settlement may be the largest bottleneck for overall juvenile production. Results indicate that reductions in fertilisation and settlement success alone would reduce COTS population replenishment by over 50%. However, it is unlikely that this effect is sufficient to provide respite for corals from other negative anthropogenic impacts and direct stress from OA and warming on corals.

  20. Impacts of ocean acidification on early life-history stages and settlement of the coral-eating sea star Acanthaster planci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthicke, Sven; Pecorino, Danilo; Albright, Rebecca; Negri, Andrew Peter; Cantin, Neal; Liddy, Michelle; Dworjanyn, Symon; Kamya, Pamela; Byrne, Maria; Lamare, Miles

    2013-01-01

    Coral reefs are marine biodiversity hotspots, but their existence is threatened by global change and local pressures such as land-runoff and overfishing. Population explosions of coral-eating crown of thorns sea stars (COTS) are a major contributor to recent decline in coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef. Here, we investigate how projected near-future ocean acidification (OA) conditions can affect early life history stages of COTS, by investigating important milestones including sperm motility, fertilisation rates, and larval development and settlement. OA (increased pCO2 to 900-1200 µatm pCO2) significantly reduced sperm motility and, to a lesser extent, velocity, which strongly reduced fertilization rates at environmentally relevant sperm concentrations. Normal development of 10 d old larvae was significantly lower under elevated pCO2 but larval size was not significantly different between treatments. Settlement of COTS larvae was significantly reduced on crustose coralline algae (known settlement inducers of COTS) that had been exposed to OA conditions for 85 d prior to settlement assays. Effect size analyses illustrated that reduced settlement may be the largest bottleneck for overall juvenile production. Results indicate that reductions in fertilisation and settlement success alone would reduce COTS population replenishment by over 50%. However, it is unlikely that this effect is sufficient to provide respite for corals from other negative anthropogenic impacts and direct stress from OA and warming on corals.

  1. A Perspective on the Toxicity of Low Concentrations of Petroleum-Derived Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Early Life Stages of Herring and Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, David S.; Chapman, Peter M.; Landrum, Peter F.; Neff, Jerry; Elston, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a critical review of two groups of studies that reported adverse effects to salmon and herring eggs and fry from exposure to 1 μg/L or less of aqueous total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH), as weathered oil, and a more toxic aqueous extract of “very weathered oil.” Exposure media were prepared by continuously flowing water up through vertical columns containing gravel oiled at different concentrations of Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Uncontrolled variables associated with the use of the oiled gravel columns included time- and treatment-dependent variations in the PAH concentration and composition in the exposure water, unexplored toxicity from other oil constituents/degradation products, potential toxicity from bacterial and fungal activity, oil droplets as a potential contaminant source, inherent differences between control and exposed embryo populations, and water flow rate differences. Based on a review of the evidence from published project reports, peer-reviewed publications, chemistry data in a public database, and unpublished reports and laboratory records, the reviewed studies did not establish consistent dose (concentration) response or causality and thus do not demonstrate that dissolved PAH alone from the weathered oil resulted in the claimed effects on fish embryos at low μg/L TPAH concentrations. Accordingly, these studies should not be relied on for management decision-making, when assessing the risk of very low–level PAH exposures to early life stages of fish. PMID:22754275

  2. Health related quality of life and symptoms after pelvic lymphadenectomy or radiotherapy vs. no adjuvant regional treatment in early-stage endometrial carcinoma: a large population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poll-Franse, L.V. van de; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Boll, D.; Vos, M.C.; Berg, H. van den; Lybeert, M.L.; Winter, K. de; Kruitwagen, R.F.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Routine lymphadenectomy (LA) in early stage endometrial cancer does not improve survival. However, in the absence of lymph node metastasis, radiotherapy (RT) could be withheld and hence could result in less morbidity. Our aim was to evaluate health related quality of life (HRQL) in endom

  3. The Effects of Non-Maternal Care in the First Twelve Months of Life on Children in the First Year of School: Preliminary Findings from a Two Stage Study (The Australian Early Childhood Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiltree, Gay; Edgar, Don

    This paper, which presents preliminary analysis of data from stage one of the Australian Early Childhood study, examined the effects of nonmaternal care in the first year of life on children in their first year of school. The author tested the hypothesis, proposed by John Bowlby and others, that long periods of nonmaternal care in the first 12…

  4. The Effects of Non-Maternal Care in the First Twelve Months of Life on Children in the First Year of School: Preliminary Findings from a Two Stage Study (The Australian Early Childhood Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiltree, Gay; Edgar, Don

    This paper, which presents preliminary analysis of data from stage one of the Australian Early Childhood study, examined the effects of nonmaternal care in the first year of life on children in their first year of school. The author tested the hypothesis, proposed by John Bowlby and others, that long periods of nonmaternal care in the first 12…

  5. Effect of low ambient mineral concentrations on the accumulation of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus by early life stages of the air-breathing armoured catfish Megalechis personata (Siluriformes; Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.H.; Atsma, W.; Flik, G.; Bouwmeester, H.; Osse, J.W.M.

    1999-01-01

    he accumulation of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus was measured during an 8-week period in the early life stages of the air-breathing armoured catfish Megalechis personata acclimated to low-mineral fresh water (0.073 mmol l-1 calcium, 0.015 mmol l-1 magnesium, <0.001 mmol l-1 phosphate) and high-m

  6. An actuarial approach to comparing early stage and late stage lung cancer mortality and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Sara W; Mulshine, James L; Hagstrom, Dale; Pyenson, Bruce S

    2010-02-01

    Comparing the mortality characteristics of different cohorts is an essential process in the life insurance industry. Pseudodisease, lead-time bias, and length bias, which are critical to determining the value of cancer screening, have close analogues in life insurance company management, including the temporal impact of underwriting. Ratios of all-cause mortality rates for cancer cohorts relative to standard population mortality rates can provide insights into early stage and late stage mortality differences, differences by age, sex, race, and histology, and allow modeling of biases associated with early stage detection or screening protocols. The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data set has characteristics that allow efficient application of actuarial techniques. We show the mortality burden associated with treated early stage lung cancer and that identifying all lung cancers at early stage could reduce US lung cancer deaths by over 70,000 per year.

  7. Ancient DNA analyses of early archaeological sites in New Zealand reveal extreme exploitation of moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) at all life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskam, Charlotte L.; Allentoft, Morten E.; Walter, Richard; Scofield, R. Paul; Haile, James; Holdaway, Richard N.; Bunce, Michael; Jacomb, Chris

    2012-10-01

    The human colonisation of New Zealand in the late thirteenth century AD led to catastrophic impacts on the local biota and is among the most compelling examples of human over-exploitation of native fauna, including megafauna. Nearly half of the species in New Zealand' s pre-human avifauna are now extinct, including all nine species of large, flightless moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes). The abundance of moa in early archaeological sites demonstrates the significance of these megaherbivores in the diet of the first New Zealanders. Combining moa assemblage data, based on DNA identification of eggshell and bone, with morphological identification of bone (literature and museum catalogued specimens), we present the most comprehensive audit of moa to date from several significant 13th-15th century AD archaeological deposits across the east coast of the South Island. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was amplified from 251 of 323 (78%) eggshell fragments and 22 of 27 (88%) bone samples, and the analyses revealed the presence of four moa species: Anomalopteryx didiformis; Dinornis robustus; Emeus crassus and Euryapteryx curtus. The mtDNA, along with polymorphic microsatellite markers, enabled an estimate of the minimum number of individual eggs consumed at each site. Remarkably, in one deposit over 50 individual eggs were identified - a number that likely represents a considerable proportion of the total reproductive output of moa in the area and emphasises that human predation of all life stages of moa was intense. Molecular sexing was conducted on bones (n = 11). Contrary to previous ancient DNA studies from natural sites that consistently report an excess of female moa, we observed an excess of males (2.7:1), suggestive that males were preferential targets. This could be related to different behaviour between the two highly size-dimorphic sexes in moa. Lastly, we investigated the moa species from recovered skeletal and eggshell remains from seven Wairau Bar burials, and identified

  8. Altered snowfall and soil disturbance influence the early life stage transitions and recruitment of a native and invasive grass in a cold desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornish, Elise S; Aanderud, Zachary T; Sheley, Roger L; Rinella, Mathew J; Svejcar, Tony; Englund, Suzanne D; James, Jeremy J

    2015-02-01

    Climate change effects on plants are expected to be primarily mediated through early life stage transitions. Snowfall variability, in particular, may have profound impacts on seedling recruitment, structuring plant populations and communities, especially in mid-latitude systems. These water-limited and frequently invaded environments experience tremendous variation in snowfall, and species in these systems must contend with harsh winter conditions and frequent disturbance. In this study, we examined the mechanisms driving the effects of snowpack depth and soil disturbance on the germination, emergence, and establishment of the native Pseudoroegnaria spicata and the invasive Bromus tectorum, two grass species that are widely distributed across the cold deserts of North America. The absence of snow in winter exposed seeds to an increased frequency and intensity of freeze-thaw cycles and greater fungal pathogen infection. A shallower snowpack promoted the formation of a frozen surface crust, reducing the emergence of both species (more so for P. spicata). Conversely, a deeper snowpack recharged the soil and improved seedling establishment of both species by creating higher and more stable levels of soil moisture availability following spring thaw. Across several snow treatments, experimental disturbance served to decrease the cumulative survival of both species. Furthermore, we observed that, regardless of snowpack treatment, most seed mortality (70-80%) occurred between seed germination and seedling emergence (November-March), suggesting that other wintertime factors or just winter conditions in general limited survival. Our results suggest that snowpack variation and legacy effects of the snowpack influence emergence and establishment but might not facilitate invasion of cold deserts.

  9. The toxicity of chlorpyrifos on the early life stage of zebrafish: a survey on the endpoints at development, locomotor behavior, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Liu, Zhenzhen; Peng, Tao; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most toxic pesticides in aquatic ecosystem, but its toxicity mechanisms to fish are still not fully understood. This study examined the toxicity targets of CPF in early life stage of zebrafish on the endpoints at developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity. Firstly, CPF exposure decreased the body length, inhibited the hatchability and heart rate, and resulted in a number of morphological abnormalities, primarily spinal deformities (SD) and pericardial edema (PE), in larval zebrafish. Secondly, the free swimming activities and the swimming behaviors of the larvae in response to the stimulation of light-to-dark photoperiod transition were significantly influenced by the exposure to 100 and 300 μg/L CPF. In addition, the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the transcription of some genes related to neurotoxicity were also influenced by CPF exposure. Thirdly, CPF exposure induced oxidative stress in the larval zebrafish. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased and the glutathione (GSH) contents decreased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner after the exposure to CPF for 96 hours post fertilization (hpf). CPF affected not only the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), but also the transcriptional levels of their respective genes. Finally, the mRNA levels of the main cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα), interferon (Ifn), interleukin-1 beta (Il-1β), interleukin 6 (Il6), complement factor 4 (C4) in the larvae increased significantly after the exposure to 100 or 300 μg/L CPF for 96 hpf, suggesting that the innate immune system disturbed by CPF in larvae. Taken together, our results suggested that CPF had the potential to cause developmental toxicity, behavior alterations, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in the larval zebrafish.

  10. How has early testicular cancer affected your life? A study of sexual function in men attending active surveillance for stage one testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Sue; Williams, Hilary; Braybrooke, Jeremy

    2015-06-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in young men, it is frequently diagnosed at key times in relationship formation. In early stage disease the vast majority of tumours will be cured by surgery alone with patients being offered active surveillance rather than adjuvant therapies. To date, research has not evaluated how surveillance alone impacts on sexual function. The aim of this quantitative longitudinal study was to ascertain the sexual function of men with stage one disease at 3 and 12 months post diagnosis and to compare with normative data. Additional data was collected on the information men sought regarding sexual function and media they used to access this. This study shows that men's sexual function is altered at diagnosis and improves by 3 months. At 12 months, whilst not statistically significant, sexual function improves but not to the same level as normative data comparison. Men appear to find verbal information useful at 3 months, however men appear to be seeking written and online information at 12 months. The intricacies of sexual function together with the low number of participants may have been best met with a qualitative approach. However, the information data indicates the importance of further research into the effects of early stage testicular cancer on sexual function. Therefore, further qualitative research is recommended to explore the effects of early stage testicular cancer in relation to sexual function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dislocation generation during early stage sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, J. E.; Lenel, F. V.; Ansell, G. S.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the effects of capillarity-induced stresses on dislocations during early stage sintering. A special version of Hirth's (1963) theoretical calculation procedures modified to describe dislocation nucleation on planes meeting the sintering body's neck surface obliquely is shown to predict plastic flow at stress levels know to exist between micron size metal particles in the early stages of sintering.

  12. Comparative embryotoxicity and genotoxicity of the herbicide diuron and its metabolites in early life stages of Crassostrea gigas: Implication of reactive oxygen species production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Daphné; Rouxel, Julien; Burgeot, Thierry; Akcha, Farida

    2016-06-01

    Herbicides are one of the major classes of pollutants contaminating coastal waters over the world. Among them, diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is a phenylurea herbicide frequently detected in oyster-producing area, known to be toxic for this important exploited non-target species. With the aim to investigate the mechanisms by which diuron displays its toxicity in oyster, the implication of both biotransformation and oxygen reactive species (ROS) production was studied considering embryotoxicity and genotoxicity as endpoints. Comparative embryotoxicity and genotoxicity of diuron and its main metabolites (DCPMU, DCPU and 3,4-DCA) were thus studied on oyster larvae by the embryo-larval bioassay on D larvae and the comet assay on trochophore larvae, respectively. Exposures were also performed in presence and absence of known ROS scavenger compounds - ascorbic acid and N-acetylcysteine, to evaluate the involvement of oxyradicals in the toxic responses. In the case of diuron, the production of ROS on exposed oyster larvae was also measured using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate as a probe for flow cytometric analysis. The results we obtained showed the embryotoxicity and genotoxicity of diuron and its metabolites in early life stages of the Pacific oyster. For concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.5μgL(-1), diuron appeared significantly more embryotoxic than DCPMU and DCPU (pEmbryotoxicity decreased with diuron metabolism as follows: diuron≥DCPMU=DCPU, highlighting that biotransformation can constitute a true detoxication pathways in oyster larvae by decreasing the toxicity of the parent compound. In the opposite, no difference was observed between diuron and its metabolites concerning larval development when considering a lower and more environmentally realistic range of concentrations (0.002-0.050μgL(-1)). 3,4-DCA was the only compound that did not show any sign of embryotoxicity, even at concentrations up to 5μgL(-1). Concerning

  13. Ecology of the early life-history stages of shad Alosa fallax fallax (Lacépède, 1803) in the River Mira, with a note on Alosa spp. larvae in the River Guadiana

    OpenAIRE

    Esteves, E.

    2006-01-01

    Tese dout., Ecologia, Universidade do Algarve, 2006 Allis and Twaite shad Alosa spp. are anadromous clupeid species, which still migrate into several rivers along Portugal to spawn but are regarded as Endangered or Vulnerable (using IUCN criteria). Within the framework of a countrywide research project, this dissertation reports the work carried out (from February 1998 until July 2000) to study the biology and ecology of the early life-history stages of Twaite shad, Alosa f...

  14. Early life origins of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, John P; Pennell, Craig E; Lye, Stephen J; Rampono, Jonathan; Challis, John R G

    2009-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that obesity has its origins in early life. Predisposition is based on interactions between the genome and environmental influences acting through epigenetic modifications. Individuals most at risk are those whose ancestral line has made a rapid transition from a traditional to a Westernized style of life. The process involves not only metabolism, but also behavior. As a result, those people who are most at risk of obesity may be those least likely to respond to educational programs based on lifestyle modification. Understanding the mechanisms and pathways that underpin the early origins of obesity is vital if we are to make progress in addressing this major problem of modern life.

  15. Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Parashar, Bhupesh; Arora, Shruthi; Wernicke, A. Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy for early stage lung cancer is a promising modality. It has been traditionally used in patients not considered candidates for standard surgical resection. However, its role has been changing rapidly since the introduction of new and advanced technology, especially in tumor tracking, image guidance, and radiation delivery. Stereotactic radiation therapy is one such advancement that has shown excellent local control rates and promising survival in early stage lung cancer. In a...

  16. Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Parashar, Bhupesh; Arora, Shruthi; Wernicke, A. Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy for early stage lung cancer is a promising modality. It has been traditionally used in patients not considered candidates for standard surgical resection. However, its role has been changing rapidly since the introduction of new and advanced technology, especially in tumor tracking, image guidance, and radiation delivery. Stereotactic radiation therapy is one such advancement that has shown excellent local control rates and promising survival in early stage lung cancer. In a...

  17. Social support buffers the effect of self-esteem on quality of life of early-stage cervical cancer survivors in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Chun; Chen, Mei-Ling; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Chen, Min-Yue

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of self-esteem and social support on quality of life (QoL) in stage I and II cervical cancer survivors. The sample consisted of 110 participants who had been diagnosed with stage I-II cervical cancer and had completed their treatment 5 years or more before data collection. Each participant completed four structured questionnaires: a demographic-disease survey, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey, and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire 30. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test, one-way ANOVA, and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. The participants' mean age was 60.74 ± 10.69 years. Better QoL was significantly associated with younger age, higher self-esteem, and stronger social support; in addition, social support buffered the effect of self-esteem on global QoL. Together, five variables (age, time since treatment, self-esteem, social support, and the interaction term of self-esteem and social support) explained 36% of the variance in global QoL, with self-esteem being the strongest predictor. The results of this study advance current knowledge of QoL in cervical cancer survivors by demonstrating that survivors with low self-esteem and social support tend to have lower QoL than those with low self-esteem but high social support. Health professionals should help survivors seek support and provide appropriate strategies to expand their social networks and enhance their self-esteem to improve their global QoL after cervical cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparison of quality of life and satisfaction of women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conserving therapy vs. mastectomy in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z-Y; Tong, Q; Wu, S-G; Li, F-Y; Lin, H-X; Guan, X-X

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of life (QoL) and overall satisfaction with treatment of women with stage T1-2N0M0 breast cancer treated with breast conserving therapy (BCT) or mastectomy (MAS) in southern China. Functional assessment of cancer therapy-breast, traditional Chinese version 4 (FACT-B), was administered to 180 patients with stage T1-2N0M0 breast cancer (82 BCT and 98 MAS) treated between July 2000 and July 2008. The two groups differed in tumor pathology and how axillary lymph nodes were treated (sentinel node biopsy vs. dissection), while other disease and socioeconomic characteristics were similar. The median follow-up after completion of radiotherapy was 60 months in the BCT group, and 65 months in the MAS group. The scores of the physical, functional, and emotional domains and breast-specific concerns of FACT-B were not significantly different between the groups. The social domain score of the BCT group was significantly greater than those of the MAS group. Patients who underwent BCT did not report better QoL than those who received MAS, but BCT patients experienced easier social adjustment.

  19. Influence of yoga on mood states, distress, quality of life and immune outcomes in early stage breast cancer patients undergoing surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Raghavendra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Breast cancer patients awaiting surgery experience heightened distress that could affect postoperative outcomes. Aims : The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of yoga intervention on mood states, treatment-related symptoms, quality of life and immune outcomes in breast cancer patients undergoing surgery. Settings and Design : Ninety-eight recently diagnosed stage II and III breast cancer patients were recruited for a randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of a yoga program with supportive therapy plus exercise rehabilitation on postoperative outcomes following surgery. Methods and Material : Subjects were assessed prior to surgery and four weeks thereafter. Psychometric instruments were used to assess self-reported anxiety, depression, treatment-related distress and quality of life. Blood samples were collected for enumeration of T lymphocyte subsets (CD4 %, CD8 % and natural killer (NK cell % counts and serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA and IgM. Statistical analysis used : We used analysis of covariance to compare interventions postoperatively. Results: Sixty-nine patients contributed data to the current analysis (yoga n = 33, control n = 36. The results suggest a significant decrease in the state ( P = 0.04 and trait ( P = 0.004 of anxiety, depression ( P = 0.01, symptom severity ( P = 0.01, distress ( P < 0.01 and improvement in quality of life ( P = 0.01 in the yoga group as compared to the controls. There was also a significantly lesser decrease in CD 56% ( P = 0.02 and lower levels of serum IgA ( P = 0.001 in the yoga group as compared to controls following surgery. Conclusions : The results suggest possible benefits for yoga in reducing postoperative distress and preventing immune suppression following surgery.

  20. Influence of yoga on mood states, distress, quality of life and immune outcomes in early stage breast cancer patients undergoing surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Raghavendra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Breast cancer patients awaiting surgery experience heightened distress that could affect postoperative outcomes. Aims : The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of yoga intervention on mood states, treatment-related symptoms, quality of life and immune outcomes in breast cancer patients undergoing surgery. Settings and Design : Ninety-eight recently diagnosed stage II and III breast cancer patients were recruited for a randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of a yoga program with supportive therapy plus exercise rehabilitation on postoperative outcomes following surgery. Materials and Methods : Subjects were assessed prior to surgery and four weeks thereafter. Psychometric instruments were used to assess self-reported anxiety, depression, treatment-related distress and quality of life. Blood samples were collected for enumeration of T lymphocyte subsets (CD4 %, CD8 % and natural killer (NK cell % counts and serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA and IgM. Statistical Analysis Used : We used analysis of covariance to compare interventions postoperatively. Results : Sixty-nine patients contributed data to the current analysis (yoga n = 33, control n = 36. The results suggest a significant decrease in the state ( P = 0.04 and trait ( P = 0.004 of anxiety, depression ( P = 0.01, symptom severity ( P = 0.01, distress ( P < 0.01 and improvement in quality of life ( P = 0.01 in the yoga group as compared to the controls. There was also a significantly lesser decrease in CD 56% ( P = 0.02 and lower levels of serum IgA ( P = 0.001 in the yoga group as compared to controls following surgery. Conclusions : The results suggest possible benefits for yoga in reducing postoperative distress and preventing immune suppression following surgery.

  1. Researching the life stages of medicines: Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, S.; Chamberlain, K.

    2011-01-01

    This introduction presents the concept of ‘biography’ or ‘life stages’ of medicines as an ordering principle and analytical tool for the study of medicines as social, commercial and symbolic objects. The first stages, production and marketing, which have been largely neglected by social scientists,

  2. Researching the life stages of medicines: Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, S.; Chamberlain, K.

    2011-01-01

    This introduction presents the concept of ‘biography’ or ‘life stages’ of medicines as an ordering principle and analytical tool for the study of medicines as social, commercial and symbolic objects. The first stages, production and marketing, which have been largely neglected by social scientists,

  3. Seeing Touches Early in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addabbo, Margaret; Longhi, Elena; Bolognini, Nadia; Senna, Irene; Tagliabue, Paolo; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Turati, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    The sense of touch provides fundamental information about the surrounding world, and feedback about our own actions. Although touch is very important during the earliest stages of life, to date no study has investigated infants’ abilities to process visual stimuli implying touch. This study explores the developmental origins of the ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving others. Looking times and orienting responses were measured in a visual preference task, in which participants were simultaneously presented with two videos depicting a touching and a no-touching gesture involving human body parts (face, hand) and/or an object (spoon). In Experiment 1, 2-day-old newborns and 3-month-old infants viewed two videos: in one video a moving hand touched a static face, in the other the moving hand stopped before touching it. Results showed that only 3-month-olds, but not newborns, differentiated the touching from the no-touching gesture, displaying a preference for the former over the latter. To test whether newborns could manifest a preferential visual response when the touched body part is different from the face, in Experiment 2 newborns were presented with touching/no-touching gestures in which a hand or an inanimate object—i.e., a spoon- moved towards a static hand. Newborns were able to discriminate a hand-to-hand touching gesture, but they did not manifest any preference for the object-to-hand touch. The present findings speak in favour of an early ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving the interaction between human body parts. PMID:26366563

  4. Seeing Touches Early in Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Addabbo

    Full Text Available The sense of touch provides fundamental information about the surrounding world, and feedback about our own actions. Although touch is very important during the earliest stages of life, to date no study has investigated infants' abilities to process visual stimuli implying touch. This study explores the developmental origins of the ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving others. Looking times and orienting responses were measured in a visual preference task, in which participants were simultaneously presented with two videos depicting a touching and a no-touching gesture involving human body parts (face, hand and/or an object (spoon. In Experiment 1, 2-day-old newborns and 3-month-old infants viewed two videos: in one video a moving hand touched a static face, in the other the moving hand stopped before touching it. Results showed that only 3-month-olds, but not newborns, differentiated the touching from the no-touching gesture, displaying a preference for the former over the latter. To test whether newborns could manifest a preferential visual response when the touched body part is different from the face, in Experiment 2 newborns were presented with touching/no-touching gestures in which a hand or an inanimate object-i.e., a spoon- moved towards a static hand. Newborns were able to discriminate a hand-to-hand touching gesture, but they did not manifest any preference for the object-to-hand touch. The present findings speak in favour of an early ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving the interaction between human body parts.

  5. Life stages: interactions and spatial patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Suzanne L; Cushing, J M; Costantino, R F

    2012-02-01

    In many stage-structured species, different life stages often occupy separate spatial niches in a heterogeneous environment. Life stages of the giant flour beetle Tribolium brevicornis (Leconte), in particular adults and pupae, occupy different locations in a homogeneous habitat. This unique spatial pattern does not occur in the well-studied stored grain pests T. castaneum (Herbst) and T. confusum (Duval). We propose density dependent dispersal as a causal mechanism for this spatial pattern. We model and explore the spatial dynamics of T. brevicornis with a set of four density dependent integrodifference and difference equations. The spatial model exhibits multiple attractors: a spatially uniform attractor and a patchy attractor with pupae and adults spatially separated. The model attractors are consistent with experimental observations.

  6. Integration of Life-Stage Physiologically Based ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Life-stage Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to include descriptions of several life-stage events such as pregnancy, fetal development, the neonate and child growth. The overall modeling strategy was used for in vitro to in vivo (IVIVE) extrapolation to help contextualize activity in ToxCast assays that were mapped to an adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for embryonic vascular disruption. Using life-stage PBPK models, we estimated maternal exposures that would yield fetal blood levels equivalent to in vitro activity from ToxCast assays with critical vascular signaling targets. The resulting in vivo dose estimates were then compared to life-time exposures using literature data or exposure models (SHEDS-LITE) to derive AOP-based Margins of Exposure (ME). This computational framework was applied to a list of five chemicals with varying activity against the putative Vascular Disruption AOP. The idea of linking biological information related to toxicity (using AOPs), high throughput in vitro data (ToxCast), and age-varying physiological and biochemical information to estimate AOP-based MEs is novel and can be used to help regulators in realistically assessing chemicals based on toxicity, dosimetry, and real-life exposures. Developing fetuses and infants are especially sensitive to toxicity caused by exposure to xenobiotics. The time and dose to which a developing target tissue is exposed during pregnancy or via lactation after birth are c

  7. Sensitivity of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid sturgeon (S. albus) early life stages to 3,30,4,40,5-pentachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckler, Justin; Candrl, James S.; McKee, Michael J.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Galat, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Concern exists that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may be contributing to the current decline of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and the US federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Waterborne exposures with newly fertilized eggs were used to assess developmental and morphological effects of 2 of the most potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), on early life stage shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. No dose-related effects of PCB-126 were observed on percent development or hatch in either species at concentrations as high as 1711 ng/g egg. Effects of TCDD on percent development were not assessed in shovelnose sturgeon. However, percent development was not affected by TCDD in pallid sturgeon, and percent hatch was unaffected by TCDD doses as high as 60 ng/g egg to 81 ng/g egg in either species. Morphological pathologies such as yolk sac edema and craniofacial deformities were typical of AhR agonist exposure and were similar in both species. Calculated PCB-126 50% lethal dose (LD50, 95% fiducial limits) values were 196 ng/g egg (188–203 ng/g) for shovelnose and 159 ng/g egg (122–199 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. Likewise, calculated TCDD LD50 values were 13 ng/g egg (11–15 ng/g) for shovelnose and 12 ng/g egg (10–14 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. These LD50 values are among the highest recorded in early life stage fish, suggesting that early life stage Scaphirhynchus sturgeon may be comparatively insensitive to AhR agonists.

  8. Sensitivity of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid sturgeon (S. albus) early life stages to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckler, Justin; Candrl, James S; McKee, Michael J; Papoulias, Diana M; Tillitt, Donald E; Galat, David L

    2015-06-01

    Concern exists that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may be contributing to the current decline of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and the US federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Waterborne exposures with newly fertilized eggs were used to assess developmental and morphological effects of 2 of the most potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), on early life stage shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. No dose-related effects of PCB-126 were observed on percent development or hatch in either species at concentrations as high as 1711 ng/g egg. Effects of TCDD on percent development were not assessed in shovelnose sturgeon. However, percent development was not affected by TCDD in pallid sturgeon, and percent hatch was unaffected by TCDD doses as high as 60 ng/g egg to 81 ng/g egg in either species. Morphological pathologies such as yolk sac edema and craniofacial deformities were typical of AhR agonist exposure and were similar in both species. Calculated PCB-126 50% lethal dose (LD50, 95% fiducial limits) values were 196 ng/g egg (188-203 ng/g) for shovelnose and 159 ng/g egg (122-199 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. Likewise, calculated TCDD LD50 values were 13 ng/g egg (11-15 ng/g) for shovelnose and 12 ng/g egg (10-14 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. These LD50 values are among the highest recorded in early life stage fish, suggesting that early life stage Scaphirhynchus sturgeon may be comparatively insensitive to AhR agonists.

  9. Different Levels of Hypoxia Tolerance during Early Life History Stages of Key Fish Species from the Northern Benguela Upwelling Ecosystem Inferred from the Comparison of Eco-Physiological Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, S. J.; Imam, R. M.; Kunzmann, A.; Ekau, W.

    2016-02-01

    Global change factors such as a pronounced Oxygen Minimum Zone and the shoaling of hypoxic waters are assumed to play a major role in controlling the recruitment of fish stocks in Upwelling Systems by affecting the planktonic early life history stages. Ecological and ecophysiological traits in the larval stages of five key fish species in the Northern Benguela Upwelling System (Sardine, Sardinops sagax; Anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus; Cape horse mackerel, Trachurus capensis; Cape hake, Merluccius sp.; Pelagic goby, Sufflogobobius bibarbatus) were investigated during the GENUS (Geochemistry and Ecology of the Namibian Upwelling Ecosystem) research project . Analysis of vertical larval distributions in relation to the depth of hypoxic water layers showed gradual interspecific differences, suggesting lower hypoxia tolerance levels of the small pelagics Sardine and Anchovy. Cape horse mackerel juveniles and larvae exhibited very high tolerance levels to short-term hypoxia in respirometry stress experiments, close to the levels of the extremely hypoxia-tolerant Pelagic goby. In the latter two species, we also measured the highest activities of anaerobic enzymes (pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase) in early and late larval stages, compared to very low activities in Sardine larvae. A higher amount of anaerobic enzymatic activity is related to a higher capacity to break down metabolites that build up during phases of oxygen debt and thus help the larvae to quickly recover from hypoxia exposure. In consequence, a high hypoxia tolerance during their early life stages allows Cape horse mackerel and Pelagic goby to successfully reproduce in an environment characterized by frequent hypoxic events. The low hypoxia tolerance of Sardine larvae, eventually resulting in higher mortality rates, is likely to be an important factor to understand the poor reproductive success and continuing recruitment failures of this formerly dominant fish species of the NBUS during the last

  10. Immune reactivity in early life stages of sea-cage cultured Pacific bluefin tuna naturally infected with blood flukes from genus Cardicola (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennacchi, Ylenia; Shirakashi, Sho; Nowak, Barbara F; Bridle, Andrew R

    2016-11-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, due to its high average price on the market is an economically valuable fish species. Infections by blood flukes from the genus Cardicola (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) represent a growing concern for the cage culture of bluefin tuna in Japan, Australia and Southern Europe. The accumulation of numerous Cardicola eggs in the fish gills causes severe pathology that has been linked to mortality in PBT juveniles up to one year old. The only effective treatment used to mitigate the infection is the oral administration of the antihelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ) to the affected fish. However, with the need to minimise therapeutic drug use in aquaculture it is hoped that immunoprophylaxis can provide a future alternative to protect the PBT juveniles against Cardicola infection. Currently, little is known of the host immune response to these parasites and of their infection dynamics. In this study, using real-time qPCR we aimed to quantitatively detect C. orientalis and C. opisthorchis DNA within the gills and heart of cultured PBT juveniles and to investigate the host immune response at the transcriptional level in the gills. The research focused mainly during early stages of infection soon after young PBT were transferred to culture cages (from 14 to 77 days post-transfer). An increase (up to 11-fold) of immune-related genes, namely IgM, MHC-I, TCR-β and IL-1β was observed in the PBT gills infected with Cardicola spp. (28-77 days post-transfer). Furthermore, IgM (19-fold increase) and MHC-I (11.5-fold increase) transcription was strongly up-regulated in gill samples of PBT infected with C. orientalis relative to uninfected fish but not in fish infected with C. opisthorchis. Cardicola-specific DNA was first detected in the host 14 days post-transfer (DPT) to sea-cages which was 55 days earlier than the first detection of parasite eggs and adults by microscopy. Oral administration of PZQ did not have an immediate effect

  11. Inhibition of replication of HIV-1 at both early and late stages of the viral life cycle by single-chain antibody against viral integrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Y; Ishikawa, T; Okui, N; Kobayashi, N; Kanda, T; Shimada, T; Miyake, K; Yoshiike, K

    1999-02-01

    Retroviruses including HIV-1 integrates a DNA copy of their RNA genome into cellular DNA of the infected cell. This reaction, essential and unique to replication of retroviruses, is mediated by the viral enzyme, integrase (IN). We constructed a recombinant gene encoding a single-chain, antigen-binding peptide (scAb2-19), which interacted with a carboxyl terminal part of HIV-1 IN. HeLa CD4 cells expressing scAb2-19 localized in either cytoplasmic or nuclear compartment were resistant to HIV-1 infection at an multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.25 or 0.063, but the resistance was overcome when MOI was increased to 1. To determine whether this resistance was due to inhibition of the early events, transduction experiments were performed with a replication-incompetent HIV-1 vector carrying bacterial lacZ driven by an internal Tat-independent cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter. Both cytoplasmic and nuclear expressions of scAb2-19 resulted in decrease in the transduction efficiency on HeLa CD4 cells. This implies that an early step of replication--before or during integration--was affected by the scAb2-19. Furthermore, cytoplasmic expression of scAb2-19 did not affect the viral amount released from the cells transfected with HIV-1 infectious clone DNA (pLAI). However, infectivity relative to reverse transcriptase activity was lower for virions released from the 293T cells cotransfected with pLAI and the cytoplasmic scAb2-19 expression plasmid than for those released from the 293T cells transfected with pLAI alone. This implies that scAb2-19 reduced infectivity of released virions by interfering a late step of the viral replication. The single-chain, antigen-binding peptide molecule may prove useful not only for studies of the functions of IN and its role in the viral life cycle but also for developing a gene therapy strategy against AIDS.

  12. [Treatment of early stage Hodgkin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Carde, P.; Mauch, P.

    1993-01-01

    In early stage Hodgkin's disease the optimal choice of treatment is still an unresolved issue. Twenty-two randomized trials of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy plus combination chemotherapy have been carried out world-wide. The preliminary results of a global meta-analysis of these trials...

  13. Radiotherapy versus combined modality in early stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L.; Carde, P.; Mauch, P.;

    1992-01-01

    In early stage Hodgkin's disease the optimal choice of treatment for the individual patient is still an unresolved issue. So far, twenty-two randomized trials of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy plus combination chemotherapy have been carried out worldwide. The preliminary results of a glob...

  14. New records of early life-stages of cephalopods in the Chiloé Interior Sea Nuevos registros de estadios de vida tempranos de cefalópodos en el mar interior de Chiloé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Carrasco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Early life stages of cephalopods were sampled with zooplankton nets in southern Chile (41°-43°S during the CIMAR 11 Fiordos cruise, November 2005. A total of 52 individuals were collected, comprising three families (Octopodidae, Sepiolidae, Onychoteuthidae and four species (Robsonella fontaniana, Enteroctopus megalocyathus, Semirossia patagonica, an undetermined Onychoteuthidae species. Paralarvae of Octopodidae have been previously recorded in northern and southern Chile; however, for Sepiolidae and Onychoteuthidae, this is the first record of early life stages in Chilean waters.Estadios tempranos de cefalópodos fueron obtenidos con redes de zooplancton en el sur de Chile (41°-43°S durante el crucero CIMAR 11 Fiordos en noviembre de 2005. Un total de cincuenta y dos individuos fueron recolectados, comprendiendo tres familias (Octopodidae, Sepiolidae and Onychoteuthidae y cuatro especies (Robsonella fontaniana, Enteroctopus megalocyathus, Semirossia patagonica, y una especie indeterminada de Onychoteuthidae. Si bien existen descripciones previas de paralarvas de Octopodidae para el norte y sur de Chile, este trabajo provee el primer registro de estadios tempranos de vida de Sepiolidae y Onychoteuthidae para aguas chilenas.

  15. Quality of life after successful treatment of early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma: 10-year follow-up of the EORTC-GELA H8 randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Heutte; H.H. Flechtner; N. Mounier; W.A.M. Mellink; J.H. Meerwaldt; H. Eghbali; M.B. van 't Veer; E.M. Noordijk; J.C. Kluin-Nelemans; E. Lampka; J. Thomas; P.J. Lugtenburg; L. Viterbo; P. Carde; A. Hagenbeek; R.W.M. van der Maazen; W.G.J.M. Smit; P. Brice; M. van Marwijk Kooy; J.W. Baars; P. Poortmans; U. Tirelli; O.C. Leeksma; R. Tomšič; P. Feugier; G. Salles; J. Gabarre; M.J. Kersten; E. van den Neste; G.J.M. Creemers; I. Gaillard; P. Meijnders; G. Tertian; O. Reman; H.P. Muller; J. Troncy; M. Blanc; W. Schroyens; P.J. Voogt; P. Wijermans; C. Rieux; C. Fermé; M. Henry-Amar

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the longitudinal course of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma during their post-treatment follow-up and re-adaptation to normal life. We report on the HRQoL of patients treated in the randomised H8 trial of the European Organi

  16. Quality of life after successful treatment of early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma: 10-year follow-up of the EORTC-GELA H8 randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutte, N.; Flechtner, H.H.; Mounier, N.; Mellink, W.A.M.; Meerwaldt, J.H.; Eghbali, H.; Veer, M.B. van 't; Noordijk, E.M.; Kluin-Nelemans, H.C.; Lampka, E.; Thomas, J.; Lugtenburg, P.J.; Viterbo, L.; Carde, P.; Hagenbeek, A.; Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Smit, W.G.; Brice, P.; Marwijk-Kooy, M. van; Baars, J.W.; Poortmans, P.; Tirelli, U.; Leeksma, O.C.; Tomsic, R.; Feugier, P.; Salles, G.; Gabarre, J.; Kersten, M.J.; Neste, E. van den; Creemers, G.J.; Gaillard, I.; Meijnders, P.; Tertian, G.; Reman, O.; Muller, H.P.; Troncy, J.; Blanc, M.; Schroyens, W.; Voogt, P.J.; Wijermans, P.; Rieux, C.; Ferme, C.; Henry-Amar, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the longitudinal course of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma during their post-treatment follow-up and re-adaptation to normal life. We report on the HRQoL of patients treated in the randomised H8 trial of the European Organi

  17. Seasonal dynamics of early life stages of invasive and native ctenophores give clues to invasion and bloom potential in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Haraldsson, Matilda; Lombard, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    Recently, both the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and the arctic Mertensia ovum were discovered in the Baltic Sea but their range expansion remains unclear due to misidentification of their larval stages. Supported by molecular species verification we describe seasonal abundance and distri....... leidyi population in the southern Baltic such as the Arkona and Bornholm basins...

  18. Seasonal dynamics of early life stages of invasive and native ctenophores give clues to invasion and bloom potential in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Haraldsson, Matilda; Lombard, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    Recently, both the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and the arctic Mertensia ovum were discovered in the Baltic Sea but their range expansion remains unclear due to misidentification of their larval stages. Supported by molecular species verification we describe seasonal abundance and distri...

  19. Quality of Life and Neutropenia in Patients with Early Stage Breast Cancer: A Randomized Pilot Study Comparing Additional Treatment with Mistletoe Extract to Chemotherapy Alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Tröger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemotherapy for breast cancer often deteriorates quality of life, augments fatigue, and induces neutropenia. Mistletoe preparations are frequently used by cancer patients in Central Europe. Physicians have reported better quality of life in breast cancer patients additionally treated with mistletoe preparations during chemotherapy. Mistletoe preparations also have immunostimulant properties and might therefore have protective effects against chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.Patients and Methods: We conducted a prospective randomized open label pilot study with 95 patients randomized into three groups. Two groups received Iscador® M special (IMS or a different mistletoe preparation, respectively, additionally to chemotherapy with six cycles of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, and 5-fluoro-uracil (CAF. A control group received CAF with no additional therapy. Here we report the comparison IMS (n = 30 vs. control (n = 31. Quality of life including fatigue was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30. Neutropenia was defined as neutrophil counts <1,000/µl and assessed at baseline and one day before each CAF cycle.Results: In the descriptive analysis all 15 scores of the EORTC-QLQ-C30 showed better quality of life in the IMS group compared to the control group. In 12 scores the differences were significant (p < 0.02 and nine scores showed a clinically relevant and significant difference of at least 5 points. Neutropenia occurred in 3/30 IMS patients and in 8/31 control patients (p = 0.182.Conclusions: This pilot study showed an improvement of quality of life by treating breast cancer patients with IMS additionally to CAF. CAF-induced neutropenia showed a trend to lower frequency in the IMS group.

  20. Radiotherapy versus combined modality in early stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Carde, P; Mauch, P;

    1992-01-01

    In early stage Hodgkin's disease the optimal choice of treatment for the individual patient is still an unresolved issue. So far, twenty-two randomized trials of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy plus combination chemotherapy have been carried out worldwide. The preliminary results of a global...... be kept at a minimum. Recently, trials have been carried out testing chemotherapy alone. The results of these trials are however conflicting. In order not to jeopardize the good results achieved with the standard treatments developed over the last three decades, newer treatment approaches should...... be carefully tested in large randomized trials before being implemented for general clinical use....

  1. Early Stage of Pulsed Discharge in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢新培; 潘垣; 刘克富; 刘明海; 张寒虹

    2001-01-01

    The bubble radius at the early stage of discharge in water is investigated using high-speed photography. Some simulation results on the bubble radius are presented, which are in agreement with the experimental results, with a maximum difference of about 10%. The reasons why the peak pressure of the first shock wave is only related to the energy released in the bubble during the first half period are addressed. The energy released in the bubble after the first half period increases the bubble pulsation period, but it produces no more than 10% under the peak pressure of the second shock wave.

  2. Dupuytren contracture. Radiotherapy of early stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, M.; Regler, G.

    1985-03-01

    Conventional radiotherapy is the treatment of choice for the early stages of theDupuytren contracture. The conventional semi-deep therapy is more favorable than the soft ray technique and the moulage technique. 62 patients have been treated at Erlangen; 33 out of them (46 irradiated hands) with a minimum observation time of 18 months have been evaluated. The pathologic process was stopped in 98% of the cases. 85% of the patients showed an improvement of troubles by regression of tubercules and cords, pains and sensation of pressure. A recurrence was obseved only in one patient at the edge of the irradiated volume.

  3. Can Early Life-Stages of the Marine Fish Sparus aurata be Useful for the Evaluation of the Toxicity of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates Homologues (LAS C10-C14 and Commercial LAS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hampel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Most commercial household cleaning agents and personal care products contain the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS as the active compound. After their use they are discharged, theoretically after adequate wastewater treatment, into receiving waters finally reaching estuaries and coastal waters. Laboratory toxicity tests are useful tools in determining at which concentration a certain wastewater compound becomes hazardous for an existing group of organisms. Early life-stage toxicity tests include exposure during the most sensitive development period of the organism. In fish, this type of assay has shown to predict accurately maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC values (comprised in the range defined by the NOEC and LOEC in fish early life-stage tests. For this reason, larvae of the seabream, Sparus aurata, were exposed to increasing concentrations of LAS homologues (C10-C14 and commercial LAS. Obtained LC50 values ranged between 0.1 and 3.0 mg l-1 and were compared with LC50 values of previous hatching experiments with the same species. Larvae proved to be more sensitive to LAS exposure of individual homologues than eggs, except in the case of commercial LAS. LC50 values can be directly employed to determine their potential risk in a concrete environment with known pollutant concentrations. Dividing the LC50 value with the found homologue concentration and extrapolating with certain security factors proposed by different environmental organisms, potentially hazardous pollutant concentrations may be detected. Average estuarine or coastal LAS concentrations are generally below toxicity limits for this kind of organism, considering that the average alkyl chain length of commercial LAS is 11.6 carbon atoms.

  4. Effects of High-Flow Experiments from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lees Ferry Reach of the Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Josh; Kaplinski, Matthew; Melis, Theodore S.

    2010-01-01

    High-flow experiments (HFEs) from Glen Canyon Dam are primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River as it flows through Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. These experimental flows also have the potential to affect the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population in the Lees Ferry tailwater reach immediately below the dam, which supports a highly valued recreational fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Understanding how flow regimes affect the survival and growth of juvenile rainbow trout is critical to interpreting trends in adult abundance. This study reports on the effects of HFEs in 2004 and 2008 on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lees Ferry reach on the basis of monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance of the age-0 trout (fertilization to about 1 to 2 months from emergence) and their growth during a 7-year period between 2003 and 2009. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the March 2008 HFE resulted in a large increase in early survival rates of age-0 trout because of an improvement in habitat conditions. A stock-recruitment analysis demonstrated that age-0 abundance in July 2008 was more than fourfold higher than expected, given the number of viable eggs that produced these fish. A hatch-date analysis showed that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that hatched about 1 month after the 2008 HFE (about April 15, 2008) relative to those fish that hatched before this date. These cohorts, fertilized after the 2008 HFE, would have emerged into a benthic invertebrate community that had recovered, and was possibly enhanced by, the HFE. Interannual differences in growth of age-0 trout, determined on the basis of otolith microstructure, support this hypothesis. Growth rates in the summer and fall of 2008 (0.44 mm/day) were virtually the same as in 2006 (0.46 mm/day), the highest recorded during 6 years, even though

  5. Effects of High-Flow Experiments from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lees Ferry Reach of the Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Josh; Kaplinski, Matthew; Melis, Theodore S.

    2010-01-01

    High-flow experiments (HFEs) from Glen Canyon Dam are primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River as it flows through Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. These experimental flows also have the potential to affect the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population in the Lees Ferry tailwater reach immediately below the dam, which supports a highly valued recreational fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Understanding how flow regimes affect the survival and growth of juvenile rainbow trout is critical to interpreting trends in adult abundance. This study reports on the effects of HFEs in 2004 and 2008 on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lees Ferry reach on the basis of monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance of the age-0 trout (fertilization to about 1 to 2 months from emergence) and their growth during a 7-year period between 2003 and 2009. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the March 2008 HFE resulted in a large increase in early survival rates of age-0 trout because of an improvement in habitat conditions. A stock-recruitment analysis demonstrated that age-0 abundance in July 2008 was more than fourfold higher than expected, given the number of viable eggs that produced these fish. A hatch-date analysis showed that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that hatched about 1 month after the 2008 HFE (about April 15, 2008) relative to those fish that hatched before this date. These cohorts, fertilized after the 2008 HFE, would have emerged into a benthic invertebrate community that had recovered, and was possibly enhanced by, the HFE. Interannual differences in growth of age-0 trout, determined on the basis of otolith microstructure, support this hypothesis. Growth rates in the summer and fall of 2008 (0.44 mm/day) were virtually the same as in 2006 (0.46 mm/day), the highest recorded during 6 years, even though

  6. Early life and mineral resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schidlowski, M.

    1985-01-01

    The recent breathtaking advances in the field of radio astronomy have made it increasingly clear that the beginnings of organic chemistry are to be found in interstellar space. From there, an impressive array of molecules have been discovered which have been shown to act as intermediates in the prebiotic synthesis of organic matter. These findings certainly tend to blur the arbitrary limit often drawn between the living and the non-living realms. The authors may, therefore, reasonably assume that life arose at a certain stage of either cosmic or planetary evolution as an intrinsically new property of matter. IGCP Project 157, launched in 1977, has been devoted to interdisciplinary research of those blurred areas where evolutionary biology, organic chemistry and economic geology seem to blend or overlap. This article summarizes the project's main findings to date, and shows how a community of 120 scientists from 19 countries have worked together to help unravel the mystery of life's origins on our planet. 6 references, 5 figures.

  7. Ontogenetic loops in habitat use highlight the importance of littoral habitats for early life-stages of oceanic fishes in temperate waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polte, Patrick; Kotterba, Paul; Moll, Dorothee; von Nordheim, Lena

    2017-01-01

    General concepts of larval fish ecology in temperate oceans predominantly associate dispersal and survival to exogenous mechanisms such as passive drift along ocean currents. However, for tropical reef fish larvae and species in inland freshwater systems behavioural aspects of habitat selection are evidently important components of dispersal. This study is focused on larval Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) distribution in a Baltic Sea retention area, free of lunar tides and directed current regimes, considered as a natural mesocosm. A Lorenz curve originally applied in socio-economics to describe demographic income distribution was adapted to a 20 year time-series of weekly larval herring distribution, revealing size-dependent spatial homogeneity. Additional quantitative sampling of distinct larval development stages across pelagic and littoral areas uncovered a loop in habitat use during larval ontogeny, revealing a key role of shallow littoral waters. With increasing rates of coastal change, our findings emphasize the importance of the littoral zone when considering reproduction of pelagic, ocean-going fish species; highlighting a need for more sensitive management of regional coastal zones. PMID:28205543

  8. Ontogenetic loops in habitat use highlight the importance of littoral habitats for early life-stages of oceanic fishes in temperate waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polte, Patrick; Kotterba, Paul; Moll, Dorothee; von Nordheim, Lena

    2017-02-01

    General concepts of larval fish ecology in temperate oceans predominantly associate dispersal and survival to exogenous mechanisms such as passive drift along ocean currents. However, for tropical reef fish larvae and species in inland freshwater systems behavioural aspects of habitat selection are evidently important components of dispersal. This study is focused on larval Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) distribution in a Baltic Sea retention area, free of lunar tides and directed current regimes, considered as a natural mesocosm. A Lorenz curve originally applied in socio-economics to describe demographic income distribution was adapted to a 20 year time-series of weekly larval herring distribution, revealing size-dependent spatial homogeneity. Additional quantitative sampling of distinct larval development stages across pelagic and littoral areas uncovered a loop in habitat use during larval ontogeny, revealing a key role of shallow littoral waters. With increasing rates of coastal change, our findings emphasize the importance of the littoral zone when considering reproduction of pelagic, ocean-going fish species; highlighting a need for more sensitive management of regional coastal zones.

  9. Health related quality of life and symptoms after pelvic lymphadenectomy or radiotherapy vs. no adjuvant regional treatment in early-stage endometrial carcinoma: a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A; Boll, Dorry; Vos, M Caroline; van den Berg, Hetty; Lybeert, Marnix L M; de Winter, Karin; Kruitwagen, Roy F P M

    2012-10-01

    Routine lymphadenectomy (LA) in early stage endometrial cancer does not improve survival. However, in the absence of lymph node metastasis, radiotherapy (RT) could be withheld and hence could result in less morbidity. Our aim was to evaluate health related quality of life (HRQL) in endometrial cancer survivors that received routine pelvic LA without RT compared to no LA, but RT in the presence of risk factors. Stage I-II endometrial cancer survivors diagnosed between 1999 and 2007 were selected from the Eindhoven Cancer Registry. Survivors completed the SF-36 and the EORTC-QLQ-EN24. ANCOVA and multiple linear regression analyses were applied. 742 (77%) of the endometrial cancer survivors returned a completed questionnaire. 377 (51%) had received no LA nor RT (LA-RT-), 198 (27%) had received LA+RT-, 153 (21%) LA-RT+ and 14 patients (2%) had received both. LA+ women reported as higher lymphedema symptom scores (25 vs. 20, p=0.04). Women who were treated with RT reported higher gastrointestinal symptom scores vs. those who did not (23 vs. 16, p=0.04). HRQL scales were comparable between all four treatment groups. Despite distinct symptom patterns among women who received LA or RT, no clinically relevant differences in HRQL were observed when compared to women not receiving adjuvant therapy. Using LA to tailor adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy and prevent over-treatment in low-risk patients cannot be recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of thiamine and PCB association with early life stage fry mortality in lake trout from northwestern Lake Michigan in 1996-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, Dale C.; Beltman, Dong; Holey, Mark; Edsall, Carol C.

    2005-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) eggs were collected from 72 females near Sturgeon Bay, WI in northwestern Lake Michigan from 1996, 1997, and 1998 to determine the relationships between egg thiamine and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations with egg fertilization and hatch, prevalence of abnormal fry, and fry mortality. Fry mortality consistent with early mortality syndrome (EMS) was observed in eggs from 33% of the females in 1996, 25% in 1997, and 28% in 1998. Among egg lots exhibiting EMS, fry mortality averaged 95% in 1996, 63% in 1997 and 77% in 1998 compared to 2% or less in lots that did not exhibit EMS. Expression of EMS was strongly correlated with egg thiamine concentrations; egg lots with less than approximately 1 nmol/g total thiamine consistently exhibited high rates of EMS, whereas egg batches with greater than 1.5 nmol/g showed little or no incidence of EMS among swim-up fry. Egg thiamine concentration was not related to fertilization rate, egg hatch, or the prevalence of abnormal fry. There was no relationship between egg concentrations of PCBs or tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (from PCBs, dioxins, and furans) and any of the egg or fry viability measurements, including EMS. We concluded that fry mortality observed in Lake Michigan lake trout in 1996-1998 was not caused by the toxicity of PCBs, dioxins, and furans, but is due to low egg thiamine concentrations.

  11. Estrogenic effects of nonylphenol and octylphenol isomers in vitro by recombinant yeast assay (RYA) and in vivo with early life stages of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puy-Azurmendi, E; Olivares, A; Vallejo, A; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, M; Piña, B; Zuloaga, O; Cajaraville, M P

    2014-01-01

    Commercial OP and NP are complex isomer mixtures that can be individually present in the environment, showing different estrogenic potencies. The aims of this study were to establish the estrogenic potency of some AP isomers in comparison to the commercial NP (cNP) mixture in vitro and to investigate in vivo their possible effects during the embryo and larval development of zebrafish. An in vitro estrogen receptor-based recombinant yeast assay was used to test the estrogenicity of specific AP isomers (22-OP, 33-OP, 22-NP, 33-NP and 363-NP) and cNP. The EC₅₀ was in the range of 0.6-7.7 mg/L. Both OP isomers and 363-NP exhibited higher estrogenic activity than cNP. For in vivo experiments, one-day postfertilisation (dpf) embryos were exposed to cNP (50, 250 and 500 μg/L), 363-NP and 33-OP (50 μg/L), 17β-estradiol (100 ng/L) and DMSO (0.01% v/v) for 4weeks. After exposure fish were maintained for 2 weeks in clean water in order to evaluate a possible recovery. Fish of groups exposed to cNP and 363-NP were the last to hatch. Histological alterations were not observed after 7, 28 or 42 dpf. Exposure to 33-OP increased transcriptional levels of erα, vtg and cyp19a1b genes. However, transcriptional response in E2 exposure was observed at later stages and with higher fold induction levels. Exposure to cNP decreased levels of erα whereas increased levels of rxrγ and cyp19a1b. Exposure to 363-NP did not cause changes in transcriptional levels of studied genes. The differences in response of the OP isomer compared to the NP isomer in zebrafish could be related to the rapid decay in concentration of the latter.

  12. 微藻饵料对双壳贝类幼体生长影响的研究进展%Advance in the Effect of Microalgal Diets and Nutritional Value on the Growth of Early Life Stages of Bivalves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Microalgal diet is the key factor in shellfish growth and breeding. To gain a thorough knowledge of the effect of microalgal diets on the growth of early life stages of bivalves, this review summarizes the reports about this area since 1980 and analyzes the nutrition value of microalgae, including ingestibility, digestibility and biochemistry composition. It is concluded that different kinds of microalgal diets have different feeding effects, which is significant correlation with the fatty acid composition and sterols of microalgae, on bivalves and that the feeding effect of same microalgae vary among different life stages of bivalves. However the relevant mechanisms are still uncovered precisely. In terms of the nutritional value of microalgal diets, many studies on the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been done, however few researches on n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been carried out till now. Besides, previous work conducted on bivalves has focused largely on larval and juvenile stages, with little attention given to postlarval stage. Therefore, it is necessary to continue these studies in future. Due to the complexity of relevant factors linked to bivalve growth, for future improvement, correlation analyses of the relationship between particular nutritional components and bivalve growth across a wide range of microalgal diets could provide a better understanding of nutritional value on the growth of early life stages of bivalves and further help to promote the development of the feeding biology of bivalves.%  饵料藻类影响着贝类的营养、生理与繁殖。为了深入了解微藻饵料对双壳贝类幼体生长的影响,归纳总结了1980年以来的相关研究报道,从微藻营养价值、贝类对微藻的摄食率、消化率及微藻饵料的生化组成等方面进行了分析。可以得出,不同的饵料藻类对贝类幼虫的饵料效果不同,同一种微藻的饵料效果在贝类发育的不同阶段也有差

  13. Feeding ecology of the early life-history stages of two dominant gobiid species in the headwaters of a warm-temperate estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Ryan J.

    2012-08-01

    The diet and population structure of larval and early juvenile Glossogobius callidus and Redigobius dewaali (Gobiidae) were examined from the headwater region of the permanently open Great Fish Estuary along the south-east coast of southern Africa. Stomach contents of five selected size classes were sorted and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level for each goby species. Using % Index of Relative Importance values, ontogenic shifts and dietary breadth were determined for each species as was dietary overlap between species. Numerically, both gobiid species showed similar temporal and spatial trends. Seasonal differences in catches were evident, although no numerical differences across sampled sites were found. A large degree of dietary overlap was found between the two species. The zooplanktonic diet showed a greater degree of ontogenic shift in R. dewaali than G. callidus, although similar trends were found for both. In both goby species, Calanoid sp. (Copepoda) generally decreased in importance across size classes, being the most important in the smallest size class whilst Corophium sp. (Amphipoda) increased in importance across size classes, being the least important at the smallest size classes. For both G. callidus and R. dewaali, Insecta contributed significantly to at least one of the five size classes. The larger size classes showed the least dietary overlap and the highest niche breadth. In addition, as is the case in many gobiids worldwide, the larger size classes of both sampled gobiid species consumed a broader prey size range. In conclusion, dietary overlap was largely similar between the young gobiids, suggesting that either food resources are not limiting, or niche separation is attributed to differences in foraging strategies. Ontogenic dietary shifts were however present for both gobiids with regard to prey items and prey size, suggesting a greater degree of foraging niche separation in adults of the species.

  14. Emerging Literature on Cognitive Intervention Techniques for Early Stage Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Den Boer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a growing world-wide phenomenon, impacting more than six million people in the United States. Despite its high projected prevalence, it is a significantly under-represented phenomena, with (underestimate ranging from 15-25% of the general population. The effect of the aging of the population and significant increase in life expectancy has combined to catapult dementia into the range of one of most alarming healthcare problems. Diverse and emerging literature in the area of cognitive prevention/intervention for mild cognitive impairment (MCI/early stage dementia will be reviewed. Additionally, future research and clinical directions will be explored.

  15. Urinary biomarkers at early ADPKD disease stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Petzold

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is characterized by a decline in renal function at late disease stage when the majority of functional renal parenchyma is replaced by cystic tissue. Thus, kidney function, assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR does not well represent disease burden in early disease. Here, we investigated various urinary markers for tubular injury and their association with disease burden in ADPKD patients at early disease course.ADPKD patients between 18 and 40 years with an eGFR greater or equal to 70 ml per min per 1.73m2 were eligible for this cross-sectional study. Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL, Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1, and Uromodulin (UMOD were investigated by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Clara Cell Protein 16 (CC16 was investigated by Latex Immuno Assay. Cryoscopy was performed to assess urine osmolality and Urinary Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (UACR was calculated. The association and the predictive properties of the markers on eGFR and height adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV was evaluated using multiple regression analysis, incorporating different control variables for adjustment. Internal bootstrapping validated the obtained results.In 139 ADPKD patients (age 31 ±7 years, mean eGFR of 93 ± 19 ml per min per 1.73 m2 the total kidney volume was negatively correlated with eGFR and UMOD and positive associated with age, UACR, KIM-1 and urine osmolality after adjustment for possible confounders. Urine osmolality and htTKV were also associated with eGFR, whereas no association of CC16, NGAL and UMOD with eGFR or htTKV was found.UACR and urinary KIM-1 are independently associated with kidney size but not with renal function in our study population. Urine osmolality was associated with eGFR and kidney volume following adjustment for multiple confounders. Despite statistical significance, the clinical value of our results is not yet conceivable

  16. [Cognitive rehabilitation in early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, E; Thöne-Otto, A; Bürger, K; Schröder, S G; Hoffmann, W; Schneider, W; Teipel, S

    2016-07-01

    Dementia impairs the coping with routine daily tasks and social relationships due to an increasing degeneration of cognitive abilities. An appropriate treatment must adequately consider the effects of declined cognitive abilities on patients and their environment. Therefore, in recent times, integrative procedures for cognitive rehabilitation (CR) have become increasingly important for the therapy of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia (MD). CR approaches provide compensatory possibilities for clearly defined routine challenges and the individual needs of those affected. This overview article in the form of a selective review elaborates factors for the effectiveness of CR on the basis of the currently available literature: 1) individuality - consideration of personal needs and targets, 2) compensation - mediation of skills and strategies to compensate for cognitive impairments, 3) interaction - inclusion of relatives and environmental conditions and 4) integration - integration of various therapeutic disciplines and methods. On the basis of this assessment with regards to the content, a critical analysis of the methods of short and long-term therapeutic effects on MCD and MD was carried out. Although the resulting factors were of high long-term relevance for the improvement of depression and quality of life, effects on cognition were more pronounced for MCI than for MD, which emphasizes the importance of beginning therapy as early as possible. The results show that future studies on effectiveness must employ endpoints relevant for routine daily life, and that the possibility of an implementation of therapeutic concepts in a healthcare system should be considered as an essential criterion.

  17. Adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroshi; Todo, Yukiharu; Watari, Hidemichi

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this review is to address the current status of adjuvant chemotherapy alone in early-stage cervical cancer treatments in the literature. At present, the therapeutic effect of adjuvant chemotherapy alone after radical surgery (RS) has not yet been established, and radiation therapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is recommended as the standard adjuvant therapy after RS for early-stage cervical cancer in various guidelines. The main purpose of adjuvant therapy after RS, however, should be to reduce extrapelvic recurrence rather than local recurrence, although adjuvant RT or CCRT has survival benefits for patients with intermediate- or high-risk factors for recurrence. Moreover, several studies reported that adjuvant therapies including RT were associated with a higher incidence of complications, such as lymphedema, bowel obstruction and urinary disturbance, and a lower grade of long-term quality of life (QOL) or sexual functioning than adjuvant chemotherapy alone. The effect of adjuvant chemotherapy alone for early-stage cervical cancer with intermediate- or high-risk factors for recurrence were not fully investigated in prospective studies, but several retrospective studies suggest that the adjuvant effects of chemotherapy alone are at least similar to that of RT or CCRT in terms of recurrence rate, disease-free survival, or overall survival (OS) with lower incidence of complications. Whereas cisplatin based combination regimens were used in these studies, paclitaxel/cisplatin (TP) regimen, which is currently recognized as a standard chemotherapy regimen for patients with metastatic, recurrent or persistent cervical cancer by Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG), had also survival benefit as an adjuvant therapy. Therefore, it may be worth considering a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) of adjuvant chemotherapy alone using TP regimen versus adjuvant RT as an alternative adjuvant therapy. Because early-stage cervical cancer is a curable

  18. Requirement Defect Mitigation Technique: An Early Stage Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rizwan Beg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Requirement defect identification and mitigation at early stage of Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC is very cost effective than to later stages. The requirements analysis in requirement engineering process is critical and major foundation of requirement defect identification. A poor requirement analysis process may lead to software requirement specification (SRS full of defects akin to misplaced, ambiguous, incompatible, misinterpreted, and incomplete requirements. In this paper, requirement defects are being identified and properly mitigated as per its severity in the requirement phase to get rid of major rework by spending extra cost and effort at the later stages. Here, a Defect Mitigation Technique (DMT is proposed for mitigating the identified requirement defect and also the reliability of requirement is being assessed to deliver Reliable Requirement. The proposed algorithm is helping the DMT for its proper processing, defect mitigation and reliability assessment. The prime motive of this study is an effort to put off requirements stage defects from entering into later stages of SDLC.

  19. Early life factors and adult mammographic density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokate, M.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Berg, van den S.W.; Peeters, P.H.; Gils, van C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Early life factors have shown to be related to breast cancer risk. The pathophysiological link could be mammographic density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Mammary gland development already starts in utero and early life factors might affect the number of mammary cells at risk. In

  20. Identification of Larval Pacific Lampreys (Lampetra tridentata), River Lampreys (L. ayresi), and Western Brook Lampreys (L. richardsoni) and Thermal Requirements of Early Life History Stages of Lampreys, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeuwig, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin (CRB) lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). We evaluated the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics for identification of larval lampreys (i.e., pigment patterns) and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stage CRB lampreys, and we determined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage CRB lampreys. Thirty-one larval lampreys were collected from locations throughout the CRB and transported to the Columbia River Research Laboratory. Lampreys were sampled at six-week intervals at which time they were identified to the species level based on current diagnostic characteristics. Sampling was repeated until lampreys metamorphosed, at which time species identification was validated based on dentition, or until they died, at which time they were preserved for genetic examination. These lampreys were sampled 30 times with two individuals metamorphosing, both of which were consistently identified, and subsequently validated, as Pacific lampreys. Of the remaining lampreys, only one was inconsistently identified (Pacific lamprey in 83% of the sampling events and western brook lamprey in 17% of the sampling events). These data suggest that pigmentation patterns do not change appreciably through time. In 2001 and 2002 we artificially spawned Pacific and western brook lampreys in the laboratory to provide material for meristic and morphometric descriptions. We collected, digitized, preserved, and measured the mean chorion diameter of Pacific and western brook lamprey embryos. Embryos ranged in development from 1 d post fertilization to just prior to hatch, and were incubated at 14 C. Mean chorion diameter was greater and more variable for Pacific lampreys (mean

  1. Identification of larval Pacific lampreys (Lampetra tridentata), river lampreys (L. ayresi), and western brook lampreys (L. richardsoni) and thermal requirements of early life history stages of lampreys. Annual report 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.; Reiche, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin (CRB) lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). We evaluated the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics for identification of larval lampreys (i.e., pigment patterns) and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stage CRB lampreys, and we determined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage CRB lampreys. Thirty-one larval lampreys were collected from locations throughout the CRB and transported to the Columbia River Research Laboratory. Lampreys were sampled at six-week intervals at which time they were identified to the species level based on current diagnostic characteristics. Sampling was repeated until lampreys metamorphosed, at which time species identification was validated based on dentition, or until they died, at which time they were preserved for genetic examination. These lampreys were sampled 30 times with two individuals metamorphosing, both of which were consistently identified, and subsequently validated, as Pacific lampreys. Of the remaining lampreys, only one was inconsistently identified (Pacific lamprey in 83% of the sampling events and western brook lamprey in 17% of the sampling events). These data suggest that pigmentation patterns do not change appreciably through time. In 2001 and 2002 we artificially spawned Pacific and western brook lampreys in the laboratory to provide material for meristic and morphometric descriptions. We collected, digitized, preserved, and measured the mean chorion diameter of Pacific and western brook lamprey embryos. Embryos ranged in development from 1 d post fertilization to just prior to hatch, and were incubated at 14 C. Mean chorion diameter was greater and more variable for Pacific lampreys (mean

  2. Preoperative PET/CT in early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, M; Berthelsen, A K; Wielenga, V T;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of preoperative positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer.......The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of preoperative positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer....

  3. The Early History of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Fowler, C. M. R.

    2003-12-01

    The youth of the Earth is strange to us. Many of the most fundamental constraints on life may have been different, especially the oxidation state of the surface. Should we suddenly land on its Hadean or early Archean surface by some sci-fi accident, we would not recognize our home. Above, the sky may have been green or some other unworldly color, and above that the weak young Sun might have been unrecognizable to someone trying to identify it from its spectrum. Below, seismology would show a hot, comparatively low-viscosity interior, possibly with a magma ocean in the deeper part of the upper mantle (Drake and Righter, 2002; Nisbet and Walker, 1982), and a core that, though present, was perhaps rather smaller than today. The continents may have been small islands in an icy sea, mostly frozen with some leads of open water, ( Sleep et al., 2001). Into these icy oceans, huge protruding Hawaii-like volcanoes would have poured out vast far-spreading floods of komatiite lavas in immense eruptions that may have created sudden local hypercane storms to disrupt the nearby icebergs. And meteorites would rain down.Or perhaps it was not so strange, nor so violent. The child is father to the man; young Earth was mother to Old Earth. Earth had hydrogen, silicate rock below and on the surface abundant carbon, which her ancient self retains today. Moreover, Earth was oxygen-rich, as today. Today, a tiny part of the oxygen is free, as air; then the oxygen would have been in the mantle while the surface oxygen was used to handcuff the hydrogen as dihydrogen monoxide. Oxygen dihydride is dense, unlikely to fly off to space, and at the poles, rock-forming. Of all the geochemical features that make Earth unique, the initial degassing (Genesis 2 : b) and then the sustained presence of liquid water is the defining oddity of this planet. Early Earth probably also kept much of its carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur as oxide or hydride. And, after the most cataclysmic events had passed, ˜4.5 Ga

  4. An Analysis of Immunoreactive Signatures in Early Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hong

    2015-05-01

    Interpretation: Tumor-associated autoimmune reactions may be triggered by early stage HCCs. Measurement of serum autoantibody to TAAs may be complementary to AFP measurements and improve diagnosis of early HCC.

  5. Effect of methoxychlor on various life stages of Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Guiney, Patrick D; Weeks, John A; Thomas, John H; Rogers, Robert L; Noll, Andra M; Spaulding, Clinton D

    2004-10-01

    The toxicological effects of the organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor were evaluated at various life stages of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, in an effort to determine stage-specific sensitivity. A battery of four separate assays, including a short-term (4-day) early embryo-larval assay (FETAX) (NF stages 8-46 [Nieuwkoop and Faber, 1994]), 30-day hind limb development assay (NF stages 8-54), 18-day metamorphic climax assay (NF stages 58-66), and 30-day adult reproduction assay were performed. Test concentrations for the FETAX, hind limb development, metamorphic climax, and reproductive assays ranged from 0.0001-1.0 mg/l, 0.0001-0.1 mg/l, 0.0001-0.1 mg/l, and 0.001-0.1 mg/l, respectively. Results from the short-term embryo-larval assay indicated that increased embryo-lethality, malformation, and growth inhibition were not induced at methoxychlor (maximum soluble concentration). The 30-day hind limb development studies indicated methoxychlor exposure >/=0.01 mg/l delayed hind limb digit differentiation. Follicular hyperplasia of the thyroid glands was noted in specimens exposed to 0.1 mg/l methoxychlor. Results from the 18-day metamorphic climax assay indicated that methoxychlor inhibited the rate of tail resorption in a concentration-dependent manner. Whole body tissue triiodothyronine (T(3)) profiles showed a reduced and delayed surge during climax compared to controls. For the reproductive assessment, adult female X. laevis were super-ovulated and both female and male were then exposed to varying concentrations of methoxychlor. A concentration-dependent reduction in ovary weight and the number of viable oocytes was observed. In exposed male specimens, a concentration-dependent reduction in testis weight and sperm count was found. Methoxychlor was found to accumulate in the ovary, and to a lesser extent in the testis. Based on breeding studies in which exposed females were bred with control males and exposed males bred with control females, the

  6. Using the life history model to set the stage(s) of growth and senescence in bioarchaeology and paleodemography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roksandic, Mirjana; Armstrong, Stephanie D

    2011-07-01

    Paleodemography, the study of demographic parameters of past human populations, relies on assumptions including biological uniformitarianism, stationary populations, and the ability to determine point age estimates from skeletal material. These assumptions have been widely criticized in the literature and various solutions have been proposed. The majority of these solutions rely on statistical modeling, and have not seen widespread application. Most bioarchaeologists recognize that our ability to assess chronological age is inherently limited, and have instead resorted to large, qualitative, age categories. However, there has been little attempt in the literature to systematize and define the stages of development and ageing used in bioarchaeology. We propose that stages should be based in the human life history pattern, and their skeletal markers should have easily defined and clear endpoints. In addition to a standard five-stage developmental model based on the human life history pattern, current among human biologists, we suggest divisions within the adult stage that recognize the specific nature of skeletal samples. We therefore propose the following eight stages recognizable in human skeletal development and senescence: infancy, early childhood, late childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, full adulthood, mature adulthood, and senile adulthood. Striving toward a better prediction of chronological ages will remain important and could eventually help us understand to what extent past societies differed in the timing of these life stages. Furthermore, paleodemographers should try to develop methods that rely on the type of age information accessible from the skeletal material, which uses life stages, rather than point age estimates.

  7. Very early stages of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyunina, Tatiana

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this thesis work is to investigate the initial conditions and the early phases of the formation of high-mass stars by means of dedicated observational studies. We consider two object classes: infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), and a subsequent stage characterized by the presence of young embedded (proto-)stellar clusters. First, we estimate masses and column densities for a completely new sample of southern IRDCs, utilizing our own millimeter continuum emission maps as well as Spitzer satellite data. The parameters we derive show that IRDCs from our sample have the potential to form not only low- and intermediate-mass stars, but can also be the birth places of massive stars. In particular, the comparison of our results with previously obtained data for low-mass starless cores shows a clear trend for IRDCs to have systematically higher column densities. The interpolated IRDC peak column densities exceed the threshold for the onset of massive star formation previously advocated by theoretical studies. We also critically evaluate the limitations of the applied emission and extinction methods. Second, we investigate the physical conditions and the chemical composition of the dense gas within the IRDCs of our sample by means of a multi-line molecular spectroscopy analysis. All the clouds have complex HCO+ line pro les, and we detect SiO emission in some clouds. These ndings mark the presence of infall and out ow motions in at least some parts of the IRDCs, and hence, ongoing star formation. In comparison with low-mass starless cores, the IRDCs have broader and more intense lines. Thus, they may be characterised by more turbulent conditions. Nevertheless, we nd a tendency for the IRDCs to have molecular abundances similar to the case of low-mass starless cores. This indicates similar chemical initial conditions for low- and high-mass star-forming regions. Finally, we study the stellar composition and environmental conditions in the young embedded cluster IRAS

  8. Morphological development and growth pattern of Verasper variegatus,Temminck et Schlegel in early life stages%圆斑星鲽的早期生长发育特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁鑫; 柳学周; 孙中之; 徐永江; 王妍妍

    2011-01-01

    Morphological and quantitative characteristics of Verasper variegatus in early life stages including embryonic development, yolk sac larva, pre-flexion larva, post-flexion larva, and juveniles were recorded. The eggs are 1.75mm 0. 08mm in diameter, without oil globule and spherical in shape when they are suspended in sea water. There is negative a relationship between the temperature and the hatching time, and the calculated lower threshold temperature for hatching of embryos is 5.14 ℃. The larvae hatched out 159h post fertilization at temperatures of 11±0.5 C, salinity of 31-32, and DO≥Smg/L. The newly hatched larvae is transparent and 4.95±0. 15mm in total length. Larval development and growth completely depended on the energy from the yolk sac and oil globe till 7 DAH (days after hatching). Meantime, mouth and anus opened, larvae entered the mixed feeding stage. Larvae entered the complete exogenous feeding stage after the yolk was completely absorbed at 11DAH. The first feeding food was L type rotifers Brachionus plicatilis. Larvae began to feed rotifers at 7 DAH. At 11 DAH, larvae were fed nauplii of brine shrimp Artemia salina at densities of 0.5 1.5 ind./mi till 46 DAH. Weaning to commercial diet started at 31 DAH and larvae fed mainly commercial diet after 40 DAH. There is no swim bladder present all through the early life history. The flexion of notochord started at 17 DAH at a total length of 7.32 0.23 mm (n=30), and finished at 33DAH when the total length reached 11.2 0.33 mm (n=30). Meanwhile, metamorphosis began at 33 DAH and completed at 50 DAH with the left eye moved completely to the right side, and the juveniles entered the bottom life stage. At 70 DAH, lateral line formed and the juveniles entered the young stage with the total length up to 25.3 3.23 mm (n=30), with similar appearance as the adults. The dorsal fin, pectoral fin, pelvic fin, caudal fin, and anal fin reached their full numbers at 70DAH. There were 4-5 black spots on the dorsal

  9. DNA Methylation, Behavior and Early Life Adversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moshe Szyf

    2013-01-01

    The impact of early physical and social environments on life-long phenotypes is well known.Moreover,we have documented evidence for gene-enviromnent interactions where identical gene variants are associated with different phenotypes that are dependent on early life adversity.What are the mechanisms that embed these early life experiences in the genome? DNA methylation is an enzymaticallycatalyzed modification of DNA that serves as a mechanism by which similar sequences acquire cell type identity during cellular differentiation and embryogenesis in the same individual.The hypothesis that will be discussed here proposes that the same mechanism confers environmental-exposure specific identity upon DNA providing a mechanism for embedding environmental experiences in the genome,thus affecting long-term phenotypes.Particularly important is the environment early in life including both the prenatal and postnatal social environments.

  10. Longitudinal trajectories of awareness in early-stage dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Linda; Nelis, Sharon M; Martyr, Anthony; Whitaker, Christopher J; Marková, Ivana S; Roth, Ilona; Woods, Robert T; Morris, Robin G

    2012-01-01

    Although it is often assumed that awareness decreases as dementia severity increases, there is limited evidence regarding changes in awareness over time. We examined awareness in 101 individuals with early-stage dementia (PwD) and their carers; 66 were reassessed after 12 months and 51 were seen again at 20 months. Awareness was assessed in relation to memory, everyday activities, and socio-emotional functioning using discrepancies between PwD and carer ratings on parallel questionnaires. PwD completed neuropsychological tests and measures of mood and quality of life. Carers completed measures of mood and stress. At initial assessment, discrepancies were greatest for activities of daily living, moderate for memory, and least pronounced for socio-emotional functioning. Discrepancy scores did not change over time. PwD self-ratings indicated perceived poorer functioning in everyday activities over time, but no change for memory and socio-emotional functioning. Carer ratings indicated perceived decline in everyday activities and socio-emotional functioning, but no change for memory. PwD declined in neuropsychological functioning, but self-ratings of depression, anxiety, and quality of life remained stable over time. Carer mood and stress levels also remained stable. At least in the earlier stages of dementia, it should not be assumed that awareness will inevitably decrease as dementia progresses.

  11. Which is the best environment for the development of the early life stages of fish during the dry season? Qual o melhor ambiente para o desenvolvimento das fases jovens de peixes durante a estação seca?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Henríques Esguícero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The main objective of this study was to investigate the quality of habitats for early life stages of fish in the Jacaré-Guaçu River, during the dry phase; METHODS: For assessing the quality of the habitats for the development of early life stages, the relative condition factor was applied to the juveniles of five species of fishes, captured in four different habitats (reservoir, floodplain lake, main river, and tributary. The juveniles were caught in macrophytes of the littoral zone by a rectangular sieve, in the dry season of 2008 and 2009; RESULTS: The species Astyanax altiparanae thrived similarly in the four habitats, and A. fasciatus, Hyphessobrycon eques, Hoplias malabaricus and Serrapinnus notomelas, showed higher values of relative condition factors in the reservoir and in the lake. Among the species, A. fasciatus showed the highest values of the relative condition factor in these two habitats; CONCLUSIONS: It is likely that the complexity of the macrophytes' stands and the current velocity were the main factors influencing the development of juveniles. It was found that a lower current velocity can propitiated the establishment of a greater richness of macrophytes, which in turn can influence positively the development of fish juveniles. Moreover, a higher current velocity ends in a higher energy demand for swimming.OBJETIVO: O objetivo principal deste estudo foi investigar a qualidade dos habitats para as primeiras fases de vida dos peixes no Rio Jacaré-Guaçu, durante a estação seca; MÉTODOS: Para avaliar a qualidade dos hábitats para o desenvolvimento das primeiras fases, o fator de condição relativo foi aplicado aos juvenis de cinco espécies de peixes, capturados em quatro habitats diferentes (reservatório, lago de planície de inundação, canal principal e tributário. Os juvenis foram coletados em macrófitas litorâneas com uma peneira retangular, na estação seca de 2008 e 2009; RESULTADOS: Somente Astyanax

  12. Buffering and Amplifying Interactions among OAW (Ocean Acidification & Warming) and Nutrient Enrichment on Early Life-Stage Fucus vesiculosus L. (Phaeophyceae) and Their Carry Over Effects to Hypoxia Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Balsam; Kruse, Inken; Graiff, Angelika; Winde, Vera; Lenz, Mark; Wahl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification and warming (OAW) are occurring globally. Additionally, at a more local scale the spreading of hypoxic conditions is promoted by eutrophication and warming. In the semi-enclosed brackish Baltic Sea, occasional upwelling in late summer and autumn may expose even shallow-water communities including the macroalga Fucus vesiculosus to particularly acidified, nutrient-rich and oxygen-poor water bodies. During summer 2014 (July–September) sibling groups of early life-stage F. vesiculosus were exposed to OAW in the presence and absence of enhanced nutrient levels and, subsequently to a single upwelling event in a near-natural scenario which included all environmental fluctuations in the Kiel Fjord, southwestern Baltic Sea, Germany (54°27 ´N, 10°11 ´W). We strove to elucidate the single and combined impacts of these potential stressors, and how stress sensitivity varies among genetically different sibling groups. Enhanced by a circumstantial natural heat wave, warming and acidification increased mortalities and reduced growth in F. vesiculosus germlings. This impact, however, was mitigated by enhanced nutrient conditions. Survival under OAW conditions strongly varied among sibling groups hinting at a substantial adaptive potential of the natural Fucus populations in the Western Baltic. A three-day experimental upwelling caused severe mortality of Fucus germlings, which was substantially more severe in those sibling groups which previously had been exposed to OAW. Our results show that global (OAW), regional (nutrient enrichment) and local pressures (upwelling), both alone and co-occurring may have synergistic and antagonistic effects on survival and/or growth of Fucus germlings. This result emphasizes the need to consider combined stress effects. PMID:27043710

  13. Buffering and Amplifying Interactions among OAW (Ocean Acidification & Warming) and Nutrient Enrichment on Early Life-Stage Fucus vesiculosus L. (Phaeophyceae) and Their Carry Over Effects to Hypoxia Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Balsam; Kruse, Inken; Graiff, Angelika; Winde, Vera; Lenz, Mark; Wahl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification and warming (OAW) are occurring globally. Additionally, at a more local scale the spreading of hypoxic conditions is promoted by eutrophication and warming. In the semi-enclosed brackish Baltic Sea, occasional upwelling in late summer and autumn may expose even shallow-water communities including the macroalga Fucus vesiculosus to particularly acidified, nutrient-rich and oxygen-poor water bodies. During summer 2014 (July-September) sibling groups of early life-stage F. vesiculosus were exposed to OAW in the presence and absence of enhanced nutrient levels and, subsequently to a single upwelling event in a near-natural scenario which included all environmental fluctuations in the Kiel Fjord, southwestern Baltic Sea, Germany (54°27 ´N, 10°11 ´W). We strove to elucidate the single and combined impacts of these potential stressors, and how stress sensitivity varies among genetically different sibling groups. Enhanced by a circumstantial natural heat wave, warming and acidification increased mortalities and reduced growth in F. vesiculosus germlings. This impact, however, was mitigated by enhanced nutrient conditions. Survival under OAW conditions strongly varied among sibling groups hinting at a substantial adaptive potential of the natural Fucus populations in the Western Baltic. A three-day experimental upwelling caused severe mortality of Fucus germlings, which was substantially more severe in those sibling groups which previously had been exposed to OAW. Our results show that global (OAW), regional (nutrient enrichment) and local pressures (upwelling), both alone and co-occurring may have synergistic and antagonistic effects on survival and/or growth of Fucus germlings. This result emphasizes the need to consider combined stress effects.

  14. Buffering and Amplifying Interactions among OAW (Ocean Acidification & Warming and Nutrient Enrichment on Early Life-Stage Fucus vesiculosus L. (Phaeophyceae and Their Carry Over Effects to Hypoxia Impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balsam Al-Janabi

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification and warming (OAW are occurring globally. Additionally, at a more local scale the spreading of hypoxic conditions is promoted by eutrophication and warming. In the semi-enclosed brackish Baltic Sea, occasional upwelling in late summer and autumn may expose even shallow-water communities including the macroalga Fucus vesiculosus to particularly acidified, nutrient-rich and oxygen-poor water bodies. During summer 2014 (July-September sibling groups of early life-stage F. vesiculosus were exposed to OAW in the presence and absence of enhanced nutrient levels and, subsequently to a single upwelling event in a near-natural scenario which included all environmental fluctuations in the Kiel Fjord, southwestern Baltic Sea, Germany (54°27 ´N, 10°11 ´W. We strove to elucidate the single and combined impacts of these potential stressors, and how stress sensitivity varies among genetically different sibling groups. Enhanced by a circumstantial natural heat wave, warming and acidification increased mortalities and reduced growth in F. vesiculosus germlings. This impact, however, was mitigated by enhanced nutrient conditions. Survival under OAW conditions strongly varied among sibling groups hinting at a substantial adaptive potential of the natural Fucus populations in the Western Baltic. A three-day experimental upwelling caused severe mortality of Fucus germlings, which was substantially more severe in those sibling groups which previously had been exposed to OAW. Our results show that global (OAW, regional (nutrient enrichment and local pressures (upwelling, both alone and co-occurring may have synergistic and antagonistic effects on survival and/or growth of Fucus germlings. This result emphasizes the need to consider combined stress effects.

  15. Sensitivity of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) early life stages to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxin and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Buckler, Justin A.; Nicks, Diane; Candrl, James; Claunch, Rachel; Gale, Robert W.; Puglis, Holly J.; Little, Edward E.; Linbo, Tiffany L.; Baker, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The aquatic food web of the Great Lakes has been contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) since the mid-20th century. Threats of PCB exposures to long-lived species of fish, such as lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), have been uncertain because of a lack of information on the relative sensitivity of the species. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity of early–life stage lake sturgeon to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure. Mortality, growth, morphological and tissue pathologies, swimming performance, and activity levels were used as assessment endpoints. Pericardial and yolk sac edema, tubular heart, yolk sac hemorrhaging, and small size were the most commonly observed pathologies in both TCDD and PCB-126 exposures, beginning as early as 4 d postfertilization, with many of these pathologies occurring in a dose-dependent manner. Median lethal doses for PCB-126 and TCDD in lake sturgeon were 5.4 ng/g egg (95% confidence interval, 3.9–7.4 ng/g egg) and 0.61 ng/g egg (0.47–0.82 ng/g egg), respectively. The resulting relative potency factor for PCB-126 (0.11) was greater than the World Health Organization estimate for fish (toxic equivalency factor = 0.005), suggesting that current risk assessments may underestimate PCB toxicity toward lake sturgeon. Swimming activity and endurance were reduced in lake sturgeon survivors from the median lethal doses at 60 d postfertilization. Threshold and median toxicity values indicate that lake sturgeon, like other Acipenser species, are more sensitive to PCB and TCDD than the other genus of sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus, found in North America. Indeed, lake sturgeon populations in the Great Lakes and elsewhere are susceptible to PCB/TCDD-induced developmental toxicity in embryos and reductions in swimming performance.

  16. The surgical management of early-stage cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicrú, Sabina R; de la Torre, Javier F V; Gil-Moreno, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    The main objective is to update the literature data in the last year which may support a surgical approach to early cervical cancer [ECC; Stage International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) IA-IB1-IIA1]. Radical hysterectomy remains the gold standard by most international guidelines because surgical treatment has hardly changed in recent decades, except for stage IA1. Trends in clinical research in the past 12-18 months involve minimal invasive surgery (with laparoscopic surgery or robotic-assisted surgery), fertility preservation (in the initial stages and in the absence of bad prognostic factors), nerve-sparing and sentinel node techniques. Some institutions have published studies in specific groups such as older, obese or pregnant women. There is a growing trend to practice less aggressive surgery in order to preserve fertility in young women and avoid an excess of treatment in some selected patients. Therefore, nerve-sparing techniques can help to improve the quality of life. More studies are needed to demonstrate oncologic results of the sentinel node technique. Laparoscopic and robotic-assisted surgery can substitute open surgical treatment.

  17. Pancreatic Perfusion CT in Early Stage of Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Tsuji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Early intensive care for severe acute pancreatitis is essential for improving SAP mortality rates. However, intensive therapies for SAP are often delayed because there is no ideal way to accurately evaluate severity in the early stages. Currently, perfusion CT has been shown useful to predict prognosis of SAP in the early stage. In this presented paper, we would like to review the clinical usefulness and limitations of perfusion CT for evaluation of local and systemic complications in early stage of SAP.

  18. Life stage, not climate change, explains observed tree range shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máliš, František; Kopecký, Martin; Petřík, Petr; Vladovič, Jozef; Merganič, Ján; Vida, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    Ongoing climate change is expected to shift tree species distribution and therefore affect forest biodiversity and ecosystem services. To assess and project tree distributional shifts, researchers may compare the distribution of juvenile and adult trees under the assumption that differences between tree life stages reflect distributional shifts triggered by climate change. However, the distribution of tree life stages could differ within the lifespan of trees, therefore, we hypothesize that currently observed distributional differences could represent shifts over ontogeny as opposed to climatically driven changes. Here, we test this hypothesis with data from 1435 plots resurveyed after more than three decades across the Western Carpathians. We compared seedling, sapling and adult distribution of 12 tree species along elevation, temperature and precipitation gradients. We analyzed (i) temporal shifts between the surveys and (ii) distributional differences between tree life stages within both surveys. Despite climate warming, tree species distribution of any life stage did not shift directionally upward along elevation between the surveys. Temporal elevational shifts were species specific and an order of magnitude lower than differences among tree life stages within the surveys. Our results show that the observed range shifts among tree life stages are more consistent with ontogenetic differences in the species' environmental requirements than with responses to recent climate change. The distribution of seedlings substantially differed from saplings and adults, while the distribution of saplings did not differ from adults, indicating a critical transition between seedling and sapling tree life stages. Future research has to take ontogenetic differences among life stages into account as we found that distributional differences recently observed worldwide may not reflect climate change but rather the different environmental requirements of tree life stages.

  19. Air Pollution Mixtures: Health Effects across Life Stages

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The main objectives of the proposed Center are: 1) to investigate the acute and chronic health effects across life stages of six exposure metrics (short- and long-...

  20. Shaping adult phenotypes through early life environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ian C G

    2009-12-01

    A major question in the biology of stress and environmental adaptation concerns the neurobiological basis of how neuroendocrine systems governing physiological regulatory mechanisms essential for life (metabolism, immune response, organ function) become harmful. The current view is that a switch from protection to damage occurs when vulnerable phenotypes are exposed to adverse environmental conditions. In accordance with this theory, sequelae of early life social and environmental stressors, such as childhood abuse, neglect, poverty, and poor nutrition, have been associated with the emergence of mental and physical illness (i.e., anxiety, mood disorders, poor impulse control, psychosis, and drug abuse) and an increased risk of common metabolic and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Evidence from animal and human studies investigating the associations between early life experiences (including parent-infant bonding), hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, brain development, and health outcome provide important clues into the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the contribution of stressful experiences to personality development and the manifestation of illness. This review summarizes our current molecular understanding of how early environment influences brain development in a manner that persists through life and highlights recent evidence from rodent studies suggesting that maternal care in the first week of postnatal life establishes diverse and stable phenotypes in the offspring through epigenetic modification of genes expressed in the brain that shape neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responsivity throughout life.

  1. Early life obesity and chronic kidney disease in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hyung Eun; Yoo, Kee Hwan

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased considerably with a parallel rise in the prevalence of obesity. It is now recognized that early life nutrition has life-long effects on the susceptibility of an individual to develop obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and CKD. The kidney can be programmed by a number of intrauterine and neonatal insults. Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the most identifiable markers of a suboptimal prenatal environment, and the important intrarenal factors sensitive to programming events include decreased nephron number and altered control of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). LBW complicated by accelerated catch-up growth is associated with an increased risk of obesity, hypertension and CKD in later life. High birth weight and exposure to maternal diabetes or obesity can enhance the risk for developing CKD in later life. Rapid postnatal growth per se may also contribute to the subsequent development of obesity and CKD regardless of birth weight and prenatal nutrition. Although the mechanisms of renal risks due to early life nutritional programming remain largely unknown, experimental and clinical studies suggest the burdening role of early life obesity in longstanding cardiovascular and renal diseases.

  2. Blackboard Architecture Programming for Product Life Cycle Stage Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Plinere, D

    2008-01-01

    The product life cycle concept suggests that a product passes through four stages of evolution: introduction, growth, maturity and decline. As the product evolves and passes through these four stages, profit is affected, and different strategies have to be employed to ensure that the product is a success within its market, therefore there is a need to define in time in which of the stages the product is at the moment. The blackboard architecture can be successfully used for the de...

  3. Perception of affective prosody in patients at an early stage of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Markus; Herold, Michele; Uekermann, Jennifer; Kis, Bernhard; Daum, Irene; Wiltfang, Jens; Berlit, Peter; Diehl, Rolf R; Abdel-Hamid, Mona

    2013-03-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is well known in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) and has been described for many years. Cognitive impairment, memory, and attention deficits seem to be features of advanced MS stages, whereas depression and emotional instability already occur in early stages of the disease. However, little is known about processing of affective prosody in patients in early stages of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). In this study, tests assessing attention, memory, and processing of affective prosody were administered to 25 adult patients with a diagnosis of RRMS at an early stage and to 25 healthy controls (HC). Early stages of the disease were defined as being diagnosed with RRMS in the last 2 years and having an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of 2 or lower. Patients and HC were comparable in intelligence quotient (IQ), educational level, age, handedness, and gender. Patients with early stages of RRMS performed below the control group with respect to the subtests 'discrimination of affective prosody' and 'matching of affective prosody to facial expression' for the emotion 'angry' of the 'Tübingen Affect Battery'. These deficits were not related to executive performance. Our findings suggest that emotional prosody comprehension is deficient in young patients with early stages of RRMS. Deficits in discriminating affective prosody early in the disease may make misunderstandings and poor communication more likely. This might negatively influence interpersonal relationships and quality of life in patients with RRMS.

  4. Cognitive Stimulation for Apathy in Probable Early-Stage Alzheimer's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L. Buettner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied changes in apathy among 77 community-dwelling older persons with mild memory loss in a randomized clinical trial comparing two nonpharmacological interventions over four weeks. The study used a pre-post design with randomization by site to avoid contamination and diffusion of effect. Interventions were offered twice weekly after baseline evaluations were completed. The treatment group received classroom style mentally stimulating activities (MSAs while the control group received a structured early-stage social support (SS group. The results showed that the MSA group had significantly lower levels of apathy (P<.001 and significantly lower symptoms of depression (P<.001. While both groups improved on quality of life, the MSA group was significantly better (P=.02 than the SS group. Executive function was not significantly different for the two groups at four weeks, but general cognition improved for the MSA group and declined slightly for the SS group which produced a significant posttest difference (P<.001. Recruitment and retention of SS group members was difficult in this project, especially in senior center locations, while this was not the case for the MSA group. The examination of the data at this four-week time point shows promising results that the MSA intervention may provide a much needed method of reducing apathy and depressive symptoms, while motivating participation and increasing quality of life.

  5. Diagnosis and minimally invasive treatment of early stage breast carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esser, S.

    1979-01-01

    In this thesis the diagnostic work up and minimally invasive surgical treatment of early stage breast carcinoma is studied. Although the surgical treatment of breast carcinoma has improved significantly over the past decades, there is still room for improvement. On the one hand the focus is on early

  6. Habitat Fragmentation Drives Plant Community Assembly Processes across Life Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang; Feeley, Kenneth J; Yu, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the principal causes of biodiversity loss and hence understanding its impacts on community assembly and disassembly is an important topic in ecology. We studied the relationships between fragmentation and community assembly processes in the land-bridge island system of Thousand Island Lake in East China. We focused on the changes in species diversity and phylogenetic diversity that occurred between life stages of woody plants growing on these islands. The observed diversities were compared with the expected diversities from random null models to characterize assembly processes. Regression tree analysis was used to illustrate the relationships between island attributes and community assembly processes. We found that different assembly processes predominate in the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition (SS) vs. the saplings-to-trees transition (ST). Island area was the main attribute driving the assembly process in SS. In ST, island isolation was more important. Within a fragmented landscape, the factors driving community assembly processes were found to differ between life stage transitions. Environmental filtering had a strong effect on the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition. Habitat isolation and dispersal limitation influenced all plant life stages, but had a weaker effect on communities than area. These findings add to our understanding of the processes driving community assembly and species coexistence in the context of pervasive and widespread habitat loss and fragmentation.

  7. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective. For some time, the national lab’s Nanotechno

  8. The developing hypopharyngeal microbiota in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand the establi......BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand...... the establishment of the airway microbiota within the first 3 months of life. We investigated the hypopharyngeal microbiota in the unselected COPSAC2010 cohort of 700 infants, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of hypopharyngeal aspirates from 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age. RESULTS: Our analysis shows...

  9. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Emma E.; Essington, Timothy E.; Kaplan, Isaac C.

    2016-01-01

    Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1) the maximum stage vulnerability and (2) a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill–Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod–Limacina helicina, pink shrimp–Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab–Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake–Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species’ vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate. PMID:27416031

  10. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma E Hodgson

    Full Text Available Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1 the maximum stage vulnerability and (2 a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill-Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod-Limacina helicina, pink shrimp-Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab-Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake-Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species' vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate.

  11. Development of Life on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable

  12. Sexual functioning and vaginal changes after radical vaginal trachelectomy in early stage cervical cancer patients: a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froeding, LP; Ottesen, C; Rung-Hansen, H

    2014-01-01

    Radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT) offers low complication rate, good survival, and possibility for future childbearing for young women with early stage cervical cancer. However, the literature on quality of life (QOL) and sexual functioning in patients undergoing RVT is scarce.......Radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT) offers low complication rate, good survival, and possibility for future childbearing for young women with early stage cervical cancer. However, the literature on quality of life (QOL) and sexual functioning in patients undergoing RVT is scarce....

  13. Effect of Early Intervention Applied to Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease at Different Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Lei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Early intervention in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD includes health education, smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and enhancing immunity (administration of influenza vaccine and polysaccharide nucleic acid fraction of bacillus Calmette-Guerin [BCG-PSN]. The effect of early intervention was investigated systematically in patients with COPD at different stages. Methods: We enrolled 422 patients with COPD at different stages without symptoms and then randomly assigned them to intervention and control groups. The intervention group was provided with early intervention and usual care while the control group was only provided with usual care. One year of follow-up was performed to observe forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC, and the ratio of patients with acute exacerbation (number of patients with acute exacerbation/total of patients. Results: The values of decline in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC were significantly lower in the intervention groups of stage I and II than control groups (all p 0.05. The ratios of patients with acute exacerbation were lower in the intervention groups of all the stages than the control groups (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Early intervention could slow the decline of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC in patients with COPD in stages I and II, but not in stages III and IV. Early intervention could also prevent patients with COPD from getting acute exacerbation and improve their quality of life in all the stages of the disease.

  14. Corticotropin-releasing hormone: Mediator of vertebrate life stage transitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yugo; Grommen, Sylvia V H; De Groef, Bert

    2016-03-01

    Hormones, particularly thyroid hormones and corticosteroids, play critical roles in vertebrate life stage transitions such as amphibian metamorphosis, hatching in precocial birds, and smoltification in salmonids. Since they synergistically regulate several metabolic and developmental processes that accompany vertebrate life stage transitions, the existence of extensive cross-communication between the adrenal/interrenal and thyroidal axes is not surprising. Synergies of corticosteroids and thyroid hormones are based on effects at the level of tissue hormone sensitivity and gene regulation. In addition, in representative nonmammalian vertebrates, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulates hypophyseal thyrotropin secretion, and thus functions as a common regulator of both the adrenal/interrenal and thyroidal axes to release corticosteroids and thyroid hormones. The dual function of CRH has been speculated to control or affect the timing of vertebrate life history transitions across taxa. After a brief overview of recent insights in the molecular mechanisms behind the synergic actions of thyroid hormones and corticosteroids during life stage transitions, this review examines the evidence for a possible role of CRH in controlling vertebrate life stage transitions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Silicon: The key element in early stages of biocalcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsko, Nadejda B; Znidaršič, Nada; Letofsky-Papst, Ilse; Dittrich, Maria; Grogger, Werner; Strus, Jasna; Hofer, Ferdinand

    2011-04-01

    Biocalcification is a widespread process of forming hard tissues like bone and teeth in vertebrates. It is also a topic connecting life sciences and earth sciences: calcified skeletons and shells deposited as sediments represent the earth's fossil record and are of paramount interest for biogeochemists trying to get an insight into the past of our planet. This study reports on the role of silicon in the early biocalcification steps, where silicon and calcium were detected on the surface of cyanobacteria (initial stage of lacustrine calcite precipitation) and in crustacean cuticles. By using innovative methodological approaches of correlative microscopy (AFM in combination with analytical TEM: EFTEM, EELS) the chemical form of silicon in biocalcifying matrices and organic-inorganic particles is determined. Previously, silicon was reported to be localized in active growth areas in the young bone of vertebrates. We have found evidence that biocalcification in evolutionarily distant organisms involves very similar initial phases with silicon as a key element at the organic-inorganic interface.

  16. Functioning in early and late stages of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gazzi Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is frequently associated with a debilitating course and prominent impairment in social and occupational functioning. Although the criteria for classification into stages have not been defined in the literature, illness duration and functioning seem to be good candidates.OBJECTIVE:To compare functioning of patients with schizophrenia at different stages of the disease (early vs. late and healthy sex- and age-matched controls.METHODS: This double-blinded, case-controlled study included 79 individuals: 23 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed up to 5 years earlier; 19 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed at least 20 years earlier; and healthy matched controls. Diagnoses were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV Axis I Disorder. Functioning was assessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST.RESULTS: Patients in the early stage had significantly higher scores than healthy controls in total FAST and in autonomy, occupational functioning, cognitive functioning and interpersonal relationships. Individuals in the late stage had significantly poorer functioning than controls in all domains. The comparison of functioning between the two groups of patients revealed no significant differences, except in occupational functioning, in which late stage patients had a poorer performance.CONCLUSION: Functioning impairment in schizophrenia tends to remain stable despite illness duration. Therefore, functioning should be effectively assessed at an early stage, as illness duration alone may not be the most reliable criterion to stage patients with schizophrenia.

  17. Early Life Adversity, Genomic Plasticity, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecki, Gustavo; Ota, Vanessa Kiyomi; Belangero, Sintia Iole; Jackowski, Andrea; Kaufman, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Child maltreatment is associated with increased risk for psychiatric disorders, and a range of health problems later in life. The aim of this paper is to review emerging data on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the etiology of stress-related psychiatric disorders with a focus on future avenues of investigation. Epigenetic processes are described, key findings in the field presented, clinical implications of the research discussed, methodological issues, and future avenues of research considered. Research suggests that adverse early experiences can lead to changes in gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms that can alter stress reactivity, brain function, and behavior. While these changes are frequently long lasting, they can be reversed through pharmacological and environmental manipulations. The complexity of the epigenome is not fully understood. Future studies should investigate epigenetic marks other than methylcytosine, and assess the efficacy of interventions to reverse epigenetic processes associated with early-life adversity. PMID:26361201

  18. Evolution of Life Cycles in Early Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Rainer R.

    2009-05-01

    Many modern amphibians have biphasic life cycles with aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults. The central questions are how and when this complicated ontogeny was established, and what is known about the lives of amphibians in the Paleozoic. Fossil evidence has accumulated that sheds light on the life histories of early amphibians, the origin of metamorphosis, and the transition to a fully terrestrial existence. The majority of early amphibians were aquatic or amphibious and underwent only gradual ontogenetic changes. Developmental plasticity played a major role in some taxa but was restricted to minor modification of ontogeny. In the Permo-Carboniferous dissorophoids, a condensation of crucial ontogenetic steps into a short phase (metamorphosis) is observed. It is likely that the origin of both metamorphosis and neoteny falls within these taxa. Fossil evidence also reveals the sequence of evolutionary changes: apparently, the ontogenetic change in feeding, not the transition to a terrestrial existence per se, made a drastic metamorphosis necessary.

  19. Predicting later life health status and mortality using state-level socioeconomic characteristics in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H; Kuan, Kai Y; Cullen, Mark R

    2016-12-01

    Studies extending across multiple life stages promote an understanding of factors influencing health across the life span. Existing work has largely focused on individual-level rather than area-level early life determinants of health. In this study, we linked multiple data sets to examine whether early life state-level characteristics were predictive of health and mortality decades later. The sample included 143,755 U.S. employees, for whom work life claims and administrative data were linked with early life state-of-residence and mortality. We first created a "state health risk score" (SHRS) and "state mortality risk score" (SMRS) by modeling state-level contextual characteristics with health status and mortality in a randomly selected 30% of the sample (the "training set"). We then examined the association of these scores with objective health status and mortality in later life in the remaining 70% of the sample (the "test set") using multivariate linear and Cox regressions, respectively. The association between the SHRS and adult health status was β=0.14 (95%CI: 0.084, 0.20), while the hazard ratio for the SMRS was 0.96 (95%CI: 0.93, 1.00). The association between the SHRS and health was not statistically significant in older age groups at a p-level of 0.05, and there was a statistically significantly different association for health status among movers compared to stayers. This study uses a life course perspective and supports the idea of "sensitive periods" in early life that have enduring impacts on health. It adds to the literature examining populations in the U.S. where large linked data sets are infrequently available.

  20. Early Life Environments and Long Term Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bolbocean, Corneliu

    2015-01-01

    A large literature has linked “in utero” environment to health and socio-economic outcomes in adulthood. We consider the effect of early life environments on health and skill formation outcomes. We first evaluate the impact of perinatal-neonatal level of technology at birth, which varies across delivery institutions, on the long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with Cerebral Palsy. The level of technology at delivery determines the type of therapy newborns receive immediately afte...

  1. [Theories of stages of life within the anthropology of romanticism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Pia-Johanna; Schweizer, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    The essay discusses the importance and prominence of theories about different stages of life in the anthropological and medical discourse of romanticism. This discourse has clearly a stabilising and restaurative function, favouring the age of moderate manhood. The political and social regulative implications of these theories demand a restaurative roll-back. The essay is based on a concept of sociology of knowledge formation.

  2. Early Stage Software Reliability Estimation with Stochastic Reward Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing; LIU Hong-wei; CUI Gang; YANG Xiao-zong

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents software reliability modeling issues at the early stage of a software development for fault tolerant software management system. Based on Stochastic Reward Nets, an effective model of hierarchical view for a fault tolerant software management system is put forward, and an approach that consists of system transient performance analysis is adopted. A quantitative approach for software reliability analysis is given. The results show its usefulness for the design and evaluation of the early-stage software reliability modeling when failure data is not available.

  3. Efficiency of teaching patients with early-stage rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Vladislavovna Orlova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Education programs are an important part of the management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Objective: to develop a unified model of an education program for RA patients and to evaluate its efficiency at the early stage of the disease.Material and methods. A group education program was worked out with the support of the All-Russian public organization of the disabled “The Russian rheumatology organization “Nadezhda” (Hope” and encompassed 4 daily classes lasting 90 min. All information was presented by a multidisciplinary team of specialists (rheumatologists, a cardiologist, a psychologist, a physiotherapist, and a physical trainer. The study included 55 patients with early RA (89.1% of women aged 18 to 62 years; the duration of the disease was 2 to 22 months; of them 25 were taught using the education program (a study group; 30 received drug therapy only (a control group. Following 3 and 6 months, the number of tender and swollen joints, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP, and pain were determined applying a 100-ml VAS, DAS28, HAQ, and RAPID3. Adherence to non-drug treatments was assessed employing a special patient questionnaire.Results. Three and six months after being taught, two patient groups showed increases in adherence to joint protection methods by 13 and 10 times (p<0.01, regular physical training by 4 and 3.25 times (p<0.01, uses of orthoses for the wrist joint by 2 times and 75% (p<0.01 and knee orthoses by 33.3 and 50.0% (p<0.01, and orthopedic insoles by 71.4 and 57.1% (p<0.01, respectively. Following 6 months, there were statistically significant differences between the two groups in most parameters (p<0.05, except for ESR, CRP, and DAS28 (p>0.05. Further more, a good response to treatment was significantly more common in these periods, as shown by the EULAR response criteria (DAS28: 56.3% versus 40% in the control group (p<0.05.Conclusion. The education program decreases the intensity

  4. Early Life Nutrition, Epigenetics and Programming of Later Life Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark H. Vickers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how

  5. Early life nutrition, epigenetics and programming of later life disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Mark H

    2014-06-02

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be

  6. Spatial patterns and interspecific associations of three canopy species at different life stages in a subtropical forest, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Wei, Shi-Guang; Huang, Zhong-Liang; Ye, Wan-Hui; Cao, Hong-Lin

    2008-09-01

    Spatial patterns of species at different life stages are an important aspect for understanding causal mechanisms that facilitate species co-existence. Using Ripley's univariate L(t) and bivariate L(12)(t) functions, we analyzed the spatial patterns and interspecific associations of three canopy species at different life history stages in a 20-ha subtropical forest plot in Dinghushan Nature Reserve. Based on diameter at breast height (DBH), four life stages were distinguished. Castanopsis chinensis and Schima superba showed a unimodal DBH distribution. Engelhardtia roxburghiana showed a bimodal curve. L(t) function analysis showed significantly aggregated distributions of all three species at later life stages and random distribution at early life stages at some scales. From the analysis of L(12)(t) function, the results showed the positive association was a dominant pattern for most species pairs at most scales but the intensity of association decreases with the increase of life stages. Juveniles of the three species had no negative intra- and interspecific associations with the older life stages. Only premature trees were suppressed by overmature trees at some scales. Considering these results, we found three canopy-dominant species that lacked regeneration. There was no direct competition occurring between understorey individuals. Young trees can grow well under conspecific species with two other species. Longevity and lack of regeneration led to a large number of trees stored in mature and overmature stages, therefore, intra- and inter-competition can be strong at later life stages.

  7. Radiation therapy planning for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Dabaja, Bouthaina S; Filippi, Andrea R

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements...

  8. Radiation Plus Chemotherapy in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adding radiation therapy to chemotherapy may improve outcomes in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, according to a paper published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in February 2011, but the long-term effects of this regimen are not

  9. [Surgical treatment of breast neoplasms in early stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshuk, Ie V; Drozdov, V M; Neĭman, A M; Zotov, O S; Zakhartseva, L M; Anikus'ko, M F; Zaĭchuk, V V; Sydorchuk, O I

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of literary data and own investigation results for the modern surgical methods of treatment of mammary gland cancer in early stages was performed. Indexes of patients survival after surgical removal of mammary gland (MG) and quadranthectomy did not differ. Preservation of MG constitutes great social and psycho-emotional significance for women-patients.

  10. Experimental and observational studies of seasonal interactions between overlapping life history stages in a migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonra, Christopher M; Marra, Peter P; Holberton, Rebecca L

    2013-11-01

    Prior to reproduction, migratory animals are at the juxtaposition of three life history stages in which they must finish the non-breeding stage, initiate and complete migration, and prepare for the onset of breeding. However, how these stages interact with one another is not fully understood. We provide evidence that, for migratory birds that begin breeding development prior to departure from non-breeding sites, the level of breeding preparation can drive migration phenology, a critical behavioral determinant of reproductive success. Specifically, male American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) plasma androgen levels, which increase in males during the period leading into migration, were positively correlated with energetic condition. We empirically tested the hypothesis that elevated androgen simultaneously supports migratory and breeding preparation in a hormone manipulation field experiment. Males with testosterone implants showed advanced preparation for migration and breeding, and ultimately departed on migration earlier than controls. It is assumed that early departure leads to early arrival at breeding areas, which increases breeding success. Collectively, our observational and experimental results demonstrate how overlapping life history stages can interact to influence important components of an individual's fitness. This highlights the critical need for understanding population processes across the full life cycle of an organism to better understand the ecological and evolutionary origins of complex life history events.

  11. Podocyte number and density changes during early human life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masao; Wickman, Larysa; Rabah, Raja; Wiggins, Roger C

    2017-05-01

    Podocyte depletion, which drives progressive glomerulosclerosis in glomerular diseases, is caused by a reduction in podocyte number, size or function in the context of increasing glomerular volume. Kidneys obtained at autopsy from premature and mature infants who died in the first year of life (n = 24) were used to measure podometric parameters for comparison with previously reported data from older kidneys. Glomerular volume increased 4.6-fold from 0.13 ± 0.07 μm(3) x10(6) in the pre-capillary loop stage, through 0.35 μm(3) x10(6) at the capillary loop, to 0.60 μm(3) x10(6) at the mature glomerular stage. Podocyte number per glomerulus increased from 326 ± 154 per glomerulus at the pre-capillary loop stage to 584 ± 131 per glomerulus at the capillary loop stage of glomerular development to reach a value of 589 ± 166 per glomerulus in mature glomeruli. Thus, the major podocyte number increase occurs in the early stages of glomerular development, in contradistinction to glomerular volume increase, which continues after birth in association with body growth. As glomeruli continue to enlarge, podocyte density (number per volume) rapidly decreases, requiring a parallel rapid increase in podocyte size that allows podocyte foot processes to maintain complete coverage of the filtration surface area. Hypertrophic stresses on the glomerulus and podocyte during development and early rapid growth periods of life are therefore likely to play significant roles in determining how and when defects in podocyte structure and function due to genetic variants become clinically manifest. Therapeutic strategies aimed at minimizing mismatch between these factors may prove clinically useful.

  12. Management of Early-stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Practice Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herst, J; Crump, M; Baldassarre, F G; MacEachern, J; Sussman, J; Hodgson, D; Cheung, M C

    2017-01-01

    In the past, treatment for patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma consisted mainly of radiotherapy. Now, chemotherapy alone and chemoradiotherapy are treatment options. These guidelines aim to provide recommendations on the optimal management of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma. We conducted a systematic review searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and other literature sources from 2003 to 2015, and applied the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Two authors independently reviewed and selected studies, and appraised the evidence quality. The document underwent internal and external review by content, methodology experts, a patient representative and clinicians in Ontario. We have issued recommendations for patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma and with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma; with favourable and unfavourable prognosis; and for the use of positron emission tomography to direct treatment. We have provided our interpretation of the evidence and considerations for implementation. Examples of recommendations are: 'Patients with early-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma should not be treated with radiotherapy alone'; 'chemotherapy plus radiotherapy or chemotherapy alone are recommended treatment options for patients with early-stage non-bulky Hodgkin lymphoma'; 'The Working Group does not recommend the use of a negative interim positron emission tomography scan alone to identify patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma for whom radiotherapy can be omitted without a reduction in progression-free survival'. Through the use of GRADE, recommendations were geared towards patient important outcomes and their strength reflected the available evidence and its interpretation from the patients' point of view. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Progam; Thyroid-Induced Chemical Imprinting in Early Life Stages and Assessment of Smoltification in Kokanee Salmon Implications for Operating Lake Roosevelt Kokanee Salmon Hatcheries; 1993 Supplement Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilson, Mary Beth; Galloway, Heather; Scholz, Allan T. (Eastern Washington University, Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Research Center, Cheney, WA)

    1994-06-01

    In 1991, two hatcheries were built to provide a kokanee salmon and rainbow trout fishery for Lake Roosevelt as partial mitigation for the loss of anadromous salmon and steelhead caused by construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The Sherman Creek Hatchery, located on a tributary of Lake Roosevelt to provide an egg collection and imprinting site, is small with limited rearing capability. The second hatchery was located on the Spokane Indian Reservation because of a spring water source that supplied cold, pure water for incubating and rearing eggs.`The Spokane Tribal Hatchery thus serves as the production facility. Fish reared there are released into Sherman Creek and other tributary streams as 7-9 month old fry. However, to date, returns of adult fish to release sites has been poor. If hatchery reared kokanee imprint to the hatchery water at egg or swim up stages before 3 months of age, they may not be imprinting as 7-9 month old fry at the time of stocking. In addition, if these fish undergo a smolt phase in the reservoir when they are 1.5 years old, they could migrate below Grand Coulee Dam and out of the Lake Roosevelt system. In the present investigation, which is part of the Lake Roosevelt monitoring program to assess hatchery effectiveness, kokanee salmon were tested to determine if they experienced thyroxine-induced chemical imprinting and smoltification similar to anadromous salmonids. Determination of the critical period for olfactory imprinting was determined by exposing kokanee to different synthetic chemicals (morpholine or phenethyl alcohol) at different life stages, and then measuring the ability to discriminate the chemicals as sexually mature adults. Whole body thyroxine content and blood plasma thyroxine concentration was measured to determine if peak thyroid activity coincided with imprinting or other morphological, physiological or behavioral transitions associated with smoltification.

  14. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-01-01

    of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. METHODS: The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification......PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective...

  15. Early Palliative Care Improves Patients' Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_160885.html Early Palliative Care Improves Patients' Quality of Life Also increases chances of having end-of-life ... incurable cancer helps patients cope and improves their quality of life, a new study shows. It also leads to ...

  16. Planning Social Expenses by Product Life Cycle Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmyla Shvets

    2013-01-01

    Social spending is among the components of the total cost of every unit produced. Their planning and valuation is appropriate for the purpose of reaching the maximum social effect against the minimum costs of the business resources. For estimation of social costs as well as for defining their internal structure, the Article suggests keeping records and planning social costs by the product life cycle stages. According to the author, the proposed method of cost planning will make it possible to...

  17. Musculoskeletal pain and the reproductive life stage in women: is there a relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frange, C; Hirotsu, C; Hachul, H; Pires, J S; Bittencourt, L; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between reproductive life stage, pain perception and musculoskeletal pain complaint in a representative sample of women from São Paulo, Brazil. Methods A population-based survey was carried out with 574 women who were classified as being in the premenopausal or postmenopausal stage. They answered questions about pain perception and musculoskeletal pain. Follicle stimulating hormone was collected to confirm menopausal condition along with clinical evaluation. Results In the whole sample, we found a prevalence of 56% for pain perception and 20.2% for complaints of musculoskeletal pain. Regarding the topography of musculoskeletal pain, the distributions were similar among the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. No significant association was found between reproductive life stage and pain perception, as 58.1% of the premenopausal group and 52.0% of the postmenopausal group reported pain. Similarly, there was no significant association between menopausal stage and musculoskeletal pain, as 19.5% and 21.6% of the premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively, complained of musculoskeletal pain. There was no significant association of postmenopausal stage (early or late) with pain perception or musculoskeletal pain. The use of analgesics was significantly higher in postmenopausal compared to premenopausal women (p musculoskeletal pain nor pain perception were associated with the reproductive life stage, showing that both parameters was independent from the menopausal status in the studied women.

  18. CT perfusion at early stage of hepatic diffuse disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Guan; Wei-Dong Zhao; Kang-Rong Zhou; Wei-Jun Peng; Jian Mao; Feng Tang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the validity of the non-invasive method of CT perfusion (CTP) in rat model of hepatic diffuse disease. METHODS: Twenty-eight Wistar rats were divided into two groups. Liver diffuse lesions were induced by dietthylnitrosamine in 14 rats of test group. Rats in control groupwere bred with pure water. From the 1st to 12th wk after the test group was intervened, both groups were studied every week with CTP. CTP parameters of liver parenchymain different periods and pathologic changes in two groups were compared and analyzed.RESULTS: The process of hepatic diffuse lesions in test groups was dassified into three stages or periods according to the pathologic alterations, namely hepattitis, hepatic fibrosis, and cirrhosis. During this period, hepatic artery flow (HAF)of control group declined slightly, mean transit time (MTT),blood flow (BF) and volume (BV) increased, but there wereno significant differences between different periods. Tntest group, HAF tended to increase gradually, MTT prolonged obviously, BV and BF decreased at the same time. The results of statistical analysis revealed that the difference in the HAF ratio of test group to control group was significant.The ratio of BV and BF in test group to control group in stageof hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis, hepatic fibrosis and early stage of hepatic cirrhosis was significantly different, but there was no significant difference between hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis. The main pathological changes in stage of hepatitis were swelling of hepatic cells, while sinusoid capillarization and deposition of collagen aggravated gradually in the extravascular Disse's spaces in stage of fibrosis and early stage of cirrhosis.CONCLUSION: The technique could reflect some early changes of hepatic blood perfusion in rat with liver diffuse disease and is valuable for their early diagnosis.

  19. The early Earth atmosphere and early life catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Jiménez, Sandra Ignacia

    2014-01-01

    Homochirality is a property of living systems on Earth. The time, the place, and the way in which it appeared are uncertain. In a prebiotic scenario two situations are of interest: either an initial small bias for handedness of some biomolecules arouse and progressed with life, or an initial slight excess led to the actual complete dominance of the known chiral molecules. A definitive answer can probably never be given, neither from the fields of physics and chemistry nor biology. Some arguments can be advanced to understand if homochirality is necessary for the initiation of a prebiotic homochiral polymer chemistry, if this homochirality is suggesting a unique origin of life, or if a chiral template such as a mineral surface is always required to result in an enantiomeric excess. A general description of the early Earth scenario will be presented in this chapter, followed by a general description of some clays, and their role as substrates to allow the concentration and amplification of some of the building blocks of life.

  20. The developing hypopharyngeal microbiota in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Balle, Christina; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Stokholm, Jakob; Thorsen, Jonathan; Waage, Johannes; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Bisgaard, Hans; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2016-12-30

    The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand the establishment of the airway microbiota within the first 3 months of life. We investigated the hypopharyngeal microbiota in the unselected COPSAC2010 cohort of 700 infants, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of hypopharyngeal aspirates from 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age. Our analysis shows that majority of the hypopharyngeal microbiota of healthy infants belong to each individual's core microbiota and we demonstrate five distinct community pneumotypes. Four of these pneumotypes are dominated by the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Corynebacterium, respectively. Furthermore, we show temporal pneumotype changes suggesting a rapid development towards maturation of the hypopharyngeal microbiota and a significant effect from older siblings. Despite an overall common trajectory towards maturation, individual infants' microbiota are more similar to their own, than to others, over time. Our findings demonstrate a consolidation of the population of indigenous bacteria in healthy airways and indicate distinct trajectories in the early development of the hypopharyngeal microbiota.

  1. Coping with a changing environment: The effects of early life stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A.; Madaro, Angelico; Fraser, Thomas W.K.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing rapid domestication of Atlantic salmon implies that individuals are subjected to evolutionarily novel stressors encountered under conditions of artificial rearing, requiring new levels and directions of flexibility in physiological and behavioural coping mechanisms. Phenotypic plasticity...... to environmental changes is particularly evident at early life stages. We investigated the performance of salmon, previously subjected to an unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) treatment at an early age (10 month old parr), over several months and life stages. The UCS fish showed overall higher specific growth...... farming environments may be beneficial, because in such situations individuals may be able to reallocate energy from stress responses into other life processes, such as growth....

  2. DNA barcoding identifies all immature life stages of a forensically important flesh fly (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiklejohn, Kelly A; Wallman, James F; Dowton, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Carrion-breeding insects, such as flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), can be used as evidence in forensic investigations. Despite their considerable forensic potential, their use has been limited because morphological species identification, at any life stage, is very challenging. This study investigated whether DNA could be extracted and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) barcode sequences obtained for molecular identification of each immature life stage of the forensically important Australian flesh fly, Sarcophaga (Sarcorohdendorfia) impatiens (Walker). Genomic DNA extracts were prepared from all larval instars and puparia. Amplification of the barcoding region was successful from all extracts, but puparia amplicons were weak. All sequences were identified as S. impatiens with 99.95% confidence using the Barcoding of Life Database (BOLD). Importantly, crop removal was necessary to eliminate PCR inhibition for specimens from late second and early third instars. Similar results are expected for immatures of other carrion-breeding species, enhancing the use of evidence from immature flies in forensic investigations.

  3. Integrating life stages into ecological niche models: a case study on tiger beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Taboada

    Full Text Available Detailed understanding of a species' natural history and environmental needs across spatial scales is a primary requisite for effective conservation planning, particularly for species with complex life cycles in which different life stages occupy different niches and respond to the environment at different scales. However, niche models applied to conservation often neglect early life stages and are mostly performed at broad spatial scales. Using the endangered heath tiger beetle (Cicindela sylvatica as a model species, we relate presence/absence and abundance data of locally dispersing adults and sedentary larvae to abiotic and biotic variables measured in a multiscale approach within the geographic extent relevant to active conservation management. At the scale of hundreds of meters, fine-grained abiotic conditions (i.e., vegetation structure are fundamental determinants of the occurrence of both life stages, whereas the effect of biotic factors is mostly contained in the abiotic signature. The combination of dense heath vegetation and bare ground areas is thus the first requirement for the species' preservation, provided that accessibility to the suitable habitat is ensured. At a smaller scale (centimetres, the influence of abiotic factors on larval occurrence becomes negligible, suggesting the existence of important additional variables acting within larval proximity. Sustained significant correlations between neighbouring larvae in the models provide an indication of the potential impact of neighbourhood crowding on the larval niche within a few centimetres. Since the species spends the majority of its life cycle in the larval stage, it is essential to consider the hierarchical abiotic and biotic processes affecting the larvae when designing practical conservation guidelines for the species. This underlines the necessity for a more critical evaluation of the consequences of disregarding niche variation between life stages when estimating

  4. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  5. Immunity to RSV in Early Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eLambert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV is the commonest cause of severe respiratory infection in infants, leading to over 3 million hospitalisations and around 66 000 deaths worldwide each year. RSV bronchiolitis predominantly strikes apparently healthy infants, with age as the principal risk factor for severe disease. The differences in the immune response to RSV in the very young are likely to be key to determining the clinical outcome of this common infection. Remarkable age-related differences in innate cytokine responses follow recognition of RSV by numerous pattern recognition receptors, and the importance of this early response is supported by polymorphisms in many early innate genes which associate with bronchiolitis. In the absence of strong, Th1 polarising signals, infants develop T cell responses that can be biased away from protective Th1 and cytotoxic T cell immunity towards dysregulated, Th2 and Th17 polarisation. This may contribute not only to the initial inflammation in bronchiolitis, but also to the long-term increased risk of developing wheeze and asthma later in life. An early-life vaccine for RSV will need to overcome the difficulties of generating a protective response in infants, and the proven risks associated with generating an inappropriate response. Infantile T follicular helper (Tfh and B cell responses are immature, but maternal antibodies can afford some protection. Thus, maternal vaccination is a promising alternative approach. However, even in adults adaptive immunity following natural infection is poorly protective, allowing re-infection even with the same strain of RSV, giving us few clues as to how effective vaccination could be achieved. Challenges remain in understanding how respiratory immunity matures with age, and the external factors influencing its development. Determining why some infants develop bronchiolitis should lead to new therapies to lessen the clinical impact of RSV and aid the rational design of

  6. An Analysis of Immunoreactive Signatures in Early Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yu; Long, Jiang; Li, Hai; Chen, Shuhong; Liu, Qiqi; Zhang, Bei; He, Xiaomin; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongyi; Li, Yimei; Zhang, Tao; Lu, Chenzhen; Yan, Hao; Zhang, Minli; Li, Qing; Cao, Bangwei; Bai, Zhigang; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Zhongtao; Zhu, Shengtao; Zheng, Jiasheng; Ou, Xiaojuan; Ma, Hong; Jia, Jidong; You, Hong; Wang, Shengqi; Huang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is prevalent worldwide and early diagnosis of HCC is critical for effective treatment and optimal prognosis. Methods Serum was screened first by immunoproteomic analysis for HCC-related tumor associated antigens (TAAs). Selected TAAs were clinically evaluated retrospectively in patients with HCC, liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis and healthy controls. Levels of autoantibody to the selected TAAs were measured by protein microarrays containing protein antigens of the candidate TAAs. Analyses were done by using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) to calculate diagnostic accuracy. Findings Twenty-two candidate TAAs were assessed by protein microarray analysis in 914 participants with serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) available. Twelve candidate TAAs were statistically different in signal intensity between HCC and controls. Among them, CENPF, HSP60 and IMP-2 showed AUC (area under the curve) values of 0.826, 0.764 and 0.796 respectively for early HCC. The highest prevalence of autoantibody positivity was observed in HCC cases with BCLC tumor stage A, well-differentiated histology and Child-Pugh grade C. Specifically, 73.6% or 79.3% cases of early HCC with negative AFP were positive for autoantibody to CENPF or HSP60. Interpretation Tumor-associated autoimmune reactions may be triggered by early stage HCCs. Measurement of serum autoantibody to TAAs may be complementary to AFP measurements and improve diagnosis of early HCC. PMID:26137588

  7. Survival of offspring who experience early parental death: early life conditions and later-life mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ken R; Hanson, Heidi A; Norton, Maria C; Hollingshaus, Michael S; Mineau, Geraldine P

    2014-10-01

    We examine the influences of a set of early life conditions (ELCs) on all-cause and cause-specific mortality among elderly individuals, with special attention to one of the most dramatic early events in a child's, adolescent's, or even young adult's life, the death of a parent. The foremost question is, once controlling for prevailing (and potentially confounding) conditions early in life (family history of longevity, paternal characteristics (SES, age at time of birth, sibship size, and religious affiliation)), is a parental death associated with enduring mortality risks after age 65? The years following parental death may initiate new circumstances through which the adverse effects of paternal death operate. Here we consider the offspring's marital status (whether married; whether and when widowed), adult socioeconomic status, fertility, and later life health status. Adult health status is based on the Charlson Co-Morbidity Index, a construct that summarizes nearly all serious illnesses afflicting older individuals that relies on Medicare data. The data are based on linkages between the Utah Population Database and Medicare claims that hold medical diagnoses data. We show that offspring whose parents died when they were children, but especially when they were adolescents/young adults, have modest but significant mortality risks after age 65. What are striking are the weak mediating influences of later-life comorbidities, marital status, fertility and adult socioeconomic status since controls for these do little to alter the overall association. No beneficial effects of the surviving parent's remarriage were detected. Overall, we show the persistence of the effects of early life loss on later-life mortality and indicate the difficulties in addressing challenges at young ages.

  8. Early morbidity after simultaneous and staged bilateral total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Jørgensen, Christoffer Calov; Husted, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this nationwide study was to investigate the early morbidity after bilateral simultaneous and staged total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in order to clarify potential benefits of a well-established fast-track regime. METHODS: The Danish National Patient Registry was searched for all...... bilateral simultaneous and staged TKA procedures from 2010 to 2011. The staged procedures were defined as two separate procedures done within 0-6 months or within 7-18 months. RESULTS: A total of 157 patients had bilateral simultaneous TKA, 346 patients had bilateral staged TKA within 0-6 months and 292...... simultaneous TKA versus three deaths (0.9 and 1.0 %) in each of the bilateral staged groups within 90 days of surgery (n.s.). The total readmission rate within 30 days of surgery was lower after bilateral simultaneous TKA (7 %, CI 4.0-12.0) and bilateral staged TKA within 0-6 months (9 %, CI 6.4-12.4) compared...

  9. The early stages in the oxidation of Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shek, M.L. (25 Old Saddle Road, Ridge, New York 11961 (USA)); Hrbek, J. (Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (USA)); Sham, T.K. (Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, Ontario, NA6 5B7, Canada (CA)); Xu, G. (Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (USA))

    1991-05-01

    We report soft x-ray photoemission results on the early stages of the oxidation of Na at {similar to}80 K. The first stage (up to {approx gt}0.5 L exposure) is characterized by a narrow O 2{ital p} level and a Na 2{ital p} surface core level shifted by {minus}0.55 eV with respect to the bulk core level. The Na 2{ital p} surface plasmon loss intensity shifts toward smaller energies, consistent with a decrease in surface conduction electron density. The second stage (starting from {similar to}1 L) is characterized by the emergence of di-oxygen'' valence levels and a Na 2{ital p} component shifted by {similar to}0.8 eV with respect to the bulk binding energy. The oxidation is strongly nonuniform, as suggested by the small oxygen doses needed for the onset of the second oxidation stage, and the continued presence of the bulk plasmon loss from metallic Na. The two new Na 2{ital p} binding energies are tentatively attributed to different final-state screening of metallic Na adjacent to dispersed oxygen atoms in the first stage, and of the Na atoms with mostly oxygen nearest neighbors in the second stage. Observations regarding large negative core level shifts upon large oxygen exposures are also summarized.

  10. Information processing theory in the early design stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Kreye, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    suggestions for improvements and support. One theory that may be particularly applicable to the early design stages is Information Processing Theory (IPT) as it is linked to the design process with regard to the key concepts considered. IPT states that designers search for information if they perceive......, the new knowledge is shared between the design team to reduce ambiguity with regards to its meaning and to build a shared understanding – reducing perceived uncertainty. Thus, we propose that Information-Processing Theory is suitable to describe designer activity in the early design stages......Developing appropriate theory is one of the main challenges facing engineering design (Cross, 2007). Theory helps to both explain design activity but also support greater research impact in the domain. It is useful for gaining a more comprehensive understanding of design activity and developing...

  11. Information processing theory in the early design stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Kreye, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Developing appropriate theory is one of the main challenges facing engineering design (Cross, 2007). Theory helps to both explain design activity but also support greater research impact in the domain. It is useful for gaining a more comprehensive understanding of design activity and developing...... suggestions for improvements and support. One theory that may be particularly applicable to the early design stages is Information Processing Theory (IPT) as it is linked to the design process with regard to the key concepts considered. IPT states that designers search for information if they perceive...... uncertainty with regard to the knowledge necessary to solve a design challenge. They then process this information and compare if the new knowledge they have gained covers the previous knowledge gap. In engineering design, uncertainty plays a key role, particularly in the early design stages which has been...

  12. Early-life origin of adult insomnia: does prenatal-early-life stress play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagini, Laura; Drake, Christopher L; Gehrman, Philip; Meerlo, Peter; Riemann, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Insomnia is very common in the adult population and it includes a wide spectrum of sequelae, that is, neuroendocrine and cardiovascular alterations as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. According to the conceptualization of insomnia in the context of the 3-P model, the importance of predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors has been stressed. Predisposing factors are present before insomnia is manifested and they are hypothesized to interact with precipitating factors, such as environmental stressful events, contributing to the onset of insomnia. Understanding the early-life origins of insomnia may be particularly useful in order to prevent and treat this costly phenomenon. Based on recent evidence, prenatal-early-life stress exposure results in a series of responses that involve the stress system in the child and could persist into adulthood. This may encompass an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis accompanied by long-lasting modifications in stress reactivity. Furthermore, early-life stress exposure might play an important role in predisposing to a vulnerability to hyperarousal reactions to negative life events in the adult contributing to the development of chronic insomnia. Epigenetic mechanisms may also be involved in the development of maladaptive stress responses in the newborn, ultimately predisposing to develop a variety of (psycho-) pathological states in adult life.

  13. Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eunkyo [Department of Home Economics Education, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Min [Research Institute of Health Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, In-Kyung [Department of Home Economics Education, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Yunsook [Department of Foods and Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Hyun, E-mail: jjhkim@cau.ac.kr [Department of Home Economics Education, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine the effect of genistein on cutaneous wound healing. {yields} Genistein enhanced wound closure during the early stage of wound healing. {yields} These genistein effects on wound closure were induced by reduction of oxidative stress through increasing antioxidant capacity and modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. -- Abstract: Wound healing occurs in three sequential phases: hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Inflammation, the earliest phase, is considered a critical period for wound healing because immune cells remove damaged tissues, foreign debris, and remaining dead tissue. Wound healing would be delayed without inflammation, and this phase is affected by antioxidation capacity. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein, which has an antioxidant effect, might modulate the wound healing process by altering the inflammatory response. After three days of acclimation, mice were divided into three groups: control, 0.025% genistein, and 0.1% genistein. After two weeks of an experimental diet, skin wounds were induced. Wounded skin areas were imaged, and the healing rate calculated. To measure lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, skin and liver tissues were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Genistein did not affect body weight. The rate of wound closure in mice fed genistein was significantly faster than in the control group during the early stage of wound healing, especially in first three days. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD expression in wound skin tissue in the 0.1% genistein group was lower than in the control group. However, CAT expression did not differ among groups. We also found that genistein modulated NF-{kappa}B and TNF-{alpha} expression during the early stage of wound healing. The genistein group had significantly lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the control group. These results

  14. Awareness of memory deficits in early stage Huntington's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Cleret de Langavant

    Full Text Available Patients with Huntington's disease (HD are often described as unaware of their motor symptoms, their behavioral disorders or their cognitive deficits, including memory. Nevertheless, because patients with Parkinson's disease (PD remain aware of their memory deficits despite striatal dysfunction, we hypothesize that early stage HD patients in whom degeneration predominates in the striatum can accurately judge their own memory disorders whereas more advanced patients cannot. In order to test our hypothesis, we compared subjective questionnaires of memory deficits (in HD patients and in their proxies and objective measures of memory dysfunction in patients. Forty-six patients with manifest HD attending the out-patient department of the French National Reference Center for HD and thirty-three proxies were enrolled. We found that HD patients at an early stage of the disease (Stage 1 were more accurate than their proxies at evaluating their own memory deficits, independently from their depression level. The proxies were more influenced by patients' functional decline rather than by patients' memory deficits. Patients with moderate disease (Stage 2 misestimated their memory deficits compared to their proxies, whose judgment was nonetheless influenced by the severity of both functional decline and depression. Contrasting subjective memory ratings from the patients and their objective memory performance, we demonstrate that although HD patients are often reported to be unaware of their neurological, cognitive and behavioral symptoms, it is not the case for memory deficits at an early stage. Loss of awareness of memory deficits in HD is associated with the severity of the disease in terms of CAG repeats, functional decline, motor dysfunction and cognitive impairment, including memory deficits and executive dysfunction.

  15. Early Contact Stage of Apoptosis: Its Morphological Features and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etheri Mikadze

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis has been a biological phenomenon of intense interest for 20 years, but the earlier morphological features of apoptosis have not been determined hitherto. Using the methods of semi- and ultrathin sections, the livers of intact embryos and young rats have been studied under the effect of cycloheximide to determine morphological features of an early stage of apoptosis. It is discovered that both in hepatoblasts and hepatocytes, apoptosis, besides the well-known stages, also includes an early contact stage, distinguishing features of which are agglutination of bound ribosomes (breaking of translation, elimination of the nucleolus, reduction of free polysomes (and in hepatocytes, reduction of cisterns of rough endoplasmic reticulum, formation of cytoplasmic excrescences, and cell shape changes. The early stage of apoptosis is characterized by close contact with neighboring cells. At a certain phase of the contact stage of apoptosis, the nucleolus reappears in the nucleus and the number of free polysomes in the cytoplasm increases, which suggests the renewal of synthesis of new RNA and proteins. Close contact of differentiating and mitotic hepatoblasts with apoptotic cells indicates a certain functional relationship between these cells that is realized not only by micropinocytosis, but through gap junctions as well. We assume that the apoptotic cell, besides proteolytic products, can contain newly synthesized, low-molecular substances, the relocation of which from apoptotic to neighboring cells may contribute to both functional activity and proliferation of adjacent hepatoblasts and, therefore, the function of apoptosis may not be limited only to the elimination of harmful, damaged, and unwanted cells.

  16. Phyllotactic pattern formation in early stages of cactus ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta M. Gola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Representatives of the family Cactaceae are characterized by a wide range of phyllotaxis. To assess the origin of this diversity, early stages of phyllotactic pattern formation were examined in seedlings. The analysis of the sequence of areole initiation revealed intertribal differences. In seedlings from the Trichocereeae (Gymnocalycium, Rebutia and Notocacteae (Parodia tribes, two opposite cotyledonal areoles developed as the first elements of a pattern. Usually, next pair of areoles was initiated perpendicularly to cotyledonal areoles, starting the decussate pattern. This pattern was subsequently transformed into bijugate or into simple spiral phyllotaxis. In seedlings from the Cacteae tribe (Mammillaria and Thelocactus, cotyledonal areoles were never observed and the first areoles always appeared in the space between cotyledons. It was either areole pair (mainly in Mammillaria, starting a decussate pattern, or a single areole (mainly in Thelocactus quickly followed by areoles spirally arranged, usually in accordance with the main Fibonacci phyllotaxis. Differences in the initial stages of pattern formation do not fully explain the phyllotaxis diversity in mature cacti. Only two, the most common phyllotactic patterns occurred in the early development of studied seedlings, i.e. the main Fibonacci and the decussate pattern. Discrepancy in the range of phyllotactic spectra in seedlings and in mature plants suggests that phyllotaxis diversity emerges during further plant growth. Initial phyllotactic transformations, occurring already in the very early stages, indicate great plasticity of cactus growth and seem to support the hypothesis of the ontogenetic increase of phyllotaxis diversity due to transformations.

  17. Carryover effects of predation risk on postembryonic life-history stages in a freshwater shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ituarte, Romina Belén; Vázquez, María Guadalupe; González-Sagrario, María de los Ángeles; Spivak, Eduardo Daniel

    2014-04-01

    For organisms with complex life histories it is well known that risk experienced early in life, as embryos or larvae, may have effects throughout the life cycle. Although carryover effects have been well documented in invertebrates with different levels of parental care, there are few examples of predator-induced responses in externally brooded embryos. Here, we studied the effects of nonlethal predation risk throughout the embryonic development of newly spawned eggs carried by female shrimp on the timing of egg hatching, hatchling morphology, larval development and juvenile morphology. We also determined maternal body mass at the end of the embryonic period. Exposure to predation risk cues during embryonic development led to larger larvae which also had longer rostra but reached the juvenile stage sooner, at a smaller size and with shorter rostra. There was no difference in hatching timing, but changes in larval morphology and developmental timing showed that the embryos had perceived waterborne substances indicative of predation risk. In addition to carryover effects on larval and juvenile stages, predation threat provoked a decrease of body mass in mothers exposed to predator cues while brooding. Our results suggest that risk-exposed embryos were able to recognize the same infochemicals as their mothers, manifesting a response in the free-living larval stage. Thus, future studies assessing anti-predator phenotypes should include embryonic development, which seems to determine the morphology and developmental time of subsequent life-history stages according to perceived environmental conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Stage-specific proteome signatures in early bovine embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Daniela R; Fröhlich, Thomas; Otte, Kathrin A; Beck, Andrea; Habermann, Felix A; Wolf, Eckhard; Arnold, Georg J

    2014-10-03

    Development of early embryonic stages before activation of the embryonic genome depends on sufficiently stored products of the maternal genome, adequate recruitment and degradation of mRNAs, as well as activation, deactivation, and relocation of proteins. By application of an isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based approach, the proteomes of bovine embryos at the zygote and 2-cell and 4-cell stage with MII oocytes as a reference were quantitatively analyzed. Of 1072 quantified proteins, 87 differed significantly in abundance between the four stages. The proteomes of 2-cell and 4-cell embryos differed most from the reference MII oocyte, and a considerable fraction of proteins continuously increased in abundance during the stages analyzed, despite a strongly attenuated rate of translation reported for this period. Bioinformatic analysis revealed particularly interesting proteins involved in the p53 pathway, lipid metabolism, and mitosis. Verification of iTRAQ results by targeted SRM (selected reaction monitoring) analysis revealed excellent agreement for all five proteins analyzed. By principal component analysis, SRM quantifications comprising a panel of only five proteins were shown to discriminate between all four developmental stages analyzed here. For future experiments, an expanded SRM protein panel will provide the potential to detect developmental disturbances with high sensitivity and enable first insights into the underlying molecular pathways.

  19. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in early stage Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, David; Konrad, Peter E; Neimat, Joseph S; Molinari, Anna L; Tramontana, Michael G; Finder, Stuart G; Gill, Chandler E; Bliton, Mark J; Kao, Chris; Phibbs, Fenna T; Hedera, Peter; Salomon, Ronald M; Cannard, Kevin R; Wang, Lily; Song, Yanna; Davis, Thomas L

    2014-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective and approved therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), and a recent study suggests efficacy in mid-stage disease. This manuscript reports the results of a pilot trial investigating preliminary safety and tolerability of DBS in early PD. Thirty subjects with idiopathic PD (Hoehn & Yahr Stage II off medication), age 50-75, on medication ≥6 months but ≤4 years, and without motor fluctuations or dyskinesias were randomized to optimal drug therapy (ODT) (n = 15) or DBS + ODT (n = 15). Co-primary endpoints were the time to reach a 4-point worsening from baseline in the UPDRS-III off therapy and the change in levodopa equivalent daily dose from baseline to 24 months. As hypothesized, the mean UPDRS total and part III scores were not significantly different on or off therapy at 24 months. Medication requirements in the DBS + ODT group were lower at all time points with a maximal difference at 18 months. With a few exceptions, differences in neuropsychological functioning were not significant. Two subjects in the DBS + ODT group suffered serious adverse events; remaining adverse events were mild or transient. This study demonstrates that subjects with early stage PD will enroll in and complete trials testing invasive therapies and provides preliminary evidence that DBS is well tolerated in early PD. The results of this trial provide the data necessary to design a large, phase III, double-blind, multicenter trial investigating the safety and efficacy of DBS in early PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Early stages of bipolar disorder: characterization and strategies for early intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiel C. Rios

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the early stages of bipolar disorder (BD, defined as the clinical prodrome/subsyndromal stage and first-episode phase, and strategies for their respective treatment. Methods: A selective literature search of the PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and ISI databases from inception until March 2014 was performed. Included in this review were articles that a characterized prodromal and first-episode stages of BD or b detailed efficacy and safety/tolerability of interventions in patients considered prodromal for BD or those with only one episode of mania/hypomania. Results: As research has only recently focused on characterization of the early phase of BD, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of any treatment option in the early phase of BD. Case management; individual, group, and family therapy; supportive therapy; and group psychoeducation programs have been proposed. Most evidence-based treatment guidelines for BD do not address treatment specifically in the context of the early stages of illness. Evidence for pharmacotherapy is usually presented in relation to illness polarity (i.e., manic/mixed or depressed or treatment phase. Conclusions: Although early recognition and treatment are critical to preventing unfavorable outcomes, there is currently little evidence for interventions in these stages of BD.

  1. LIFE EXPERIENCES OF PATIENTS SUFFERING END STAGE RENAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulis Setiya Dewi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Haemodialysis (HD is one of therapies to sustain life for people with End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD. HD and ESRD are the source of the stressor for the patients. The purpose of this study was to gain insight about the life experiences of patients suffering from ESRD and coping that they used in dealing with stressors. Method: This study employed hermeneutic phenomenological study as methodology. Samples were taken at RSU Dr. Soedono Madiun in December 2010–May 2011 using purposive sampling. Participants in this study amounted to 9 people who all male and had suffered kidney failure and undergoing HD for more than 2 years. Data were processed and analysed through the nine stages data interpretation according collaizi. Result: Client's life experiences with HD and coping strategies they used to cope with critical situations have been identified and grouped into several themes. The first theme was the reaction of participants when receiving the diagnosis should undergo HD including: sad, rejection, fear, shock and feelings of resignation and hope. The second theme was perceived to critical situations by clients include shortness of breath, weakness, body swelling, itching, diarrhea and could not urinate. Last theme was the meaning of life in hemodialysis derived from attitudinal values (the values to be and experiential values (the values of appreciation. Discussion: Ways in which clients address critical situations were quite diverse. Emotional informational, instrumental supports from spouse or significant other were needed by participants to overcome the critical situation. This study suggests that nurse should perform therapeutic communication to HD patients so that patients may cope with the disease more positively.

  2. Neural changes underlying early stages of L2 vocabulary acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, He; Holcomb, Phillip J; Midgley, Katherine J

    2016-11-01

    Research has shown neural changes following second language (L2) acquisition after weeks or months of instruction. But are such changes detectable even earlier than previously shown? The present study examines the electrophysiological changes underlying the earliest stages of second language vocabulary acquisition by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) within the first week of learning. Adult native English speakers with no previous Spanish experience completed less than four hours of Spanish vocabulary training, with pre- and post-training ERPs recorded to a backward translation task. Results indicate that beginning L2 learners show rapid neural changes following learning, manifested in changes to the N400 - an ERP component sensitive to lexicosemantic processing and degree of L2 proficiency. Specifically, learners in early stages of L2 acquisition show growth in N400 amplitude to L2 words following learning as well as a backward translation N400 priming effect that was absent pre-training. These results were shown within days of minimal L2 training, suggesting that the neural changes captured during adult second language acquisition are more rapid than previously shown. Such findings are consistent with models of early stages of bilingualism in adult learners of L2 (e.g. Kroll and Stewart's RHM) and reinforce the use of ERP measures to assess L2 learning.

  3. Does thermal variability experienced at the egg stage influence life history traits across life cycle stages in a small invertebrate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xing

    Full Text Available Although effects of thermal stability on eggs have often been considered in vertebrates, there is little data thermal stability in insect eggs even though these eggs are often exposed in nature to widely fluctuating ambient conditions. The modularity of development in invertebrates might lead to compensation across life cycle stages but this remains to be tested particularly within the context of realistic temperature fluctuations encountered in nature. We simulated natural temperate fluctuations on eggs of the worldwide cruciferous insect pest, the diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella (L., while maintaining the same mean temperature (25°C±0°C, 25±4°C, 25±6°C, 25±8°C, 25±10°C, 25±12°C and assessed egg development, survival and life history traits across developmental stages. Moderate fluctuations (25±4°C, 25±6°C did not influence performance compared to the constant temperature treatment, and none of the treatments influenced egg survival. However the wide fluctuating temperatures (25±10°C, 25±12°C slowed development time and led to an increase in pre-pupal mass, although these changes did not translate into any effects on longevity or fecundity at the adult stage. These findings indicate that environmental effects can extend across developmental stages despite the modularity of moth development but also highlight that there are few fitness consequences of the most variable thermal conditions likely to be experienced by Plutella xylostella.

  4. Early stages of irradiation induced dislocations in urania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, A.; Onofri, C.; Van Brutzel, L.; Sabathier, C.; Dorosh, O.; Jagielski, J.

    2016-10-01

    The early stages of nucleation and growth of dislocations by irradiation in urania is clarified based on the combination of experiments and atomistic calculations. It is established that irradiation induced dislocations follow a five stage process: (i) point defects are first created by irradiation, (ii) they aggregate into clusters, (iii) from which nucleate Frank loops, (iv) which transform into unfaulted loops via Shockley that in turn grow, and (v) finally reorganize into forest dislocations. Stages (i)-(iii) participate in the lattice expansion while the onset of lattice contraction starts with stage (iv), i.e., when unfaulted loops nucleate. Irradiation induced dislocations operate in the spontaneous recombination regime, to be opposed to the thermal diffusion regime. Body of arguments collaborates to this statement, the main one is the comparison between characteristic distances estimated from the dose rate (Vat/(K0×τ ) ) 1/3 and from the diffusion coefficient (D×τ ) 1/2 . Such a comparison identifies materials under irradiation as belonging either into the recombination regime or not.

  5. Early stage design and analysis of biorefinery networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    Recent work regarding biorefineries resulted in many competing concepts and technologies for conversion of renewable bio-based feedstock into many promising products including fuels, chemicals, materials, etc. The design of a biorefinery process requires, at its earlier stages, the selection...... biorefinery concept for a lignocellulosic biorefinery. More specifically we highlight the required information management (management of various sources of data), the superstructure which is needed to represent the design space, generic but simple models covering all the processing steps of biorefineries...... of the process configuration which exhibits the best performances, for a given set of economical, technical and environmental criteria. To this end, we formulate a computer-aided framework as an enabling technology for early stage design and analysis of biorefineries. The tool represents different raw materials...

  6. [Ophthalmologic manifestations in early and late stages of AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaudigel, O E; Gümbel, H; Richter, R; Subklew, R; Garweg, T

    1994-10-01

    In a prospective study of 101 patients with HIV infection and a medium CD4 lymphocyte cell count of 350 x 10(6)/l and a retrospective study of the records of 79 AIDS patients, we compared the first ocular symptoms in HIV-infected patients to the CD4 count. In Walter-Reed stages 2-4 (n = 101) we found sicca syndrome in 9.2%, in 52% lens opacities in the cortex and only in less than 1% HIV-related angiopathy of the retina. In Walter Reed stages 5-6 (n = 79), 26% of the AIDS patients developed CMV retinitis, 33% HIV angiopathy of the retina and only 1% retinal toxoplasmosis. The average CD4 lymphocyte cell count was never better than 100 x 10(6). Lens opacities in HIV-infected patients could be an early ophthalmological symptom of HIV infection.

  7. Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunkyo; Lee, Seung Min; Jung, In-Kyung; Lim, Yunsook; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2011-07-08

    Wound healing occurs in three sequential phases: hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Inflammation, the earliest phase, is considered a critical period for wound healing because immune cells remove damaged tissues, foreign debris, and remaining dead tissue. Wound healing would be delayed without inflammation, and this phase is affected by antioxidation capacity. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein, which has an antioxidant effect, might modulate the wound healing process by altering the inflammatory response. After three days of acclimation, mice were divided into three groups: control, 0.025% genistein, and 0.1% genistein. After two weeks of an experimental diet, skin wounds were induced. Wounded skin areas were imaged, and the healing rate calculated. To measure lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, skin and liver tissues were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Genistein did not affect body weight. The rate of wound closure in mice fed genistein was significantly faster than in the control group during the early stage of wound healing, especially in first three days. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD expression in wound skin tissue in the 0.1% genistein group was lower than in the control group. However, CAT expression did not differ among groups. We also found that genistein modulated NF-κB and TNF-α expression during the early stage of wound healing. The genistein group had significantly lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the control group. These results suggest that genistein supplementation reduces oxidative stress by increasing antioxidant capacity and modulating proinflammatory cytokine expression during the early stage of wound healing.

  8. USANS investigation of early stages of metal foam formation

    CERN Document Server

    Bellmann, D; Banhart, J

    2002-01-01

    Metallic foams are on the verge of being used in industrial applications. However, the mechanism of foam creation, especially the early stages, are still unexplored. Ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS), performed with the double-crystal diffractometer (DCD) at the Geesthacht Neutron Facility (GeNF), is a promising method for obtaining a three-dimensional average of a pore size distribution in a wide size range from about 100 nm to about 20 mu m. Analysis of the neutron scattering curves yielded pore size distributions which conformed with the results obtained by microscopy. (orig.)

  9. Histopathological diagnosis of acral lentiginous melanoma in early stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Cassarino, David S

    2017-02-01

    Acral lentiginous melanoma is a rare variant of melanoma that is associated with a relatively low survival rate. The latter is partly due to the advanced stage in which the tumor is usually diagnosed. The diagnostic delay is mainly due to difficulties in identifying the very early histopathological signs of acral melanoma. The current article is a review of diagnostic clues, concepts, and definitions from the literature, as well as illustrating examples from our own archives. We have sought to provide an article that can be easily consulted in difficult cases of acral lentiginous melanoma.

  10. The studies of nodular graphite cast iron early stages austempering

    OpenAIRE

    A. Krzyńska; M. Kaczorowski

    2008-01-01

    The results of early stage of ductile cast iron austempering are presented. The aim of the investigations was to look closer into the structure – mechanical properties relationships of this very attractive cast material. The experiment was carried out with enriched with Cu EN-GJS-500-7 grade ductile iron. The specimens were first solution heat treated 1 hour in 910oC and then isothermally quenched for different time in molten tin at the temperature 275oC. The mechanical properties of as cast ...

  11. Nontrivial dynamics in the early stages of inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Calzetta, E A

    1995-01-01

    Abstract: Inflationary cosmologies, regarded as dynamical systems, have rather simple asymptotic behavior, insofar as the cosmic baldness principle holds. Nevertheless, in the early stages of an inflationary process, the dynamical behavior may be very complex. In this paper, we show how even a simple inflationary scenario, based on Linde's ``chaotic inflation'' proposal, manifests nontrivial dynamical effects such as the breakup of invariant tori, formation of cantori and Arnol'd's diffusion. The relevance of such effects is highlighted by the fact that even the occurrence or not of inflation in a given Universe is dependent upon them.

  12. Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice provides information based on scientific literature about physiological parameters. Modelers...

  13. Predictors of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Hanna-Pladdy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to identify mild cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD prior to extensive neurodegeneration and to evaluate the extent to which dopamine depletion and other disease-related predictors can explain cognitive profiles. Methods: Neuropsychological performances of 40 nondemented early-stage PD patients and 42 healthy controls were compared across on or off dopaminergic medications. Stepwise regression evaluated cognitive predictors of early-stage PD and disease-related predictors of PD cognition (levodopa dose, disease duration, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score, sleep, quality of life, and mood across on and off states. Results: Neuropsychological performance was lower in PD patients across cognitive domains with significant memory, naming, visuomotor, and complex attention/executive deficits, but with intact visuospatial, simple attention, and phonemic fluency functions. However, medication effects were absent except for simple attention. Regression analyses revealed age, working memory, and memory recall to be the best cognitive predictors of PD, while age, quality of life, disease duration, and anxiety predicted PD cognition in the off state. Conclusion: Nondemented early-stage PD patients presented with extensive mild cognitive deficits including prominent memory impairment. The profile was inconsistent with expected isolated frontostriatal dysfunction previously attributed to dopamine depletion and this highlights the need to further characterize extranigral sources of mild cognitive impairment in PD.

  14. Nutrition and brain development in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-04-01

    Presented here is an overview of the pathway from early nutrient deficiency to long-term brain function, cognition, and productivity, focusing on research from low- and middle-income countries. Animal models have demonstrated the importance of adequate nutrition for the neurodevelopmental processes that occur rapidly during pregnancy and infancy, such as neuron proliferation and myelination. However, several factors influence whether nutrient deficiencies during this period cause permanent cognitive deficits in human populations, including the child's interaction with the environment, the timing and degree of nutrient deficiency, and the possibility of recovery. These factors should be taken into account in the design and interpretation of future research. Certain types of nutritional deficiency clearly impair brain development, including severe acute malnutrition, chronic undernutrition, iron deficiency, and iodine deficiency. While strategies such as salt iodization and micronutrient powders have been shown to improve these conditions, direct evidence of their impact on brain development is scarce. Other strategies also require further research, including supplementation with iron and other micronutrients, essential fatty acids, and fortified food supplements during pregnancy and infancy. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  15. [Anxiety-phobic disorders in the early childhood stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, O M; Kozlovskaia, G V; Proselkova, M O

    2012-01-01

    The complex of such phenomena as anxiety and fear in children of the early age and their relationship with risk factors for psychic pathology were investigated. Eighty cases of anxiety-phobic disorders in children of the first five years of life were studied. The types of behavioral and somatic reactions that allowed to reveal not only the clinically expressed phenomena of anxiety and fear but the higher readiness to them were described. The first anxiety-phobic reactions appeared at the age when emotional functions were not completely formed and might be considered as the presentations of emotional dysontogenesis. The authors assume that characteristics of fear expression in the early age allow to suspect a mental disease which might be timely diagnosed in case of its manifestation. The conclusions made in the paper may be useful for clinical practice of pediatricians, children neurologists, psychologists and psychiatrists.

  16. A patient with medulloblastoma in its early developmental stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinojima, Naoki; Nakamura, Hideo; Tasaki, Masayoshi; Kameno, Kouki; Anai, Shigeo; Iyama, Ken-ichi; Ando, Yukio; Seto, Hiroshi; Kuratsu, Jun-Ichi

    2014-12-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most frequent malignant brain tumor of the posterior fossa in children and is considered an embryonal tumor. It has been suggested that medulloblastomas be categorized into 4 distinct molecular subgroups- WNT (DKK1), SHH (SFRP1), Group 3 (NPR3), or Group 4 (KCNA1)-since each subgroup is distinct and there is no overlap. The authors report on a 13-year-old boy with medulloblastoma. He presented with sudden-onset nausea and vomiting due to intratumoral hemorrhage. The medulloblastoma was thought to be in an early developmental stage because the tumor volume was extremely small. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the tumor was mainly composed of DKK1- and NPR3-positive areas. The individual areas of the tumor stained only for DKK1 or NPR3, with no overlap-that is, DKK1 and NPR3 expression were mutually exclusive. Samples obtained by laser microdissection of individual areas and subjected to mass spectrometry confirmed that the expression patterns of proteins were different. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for chromosome 6 showed there were 2 distinct types of cells that exhibited monosomy or disomy of chromosome 6. These results demonstrated that distinct subtypes of medulloblastoma may be present within a single tumor, an observation that has not been previously reported. Our findings in this case indicate that early-stage medulloblastoma may include more than 1 distinct subtype and hint at factors involved in the origin and development of medulloblastomas.

  17. On Branching Processes and the Early Stages of the Spread of an Epidemic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed E; Yassen M T

    1998-01-01

    Branching process (BP) is used to model the early stages of the spread of a sexually transmitted disease. The early stages of AIDS spread which is transmitted both homosexually and heterosexually are studied as a BP.

  18. The effects of blocking angiotensin receptors on early stages of diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaleh Gheissari

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Angiotensin receptor blockers may reduce VCAM-1 and microalbuminuria and may increase NO levels in early stages of DN. Thus administration of ARBs might be considered even in early stages of DN.

  19. Spatial Patterns and Interspecific Associations of Three Canopy Species at Different Life Stages in a Subtropical Forest,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Li; Shi-Guang Wei; Zhong-Liang Huang; Wan-Hui Ye; Hong-Lin Cao

    2008-01-01

    Spatial patterns of species at different life stages are an important aspect for understanding causal mechanisms that facilitate species co-existence.Using Ripley's univariate L(t) and bivariate L12(t) functions,we analyzed the spatial patterns and interspecific associations of three canopy species at different life history stages in a 20-ha subtropical forest plot in Dinghushan Nature Reserve.Based on diameter at breast height (DBH),four life stages were distinguished.Castanopsis chinensis and Schima superba showed a unimodal DBH distribution.Engelhardtia roxburghiana showed a bimodal curve.L(t) function analysis showed significantly aggregated distributions of all three species at later life stages and random distribution at early life stages at some scales.From the analysis of L12(t) function,the results showed the positive association was a dominant pattern for most species pairs at most scales but the intensity of association decreases with the increase of life stages.Juveniles of the three species had no negative intra- and interspecific associations with the older life stages.Only premature trees were suppressed by overmature trees at some scales.Considering these results,we found three canopy-dominant species that lacked regeneration.There was no direct competition occurring between understorey individuals.Young trees can grow well under conspecific species with two other species.Longevity and lack of regeneration led to a large number of trees stored in mature and overmature stages,therefore,intra-and inter-competition can be strong at later life stages.

  20. Taste preference changes throughout different life stages in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Ueda, Katsura; Nakatsuka, Michiko; Kumabe, Shunji; Inui, Tadashi; Iwai, Yasutomo

    2017-01-01

    Taste preference, a key component of food choice, changes with aging. However, it remains unclear how this occurs. To determine differences in taste preference between rats in different life stages, we examined the consumption of taste solutions and water using a two-bottle test. Male Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages were used: juvenile (3–6 weeks), young adult (8–11 weeks), adult (17–20 weeks), middle-aged (34–37 weeks), and old-aged (69–72 weeks). The intakes of the high and low concentration solutions presented simultaneously were measured. We observed that the old-aged group had lower preference ratios for 0.3 M sucrose and 0.1 M MSG in comparison with other groups. The preference ratio for 0.03 mM QHCl was higher in the middle-aged group than in the three younger groups and higher in the old-aged group than the juvenile group. The taste preferences for HCl and NaCl did not significantly differ among the age groups. The old-aged group tended to prefer high concentrations of sucrose, QHCl, NaCl, and MSG to low concentrations, indicating age-related decline in taste sensitivity. We also aimed to investigate differences between life stages in the electrophysiological responses of the chorda tympani nerve, one of the peripheral gustatory nerves, to taste stimuli. The electrophysiological recordings showed that aging did not alter the function of the chorda tympani nerve. This study showed that aging induced alterations in taste preference. It is likely that these alterations are a result of functional changes in other peripheral taste nerves, the gastrointestinal system, or the central nervous system. PMID:28742813

  1. Conservative surgery and radiation for early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowble, B L; Orel, S G; Jardines, L

    1993-07-01

    In selected patients with early-stage breast cancer, conservative surgery and radiation represent an alternative equal to mastectomy in terms of local recurrence, distant metastasis, survival, and long-term complications. Patients with early-stage breast cancer who are candidates for conservative surgery and radiation include those whose primary tumor is less than 4 to 5 cm in size without evidence of gross multicentricity or diffuse microcalcifications. Patients with an extensive intraductal component may be appropriate candidates provided that margins of resection are negative. Young age is not a contraindication to the conservative treatment. A preexisting history of collagen vascular disease or prior mantle irradiation for Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma represents a contraindication to conservative surgery and radiation because of the potential for severe complications. An additional contraindication is the pregnant woman in whom delivery cannot be accomplished before the initiation of radiation. Mammography is essential in the pretreatment evaluation and posttreatment follow-up of the conservatively treated patient. The goal of the pretreatment mammogram is to assess the extent of disease in the ipsilateral breast as well as to evaluate the contralateral breast. In patients who present with microcalcifications, a postbiopsy mammogram before radiation is essential to document complete removal of all malignant-appearing microcalcifications. Mammography is an essential part of the follow-up program in order to detect a recurrence in the treated breast as well as a cancer in the contralateral breast cancer. The optimal interval for follow-up mammography has not been determined, although programs employing mammography on a yearly basis after treatment have been associated with the detection of early recurrences and excellent survival after salvage mastectomy for these recurrences.

  2. Gamma radiation tolerance in different life stages of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paithankar, Jagdish Gopal; Deeksha, K; Patil, Rajashekhar K

    2017-04-01

    Insects are known to have higher levels of radiation tolerance than mammals. The fruit fly Drosophila provides opportunities for genetic analysis of radiation tolerance in insects. A knowledge of stage-specific sensitivity is required to understand the mechanisms and test the existing hypothesis of insect radiation tolerance. Drosophila melanogaster were irradiated using gamma rays at different life stages. Irradiation doses were chosen to start from 100-2200 Gy with increments of 100 Gy, with a dose rate of 12.5 and 25 Gy/min. The threshold of mortality, LD50 and LD100 1 h post-irradiation was recorded for larvae and adults and 24 h post-irradiation for eggs and after 2-3 days for early and late pupae. Total antioxidant capacity for all the life stages was measured using the phosphomolybdenum method. Twenty-four hours post-irradiation, 100% mortality was recorded for eggs at 1000 Gy. One hour post irradiation 100% mortality was recorded at 1300 Gy for first instar larvae, 1700 Gy for second instar larvae, 1900 Gy for feeding third instar larvae and 2200 Gy for non-feeding third instar larvae. Post-irradiation complete failure of emergence (100% mortality) was observed at 130 Gy for early pupae and 1500 Gy for late pupae; 100% mortality was observed at 1500 Gy for adults. The values of LD50 were recorded as 452 Gy for eggs, 1049 Gy for first instar larvae, 1350 Gy for second instar larvae, 1265 Gy for feeding third instar larvae, 1590 Gy for non-feeding third instar larvae, 50 Gy for early pupae, 969 Gy for late pupae, 1228 Gy for adult males and 1250 Gy for adult females. Early pupae were found to be prone to radiation, whereas the non-feeding third instar larvae were most resistant among all stages. The chromosome number being constant and total antioxidant capacity being nearly constant in all stages, we suggest that high rate of cell division during early pupae makes this stage sensitive to radiation.

  3. Early stage health technology assessment (HTA) of biomedical devices: the MATCH experience

    OpenAIRE

    Pecchia, Leandro; Craven, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Early stage Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of biomedical devices requires different methods than those usually employed for pharmaceuticals. This paper reviews widely used methods for HTA, discusses their limits for early stage evaluation of biomedical devices and presents two methods for early stage HTA being developed in the Multidisciplinary Assessment of Technology Centre for Healthcare (MATCH) project: Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to elicit user needs; and early stage economic ev...

  4. Early stage health technology assessment (HTA) of biomedical devices: the MATCH experience

    OpenAIRE

    Pecchia, Leandro; Craven, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Early stage Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of biomedical devices requires different methods than those usually employed for pharmaceuticals. This paper reviews widely used methods for HTA, discusses their limits for early stage evaluation of biomedical devices and presents two methods for early stage HTA being developed in the Multidisciplinary Assessment of Technology Centre for Healthcare (MATCH) project: Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to elicit user needs; and early stage economic e...

  5. Uptake of metronidazole in Artemia at different developmental life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Loretta; Livengood, Elisa J; Miles, Richard D; Chapman, Frank A

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the capacity of live brine shrimp Artemia spp. to accumulate metronidazole at different developmental life stages. Metronidazole is used in fish as an antiparasitic medication. An effective drug delivery method is to enrich the Artemia with metronidazole and offer them as live feed to the infected fish, usually ornamental species and other small fishes. Artemia cysts were hatched and then soaked in a metronidazole solution (0.05%) at instars 1-3 of larval development. Our findings indicated that Artemia were able to accumulate metronidazole at levels considered therapeutic to other animals and humans (25-100 mg/kg). However, the levels varied depending on the stage of larval development. Artemia accumulated the highest levels of metronidazole (137-143 mg/kg) when they started filter feeding (instar 2), whereas newly hatched Artemia (instar 1) contained the lowest level (85 mg/kg). Based on this study and a review of the literature, a new protocol recommended for enriching Artemia with metronidazole consists of soaking the Artemia in a 0.05% metronidazole solution for 3 h at room temperature. Because metronidazole is relatively insoluble in water, it must first be dissolved in warm water with continuous stirring.

  6. Early-Life Origins of Life-Cycle Well-Being: Research and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the life cycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population…

  7. Patient-Reported Outcomes and Early Discontinuation in Aromatase Inhibitor-Treated Postmenopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadakia, Kunal C.; Snyder, Claire F.; Kidwell, Kelley M.; Seewald, Nicholas J.; Flockhart, David A.; Skaar, Todd C.; Desta, Zereunesay; Rae, James M.; Otte, Julie L.; Carpenter, Janet S.; Storniolo, Anna M.; Hayes, Daniel F.; Stearns, Vered

    2016-01-01

    Background. Early discontinuation of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) is common and leads to poor outcomes but is challenging to predict. In the Exemestane and Letrozole Pharmacogenetics trial, a high rate of early discontinuation due to intolerance was observed. We hypothesized that early changes in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) predict AI discontinuation and that biochemical factors are associated with changes in PROs. Patients and Methods. Postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer enrolled in a prospective randomized trial of exemestane versus letrozole completed questionnaires at baseline and serially over 24 months to assess overall quality of life (EuroQOL Visual Analog Scale [VAS]); mood; and multiple symptoms, including a musculoskeletal symptom cluster. A joint mixed-effects/survival model was used to estimate the effect of the change in PROs on AI discontinuation. Associations between biochemical factors and change in PROs were examined. Results. A total of 490 patients were analyzed. Worsening of EuroQOL VAS and the musculoskeletal cluster were associated with the highest risk for early discontinuation (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.72–2.81; p = .015]; HR, 4.39 [95% CI, 2.40–8.02; p < .0001], respectively). Pharmacokinetics and estrogen metabolism were not consistently associated with change in PRO measures. No clinically significant differences in any PRO between AIs were observed. Conclusion. Changes in PROs early during AI therapy were associated with treatment discontinuation. Identification of these changes could be used to target interventions in patients at high risk for early discontinuation. Implications for Practice: Early changes in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) can predict nonpersistence to aromatase inhibitor therapy. If used in clinical practice, PROs might identify women at highest risk for early discontinuation and allow for interventions to improve tolerance before significant toxicities develop

  8. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  9. Intestinal microbiota during early life - impact on health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylund, Lotta; Satokari, Reetta; Salminen, Seppo; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-11-01

    In the first years after birth, the intestinal microbiota develops rapidly both in diversity and complexity while being relatively stable in healthy adults. Different life-style-related factors as well as medical practices have an influence on the early-life intestinal colonisation. We address the impact of some of these factors on the consecutive microbiota development and later health. An overview is presented of the microbial colonisation steps and the role of the host in that process. Moreover, new early biomarkers are discussed with examples that include the association of microbiota and atopic diseases, the correlation of colic and early development and the impact of the use of antibiotics in early life. Our understanding of the development and function of the intestinal microbiota is constantly improving but the long-term influence of early-life microbiota on later life health deserves careful clinical studies.

  10. Life Structure of Early Adulthood Period in Levinson's Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Aktu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early adulthood is one of the important defining periods considered within life-long development in the relevant literature. Early adulthood period consists of psychologically the most satisfying as well as turbulent years of ones life. Universality of theories explaining early adulthood has long been discussed. One of these theories is the Levinsons theory of individual life structure that emphasis on early adult years. In this study life structures of individuals in the early adulthood period was examined in terms of structure-building and structure-changing development tasks, regarding Levinsons theory of individual life structure. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 162-177

  11. The effects of dieldrin on various life stages of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell)

    OpenAIRE

    Lamai, S.L.; Walker, C. H.; Warner, G. F.

    2001-01-01

    Early life stages (ELS) of Clarias gariepinus were found to be less sensitive to acute dieldrin toxicity than ELS of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus; 96 h LC50 for 37 day old fry were 11.7 and 4.95pg/l, respectively. Growth of O. niloticus fry was significantly reduced in 22.4 pg/l dieldrin whereas growth of C. gariepinus fry was unaffected. Adult C. gariepinus rapidly absorbed dieldrin from aquaeous solution and accumulated it in their tissues, especially in the liver where after 30 days...

  12. Early life adversity: Lasting consequences for emotional learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm J. Krugers

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The early postnatal period is a highly sensitive time period for the developing brain, both in humans and rodents. During this time window, exposure to adverse experiences can lastingly impact cognitive and emotional development. In this review, we briefly discuss human and rodent studies investigating how exposure to adverse early life conditions – mainly related to quality of parental care - affects brain activity, brain structure, cognition and emotional responses later in life. We discuss the evidence that early life adversity hampers later hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions, while increasing amygdala activity, and the sensitivity to stressors and emotional behavior later in life. Exposure to early life stress may thus on the one hand promote behavioral adaptation to potentially threatening conditions later in life –at the cost of contextual memory formation in less threatening situations- but may on the other hand also increase the sensitivity to develop stress-related and anxiety disorders in vulnerable individuals.

  13. Hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme and transporter gene expression through the life stages of the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice S Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs. No comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs has been carried out through life stages in any species. RESULTS: Using full-genome arrays, the mRNA expression of all XMETs and their regulatory proteins was examined during fetal (gestation day (GD 19, neonatal (postnatal day (PND 7, prepubescent (PND32, middle age (12 months, and old age (18 and 24 months in the C57BL/6J (C57 mouse liver and compared to adults. Fetal and neonatal life stages exhibited dramatic differences in XMET mRNA expression compared to the relatively minor effects of old age. The total number of XMET probe sets that differed from adults was 636, 500, 84, 5, 43, and 102 for GD19, PND7, PND32, 12 months, 18 months and 24 months, respectively. At all life stages except PND32, under-expressed genes outnumbered over-expressed genes. The altered XMETs included those in all of the major metabolic and transport phases including introduction of reactive or polar groups (Phase I, conjugation (Phase II and excretion (Phase III. In the fetus and neonate, parallel increases in expression were noted in the dioxin receptor, Nrf2 components and their regulated genes while nuclear receptors and regulated genes were generally down-regulated. Suppression of male-specific XMETs was observed at early (GD19, PND7 and to a lesser extent, later life stages (18 and 24 months. A number of female-specific XMETs exhibited a spike in expression centered at PND7. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis revealed dramatic differences in the expression of the XMETs, especially in the fetus and neonate that are partially dependent on gender-dependent factors. XMET expression can be used to predict life stage-specific responses to environmental chemicals and drugs.

  14. Axillary radiotherapy in conservative surgery for early-stage breast cancer (stage I and II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Novoa, Alejandra; Acea Nebril, Benigno; Díaz, Inma; Builes Ramírez, Sergio; Varela, Cristina; Cereijo, Carmen; Mosquera Oses, Joaquín; López Calviño, Beatriz; Seoane Pillado, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Several clinical studies analyze axillary treatment in women with early-stage breast cancer because of changes in the indication for axillary lymph node dissection. The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of axillary radiotherapy in disease-free and overall survival in women with early breast cancer treated with lumpectomy. Retrospective study in women with initial stages of breast carcinoma treated by lumpectomy. A comparative analysis of high-risk women with axillary lymph node involvement who received axillary radiotherapy with the group of women with low risk without radiotherapy was performed. Logistic regression was used to determine factors influencing survival and lymphedema onset. A total of 541 women were included in the study: 384 patients (71%) without axillary lymph node involvement and 157 women (29%) with 1-3 axillary lymph node involvement. Patients with axillary radiotherapy had a higher number of metastatic lymph node compared to non-irradiated (1.6±0.7 vs. 1.4±0.6, P=.02). The group of women with axillary lymph node involvement and radiotherapy showed an overall and disease-free survival at 10 years similar to that obtained in patients without irradiation (89.7% and 77.2%, respectively). 3 lymph nodes involved multiplied by more than 7 times the risk of death (HR=7.20; 95% CI: 1.36 to 38.12). The multivariate analysis showed axillary lymph node dissection as the only variable associated with the development of lymphedema. The incidence of axillary relapse on stage I and II breast cancer is rare. In these patients axillary radiotherapy does not improve overall survival, but contributes to regional control in those patients with risk factors. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Relative Influence of Prior Life Stages and Habitat Variables on Dragonfly (Odonata: Gomphidae Densities among Lake Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alysa Remsburg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many aquatic species have discrete life stages, making it important to understand relative influences of the different habitats occupied within those populations. Although population demographics in one stage can carry over to spatially separated life stages, most studies of habitat associations have been restricted to a single life stage. Among Gomphidae dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera, recruitment via adult oviposition establishes initial population sizes of the aquatic larvae. However, spatial variability in larval survivorship could obscure the relationship between adult and larval densities. This study uses surveys conducted during 2005 and 2006 of Gomphidae larval, emergence, and adult stages from 22 lake sites in northern Wisconsin, USA, to investigate (1 whether the Gomphidae density of each life stage correlated spatially with that of the preceding life stage and (2 what habitat factors help explain variation in densities at each life stage. Results indicated that adult densities from the previous season helped predict densities of early-instar larvae. This finding suggests that oviposition site selection controlled the local larval distribution more than larval survivorship or movement. Late-instar larval densities helped predict densities of emerging Gomphidae later the same season, suggesting that variation in survivorship of final-instar larvae among sites is small relative to the variation in larval recruitment. This study demonstrates that locations with higher densities of odonates in the water also have higher densities of odonates on land. In addition to the densities of Gomphidae in previous life stages, water clarity helped predict larval densities, and riparian wetland vegetation helped predict emergent dragonfly densities.

  16. SBRT in operable early stage lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Johannes; Andratschke, Nicolaus; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Since decades the gold standard for treatment of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is surgical lobectomy plus mediastinal lymph node dissection. Patients in worse health status are treated with sublobar resection or radiation treatment. With development of stereotactic-body-radiotherapy (SBRT), outcome of patients treated with radiation was substantially improved. Comparison of SBRT and surgical techniques is difficult due to the lack of randomized trials. However, all available evidence in form of case control studies of population based studies show equivalence between sublobar resection and SBRT indicating that SBRT-when performed by a trained and experienced team-should be offered to all high-risk surgical patients. For patients not willing to take the risk of lobectomy and therefore refusing surgery, SBRT is an excellent treatment option.

  17. Early Stage Disease Diagnosis System Using Human Nail Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti S. Indi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human’s hand nail is analyzed to identify many diseases at early stage of diagnosis. Study of person hand nail color helps in identification of particular disease in healthcare domain. The proposed system guides in such scenario to take decision in disease diagnosis. The input to the proposed system is person nail image. The system will process an image of nail and extract features of nail which is used for disease diagnosis. Human nail consist of various features, out of which proposed system uses nail color changes for disease diagnosis. Here, first training set data is prepared using Weka tool from nail images of patients of specific diseases. A feature extracted from input nail image is compared with the training data set to get result. In this experiment we found that using color feature of nail image average 65% results are correctly matched with training set data during three tests conducted.

  18. [Implementation of the intestinal micro flora in the early stage and adequate immunity later on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhendries, J-P; Maton, P; François, A; Marguglio, A; Marion, W; Smeets, S; Philippet, P

    2010-09-01

    The pre and postnatal development of human immunity are remarkably continuous. The feto-placental unit builds up to promote a climate of immune tolerance specifically driven in this way by the maternal immunity. The process of birth triggers the development of the infant's postnatal immunity, in first place through the bacterial colonisation of a sterile intestinal mucosa. The progressive immune response stabilisation at the sub-mucosa level during the first year of life will arise from the interface between the host and its microflora. It will take place progressively and will occur thanks to a variety of successive and complementary very complex immune mechanisms, under the influence of a rich and diversified intestinal microbiotia. Solid scientific arguments allow hypothesising that immune deviances later in life could be the consequence of an inadequate bacterial pressure on the intestinal mucosa at the early stage. A variety of epigenetic modifications taking place in this early stage could account for the deviant programming of later immunity. Each health care provider should acknowledge that some therapeutic and nutritional interventions during the first year of life may interfere with this complex immune development, giving rise to a risk of increasing immune deviancies later on.

  19. Infrared coagulation versus rubber band ligation in early stage hemorrhoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Gupta

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The ideal therapy for early stages of hemorrhoids is always debated. Some are more effective but are more painful, others are less painful but their efficacy is also lower. Thus, comfort or efficacy is a major concern. In the present randomized study, a comparison is made between infrared coagulation and rubber band ligation in terms of effectiveness and discomfort. One hundred patients with second degree bleeding piles were randomized prospectively to either rubber band ligation (N = 54 or infrared coagulation (N = 46. Parameters measured included postoperative discomfort and pain, time to return to work, relief in incidence of bleeding, and recurrence rate. The mean age was 38 years (range 19-68 years. The mean duration of disease was 17.5 months (range 12 to 34 months. The number of male patients was double that of females. Postoperative pain during the first week was more intense in the band ligation group (2-5 vs 0-3 on a visual analogue scale. Post-defecation pain was more intense with band ligation and so was rectal tenesmus (P = 0.0059. The patients in the infrared coagulation group resumed their duties earlier (2 vs 4 days, P = 0.03, but also had a higher recurrence or failure rate (P = 0.03. Thus, we conclude that band ligation, although more effective in controlling symptoms and obliterating hemorrhoids, is associated with more pain and discomfort to the patient. As infrared coagulation can be conveniently repeated in case of recurrence, it could be considered to be a suitable alternative office procedure for the treatment of early stage hemorrhoids.

  20. Locomotor function in the early stage of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinella, Ilaria; Crenna, Paolo; Calabrese, Elena; Rabuffetti, Marco; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Nemni, Raffaello; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2007-12-01

    The cardinal motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been widely investigated with particular reference to abnormalities of steady-state walking. The great majority of studies, however are related to severe forms of PD patients (phases > = 3 of Hoehn and Yahr scale), where locomotor abnormalities are clearly manifested. Goal of the present study was to quantitatively describe locomotor symptoms in subjects with mild PD. Accordingly, a multitask protocol involving instrumental analysis of steady-state linear walking, initiation of gait, and turning while walking was applied to a group of patients with idiopathic PD in their early clinical stage (phases 1 and 2 of Hoehn and Yahr scale), as well as in age-matched elderly controls. Kinematic, kinetic, and myoelectric measures were obtained by optoelectronic motion analysis, force platform, and telemetric electromyography. Results in PD patients showed a tendency to bradykinetic gait, with reduction of walking speed and cadence. Impairments of gait initiation consisted in reduction of the backward shift of the center of pressure (CoP) and prolongation of the stepping phase. Alterations of the turning task were more consistent and included delayed reorientation of the head toward the new direction, altered head-upper trunk rotational strategy, and adoption of a greater number of steps to complete the turning. It is concluded that patients in the early stage of PD reveal mild alterations of steady-state linear walking and more significant anomalies in the transitional conditions, especially during changes in the travel direction. Quantitative analysis of nonstationary locomotor tasks might be a potentially useful starting point for further studies on the pathophysiology of PD.

  1. Paranasal Manifestations of Early Stage Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Günel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is the most common adult leukemia. A few studies have been reported about the relationship between CLL and paranasal sinuses. We aimed to investigate the paranasal manifestations of CLL and to determine the expression of nuclear factor-ĸB (NF-kB and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α in the nasal mucosa in patients with CLL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a clinical trial that involved 40 patients. Group CLL (n=20 consisted of patients with early-stage CLL who were followed-up at the hematology clinic and who did not receive any treatment. The control group (n=20 consisted of patients who had undergone concha surgery because of nasal obstruction. Paranasal sinus computer tomography scans of all patients were taken, they were scored on the basis of the Lund–Mackay system, and sinusitis findings were recorded. The biopsy material taken from the inferior concha head of all patients was immunohistochemically stained with primary antibodies against NF-kB and TNF-α. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to NF-κB (p=0.716 and TNF-α staining scores (p=1.000. The Lund–Mackay scores were significantly higher in the CLL group than in the control group (p=0.004. Fourteen patients had sinusitis at different locations, while the most common diagnosis was maxillary sinusitis (n=8 in the CLL group. CONCLUSION: This study showed that patients with early-stage CLL tend to have rhinosinusitis. However, NF-kB and TNF-α may not have a role in the inflammatory process involving the paranasal sinuses in patients with CLL.

  2. Early life history of pomatomus saltatrix off the East coast of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beckley, LE

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Several authors have stated that southward transport of the early life-history stages of Pomatomus saltatrix also known as the elf or shad occurs by passive drift in the Agulhas Current, a strong western boundary current which flows southwards...

  3. Psychological effects of poetry workshops with people with early stage dementia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Ioana; MacFarlane, Kit; Ranzijn, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of writing poetry on psychological functioning in people with early stage dementia. A series of poetry writing workshops was conducted with four women, at the end of which a one-on-one short structured interview was conducted. All of the women said that they benefited from the workshops, but their experiences differed greatly. Themes included competence and self-efficacy, personal growth, wanting to contribute and poetry writing as a way of coping with the progression of the condition. Creative activities such as writing poetry hold promise for enhancing the quality of life of people with dementia.

  4. A Model of Isotope Separation in Cells at the Early Stages of Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkikh, A V; Bokunyaeva, A O

    2016-03-01

    The separation of the isotopes of certain ions can serve as an important criterion for the presence of life in the early stages of its evolution. A model of the separation of isotopes during their transport through the cell membrane is constructed. The dependence of the selection coefficient on various parameters is found. In particular, it is shown that the maximum efficiency of the transport of ions corresponds to the minimum enrichment coefficient. At the maximum enrichment, the efficiency of the transport system approaches ½. Calculated enrichment coefficients are compared with experimentally obtained values for different types of cells, and the comparison shows a qualitative agreement between these quantities.

  5. Treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engert, Andreas; Raemaekers, John

    2016-07-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has become one of the best curable malignancies today. This is particularly true for patients with early-stage disease. Today, most patients in this risk group are treated with a combination of chemotherapy followed by small-field radiotherapy. More recent clinical trials such as the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) HD10 study demonstrated, that even two cycles of ABVD followed by 20 Gy involved-field radiation therapy (IF-RT) are sufficient and result in more than 90% of patients being cured. The current treatment for early unfavorable patients is either four cycles of ABVD plus 30 Gy IF-RT or two cycles of BEACOPPbaseline followed by two cycles of ABVD plus IF-RT. Here, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) demonstrated that in positron emission tomography (PET)-positive patients after two cycles of ABVD, treatment switched to two cycles of BEACOPPbaseline plus radiotherapy results in significantly improved outcomes. Other aspects including attempts to further reduce intensity of treatment will be discussed.

  6. Promoting Quality and Evidence-Based Care in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Daniel F.; Ramsey, Scott D.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Barlow, William E.; Gralow, Julie R.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based guidelines for long-term follow-up of early-stage breast cancer patients developed by oncology societies in the United States and Europe recommend that breast cancer survivors undergo regular evaluation with history and physical examination, as well as annual mammography. Routine blood tests, circulating tumor markers, and/or surveillance imaging studies beyond mammography are not recommended in the absence of concerning symptoms or physical examination findings because of lack of supportive clinical evidence. Despite these guidelines, studies have shown that 20% to 40% of oncologists assess serum tumor markers as part of routine monitoring of early-stage breast cancer patients. As part of efforts to both address the financial challenges confronting the health-care system and optimize patient outcomes, the American Society of Clinical Oncology’s Cost of Care Task Force identified adherence to breast cancer surveillance guidelines as an opportunity to improve care and reduce cost. However, these recommendations are based on trials done in an era of outdated technology and limited therapeutic options. It is possible that recent improvements in diagnostics and treatments could make earlier detection of recurrent disease important for improving both survival and quality of life outcomes. Research is necessary to further inform optimal breast cancer follow-up strategies, which could impact these recommendations. At this time, outside of well-conducted clinical trials, there is no role for ordering routine serial blood or imaging tests in monitoring for recurrence in early-stage breast cancer patients. PMID:24627271

  7. Spatio-temporal dynamics of growth and survival of Lesser Sandeel early life-stages in the North Sea: Predictions from a coupled individual-based and hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurkan, Zeren; Christensen, Asbjørn; Maar, Marie

    2013-01-01

    of larval and early juvenile Lesser Sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) in the North Sea to local feeding conditions by an adapted version of a generic bioenergetic individual-based model for larval fish describing growth and survival. Prey encounter and physiological processes are described explicitly in the model...... is validated by Continuous Plankton Recorder survey time series data. Spatio-temporal dynamics of the sandeel cohorts are simulated by the integrated model framework for the period 2004-2006 and five major area divisions of suitable sandeel habitats in the North Sea. This allows obtaining insight...... into the influence of temperature variation and zooplankton availability on the growth and survival. To determine areas promising for recruitment, area divisions are compared and optimal time of hatching for higher survival to recruitment due to match-mismatch with prey is determined by comparing different hatching...

  8. Spatio-temporal dynamics of growth and survival of Lesser Sandeel early life-stages in the North Sea: Predictions from a coupled individual-based and hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurkan, Zeren; Christensen, Asbjørn; Maar, Marie

    2013-01-01

    of larval and early juvenile Lesser Sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) in the North Sea to local feeding conditions by an adapted version of a generic bioenergetic individual-based model for larval fish describing growth and survival. Prey encounter and physiological processes are described explicitly in the model......, which allows analyzing the influence of prey on the growth and survival of sandeel. The model is coupled to a hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model with physical and prey fields and implemented in temporal and three-dimensional spatial settings. Zooplankton biomass simulated by the biogeochemical model...... is validated by Continuous Plankton Recorder survey time series data. Spatio-temporal dynamics of the sandeel cohorts are simulated by the integrated model framework for the period 2004-2006 and five major area divisions of suitable sandeel habitats in the North Sea. This allows obtaining insight...

  9. The effects of ocean acidification and a carbon dioxide capture and storage leak on the early life stages of the marine mussel Perna perna (Linneaus, 1758) and metal bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalaj, D; De Orte, M R; Goulding, T A; Medeiros, I D; DelValls, T A; Cesar, A

    2017-01-01

    The study assesses the effects of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) leaks and ocean acidification (OA) on the metal bioavailability and reproduction of the mytilid Perna perna. In laboratory-scale experiments, CCS leakage scenarios (pH 7.0, 6.5, 6.0) and one OA (pH 7.6) scenario were tested using metal-contaminated sediment elutriates and seawater from Santos Bay. The OA treatment did not have an effect on fertilisation, while significant effects were observed in larval-development bioassays where only 16 to 27 % of larva developed normally. In treatments that simulated CO2 leaks, when compared with control, fertilisation success gradually decreased and no larva developed to the D-shaped stage. A fall in pH increased the bioavailability of metals to marine mussels. Larva shell size was significantly affected by both elutriates when compared with seawater; moreover, a significant difference occurred at pH 6.5 between elutriates in the fertilisation bioassay.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Phosphoproteins in the Rice Nucleus During the Early Stage of Seed Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Yin, Xiaojian; Sakata, Katsumi; Yang, Pingfang; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-07-01

    The early stage of seed germination is the first step in the plant life cycle without visible morphological change. To investigate the mechanism controlling the early stage of rice seed germination, we performed gel-and label-free nuclear phosphoproteomics. A total of 3467 phosphopeptides belonging to 102 nuclear phosphoproteins from rice embryos were identified. Protein-synthesis-related proteins were mainly phosphorylated. During the first 24 h following imbibition, 115 nuclear phosphoproteins were identified, and significant changes in the phosphorylation level over time were observed in 29 phosphoproteins. Cluster analysis indicated that nucleotide-binding proteins and zinc finger CCCH- and BED-type proteins increased in abundance during the first 12 h of imbibition and then decreased. The in silico protein-protein interactions for 29 nuclear phosphoproteins indicated that the Sas10/Utp3 protein, which functions in snoRNA binding and gene silencing, was the center of the phosphoprotein network in nuclei. The germination rate of seeds was significantly slowed with phosphatase inhibitor treatment. The mRNA expression of the zinc finger CCCH-type protein did not change, and the zinc finger BED-type protein was upregulated in rice embryos during the early stage of germination with phosphatase inhibitor treatment. These results suggest that the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of nuclear proteins are involved in rice seed germination. Furthermore, transcription factors such as zinc finger CCCH- and BED-type proteins might play a key role through nuclear phosphoproteins, and Sas10/Utp3 protein might interact with nuclear phosphoproteins in rice embryos to mediate the early stage of seed germination.

  11. Effects of maternal exposure to estrogen and PCB on different life stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Per-Erik; Westerlund, L.; Billsson, K.; Berg, A.H. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cellular and Developmental Biology; Teh, S.J.; Hinton, D.E. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology; Tysklind, M. [Umeaa Univ., (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Nilsson, Jan; Eriksson, Lars-Ove [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Aquaculture

    1999-02-01

    PCBs have been found to impair both reproduction and development in fish. We have investigated the effects of 3 PCB congeners, 2,3,3`,4,4`,5,6-HpCB (PCB-190); 2,3,4,4`-TeCB (PCB-60); and 2,2`,4,6,6`-PeCB (PCB-104), and the estrogenic hormone 17{beta}-estradiol on fecundity, early life-stage mortality, gross morphology and histology of zebrafish (Danio rerio). While none of the studied substances reduced fecundity, they increased embryo and larval mortality. The most severe effects on viability were observed following treatment with 17{beta}-estradiol or the weakly estrogenic PCB-104. Following 17{beta}-estradiol or PCB-104 exposure, mortality continued through the yolksac absorption phase. PCB-60, on the other hand, resulted in mortality between the 30% epiboly stage and 75% epiboly stage. At the same time as embryos started to die, embryo development and hatching were delayed. PCB-190 showed only moderate effects on early-life stage mortality. The fish were reared until sexual maturation where after they were subjected to gross morphological and histological analyses. Changes in morphology were observed following PCB-104 and PCB-190 treatment. Both substances gave rise to craniofacial malformations while PCB-104 also led to lordosis in females and scoliosis in fish of both sexes. From histological analysis it was found that PCB-104 and 17{beta}-estradiol resulted in karyorrhexis and karyolysis in the kidney. Possible signs of bile stasis were observed following 17{beta}-estradiol and PCB-190 treatment. Some effects were observed on the gonads, including areas in the ovary showing atresia and limited failure of testicular spermatogenesis in 17{beta}-estradiol, PCB-104, and PCB-60 treated fish. While all studied substances resulted in effects on offspring, the observation that estrogenic substances are highly embryotoxic, raises concern that endocrine disrupting substances may severely reduce fish populations in polluted areas

  12. Antibiotics, birth mode, and diet shape microbiome maturation during early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Chung, Jennifer; Battaglia, Thomas; Henderson, Nora; Jay, Melanie; Li, Huilin; D Lieber, Arnon; Wu, Fen; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I; Chen, Yu; Schweizer, William; Zheng, Xuhui; Contreras, Monica; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria; Blaser, Martin J

    2016-06-15

    Early childhood is a critical stage for the foundation and development of both the microbiome and host. Early-life antibiotic exposures, cesarean section, and formula feeding could disrupt microbiome establishment and adversely affect health later in life. We profiled microbial development during the first 2 years of life in a cohort of 43 U.S. infants and identified multiple disturbances associated with antibiotic exposures, cesarean section, and formula feeding. These exposures contributed to altered establishment of maternal bacteria, delayed microbiome development, and altered α-diversity. These findings illustrate the complexity of early-life microbiome development and its sensitivity to perturbation. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Effects of early life adverse experiences on brain activity: Implications from maternal separation models in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi eNishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences can affect the formation of neuronal circuits and exert long-lasting influences on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated MS, an animal model of early life stress, can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis and can affect subsequent brain function and emotional behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been completely elucidated. In this review, we introduce various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT, an end product of the HPA axis in rodents. We then present a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression, a biological marker of neuronal activity. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we discuss how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders. Furthermore, alterations in gene expression in adult mice exposed to MS, especially epigenetic changes of DNA methylation, are discussed.

  14. Exome sequencing identifies early gastric carcinoma as an early stage of advanced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Guhyun; Hwang, Woo Cheol; Do, In-Gu; Wang, Kai; Kang, So Young; Lee, Jeeyun; Park, Se Hoon; Park, Joon Oh; Kang, Won Ki; Jang, Jiryeon; Choi, Min-Gew; Lee, Jun Ho; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung; Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Seonwoo; Park, Cheol Keun; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

    2013-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is one of the major causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early detection and treatment leads to an excellent prognosis in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC), whereas the prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) remains poor. It is unclear whether EGCs and AGCs are distinct entities or whether EGCs are the beginning stages of AGCs. We performed whole exome sequencing of four samples from patients with EGC and compared the results with those from AGCs. In both EGCs and AGCs, a total of 268 genes were commonly mutated and independent mutations were additionally found in EGCs (516 genes) and AGCs (3104 genes). A higher frequency of C>G transitions was observed in intestinal-type compared to diffuse-type carcinomas (P = 0.010). The DYRK3, GPR116, MCM10, PCDH17, PCDHB1, RDH5 and UNC5C genes are recurrently mutated in EGCs and may be involved in early carcinogenesis.

  15. Radiation therapy for early stages of Morbus Ledderhose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyd, Reinhard [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Klinikum Offenbach (Germany); Dorn, Anne Pia; Mueller-Schimpfle, Marcus [Central Inst. of Radiology, Municipal Hospitals, Frankfurt/Main-Hoechst (Germany); Herkstroeter, Markus [Radiotherapeutic Practice at the Municipal Hospitals, Frankfurt/Main-Hoechst (Germany); Roedel, Claus; Fraunholz, Ingeborg [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Univ. Hospital Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of early stages of benign plantar fibromatosis (Morbus Ledderhose [ML]). Patients and Methods: From 2003 to 2008, 24 patients (33 sites) with a mean age of 52 years received RT for symptomatic ML. Prior to RT, 19 patients complained of pain and 15 had walking difficulties. 21 patients (28 sites) were irradiated with orthovolt-age X-rays and three (five sites) received electron-beam irradiation. The RT protocol consisted of five weekly fractions of 3.0 Gy (15 Gy), repeated after 6 weeks to a total dose of 30 Gy in 20 patients (28 sites). In four patients (five sites), two single fractions of 4.0 Gy were applied, repeated at intervals of 4 weeks to total doses of 24-32 Gy. Primary study endpoints were the prevention of disease progression and the avoidance of a surgical intervention. Secondary endpoints were pain relief, improvement of gait, and patients' subjective satisfaction measured with a linear analog scale (LAS). Results: After a median follow-up of 22.5 months, none of the patients experienced a progression of number and size of the lesions or the clinical symptoms. In eleven sites (33.3%) complete remission of cords or nodules occurred, in 18 (54.5%) a reduced number or size was noted, and four sites (12.1%) were unchanged. Pain relief was achieved in 13/19 patients (68.4%), and an improvement of gait abnormalities was noted in 11/15 patients (73.3%). The patients' subjective satisfaction measured by means of the LAS revealed a median improvement of 3.5 points in 22/24 patients (91.6%). Skin or soft tissues toxicities RTOG grade > 2 were not noted. Conclusion: RT is effective for treatment of the early stages of ML and may obviate the need for a surgical intervention. Long-term follow-up studies including a larger number of patients are required to define the role of RT in the management of this disorder. (orig.)

  16. Sublethal Toxicity of Crude Oil Exposure in The Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, at Two Life History Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltz, Sarah M; Taylor, Caz M

    2017-02-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred during peak spawning season for many Gulf of Mexico fish and invertebrates. Early life stages of important fishery species were at risk to encounter crude oil. In this study, we investigated the effect of crude oil exposure on two life stages of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). We tested the effects of oil exposure on the survival and growth of larval (pelagic) and juvenile (estuarine) blue crabs as well as the effects of oil on the molt frequency of juveniles. Larval crabs exposed to crude oil showed no discernable growth or mortality differences when compared to non-exposed controls. Juvenile crabs exposed to oil also showed no differences in size but exhibited increased intermolt duration (time between molts). Our study suggests that different life-stages may respond differently when exposed to crude oil and that oil exposure negatively affects growth rate of juvenile blue crabs.

  17. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill.

  18. Impact Craters as Habitats for Life on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Tornabene, L. L.; Banerjee, N. R.; Cockell, C. S.; Flemming, R.; Izawa, M. R. M.; McCutcheon, J.; Pontefract, A.; Parnell, J.; Sapers, H.; Southam, G.

    2012-05-01

    In this contribution we present a case that impact craters on Early Mars would have represented prime habitats for life, and potentially for its origin, and that impact craters, therefore, should be prime exploration targets for future missions.

  19. Early life origins of psychological development and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina

    2009-12-01

    According to the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)-hypothesis, conditions early in life may have life-long consequences. In a series of epidemiological birth cohort and clinical studies and natural experiments, we have had the chance to test the extent to which this hypothesis is useful in understanding individual differences in psychological development and mental health. Our findings have provided evidence that individual differences in cognitive, social and emotional development and in mental health may lie in early life circumstances, and add significantly to the literature by pointing out which periods of early growth are the most critical. These findings are also important in translating pre-clinical evidence to humans. What remains less clear, however, is what the mechanisms of programming are. Thus, further research is needed to elucidate these mechanisms before information on the early life origins of health and disease can be used in designing prevention and intervention programs.

  20. [GABA--the basic mediator of excitation in the early stages of hippocampal development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazipov, R N; Zefirov, A L; Ben-Ari, E

    1998-01-01

    GABA is the principal neurotransmitter of inhibition in the adult mammalian brain. However, at early stages of development, including embryonic period and first week of postnatal life, GABA plays the role of main neurotransmitter of excitation. The paradoxical excitatory effect of GABA is due to an inversed chloride gradient and therefore a depolarizing direction of GABA-A receptor mediated responses. In addition, another type of GABAergic inhibition mediated by postsynaptic GABA-B receptors is not functional at early stage of life. In the neonatal rat hippocampus, GABA, acting via GABA-A receptors, activates voltage gated sodium and calcium channels and potentiates the activity of NMDA receptors by reducing their voltage dependent Mg2+ block. The temporal window when GABA exerts excitatory actions coincides with a particular pattern of activity of hippocampal neuronal network that is characterized by periodical giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) reminiscent of interictal-like epileptiform discharges. Recent studies have shown that GDPs result from the synchronous discharge of GABAergic interneurons and principal glutamatergic pyramidal cells and are mediated by the synergistic excitatory actions of GABA-A and glutamate receptors. GDPs provide synchronous intracellular Ca2+ oscillations and may therefore be implicated in hebbian modulation of developing synapses and activity-dependent formation of the hippocampal network.

  1. Cytonuclear incompatibility contributes to the early stages of speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Kubow, Karen B; So, Nina; Galloway, Laura F

    2016-12-01

    Genetic incompatibility is a hallmark of speciation. Cytonuclear incompatibilities are proposed to be among the first genetic barriers to arise during speciation. Accordingly, reproductive isolation (RI) within species should be heavily influenced by interactions between the organelle and nuclear genomes. However, there are few clear examples of cytonuclear incompatibility within a species. Here, we show substantial postzygotic RI in first-generation hybrids between differentiated populations of an herbaceous plant (up to 92% reduction in fitness). RI was primarily due to germination and survival, with moderate RI for pollen viability. RI for survival was asymmetric and caused by cytonuclear incompatibility, with the strength of incompatibility linearly related to chloroplast genetic distance. This cytonuclear incompatibility may be the result of a rapidly evolving plastid genome. Substantial asymmetric RI was also found for germination, but was not associated with cytonuclear incompatibility, indicating endosperm or maternal-zygote incompatibilities. These results demonstrate that cytonuclear incompatibility contributes to RI within species, suggesting that initial rates of speciation could be influenced by rates of organelle evolution. However, other genetic incompatibilities are equally important, indicating that even at early stages, speciation can be a complex process involving multiple genes and incompatibilities.

  2. Affective motives for smoking among early stage smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Amanda R; Wahlquist, Amy E; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Gray, Kevin M; Saladin, Michael E; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2014-10-01

    As most smokers initiate smoking during adolescence, assessment of smoking motives that underlie trajectories of dependence is critical for both prevention and cessation efforts. In the current study, we expected participants with higher nicotine dependence would smoke (a) less for positive reinforcement (PR) and (b) more for negative reinforcement (NR) motives. We secondarily assessed the relative contribution of PR to NR motives across levels of dependence. Data were drawn from a study on cue-elicited craving among occasional versus daily adolescent smokers aged 16-20 years (N = 111). Smoking motives were assessed in relation to 3 commonly used measures of nicotine dependence: (a) Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), (b) Autonomy over Smoking Scale (AUTOS), and (c) Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). Compared to occasional smokers, daily smokers had significantly higher scores on each dependence measure and endorsed more prominent NR smoking motives. Each measure of nicotine dependence was strongly associated with NR motives for smoking, although measures differed in their association with PR motives. As expected, the FTND, AUTOS, and NDSS each significantly predicted smoking motive difference score (PR - NR), such that higher dependence was associated with more prominent NR motives for smoking. Results are consistent with our understanding of dependence and provide further support for 3 common measures of nicotine dependence among early stage smokers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Early stages of diamond BEN-HFCVD on iridium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnault, J.C.; Faerber, J. [Groupe Surfaces-Interfaces, Institut de Physique et Chimie de Strasbourg, IPCMS-GSI, UMR 7504, BP 43, 23, rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Vonau, F. [Laboratoire de Physique et Spectroscopie Electronique, 4, rue des Freres Lumiere, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Arabski, J.; Schmerber, G. [Groupe des Materiaux Metalliques, IPCMS-GEMM, 91404 Orsay (France); Wyczisk, F.; Legagneux, P. [Thales R and T, Domaine de Corbeville, 91404 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2003-09-01

    This study attempts to better understand the BEN effects on diamond nucleation on iridium buffer layers investigated by in situ electron spectroscopies (XPS, AES). The surface morphology is further characterised by AFM and SEM FEG. Nano-Auger experiments provide information about the chemical nature of the crystals. During the early stages of BEN, nano-Auger observations revealed a significant carbon sp{sup 3} contribution within the bright crystals whereas the surrounding areas are mainly sp{sup 2}. This emphasizes the BEN effect on the diamond nucleation. Moreover, AES experiments reveal the formation of graphite. The equivalent thickness of the graphite layer is estimated from XPS data, it is close to a monolayer. The graphite formation is not a proper effect of BEN because it is also obtained under CVD environment according to our study. Anisotrope crystals arranged along left angle 110 right angle directions have been characterized by HR-SEM and AFM. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. The studies of nodular graphite cast iron early stages austempering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krzyńska

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of early stage of ductile cast iron austempering are presented. The aim of the investigations was to look closer into the structure – mechanical properties relationships of this very attractive cast material. The experiment was carried out with enriched with Cu EN-GJS-500-7 grade ductile iron. The specimens were first solution heat treated 1 hour in 910oC and then isothermally quenched for different time in molten tin at the temperature 275oC. The mechanical properties of as cast and heat treated specimens were tested to evaluate tensile Rm and yield strength R p, 0.2 and elongation A5. Additionally hardness measurements were carried out using Brinell-Rockwell method. Structure of the specimens both as cast and after austempering was studied using conventional light microscopy. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM was applied for fracture surface observations. It was concluded that short time low temperature austempering lead to formation martensitic microstructure characterized by very high hardness with almost zero ductility. The lack of ductility make the material very sensitive to any structure defects which work as a stress concentrators which strongly influence the strength of heat treated ductile iron specimens.

  5. Metformin inhibits early stage diethylnitrosamine‑induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Woori; Yu, Eun-Sil; Chang, Minsun; Park, Hyun-Kyu; Choi, Hyun-Ji; Ryu, Jae-Eun; Jang, Sungwoong; Lee, Hyo-Ju; Jang, Ja-June; Son, Woo-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Antitumor effects of metformin have recently emerged despite its original use for type II diabetes. In the present study, the effects of metformin on the development and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were investigated using the diethylnitrosamine (DEN)‑induced rat model of HCC. Tumor foci were characterized by gross examination and by histopathological characteristics, including proliferation, hepatic progenitor cell content and the expression of hepatocarcinoma‑specific molecular markers. Potential target molecules of metformin were investigated to determine the molecular mechanism underlying the inhibitory effects of metformin on chemically induced liver tumorigenesis. The antitumor effects of metformin were increased by the reduction of surface nodules and decreased the incidence of altered hepatocellular foci, hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma. Also, decreased expression levels of glutathione S‑transferase placental form, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cytokeratin 8 described the inhibitory effects of metformin on HCC. In the present study, Wistar rats receiving treatment with DEN were administered metformin for 16 weeks. In addition, metformin suppressed liver tumorigenesis via an AMPK‑dependent pathway. These results suggested that metformin has promising effects on the early stage of HCC in rats. Therefore, metformin may be used for the prevention of HCC recurrence following primary chemotherapy for HCC and/or for high‑risk patients, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis.

  6. Paternal effects on early life history traits in Northwest Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroll, M.-M.; Peck, M.A.; Butts, Ian A.E.

    2013-01-01

    and survival. In marine fish, rates of natural mortality are highest during early life and are negatively correlated with rates of growth and body size. In these early life stages (eggs, larvae, young juveniles) subtle differences in mortality can cause large differences in recruitment and year-class success...... this 12 males and two females were crossed using a full-factorial breeding design. Paternity had a strong influence on fertilization success, hatching success, cumulative embryonic mortality, larval standard length, eye diameter, yolk-sac area, and cumulative larval mortality. Female 1 showed an overall...

  7. Building performance simulation in the early design stage: An introduction to integrated dynamic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negendahl, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Designing with building performance simulation feedback in the early design stage has existed since the early days of computational modeling. However, as a consequence of a fragmented building industry building performance simulations (BPSs) in the early design stage are closely related to who is...

  8. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  9. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. [Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  10. Exogenous determinants of early-life conditions, and mortality later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    We analyze causal effects of conditions early in life on the individual mortality rate later in life. Conditions early in life are captured by transitory features of the macro-environment around birth, notably the state of the business cycle around birth, but also food price deviations, weather......) then the mortality rate later in life is lower. The implied effect on the median lifetime of those who survive until age 35 is about 10 months. A systematic empirical exploration of all macro-indicators reveals that economic conditions in the first years after birth also affect mortality rates later in life....

  11. Intestinal microbiota during early life - impact on health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nylund, L.; Satokari, R.M.; Salminen, S.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the first years after birth, the intestinal microbiota develops rapidly both in diversity and complexity while being relatively stable in healthy adults. Different life-style-related factors as well as medical practices have an influence on the early-life intestinal colonisation. We address the i

  12. Intestinal microbiota during early life - impact on health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nylund, L.; Satokari, R.M.; Salminen, S.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the first years after birth, the intestinal microbiota develops rapidly both in diversity and complexity while being relatively stable in healthy adults. Different life-style-related factors as well as medical practices have an influence on the early-life intestinal colonisation. We address the i

  13. Intestinal microbiota during early life - impact on health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nylund, L.; Satokari, R.M.; Salminen, S.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the first years after birth, the intestinal microbiota develops rapidly both in diversity and complexity while being relatively stable in healthy adults. Different life-style-related factors as well as medical practices have an influence on the early-life intestinal colonisation. We address the

  14. Best squirrels trade a long life for an early reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Descamps, Sébastien; Boutin, Stan; Berteaux, Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-01

    Age at primiparity plays a crucial role in population dynamics and life-history evolution. Long-term data on female North American red squirrels were analysed to study the fitness consequences of delaying first reproduction. Early breeders were born earlier, had a higher breeding success and achieved a higher lifetime reproductive success than females who delayed their first reproduction, which suggests a higher quality of early breeders. However, early breeders had similar mass when tagged, ...

  15. Short term follow-up study on emotional disorders and quality of life in women with early stage cervical cancer undergoing gynecologic surgery%早期宫颈癌患者术后情绪障碍及其生命质量的短期追踪调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡俐琼; 路思思; 王泽华; 刘登华

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the emotion disorders and quality of life in women with early stage cervical cancer (ESCC) that newly undergoing radical hysterectomy with a follow-up period of 6 months. Methods:One hundred and twenty-five patients with ESCC newly after radical hysterectomy and bilateralpelvic lymph node dissection were accessed with SAS, SDS, CARES-SF and Cantril to investigate the emotion disorders and quality of life. Results:One hundred and eleven patients completed six months of investigation, and the quality of life in the patients newly after operation was in the moderate level. The scores of anxiety and life quality were stable over 6 months,but they were more depressed and had poorer marital and sexual relationship during the follow-up period. Conclusion:Patients with ESCC newly undergoing gynecologic surgery had obvious disorders of anxiety and depression. Medical staff should pay attention to the quality of life of patients,and should make the necessary psychological counseling to help patients coordinate the marital relationship, which will benefit the patients with the common physical and psychological rehabilitation.%目的:调查早期宫颈癌患者术后初期及术后半年焦虑、抑郁情绪和生命质量变化.方法:采用SAS、SDS、CARES-SF、Cantril阶梯量表对125例行宫颈癌根治术后半年内早期宫颈癌患者的情绪特征和生命质量进行了6个月的追踪调查.结果:125例患者中,111例(88.8%)完成了调查,结果显示术后初期患者的生命质量为中等,焦虑情况和生命质量在半年后的得分较稳定,而6个月后的抑郁程度加重,生命质量中的婚姻关系和性关系得分下降.结论:宫颈癌根治术后的早期宫颈癌患者存在明显的焦虑和抑郁情绪,应重视患者生活质量,应对患者进行必要的心理疏导,帮助患者协调婚姻关系,这将有利于宫颈癌患者的身体和心理的共同康复.

  16. Dream features in the early stages of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugalho, Paulo; Paiva, Teresa

    2011-11-01

    Few studies have investigated the relation between dream features and cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD), although vivid dreams, hallucinations and cognitive decline have been proposed as successive steps of a pathological continuum. Our objectives were therefore to characterize the dreams of early stage PD and to study the relation between dream characteristics, cognitive function, motor status, depression, dopaminergic treatment, and the presence of REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) and hallucinations. Dreams of 19 male PD patients and 21 matched control subjects were classified according to Hall and van de Castle system. h statistics was used to compare the dream content between patients and controls. We tested the relation between patients' dreams characteristics and cognitive function (Frontal assessment battery (FAB) and Mini-Mental State Examination tests) depression (Beck depression inventory), motor function (UPDRS), dopaminergic treatment, the presence of RBD (according to clinical criteria) and hallucinations, using general linear model statistics. Patients and controls differed only on FAB scores. Relevant differences in the Hall and van de Castle scale were found between patient's dreams and those of the control group, regarding animals, aggression/friendliness, physical aggression, befriender (higher in the patient group) and aggressor and bodily misfortunes (lower in the patient group) features. Cognitive and particularly frontal dysfunction had a significant influence on the frequency of physical aggression and animal related features, while dopaminergic doses, depressive symptoms, hallucinations and RBD did not. We found a pattern of dream alteration characterized by heightened aggressiveness and the presence of animals. These were related to more severe frontal dysfunction, which could be the origin of such changes.

  17. Early Stage of Hypertensive Retinopathy; Is It Really Important?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat KARAMAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between early stage hypertensive retinopathy (HTRP and endothelial dysfunction (ED in atherogenesis. MATERIAL and METHODS: A total of 99 subjects consisting of 73 patients diagnosed with Essential Hypertension (HT and 26 healthy subjects were included to the study. Flow mediated dilatation (FMD was performed to detect ED. Asymmetric dimethylarginine-ADMA was measured as a marker of ED and the hsCRP and sTWEAK levels were measured for microvascular inflammation. All patients were screened for retinopathy. RESULTS: The mean blood pressure of the hypertensive patients and the control subjects was 140.1±13.7/86.1±10.7 and 107.12±10.0/65.38±10.2 respectively. HTRP was positive in 60.3% (n=44 and negative in 39.7% (n=29 of the patients with hypertension. There was grade 1 retinopathy in 52.1% and grade 2 retinopathy in 8.2% of hypertensive patients. The hsCRP, sTWEAK and ADMA levels were significantly higher in hypertensive patients than in the control group (respectively, p=0,011, p=0,001, p=0,001. FMD levels were lower in the hypertensive group, as expected. FMD levels were lower in the retinopathy group when the hypertensive group with and without retinopathy and the control group compared. hsCRP, sTWEAK and ADMA levels were significantly higher in subjects with retinopathy. hsCRP, sTWEAK and ADMA levels were also significantly higher in subjects with retinopathy (p=0.039, p=0.001, p=0.001. CONCLUSION: ED is thought to play a role in HT etiology and is also important in the development of HT complications. It would be appropriate to evaluate hypertensive patients more carefully and perform the necessary laboratory tests to detect ED so that the proper treatment can be started (ACEI, exercise, lifestyle changes.

  18. Protein dynamics modulated electron transfer kinetics in early stage photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Prasanta; Dua, Arti

    2013-01-28

    A recent experiment has probed the electron transfer kinetics in the early stage of photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides for the reaction center of wild type and different mutants [Science 316, 747 (2007)]. By monitoring the changes in the transient absorption of the donor-acceptor pair at 280 and 930 nm, both of which show non-exponential temporal decay, the experiment has provided a strong evidence that the initial electron transfer kinetics is modulated by the dynamics of protein backbone. In this work, we present a model where the electron transfer kinetics of the donor-acceptor pair is described along the reaction coordinate associated with the distance fluctuations in a protein backbone. The stochastic evolution of the reaction coordinate is described in terms of a non-Markovian generalized Langevin equation with a memory kernel and Gaussian colored noise, both of which are completely described in terms of the microscopics of the protein normal modes. This model provides excellent fits to the transient absorption signals at 280 and 930 nm associated with protein distance fluctuations and protein dynamics modulated electron transfer reaction, respectively. In contrast to previous models, the present work explains the microscopic origins of the non-exponential decay of the transient absorption curve at 280 nm in terms of multiple time scales of relaxation of the protein normal modes. Dynamic disorder in the reaction pathway due to protein conformational fluctuations which occur on time scales slower than or comparable to the electron transfer kinetics explains the microscopic origin of the non-exponential nature of the transient absorption decay at 930 nm. The theoretical estimates for the relative driving force for five different mutants are in close agreement with the experimental estimates obtained using electrochemical measurements.

  19. 无托槽隐形矫治初期患者口腔健康相关生活质量初步研究%Preliminary study in the oral health related life quality of patients with bracketless appliance in the early stage of orthodontic treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈悦娜; 张雪玲; 戚维舒; 李孟欢; 林丽婷

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究无托槽隐形矫治器对患者口腔健康相关生活质量(OH⁃QoL)的影响,为矫治前采取针对性的健康指导提供参考。方法选取佩戴无托槽隐形矫治器≤3副的患者60例,分别在治疗前(T0)及佩戴无托槽隐形矫治器后首次复诊时(T)现场填写口腔健康影响程度量表(OHIP⁃14)中文版并回收,比较无托槽隐形矫治前和矫治初期患者OH⁃QoL的差异。结果采用配对样本t检验比较患者在无托槽隐形矫治前(T0)和佩戴无托槽隐形矫治器初期(T)量表得分,其中影响发音(T0=0.81,T=2.68;t=4.159,P=0.0142)、味觉变差(T0=0.64,T=1.60;t=3.483,P=0.0253)、出现过明显疼痛(T0=0.52,T=2.82;t=6.388,P=0.0031)、吃什么东西都不舒服(T0=0.72,T=1.79;t=6.288, P=0.0033)、不能很好的休息(T0=0.32,T=1.34;t=4.560,P=0.0103),5项的差异均有统计学意义。结论无托槽隐形矫治初期患者的OH⁃QoL与治疗前比较,受到一定程度的不良影响,主要体现在功能限制、生理性疼痛、心理障碍三方面,建议佩戴无托槽隐形矫治器前介入健康指导,预防性降低矫治对患者OH⁃QoL的影响,提高矫治积极性和依从性。%Objective To investigate the oral health related life quality of patients with bracketless appliance before treatment and in the early stage of treatment. To analyze the effect of bracketless appliance on the oral health related life quality of patients and provide reference to oral health instruction on patients before treatment. Methods In this study,60 patients with bracketless appliance undergoing less than 3 aligners were chosen,and they were asked to fill in the Chinese version of oral health impact profile⁃14 (OHIP⁃14) before treatment(T0) and at the first appointment(T). Oral health related life quality of patients before treatment and in the early stage of treatment were compared

  20. Textile dyes induce toxicity on zebrafish early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; de Lapuente, Joaquín; Teixidó, Elisabet; Porredón, Constança; Borràs, Miquel; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2016-02-01

    Textile manufacturing is one of the most polluting industrial sectors because of the release of potentially toxic compounds, such as synthetic dyes, into the environment. Depending on the class of the dyes, their loss in wastewaters can range from 2% to 50% of the original dye concentration. Consequently, uncontrolled use of such dyes can negatively affect human health and the ecological balance. The present study assessed the toxicity of the textile dyes Direct Black 38 (DB38), Reactive Blue 15 (RB15), Reactive Orange 16 (RO16), and Vat Green 3 (VG3) using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos for 144 h postfertilization (hpf). At the tested conditions, none of the dyes caused significant mortality. The highest RO16 dose significantly delayed or inhibited the ability of zebrafish embryos to hatch from the chorion after 96 hpf. From 120 hpf to 144 hpf, all the dyes impaired the gas bladder inflation of zebrafish larvae, DB38 also induced curved tail, and VG3 led to yolk sac edema in zebrafish larvae. Based on these data, DB38, RB15, RO16, and VG3 can induce malformations during embryonic and larval development of zebrafish. Therefore, it is essential to remove these compounds from wastewater or reduce their concentrations to safe levels before discharging textile industry effluents into the aquatic environment.

  1. Impaired swim bladder inflation in early-life stage fathead ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thyroid axis plays a critical role in teleost fish development. The present study investigated whether inhibition of deiodinase, the enzyme which converts thyroxine (T4), to the more biologically-active form, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), would impact inflation of the posterior and/or anterior swim bladder (SB), processes which we previously demonstrated to be thyroid-hormone regulated. Two experiments were conducted using iopanoic acid (IOP), a pharmaceutical used to treat hyperthyroidism, as a model deiodinase inhibitor. In the first study, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) embryos (~1 day post-fertilization [dpf]) were exposed in a flow-through system to three concentrations of IOP (0.6, 1.9, 6.0 mg/L) or control water and sampled at 4 and 6 dpf. Whole body T4 and T3 concentrations were measured using LC-MS/MS. Abundance of deiodinase 1-3 (dio1-3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (tsh), and thyroperoxidase (tpo) transcripts was examined using quantitative polymerase-chain reaction. Posterior SB inflation was assessed at 6 dpf. To examine effects on anterior SB inflation, a second study was conducted in which 6 dpf larvae, whose posterior SB had already inflated, were exposed to the same IOP concentrations. Fish were sampled at 10, 14, 18, and 21 dpf for T4/T3 measurements, gene transcription analyses, and thyroid histopathology. In the embryo study, incidence and length of inflated posterior SBs were significantly reduced in the 6.0 mg/L treatment at 6 dp

  2. Early stages of HIV replication: how to hijack cellular functions for a successful infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann-Che, Jacqueline; Saïb, Ali

    2004-01-01

    From the cell surface to the nucleus, the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will face multiple obstacles, crossing the plasma and nuclear membranes, but also finding its path within the cytoplasm in which elements from the cytoskeleton, organelles, and high a protein concentration, limit intracellular movements. At the same time, HIV-1 has to counteract cellular defenses--known as restriction factors--interfering with early steps of the virus cycle. Although the general outcomes of these early stages have been identified since several decades, the stepwise interactions taking place between cellular and viral components during this early journey, which will transform the incoming viral-RNA genome into a double-strand DNA competent for integration, remain largely unknown. In that sense, the uncoating process and the molecular basis of intracellular trafficking of preintegration complexes (PICs) are still poorly defined. Additionally, other key stages, which have been the focus of many reports, still require some clarifications, as is the case for the precise determinants of nuclear import of PICs. Finally, whereas the molecular mechanisms of integration, the last event of the early phase of retroviral life cycle, are now well understood, the choice of the integration site remains mysterious. Fully elucidating the early steps of HIV-1 replication is therefore crucial, not only for developing new antiretroviral drugs, but also for improving the design of lentiviral vectors for gene therapy. Since the mechanisms of HIV-1 entry and innate cell defenses were recently the topic of excellent reviews, we will focus here on uncoating and intracellular trafficking of HIV-1.

  3. Nutrient Intakes in Early Life and Risk of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland-Cachera, Marie Françoise; Akrout, Mouna; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-06-06

    There is increasing evidence that environmental factors in early life predict later health. The early adiposity rebound recorded in most obese subjects suggests that factors promoting body fat development have operated in the first years of life. Birth weight, growth velocity and body mass index (BMI) trajectories seem to be highly sensitive to the environmental conditions present during pregnancy and in early life ("The first 1000 days"). Particularly, nutritional exposure can have a long-term effect on health in adulthood. The high protein-low fat diet often recorded in young children may have contributed to the rapid rise of childhood obesity prevalence during the last decades. Metabolic programming by early nutrition could explain the development of later obesity and adult diseases.

  4. Nutrient Intakes in Early Life and Risk of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Françoise Rolland-Cachera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that environmental factors in early life predict later health. The early adiposity rebound recorded in most obese subjects suggests that factors promoting body fat development have operated in the first years of life. Birth weight, growth velocity and body mass index (BMI trajectories seem to be highly sensitive to the environmental conditions present during pregnancy and in early life (“The first 1000 days”. Particularly, nutritional exposure can have a long-term effect on health in adulthood. The high protein-low fat diet often recorded in young children may have contributed to the rapid rise of childhood obesity prevalence during the last decades. Metabolic programming by early nutrition could explain the development of later obesity and adult diseases.

  5. The Relationship of Life Stage to Motives for Using Television and the Perceived Reality of TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostman, Ronald E.; Jeffers, Dennis W.

    A model specifying relationships between life stage, motives for using television and the perceived reality of television was tested with data from 140 telephone interviews of adults living in Southern Illinois. The adults ranged in age from 18 to 87 years. Life stage was related to five of the 11 motives for using television: learning things,…

  6. Hormonal correlates of male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Katharine M; Schoof, Valérie A M; Sheller, Claire R; Rich, Catherine I; Klingelhofer, Peter P; Ziegler, Toni E; Fedigan, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to hormonal variation in relation to male dominance status and reproductive seasonality, but we know relatively little about how hormones vary across life history stages. Here we examine fecal testosterone (fT), dihydrotestosterone (fDHT), and glucocorticoid (fGC) profiles across male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Study subjects included 37 males residing in three habituated social groups in the Área de Conservacíon Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Male life history stages included infant (0 to Life history stage was a significant predictor of fT; levels were low throughout the infant and juvenile phases, doubled in subadult and subordinate adults, and were highest for alpha males. Life history stage was not a significant predictor of fDHT, fDHT:fT, or fGC levels. Puberty in white-faced capuchins appears to begin in earnest during the subadult male phase, indicated by the first significant rise in fT. Given their high fT levels and exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics, we argue that alpha adult males represent a distinctive life history stage not experienced by all male capuchins. This study is the first to physiologically validate observable male life history stages using patterns of hormone excretion in wild Neotropical primates, with evidence for a strong association between fT levels and life history stage.

  7. Association of insect life stages using DNA sequences : the larvae of Philodytes umbrinus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera : Dytiscidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, KB; Alarie, Y; Wolfe, GW; Whiting, MF

    2005-01-01

    Insect life stages are known imperfectly in many cases, and classifications are based often on only one or a few semaphoronts of a species. This is unfortunate as information in alternative life stages often is useful for scientific study. Although recent examples of DNA in taxonomy have emphasized

  8. The cost of measurement assurance of products on the sifferent stages of life cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Gribanov, D.

    2007-01-01

    The paper considers the aims and objectives of metrological support of production at all stages of their life cycle. The authors presents formulae for expenditure estimates for implementation of metrological work carried out in the process of metrological assurance in relation to each stage of product's life cycle.

  9. The Human Microbiota in Early Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen

    The bacteria that colonize the human body, our microbiota, can influence our health, both positively and negatively. The importance and functions of the microbiota in our intestinal tract have been the focus of several research projects and are widely published. However, there are great gaps in our...... knowledge concerning microbiota composition, development and function in other areas of human body. Lack of knowledge about the microbiota development in the airways is an example of such a deficiency. The work presented in this PhD thesis is based on the vast sample collection of the COPSAC2010 cohort......, with 700 mother-infant pairs. The objectives were to perform a detailed examination of the mothers’ vaginal microbiota, describe the early composition and development of the microbiota in the airways of their infants, and determine whether the infants’ microbiota are affected by that of their mothers...

  10. Spirocyclic chromanes exhibit antiplasmodial activities and inhibit all intraerythrocytic life cycle stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bracken F; Iyamu, Iredia D; Lee, Sukjun; Lee, Eunyoung; Ayong, Lawrence; Kyle, Dennis E; Yuan, Yu; Manetsch, Roman; Chakrabarti, Debopam

    2016-04-01

    We screened a collection of synthetic compounds consisting of natural-product-like substructural motifs to identify a spirocyclic chromane as a novel antiplasmodial pharmacophore using an unbiased cell-based assay. The most active spirocyclic compound UCF 201 exhibits a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 350 nM against the chloroquine-resistant Dd2 strain and a selectivity over 50 using human liver HepG2 cells. Our analyses of physicochemical properties of UCF 201 showed that it is in compliance with Lipinski's parameters and has an acceptable physicochemical profile. We have performed a limited structure-activity-relationship study with commercially available chromanes preserving the spirocyclic motif. Our evaluation of stage specificities of UCF 201 indicated that the compound is early-acting in blocking parasite development at ring, trophozoite and schizont stages of development as well as merozoite invasion. SPC is an attractive lead candidate scaffold because of its ability to act on all stages of parasite's aexual life cycle unlike current antimalarials.

  11. Spirocyclic chromanes exhibit antiplasmodial activities and inhibit all intraerythrocytic life cycle stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracken F. Roberts

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We screened a collection of synthetic compounds consisting of natural-product-like substructural motifs to identify a spirocyclic chromane as a novel antiplasmodial pharmacophore using an unbiased cell-based assay. The most active spirocyclic compound UCF 201 exhibits a 50% effective concentration (EC50 of 350 nM against the chloroquine-resistant Dd2 strain and a selectivity over 50 using human liver HepG2 cells. Our analyses of physicochemical properties of UCF 201 showed that it is in compliance with Lipinski's parameters and has an acceptable physicochemical profile. We have performed a limited structure-activity-relationship study with commercially available chromanes preserving the spirocyclic motif. Our evaluation of stage specificities of UCF 201 indicated that the compound is early-acting in blocking parasite development at ring, trophozoite and schizont stages of development as well as merozoite invasion. SPC is an attractive lead candidate scaffold because of its ability to act on all stages of parasite's aexual life cycle unlike current antimalarials.

  12. ANALYSIS OF RISK FACTORS AT THE STAGE OF THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE

    OpenAIRE

    N. Skopenko; N. Andreiuk

    2016-01-01

    The article outlines and summarizes the risks of enterprises at different stages of product life cycle. A diagnose and assess of risks according to the main stages of the product development are offered. Groups of factors that shape the economic risks at different stages of the product life cycle, by the possible negative consequences of their impact are formulated. To reduce the probable losses of the company and a reasonable assortment portfolio formation generalized classification of risks...

  13. Work-family interface from a life and career stage perspective: the role of demands and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Peeters, Maria C W; van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M

    2012-01-01

    Work-family conflict and enrichment are experiences that occur daily and have substantial consequences for employees, their families, and the organizations that employ them. The aim of the current review is to make a link between life and career stage, work and family conditions, and the work-family interface. The basic proposition is that life stages partly determine career development, and consequently the specific working conditions (job demands and job resources) and family conditions (family demands and family resources) that individuals are exposed to. As a result, the specific demands and resources in the work and family domains determine to what extent individuals experience that work and family are conflicting or enriching life domains. In this review we suggest that individuals in early adulthood will experience high inter-role conflict and low facilitation due to high demands and low resources in both life domains, while individuals in late adulthood will experience the opposite pattern; that is, low conflict and high facilitation due to low demands and high resources in both domains. Individuals in middle adulthood will experience high work-family conflict but also high family-work facilitation due to the presence of high job demands and resources in both life domains. Integrating life and career stage perspectives and the experience of work-family interface is of notable practical utility because it provides a mechanism to make more informed decisions about the relative need for and corresponding benefits of work-family programs.

  14. 4-Nitro styrylquinoline is an antimalarial inhibiting multiple stages of Plasmodium falciparum asexual life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bracken F; Zheng, Yongsheng; Cleaveleand, Jacob; Lee, Sukjun; Lee, Eunyoung; Ayong, Lawrence; Yuan, Yu; Chakrabarti, Debopam

    2017-04-01

    Drugs against malaria are losing their effectiveness because of emerging drug resistance. This underscores the need for novel therapeutic options for malaria with mechanism of actions distinct from current antimalarials. To identify novel pharmacophores against malaria we have screened compounds containing structural features of natural products that are pharmacologically relevant. This screening has identified a 4-nitro styrylquinoline (SQ) compound with submicromolar antiplasmodial activity and excellent selectivity. SQ exhibits a cellular action distinct from current antimalarials, acting early on malaria parasite's intraerythrocytic life cycle including merozoite invasion. The compound is a fast-acting parasitocidal agent and also exhibits curative property in the rodent malaria model when administered orally. In this report, we describe the synthesis, preliminary structure-function analysis, and the parasite developmental stage specific action of the SQ scaffold. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. 4-Nitro styrylquinoline is an antimalarial inhibiting multiple stages of Plasmodium falciparum asexual life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracken F. Roberts

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Drugs against malaria are losing their effectiveness because of emerging drug resistance. This underscores the need for novel therapeutic options for malaria with mechanism of actions distinct from current antimalarials. To identify novel pharmacophores against malaria we have screened compounds containing structural features of natural products that are pharmacologically relevant. This screening has identified a 4-nitro styrylquinoline (SQ compound with submicromolar antiplasmodial activity and excellent selectivity. SQ exhibits a cellular action distinct from current antimalarials, acting early on malaria parasite's intraerythrocytic life cycle including merozoite invasion. The compound is a fast-acting parasitocidal agent and also exhibits curative property in the rodent malaria model when administered orally. In this report, we describe the synthesis, preliminary structure-function analysis, and the parasite developmental stage specific action of the SQ scaffold.

  16. The impact of stress at different life stages on physical health and the buffering effects of maternal sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Allison K; Simpson, Jeffry A; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Englund, Michelle M; Sung, Sooyeon

    2017-01-01

    Many studies indicate that early life stress leads to negative health outcomes in adulthood, and some suggest that high-quality parenting might buffer these effects. Most prior research, however, has relied on cross-sectional retrospective reports of stress and parenting. Our study tests how coder-rated stress and parenting quality assessed at different life stages predict adult health outcomes in a prospective, longitudinal study. Participants were 163 individuals in the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation studied since birth. Physical health was assessed at age 32 with body mass index, self-reports of symptoms and illnesses experienced, and self-ratings of overall physical health. Stress was assessed by coder-rated interviews involving participants or their mothers at 16 time points partitioned into 5 life stages: early childhood, middle childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, and at age 32 (when health was assessed). Parenting quality was measured by coder ratings of each mother's provision of sensitive, responsive support at 7 time points between birth and age 13. Early childhood, adolescent, and concurrent stress predicted adult health outcomes at age 32. Early childhood and adolescent stress, and adolescent and concurrent stress, both showed a "dual-risk" pattern, such that experiencing higher stress at both of these life stages predicted the worst health outcomes. Higher maternal sensitivity, however, buffered these deleterious effects. Our prospective data reveal that early childhood and adolescence are important developmental periods during which stress is influential for adult physical health. However, parenting interventions that promote greater sensitivity may help children in high-stress environments avoid negative adult health outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Exome sequencing identifies early gastric carcinoma as an early stage of advanced gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guhyun Kang

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is one of the major causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early detection and treatment leads to an excellent prognosis in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC, whereas the prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC remains poor. It is unclear whether EGCs and AGCs are distinct entities or whether EGCs are the beginning stages of AGCs. We performed whole exome sequencing of four samples from patients with EGC and compared the results with those from AGCs. In both EGCs and AGCs, a total of 268 genes were commonly mutated and independent mutations were additionally found in EGCs (516 genes and AGCs (3104 genes. A higher frequency of C>G transitions was observed in intestinal-type compared to diffuse-type carcinomas (P = 0.010. The DYRK3, GPR116, MCM10, PCDH17, PCDHB1, RDH5 and UNC5C genes are recurrently mutated in EGCs and may be involved in early carcinogenesis.

  18. Diagnosis of Late Stage, Early Onset, Small Fiber Polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    additionally discovered SFPN that affects adolescents and adults [2]. This early-onset SFPN usually begins in adolescence or early adulthood but can...promote early diagnosis. What was the impact on other disciplines? Nothing to report. What was the impact on technology transfer? Nothing to report...What was the impact on society beyond science and technology ? As described above, Veterans’ health and, by extension, public health will be

  19. A decision-analytic model for early stage breast cancer: lumpectomy vs mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükdamgaci-Alogan, G; Elele, T; Hayran, M; Erman, M; Kiliçkap, S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to construct a decision model that incorporated patient preferences over differing health state prospects and to analyze the decision context of early stage breast cancer patients in relation to two main surgical treatment options. A Markov chain was constructed to project the clinical history of breast carcinoma following surgery. A Multi Attribute Utility Model was developed for outcome evaluation. Transition probabilities were obtained by using subjective probability assessment. This study was performed on the sample population of female university students and utilities were elicited from these healthy volunteers. The results were validated by using Standard Gamble technique. Finally, Monte Carlo Simulation was utilized in Treeage-Pro 2006-Suit software program in order to calculate expected utility generated by each treatment option. The results showed that, if the subject had mastectomy, mean value for the quality adjusted life years gained was 6.42; on the other hand, if the preference was lumpectomy, it was 7.00 out of a possible 10 years. Sensitivity analysis on transition probabilities to local recurrence and salvaged states was performed and two threshold values were observed. Additionally, sensitivity analysis on utilities showed that the model was more sensitive to no evidence of disease state; however, was not sensitive to utilities of local recurrence and salvaged states. The decision model was developed with reasonable success for early stage breast cancer patients, and tested by using general public data. The results obtained from these data showed that lumpectomy was more favourable for these participants.

  20. Marital relationship quality in early-stage dementia: perspectives from people with dementia and their spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Linda; Nelis, Sharon M; Whitaker, Christopher J; Martyr, Anthony; Markova, Ivana S; Roth, Ilona; Woods, Robert T; Morris, Robin G

    2012-01-01

    Spouse caregivers of people with dementia (PwD) report relatively poor marital relationship quality (RQ), but few studies have obtained the perspective of the PwD, examined discrepancies between spouses, or considered changes in RQ over time. This study explored caregiver and PwD perceptions of RQ, identified associated factors, and examined changes over an 18-month period. Participants were 54 couples where one spouse had early-stage dementia and 54 were control couples. RQ was assessed with the Positive Affect Index. Measures of mood, stress, and quality of life (QoL) were also administered. The clinical couples were followed up after 9 and 18 months. Caregivers gave significantly lower RQ ratings than controls. PwD ratings did not differ significantly from those of caregivers or controls. Dyadic discrepancies were significantly greater in the clinical than in the control group. Caregiver ratings were associated with stress, whereas PwD ratings were associated with depression and QoL. Discrepancies were associated with caregiver stress and with PwD mood, QoL, and age. Caregiver ratings declined significantly over time; PwD ratings did not decline significantly, but showed different trends for men and women. It is important to consider RQ when considering how to support couples where one partner has early-stage dementia.

  1. Early life exposures and risk of atopy among Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C

    2006-01-01

    A large proportion of atopy develops in childhood and early life exposures are suspected to play a considerable role in the inception. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early life exposures and development of atopic disease in children. We performed a case-cohort study...... of a random population-based sample of children (n = 480) 7-17 years of age, living in urban Copenhagen, Denmark. Information on breast-feeding, supplementation, wheezy bronchitis, use of antibiotics, and parental smoking during pregnancy and in early life was obtained retrospectively by questionnaire. Skin.......12, 3.49; p = 0.019) and wheezy bronchitis before the age of 2 years (OR = 3.13; 95% CI, 1.63, 6.01; p feeding was longer in subjects...

  2. Biodemography of Exceptional Longevity: Early-life and Mid-life predictors of Human Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Effects of early-life and middle-life conditions on exceptional longevity are explored in this study using two matched case-control studies. The first study compares 198 validated centenarians born in the United States in 1890-1893 to their shorter-lived siblings. Family histories of centenarians were reconstructed and exceptional longevity validated using early U.S. censuses, Social Security Administration Death Master File, state death indexes, online genealogies and other supplementary dat...

  3. Approaches to the Treatment of Early Stage of Gallstone Disease in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Shadrin

    2013-11-01

    Conclusions. Diagnosis and treatment of GSD at the early stage make it possible to increase the efficacy of therapy in whole. It was noted that ursodeoxycholic acid (Ukrliv suspension possesses high efficiency and safety in the treatment of early GSD stage in children.

  4. Targeted labeling of early-​stage tumor spheroid in chorioallantoic membrane model with upconversion nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Liu; J.A. Holz; Y. Ding; X. Liu; Y. Zhang; L. Tu; X. Kong; B. Priem; A. Nadort; S.A.G. Lambrechts; M.C.G. Aalders; W.J. Buma; Y. Liu; H. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In vivo detection of cancer at early-​stage, i.e. smaller than 2 mm, is a challenge in biomedicine. In this work target labeling of early-​stage tumor spheroid (∼500 μm) is realized for the first time in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model with monoclonal antibody functionalized upconv

  5. 76 FR 76907 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... comments, identified by RIN 3245-AG32, by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http..., particularly those without the necessary assets or cash flow for traditional bank funding. Although the venture... the ``Early Stage SBIC'' definition. Third, an Early Stage SBIC must invest at least 50 percent of its...

  6. The origin and early evolution of life on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oro, J.; Miller, Stanley L.; Lazcano, Antonio

    1990-01-01

    Results of the studies that have provided insights into the cosmic and primitive earth environments are reviewed with emphasis on those environments in which life is thought to have originated. The evidence bearing on the antiquity of life on the earth and the prebiotic significance of organic compounds found in interstellar clouds and in primitive solar-system bodies such as comets, dark asteroids, and carbonaceous chondrites are assessed. The environmental models of the Hadean and early Archean earth are discussed, as well as the prebiotic formation of organic monomers and polymers essential to life. The processes that may have led to the appearance in the Archean of the first cells are considered, and possible effects of these processes on the early steps of biological evolution are analyzed. The significance of these results to the study of the distribution of life in the universe is evaluated.

  7. Immune-mediated diseases and microbial exposure in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Bønnelykke, K; Stokholm, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The non-communicable disease pandemic includes immune-mediated diseases such as asthma and allergy, which are likely originating in early life where the immature immune system is prone to alterations caused by the exposome. The timing of exposure seems critical for the developing immune system......, and certain exposures may have detrimental effects in the earliest life, but no or even beneficial effects later. The human microbiome and infections are candidates as intermediary in the interaction between the host and the environment. The evidence seems inconsistent as infections as well as particular...... colonization patterns in neonates drive both short-term and long-term asthma symptoms, while, on the other hand, the composition of the microbiome in early life may protect against asthma and allergy in later life. This apparent contradiction may be explained by a deeper disease heterogeneity than we...

  8. Assessment of quality of life for the patients with cervical cancer at different clinical stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Xie; Fang-Hui Zhao; Si-Han Lu; He Huang; Xiong-Fei Pan; Chun-Xia Yang; You-Lin Qiao

    2013-01-01

    With improved overall survival of cervical cancer patients,the importance of the quality of life (QOL)is increasingly recognized.This study was conducted to compare the QOL of women with different stage cervical cancer before and after treatment to facilitate improved cervical cancer prevention and treatment.We used the generic Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (MOS SF-36) to collect QOL information.Based on SF-36,we interviewed cervical cancer patients at West China Second Affiliated Hospital and Sichuan Cancer Hospital between May 2010 and January 2011.A total of 92 patients with precancerous lesions,93 with early cancer,and 35 with advanced cancer responded to our survey.Average physical component summary (PCS) scores were significantly different between the three groups at every time point (P < 0.05).Average mental component summary (MCS) scores were significantly different between the three groups after treatment (P < 0.05).Average PCS and MCS scores increased gradually from the pretreatment to posttreatment period for patients with precancerous lesions.However,they reached the lowest at 1 month after treatment for patients with early and advanced cancers and rebounded between 1and 6 months after treatment.Our results indicate that patients with precancerous lesions and early cervical cancer show better overall QOL than do those with advanced cervical cancer.Additionally,patients with early cancer recover more quickly than do those with advanced cancer in terms of both physical and mental functions.Thus,early detection and treatment initiatives may improve the QOL for patients with precancerous lesions and cervical cancer.

  9. Oxidative stress tolerance of early stage diabetic endothelial progenitor cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sukmawati

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Primitive BM-EPCs showed vasculogenic dysfunction in early diabetes. However the oxidative stress is not denoted as the major initiating factor of its cause. Our results suggest that primitive BM-KSL cell has the ability to compensate oxidative stress levels in early diabetes by increasing the expression of anti-oxidative enzymes.

  10. Early life development in a multiethnic sample and the relation to late life cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melrose, Rebecca J; Brewster, Paul; Marquine, María J; MacKay-Brandt, Anna; Reed, Bruce; Farias, Sarah T; Mungas, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Poor quality of early life conditions has been associated with poorer late life cognition and increased risk of dementia. Early life physical development can be captured using adult measures of height and head circumference. Availability of resources may be reflected by socioeconomic indicators, such as parental education and family size. We sought to determine the association between early life development and experience and late life semantic memory, episodic memory, and executive functioning abilities, as well as rate of cognitive decline. This study was conducted using the UC Davis Aging Diversity cohort, an ethnically diverse sample of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic individuals from northern California. We used latent variable modeling to measure growth and childhood socioeconomic environment (SES) and examine their associations with longitudinal cognitive outcomes using mixed effects modeling. Growth was positively related to higher childhood SES. Higher childhood SES was associated with better semantic memory. Both low growth and low SES were associated with increased rate of cognitive decline. These findings demonstrate that early life experiences influence the trajectory of cognitive aging. Early life development and experience appears to provide a distal basis upon which additional risk and protective factors interact in the development of dementia. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2014.

  11. Diversity of the Human Skin Microbiome Early in Life

    OpenAIRE

    Capone, Kimberly A; Scot E Dowd; Georgios N. Stamatas; Nikolovski, Janeta

    2011-01-01

    Within days after birth, rapid surface colonization of infant skin coincides with significant functional changes. Gradual maturation of skin function, structure, and composition continues throughout the first years of life. Recent reports have revealed topographical and temporal variations in the adult skin microbiome. Here we address the question of how the human skin microbiome develops early in life. We show that the composition of cutaneous microbial communities evolves over the first yea...

  12. Early Life Stress, Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Alcohol Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Y. Holgate

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major driving force in alcohol use disorders (AUDs. It influences how much one consumes, craving intensity and whether an abstinent individual will return to harmful alcohol consumption. We are most vulnerable to the effects of stress during early development, and exposure to multiple traumatic early life events dramatically increases the risk for AUDs. However, not everyone exposed to early life stress will develop an AUD. The mechanisms determining whether an individual’s brain adapts and becomes resilient to the effects of stress or succumbs and is unable to cope with stress remain elusive. Emerging evidence suggests that neuroplastic changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc following early life stress underlie the development of AUDs. This review discusses the impact of early life stress on NAc structure and function, how these changes affect cholinergic signaling within the mesolimbic reward pathway and the role nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs play in this process. Understanding the neural pathways and mechanism determining stress resilience or susceptibility will improve our ability to identify individuals susceptible to developing AUDs, formulate cognitive interventions to prevent AUDs in susceptible individuals and to elucidate and enhance potential therapeutic targets, such as the nAChRs, for those struggling to overcome an AUD.

  13. Assessment of Dual Life Stage Antiplasmodial Activity of British Seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Tasdemir

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial plants have proven to be a prolific producer of clinically effective antimalarial drugs, but the antimalarial potential of seaweeds has been little explored. The main aim of this study was to assess the in vitro chemotherapeutical and prophylactic potential of the extracts of twenty-three seaweeds collected from the south coast of England against blood stage (BS and liver stage (LS Plasmodium parasites. The majority (14 of the extracts were active against BS of P. falciparum, with brown seaweeds Cystoseira tamariscifolia, C. baccata and the green seaweed Ulva lactuca being the most active (IC50s around 3 μg/mL. The extracts generally had high selectivity indices (>10. Eight seaweed extracts inhibited the growth of LS parasites of P. berghei without any obvious effect on the viability of the human hepatoma (Huh7 cells, and the highest potential was exerted by U. lactuca and red seaweeds Ceramium virgatum and Halopitys incurvus (IC50 values 14.9 to 28.8 μg/mL. The LS-active extracts inhibited one or more key enzymes of the malarial type-II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II pathway, a drug target specific for LS. Except for the red seaweed Halopitys incurvus, all LS-active extracts showed dual activity versus both malarial intracellular stage parasites. This is the first report of LS antiplasmodial activity and dual stage inhibitory potential of seaweeds.

  14. EARLY LIFE RISKS, ANTISOCIAL TENDENCIES, AND PRETEEN DELINQUENCY*

    OpenAIRE

    Staff, Jeremy; Whichard, Corey; Siennick, Sonja; Maggs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Early age-of-onset delinquency and substance use confer a major risk for continued criminality, alcohol and drug abuse, and other serious difficulties throughout the life course. Our objective is to examine the developmental roots of preteen delinquency and substance use. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 13,221), we examine the influence of early childhood developmental and family risks on latent pathways of antisocial tendencies from ...

  15. Efficient and rapid isolation of early-stage embryos from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Raissig, Michael T; Gagliardini, Valeria; Jaenisch, Johan; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baroux, Célia

    2013-01-01

    In flowering plants, the embryo develops within a nourishing tissue - the endosperm - surrounded by the maternal seed integuments (or seed coat). As a consequence, the isolation of plant embryos at early stages (1 cell to globular stage) is technically challenging due to their relative inaccessibility. Efficient manual dissection at early stages is strongly impaired by the small size of young Arabidopsis seeds and the adhesiveness of the embryo to the surrounding tissues. Here, we describe a ...

  16. Early life developmental effects of marine persistent organic pollutants on the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, Henrique M R; Koerting, Lina; Devito, Sarah; van den Berg, Johannes H J; Dubbeldam, Marco; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Murk, Albertinka J

    2011-11-01

    A new 16-day echinoid early life stage (ELS) bioassay was developed to allow for prolonged observation of possible adverse effects during embryogenesis and larval development of the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris. Subsequently, the newly developed bioassay was applied to study the effects of key marine persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Mortality, morphological abnormalities and larval development stages were quantified at specific time points during the 16-day experimental period. In contrast to amphibians and fish, P. miliaris early life development was not sensitive to dioxin-like toxicity in the prolonged early life stage test. Triclosan (TCS) levels higher than 500 nM were acutely toxic during embryo development. Morphological abnormalities were induced at concentrations higher than 50 nM hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and 1000 nM tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Larval development was delayed above 25 nM HBCD and 500 nM TBBPA. Heptadecafluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) exposure slightly accelerated larval development at 9 days post-fertilization (dpf). However, the accelerated development was no longer observed at the end of the test period (16 dpf). The newly developed 16-day echinoid ELS bioassay proved to be sensitive to toxic effects of POPs that can be monitored for individual echinoid larvae. The most sensitive and dose related endpoint was the number of developmental penalty points. By manipulation of the housing conditions, the reproductive season could be extended from 3 to 9 months per year and the ELS experiments could be performed in artificial sea water as well.

  17. The effect on esophagus after different radiotherapy techniques for early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anni; Maraldo, M.; Brodin, Nils Patrik

    2013-01-01

    The cure rate of early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is excellent; investigating the late effects of treatment is thus important. Esophageal toxicity is a known side effect in patients receiving radiotherapy (RT) to the mediastinum, although little is known of this in HL survivors. This study inv...... investigates the dose to the esophagus in the treatment of early stage HL using different RT techniques. Estimated risks of early esophagitis, esophageal stricture and cancer are compared between treatments....

  18. Galvanic cultures: electricity and life in the early nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morus, I R

    1998-01-01

    Electricity has long proved to be a powerful tool for investigating the properties of life. Towards the beginning of the nineteenth century new discoveries and inventions in electricity stimulated a new popular fascination with such questions. Electricity seemed a good way of understanding the machinery of life. It was the key to unlocking the secrets of vitality. Looking at these early nineteenth-century debates and discussions provides a good way of focusing on the cultural connections and ramifications of science. As electricity provided tools for understanding life, it provided tools for understanding culture also.

  19. Imperfect past and present progressive: beak color reflects early-life and adult exposure to antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Loren; Naylor, Madeleine F; Grindstaff, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Secondary sexual traits may convey information about individual condition. We assessed the capacity for immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) during the prenatal and early postnatal stages to impact beak color development and expression in captive zebra finches. In addition, we tested whether adult immune challenge impacted beak color, and if early-life experience was influential. Immune challenge with KLH early in life slowed development of red beak coloration, and males challenged with KLH as nestlings had reduced red coloration as adults. Following adult KLH challenge, males exhibited a decline in beak redness. Birds challenged with KLH during development produced more anti-KLH antibodies after adult challenge. There was a significant interaction between young treatment and anti-KLH antibody production; for males not challenged with KLH early in life, individuals that mounted a weaker antibody response lost more red coloration after challenge than males mounting a stronger antibody response. Based on models of avian vision, these differences in beak coloration should be detectable to the finches. In contrast to previous studies, we found no effect of early-life or adult challenge with LPS on any aspects of beak coloration. These results provide evidence that beak color reflects developmental and current conditions, and that the signal is linked to critical physiological processes.

  20. Original Paper Early stage leucocytosis in Nigerian pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequential leukocyte changes associated with early phase of Trypanosoma brucei infection were investigated in ... members of the T. brucei sub group, human infective, T. brucei ..... trypanosome antigens to the bone marrow and generation of ...

  1. Early life adversity potentiates the effects of later life stress on cumulative physiological dysregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Hansen, Åse Marie; Avlund, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Previous research indicates that early life adversity may heighten stress reactivity and impair mechanisms for adaptive coping, suggesting that experience of stress in early life may also potentiate adults' physiological vulnerability to stress in later life. The study...... tested this hypothesis by investigating whether experience of stressful events and circumstances (SEC) in childhood or adolescence amplified the effect of adulthood SEC on physiological dysregulation (allostatic load, AL) in later midlife. Design: Observational data were used in the present study......: The results provide further insight into the mechanisms behind the "biological embedding" of childhood stress....

  2. Effect of breast-conserving surgery with modified radical mastectomy on the quality of life in patients with early-stage breast cancer%保乳手术与改良根治术对早期乳腺癌患者生活质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易瑛; 蒋雪梅; 雷海; 罗雪

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of breast-conserving surgery with modified radical mastectomy on the quality of life of early-stage breast cancer patients. Methods From January 2013 to January 2015, a retrospective analysis of early-stage breast cancer patients( 276 cases) in our hospital, including 138 cases of breast-conserving surgery group, 138 cases of modified radi-cal mastectomy group. The patients’ satisfaction, self-rating depression scale ( SDS) and self-rating anxiety scale ( SAS) were used to evaluate the impact of the quality of life for breast cancer patients in two groups. Rosenberg self-esteem scale ( SES) , family cohesion adaptability scale, quality of life measurement table ( FA CT-B) were used to perform the questionnaire analysis. Results The SAS and SDS scores of breast-conserving surgery group was lower than those of the modified radical mastectomy group with significant statis-tical difference ( P<0. 05) . The patients’ satisfaction in the breast-conserving surgery group was higher than that in the radical mastecto-my group, and the difference was statistically significant ( P<0. 05) . The measurement results of SES, FA CT-B in the breast-conser-ving surgery group was improved compared with the modified radical mastectomy group( P<0. 05) . Family cohesion and adaptability in the breast-conserving surgery group were better than those in the modified radical mastectomy group, and the difference was statistically significant ( P<0. 05) . Conclusion The implementation of breast-conserving surgery care can improve the quality of life in patients with early-stage breast cancer, relieve patients’ psychological and physical discomfort, and promote the rehabilitation of patients.%目的:探讨保乳手术与改良根治术对早期乳腺癌患者生活质量的影响。方法回顾性分析2013年1月至2015年1月在本院确诊住院治疗的早期乳腺癌患者276例,其中保乳手术组138例,改良根治术组138例。采用

  3. A Candida albicans early stage biofilm detachment event in rich medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantel Andre

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dispersal from Candida albicans biofilms that colonize catheters is implicated as a primary factor in the link between contaminated catheters and life threatening blood stream infections (BSI. Appropriate in vitro C. albicans biofilm models are needed to probe factors that induce detachment events. Results Using a flow through system to culture C. albicans biofilms we characterized a detachment process which culminates in dissociation of an entire early stage biofilm from a silicone elastomer surface. We analyzed the transcriptome response at time points that bracketed an abrupt transition in which a strong adhesive association with the surface is weakened in the initial stages of the process, and also compared batch and biofilm cultures at relevant time points. K means analysis of the time course array data revealed categories of genes with similar patterns of expression that were associated with adhesion, biofilm formation and glycoprotein biosynthesis. Compared to batch cultures the biofilm showed a pattern of expression of metabolic genes that was similar to the C. albicans response to hypoxia. However, the loss of strong adhesion was not obviously influenced by either the availability of oxygen in the medium or at the silicone elastomer surface. The detachment phenotype of mutant strains in which selected genes were either deleted or overexpressed was characterized. The microarray data indicated that changes associated with the detachment process were complex and, consistent with this assessment, we were unable to demonstrate that transcriptional regulation of any single gene was essential for loss of the strong adhesive association. Conclusion The massive dispersal of the early stage biofilm from a biomaterial surface that we observed is not orchestrated at the level of transcriptional regulation in an obvious manner, or is only regulated at this level by a small subpopulation of cells that mediate adhesion to the

  4. Early Life Adversity as a Risk Factor for Fibromyalgia in Later Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie A. Low

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of early life events is increasingly becoming apparent, as studies investigate how early childhood can shape long-term physiology and behaviour. Fibromyalgia (FM, which is characterised by increased pain sensitivity and a number of affective co-morbidities, has an unclear etiology. This paper discusses risk factors from early life that may increase the occurrence or severity of FM in later life: pain experience during neonatal life causes long-lasting changes in nociceptive circuitry and increases pain sensitivity in the older organism; premature birth and related stressor exposure cause lasting changes in stress responsivity; maternal deprivation affects anxiety-like behaviours that may be partially mediated by epigenetic modulation of the genome—all these adult phenotypes are strikingly similar to symptoms displayed by FM sufferers. In addition, childhood trauma and exposure to substances of abuse may cause lasting changes in developing neurotransmitter and endocrine circuits that are linked to anxiety and stress responses.

  5. Do early life factors affect the development of knee osteoarthritis in later life: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Benny; Jones, Graeme; Jin, Xingzhong; Ding, Changhai

    2016-09-13

    Osteoarthritis (OA) mainly affects older populations; however, it is possible that early life factors contribute to the development of OA in later life. The aim of this review is to describe the association between childhood or early adulthood risk factors and knee pain, structural imaging markers and development of knee OA in later life. A narrative overview of the literature synthesising the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerised databases and manual searches was conducted. We found that only a few studies have explored the long-term effect of childhood or early adulthood risk factors on the markers of joint health that predispose people to OA or joint symptoms. High body mass index (BMI) and/or overweight status from childhood to adulthood were independently related to knee pain and OA in later life. The findings regarding the association between strenuous physical activity and knee structures in young adults are still conflicting. However, a favourable effect of moderate physical activity and fitness on knee structures is reported. Childhood physical activity and performance measures had independent beneficial effects on knee structures including knee cartilage in children and young adults. Anterior knee pain syndrome in adolescence could lead to the development of patellofemoral knee OA in the late 40s. Furthermore, weak evidence suggests that childhood malalignment, socioeconomic status and physical abuse are associated with OA in later life. The available evidence suggests that early life intervention may prevent OA in later life.

  6. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-04-19

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations.

  7. Early-life medical care and human capital accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem

    2015-01-01

    that both types of interventions may benefit not only child health but also long-term educational outcomes. In addition, early-life medical interventions may improve the educational outcomes of siblings. These findings can be used to design policies that improve long-term outcomes and reduce economic...

  8. Family Quality of Life Following Early Identification of Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carla W.; Wegner, Jane R.; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Family members' perceptions of their quality of life were examined following early identification of deafness in children. Method: A questionnaire was used to solicit ratings of satisfaction from the family members of 207 children who were deaf and younger than 6 years of age. Results: Results indicated that families were generally…

  9. Aim for the Inner Life: Teaching Early Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    1979-01-01

    Music study should be construed primarily as an experience of its feeling content. Taught so, it can reach for the inner core of the early adolescent, to pierce that sometimes hard outer surface that protects the vulnerable inner life. Attempts to intellectualize music with young teens are doomed. (Author/SJL)

  10. Early-Life Determinants of Children's Creativity: The Rorschach Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peske, Patric O.

    Using Rorschach inkblots, the author sought investigation and disclosure of early-life determinants of young children's creativity as influenced by home and school environmental experiences. Significant and empirically defined characterological features of children and adults in their lives and children's Rorschach and other examination findings,…

  11. Using Motivational Interviewing within the Early Stages of Group Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tabitha L.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents developmentally appropriate applications of Motivational Interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2002) for use in preparing group members for the working stages of group. Practical strategies are offered for using MI to facilitate an atmosphere of trust, recognize member readiness for change, identify and resolve members'…

  12. Characterizing the early life history of an imperiled freshwater mussel (Ptychobranchus jonesi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, John; Jelks, Howard; Pursifull, Sandra; Johnson, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of imperiled species is frequently challenged by insufficient knowledge of life history and the environmental factors that affect various life stages. The larvae (glochidia) of most freshwater mussels in the family Unionidae are obligate ectoparasites of fishes. We describe the early life history of the federally endangered Southern Kidneyshell, Ptychobranchus jonesi, and compare methods for estimating fecundity and conducting host trials on conglutinate-producing mussel species. Both the glochidial inoculation baths and direct feeding of conglutinates to Percina nigrofasciata, Etheostoma edwini, and Etheostoma fusiforme resulted in successful metamorphosis to the juvenile life stage. Ptychobranchus jonesi glochidia did not metamorphose on the 25 other species of fishes tested representing 11 families. Three juveniles were recovered from Gambusia holbrooki resulting in a metamorphosis rate 90% for at least 5 days. Directly feeding conglutinates to fishes allowed us to estimate natural infestation rates and calculate average numbers of juveniles produced per conglutinate, unlike the traditional approach of infesting fish hosts using an inoculation bath. Each method for measuring fecundity produced similar estimates but the regression, which estimated fecundity based on the physical dimensions of each conglutinate or conglutinate segment, was most practical. The distribution information, coupled with early life history description and methods developed for determining fecundity and conducting host trials, may assist in the conservation of P. jonesi, specifically during recovery options that include captive propagation, augmentation, and reestablishment.

  13. Dietary protein intake and quality in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is an increasing problem and high-protein intake early in life seems to increase later risk of obesity. This review summarizes recent publications in the area including observational and intervention studies and publications on underlying mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS......: Recent observational and randomized controlled trials confirmed that high-protein intake in early life seems to increase early weight gain and the risk of later overweight and obesity. Recent studies have looked at the effect of different sources of protein, and especially high-animal protein intake...... programming. Finally, infants with catch-up growth or specific genotypes might be particularly vulnerable to high-protein intake. SUMMARY: Recent studies confirm the associations between high-protein intake during the first 2 years and later obesity. Furthermore, knowledge of the mechanisms involved...

  14. Swimming speed alteration in the early developmental stages of Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin as ecotoxicological endpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgana, Silvia; Gambardella, Chiara; Falugi, Carla; Pronzato, Roberto; Garaventa, Francesca; Faimali, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Behavioral endpoints have been used for decades to assess chemical impacts at concentrations unlikely to cause mortality. With recently developed techniques, it is possible to investigate the swimming behavior of several organisms under laboratory conditions. The aims of this study were: i) assessing for the first time the feasibility of swimming speed analysis of the early developmental stage sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus by an automatic recording system ii) investigating any Swimming Speed Alteration (SSA) on P. lividus early stages exposed to a chemical reference; iii) identifying the most suitable stage for SSA test. Results show that the swimming speed of all the developmental stages was easily recorded. The swimming speed was inhibited as a function of toxicant concentration. Pluteus were the most appropriate stage for evaluating SSA in P. lividus as ecotoxicological endpoint. Finally, swimming of sea urchin early stages represents a sensitive endpoint to be considered in ecotoxicological investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Systemic immune markers characterizing early stages of rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalan, Paulina Luiza

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disease occurring in ~1% of the world population. The main feature of the disease is ongoing joint inflammation, caused by immune cells and their soluble factors, leading to irreversible bone erosions and cartilage damage. Early treatment can halt progres

  16. Detection of gene expression pattern in the early stage after spinal cord injury by gene chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成龙; 靳安民; 童斌辉

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of the gene expression pattern of spinal cord tissues in the early stage after injury by DNA microarray (gene chip). Methods: The contusion model of rat spinal cord was established according to Allen's falling strike method and the gene expression patterns of normal and injured spinal cord tissues were studied by gene chip. Results: The expression of 45 genes was significantly changed in the early stage after spinal cord injury, in which 22 genes up-regulated and 23 genes down-regulated. Conclusions: The expression of some genes changes significantly in the early stage after spinal cord injury, which indicates the complexity of secondary spinal cord injury.

  17. Analysis thrombolysis with anticoagulation treatment for early stage of deep vein thrombosis in the lower extremities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘心; 张梅; 刘陕西; 祈光裕; 刘亚民

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of thrombolysis with anticoagulation treatment for early stage of deep vein thrombosis of lower extremity. Methods: The clinical data of 106 patients at the early stage of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the lower extremities treated by thrombolysis with anticoagulation and dispersion drugs were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The thrombolytic effect was significant. After treatment, the deep veins were recanalized without regurgitation in 75.3% of the patients. The total effective rate was 100%. Only three patients had hemorrhagic complication, but none of the patients died. Conclusion: Thrombolysis with anticoagulation treatment is an effective and safe method for DVT at the early stage.

  18. Early-life origins of chronic respiratory diseases: understanding and promoting healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Silvia; Scheltema, Nienke; Bont, Louis; Baraldi, Eugenio

    2014-12-01

    Chronic obstructive respiratory disorders such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease often originate early in life. In addition to a genetic predisposition, prenatal and early-life environmental exposures have a persistent impact on respiratory health. Acting during a critical phase of lung development, these factors may change lung structure and metabolism, and may induce maladaptive responses to harmful agents, which will affect the whole lifespan. Some environmental factors, such as exposure to cigarette smoke, type of childbirth and diet, may be modifiable, but it is more difficult to influence other factors, such as preterm birth and early exposure to viruses or allergens. Here, we bring together recent literature to analyse the critical aspects involved in the early stages of lung development, going back to prenatal and perinatal events, and we discuss the mechanisms by which noxious factors encountered early on may have a lifelong impact on respiratory health. We briefly comment on the need for early disease biomarkers and on the possible role of "-omic" technologies in identifying risk profiles predictive of chronic respiratory conditions. Such profiles could guide the ideation of effective preventive strategies and/or targeted early lifestyle or therapeutic interventions.

  19. DNA methylation: the pivotal interaction between early-life nutrition and glucose metabolism in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao

    2014-12-14

    Traditionally, it has been widely acknowledged that genes together with adult lifestyle factors determine the risk of developing some metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes mellitus in later life. However, there is now substantial evidence that prenatal and early-postnatal nutrition play a critical role in determining susceptibility to these diseases in later life. Maternal nutrition has historically been a key determinant for offspring health, and gestation is the critical time window that can affect the growth and development of offspring. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis proposes that exposures during early life play a critical role in determining the risk of developing metabolic diseases in adulthood. Currently, there are substantial epidemiological studies and experimental animal models that have demonstrated that nutritional disturbances during the critical periods of early-life development can significantly have an impact on the predisposition to developing some metabolic diseases in later life. The hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms may link imbalanced early-life nutrition with altered disease risk has been widely accepted in recent years. Epigenetics can be defined as the study of heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence. Epigenetic processes play a significant role in regulating tissue-specific gene expression, and hence alterations in these processes may induce long-term changes in gene function and metabolism that persist throughout the life course. The present review focuses on how nutrition in early life can alter the epigenome, produce different phenotypes and alter disease susceptibilities, especially for impaired glucose metabolism.

  20. Life History Consequences of the Facultative Expression of a Dispersal Life Stage in the Phoretic Bulb Mite (Rhizoglyphus robini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques A Deere

    Full Text Available Life history traits play an important role in population dynamics and correlate, both positively and negatively, with dispersal in a wide range of taxa. Most invertebrate studies on trade-offs between life history traits and dispersal have focused on dispersal via flight, yet much less is known about how life history trade-offs influence species that disperse by other means. In this study, we identify effects of investing in dispersal morphology (dispersal expression on life history traits in the male dimorphic bulb mite (Rhizoglyphus robini. This species has a facultative juvenile life stage (deutonymph during which individuals can disperse by phoresy. Further, adult males are either fighters (which kill other mites or benign scramblers. Here, in an experiment, we investigate the effects of investing in dispersal on size at maturity, sex and male morph ratio, and female lifetime reproductive success. We show that life history traits correlate negatively with the expression of the dispersal stage. Remarkably, all males that expressed the dispersal life stage developed into competitive fighters and none into scramblers. This suggests that alternative, male reproductive strategies and dispersal should not be viewed in isolation but considered concurrently.

  1. On the possibility of life on early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeck, V. R.; Fogleman, G.

    1990-01-01

    Prebiotic reactants, liquid water, and temperatures low enough for organic compounds to be stable are requirements for the origination of life as we know it. Prebiotic reactants and sufficiently low temperatures were present on Mars before liquid water vanished. Early in this time period, however, large planetesimal impacts may have periodically sterilized Mars, pyrolyzed organic compounds, and interrupted chemical origination of life. However, the calculated time interval between such impacts on Mars was larger just before liquid water vanished 3.8 Gyr (billion years) ago than it was on earth just before life originated. Therefore, there should have been sufficient time for life to originate on Mars. Ideal sites to search for microfossils are in the heavily cratered terrain of Upper Noachian age. Craters and channels in this terrain may have been the sites of ancient lakes and streams that could have provided habitats for the first microorganisms.

  2. Thermal habitat restricts patterns of occurrence in multiple life-stages of a headwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischa P. Turschwell; Stephen R. Balcombe; E. Ashley Steel; Fran Sheldon; Erin E. Peterson

    2017-01-01

    Our lack of knowledge on the spatiotemporal drivers of the distribution of many freshwater fishes, particularly as they differ among life-history stages, is a challenge to conservation of these species. We used 2-stage hurdle models to investigate drivers of occurrence and abundance of locally threatened adult and juvenile Northern River Blackfish in the upper...

  3. Sensitivity of UK butterflies to local climatic extremes: which life stages are most at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott Long, Osgur; Warren, Rachel; Price, Jeff; Brereton, Tom M; Botham, Marc S; Franco, Aldina M A

    2017-01-01

    There is growing recognition as to the importance of extreme climatic events (ECEs) in determining changes in species populations. In fact, it is often the extent of climate variability that determines a population's ability to persist at a given site. This study examined the impact of ECEs on the resident UK butterfly species (n = 41) over a 37-year period. The study investigated the sensitivity of butterflies to four extremes (drought, extreme precipitation, extreme heat and extreme cold), identified at the site level, across each species' life stages. Variations in the vulnerability of butterflies at the site level were also compared based on three life-history traits (voltinism, habitat requirement and range). This is the first study to examine the effects of ECEs at the site level across all life stages of a butterfly, identifying sensitive life stages and unravelling the role life-history traits play in species sensitivity to ECEs. Butterfly population changes were found to be primarily driven by temperature extremes. Extreme heat was detrimental during overwintering periods and beneficial during adult periods and extreme cold had opposite impacts on both of these life stages. Previously undocumented detrimental effects were identified for extreme precipitation during the pupal life stage for univoltine species. Generalists were found to have significantly more negative associations with ECEs than specialists. With future projections of warmer, wetter winters and more severe weather events, UK butterflies could come under severe pressure given the findings of this study.

  4. Stereotactic radiotherapy for early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricardi, Umberto; Badellino, Serena; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo [Dept. of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) represents a consolidated treatment option for patients with medically inoperable early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The clinical evidence accumulated in the past decade supports its use as an alternative to surgery with comparable survival outcomes. Due to its limited toxicity, SBRT is also applicable to elderly patients with very poor baseline pulmonary function or other severe comorbidities. Recent comparative studies in operable patients raised the issue of the possible use of SBRT also for this subgroup, with quite promising results that still should be fully confirmed by prospective trials with long-term follow-up. Aim of this review is to summarize and discuss the major studies conducted over the years on SBRT and to provide data on the efficacy and toxicity of this radiotherapy technique for stage I NSCLC. Technical aspects and quality of life related issues are also discussed, with the goal to provide information on the current role and limitations of SBRT in clinical practice.

  5. Vitamin D nutrient intake for all life stages.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenna, M

    2011-04-01

    Vitamin D, unlike other nutrients, is a conditionally required nutrient being obtained from two sources – predominantly by skin production upon exposure to natural ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation, and to a lesser extent by oral intake. Being a fat soluble vitamin it has a long half-life of about two weeks and is stored in fat tissues.1 For nearly six months of the year from October to March in Ireland, skin production is absent and the population is dependent on oral intake from natural foodstuffs, (which are consumed in small quantities only), fortified foodstuffs (most notably some milk products for the past 25 years) and vitamin D supplements, either in multivitamin tablets or in combination with calcium tablets.

  6. Diversity of the gut microbiota and eczema in early life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litonjua Augusto A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A modest number of prospective studies of the composition of the intestinal microbiota and eczema in early life have yielded conflicting results. Objective To examine the relationship between the bacterial diversity of the gut and the development of eczema in early life by methods other than stool culture. Methods Fecal samples were collected from 21 infants at 1 and 4 months of life. Nine infants were diagnosed with eczema by the age of 6 months (cases and 12 infants were not (controls. After conducting denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE of stool samples, we compared the microbial diversity of cases and controls using the number of electrophoretic bands and the Shannon index of diversity (H' as indicators. Results Control subjects had significantly greater fecal microbial diversity than children with eczema at ages 1 (mean H' for controls = 0.75 vs. 0.53 for cases, P = 0.01 and 4 months (mean H' for controls = 0.92 vs. 0.59 for cases, P = 0.02. The increase in diversity from 1 to 4 months of age was significant in controls (P = 0.04 but not in children who developed eczema by 6 months of age (P = 0.32. Conclusion Our findings suggest that reduced microbial diversity is associated with the development of eczema in early life.

  7. Diversity of the human skin microbiome early in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Kimberly A; Dowd, Scot E; Stamatas, Georgios N; Nikolovski, Janeta

    2011-10-01

    Within days after birth, rapid surface colonization of infant skin coincides with significant functional changes. Gradual maturation of skin function, structure, and composition continues throughout the first years of life. Recent reports have revealed topographical and temporal variations in the adult skin microbiome. Here we address the question of how the human skin microbiome develops early in life. We show that the composition of cutaneous microbial communities evolves over the first year of life, showing increasing diversity with age. Although early colonization is dominated by Staphylococci, their significant decline contributes to increased population evenness by the end of the first year. Similar to what has been shown in adults, the composition of infant skin microflora appears to be site specific. In contrast to adults, we find that Firmicutes predominate on infant skin. Timely and proper establishment of healthy skin microbiome during this early period might have a pivotal role in denying access to potentially infectious microbes and could affect microbiome composition and stability extending into adulthood. Bacterial communities contribute to the establishment of cutaneous homeostasis and modulate inflammatory responses. Early microbial colonization is therefore expected to critically affect the development of the skin immune function.

  8. Epigenetics and early life origins of chronic noncommunicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Walker, Sheila O; Hong, Xiumei; Bartell, Tami R; Wang, Xiaobin

    2013-02-01

    In light of the increasing threats of chronic noncommunicable diseases in developing countries, the growing recognition of the early life origins of chronic disease, and innovative breakthroughs in biomedical research and technology, it is imperative that we harness cutting-edge data to improve health promotion and maintenance. It is well recognized that chronic diseases are complex traits affected by a wide range of environmental and genetic factors; however, the role of epigenetic factors, particularly with regard to early life origins, remains largely unexplored. Given the unique properties of the epigenome-functionality during critical time windows, such as the intrauterine period, heritability, and reversibility-enhancing our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms may offer new opportunities for the development of novel early prediction and prevention paradigms. This may present an unparalleled opportunity to offer maternal and child health professionals important tools with the translational value to predict, detect, and prevent disease at an early age, long before its clinical occurrence, and as such, break lifelong and transgenerational cycles of disease. In doing so, modern technology can be leveraged to make great contributions to population health, quality of life, and reducing the burdensome economic costs of noncommunicable diseases in developing countries.

  9. Signs of Early-stage Disk Growth Revealed with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Aso, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    We present ALMA 1.3 mm continuum, 12CO, C18O, and SO data for the Class 0 protostars Lupus 3 MMS, IRAS 15398‑3559, and IRAS 16253‑2429 at resolutions of ∼100 au. By measuring a rotational profile in C18O, a 100 au Keplerian disk around a 0.3 M⊙ protostar is observed in Lupus 3 MMS. No 100 au Keplerian disks are observed in IRAS 15398‑3559 and IRAS 16253‑2429. Nevertheless, embedded compact (<30 au) continuum components are detected. The C18O emission in IRAS 15398‑3559 shows signatures of infall with a constant angular momentum. IRAS 16253‑2429 exhibits signatures of infall and rotation, but its rotational profile is unresolved. By fitting the C18O data with our kinematic models, the protostellar masses and the disk radii are inferred to be 0.01 M⊙ and 20 au in IRAS 15398‑3559, and 0.03 M⊙ and 6 au in IRAS 16253‑2429. By comparing the specific angular momentum profiles from 10,000 au to 100 au in eight Class 0 and I protostars, we find that the evolution of envelope rotation can be described with conventional inside-out collapse models. In comparison with a sample of 18 protostars with known disk radii, our results reveal signs of disk growth, with the disk radius increasing as {{M}* }0.8+/- 0.14 or {t}1.09+/- 0.37 in the Class 0 stage, where M* is the protostellar mass and t is the age. The disk growth rate slows down in the Class I stage. In addition, we find a hint that the mass accretion rate declines as {t}-0.26+/- 0.04 from the Class 0 to the Class I stages.

  10. Effects of early life trauma are dependent on genetic predisposition: a rat study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Vivienne A

    2011-05-01

    mechanisms involved in maintaining their active response in behavioural tests. Basal plasma corticosterone was found to correlate positively with an active response to a novel environment and inescapable stress across all rats. Conclusion SHR are resilient to the anxiogenic effects of maternal separation, and develop a non-anxious, active response to a novel environment following chronic mild stress during the early stages of development. Our findings highlight the importance of genetic predisposition in determining the outcome of early life adversity. SHR may provide a model of early life trauma leading to the development of hyperactivity rather than anxiety and depression. Basal levels of corticosterone correlate with the behavioural response to early life trauma, and may therefore provide a useful marker for susceptibility to a certain behavioural temperament.

  11. Altered Synapse Stability in the Early Stages of Tauopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna S. Jackson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Synapse loss is a key feature of dementia, but it is unclear whether synaptic dysfunction precedes degenerative phases of the disease. Here, we show that even before any decrease in synapse density, there is abnormal turnover of cortical axonal boutons and dendritic spines in a mouse model of tauopathy-associated dementia. Strikingly, tauopathy drives a mismatch in synapse turnover; postsynaptic spines turn over more rapidly, whereas presynaptic boutons are stabilized. This imbalance between pre- and post-synaptic stability coincides with reduced synaptically driven neuronal activity in pre-degenerative stages of the disease.

  12. Estramustine phosphate reversibly inhibits an early stage during adenovirus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, E; Ekstrand, H; Boberg, B; Hartley-Asp, B

    1990-01-01

    Estramustine phosphate, an estradiol-mustard conjugate, was shown to reversibly inhibit a stage during the first hour of productive adenovirus 2 infection of HeLa cells. This drug, employed in the therapy of advanced prostatic cancer, specifically interacts with microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) of the cytoskeleton. The results obtained under physiological conditions in vivo suggest a MAPs-interference with the microtubule-mediated vectorial migration of the virus inoculum to the nucleus. Virus attachment, uncoating kinetics and the appearance of established uncoating intermediates were not affected.

  13. The experience of work-life balance across family-life stages in Switzerland: a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wepfer, Ariane G; Brauchli, Rebecca; Jenny, Gregor J; Hämmig, Oliver; Bauer, Georg F

    2015-01-01

    ... of work-life balance across family-life stages as a consequence of this gendered division of labor. We used data from a survey study on work-life issues and health in four large companies in Switzerland...

  14. Induction of cell-mediated immunity during early stages of infection with intracellular protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazzinelli R.T.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi are intracellular parasites which, as part of their life cycle, induce a potent cell-mediated immunity (CMI maintained by Th1 lymphocytes and IFN-g. In both cases, induction of a strong CMI is thought to protect the host against rapid parasite multiplication and consequent pathology and lethality during the acute phase of infection. However, the parasitic infection is not eliminated by the immune system and the vertebrate host serves as a parasite reservoir. In contrast, Leishmania sp, which is a slow growing parasite, appears to evade induction of CMI during early stages of infection as a strategy for surviving in a hostile environment (i.e., inside the macrophages which are their obligatory niche in the vertebrate host. Recent reports show that the initiation of IL-12 synthesis by macrophages during these parasitic infections is a key event in regulating CMI and disease outcome. The studies reviewed here indicate that activation/inhibition of distinct signaling pathways and certain macrophage functions by intracellular protozoa are important events in inducing/modulating the immune response of their vertebrate hosts, allowing parasite and host survival and therefore maintaining parasite life cycles.

  15. "Life Stage-Specific" Variations in Performance in Response to Age Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehman, Jessica A.; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2013-01-01

    In a test of life stage-specific responses to age-based stigma, older (n = 54, ages 62-92) and younger (n = 81, ages 17-22) adults were told that a task (Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-III block design) required either (a) speed/contemporary knowledge (YA; "youth advantage") or (b) life experience/wisdom (OA; "age…

  16. Towards recovery-oriented psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder: Quality of life outcomes, stage-sensitive treatments, and mindfulness mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Greg; Leitan, Nuwan D; Thomas, Neil; Michalak, Erin E; Johnson, Sheri L; Jones, Steven; Perich, Tania; Berk, Lesley; Berk, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Current adjunctive psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder (BD) aim to impact illness course via information sharing/skill development. This focus on clinical outcomes contrasts with the emergent recovery paradigm, which prioritises adaptation to serious mental illness and movement towards personally meaningful goals. The aim of this review is to encourage innovation in the psychological management of BD by considering three recovery-oriented trends in the literature. First, the importance of quality of life as a target of recovery-oriented clinical work is considered. Second, the recent staging approach to BD is described, and we outline implications for psychosocial interventions tailored to stage. Finally, we review evidence suggesting that mindfulness-based psychosocial interventions have potential across early, middle and late stages of BD. It is concluded that the humanistic emphasis of the recovery paradigm provides a timely stimulus for development of a next generation of psychosocial treatments for people with BD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Differential immune response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at early developmental stages (larvae and fry) against the bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Raida, Martin Kristian; Kania, Per Walter;

    2012-01-01

    Innate immune factors play a crucial role in survival of young fish especially during early stages of life when adaptive immunity is not fully developed. In the present study, we investigated the immune response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae and fry at an early stage of development...... trout fry with Y. ruckeri, in contrast, induced a cumulative mortality of 74%. A high expression of cytokines (IL-1b, TNF-a, IL-22, IL-8 and IL- 10), acute phase proteins (SAA, hepcidin, transferrin and precerebellin), complement factors (C3, C5 and factor B), antimicrobial peptide (cathelicidin-2...... at early developmental stages. A dense covering of surfaces of gill filaments by IgT antibody in the young fish suggest a role of this antibody as innate immune factor at early developmental stages....

  18. Global strategies for the treatment of early-stage and advanced cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas-González, Alfonso; Campbell, Sergio

    2016-02-01

    Recent peer-reviewed publications on the treatment of early, locally advanced and advanced cervical cancer patients are reviewed to gain insight into the main research done in the field. In early-stage patients where cure is offered to most patients, research focuses on more conservative or less morbid approaches to increase quality of life and reduce the treatment-related sexual dysfunction. No major advances have occurred for treating locally advanced disease since the introduction of concurrent chemoradiation, but efforts are directed to increase efficacy while reducing toxicity with the use of combination chemoradiation and modern radiation technologies. Molecular-targeted therapy and identification of targetable gene alterations as well as immunotherapy are actively pursued in patients with advanced disease. Although global statistics indicate a trend for decreased age-standardized incidence rates, social and economical factors impede the uptake of therapeutic advances achieved as many patients have no access even to basic resources for treating cancer. The adherence to quality indicators in delivery of optimized standard concurrent chemoradiation and adherence to guidelines in cervical cancer surgery must not be underestimated. Major efforts are needed in both the scientific and social aspects of cervical cancer treatment to reduce mortality.

  19. Multilevel assessment of ivermectin effects using different zebrafish life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rhaul; Grisolia, Cesar K; Monteiro, Marta S; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Domingues, Inês

    2016-09-01

    Several studies have shown high toxicity of the veterinary pharmaceutical ivermectin (a semisynthetic avermectin) for aquatic invertebrates however, few data is found for fish species. The present study evaluated the toxicity of ivermectin, to embryos, juveniles, and adults of zebrafish at different levels of biological organization including developmental, behavioural and biochemical. Toxicity tests were performed based on OECD protocols and mortality and behavioural changes were assed for all stages. Biochemical responses were assessed in adults and embryos and included cholinesterases (ChEs), catalase (CAT) (only in embryos), glutathione-S-Transferase (GST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and vitellogenin (VTG) like proteins (only in embryos). Genotoxicity was evaluated in adults. Results showed a higher sensitivity of juvenile and adults of zebrafish (96h-LC10 values of 14.0 and 55.4μg/L, respectively). For embryos a 96h-LC10 of 147.1μg/L was calculated, moreover developmental anomalies and hatching inhibition were observed only at high concentrations (>400μg/L), whereas biochemical and behavioural responses occurred at lower concentrations (Ivermectin did not show to be genotoxic for adult fish. The species sensitivity distribution analysis, based on fish and invertebrate species, indicated a Hazardous Concentration for 5% of the population (HC5) value of 0.057μg/L; suggesting high sensitivity of both groups to ivermectin and a high risk of this compound to aquatic ecosystems.

  20. Does an asexual endophyte symbiont alter life stage and long-term survival in a perennial host grass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeth, Stanley H; Hamilton, Cyd E

    2006-11-01

    Asexual, seedborne endophytic fungi in perennial grasses are often viewed as strong mutualists because fitness of the symbiont and host grass are closely coupled. However, at least for some native grasses, the asexual endophyte, Neotyphodium, acts parasitically, yet remains at high frequencies in natural populations. Most previous studies of Neotyphodium effects on host survival have been short term relative to the long life span of the perennial grass host. We therefore tested the hypothesis that Neotyphodium alters the survival in various life stages and long-term survival of adult native Arizona fescue (Festuca arizonica). To test the former, we planted 40 infected (E+) and 40 uninfected (E-, endophyte removed) seeds from four different maternal plants in the field under ambient conditions. We followed survival of seeds, seedlings, and adult plants over a 5-year period. To test the latter, we determined the infection of 1633 adult plants and followed their survival over the next 5-7 years. E+ seeds did not differ from uninfected seeds in terms of overall survival from seed germination to seedling to adult. However, the shape of the survival curve differed, with E+ plants showing higher mortality in early life stages. E+ adult plants did not differ from E- plants in long-term survival. Survival was generally very high during the study, which included a severe and prolonged drought. Infection by asexual Neotyphodium does not increase survival in early life stages or that of adult plants. Because asexual, vertically transmitted symbionts are predicted by evolutionary theory to be strong mutualists, the persistence of high infection frequencies in natural populations without long-term benefits to the host remains enigmatic. One possible explanation is that the long life span of the perennial host and low seedling recruitment may obscure either the costs or benefits of endophyte infection.

  1. Screening of early antigen genes of adult-stage Trichinella spiralis using pig serum from different stages of early infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this work was to identify novel, early antigens present in Trichinella spiralis. To this end, a cDNA library generated from 3-day old adult worms (Ad3) was immunologically screened using serum from a pig infected with 20,000 muscle larvae. The serum was obtained from multiple, time cours...

  2. Identification of Aedes aegypti and its Respective Life Stages by Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    RTO-MP-HFM-108 22 - 1 Identification of Aedes aegypti and its Respective Life Stages by Real - Time PCR James C. McAvin1*; Major David E...Stages by Real - Time PCR 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...grade water Identification of Aedes aegypti and its Respective Life Stages by Real - Time PCR RTO-MP-HFM-108 22 - 3 for no template controls

  3. ANALYSIS OF RISK FACTORS AT THE STAGE OF THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Skopenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines and summarizes the risks of enterprises at different stages of product life cycle. A diagnose and assess of risks according to the main stages of the product development are offered. Groups of factors that shape the economic risks at different stages of the product life cycle, by the possible negative consequences of their impact are formulated. To reduce the probable losses of the company and a reasonable assortment portfolio formation generalized classification of risks that are typical for any company is proposed.

  4. New NIA Booklet By and For People With Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Booklet By and For People With Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... you have a family member or friends with Alzheimer's disease? Are you wondering what they're going through ...

  5. Effect of crude oil extracts on early stages of African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of crude oil extracts on early stages of African catfish Heterobranchus ... carried out in the Institute of Oceanography Fish Farm, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Petroleum hydrocarbon was extracted from the two oils in separate 30litre ...

  6. Early-stage visual processing abnormalities in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Joshua M; Casanova, Manuel F; Sears, Lonnie; Sokhadze, Estate

    2010-06-01

    It has been reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have abnormal responses to the sensory environment. For these individuals sensory overload can impair functioning, raise physiological stress, and adversely affect social interaction. Early-stage (i.e. within 200ms of stimulus onset) auditory processing abnormalities have been widely examined in ASD using event-related potentials (ERP), while ERP studies investigating early-stage visual processing in ASD are less frequent. We wanted to test the hypothesis of early-stage visual processing abnormalities in ASD by investigating ERPs elicited in a visual oddball task using illusory figures. Our results indicate that individuals with ASD have abnormally large cortical responses to task irrelevant stimuli over both parieto-occipital and frontal regions-of-interest (ROI) during early stages of visual processing compared to the control group. Furthermore, ASD patients showed signs of an overall disruption in stimulus discrimination, and had a significantly higher rate of motor response errors.

  7. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective.

  8. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective.

  9. Maternal separation with early weaning: a novel mouse model of early life neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwafi Hani M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood adversity is associated with increased risk for mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance disorders. Although genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of such disorders, the neurobiological mechanisms involved are poorly understood. A reliable mouse model of early life adversity leading to lasting behavioral changes would facilitate progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these adverse effects. Maternal separation is a commonly used model of early life neglect, but has led to inconsistent results in the mouse. Results In an effort to develop a mouse model of early life neglect with long-lasting behavioral effects in C57BL/6 mice, we designed a new maternal separation paradigm that we call Maternal Separation with Early Weaning (MSEW. We tested the effects of MSEW on C57BL/6 mice as well as the genetically distinct DBA/2 strain and found significant MSEW effects on several behavioral tasks (i.e., the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swim test when assessed more than two months following the MSEW procedure. Our findings are consistent with MSEW causing effects within multiple behavioral domains in both strains, and suggest increased anxiety, hyperactivity, and behavioral despair in the MSEW offspring. Analysis of pup weights and metabolic parameters showed no evidence for malnutrition in the MSEW pups. Additionally, strain differences in many of the behavioral tests suggest a role for genetic factors in the response to early life neglect. Conclusions These results suggest that MSEW may serve as a useful model to examine the complex behavioral abnormalities often apparent in individuals with histories of early life neglect, and may lead to greater understanding of these later life outcomes and offer insight into novel therapeutic strategies.

  10. Chemotherapy alone versus chemotherapy plus radiotherapy for early stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Christine; Rehan, Fareed Ahmed; Skoetz, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Combined modality treatment (CMT) consisting of chemotherapy followed by localised radiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). However, due to long term adverse effects such as secondary malignancies, the role of radiotherapy has been...... questioned recently and some clinical study groups advocate chemotherapy only for this indication. OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing chemotherapy alone with CMT in patients with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma with respect...

  11. Is surgery still the best management option for early stage NSCLC?

    OpenAIRE

    Ottlakan, Aurel; Martucci, Nicola; Rocco, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Under the formidable thrust of alternative management options for early stage lung cancer, the role of surgery in this disease subset has been questioned. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has been advocated as an ideal substitute for surgery not only in high risk patients or for the ones who refuse surgery but also in lieu of sublobar resection in otherwise fit patients. The therapeutic modalities for early stage NSCLC were compared as to warranting local control, enabling adequate tissu...

  12. Supportive care in early rehabilitation for advanced-stage radiated head and neck cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, J.A.M. de; Berg, M.G. van den; Achterberg, T. van; Merkx, M.A.W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and supportive follow-up care needs 1 month posttreatment for patients with advanced-stage (stage III or IV) radiated head and neck cancer (HNC) who were treated with curative intent. Study Design An exploratory, descriptive analysi

  13. Conditions on Early Mars Might Have Fostered Rapid and Early Development of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    The exploration of Mars during the past decades has begun to unveil the history of the planet. The combinations of remote sensing, in situ geochemical compositional measurements and photographic observations from both above and on the surface have shown Mars to have a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution clearly had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. For a planet to be able to be habitable, it must have water, carbon sources, energy sources and a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water-carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001 well-dated at approx.3.9 Gy., (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, early active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon and water from possibly extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) some crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust. The question arises: "Why would life not evolve from these favorable conditions on early Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, it seems likely that environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would all favor the formation of early life. Even if life developed elsewhere (on Earth, Venus, or on other solar systems) and was transported to Mars, the surface conditions were likely very hospitable for that introduced life to multiply and evolve.

  14. Each life stage matters: the importance of assessing the response to climate change over the complete life cycle in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchuk, Viktoriia; Turlure, Camille; Schtickzelle, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    As ectothermic organisms, butterflies have widely been used as models to explore the predicted impacts of climate change. However, most studies explore only one life stage; to our best knowledge, none have integrated the impact of temperature on the vital rates of all life stages for a species of conservation concern. Besides, most population viability analysis models for butterflies are based on yearly population growth rate, precluding the implementation and assessment of important climate change scenarios, where climate change occurs mainly, or differently, during some seasons. Here, we used a combination of laboratory and field experiments to quantify the impact of temperature on all life stages of a vulnerable glacial relict butterfly. Next, we integrated these impacts into an overall population response using a deterministic periodic matrix model and explored the impact of several climate change scenarios. Temperature positively affected egg, pre-diapause larva and pupal survival, and the number of eggs laid by a female; only the survival of overwintering larva was negatively affected by an increase in temperature. Despite the positive impact of warming on many life stages, population viability was reduced under all scenarios, with predictions of much shorter times to extinction than under the baseline (current temperature situation) scenario. Indeed, model predictions were the most sensitive to changes in survival of overwintering larva, the only stage negatively affected by warming. A proper consideration of every stage of the life cycle is important when designing conservation guidelines in the light of climate change. This is in line with the resource-based habitat view, which explicitly refers to the habitat as a collection of resources needed for all life stages of the species. We, therefore, encourage adopting a resource-based habitat view for population viability analysis and development of conservation guidelines for butterflies, and more generally

  15. Organizational Life Cycle and the Growth of Information Technology Stage Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Nazemi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available : Organizations have the different patterns of behaviors on management practice and the use of systems during their life cycle and due to rapid growth of information technology, the application of appropriate technologies is becoming an essential part of business, as well. The adaptation of appropriate management systems on different stages of organizational life period will affect on sustainability of the firms and success to move to next stage and alignment and collaboration schema of IS/IT and business requirement affects on management effectiveness at every stage. This research investigated the significance of relationship between management behavior and IS/IT usage and the generic approach selected by companies. The results showed that organizations have chosen different approach during their life cycle and as they faced with unique challenges on each stage, a common practice on using information technology and applications became part of organizational life cycle. A generic model for information technology usage on organization life cycle was also developed that will assist organizations to select and develop IS/IT plans which addresses the requirements for each stage of life cycle.

  16. Emotional support from parents early in life, aging, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin A; Krause, Neal; Chatters, Linda M; Connell, Cathleen M; Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the relationship between receiving emotional support from parents early in life and an individual's health in adulthood. Analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of adults ages 25-74 years suggests that a lack of parental support during childhood is associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms and chronic conditions in adulthood. These associations between early parental support and adult health persist with increasing age throughout adulthood. Personal control, self-esteem, and social relationships during adulthood account for a large portion of these long-term associations. These findings underscore the importance of adopting a life course perspective in studying the social determinants of health among adults.

  17. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study