WorldWideScience

Sample records for early life leads

  1. Epigenetics, obesity and early-life cadmium or lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sarah S; Skaar, David A; Jirtle, Randy L; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease, which likely comprises multiple subtypes. Emerging data have linked chemical exposures to obesity. As organismal response to environmental exposures includes altered gene expression, identifying the regulatory epigenetic changes involved would be key to understanding the path from exposure to phenotype and provide new tools for exposure detection and risk assessment. In this report, we summarize published data linking early-life exposure to the heavy metals, cadmium and lead, to obesity. We also discuss potential mechanisms, as well as the need for complete coverage in epigenetic screening to fully identify alterations. The keys to understanding how metal exposure contributes to obesity are improved assessment of exposure and comprehensive establishment of epigenetic profiles that may serve as markers for exposures.

  2. Effects of early-life lead exposure on oxidative status and phagocytosis activity in great tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rainio, Miia J.; Eeva, Tapio; Lilley, Thomas; Stauffer, Janina; Ruuskanen, Suvi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lead is a highly poisonous metal with a very long half-life, distributing throughout the body in blood and accumulating primarily in bones and kidney. We studied the short and long-term effects of early-life lead exposure on antioxidant defense and phagocytosis activity in a small passerine

  3. Epigenetics of early-life lead exposure and effects on brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senut, Marie-Claude; Cingolani, Pablo; Sen, Arko; Kruger, Adele; Shaik, Asra; Hirsch, Helmut; Suhr, Steven T; Ruden, Douglas

    2012-12-01

    The epigenetic machinery plays a pivotal role in the control of many of the body's key cellular functions. It modulates an array of pliable mechanisms that are readily and durably modified by intracellular or extracellular factors. In the fast-moving field of neuroepigenetics, it is emerging that faulty epigenetic gene regulation can have dramatic consequences on the developing CNS that can last a lifetime and perhaps even affect future generations. Mounting evidence suggests that environmental factors can impact the developing brain through these epigenetic mechanisms and this report reviews and examines the epigenetic effects of one of the most common neurotoxic pollutants of our environment, which is believed to have no safe level of exposure during human development: lead.

  4. Is lead exposure in early life an environmental risk factor for Schizophrenia? Neurobiological connections and testable hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilarte, Tomás R; Opler, Mark; Pletnikov, Mikhail

    2012-06-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating neuropsychiatric disorder of unknown etiology. There is general agreement in the scientific community that schizophrenia is a disorder of neurodevelopmental origin in which both genes and environmental factors come together to produce a schizophrenia phenotype later in life. The challenging questions have been which genes and what environmental factors? Although there is evidence that different chromosome loci and several genes impart susceptibility for schizophrenia; and epidemiological studies point to broad aspects of the environment, only recently there has been an interest in studying gene × environment interactions. Recent evidence of a potential association between prenatal lead (Pb(2+)) exposure and schizophrenia precipitated the search for plausible neurobiological connections. The most promising connection is that in schizophrenia and in developmental Pb(2+) exposure there is strong evidence for hypoactivity of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of excitatory amino acid receptors as an underlying neurobiological mechanism in both conditions. A hypofunction of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) complex during critical periods of development may alter neurobiological processes that are essential for brain growth and wiring, synaptic plasticity and cognitive and behavioral outcomes associated with schizophrenia. We also describe on-going proof of concept gene-environment interaction studies of early life Pb(2+) exposure in mice expressing the human mutant form of the disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC-1) gene, a gene that is strongly associated with schizophrenia and allied mental disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Is Lead Exposure in Early Life An Environmental Risk Factor for Schizophrenia? Neurobiological Connections and Testable Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilarte, Tomás R.; Opler, Mark; Pletnikov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating neuropsychiatric disorder of unknown etiology. There is general agreement in the scientific community that schizophrenia is a disorder of neurodevelopmental origin in which both genes and environmental factors come together to produce a schizophrenia phenotype later in life. The challenging questions have been which genes and what environmental factors? Although there is evidence that different chromosome loci and several genes impart susceptibility for schizophrenia; and epidemiological studies point to broad aspects of the environment, only recently there has been an interest in studying gene × environment interactions. Recent evidence of a potential association between prenatal lead (Pb2+) exposure and schizophrenia precipitated the search for plausible neurobiological connections. The most promising connection is that in schizophrenia and in developmental Pb2+ exposure there is strong evidence for hypoactivity of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of excitatory amino acid receptors as an underlying neurobiological mechanism in both conditions. A hypofunction of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) complex during critical periods of development may alter neurobiological processes that are essential for brain growth and wiring, synaptic plasticity and cognitive and behavioral outcomes associated with schizophrenia. We also describe on-going proof of concept gene-environment interaction studies of early life Pb2+ exposure in mice expressing the human mutant form of the disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC-1) gene, a gene that is strongly associated with schizophrenia and allied mental disorders. PMID:22178136

  6. Early Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  7. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens represent a serious threat during early life. Importantly, even though the immune system of newborns may be characterized as developmentally immature, with a propensity to develop Th2 immunity, significant CD8+ T-cell responses may still be elicited in the context of optimal...... the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...... cytotoxicity of the elicited memory CD8+ T cells, as well as the potential of these cells to respond to secondary infections and confer protection. We further tested the impact of maternal immunity against our replication-deficient adenoviral vector during early life vaccination. Overall, our results indicate...

  8. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  9. Increased tau phosphorylation and beta amyloid in the hipocampus of mouse pups by early life lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N; Yu, Z L; Wang, L; Zheng, Y T; Jia, J X; Wang, Q; Zhu, M J; Liu, X L; Xia, X; Li, W J

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal lead exposure on the learning and memory ability and expression of tau protein phosphorylation (P-tau) and beta amyloid protein (Abeta) in hippocampus of mice offspring. Pb exposure initiated from beginning of gestation to weaning. Pb acetate administered in drinking solutions was dissolved in distilled deionized water at the concentrations of 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% groups. On the 21 th of postnatal day, the learning and memory ability of the mouse pups was tested by Water Maze test and the Pb levels in blood and hippocampus of the offspring were also determined. The expression of P-tau and Abeta in hippocampus was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The Pb levels in blood and hippocampus of all exposure groups were significantly higher than that of the control group ( P < 0.05). In Water Maze test, the performances of 0.5% and 1% groups were worse than that of the control group ( P < 0.05). The expression of P-tau and Abeta was increased in Pb exposed groups than that of the control group ( P < 0.05). Tau hyper-phosphorylation and Abeta increase in the hippocampus of pups may contribute to the impairment of learning and memory associated with maternal Pb exposure.

  10. Early-life lead exposure results in dose- and sex-specific effects on weight and epigenetic gene regulation in weanling mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulk, Christopher; Barks, Amanda; Liu, Kevin; Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Dolinoy, Dana C

    2013-01-01

    Aims Epidemiological and animal data suggest that the development of adult chronic conditions is influenced by early-life exposure-induced changes to the epigenome. This study investigates the effects of perinatal lead (Pb) exposure on DNA methylation and bodyweight in weanling mice. Materials & methods Viable yellow agouti (Avy) mouse dams were exposed to 0, 2.1, 16 and 32 ppm Pb acetate before conception through weaning. Epigenetic effects were evaluated by scoring coat color of Avy/a offspring and quantitative bisulfite sequencing of two retrotransposon-driven (Avy and CDK5 activator-binding protein intracisternal A particle element) and two imprinted (Igf2 and Igf2r) loci in tail DNA. Results Maternal blood Pb levels were below the limit of detection in controls, and 4.1, 25.1 and 32.1 μg/dl for each dose, respectively. Pb exposure was associated with a trend of increased wean bodyweight in males (p = 0.03) and altered coat color in Avy/a offspring. DNA methylation at Avy and the CDK5 activator-binding protein intracisternal A-particle element was significantly different from controls following a cubic trend (p = 0.04; p = 0.01), with male-specific effects at the Avy locus. Imprinted genes did not shift in methylation across exposures. Conclusion Dose- and sex-specific responses in bodyweight and DNA methylation indicate that Pb acts on the epigenome in a locus-specific fashion, dependent on the genomic feature hosting the CpG site of interest, and that sex is a factor in epigenetic response. PMID:24059796

  11. Early Reading Proficiency. Leading Indicator Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musen, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    In "Beyond Test Scores: Leading Indicators for Education," Foley and colleagues (2008) define leading indicators as those that "provide early signals of progress toward academic achievement" (p. 1) and stress that educators "need leading indicators to help them see the direction their efforts are going in and to take…

  12. Early life seizures in female rats lead to anxiety-related behavior and abnormal social behavior characterized by reduced motivation to novelty and deficit in social discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelhano, Adelisandra Silva Santos; Ramos, Fabiane Ochai; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that male Wistar rats submitted to neonatal status epilepticus showed abnormal social behavior characterized by deficit in social discrimination and enhanced emotionality. Taking into account that early insult can produce different biological manifestations in a gender-dependent manner, we aimed to investigate the social behavior and anxiety-like behavior in female Wistar rats following early life seizures. Neonate female Wistar rats at 9 days postnatal were subject to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and the control received saline. Behavioral tests started from 60 days postnatal and were carried out only during the diestrus phase of the reproductive cycle. In sociability test experimental animals exhibited reduced motivation for social encounter and deficit in social discrimination. In open field and the elevated plus maze, experimental animals showed enhanced emotionality with no changes in basal locomotor activity. The results showed that female rats submitted to neonatal status epipepticus showed impaired social behavior, characterized by reduced motivation to novelty and deficit in social discrimination in addition to enhanced emotionality.

  13. Do specific early-life adversities lead to specific symptoms of psychosis? A study from the 2007 the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentall, Richard P; Wickham, Sophie; Shevlin, Mark; Varese, Filippo

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have reported associations between childhood adversities, eg, loss of a parent, being raised in institutional care, sexual and other kinds of abuse by adults and bullying by peers, and psychosis in adulthood. However, the mechanisms by which these adversities lead to psychotic experiences are poorly understood. From models of the psychological processes involved in positive symptoms, it was predicted that childhood sexual abuse would be specifically associated with auditory hallucinations in adulthood, and that disruption of early attachment relations and more chronic forms of victimization such as bullying would be specifically associated with paranoid ideation. We therefore examined the associations between sexual trauma, physical abuse, bullying, and being brought up in institutional or local authority care and reports of auditory hallucinations and paranoid beliefs in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. All simple associations between childhood adversities and the two symptom types were significant. Childhood rape was associated only with hallucinations (OR 8.9, CI = 1.86-42.44) once co-occurring paranoia was controlled for. Being brought up in institutional care (OR = 11.08, CI = 3.26-37.62) was specifically associated with paranoia once comorbid hallucinations had been controlled for. For each symptom, dose-response relationships were observed between the number of childhood traumas and the risk of the symptom. The specific associations observed are consistent with current psychological theories about the origins of hallucinations and paranoia. Further research is required to study the psychological and biological mediators of these associations.

  14. The Early History of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Fowler, C. M. R.

    2003-12-01

    The youth of the Earth is strange to us. Many of the most fundamental constraints on life may have been different, especially the oxidation state of the surface. Should we suddenly land on its Hadean or early Archean surface by some sci-fi accident, we would not recognize our home. Above, the sky may have been green or some other unworldly color, and above that the weak young Sun might have been unrecognizable to someone trying to identify it from its spectrum. Below, seismology would show a hot, comparatively low-viscosity interior, possibly with a magma ocean in the deeper part of the upper mantle (Drake and Righter, 2002; Nisbet and Walker, 1982), and a core that, though present, was perhaps rather smaller than today. The continents may have been small islands in an icy sea, mostly frozen with some leads of open water, ( Sleep et al., 2001). Into these icy oceans, huge protruding Hawaii-like volcanoes would have poured out vast far-spreading floods of komatiite lavas in immense eruptions that may have created sudden local hypercane storms to disrupt the nearby icebergs. And meteorites would rain down.Or perhaps it was not so strange, nor so violent. The child is father to the man; young Earth was mother to Old Earth. Earth had hydrogen, silicate rock below and on the surface abundant carbon, which her ancient self retains today. Moreover, Earth was oxygen-rich, as today. Today, a tiny part of the oxygen is free, as air; then the oxygen would have been in the mantle while the surface oxygen was used to handcuff the hydrogen as dihydrogen monoxide. Oxygen dihydride is dense, unlikely to fly off to space, and at the poles, rock-forming. Of all the geochemical features that make Earth unique, the initial degassing (Genesis 2 : b) and then the sustained presence of liquid water is the defining oddity of this planet. Early Earth probably also kept much of its carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur as oxide or hydride. And, after the most cataclysmic events had passed, ˜4.5 Ga

  15. A developmental perspective on early-life exposure to neurotoxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, David C; Matthews-Bellinger, Julia A; Kordas, Katarzyna

    2016-09-01

    Studies of early-life neurotoxicant exposure have not been designed, analyzed, or interpreted in the context of a fully developmental perspective. The goal of this paper is to describe the key principles of a developmental perspective and to use examples from the literature to illustrate the relevance of these principles to early-life neurotoxicant exposures. Four principles are discussed: 1) the effects of early-life neurotoxicant exposure depend on a child's developmental context; 2) deficits caused by early-life exposure initiate developmental cascades that can lead to pathologies that differ from those observed initially; 3) early-life neurotoxicant exposure has intra-familial and intergenerational impacts; 4) the impacts of early-life neurotoxicant exposure influence a child's ability to respond to future insults. The first principle is supported by considerable evidence, but the other three have received much less attention. Incorporating a developmental perspective in studies of early-life neurotoxicant exposures requires prospective collection of data on a larger array of covariates than usually considered, using analytical approaches that acknowledge the transactional processes between a child and the environment and the phenomenon of developmental cascades. Consideration of early-life neurotoxicant exposure within a developmental perspective reveals that many issues remain to be explicated if we are to achieve a deep understanding of the societal health burden associated with early-life neurotoxicant exposures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Respiratory physiology during early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, J

    1999-08-01

    Despite the rapid adaptation to extrauterine life, the respiratory system of an infant is not simply a miniaturized version of that of an adult, since the rapid somatic growth that occurs during the first year of life is accompanied by major developmental changes in respiratory physiology. The highly compliant chest wall of the infant results in relatively low transpulmonary pressures at end expiration with increased tendency of the small peripheral airways to close during tidal breathing. This not only impairs gas exchange and ventilation-perfusion balance, particularly in dependent parts of the lung, but, together with the small absolute size of the airways, renders the infant and young child particularly susceptible to airway obstruction. Premature airways are highly compliant structures compared with those of mature newborns or adults. This increased compliance can cause airway collapse, resulting in increased airways resistance, flow limitation, poor gas exchange and increased work of breathing. Although there is clear evidence that airway reactivity is present from birth, its role in wheezing lower respiratory tract illnesses in young infants may be overshadowed by pre-existing abnormalities of airway geometry and lung mechanics, or by pathological changes such as airway oedema and mucus hypersecretion. Attempts to assess age-related changes in airway reactivity or response to aerosol therapy in the very young is confounded by changes in breathing patterns and the fact that infants are preferential nose breathers. There is increasing evidence that pre-existing abnormalities of respiratory function, associated with adverse events during foetal life (including maternal smoking during pregnancy), and familial predisposition to wheezing are important determinants of wheezing illnesses during the first years of life. This emphasizes the need to identify and minimize any factors that threaten the normal development of the lung during this critical period if

  17. Imprinting: When Early Life Memories Make Food Smell Bad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayes, Diego; Alkema, Mark J

    2016-05-09

    A recent study has found that pathogen exposure early in the life of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans leads to a long-lasting aversion that requires distinct sets of neurons for the formation and retrieval of the imprinted memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Early-life disruption of amphibian microbiota decreases later-life resistance to parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutie, Sarah A; Wilkinson, Christina L; Kohl, Kevin D; Rohr, Jason R

    2017-07-20

    Changes in the early-life microbiota of hosts might affect infectious disease risk throughout life, if such disruptions during formative times alter immune system development. Here, we test whether an early-life disruption of host-associated microbiota affects later-life resistance to infections by manipulating the microbiota of tadpoles and challenging them with parasitic gut worms as adults. We find that tadpole bacterial diversity is negatively correlated with parasite establishment in adult frogs: adult frogs that had reduced bacterial diversity as tadpoles have three times more worms than adults without their microbiota manipulated as tadpoles. In contrast, adult bacterial diversity during parasite exposure is not correlated with parasite establishment in adult frogs. Thus, in this experimental setup, an early-life disruption of the microbiota has lasting reductions on host resistance to infections, which is possibly mediated by its effects on immune system development. Our results support the idea that preventing early-life disruption of host-associated microbiota might confer protection against diseases later in life.Early-life microbiota alterations can affect infection susceptibility later in life, in animal models. Here, Knutie et al. show that manipulating the microbiota of tadpoles leads to increased susceptibility to parasitic infection in adult frogs, in the absence of substantial changes in the adults' microbiota.

  19. Osteoporosis in survivors of early life starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M; Albury, William R

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide evidence for the association of early life nutritional deprivation and adult osteoporosis, in order to suggest that a history of such deprivation may be an indicator of increased risk of osteoporosis in later life. The 'fetal programming' of a range of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in adults was first proposed in the 1990s and more recently extended to disorders of bone metabolism. Localised famines during World War II left populations in whom the long-term effects of maternal, fetal and infantile nutritional deprivation were studied. These studies supported the original concept of 'fetal programming' but did not consider bone metabolism. The present paper offers clinical data from another cohort of World War II famine survivors - those from the Holocaust. The data presented here, specifically addressing the issue of osteoporosis, report on 11 Holocaust survivors in Australia (five females, six males) who were exposed to starvation in early life. The cases show, in addition to other metabolic disorders associated with early life starvation, various levels of osteoporosis, often with premature onset. The cohort studied is too small to support firm conclusions, but the evidence suggests that the risk of adult osteoporosis in both males and females is increased by severe starvation early in life - not just in the period from gestation to infancy but also in childhood and young adulthood. It is recommended that epidemiological research on this issue be undertaken, to assist planning for the future health needs of immigrants to Australia coming from famine affected backgrounds. Pending such research, it would be prudent for primary care health workers to be alert to the prima facie association between early life starvation and adult osteoporosis, and to take this factor into account along with other indicators when assessing a patient's risk of osteoporosis in later life.

  20. Early evolution without a tree of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William F

    2011-06-30

    Life is a chemical reaction. Three major transitions in early evolution are considered without recourse to a tree of life. The origin of prokaryotes required a steady supply of energy and electrons, probably in the form of molecular hydrogen stemming from serpentinization. Microbial genome evolution is not a treelike process because of lateral gene transfer and the endosymbiotic origins of organelles. The lack of true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition has a bioenergetic cause.

  1. The Intestinal Microbiome in Early Life: Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claire eArrieta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human microbial colonization begins at birth and continues to develop and modulate in species abundance for about three years, until the microbiota becomes adult-like. During the same time period, children experience significant developmental changes that influence their current health status as well as their immune system. An ever-expanding number of articles associate several diseases with early life imbalances of the gut microbiota, also referred to as gut microbial dysbiosis. Whether early life dysbiosis precedes and plays a role in disease pathogenesis, or simply originates from the disease process itself is a question that is beginning to be answered in a few diseases, including IBD, obesity and asthma. This review describes the gut microbiome structure and function during the formative first years of life, as well as the environmental factors that determine its composition. It also aims to discuss the recent advances in understanding the role of the early life gut microbiota in the development of immune-mediated, metabolic, and neurological diseases. A greater understanding of how the early life gut microbiota impacts our immune development could potentially lead to novel microbial-derived therapies that target disease prevention at an early age.

  2. Early-Life Persistent Vitamin D Deficiency Alters Cardiopulmonary Responses to Particulate Matter-Enhanced Atmospheric Smog in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study demonstrates that early-life persistent vitamin D deficiency alters the cardiopulmonary response to smog in mice and may increase risk of adverse effects. Early life nutritional deficiencies can lead to increased cardiovascular susceptibility to environme...

  3. Early Childhood Education Teachers: Life History, Life Course, and the Problem of Family-Work Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the wider education literature, rather little is known about the lives of early childhood education (ECE) teachers and the impact of those lives on their practice. Drawing on surveys completed by Head Start assistant and lead teachers, teacher lifelines, and interviews, and through the lens of life-course theory, the author portrays…

  4. Development of Life on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable

  5. Early evolution without a tree of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin William F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Life is a chemical reaction. Three major transitions in early evolution are considered without recourse to a tree of life. The origin of prokaryotes required a steady supply of energy and electrons, probably in the form of molecular hydrogen stemming from serpentinization. Microbial genome evolution is not a treelike process because of lateral gene transfer and the endosymbiotic origins of organelles. The lack of true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition has a bioenergetic cause. This article was reviewed by Dan Graur, W. Ford Doolittle, Eugene V. Koonin and Christophe Malaterre.

  6. Maternal separation with early weaning: a novel mouse model of early life neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwafi Hani M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood adversity is associated with increased risk for mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance disorders. Although genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of such disorders, the neurobiological mechanisms involved are poorly understood. A reliable mouse model of early life adversity leading to lasting behavioral changes would facilitate progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these adverse effects. Maternal separation is a commonly used model of early life neglect, but has led to inconsistent results in the mouse. Results In an effort to develop a mouse model of early life neglect with long-lasting behavioral effects in C57BL/6 mice, we designed a new maternal separation paradigm that we call Maternal Separation with Early Weaning (MSEW. We tested the effects of MSEW on C57BL/6 mice as well as the genetically distinct DBA/2 strain and found significant MSEW effects on several behavioral tasks (i.e., the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swim test when assessed more than two months following the MSEW procedure. Our findings are consistent with MSEW causing effects within multiple behavioral domains in both strains, and suggest increased anxiety, hyperactivity, and behavioral despair in the MSEW offspring. Analysis of pup weights and metabolic parameters showed no evidence for malnutrition in the MSEW pups. Additionally, strain differences in many of the behavioral tests suggest a role for genetic factors in the response to early life neglect. Conclusions These results suggest that MSEW may serve as a useful model to examine the complex behavioral abnormalities often apparent in individuals with histories of early life neglect, and may lead to greater understanding of these later life outcomes and offer insight into novel therapeutic strategies.

  7. Detection of occupational lead nephropathy using early renal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B D; Krishnaswamy, K

    1995-01-01

    Automotive use of leaded gasoline continues to be an important source of occupational exposure to lead in India and other countries. The present study assessed the renal function and markers of early renal damage of 22 mechanics at three automobile garages. Urinary N-acetyl-3-D-glucosaminidase activity and beta-2-microglobulin levels were significantly increased in auto garage mechanics with blood leads of 30-69 micrograms/dL. A significant correlation was observed between blood lead levels and urinary N-acetyl-3-D-glucosaminidase activity but not with urine beta-2-microglobulin levels. A marginal impairment in creatinine clearance was not statistically significant. Urinary N-acetyl-3-D-glucosaminidase activity offers a sensitive monitor of blood lead and renal tubular injury.

  8. The developing hypopharyngeal microbiota in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand the establi......BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand...... the establishment of the airway microbiota within the first 3 months of life. We investigated the hypopharyngeal microbiota in the unselected COPSAC2010 cohort of 700 infants, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of hypopharyngeal aspirates from 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age. RESULTS: Our analysis shows...... that majority of the hypopharyngeal microbiota of healthy infants belong to each individual's core microbiota and we demonstrate five distinct community pneumotypes. Four of these pneumotypes are dominated by the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Corynebacterium, respectively. Furthermore, we...

  9. Early life nutrition, epigenetics and programming of later life disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Mark H

    2014-06-02

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be

  10. Early Life Nutrition, Epigenetics and Programming of Later Life Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark H. Vickers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how

  11. The early Earth atmosphere and early life catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Jiménez, Sandra Ignacia

    2014-01-01

    Homochirality is a property of living systems on Earth. The time, the place, and the way in which it appeared are uncertain. In a prebiotic scenario two situations are of interest: either an initial small bias for handedness of some biomolecules arouse and progressed with life, or an initial slight excess led to the actual complete dominance of the known chiral molecules. A definitive answer can probably never be given, neither from the fields of physics and chemistry nor biology. Some arguments can be advanced to understand if homochirality is necessary for the initiation of a prebiotic homochiral polymer chemistry, if this homochirality is suggesting a unique origin of life, or if a chiral template such as a mineral surface is always required to result in an enantiomeric excess. A general description of the early Earth scenario will be presented in this chapter, followed by a general description of some clays, and their role as substrates to allow the concentration and amplification of some of the building blocks of life.

  12. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareri, Dominic S; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-06-01

    Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS) in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation), can drastically impact one's social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic S. Fareri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation, can drastically impact one’s social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction.

  14. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareri, Dominic S.; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-01-01

    Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS) in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation), can drastically impact one’s social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction. PMID:27174149

  15. Early-life family structure and microbially induced cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Martin J; Nomura, Abraham; Lee, James; Stemmerman, Grant N; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I

    2007-01-01

    Cancer may follow exposure to an environmental agent after many decades. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori, known to be acquired early in life, increases risk for gastric adenocarcinoma, but other factors are also important. In this study, we considered whether early-life family structure affects the risk of later developing gastric cancer among H. pylori+ men. We examined a long-term cohort of Japanese-American men followed for 28 y, and performed a nested case-control study among those carrying H. pylori or the subset carrying the most virulent cagA+ H. pylori strains to address whether family structure predicted cancer development. We found that among the men who were H. pylori+ and/or cagA+ (it is possible to be cagA+ and H. pylori- if the H. pylori test is falsely negative), belonging to a large sibship or higher birth order was associated with a significantly increased risk of developing gastric adenocarcinoma late in life. For those with cagA+ strains, the risk of developing gastric cancer was more than twice as high (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.0) among those in a sibship of seven or more individuals than in a sibship of between one and three persons. These results provide evidence that early-life social environment plays a significant role in risk of microbially induced malignancies expressing five to eight decades later, and these findings lead to new models to explain these interactions.

  16. Early Archaean collapse basins, a habitat for early bacterial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, W.

    For a better definition of the sedimentary environment in which early life may have flourished during the early Archaean, understanding of the basin geometry in terms of shape, depth, and fill is a prerequisite. The basin fill is the easiest to approach, namely from the well exposed, low-grade metamorphic 3.4 - 3.5 Ga rock successions in the greenstone belts of the east Pilbara (Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt and North Pole Dome) in West Australia and of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (Buck Ridge volcano-sedimentary complex) in South Africa. They consist of mafic to ultramafic volcanic rocks, largely pillow basalts, with distinct intercalations of intermediate to felsic intrusive and volcanic rocks and of silicious sediments. The, partly volcaniclastic, silicious sediments of the Buck Ridge and North Pole volcano-sedimentary complexes form a regressive-transgressive sequence. They were deposited close to base level, and experienced occasional emersion. Both North Pole Chert and the chert of the Kittys Gap volcano-sedimentary complex in the Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt preserve the flat-and-channel architecture of a shallow tidal environment. Thickness and facies distribution appear to be genetically linked to systems, i.e. arrays, of syn-depositionally active, extensional faults. Structures at the rear, front and bottoms of these fault arrays, and the fault vergence from the basin margin towards the centre characterize the basins as due to surficial crustal collapse. Observations in the Pilbara craton point to a non-linear plan view and persistence for the basin-defining fault patterns over up to 50 Ma, during which several of these fault arrays became superposed. The faults linked high-crustal level felsic intrusions within the overall mafic rock suite via porphyry pipes, black chert veins and inferred hydrothermal circulations with the overlying felsic lavas, and more importantly, with the cherty sediments. Where such veins surfaced, high-energy breccias, and in the

  17. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  18. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-01-01

    of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. METHODS: The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification...... in crude analyses [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.60, 95% CI 2.79-4.65]. Birth weight was inversely associated with testicular cancer and no clear association with birth order was observed. The positive association between cryptorchidism and testicular cancer was only slightly attenuated controlling for birth......PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective...

  19. Life cycle assessment of nanoadsorbents at early stage technological development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazemi, Ali; Bahramifar, Nader; Heydari, Akbar

    2018-01-01

    the process of the functionalization of nanoadsorbents leads to the increase of the adsorption capacity of nanoadsorbents, it is also paired with a significant enhancement of negative environmental impacts. The results of t-test comparing the cradle-to-use life cycle impacts of studied impact categories for 1...... in the control and removal of environmental pollutants. This application is still an emerging technology at the early stages of development. Hence, the heart of this study enables an environmental assessment of nanoadsorbents as an emerging product. In addition, the environmental impacts of synthesized...

  20. Early-life stress origins of gastrointestinal disease: animal models, intestinal pathophysiology, and translational implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Calvin S; Medland, Julia E; Moeser, Adam J

    2015-12-15

    Early-life stress and adversity are major risk factors in the onset and severity of gastrointestinal (GI) disease in humans later in life. The mechanisms by which early-life stress leads to increased GI disease susceptibility in adult life remain poorly understood. Animal models of early-life stress have provided a foundation from which to gain a more fundamental understanding of this important GI disease paradigm. This review focuses on animal models of early-life stress-induced GI disease, with a specific emphasis on translational aspects of each model to specific human GI disease states. Early postnatal development of major GI systems and the consequences of stress on their development are discussed in detail. Relevant translational differences between species and models are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Early-life stress origins of gastrointestinal disease: animal models, intestinal pathophysiology, and translational implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Calvin S.; Medland, Julia E.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress and adversity are major risk factors in the onset and severity of gastrointestinal (GI) disease in humans later in life. The mechanisms by which early-life stress leads to increased GI disease susceptibility in adult life remain poorly understood. Animal models of early-life stress have provided a foundation from which to gain a more fundamental understanding of this important GI disease paradigm. This review focuses on animal models of early-life stress-induced GI disease, with a specific emphasis on translational aspects of each model to specific human GI disease states. Early postnatal development of major GI systems and the consequences of stress on their development are discussed in detail. Relevant translational differences between species and models are highlighted. PMID:26451004

  2. Investigation on life cycle assessment of lead and zinc production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabere Nazari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead and zinc production is one of the main predisposing factors of excessive greenhouse gases emissions, air pollution and water consumption. In this paper, the environmental problems of lead and zinc production in Calcimin plant are expressed and life cycle assessment of this plant is assessed. The data regarding the amount of induced global warming and pollution, acidification, and depletion of water resources were collected and discussed. It was concluded that depletion of water resources affected the environment and this was the main issue of the lead and zinc production of this plant. According to the results, in the global warming’s impact category, the proportion of carbon dioxide is more than that of methane. The results also showed that in the acidification’s impact category, the nitrogen oxide proportion is greater compared to that of the sulfur dioxide.

  3. Universal biology and the statistical mechanics of early life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenfeld, Nigel; Biancalani, Tommaso; Jafarpour, Farshid

    2017-11-01

    All known life on the Earth exhibits at least two non-trivial common features: the canonical genetic code and biological homochirality, both of which emerged prior to the Last Universal Common Ancestor state. This article describes recent efforts to provide a narrative of this epoch using tools from statistical mechanics. During the emergence of self-replicating life far from equilibrium in a period of chemical evolution, minimal models of autocatalysis show that homochirality would have necessarily co-evolved along with the efficiency of early-life self-replicators. Dynamical system models of the evolution of the genetic code must explain its universality and its highly refined error-minimization properties. These have both been accounted for in a scenario where life arose from a collective, networked phase where there was no notion of species and perhaps even individuality itself. We show how this phase ultimately terminated during an event sometimes known as the Darwinian transition, leading to the present epoch of tree-like vertical descent of organismal lineages. These examples illustrate concrete examples of universal biology: the quest for a fundamental understanding of the basic properties of living systems, independent of precise instantiation in chemistry or other media. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.

  4. All that's mine I carry with me. Early life disease and adult health in Sweden during 250 years

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study early life risk exposures in relation to adult health and mortality in Sweden during 250 years. A number of causal mechanisms by which exposure to diseases and stressful economic and social conditions early in life may lead to increased morbidity and mortality later in life are discussed (paper I). The early life exposures investigated are the foetal origins (nutrition) and the inflammation hypotheses. Longitudinal demographic and socioeconomic data for indi...

  5. association between early life malnutrition and the size of lumbar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the relationship between early life malnutrition and the development of lumbar ... incriminate such predictors as poverty, aridity and human development which can be reduced ..... relationship with early childhood caries.

  6. Early-life family structure and microbially induced cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Blaser

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer may follow exposure to an environmental agent after many decades. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori, known to be acquired early in life, increases risk for gastric adenocarcinoma, but other factors are also important. In this study, we considered whether early-life family structure affects the risk of later developing gastric cancer among H. pylori+ men.We examined a long-term cohort of Japanese-American men followed for 28 y, and performed a nested case-control study among those carrying H. pylori or the subset carrying the most virulent cagA+ H. pylori strains to address whether family structure predicted cancer development. We found that among the men who were H. pylori+ and/or cagA+ (it is possible to be cagA+ and H. pylori- if the H. pylori test is falsely negative, belonging to a large sibship or higher birth order was associated with a significantly increased risk of developing gastric adenocarcinoma late in life. For those with cagA+ strains, the risk of developing gastric cancer was more than twice as high (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.0 among those in a sibship of seven or more individuals than in a sibship of between one and three persons.These results provide evidence that early-life social environment plays a significant role in risk of microbially induced malignancies expressing five to eight decades later, and these findings lead to new models to explain these interactions.

  7. Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice provides information based on scientific literature about physiological parameters. Modelers...

  8. Early Life Stress, Depression And Parkinson's Disease: A New Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallé, Ernest; Mabandla, Musa V

    2018-03-19

    This review aims to shed light on the relationship that involves exposure to early life stress, depression and Parkinson's disease (PD). A systematic literature search was conducted in Pubmed, MEDLINE, EBSCOHost and Google Scholar and relevant data were submitted to a meta-analysis . Early life stress may contribute to the development of depression and patients with depression are at risk of developing PD later in life. Depression is a common non-motor symptom preceding motor symptoms in PD. Stimulation of regions contiguous to the substantia nigra as well as dopamine (DA) agonists have been shown to be able to attenuate depression. Therefore, since PD causes depletion of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, depression, rather than being just a simple mood disorder, may be part of the pathophysiological process that leads to PD. It is plausible that the mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways that mediate mood, emotion, and/or cognitive function may also play a key role in depression associated with PD. Here, we propose that a medication designed to address a deficiency in serotonin is more likely to influence motor symptoms of PD associated with depression. This review highlights the effects of an antidepressant, Fluvoxamine maleate, in an animal model that combines depressive-like symptoms and Parkinsonism.

  9. Nutrition and brain development in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-04-01

    Presented here is an overview of the pathway from early nutrient deficiency to long-term brain function, cognition, and productivity, focusing on research from low- and middle-income countries. Animal models have demonstrated the importance of adequate nutrition for the neurodevelopmental processes that occur rapidly during pregnancy and infancy, such as neuron proliferation and myelination. However, several factors influence whether nutrient deficiencies during this period cause permanent cognitive deficits in human populations, including the child's interaction with the environment, the timing and degree of nutrient deficiency, and the possibility of recovery. These factors should be taken into account in the design and interpretation of future research. Certain types of nutritional deficiency clearly impair brain development, including severe acute malnutrition, chronic undernutrition, iron deficiency, and iodine deficiency. While strategies such as salt iodization and micronutrient powders have been shown to improve these conditions, direct evidence of their impact on brain development is scarce. Other strategies also require further research, including supplementation with iron and other micronutrients, essential fatty acids, and fortified food supplements during pregnancy and infancy. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  10. Life satisfaction of women in early stages of fertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Shlomo, Shirley; Pascal, Mor; Taubman Ben-Ari, Orit; Azuri, Yoseph; Horowtz, Eran

    2017-01-01

    As many women perceive motherhood to be a central component of identity that enhances life satisfaction, difficulties conceiving may lead to stress. This study examined women in the early stages of fertility treatment to ascertain the relations of perceived stress, cognitive appraisal, and self-mastery to the life satisfaction of women embarking on fertility treatment and whether the associations were the same for women who were already mothers versus those who were not. Women were recruited for the study over a period of 18 months, from January 2013 to June 2014. The final sample was composed of 145 women; of these, 67 had 1 or 2 children and 78 had no children. No significant differences were found in perceived stress and life satisfaction between women with and without children. However, in the sample as a whole, higher levels of self-mastery and lower levels of stress were associated with greater life satisfaction. Moreover, the associations between self-mastery and cognitive appraisals of threat and self-efficacy were mediated by perceived stress. The findings highlight the importance of developing interventions at fertility clinics that begin at the very first point of contact to promote the psychological well-being of women being treated for infertility.

  11. Early life physical activity and cognition at old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Miranda; Deeg, Dorly J H; Visser, Marjolein; Jonker, Cees

    Physical activity has shown to be inversely associated with cognitive decline in older people. Whether this association is already present in early life has not been investigated previously. The association between early life physical activity and cognition was studied in 1,241 subjects aged 62-85

  12. Effects of early life stress: Opportunities for pharmacological intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loi, M

    2016-01-01

    Moderate acute activation of the body’s stress response system is considered an adaptive mechanism that increases the chance of survival, but severe stressors early in life may disturb brain development. In agreement, epidemiological data suggest that adverse experiences early in life, such as

  13. Gut microbiota modifications and weight gain in early life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Angelakis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Childhood and adolescent obesity is a significant public health concern and has been associated with cardiovascular disease and related metabolic sequelae later in life. In recent years, several studies have postulated an imbalance in the composition of the early life gut microbiota results in pediatric obesity and its associated diseases. The early life gut microbiota is influenced by several factors including the mode of delivery, prematurity, breastfeeding, and the use of antibiotics and probiotics. It has been proposed that, when given early in life, antibiotics and probiotics disrupt the gut microbiota and consequently its metabolic activity, promoting weight gain. Probiotics have increasingly been administrated to children and studies on the perinatal use of probiotics on low birth weight and healthy infants revealed significantly increased body length and weight later in life in comparison with infants who did not receive probiotic supplements. Similarly, exposure to antibiotics is very high perinatally and in the early periods of life and there is evidence that antibiotic treatment decreases the biodiversity of the early life gut microbiota. In addition, studies have revealed that antibiotic treatment during the first months of life is associated with being overweight later in life. In this paper we review the effects of the administration of probiotics and antibiotics in early life on the gut microbiota and discuss their effects on weight gain. Keywords: Gut microbiota, Obesity, Newborn, Antibiotics, Probiotics

  14. Early life adversity: Lasting consequences for emotional learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm J. Krugers

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The early postnatal period is a highly sensitive time period for the developing brain, both in humans and rodents. During this time window, exposure to adverse experiences can lastingly impact cognitive and emotional development. In this review, we briefly discuss human and rodent studies investigating how exposure to adverse early life conditions – mainly related to quality of parental care - affects brain activity, brain structure, cognition and emotional responses later in life. We discuss the evidence that early life adversity hampers later hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions, while increasing amygdala activity, and the sensitivity to stressors and emotional behavior later in life. Exposure to early life stress may thus on the one hand promote behavioral adaptation to potentially threatening conditions later in life –at the cost of contextual memory formation in less threatening situations- but may on the other hand also increase the sensitivity to develop stress-related and anxiety disorders in vulnerable individuals.

  15. Loss of Nfkb1 leads to early onset aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Giovanna M; Wahlstrom, Joshua S; Crawley, Clayton D; Cahill, Kirk E; Pytel, Peter; Liang, Hua; Kang, Shijun; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Yamini, Bakhtiar

    2014-11-01

    NF-κB is a major regulator of age-dependent gene expression and the p50/NF-κB1 subunit is an integral modulator of NF-κB signaling. Here, we examined Nfkb1-/- mice to investigate the relationship between this subunit and aging. Although Nfkb1-/- mice appear similar to littermates at six months of age, by 12 months they have a higher incidence of several observable age-related phenotypes. In addition, aged Nfkb1-/- animals have increased kyphosis, decreased cortical bone, increased brain GFAP staining and a decrease in overall lifespan compared to Nfkb1+/+. In vitro, serially passaged primary Nfkb1-/- MEFs have more senescent cells than comparable Nfkb1+/+ MEFs. Also, Nfkb1-/- MEFs have greater amounts of phospho-H2AX foci and lower levels of spontaneous apoptosis than Nfkb1+/+, findings that are mirrored in the brains of Nfkb1-/- animals compared to Nfkb1+/+. Finally, in wildtype animals a substantial decrease in p50 DNA binding is seen in aged tissue compared to young. Together, these data show that loss of Nfkb1 leads to early animal aging that is associated with reduced apoptosis and increased cellular senescence. Moreover, loss of p50 DNA binding is a prominent feature of aged mice relative to young. These findings support the strong link between the NF-κB pathway and mammalian aging.

  16. Development of the Life Story in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Kristina L.; Pillemer, David B.

    2018-01-01

    Life span developmental psychology proposes that the ability to create a coherent life narrative does not develop until early adolescence. Using a novel methodology, 10-, 12-, and 14-year-old participants were asked to tell their life stories aloud to a researcher. Later, participants separated their transcribed narratives into self-identified…

  17. Chemical defense of early life stages of benthic marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Niels

    2002-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of factors affecting the survival of early life stages of marine invertebrates is critically important for understanding their population dynamics and the evolution of their diverse reproductive and life-history characteristics. Chemical defense is an important determinant of survival for adult stages of many sessile benthic invertebrates, yet relatively little consideration has been given to chemical defenses at the early life stages. This review examines the taxonomic breadth of early life-stage chemical defense in relation to various life-history and reproductive characteristics, as well as possible constraints on the expression of chemical defense at certain life stages. Data on the localization of defensive secondary metabolites in larvae and the fitness-related consequences of consuming even a small amount of toxic secondary metabolites underpin proposals regarding the potential for Müllerian and Batesian mimicry to occur among marine larvae. The involvement of microbial symbionts in the chemical defense of early life stages illustrates its complexity for some species. As our knowledge of chemical defenses in early life stages grows, we will be able to more rigorously examine connections among phylogeny, chemical defenses, and the evolution of reproductive and life-history characteristics among marine invertebrates.

  18. Good daily habits during the early stages of life determine success throughout life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kohyama

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses hypothesis that sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during the early stages of life are indispensable to a successful life. Successful life was defined according to the famous cohort studies of Mischel's and Dunedin. To assess the hypothesis, neuronal elements presumably affecting early daily habits and successful life are reviewed. The effect of sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during early stages of life on the development of the prefrontal cortex has been found to be the key issue to verify the hypothesis. Socioeconomic status is found to be another issue to be studied.

  19. Good daily habits during the early stages of life determine success throughout life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohyama, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses hypothesis that sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during the early stages of life are indispensable to a successful life. Successful life was defined according to the famous cohort studies of Mischel's and Dunedin. To assess the hypothesis, neuronal elements presumably affecting early daily habits and successful life are reviewed. The effect of sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during early stages of life on the development of the prefrontal cortex has been found to be the key issue to verify the hypothesis. Socioeconomic status is found to be another issue to be studied.

  20. Quality of life outcomes' in early motherhood in Austria : The impact of internal and external resources

    OpenAIRE

    Mautner, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide results of two studies, which were conducted in Austria to examine the impact of internal and external factors on quality of life and depressive symptoms in early motherhood. In general early motherhood may be a critical life event for a woman and their partner and can lead to decreased well-being. Emotional aspects such as depression affects not only the quality of life of the mothers but also her new-born child, her other children, partner and relati...

  1. A neurological and biochemical study of early lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, J A.S.

    1980-05-01

    Motor nerve conduction velocities in 194 workers exposed to lead in a battery factory were compared with those of 94 age-matched controls. Changes in nerve conduction velocities of the 94 lead workers were found to have occurred. All mean maximum motor nerve conducting velocities measured were significantly lower in the lead-exposed group than in the control group. There was no statistically significant correlation to indicate that progressive slowing of nerve conduction was associated with increasing exposure to lead or with the commonly measured biochemical changes associated with disturbed haemopoiesis in lead exposure. Results suggest that the onset of nerve conduction changes occurs within two years.

  2. The serotonin transporter and early life stress : Translational perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, Danielle J; Buwalda, Bauke; Zee, van der Eddy; de Boer, Sietse F; Olivier, Jocelien D A

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between the serotonin transporter (SERT) linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and adverse early life stressing (ELS) events is associated with enhanced stress susceptibility and risk to develop mental disorders like major depression, anxiety, and aggressiveness. In particular, human

  3. Early Motherhood and Subsequent Life Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2008-01-01

    Background: Early motherhood has been linked with a number of adverse outcomes, including mental health difficulties and barriers to completing educational qualifications and workforce participation. The present study examined the extent to which these linkages could be explained by the influence of social, family, and background factors that were…

  4. The positive and negative consequences of stressors during early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Pat; Haussmann, Mark F

    2015-11-01

    We discuss the long-term effects of stress exposure in pre- and early postnal life. We present an evolutionary framework within which such effects can be viewed, and describe how the outcomes might vary with species life histories. We focus on stressors that induce increases in glucocorticoid hormones and discuss the advantages of an experimental approach. We describe a number of studies demonstrating how exposure to these hormones in early life can influence stress responsiveness and have substantial long-term, negative consequences for adult longevity. We also describe how early life exposure to mild levels of stressors can have beneficial effects on resilience to stress in later life, and discuss how the balance of costs and benefits is likely dependent on the nature of the adult environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Early life insults as determinants of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savran, Osman; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2018-01-01

    Background: Early life events may predispose to the development of chronic lung disease in adulthood. Aim: To provide an update on current knowledge of early nongenetic origins of COPD. Materials and methods: Systematic literature review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items...... in utero and early life is a risk factor for subsequent development of COPD. Furthermore, low birth weight, lower respiratory tract infections and asthma, including wheezy bronchitis, in childhood also seem to be important determinants for later development of COPD. Early life insults may, therefore...

  6. Early Life Crises of Habitable Planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    There are a number of crises that a potentially habitable planet must avoid or surmount if its potential is to be realized. These include the runaway greenhouse, loss of atmosphere by chemical or physical processes, and long-lasting global glaciation. In this lecture I will present research on the climate dynamics governing such processes, with particular emphasis on the lessons to be learned from the cases of Early Mars and the Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth.

  7. Early Postnatal Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Leads to Enhanced Neurogenesis and Impaired Communicative Functions in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Pang

    Full Text Available Perinatal infection is a well-identified risk factor for a number of neurodevelopmental disorders, including brain white matter injury (WMI and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. The underlying mechanisms by which early life inflammatory events cause aberrant neural, cytoarchitectural, and network organization, remain elusive. This study is aimed to investigate how systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced neuroinflammation affects microglia phenotypes and early neural developmental events in rats. We show here that LPS exposure at early postnatal day 3 leads to a robust microglia activation which is characterized with mixed microglial proinflammatory (M1 and anti-inflammatory (M2 phenotypes. More specifically, we found that microglial M1 markers iNOS and MHC-II were induced at relatively low levels in a regionally restricted manner, whereas M2 markers CD206 and TGFβ were strongly upregulated in a sub-set of activated microglia in multiple white and gray matter structures. This unique microglial response was associated with a marked decrease in naturally occurring apoptosis, but an increase in cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ and the dentate gyrus (DG of hippocampus. LPS exposure also leads to a significant increase in oligodendrocyte lineage population without causing discernible hypermyelination. Moreover, LPS-exposed rats exhibited significant impairments in communicative and cognitive functions. These findings suggest a possible role of M2-like microglial activation in abnormal neural development that may underlie ASD-like behavioral impairments.

  8. Early-life medical care and human capital accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem

    2015-01-01

    that both types of interventions may benefit not only child health but also long-term educational outcomes. In addition, early-life medical interventions may improve the educational outcomes of siblings. These findings can be used to design policies that improve long-term outcomes and reduce economic......Ample empirical evidence links adverse conditions during early childhood (the period from conception to age five) to worse health outcomes and lower academic achievement in adulthood. Can early-life medical care and public health interventions ameliorate these effects? Recent research suggests...

  9. Reduced cortical thickness in veterans exposed to early life trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbo, Vincent; Salat, David H; Amick, Melissa M; Leritz, Elizabeth C; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E

    2014-08-30

    Studies have shown that early life trauma may influence neural development and increase the risk of developing psychological disorders in adulthood. We used magnetic resonance imaging to examine the impact of early life trauma on the relationship between current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and cortical thickness/subcortical volumes in a sample of deployed personnel from Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom. A group of 108 service members enrolled in the Translational Research Center for Traumatic Brain Injury and Stress Disorders (TRACTS) were divided into those with interpersonal early life trauma (EL-Trauma+) and Control (without interpersonal early life trauma) groups based on the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire. PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Cortical thickness and subcortical volumes were analyzed using the FreeSurfer image analysis package. Thickness of the paracentral and posterior cingulate regions was positively associated with PTSD severity in the EL-Trauma+ group and negatively in the Control group. In the EL-Trauma+ group, both the right amygdala and the left hippocampus were positively associated with PTSD severity. This study illustrates a possible influence of early life trauma on the vulnerability of specific brain regions to stress. Changes in neural morphometry may provide information about the emergence and maintenance of symptoms in individuals with PTSD. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Early-Life Nutritional Programming of Health and Disease in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E

    2017-01-01

    Exposures during early life are increasingly being recognised as factors that play an important role in the aetiology of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The "Developmental Origins of Health and Disease" (DOHaD) hypothesis asserts that adverse early-life exposures - most notably unbalanced nutrition - leads to an increased risk for a range of NCDs and that disease risk is highest when there is a "mismatch" between the early- and later-life environments. Thus, the DOHaD hypothesis would predict highest risk in settings undergoing a rapid nutrition transition. We investigated the link between early-life nutritional exposures and long-term health in rural Gambia, West Africa. Using demographic data dating back to the 1940s, the follow-up of randomised controlled trials of nutritional supplementation in pregnancy, and the "experiment of nature" that seasonality in this region provides, we investigated the DOHaD hypothesis in a population with high rates of maternal and infant under-nutrition, a high burden from infectious disease, and an emerging risk of NCDs. Key Messages: Our work in rural Gambia suggests that in populations with high rates of under-nutrition in early life, the immune system may be sensitive to nutritional deficiencies early in life, resulting in a greater susceptibility to infection-related morbidity and mortality. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The early experiments leading to the V-Α interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegdi, V.L.

    1989-01-01

    The author cites a number of early experiments of the 1950s which were central to the understanding of V-Α interaction. Some were proposed by T D Lee and C N Yang, who also described the weak interaction with ∞ nonconservation of parity, and some were not. Crucial experiments were performed by small teams and theory and experiment advanced together. (UK)

  12. Sex and strain modify antioxidant response to early life ozone exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the US, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the 3rd leading cause of death. In women, its impact continues to increase. Oxidant insults like cigarette smoke and air pollution, especially during critical periods of early life, appear to further increase risk of COPD...

  13. The Human Microbiota in Early Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen

    The bacteria that colonize the human body, our microbiota, can influence our health, both positively and negatively. The importance and functions of the microbiota in our intestinal tract have been the focus of several research projects and are widely published. However, there are great gaps in our...... knowledge concerning microbiota composition, development and function in other areas of human body. Lack of knowledge about the microbiota development in the airways is an example of such a deficiency. The work presented in this PhD thesis is based on the vast sample collection of the COPSAC2010 cohort......, with 700 mother-infant pairs. The objectives were to perform a detailed examination of the mothers’ vaginal microbiota, describe the early composition and development of the microbiota in the airways of their infants, and determine whether the infants’ microbiota are affected by that of their mothers...

  14. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J.; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

  15. Exogenous determinants of early-life conditions, and mortality later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    based on the estimation of duration models) indicate a significant negative causal effect of economic conditions early in life on individual mortality rates at higher ages. If the national economic performance in the year of birth exceeds its trend value (i.e., if the business cycle is favorable......) then the mortality rate later in life is lower. The implied effect on the median lifetime of those who survive until age 35 is about 10 months. A systematic empirical exploration of all macro-indicators reveals that economic conditions in the first years after birth also affect mortality rates later in life.......We analyze causal effects of conditions early in life on the individual mortality rate later in life. Conditions early in life are captured by transitory features of the macro-environment around birth, notably the state of the business cycle around birth, but also food price deviations, weather...

  16. Familial Pulmonary Capillary Hemangiomatosis Early in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Wirbelauer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH is a rare disease, especially in infancy. Four infants have been reported up to the age of 12 months. So far, no familial patients are observed at this age. Patients. We report three siblings, two female newborns and a foetus of 15-week gestation of unrelated, healthy parents suffering from histologically proven PCH. The first girl presented with increased O2 requirements shortly after birth and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA. She subsequently developed progressive respiratory failure and pulmonary hypertension and died at the age of five months. The second girl presented with clinical signs of bronchial obstruction at the age of three months. The work-up showed a PDA—which was surgically closed—pulmonary hypertension, and bronchial wall instability with stenosis of the left main bronchus. Transient oxygen therapy was required with viral infections. The girl is now six years old and clinically stable without additional O2 requirements. Failure to thrive during infancy and a somewhat delayed development may be the consequence of the disease itself but also could be attributed to repeated episodes of respiratory failure and a long-term systemic steroid therapy. The third pregnancy ended as spontaneous abortion. The foetus showed histological signs of PCH. Conclusion. Despite the differences in clinical course, the trias of PCH, PDA, and pulmonary hypertension in the two life born girls suggests a genetic background.

  17. Effects of early life factors on the health and quality of life of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Fikriye; N Tekin, Rukiye

    2018-01-01

    Few studies on the effects of early life factors on the health and quality of life of adults have been conducted in Turkey. We aimed to investigate the effects of early life factors on the health and quality of life of older adults. We administered a questionnaire to 350 adults, aged 50-89 years, living in Cankaya, Ankara. The questionnaire covered sociodemographic characteristics, early life characteristics, health status, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Ageing scale. Data were analyzed using χ 2 tests, independent samples t-tests, one-way anova, and binary logistic regression analysis. The analyses showed that the most important risk factors for chronic disease were being ≥65 years (odds ratio (OR) = 2.34), having a chronic health problem before 18 years of age (OR = 2.48), experiencing prolonged hospitalization or bed rest before 18 years of age (OR = 2.65), and experiencing parental unconcern during early life (OR = 2.13) (P quality of life (P life factors are among the important determinants of the health and quality of life of older adults in Turkey. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  18. Early life exposures and risk of atopy among Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C

    2006-01-01

    A large proportion of atopy develops in childhood and early life exposures are suspected to play a considerable role in the inception. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early life exposures and development of atopic disease in children. We performed a case-cohort study...... to be independent of familial predisposition to atopic disease and significantly increases the likelihood for development of atopy in genetically susceptible individuals. Parental knowledge of atopic heredity significantly influences smoking and breast-feeding habits....... of a random population-based sample of children (n = 480) 7-17 years of age, living in urban Copenhagen, Denmark. Information on breast-feeding, supplementation, wheezy bronchitis, use of antibiotics, and parental smoking during pregnancy and in early life was obtained retrospectively by questionnaire. Skin...

  19. Exogenous determinants of early-life conditions, and mortality later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-05-01

    We analyze causal effects of conditions early in life on the individual mortality rate later in life. Conditions early in life are captured by transitory features of the macro-environment around birth, notably the state of the business cycle around birth, but also food price deviations, weather indicators, and demographic indicators. We argue that these features can only affect high-age mortality by way of the individual early-life conditions. Moreover, they are exogenous from the individual point of view, which is a methodological advantage compared to the use of unique characteristics of the newborn individual or his or her family or household as early-life indicators. We collected national annual time-series data on the above-mentioned indicators, and we combine these to the individual data records from the Danish Twin Registry covering births in 1873-1906. The empirical analyses (mostly based on the estimation of duration models) indicate a significant negative causal effect of economic conditions early in life on individual mortality rates at higher ages. If the national economic performance in the year of birth exceeds its trend value (i.e., if the business cycle is favorable) then the mortality rate later in life is lower. The implied effect on the median lifetime of those who survive until age 35 is about 10 months. A systematic empirical exploration of all macro-indicators reveals that economic conditions in the first years after birth also affect mortality rates later in life.

  20. Early Life Stress, Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Alcohol Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Y. Holgate

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major driving force in alcohol use disorders (AUDs. It influences how much one consumes, craving intensity and whether an abstinent individual will return to harmful alcohol consumption. We are most vulnerable to the effects of stress during early development, and exposure to multiple traumatic early life events dramatically increases the risk for AUDs. However, not everyone exposed to early life stress will develop an AUD. The mechanisms determining whether an individual’s brain adapts and becomes resilient to the effects of stress or succumbs and is unable to cope with stress remain elusive. Emerging evidence suggests that neuroplastic changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc following early life stress underlie the development of AUDs. This review discusses the impact of early life stress on NAc structure and function, how these changes affect cholinergic signaling within the mesolimbic reward pathway and the role nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs play in this process. Understanding the neural pathways and mechanism determining stress resilience or susceptibility will improve our ability to identify individuals susceptible to developing AUDs, formulate cognitive interventions to prevent AUDs in susceptible individuals and to elucidate and enhance potential therapeutic targets, such as the nAChRs, for those struggling to overcome an AUD.

  1. Can environmental conditions experienced in early life influence future generations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Tim; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2014-06-22

    The consequences of early developmental conditions for performance in later life are now subjected to convergent interest from many different biological sub-disciplines. However, striking data, largely from the biomedical literature, show that environmental effects experienced even before conception can be transmissible to subsequent generations. Here, we review the growing evidence from natural systems for these cross-generational effects of early life conditions, showing that they can be generated by diverse environmental stressors, affect offspring in many ways and can be transmitted directly or indirectly by both parental lines for several generations. In doing so, we emphasize why early life might be so sensitive to the transmission of environmentally induced effects across generations. We also summarize recent theoretical advancements within the field of developmental plasticity, and discuss how parents might assemble different 'internal' and 'external' cues, even from the earliest stages of life, to instruct their investment decisions in offspring. In doing so, we provide a preliminary framework within the context of adaptive plasticity for understanding inter-generational phenomena that arise from early life conditions.

  2. Turbulence and fossil turbulence lead to life in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, Carl H

    2013-01-01

    Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than all the other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. Fossil turbulence is a perturbation produced by turbulence that persists after the fluid ceases to be turbulent at the scale of the perturbation. Because vorticity is produced at small scales, turbulence must cascade from small scales to large, providing a consistent physical basis for Kolmogorovian universal similarity laws. Oceanic and astrophysical mixing and diffusion are dominated by fossil turbulence and fossil turbulent waves. Observations from space telescopes show turbulence and vorticity existed in the beginning of the universe and that their fossils persist. Fossils of big bang turbulence include spin and the dark matter of galaxies: clumps of ∼10 12 frozen hydrogen planets that make globular star clusters as seen by infrared and microwave space telescopes. When the planets were hot gas, they hosted the formation of life in a cosmic soup of hot-water oceans as they merged to form the first stars and chemicals. Because spontaneous life formation according to the standard cosmological model is virtually impossible, the existence of life falsifies the standard cosmological model. (paper)

  3. The Leading Edge of Early Childhood Education: Linking Science to Policy for a New Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaux, Nonie K., Ed.; Jones, Stephanie M., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    "The Leading Edge of Early Childhood Education" aims to support the effort to simultaneously scale up and improve the quality of early childhood education by bringing together relevant insights from emerging research to provide guidance for this critical, fledgling field. It reflects the growing recognition that early childhood…

  4. In utero and early life arsenic exposure in relation to long-term health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Karagas, Margaret R. [Children' s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Section of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Community and Family Medicine and Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Chen, Yu, E-mail: yu.chen@nyumc.org [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Background: There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure to arsenic from drinking water can have serious long-term health implications. Objectives: Our goal was to understand the potential long-term health and disease risks associated with in utero and early life exposure to arsenic, as well as to examine parallels between findings from epidemiological studies with those from experimental animal models. Methods: We examined the current literature and identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “arsenic”, “in utero”, “transplacental”, “prenatal” and “fetal”. Discussion: Ecological studies have indicated associations between in utero and/or early life exposure to arsenic at high levels and increases in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Additional data from epidemiologic studies suggest intermediate effects in early life that are related to risk of these and other outcomes in adulthood. Experimental animal studies largely support studies in humans, with strong evidence of transplacental carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and respiratory disease, as well as insight into potential underlying mechanisms of arsenic's health effects. Conclusions: As millions worldwide are exposed to arsenic and evidence continues to support a role for in utero arsenic exposure in the development of a range of later life diseases, there is a need for more prospective studies examining arsenic's relation to early indicators of disease and at lower exposure levels. - Highlights: • We review in utero and early-life As exposure impacts on lifelong disease risks. • Evidence indicates that early-life As increases risks of lung disease, cancer and CVD. • Animal work largely parallels human studies and may lead to new research directions. • Prospective studies and individual exposure assessments with biomarkers are needed. • Assessing intermediary

  5. In utero and early life arsenic exposure in relation to long-term health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Chen, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure to arsenic from drinking water can have serious long-term health implications. Objectives: Our goal was to understand the potential long-term health and disease risks associated with in utero and early life exposure to arsenic, as well as to examine parallels between findings from epidemiological studies with those from experimental animal models. Methods: We examined the current literature and identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “arsenic”, “in utero”, “transplacental”, “prenatal” and “fetal”. Discussion: Ecological studies have indicated associations between in utero and/or early life exposure to arsenic at high levels and increases in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Additional data from epidemiologic studies suggest intermediate effects in early life that are related to risk of these and other outcomes in adulthood. Experimental animal studies largely support studies in humans, with strong evidence of transplacental carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and respiratory disease, as well as insight into potential underlying mechanisms of arsenic's health effects. Conclusions: As millions worldwide are exposed to arsenic and evidence continues to support a role for in utero arsenic exposure in the development of a range of later life diseases, there is a need for more prospective studies examining arsenic's relation to early indicators of disease and at lower exposure levels. - Highlights: • We review in utero and early-life As exposure impacts on lifelong disease risks. • Evidence indicates that early-life As increases risks of lung disease, cancer and CVD. • Animal work largely parallels human studies and may lead to new research directions. • Prospective studies and individual exposure assessments with biomarkers are needed. • Assessing intermediary endpoints may

  6. The associations between early life circum-stances and later life health and employment in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, M.; Kalwij, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    We use data from the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe to estimate for thirteen European countries the associations of early life circumstances—measured by childhood health and socioeconomic status (SES)—with educational attainment, and later life health and employment (at ages

  7. Early life trauma exposure and stress sensitivity in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Damion J; Ford, Julian D; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2013-01-01

    The current study replicates and extends work with adults that highlights the relationship between trauma exposure and distress in response to subsequent, nontraumatic life stressors. The sample included 213 2-4-year-old children in which 64.3% had a history of potential trauma exposure. Children were categorized into 4 groups based on trauma history and current life stress. In a multivariate analysis of variance, trauma-exposed children with current life stressors had elevated internalizing and externalizing problems compared with trauma-exposed children without current stress and nontrauma-exposed children with and without current stressors. The trauma-exposed groups with or without current stressors did not differ on posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity. Accounting for number of traumatic events did not change these results. These findings suggest that early life trauma exposure may sensitize young children and place them at risk for internalizing or externalizing problems when exposed to subsequent, nontraumatic life stressors.

  8. The impact of environmental gradients on the early life inshore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of environmental gradients on the early life inshore migration of the short-finned squid Illex illecebrosus. JAA Perez, Rk O'dor. Abstract. Recruitment of the short-finned squid Illex illecebrosus to adult feeding grounds on the shelf off eastern Canada constitutes an important transition from warm food-limited Gulf ...

  9. Early life experience : neuroendocrine adaptations to maternal absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enthoven, Leo

    2007-01-01

    An adverse early life event is considered a risk factor for stress-related psychiatric disorders in genetically predisposed individuals, probably because of its lasting effect on susceptibility to stress. The objective of this thesis research was to examine in the mouse CD1 strain the immediate and

  10. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  11. Immune-mediated diseases and microbial exposure in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Bønnelykke, K; Stokholm, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The non-communicable disease pandemic includes immune-mediated diseases such as asthma and allergy, which are likely originating in early life where the immature immune system is prone to alterations caused by the exposome. The timing of exposure seems critical for the developing immune system...

  12. Anisotropic, nonsingular early universe model leading to a realistic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechant, Pierre-Philippe; Lasenby, Anthony N.; Hobson, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel cosmological model in which scalar field matter in a biaxial Bianchi IX geometry leads to a nonsingular 'pancaking' solution: the hypersurface volume goes to zero instantaneously at the 'big bang', but all physical quantities, such as curvature invariants and the matter energy density remain finite, and continue smoothly through the big bang. We demonstrate that there exist geodesics extending through the big bang, but that there are also incomplete geodesics that spiral infinitely around a topologically closed spatial dimension at the big bang, rendering it, at worst, a quasiregular singularity. The model is thus reminiscent of the Taub-NUT vacuum solution in that it has biaxial Bianchi IX geometry and its evolution exhibits a dimensionality reduction at a quasiregular singularity; the two models are, however, rather different, as we will show in a future work. Here we concentrate on the cosmological implications of our model and show how the scalar field drives both isotropization and inflation, thus raising the question of whether structure on the largest scales was laid down at a time when the universe was still oblate (as also suggested by [T. S. Pereira, C. Pitrou, and J.-P. Uzan, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 9 (2007) 6.][C. Pitrou, T. S. Pereira, and J.-P. Uzan, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 4 (2008) 4.][A. Guemruekcueoglu, C. Contaldi, and M. Peloso, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 11 (2007) 005.]). We also discuss the stability of our model to small perturbations around biaxiality and draw an analogy with cosmological perturbations. We conclude by presenting a separate, bouncing solution, which generalizes the known bouncing solution in closed FRW universes.

  13. Social anxiety and negative early life events in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binelli, Cynthia; Ortiz, Ana; Muñiz, Armando; Gelabert, Estel; Ferraz, Liliana; S Filho, Alaor; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Nardi, Antonio E; Subirà, Susana; Martín-Santos, Rocío

    2012-06-01

    There is substantial evidence regarding the impact of negative life events during childhood on the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. We examined the association between negative early life events and social anxiety in a sample of 571 Spanish University students. In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007, we collected data through a semistructured questionnaire of sociodemographic variables, personal and family psychiatric history, and substance abuse. We assessed the five early negative life events: (i) the loss of someone close, (ii) emotional abuse, (iii) physical abuse, (iv) family violence, and (v) sexual abuse. All participants completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Mean (SD) age was 21 (4.5), 75% female, LSAS score was 40 (DP = 22), 14.2% had a psychiatric family history and 50.6% had negative life events during childhood. Linear regression analyses, after controlling for age, gender, and family psychiatric history, showed a positive association between family violence and social score (p = 0.03). None of the remaining stressors produced a significant increase in LSAS score (p > 0.05). University students with high levels of social anxiety presented higher prevalence of negative early life events. Thus, childhood family violence could be a risk factor for social anxiety in such a population.

  14. Early Life Adversity as a Risk Factor for Fibromyalgia in Later Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie A. Low

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of early life events is increasingly becoming apparent, as studies investigate how early childhood can shape long-term physiology and behaviour. Fibromyalgia (FM, which is characterised by increased pain sensitivity and a number of affective co-morbidities, has an unclear etiology. This paper discusses risk factors from early life that may increase the occurrence or severity of FM in later life: pain experience during neonatal life causes long-lasting changes in nociceptive circuitry and increases pain sensitivity in the older organism; premature birth and related stressor exposure cause lasting changes in stress responsivity; maternal deprivation affects anxiety-like behaviours that may be partially mediated by epigenetic modulation of the genome—all these adult phenotypes are strikingly similar to symptoms displayed by FM sufferers. In addition, childhood trauma and exposure to substances of abuse may cause lasting changes in developing neurotransmitter and endocrine circuits that are linked to anxiety and stress responses.

  15. Early Life Microbiota, Neonatal Immune Maturation and Hematopoiesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Matilde Bylov

    Emerging epidemiologic data supports the hypothesis that early life colonization is a key player in development of a balanced immune system. Events in early life, as birth mode and infant diet, are shown to influence development of immune related diseases, like asthma, diabetes and inflammatory...... bowl disease, later in life. The intestinal epithelium makes up a physical and biochemical barrier between the bacteria in the gut lumen and the immune cells in the submocusal tissue. This monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) makes up an extremely large surface and is highly important...... for the synergistic coexistence between trillions of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract and their mammalian hosts. The IEC actively communicate with the microbiota of the gut lumen and tolerance establishment in the intestine is induced as a result of a balanced and controlled communication between IEC...

  16. An experimental demonstration that early-life competitive disadvantage accelerates telomere loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-01-07

    Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an experiment in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that used cross-fostering to expose siblings to divergent early experience. Birds were assigned either to competitive advantage (being larger than their brood competitors) or competitive disadvantage (being smaller than their brood competitors) between days 3 and 12 post-hatching. Disadvantage did not affect weight gain, but it increased telomere attrition, leading to shorter telomere length in disadvantaged birds by day 12. There were no effects of disadvantage on oxidative damage as measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. We thus found strong evidence that early-life competitive disadvantage can accelerate telomere loss. This could lead to faster age-related deterioration and poorer health in later life.

  17. Early Mars: A Warm Wet Niche for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.

    2010-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 Ma of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of: (i) Water-as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at approx.3.9 Ga, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic patterns in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 Ma?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve)

  18. On the possibility of life on early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeck, V. R.; Fogleman, G.

    1990-01-01

    Prebiotic reactants, liquid water, and temperatures low enough for organic compounds to be stable are requirements for the origination of life as we know it. Prebiotic reactants and sufficiently low temperatures were present on Mars before liquid water vanished. Early in this time period, however, large planetesimal impacts may have periodically sterilized Mars, pyrolyzed organic compounds, and interrupted chemical origination of life. However, the calculated time interval between such impacts on Mars was larger just before liquid water vanished 3.8 Gyr (billion years) ago than it was on earth just before life originated. Therefore, there should have been sufficient time for life to originate on Mars. Ideal sites to search for microfossils are in the heavily cratered terrain of Upper Noachian age. Craters and channels in this terrain may have been the sites of ancient lakes and streams that could have provided habitats for the first microorganisms.

  19. The Influence of Early Life Experience on Visceral Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella M. Fuentes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is the most reported and troublesome symptom of nearly all functional disorders affecting the genitourinary and gastrointestinal organs. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS, vulvodynia, and/or chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS; collectively termed chronic pelvic pain syndromes report pain severe enough to impact quality of life and often suffer from symptoms of or are diagnosed with more than one of these syndromes. This increased comorbidity between chronic pelvic pain syndromes, and with pain disorders of disparate body regions, as well as with mood disorders, can be influenced by disruptions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which regulates the response to stress and influences the perception of pain. Experiencing trauma, neglect, or abuse in early life can permanently affect the functioning of the HPA axis. As such, a significant proportion of patients suffering from comorbid chronic pelvic pain syndromes report a history of early life stress or trauma. Here we will report on how these early life experiences influence chronic pelvic pain in patients. We will also discuss various rodent models that have been developed to study this phenomenon to understand the mechanisms underlying HPA axis dysfunction, as well as potential underlying mechanisms connecting these syndromes to one another.

  20. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guardamagna Ornella

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic. The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body’s “metabolic programming”. Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease. La malattia cardiovascolare rappresenta la principale causa di morbilità e mortalità dei paesi occidentali ed è correlata a degenerazione vascolare aterosclerotica. I fattori di rischio cardiovascolari quali dislipidemia, ipertensione, insulino resistenza e obesità accelerano tale processo il cui esordio è noto sin dell’età pediatrica ed evolve nel corso della vita. L’individuazione e la cura dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari mediante la prevenzione dei fattori causali ritardano la progressione dell’aterosclerosi e l’insorgenza dei sintomi cardiovascolari. La

  1. Early Childhood Lead Exposure and Academic Achievement: Evidence From Detroit Public Schools, 2008–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Harolyn W.; Tufts, Margaret; Raymond, Randall E.; Salihu, Hamisu; Elliott, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the long-term effect of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement in mathematics, science, and reading among elementary and junior high school children. Methods. We linked early childhood blood lead testing surveillance data from the Detroit Department of Health and Wellness Promotion to educational testing data from the Detroit, Michigan, public schools. We used the linked data to investigate the effect of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement among school-aged children, both marginally and adjusted for grade level, gender, race, language, maternal education, and socioeconomic status. Results. High blood lead levels before age 6 years were strongly associated with poor academic achievement in grades 3, 5, and 8. The odds of scoring less than proficient for those whose blood lead levels were greater than 10 micrograms per deciliter were more than twice the odds for those whose blood lead levels were less than 1 micrograms per deciliter after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions. Early childhood lead exposure was negatively associated with academic achievement in elementary and junior high school, after adjusting for key potential confounders. The control of lead poisoning should focus on primary prevention of lead exposure in children and development of special education programs for students with lead poisoning. PMID:23327265

  2. Conditions on Early Mars Might Have Fostered Rapid and Early Development of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    The exploration of Mars during the past decades has begun to unveil the history of the planet. The combinations of remote sensing, in situ geochemical compositional measurements and photographic observations from both above and on the surface have shown Mars to have a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution clearly had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. For a planet to be able to be habitable, it must have water, carbon sources, energy sources and a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water-carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001 well-dated at approx.3.9 Gy., (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, early active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon and water from possibly extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) some crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust. The question arises: "Why would life not evolve from these favorable conditions on early Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, it seems likely that environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would all favor the formation of early life. Even if life developed elsewhere (on Earth, Venus, or on other solar systems) and was transported to Mars, the surface conditions were likely very hospitable for that introduced life to multiply and evolve.

  3. Searching for Life on Early Mars: Lessons from the Pilbara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, J. D. A.; Stoker, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Stromatolites in the Pilbara region of Western Australia constitute the earliest outcrop-scale evidence of life on Earth (Figure 1). The stromatolites in the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) provide an important analog for searching for fossil evidence of early life on Mars, as Noachian aged sediments on Mars were formed under similar environmental conditions. Stromatolites represent possibly the best evidence that could be collected by a rover because they form recognizable macroscopic structures and are often associated with chemical and microscopic evidence.

  4. Toward Understanding How Early-Life Stress Reprograms Cognitive and Emotional Brain Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuncai; Baram, Tallie Z

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerability to emotional disorders including depression derives from interactions between genes and environment, especially during sensitive developmental periods. Adverse early-life experiences provoke the release and modify the expression of several stress mediators and neurotransmitters within specific brain regions. The interaction of these mediators with developing neurons and neuronal networks may lead to long-lasting structural and functional alterations associated with cognitive and emotional consequences. Although a vast body of work has linked quantitative and qualitative aspects of stress to adolescent and adult outcomes, a number of questions are unclear. What distinguishes 'normal' from pathologic or toxic stress? How are the effects of stress transformed into structural and functional changes in individual neurons and neuronal networks? Which ones are affected? We review these questions in the context of established and emerging studies. We introduce a novel concept regarding the origin of toxic early-life stress, stating that it may derive from specific patterns of environmental signals, especially those derived from the mother or caretaker. Fragmented and unpredictable patterns of maternal care behaviors induce a profound chronic stress. The aberrant patterns and rhythms of early-life sensory input might also directly and adversely influence the maturation of cognitive and emotional brain circuits, in analogy to visual and auditory brain systems. Thus, unpredictable, stress-provoking early-life experiences may influence adolescent cognitive and emotional outcomes by disrupting the maturation of the underlying brain networks. Comprehensive approaches and multiple levels of analysis are required to probe the protean consequences of early-life adversity on the developing brain. These involve integrated human and animal-model studies, and approaches ranging from in vivo imaging to novel neuroanatomical, molecular, epigenomic, and computational

  5. Toward Understanding How Early-Life Stress Reprograms Cognitive and Emotional Brain Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuncai; Baram, Tallie Z

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerability to emotional disorders including depression derives from interactions between genes and environment, especially during sensitive developmental periods. Adverse early-life experiences provoke the release and modify the expression of several stress mediators and neurotransmitters within specific brain regions. The interaction of these mediators with developing neurons and neuronal networks may lead to long-lasting structural and functional alterations associated with cognitive and emotional consequences. Although a vast body of work has linked quantitative and qualitative aspects of stress to adolescent and adult outcomes, a number of questions are unclear. What distinguishes ‘normal' from pathologic or toxic stress? How are the effects of stress transformed into structural and functional changes in individual neurons and neuronal networks? Which ones are affected? We review these questions in the context of established and emerging studies. We introduce a novel concept regarding the origin of toxic early-life stress, stating that it may derive from specific patterns of environmental signals, especially those derived from the mother or caretaker. Fragmented and unpredictable patterns of maternal care behaviors induce a profound chronic stress. The aberrant patterns and rhythms of early-life sensory input might also directly and adversely influence the maturation of cognitive and emotional brain circuits, in analogy to visual and auditory brain systems. Thus, unpredictable, stress-provoking early-life experiences may influence adolescent cognitive and emotional outcomes by disrupting the maturation of the underlying brain networks. Comprehensive approaches and multiple levels of analysis are required to probe the protean consequences of early-life adversity on the developing brain. These involve integrated human and animal-model studies, and approaches ranging from in vivo imaging to novel neuroanatomical, molecular, epigenomic, and computational

  6. Endocrine disruptors and the breast: early life effects and later life disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macon, Madisa B; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2013-03-01

    Breast cancer risk has both heritable and environment/lifestyle components. The heritable component is a small contribution (5-27 %), leaving the majority of risk to environment (e.g., applied chemicals, food residues, occupational hazards, pharmaceuticals, stress) and lifestyle (e.g., physical activity, cosmetics, water source, alcohol, smoking). However, these factors are not well-defined, primarily due to the enormous number of factors to be considered. In both humans and rodent models, environmental factors that act as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been shown to disrupt normal mammary development and lead to adverse lifelong consequences, especially when exposures occur during early life. EDCs can act directly or indirectly on mammary tissue to increase sensitivity to chemical carcinogens or enhance development of hyperplasia, beaded ducts, or tumors. Protective effects have also been reported. The mechanisms for these changes are not well understood. Environmental agents may also act as carcinogens in adult rodent models, directly causing or promoting tumor development, typically in more than one organ. Many of the environmental agents that act as EDCs and are known to affect the breast are discussed. Understanding the mechanism(s) of action for these compounds will be critical to prevent their effects on the breast in the future.

  7. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Benjamin Wilk; Vítolo, Márcia Regina; Feldens, Carlos Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Early childhood caries is a persistent worldwide problem. The etiologic contribution of feeding practices has been less frequently investigated in prospective studies of young children. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study has followed a birth cohort of 715 mother-child pairs, recruited from municipal health centers, originally involved in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of healthcare worker training. The birth cohort links prospectively collected socio-demographic, infant feeding, and general and oral health information. To date, oral health data, including caries status and oral health-related quality of life, have been collected for 458 children at the age of 2-3 years. Studies are underway to investigate possible determinants and consequences of oral health among these children.

  8. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Wilk Chaffee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood caries is a persistent worldwide problem. The etiologic contribution of feeding practices has been less frequently investigated in prospective studies of young children. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study has followed a birth cohort of 715 mother-child pairs, recruited from municipal health centers, originally involved in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of healthcare worker training. The birth cohort links prospectively collected socio-demographic, infant feeding, and general and oral health information. To date, oral health data, including caries status and oral health-related quality of life, have been collected for 458 children at the age of 2-3 years. Studies are underway to investigate possible determinants and consequences of oral health among these children.

  9. Early-life gut microbiome and egg allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlollahi, M; Chun, Y; Grishin, A; Wood, R A; Burks, A W; Dawson, P; Jones, S M; Leung, D Y M; Sampson, H A; Sicherer, S H; Bunyavanich, S

    2018-07-01

    Gut microbiota may play a role in egg allergy. We sought to examine the association between early-life gut microbiota and egg allergy. We studied 141 children with egg allergy and controls from the multicenter Consortium of Food Allergy Research study. At enrollment (age 3 to 16 months), fecal samples were collected, and clinical evaluation, egg-specific IgE measurement, and egg skin prick test were performed. Gut microbiome was profiled by 16S rRNA sequencing. Analyses for the primary outcome of egg allergy at enrollment, and the secondary outcomes of egg sensitization at enrollment and resolution of egg allergy by age 8 years, were performed using Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology, Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States, and Statistical Analysis of Metagenomic Profiles. Compared to controls, increased alpha diversity and distinct taxa (PERMANOVA P = 5.0 × 10 -4 ) characterized the early-life gut microbiome of children with egg allergy. Genera from the Lachnospiraceae, Streptococcaceae, and Leuconostocaceae families were differentially abundant in children with egg allergy. Predicted metagenome functional analyses showed differential purine metabolism by the gut microbiota of egg-allergic subjects (Kruskal-Wallis P adj  = 0.021). Greater gut microbiome diversity and genera from Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae were associated with egg sensitization (PERMANOVA P = 5.0 × 10 -4 ). Among those with egg allergy, there was no association between early-life gut microbiota and egg allergy resolution by age 8 years. The distinct early-life gut microbiota in egg-allergic and egg-sensitized children identified by our study may point to targets for preventive or therapeutic intervention. © 2018 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  10. Mechanisms behind early life nutrition and adult disease outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Velkoska, Elena; Morris, Margaret J

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is increasing around the globe. While adult lifestyle factors undoubtedly contribute to the incidence of obesity and its attendant disorders, mounting evidence suggests that programming of obesity may occur following under- and over-nutrition during development. As hypothalamic control of appetite and energy expenditure is set early in life and can be perturbed by certain exposures such as undernutrition and altered metabolic and hormonal signals, in utero exposure to altered maternal...

  11. Faster Increases in Human Life Expectancy Could Lead to Slower Population Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Counterintuitively, faster increases in human life expectancy could lead to slower population aging. The conventional view that faster increases in human life expectancy would lead to faster population aging is based on the assumption that people become old at a fixed chronological age. A preferable alternative is to base measures of aging on people’s time left to death, because this is more closely related to the characteristics that are associated with old age. Using this alternative interpretation, we show that faster increases in life expectancy would lead to slower population aging. Among other things, this finding affects the assessment of the speed at which countries will age. PMID:25876033

  12. Early-life chemical exposures and risk of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Long NE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nicole E De Long, Alison C Holloway Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Abstract: The global prevalence of obesity has been increasing at a staggering pace, with few indications of any decline, and is now one of the major public health challenges worldwide. While obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS have historically thought to be largely driven by increased caloric intake and lack of exercise, this is insufficient to account for the observed changes in disease trends. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that exposure to synthetic chemicals in our environment may also play a key role in the etiology and pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. Importantly, exposures occurring in early life (in utero and early childhood may have a more profound effect on life-long risk of obesity and MetS. This narrative review explores the evidence linking early-life exposure to a suite of chemicals that are common contaminants associated with food production (pesticides; imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, and glyphosate and processing (acrylamide, in addition to chemicals ubiquitously found in our household goods (brominated flame retardants and drinking water (heavy metals and changes in key pathways important for the development of MetS and obesity. Keywords: obesity, pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, heavy metals, acrylamide, endocrine-disrupting chemicals

  13. EARLY LIFE RISKS, ANTISOCIAL TENDENCIES, AND PRETEEN DELINQUENCY*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Whichard, Corey; Siennick, Sonja; Maggs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Early age-of-onset delinquency and substance use confer a major risk for continued criminality, alcohol and drug abuse, and other serious difficulties throughout the life course. Our objective is to examine the developmental roots of preteen delinquency and substance use. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 13,221), we examine the influence of early childhood developmental and family risks on latent pathways of antisocial tendencies from ages 3 to 7, and the influence of those pathways on property crime and substance use by age 11. We identified a normative, non-antisocial pathway; a pathway marked by oppositional behavior and fighting; a pathway marked by impulsivity and inattention; and a rare pathway characterized by a wide range of antisocial tendencies. Children with developmental and family risks that emerged by age 3—specifically difficult infant temperament, low cognitive ability, weak parental closeness, and disadvantaged family background—face increased odds of antisocial tendencies. There is minimal overlap between the risk factors for early antisocial tendencies and those for preteen delinquency. Children on an antisocial pathway are more likely to engage in preteen delinquency and substance use by age 11, even after accounting for early life risk factors. PMID:26900167

  14. Effects of early life trauma are dependent on genetic predisposition: a rat study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Vivienne A

    2011-05-01

    mechanisms involved in maintaining their active response in behavioural tests. Basal plasma corticosterone was found to correlate positively with an active response to a novel environment and inescapable stress across all rats. Conclusion SHR are resilient to the anxiogenic effects of maternal separation, and develop a non-anxious, active response to a novel environment following chronic mild stress during the early stages of development. Our findings highlight the importance of genetic predisposition in determining the outcome of early life adversity. SHR may provide a model of early life trauma leading to the development of hyperactivity rather than anxiety and depression. Basal levels of corticosterone correlate with the behavioural response to early life trauma, and may therefore provide a useful marker for susceptibility to a certain behavioural temperament.

  15. Fetal exposure to lead during pregnancy and the risk of preterm and early-term deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lu; Zhang, Bin; Huo, Wenqian; Cao, Zhongqiang; Liu, Wenyu; Liao, Jiaqiang; Xia, Wei; Xu, Shunqing; Li, Yuanyuan

    2017-08-01

    Studies have reported the association between lead exposure during pregnancy and preterm birth. However, findings are still inconsistent. This prospective birth cohort study evaluated the risks of preterm and early-term births and its association with prenatal lead exposure in Hubei, China. A total of 7299 pregnant women were selected from the Healthy Baby Cohort. Maternal urinary lead levels were measured by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The associations between tertiles of urinary lead levels and the risks of preterm and early-term deliveries were assessed using multiple logistic regression models. The geometric mean of creatinine-adjusted urinary lead concentrations among all participating mothers, preterm birth, and early-term birth were 3.19, 3.68, and 3.17μg/g creatinine, respectively. A significant increase in the risk of preterm births was associated with the highest urinary lead tertile after adjusting for confounders with odds ratio (OR) of 1.96. The association was more pronounced among 25-36 years old mothers with OR of 2.03. Though significant p trends were observed between lead exposure (medium and high tertiles) and the risk of early-term births, their ORs were not significant. Our findings indicate that the risk of preterm birth might increase with higher fetal lead exposure, particularly among women between the age of 25 and 36 years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Fluoride Exposure in Early Life as the Possible Root Cause of Disease In Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Tetsuo; Rawls, H Ralph

    2018-05-15

    Fluoride, one of the most celebrated ingredients for the prevention of dental caries in the 20th century, has also been controversial for its use in dentifrices and other applications. In the current review, we have concentrated primarily on early-life exposure to fluoride and how it may affect the various organs. The most recent controversial aspects of fluoride are related to toxicity of the developing brain and how it may possibly result in the decrease of intelligence quotient (IQ), autism, and calcification of the pineal gland. In addition, it has been reported to have possible effects on bone and thyroid glands. If nutritional stress is applied during a critical period of growth and development, the organ(s) and/or body will never recover once they pass through the critical period. For example, if animals are force-fed during experiments, they will simply get fat but never reach the normal size. Although early-life fluoride exposure causing fluorosis is well reported in the literature, the dental profession considers it primarily as an esthetic rather than a serious systemic problem. In the current review, we wanted to raise the possibility of future disease as a result of early-life exposure to fluoride. It is not currently known how fluoride will become a cause of future disease. Studies of other nutritional factors have shown that the effects of early nutritional stress are a cause of disease in later life.

  17. Babies of the War: Effect of War Exposure Early in Life on Mortality Throughout Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, M.; van Ewijk, R.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that circumstances very early in our lives, and particularly during pregnancy, can affect our health for the remainder of life. Studies that have looked at this relationship have often used extreme situations, such as famines that occurred during wartime. Here we

  18. Early life exposures and the risk of adult glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anic, Gabriella M; Madden, Melissa H; Sincich, Kelly; Thompson, Reid C; Nabors, L Burton; Olson, Jeffrey J; LaRocca, Renato V; Browning, James E; Pan, Edward; Egan, Kathleen M

    2013-09-01

    Exposure to common infections in early life may stimulate immune development and reduce the risk for developing cancer. Birth order and family size are proxies for the timing of exposure to childhood infections with several studies showing a reduced risk of glioma associated with a higher order of birth (and presumed younger age at infection). The aim of this study was to examine whether birth order, family size, and other early life exposures are associated with the risk of glioma in adults using data collected in a large clinic-based US case-control study including 889 glioma cases and 903 community controls. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on family structure, childhood exposures and other potential risk factors. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between early life factors and glioma risk. Persons having any siblings were at significantly lower risk for glioma when compared to those reporting no siblings (OR=0.64; 95% CI 0.44-0.93; p=0.020). Compared to first-borns, individuals with older siblings had a significantly lower risk (OR=0.75; 95% CI 0.61-0.91; p=0.004). Birth weight, having been breast fed in infancy, and season of birth were not associated with glioma risk. The current findings lend further support to a growing body of evidence that early exposure to childhood infections reduces the risk of glioma onset in children and adults.

  19. Prevention of overweight and obesity in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Julie

    2018-05-29

    Childhood obesity is a serious challenge for public health. The problem begins early with most excess childhood weight gained before starting school. In 2016, the WHO estimated that 41 million children under 5 were overweight or obese. Once established, obesity is difficult to reverse, likely to persist into adult life and is associated with increased risk of CVD, type 2 diabetes and certain cancers. Preventing obesity is therefore of high importance. However, its development is multi-factorial and prevention is a complex challenge. Modifiable lifestyle behaviours such as diet and physical activity are the most well-known determinants of obesity. More recently, early-life factors have emerged as key influencers of obesity in childhood. Understanding risk factors and how they interact is important to inform interventions that aim to prevent obesity in early childhood. Available evidence supports multi-component interventions as effective in obesity prevention. However, relatively few interventions are available in the UK and only one, TrimTots, has been evaluated in randomised controlled trials and shown to be effective at reducing obesity risk in preschool children (age 1-5 years). BMI was lower in children immediately after completing TrimTots compared with waiting list controls and this effect was sustained at long-term follow-up, 2 years after completion. Developing and evaluating complex interventions for obesity prevention is a challenge for clinicians and researchers. In addition, parents encounter barriers engaging with interventions. This review considers early-life risk factors for obesity, highlights evidence for preventative interventions and discusses barriers and facilitators to their success.

  20. Early phase drug discovery: cheminformatics and computational techniques in identifying lead series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Bryan C; Zhu, Lei; Decornez, Hélène; Kitchen, Douglas B

    2012-09-15

    Early drug discovery processes rely on hit finding procedures followed by extensive experimental confirmation in order to select high priority hit series which then undergo further scrutiny in hit-to-lead studies. The experimental cost and the risk associated with poor selection of lead series can be greatly reduced by the use of many different computational and cheminformatic techniques to sort and prioritize compounds. We describe the steps in typical hit identification and hit-to-lead programs and then describe how cheminformatic analysis assists this process. In particular, scaffold analysis, clustering and property calculations assist in the design of high-throughput screening libraries, the early analysis of hits and then organizing compounds into series for their progression from hits to leads. Additionally, these computational tools can be used in virtual screening to design hit-finding libraries and as procedures to help with early SAR exploration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biomarkers as tracers for life on early earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, B. R.; Summons, R. E.; Jahnke, L. L.

    1998-01-01

    Biomarkers in geological samples are products derived from biochemical (natural product) precursors by reductive and oxidative processes (e.g., cholestanes from cholesterol). Generally, lipids, pigments and biomembranes are preserved best over longer geological times and labile compounds such as amino acids, sugars, etc. are useful biomarkers for recent times. Thus, the detailed characterization of biomarker compositions permits the assessment of the major contributing species of extinct and/or extant life. In the case of the early Earth, work has progressed to elucidate molecular structure and carbon isotropic signals preserved in ancient sedimentary rocks. In addition, the combination of bacterial biochemistry with the organic geochemistry of contemporary and ancient hydrothermal ecosystems permits the modeling of the nature, behavior and preservation potential of primitive microbial communities. This approach uses combined molecular and isotopic analyses to characterize lipids produced by cultured bacteria (representative of ancient strains) and to test a variety of culture conditions which affect their biosynthesis. On considering Mars, the biomarkers from lipids and biopolymers would be expected to be preserved best if life flourished there during its early history (3.5-4 x 10(9) yr ago). Both oxidized and reduced products would be expected. This is based on the inferred occurrence of hydrothermal activity during that time with the concomitant preservation of biochemically-derived organic matter. Both known biomarkers (i.e., as elucidated for early terrestrial samples and for primitive terrestrial microbiota) and novel, potentially unknown compounds should be characterized.

  2. Pathways leading to self-perceived general health and overall quality of life in burned adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moi, Asgjerd L; Nilsen, Roy M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore pathways leading to self-perceived general health and overall quality of life in burn patients. Data on burn-specific health, generic health, overall quality of life, injury characteristics and socio-demographics were obtained from 95 adult burn patients 47.0 (23.8) [mean (SD)] months after injury. A theoretical path model was established based on the concepts of Wilson and Cleary's model on health-related quality of life [1], and the proposed model was examined by structural equation modelling. Two main paths were identified, one leading to general health perception and the other leading to overall quality of life. Together, direct and indirect paths explained 63% of the variance of perceived general health and 43% of the variance in overall quality of life. The total effects of the SF-36 domain Vitality on perceived general health and overall quality of life were 0.62 and 0.66, respectively. No statistically significant path could be revealed between general health perception and overall quality of life. The results indicate that self-perceived general health and overall quality of life are related but distinct constructs. Moreover, vitality seems to be an important factor for the perception of both general health and overall quality of life in burned adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Advanced Small-Safe Long-Life Lead Cooled Reactor Cores for Future Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hyeong; Hong, Ser Gi [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    One of the reasons for use of the lead or lead-bismuth alloy coolants is the high boiling temperature that avoids the possibility of coolant voiding. Also, these coolants are compatible with air, steam, and water. Therefore, intermediate coolant loop is not required as in the sodium cooled reactors 3. Lead is considered to be more attractive coolant than lead-bismuth alloy because of its higher availability, lower price, and much lower amount of polonium activity by factor of 104 relatively to lead. On the other hand, lead has higher melting temperature of 601K than that of lead-bismuth (398K), which narrows the operating temperature range and also leads to the possibility of freezing and blockage in fresh cores. Neutronically, the lead and lead-bismuth have very similar characteristics to each other. The lead-alloy coolants have lower moderating power and higher scattering without increasing moderation for neutrons below 0.5MeV, which reduces the leakage of the neutrons through the core and provides an excellent reflecting capability for neutrons. Due to the above features of lead or lead-alloy coolants, there have been lots of studies on the small lead cooled core designs. In this paper, small-safe long-life lead cooled reactor cores having high discharge burnup are designed and neutronically analyzed.. The cores considered in this work rates 110MWt (36.7MWe). In this work, the long-life with high discharge burnup was achieved by using thorium or depleted uranium blanket loaded in the central region of the core. Also, we considered a reference core having no blanket for the comparison. This paper provides the detailed neutronic analyses for these small long-life cores and the detailed analyses of the reactivity coefficients and the composition changes in blankets. The results of the core design and analyses show that our small long-life cores can be operated without refueling over their long-lives longer than 45EFPYs (Effective Full Power Year). In this work

  4. Original Research: Metabolic alterations from early life thyroxine replacement therapy in male Ames dwarf mice are transient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Justin; Fang, Yimin; Hill, Cristal M; McFadden, Sam; Sun, Liou Y; Bartke, Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    Ames dwarf mice are exceptionally long-lived due to a Prop1 loss of function mutation resulting in deficiency of growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin. Deficiency in thyroid-stimulating hormone and growth hormone leads to greatly reduced levels of circulating thyroid hormones and insulin-like growth factor 1, as well as a reduction in insulin secretion. Early life growth hormone replacement therapy in Ames dwarf mice significantly shortens their longevity, while early life thyroxine (T4) replacement therapy does not. Possible mechanisms by which early life growth hormone replacement therapy shortens longevity include deleterious effects on glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism, which are long lasting. A mechanism explaining why early life T4 replacement therapy does not shorten longevity remains elusive. Here, we look for a possible explanation as to why early life T4 replacement therapy does not impact longevity of Ames dwarf mice. We found that early life T4 replacement therapy increased body weight and advanced the age of sexual maturation. We also find that early life T4 replacement therapy does not impact glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity, and any deleterious effects on oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient and heat production are transient. Lastly, we find that early life T4 replacement therapy has long-lasting effects on bone mineral density and bone mineral content. We suggest that the transient effects on energy metabolism and lack of effects on glucose homeostasis are the reasons why there is no shortening of longevity after early life T4 replacement therapy in Ames dwarf mice. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  5. LIFE: The Case for Early Commercialization of Fusion Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anklam, T.; Simon, A.J.; Powers, S.; Meier, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the case for early commercialization of laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE). Results taken from systems modeling of the US electrical generating enterprise quantify the benefits of fusion energy in terms of carbon emission, nuclear waste and plutonium production avoidance. Sensitivity of benefits-gained to timing of market-entry is presented. These results show the importance of achieving market entry in the 2030 time frame. Economic modeling results show that fusion energy can be competitive with other low-carbon energy sources. The paper concludes with a description of the LIFE commercialization path. It proposes constructing a demonstration facility capable of continuous fusion operations within 10 to 15 years. This facility will qualify the processes and materials needed for a commercial fusion power plant.

  6. Philosophical Approaches towards Sciences of Life in Early Cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnini, Leone

    2008-07-01

    The article focuses on the different conceptual and philosophical approaches towards the sciences of life operating in the backstage of Early Cybernetics. After a short reconstruction of the main steps characterizing the origins of Cybernetics, from 1940 until 1948, the paper examines the complementary conceptual views between Norbert Wiener and John von Neumann, as a "fuzzy thinking" versus a "logical thinking", and the marked difference between the "methodological individualism" shared by both of them versus the "methodological collectivism" of most of the numerous scientists of life and society attending the Macy Conferences on Cybernetics. The main thesis sustained here is that these different approaches, quite invisible to the participants, were different, maybe even opposite, but they could provoke clashes, as well as cooperate in a synergic way.

  7. Early life linguistic ability, late life cognitive function, and neuropathology: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Kathryn P; Snowdon, David A; Desrosiers, Mark F; Markesbery, William R

    2005-03-01

    The relationships between early life variables, cognitive function, and neuropathology were examined in participants in the Nun Study who were between the ages of 75 and 95. Our early life variable was idea density, which is a measure of linguistic ability, derived from autobiographies written at a mean age of 22 years. Six discrete categories of cognitive function, including mild cognitive impairments, were evaluated, using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) battery of cognitive tests. Neuropathologic data included Braak staging, neurofibrillary tangle and senile plaque counts, brain weight, degree of cerebral atrophy, severity of atherosclerosis, and the presence of brain infarcts. Early-life idea density was significantly related to the categories of late-life cognitive function, including mild cognitive impairments: low idea density was associated with greater impairment. Low idea density also was significantly associated with lower brain weight, higher degree of cerebral atrophy, more severe neurofibrillary pathology, and the likelihood of meeting neuropathologic criteria for Alzheimer's disease.

  8. The composition of the gut microbiota throughout life, with an emphasis on early life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Rodríguez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota has become a relevant aspect of human health. Microbial colonization runs in parallel with immune system maturation and plays a role in intestinal physiology and regulation. Increasing evidence on early microbial contact suggest that human intestinal microbiota is seeded before birth. Maternal microbiota forms the first microbial inoculum, and from birth, the microbial diversity increases and converges toward an adult-like microbiota by the end of the first 3–5 years of life. Perinatal factors such as mode of delivery, diet, genetics, and intestinal mucin glycosylation all contribute to influence microbial colonization. Once established, the composition of the gut microbiota is relatively stable throughout adult life, but can be altered as a result of bacterial infections, antibiotic treatment, lifestyle, surgical, and a long-term change in diet. Shifts in this complex microbial system have been reported to increase the risk of disease. Therefore, an adequate establishment of microbiota and its maintenance throughout life would reduce the risk of disease in early and late life. This review discusses recent studies on the early colonization and factors influencing this process which impact on health.

  9. The composition of the gut microbiota throughout life, with an emphasis on early life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Murphy, Kiera; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul; Kober, Olivia I.; Juge, Nathalie; Avershina, Ekaterina; Rudi, Knut; Narbad, Arjan; Jenmalm, Maria C.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Collado, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has become a relevant aspect of human health. Microbial colonization runs in parallel with immune system maturation and plays a role in intestinal physiology and regulation. Increasing evidence on early microbial contact suggest that human intestinal microbiota is seeded before birth. Maternal microbiota forms the first microbial inoculum, and from birth, the microbial diversity increases and converges toward an adult-like microbiota by the end of the first 3–5 years of life. Perinatal factors such as mode of delivery, diet, genetics, and intestinal mucin glycosylation all contribute to influence microbial colonization. Once established, the composition of the gut microbiota is relatively stable throughout adult life, but can be altered as a result of bacterial infections, antibiotic treatment, lifestyle, surgical, and a long-term change in diet. Shifts in this complex microbial system have been reported to increase the risk of disease. Therefore, an adequate establishment of microbiota and its maintenance throughout life would reduce the risk of disease in early and late life. This review discusses recent studies on the early colonization and factors influencing this process which impact on health. PMID:25651996

  10. Early life adversity influences stress response association with smoking relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al'Absi, Mustafa; Lemieux, Andrine; Westra, Ruth; Allen, Sharon

    2017-11-01

    We examined the hypothesis that stress-related blunting of cortisol in smokers is particularly pronounced in those with a history of severe life adversity. The two aims of this study were first to examine hormonal, craving, and withdrawal symptoms during ad libitum smoking and after the first 24 h of abstinence in smokers who experienced high or low levels of adversity. Second, we sought to examine the relationship between adversity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hormones to predict relapse during the first month of a smoking cessation attempt. Hormonal and self-report measures were collected from 103 smokers (49 women) during ad libitum smoking and after the first 24 h of abstinence. HPA hormones were measured during baseline rest and in response to acute stress in both conditions. All smokers were interested in smoking cessation, and we prospectively used stress response measures to predict relapse during the first 4 weeks of the smoking cessation attempt. The results showed that high adversity was associated with higher distress and smoking withdrawal symptoms. High level of early life adversity was associated with elevated HPA activity, which was found in both salivary and plasma cortisol. Enhanced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stress response was evident in high-adversity but not in low-adversity relapsers. This study demonstrated that early life adversity is associated with stress-related HPA responses. The study also demonstrated that, among smokers who experienced a high level of life adversity, heightened ACTH and cortisol responses were linked with increased risk for smoking relapse.

  11. Analysis of lead/acid battery life cycle factors: their impact on society and the lead industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J. G. S.; Wood, J. R.; Ralph, B.; Fenn, R.

    The underlying theme of this paper is that society, globally, is undergoing a fundamental conceptual shift in the way it views the environment and the role of industry within it. There are views in certain quarters that this could result in the virtual elimination of the lead industry's entire product range. Despite these threats, it is argued that the prospects for the lead industry appear to be relatively favourable in a number of respects. The industry's future depends to a significant degree, however, upon its ability to argue its case in a number of key areas. It is contended, therefore, that if appropriate strategies and means are promulgated, the prospects of the industry would appear to be relatively healthy. But, for this to happen with optimal effectiveness, a conceptual change will be necessary within the industry. New strategies and tools will have to be developed. These will require a significantly more integrated, holistically based and 'reflexive' approach than previously. The main elements of such an approach are outlined. With reference to the authors' ongoing research into automotive lead/acid starting lighting ignition (SLI) batteries, the paper shows how the technique of in-depth life cycle assessment (LCA), appropriately adapted to the needs of the industry, will provide a crucial role in this new approach. It also shows how it may be used as an internal design and assessment tool to identify those stages in the battery life cycle that give rise to the greatest environmental burdens, and to assess the effects of changes in the cycle to those burdens. It is argued that the development of this approach requires the serious and urgent attention of the whole of the lead industry. Also to make the LCA tool fully effective, it must be based on a 'live' database that is produced, maintained and continually updated by the industry.

  12. Early Life Experience and Gut Microbiome: The Brain-Gut-Microbiota Signaling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Henderson, Wendy A; Graf, Joerg; McGrath, Jacqueline M

    2015-10-01

    Over the past decades, advances in neonatal care have led to substantial increases in survival among preterm infants. With these gains, recent concerns have focused on increases in neurodevelopment morbidity related to the interplay between stressful early life experiences and the immature neuroimmune systems. This interplay between these complex mechanisms is often described as the brain-gut signaling system. The role of the gut microbiome and the brain-gut signaling system have been found to be remarkably related to both short- and long-term stress and health. Recent evidence supports that microbial species, ligands, and/or products within the developing intestine play a key role in early programming of the central nervous system and regulation of the intestinal innate immunity. The purpose of this state-of-the-science review is to explore the supporting evidence demonstrating the importance of the brain-gut-microbiota axis in regulation of early life experience. We also discuss the role of gut microbiome in modulating stress and pain responses in high-risk infants. A conceptual framework has been developed to illustrate the regulation mechanisms involved in early life experience. The science in this area is just beginning to be uncovered; having a fundamental understanding of these relationships will be important as new discoveries continue to change our thinking, leading potentially to changes in practice and targeted interventions.

  13. Could the early environment of Mars have supported the development of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Stoker, Carol R.

    1990-01-01

    The environment of Mars and its correlation to the origin of life on earth are examined. Evidence of liquid water and nitrogen on early Mars is discussed. The similarities between the early Mars and early earth environments are described.

  14. Evidence of an IFN-γ by early life stress interaction in the regulation of amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlich, Ronny; Stacey, David; Opel, Nils; Grotegerd, Dominik; Dohm, Katharina; Kugel, Harald; Heindel, Walter; Arolt, Volker; Baune, Bernhard T; Dannlowski, Udo

    2015-12-01

    Since numerous studies have found that exposure to early life stress leads to increased peripheral inflammation and psychiatric disease, it is thought that peripheral immune activation precedes and possibly mediates the onset of stress-associated psychiatric disease. Despite early studies, IFNγ has received little attention relative to other inflammatory cytokines in the context of the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Neuroimaging endophenotypes have emerged recently as a promising means of elucidating these types of complex relationships including the modeling of the interaction between environmental factors and genetic predisposition. Here we investigate the GxE relationship between early-life stress and genetic variants of IFNγ on emotion processing. To investigate the impact of the relationship between genetic variants of IFNγ (rs1861494, rs2069718, rs2430561) and early life stress on emotion processing, a sample of healthy adults (n=409) undergoing an emotional faces paradigm in an fMRI study were genotyped and analysed. Information on early life stress was obtained via Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). A positive association between early life stress and amygdala reactivity was found. Specifically, the main effect of genotype of rs1861494 on amygdala reactivity indicates a higher neural response in C allele carriers compared to T homozygotes, while we did not find main effects of rs2069718 and rs2430561. Importantly, interaction analyses revealed a specific interaction between IFNγ genotype (rs1861494) and early life stress affecting amygdala reactivity to emotional faces, resulting from a positive association between CTQ scores and amygdala reactivity in C allele carriers while this association was absent in T homozygotes. Our findings indicate that firstly the genetic variant of IFNγ (rs1861494) is involved with the regulation of amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli and secondly, that this genetic variant moderates effects of early life

  15. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Tiira

    Full Text Available Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264 in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002 and lower quality of maternal care (p < 0.0001 during puppyhood. Surprisingly, the largest environmental factor associating with noise sensitivity (p < 0.0001 and separation anxiety (p = 0.007 was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety.

  16. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264) in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002) and lower quality of maternal care (p daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety.

  17. Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cada, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified orality of fish eggs and larvae. This paper provides an analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) which indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment

  18. External-environmental and internal-health early life predictors of adolescent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Sarah; Li, Zhi; Nettle, Daniel; Belsky, Jay

    2017-12-01

    A wealth of evidence documents associations between various aspects of the rearing environment and later development. Two evolutionary-inspired models advance explanations for why and how such early experiences shape later functioning: (a) the external-prediction model, which highlights the role of the early environment (e.g., parenting) in regulating children's development, and (b) the internal-prediction model, which emphasizes internal state (i.e., health) as the critical regulator. Thus, by using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the current project draws from both models by investigating whether the effect of the early environment on later adolescent functioning is subject to an indirect effect by internal-health variables. Results showed a significant indirect effect of internal health on the relation between the early environment and adolescent behavior. Specifically, early environmental adversity during the first 5 years of life predicted lower quality health during childhood, which then led to problematic adolescent functioning and earlier age of menarche for girls. In addition, for girls, early adversity predicted lower quality health that forecasted earlier age of menarche leading to increased adolescent risk taking. The discussion highlights the importance of integrating both internal and external models to further understand the developmental processes that effect adolescent behavior.

  19. Lead isotope approach to the understanding of early Japanese bronze culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabuchi, H.; Hirao, Y.

    1985-01-01

    For several years, the authors have used lead isotope analysis to investigate extensively the provenance of ancient bronze or copper artifacts which had been excavated mainly from Japanese archaeological sites. The results have been published item by item in several relevant Japanese journals. This review is intended to give an account which will review the whole work relating early Japanese bronze culture to Chinese and Korean cultures through lead isotope study. (author)

  20. Environmental insults in early life and submissiveness later in life in mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seico eBenner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dominant and subordinate dispositions are not only determined genetically but also nurtured by environmental stimuli during neuroendocrine development. However, the relationship between early life environment and dominance behavior remains elusive. Using the IntelliCage-based competition task for group-housed mice, we have previously described two cases in which environmental insults during the developmental period altered the outcome of dominance behavior later in life. First, mice that were repeatedly isolated from their mother and their littermates (early deprivation; ED, and second, mice perinatally exposed to an environmental pollutant, dioxin, both exhibited subordinate phenotypes, defined by decreased occupancy of limited resource sites under highly competitive circumstances. Similar alterations found in the cortex and limbic area of these two models are suggestive of the presence of neural systems shared across generalized dominance behavior.

  1. Early Life Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity, behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet, hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors.

  2. Early-life home environment and risk of asthma among inner-city children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, George T; Lynch, Susan V; Bloomberg, Gordon R; Kattan, Meyer; Wood, Robert A; Gergen, Peter J; Jaffee, Katy F; Calatroni, Agustin; Bacharier, Leonard B; Beigelman, Avrahman; Sandel, Megan T; Johnson, Christine C; Faruqi, Ali; Santee, Clark; Fujimura, Kei E; Fadrosh, Douglas; Boushey, Homer; Visness, Cynthia M; Gern, James E

    2018-04-01

    Environmental exposures in early life appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of childhood asthma, but the potentially modifiable exposures that lead to asthma remain uncertain. We sought to identify early-life environmental risk factors for childhood asthma in a birth cohort of high-risk inner-city children. We examined the relationship of prenatal and early-life environmental factors to the occurrence of asthma at 7 years of age among 442 children. Higher house dust concentrations of cockroach, mouse, and cat allergens in the first 3 years of life were associated with lower risk of asthma (for cockroach allergen: odds ratio per interquartile range increase in concentration, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.36-0.86; P < .01). House dust microbiome analysis using 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing identified 202 and 171 bacterial taxa that were significantly (false discovery rate < 0.05) more or less abundant, respectively, in the homes of children with asthma. A majority of these bacteria were significantly correlated with 1 of more allergen concentrations. Other factors associated significantly positively with asthma included umbilical cord plasma cotinine concentration (odds ratio per geometric SD increase in concentration, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.00-3.09; P = .048) and maternal stress and depression scores. Among high-risk inner-city children, higher indoor levels of pet or pest allergens in infancy were associated with lower risk of asthma. The abundance of a number of bacterial taxa in house dust was associated with increased or decreased asthma risk. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure and higher maternal stress and depression scores in early life were associated with increased asthma risk. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  3. Work-Life Interferences in the Early Stages of Academic Careers: The Case of Precarious Researchers in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzon, Rossella; Murgia, Annalisa; Poggio, Barbara; Rapetti, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the topic of work-life interferences in academic contexts. More specifically, it focuses on early career researchers in the Italian university system. The total availability required from those who work in the research sector is leading to significant transformations of the temporalities of work, especially among the new…

  4. Stressful life events and neuroticism as predictors of late-life versus early-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kerstin; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Herrmann, François R; Bartolomei, Javier; Digiorgio, Sergio; Ortiz Chicherio, Nadia; Delaloye, Christophe; Ghisletta, Paolo; Lecerf, Thierry; De Ribaupierre, Anik; Canuto, Alessandra

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence of depression in younger adults is related to the combination of long-standing factors such as personality traits (neuroticism) and more acute factors such as the subjective impact of stressful life events. Whether an increase in physical illnesses changes these associations in old age depression remains a matter of debate. We compared 79 outpatients with major depression and 102 never-depressed controls; subjects included both young (mean age: 35 years) and older (mean age: 70 years) adults. Assessments included the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, NEO Personality Inventory and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. Logistic regression models analyzed the association between depression and subjective impact of stressful life events while controlling for neuroticism and physical illness. Patients and controls experienced the same number of stressful life events in the past 12 months. However, in contrast to the controls, patients associated the events with a subjective negative emotional impact. Negative stress impact and levels of neuroticism, but not physical illness, significantly predicted depression in young age. In old age, negative stress impact was weakly associated with depression. In this age group, depressive illness was also determined by physical illness burden and neuroticism. Our data suggest that the subjective impact of life stressors, although rated as of the same magnitude, plays a less important role in accounting for depression in older age compared to young age. They also indicate an increasing weight of physical illness burden in the prediction of depression occurrence in old age. © 2013 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2013 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  5. Body size in early life and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawon, Md Shajedur Rahman; Eriksson, Mikael; Li, Jingmei

    2017-07-21

    Body size in early life is inversely associated with adult breast cancer (BC) risk, but it is unclear whether the associations differ by tumor characteristics. In a pooled analysis of two Swedish population-based studies consisting of 6731 invasive BC cases and 28,705 age-matched cancer-free controls, we examined the associations between body size in early life and BC risk. Self-reported body sizes at ages 7 and 18 years were collected by a validated nine-level pictogram (aggregated into three categories: small, medium and large). Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression models in case-control analyses, adjusting for study, age at diagnosis, age at menarche, number of children, hormone replacement therapy, and family history of BC. Body size change between ages 7 and 18 were also examined in relation to BC risk. Case-only analyses were performed to test whether the associations differed by tumor characteristics. Medium or large body size at age 7 and 18 was associated with a statistically significant decreased BC risk compared to small body size (pooled OR (95% CI): comparing large to small, 0.78 (0.70-0.86), P trend <0.001 and 0.72 (0.64-0.80), P trend <0.001, respectively). The majority of the women (~85%) did not change body size categories between age 7 and 18 . Women who remained medium or large between ages 7 and 18 had significantly decreased BC risk compared to those who remained small. A reduction in body size between ages 7 and 18 was also found to be inversely associated with BC risk (0.90 (0.81-1.00)). No significant association was found between body size at age 7 and tumor characteristics. Body size at age 18 was found to be inversely associated with tumor size (P trend  = 0.006), but not estrogen receptor status and lymph node involvement. For all analyses, the overall inferences did not change appreciably after further adjustment for adult body mass index. Our data

  6. Early-life Medicaid Coverage and Intergenerational Economic Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Rourke L; Robertson, Cassandra L

    2018-04-01

    New data reveal significant variation in economic mobility outcomes across U.S. localities. This suggests that social structures, institutions, and public policies-particularly those that influence critical early-life environments-play an important role in shaping mobility processes. Using new county-level estimates of intergenerational economic mobility for children born between 1980 and 1986, we exploit the uneven expansions of Medicaid eligibility across states to isolate the causal effect of this specific policy change on mobility outcomes. Instrumental-variable regression models reveal that increasing the proportion of low-income pregnant women eligible for Medicaid improved the mobility outcomes of their children in adulthood. We find no evidence that Medicaid coverage in later childhood years influences mobility outcomes. This study has implications for the normative evaluation of this policy intervention as well as our understanding of mobility processes in an era of rising inequality.

  7. Prenatal and early life influences on epigenetic age in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simpkin, Andrew J; Hemani, Gibran; Suderman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    age for these samples. AA was defined as the residuals from regressing epigenetic age on actual age. AA was tested for associations with cross-sectional clinical variables in children. We identified associations between AA and sex, birth weight, birth by caesarean section and several maternal......). In children, epigenetic AA measures are associated with several clinically relevant variables, and early life exposures appear to be associated with changes in AA during adolescence. Further research into epigenetic aging, including the use of causal inference methods, is required to better our understanding......DNA methylation-based biomarkers of aging are highly correlated with actual age. Departures of methylation-estimated age from actual age can be used to define epigenetic measures of child development or age acceleration (AA) in adults. Very little is known about genetic or environmental...

  8. Dietary protein intake and quality in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Mads V; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    programming. Finally, infants with catch-up growth or specific genotypes might be particularly vulnerable to high-protein intake. SUMMARY: Recent studies confirm the associations between high-protein intake during the first 2 years and later obesity. Furthermore, knowledge of the mechanisms involved......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is an increasing problem and high-protein intake early in life seems to increase later risk of obesity. This review summarizes recent publications in the area including observational and intervention studies and publications on underlying mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS...... seems to have an effect on obesity. Specific amino acids, such as leucine, have also been implicated in increasing later obesity risk maybe via specific actions on insulin-like growth factor I. Furthermore, additional underlying mechanisms including epigenetics have been linked to long-term obesogenic...

  9. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  10. Prenatal and early postnatal stress and later life inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Christensen, Dinne Skjærlund

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that maternal psychological and social stress during the prenatal period and in childhood represent an important condition that may adversely impact the anatomy and physiology of the developing child with implications for a number of health-related conditions...... and postnatal stressor data was collected at year one follow-up. A series of ordinary least square regression models were performed with the stress measures as the exposures and C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-10 (IL-10), and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) separately as the outcomes...... in the first year of life, was associated with higher levels of CRP and IL-6. The accumulation of social stressors in the early postnatal period was associated with higher levels of CRP and IL-6 but not IL-10 and TNF-α. The accumulation of stressors in the prenatal and postnatal periods combined was associated...

  11. Podocyte number and density changes during early human life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masao; Wickman, Larysa; Rabah, Raja; Wiggins, Roger C

    2017-05-01

    Podocyte depletion, which drives progressive glomerulosclerosis in glomerular diseases, is caused by a reduction in podocyte number, size or function in the context of increasing glomerular volume. Kidneys obtained at autopsy from premature and mature infants who died in the first year of life (n = 24) were used to measure podometric parameters for comparison with previously reported data from older kidneys. Glomerular volume increased 4.6-fold from 0.13 ± 0.07 μm 3 x10 6 in the pre-capillary loop stage, through 0.35 μm 3 x10 6 at the capillary loop, to 0.60 μm 3 x10 6 at the mature glomerular stage. Podocyte number per glomerulus increased from 326 ± 154 per glomerulus at the pre-capillary loop stage to 584 ± 131 per glomerulus at the capillary loop stage of glomerular development to reach a value of 589 ± 166 per glomerulus in mature glomeruli. Thus, the major podocyte number increase occurs in the early stages of glomerular development, in contradistinction to glomerular volume increase, which continues after birth in association with body growth. As glomeruli continue to enlarge, podocyte density (number per volume) rapidly decreases, requiring a parallel rapid increase in podocyte size that allows podocyte foot processes to maintain complete coverage of the filtration surface area. Hypertrophic stresses on the glomerulus and podocyte during development and early rapid growth periods of life are therefore likely to play significant roles in determining how and when defects in podocyte structure and function due to genetic variants become clinically manifest. Therapeutic strategies aimed at minimizing mismatch between these factors may prove clinically useful.

  12. Early life innate immune signatures of persistent food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeland, Melanie R; Koplin, Jennifer J; Dang, Thanh D; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L; Prescott, Susan L; Saffery, Richard; Martino, David J; Allen, Katrina J

    2017-11-14

    Food allergy naturally resolves in a proportion of food-allergic children without intervention; however the underlying mechanisms governing the persistence or resolution of food allergy in childhood are not understood. This study aimed to define the innate immune profiles associated with egg allergy at age 1 year, determine the phenotypic changes that occur with the development of natural tolerance in childhood, and explore the relationship between early life innate immune function and serum vitamin D. This study used longitudinally collected PBMC samples from a population-based cohort of challenge-confirmed egg-allergic infants with either persistent or transient egg allergy outcomes in childhood to phenotype and quantify the functional innate immune response associated with clinical phenotypes of egg allergy. We show that infants with persistent egg allergy exhibit a unique innate immune signature, characterized by increased numbers of circulating monocytes and dendritic cells that produce more inflammatory cytokines both at baseline and following endotoxin exposure when compared with infants with transient egg allergy. Follow-up analysis revealed that this unique innate immune signature continues into childhood in those with persistent egg allergy and that increased serum vitamin D levels correlate with changes in innate immune profiles observed in children who developed natural tolerance to egg. Early life innate immune dysfunction may represent a key immunological driver and predictor of persistent food allergy in childhood. Serum vitamin D may play an immune-modulatory role in the development of natural tolerance. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Early-life inflammation, immune response and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imroze; Agashe, Deepa; Rolff, Jens

    2017-03-15

    Age-related diseases are often attributed to immunopathology, which results in self-damage caused by an inappropriate inflammatory response. Immunopathology associated with early-life inflammation also appears to cause faster ageing, although we lack direct experimental evidence for this association. To understand the interactions between ageing, inflammation and immunopathology, we used the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor as a study organism. We hypothesized that phenoloxidase, an important immune effector in insect defence, may impose substantial immunopathological costs by causing tissue damage to Malpighian tubules (MTs; functionally equivalent to the human kidney), in turn accelerating ageing. In support of this hypothesis, we found that RNAi knockdown of phenoloxidase (PO) transcripts in young adults possibly reduced inflammation-induced autoreactive tissue damage to MTs, and increased adult lifespan. Our work thus suggests a causative link between immunopathological costs of early-life inflammation and faster ageing. We also reasoned that if natural selection weakens with age, older individuals should display increased immunopathological costs associated with an immune response. Indeed, we found that while old infected individuals cleared infection faster than young individuals, possibly they also displayed exacerbated immunopathological costs (larger decline in MT function) and higher post-infection mortality. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PO response partially rescued MTs function in older beetles and resulted in increased lifespan after infection. Taken together, our data are consistent with a direct role of immunopathological consequences of immune response during ageing in insects. Our work is also the first report that highlights the pervasive role of tissue damage under diverse contexts of ageing and immune response. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Proinflammatory T Cell Status Associated with Early Life Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwenspoek, Martha M C; Hengesch, Xenia; Leenen, Fleur A D; Schritz, Anna; Sias, Krystel; Schaan, Violetta K; Mériaux, Sophie B; Schmitz, Stephanie; Bonnemberger, Fanny; Schächinger, Hartmut; Vögele, Claus; Turner, Jonathan D; Muller, Claude P

    2017-12-15

    Early life adversity (ELA) has been associated with an increased risk for diseases in which the immune system plays a critical role. The ELA immune phenotype is characterized by inflammation, impaired cellular immunity, and immunosenescence. However, data on cell-specific immune effects are largely absent. Additionally, stress systems and health behaviors are altered in ELA, which may contribute to the generation of the ELA immune phenotype. The present investigation tested cell-specific immune differences in relationship to the ELA immune phenotype, altered stress parameters, and health behaviors in individuals with ELA ( n = 42) and those without a history of ELA (control, n = 73). Relative number and activation status (CD25, CD69, HLA-DR, CD11a, CD11b) of monocytes, NK cells, B cells, T cells, and their main subsets were assessed by flow cytometry. ELA was associated with significantly reduced numbers of CD69 + CD8 + T cells ( p = 0.022), increased numbers of HLA-DR + CD4 and HLA-DR + CD8 T cells ( p ELA also showed a trend toward higher numbers of CCR4 + CXCR3 - CCR6 + CD4 T cells. Taken together, our data suggest an elevated state of immune activation in ELA, in which particularly T cells are affected. Although several aspects of the ELA immune phenotype were related to increased activation markers, neither stress nor health-risk behaviors explained the observed group differences. Thus, the state of immune activation in ELA does not seem to be secondary to alterations in the stress system or health-risk behaviors, but rather a primary effect of early life programming on immune cells. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. Psychosocially influenced cancer: diverse early-life stress experiences and links to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Linda A; Auger, Anthony P

    2010-11-01

    This perspective on Boyd et al. (beginning on page 1398 in this issue of the journal) discusses recent published research examining the interplay between social stress and breast cancer. Cross-disciplinary studies using genetically defined mouse models and established neonatal and peripubertal paradigms of social stress are illuminating biological programming by diverse early-life experiences for the risk of breast cancer. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this programming can lead to the identification of risk factors and sensitive developmental windows, enabling improved prevention and treatment strategies for this devastating disease. ©2010 AACR.

  16. Does adversity early in life affect general population suicide rates? A cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhandarkar, Ritesh

    2011-01-01

    Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were underweight, the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were under height, the percentage of infants with low birth weight babies, and the percentage of the general population that was undernourished. The only independent predictor general population suicide rates in both sexes, on multiple regression analysis, was the Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality). Income inequality may lead to low birth weight, undernourishment, underweight and under height because income inequality results in poor access to healthcare and nutrition. These adversities may increase child mortality rates and reduce life expectancy. Those surviving into adulthood in countries with greater adversity early in life may be at reduced risk of suicide because of selective survival of those at reduced risk of suicide due to constitutional or genetic factors and development of greater tolerance to hardship in adulthood. ‎

  17. Does adversity early in life affect general population suicide rates? a cross-national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Bhandarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. METHODS: The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. RESULTS: General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were underweight, the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were under height, the percentage of infants with low birth weight babies, and the percentage of the general population that was undernourished. The only independent predictor general population suicide rates in both sexes, on multiple regression analysis, was the Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality. CONCLUSIONS: Income inequality may lead to low birth weight, undernourishment, underweight and under height because income inequality results in poor access to healthcare and nutrition. These adversities may increase child mortality rates and reduce life expectancy. Those surviving into adulthood in countries with greater adversity early in life may be at reduced risk of suicide because of selective survival of those at reduced risk of suicide due to constitutional or genetic factors and development of greater tolerance to hardship in adulthood.

  18. Early-life stress is associated with gender-based vulnerability to epileptogenesis in rat pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Desgent

    Full Text Available During development, the risk of developing mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE increases when the developing brain is exposed to more than one insult in early life. Early life insults include abnormalities of cortical development, hypoxic-ischemic injury and prolonged febrile seizures. To study epileptogenesis, we have developed a two-hit model of MTLE characterized by two early-life insults: a freeze lesion-induced cortical malformation at post-natal day 1 (P1, and a prolonged hyperthermic seizure (HS at P10. As early life stressors lead to sexual dimorphism in both acute response and long-term outcome, we hypothesized that our model could lead to gender-based differences in acute stress response and long-term risk of developing MTLE. Male and female pups underwent a freeze-lesion induced cortical microgyrus at P1 and were exposed to HS at P10. Animals were monitored by video-EEG from P90 to P120. Pre and post-procedure plasma corticosterone levels were used to measure stress response at P1 and P10. To confirm the role of sex steroids, androgenized female pups received daily testosterone injections to the mother pre-natally and post-natally for nine days while undergoing both insults. We demonstrated that after both insults females did not develop MTLE while all males did. This correlated with a rise in corticosterone levels at P1 following the lesion in males only. Interestingly, all androgenized females showed a similar rise in corticosterone at P1, and also developed MTLE. Moreover, we found that the cortical lesion significantly decreased the latency to generalized convulsion during hyperthermia at P10 in both genders. The cortical dysplasia volumes at adulthood were also similar between male and female individuals. Our data demonstrate sexual dimorphism in long-term vulnerability to develop epilepsy in the lesion + hyperthermia animal model of MTLE and suggest that the response to early-life stress at P1 contributes significantly to

  19. Early-Life Food Nutrition, Microbiota Maturation and Immune Development Shape Life-Long Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Du, Lina; Shi, Ronghua; Chen, Zhidong; Zhou, Yiming; Li, Zongjie

    2018-06-06

    The current knowledge about early-life nutrition and environmental factors that affect the interaction between the symbiotic microbiota and the host immune system has demonstrated novel regulatory target for treating allergic diseases, autoimmune disorders and metabolic syndrome. Various kinds of food nutrients (such as dietary fiber, starch, polyphenols and proteins) can provide energy resources for both intestinal microbiota and the host. The indigestible food components are fermented by the indigenous gut microbiota to produce diverse metabolites, including short-chain fatty acids, bile acids and trimethylamine-N-oxide, which can regulate the host metabolized physiology, immunity homeostasis and health state. Therefore it is commonly believed early-life perturbation of the microbial community structure and the dietary nutrition interference on the child mucosal immunity contribute to the whole life susceptibility to chronic diseases. In all, the combined interrelationship between food ingredients nutrition, intestinal microbiota configurations and host system immunity provides new therapeutic targets to treat various kinds of pathogenic inflammations and chronic diseases.

  20. Leading edge erosion of coated wind turbine blades: Review of coating life models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, H.M.; Gelinck, E.R.M.; Rentrop, A.; van der Heide, Emile

    2015-01-01

    Erosion of the leading edge of wind turbine blades by droplet impingement wear, reduces blade aerodynamic efficiency and power output. Eventually, it compromises the integrity of blade surfaces. Elastomeric coatings are currently used for erosion resistance, yet the life of such coatings cannot be

  1. Face to Face Leading a Full Life in Two Worlds – Arts and Science!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    guided them in making the career choice to be a scientist. Leading a Full Life ... think that may have been an attempt to avoid a decision. ... KLS: You have had several collaborators worldwide, and have been a source of motivation for a large ...

  2. Stent for Life Initiative: leading example in building STEMI systems of care in emerging countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaifoszova, Zuzana; Kala, Petr; Alexander, Thomas; Zhang, Yan; Huo, Yong; Snyders, Adriaan; Delport, Rhena; Alcocer-Gamba, Marco Antonio; Gavidia, Leslie Marisol Lugo

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes the opportunities and challenges in building ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) systems of care in Stent for Life affiliated and collaborating so-called emerging countries, namely India, China, South Africa and Mexico, where CAD mortality is increasing and becoming a significant healthcare problem. The Stent for Life model supports the implementation of ESC STEMI Guidelines in Europe and endeavours to impact on morbidity and mortality by improving services and developing regional STEMI systems of care, whereby STEMI patients' timely access to a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is assured. In India, the STEMI India model incorporates a dual approach of combining PPCI with a pharmacoinvasive strategy of reperfusion. The architecture of the system is based on a hub and spoke model with each unit called a STEMI cluster. The project is driven by a private non-profit organisation. In China, the STEMI PCI programme is led by the Chinese College of Cardiovascular Physicians and supported by the national government. Although primary PCI is performed nationwide, a thrombolytic treatment strategy is still the first option in many rural areas because of logistic considerations. Establishing local STEMI transfer networks and then implementing a pharmacoinvasive strategy of reperfusion are being considered and promoted currently. In South Africa, the pharmacoinvasive approach currently dominates as STEMI treatment option in many areas. A pilot study shows that low symptom awareness leads to long patient delays. The education of all role players, from patients to healthcare professionals and including institutions and governmental structures, is needed to achieve prompt diagnosis and treatment. In Mexico, improving the treatment of STEMI requires considering myocardial infarction to be an emergency that must be treated by an entire system and not just by a particular service. Patients need to receive quick treatment from

  3. The impact of data integrity on decision making in early lead discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bernd; Seeliger, Daniel; Kriegl, Jan M.

    2015-09-01

    Data driven decision making is a key element of today's pharmaceutical research, including early drug discovery. It comprises questions like which target to pursue, which chemical series to pursue, which compound to make next, or which compound to select for advanced profiling and promotion to pre-clinical development. In the following paper we will exemplify how data integrity, i.e. the context data is generated in and auxiliary information that is provided for individual result records, can influence decision making in early lead discovery programs. In addition we will describe some approaches which we pursue at Boehringer Ingelheim to reduce the risk for getting misguided.

  4. Accounting Early for Life Long Learning: The AcE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University Coll. Worcester (England). Centre for Research in Early Childhood Education.

    Building upon the work of the Effective Early Learning (EEL) Project in raising the quality of early learning for young children in the United Kingdom, the 3-year Accounting Early for Life Long Learning Project (AcE Project) focuses on enhancing in 3- to 6-year-olds those attitudes and dispositions that are important to life-long learning. This…

  5. Predicting Negative Life Outcomes from Early Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior Trajectories: Gender Differences in Maladaptation across Life Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Petras, Hanno; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Transactional theories of development suggest that displaying high levels of antisocial behavior early in life and persistently over time causes disruption in multiple life domains, which in turn places individuals at risk for negative life outcomes. We used longitudinal data from 1,137 primarily African American urban youth (49.1% female) to…

  6. Promoting Career Development and Life Design in the Early Years of a Person's Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Jacobus G.

    2018-01-01

    The article discusses the changing world of work and the attendant uncertainty and loss of work-life identity. Little research has been done on career development and life design in the early years of a person's life, especially in developing countries characterized by disadvantage. The underlying theoretical models of career development are…

  7. Linguistic ability in early life and cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease in late life. Findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, D A; Kemper, S J; Mortimer, J A; Greiner, L H; Wekstein, D R; Markesbery, W R

    1996-02-21

    To determine if linguistic ability in early life is associated with cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease in late life. Two measures of linguistic ability in early life, idea density and grammatical complexity, were derived from autobiographies written at a mean age of 22 years. Approximately 58 years later, the women who wrote these autobiographies participated in an assessment of cognitive function, and those who subsequently died were evaluated neuropathologically. Convents in the United States participating in the Nun Study; primarily convents in the Milwaukee, Wis, area. Cognitive function was investigated in 93 participants who were aged 75 to 95 years at the time of their assessments, and Alzheimer's disease was investigated in the 14 participants who died at 79 to 96 years of age. Seven neuropsychological tests and neuropathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease. Low idea density and low grammatical complexity in autobiographies written in early life were associated with low cognitive test scores in late life. Low idea density in early life had stronger and more consistent associations with poor cognitive function than did low grammatical complexity. Among the 14 sisters who died, neuropathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease was present in all of those with low idea density in early life and in none of those with high idea density. Low linguistic ability in early life was a strong predictor of poor cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease in late life.

  8. The die is cast - Arsenic exposure in early life and disease susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Early life exposure to arsenic in humans and mice produces similar patterns of disease in later life. Given the long interval between exposure and effect, epigenetic effects of early life exposure to arsenic may account for development and progression of disease in bo...

  9. Specific synbiotics in early life protect against diet-induced obesity in adult mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mischke, Mona; Arora, Tulika; Tims, Sebastian; Engels, Eefje; Sommer, Nina; Limpt, van Kees; Baars, Annemarie; Oozeer, Raish; Oosting, Annemarie; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Knol, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Aims: The metabolic state of human adults is associated with their gut microbiome. The symbiosis between host and microbiome is initiated at birth, and early life microbiome perturbation can disturb health throughout life. Here, we determined how beneficial microbiome interventions in early life

  10. Specific synbiotics in early life protect against diet-induced obesity in adult mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischke, Mona; Arora, Tulika; Tims, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: The metabolic state of human adults is associated with their gut microbiome. The symbiosis between host and microbiome is initiated at birth, and early life microbiome perturbation can disturb health long-lastingly. Here, we determined how beneficial microbiome interventions in early life a...... as preventive measure to ameliorate obesity risk and improve metabolic health throughout life....

  11. EARLY IDENTIFICATION AND BASIC LIFE SUPPORT FOR PNEUMOTHORAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Ade Punarbawa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chest injury is one injury that often occurs and need immediate and precise handling that prevent people from death. Chest trauma 1/4 of the trauma that caused the death and 1/3 of those deaths occur in hospitals. One chest injury that often we get to the health center is pneumothorax. WHO declared in 2020 the level of morbidity and mortality from chest injuries will increase, to become the second leading cause of death in the world. From this data that need to know the signs and symptoms of peneumotoraks, identify the signs and symptoms so we can provide basic life support to the patient before the patient was referred to a medical center nearby so as to reduce the morbidity and mortality in patients with pneumothorax.

  12. Transplacental movement of inorganic lead in early and late gestation in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielsson, B.R.G.; Dencker, L.; Lindgren, A.

    1983-01-01

    203 Pb(NO 3 ) 2 was administered i.v. to pregnant C57BL mice at different stages, from day 8 to day 18 of gestation. The whole animals or excised uteri were subjected to autoradiography or were autopsied for scintillation counting of excised organs. Lead appeared in embryonic and fetal tissues at all stages of gestation. Early (approx. day 8-11) lead was restricted mainly to the embryonic blood, suggesting that free lead was essentially not transferred to the embryo but may have been incorporated in the embryonic hemoglobin when the erythrocytes were formed in the yolk sac placenta (an extraembryonic membrane). From day 12 and later, an uptake was seen in the liver and the cartilaginous skeleton, and from day 14, a strong accumulation was found in calcified bone. This means that the overall fetal concentration increases successively with gestational age of the conceptus. The uptake in fetal liver may be related to the erythropoiesis taking place in the liver in later gestation. While an accumulation of lead was observed in proximal tubuli of the maternal kidney, no corresponding uptake occurred in the fetal kidney. Although lead is teratogenic, causing among others skeletal defects, no effect of inorganic lead in mM concentration was seen on a chondrogenic cell system in vitro. Due to the predominance of lead in hemoglobin, a mechanisms of teratogensis based on inhibition of fetal hemoglobin synthesis or function is discussed. (orig.)

  13. Early-life gut microbiome composition and milk allergy resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyavanich, Supinda; Shen, Nan; Grishin, Alexander; Wood, Robert; Burks, Wesley; Dawson, Peter; Jones, Stacie M; Leung, Donald Y M; Sampson, Hugh; Sicherer, Scott; Clemente, Jose C

    2016-10-01

    Gut microbiota may play a role in the natural history of cow's milk allergy. We sought to examine the association between early-life gut microbiota and the resolution of cow's milk allergy. We studied 226 children with milk allergy who were enrolled at infancy in the Consortium of Food Allergy observational study of food allergy. Fecal samples were collected at age 3 to 16 months, and the children were followed longitudinally with clinical evaluation, milk-specific IgE levels, and milk skin prick test performed at enrollment, 6 months, 12 months, and yearly thereafter up until age 8 years. Gut microbiome was profiled by 16s rRNA sequencing and microbiome analyses performed using Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME), Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt), and Statistical Analysis of Metagenomic Profiles (STAMP). Milk allergy resolved by age 8 years in 128 (56.6%) of the 226 children. Gut microbiome composition at age 3 to 6 months was associated with milk allergy resolution by age 8 years (PERMANOVA P = .047), with enrichment of Clostridia and Firmicutes in the infant gut microbiome of subjects whose milk allergy resolved. Metagenome functional prediction supported decreased fatty acid metabolism in the gut microbiome of subjects whose milk allergy resolved (η 2  = 0.43; ANOVA P = .034). Early infancy is a window during which gut microbiota may shape food allergy outcomes in childhood. Bacterial taxa within Clostridia and Firmicutes could be studied as probiotic candidates for milk allergy therapy. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Early-life gut microbiome composition and milk allergy resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyavanich, Supinda; Shen, Nan; Grishin, Alexander; Wood, Robert; Burks, Wesley; Dawson, Peter; Jones, Stacie M.; Leung, Donald; Sampson, Hugh; Sicherer, Scott; Clemente, Jose C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Gut microbiota may play a role in the natural history of cow’s milk allergy Objective To examine the association between early life gut microbiota and the resolution of cow’s milk allergy Methods We studied 226 children with milk allergy who were enrolled at infancy in the Consortium of Food Allergy (CoFAR) observational study of food allergy. Fecal samples were collected at age 3–16 months, and the children were followed longitudinally with clinical evaluation, milk-specific IgE levels, and milk skin prick test performed at enrollment, 6 months, 12 months, and yearly thereafter up until age 8 years. Gut microbiome was profiled by 16s rRNA sequencing and microbiome analyses performed using QIIME (Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology), PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States), and STAMP (Statistical Analysis of Metagenomic Profiles). Results Milk allergy resolved by age 8 years in 128 (56.6%) of the 226 children. Gut microbiome composition at age 3–6 months was associated with milk allergy resolution by age 8 years (PERMANOVA P = 0.047), with enrichment of Clostridia and Firmicutes in the infant gut microbiome of subjects whose milk allergy resolved. Metagenome functional prediction supported decreased fatty acid metabolism in the gut microbiome of subjects whose milk allergy resolved (η2 = 0.43, ANOVA P = 0.034). Conclusions Early infancy is a window during which gut microbiota may shape food allergy outcomes in childhood. Bacterial taxa within Clostridia and Firmicutes could be studied as probiotic candidates for milk allergy therapy. PMID:27292825

  15. Early life stress as an influence on limbic epilepsy: an hypothesis whose time has come?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia S Koe

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE, the most prevalent form of refractory focal epilepsy in adults, is thought to begin in early life, even though seizures may not commence until adolescence or adulthood. Amongst the range of early life factors implicated in MTLE causation (febrile seizures, traumatic brain injury, etc., stress may be one important contributor. Early life stress is an a priori agent deserving study because of the large amount of neuroscientific data showing enduring effects on structure and function in hippocampus and amygdala, the key structures involved in MTLE. An emerging body of evidence directly tests hypotheses concerning early life stress and limbic epilepsy: early life stressors, such as maternal separation, have been shown to aggravate epileptogenesis in both status epilepticus and kindling models of limbic epilepsy. In addition to elucidating its influence on limbic epileptogenesis itself, the study of early life stress has the potential to shed light on the psychiatric disorder that accompanies MTLE. For many years, psychiatric comorbidity was viewed as an effect of epilepsy, mediated psychologically and/or neurobiologically. An alternative – or complementary – perspective is that of shared causation. Early life stress, implicated in the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders, may be one such causal factor. This paper aims to critically review the body of experimental evidence linking early life stress and epilepsy; to discuss the direct studies examining early life stress effects in current models of limbic seizures/epilepsy; and to suggest priorities for future research.

  16. Attentional avoidance of fearful facial expressions following early life stress is associated with impaired social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Kircanski, Katharina; Colich, Natalie L; Gotlib, Ian H

    2016-10-01

    Early life stress is associated with poorer social functioning. Attentional biases in response to threat-related cues, linked to both early experience and psychopathology, may explain this association. To date, however, no study has examined attentional biases to fearful facial expressions as a function of early life stress or examined these biases as a potential mediator of the relation between early life stress and social problems. In a sample of 154 children (ages 9-13 years) we examined the associations among interpersonal early life stressors (i.e., birth through age 6 years), attentional biases to emotional facial expressions using a dot-probe task, and social functioning on the Child Behavior Checklist. High levels of early life stress were associated with both greater levels of social problems and an attentional bias away from fearful facial expressions, even after accounting for stressors occurring in later childhood. No biases were found for happy or sad facial expressions as a function of early life stress. Finally, attentional biases to fearful faces mediated the association between early life stress and social problems. Attentional avoidance of fearful facial expressions, evidenced by a bias away from these stimuli, may be a developmental response to early adversity and link the experience of early life stress to poorer social functioning. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  17. Behavioral and cognitive impact of early life stress: Insights from an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hesong; Atrooz, Fatin; Salvi, Ankita; Salim, Samina

    2017-08-01

    Children subjected to traumatic events during childhood are reported to exhibit behavioral and cognitive deficits later in life, often leading to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. Interestingly, some children continue to remain normal despite being exposed to the same risk factors. These trauma-related behavioral and cognitive profiles across different stages of life are not well understood. Animal studies can offer useful insights. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of early life exposure to traumatic events on behavioral and cognitive profile in rats by tracking the behavior of each rat at different ages. We utilized the single prolonged stress (SPS), a rodent model of PTSD, to study the effects of early life stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to SPS on post-natal day (PND) 25. Tests to assess anxiety- and depression-like behavior, as well as learning and memory function were performed at PND32, 60 and 90. Rats exposed to SPS exhibited both anxiety- and depression-like behavior at PND32. And, short-term (STM) but not long-term memory (LTM) was impaired. Rats exposed to SPS at PND60 exhibited anxiety- but not depression-like behavior. STM but not LTM was impaired. Rats exposed to SPS at PND90 exhibited fearful (as indicated by elevated plus maze test) but not an overall anxiety-like behavior (in light and dark test). These rats also displayed significant depression-like behavior with no changes in STM or LTM. Interestingly, when data was further analyzed, two subsets of PND90 rats exposed to SPS were identified, "susceptible": with depression-like behavior and "resilient": without depression-like behavior. Importantly, while resilient group expressed early signs of anxiety- (at PND32 and PND60) and depression-like behavior (at PND32), these behavioral deficits were absent at PND90. On the other hand, susceptible PND90 rats exposed to SPS expressed later onset of anxiety-like behavior (at PND60), while depression

  18. The effects of early life adversity on the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwenspoek, Martha M C; Kuehn, Annette; Muller, Claude P; Turner, Jonathan D

    2017-08-01

    Early life adversity (ELA) is associated with a higher risk for diseases in adulthood. Although the pathophysiological effects of ELA are varied, there may be a unifying role for the immune system in all of the long-term pathologies such as chronic inflammatory disorders (autoimmune diseases, allergy, and asthma). Recently, significant efforts have been made to elucidate the long-term effects ELA has on immune function, as well as the mechanisms underlying these immune changes. In this review, we focus on data from human studies investigating immune parameters in relation to post-natal adverse experiences. We describe the current understanding of the 'ELA immune phenotype', characterized by inflammation, impairment of the cellular immune system, and immunosenescence. However, at present, data addressing specific immune functions are limited and there is a need for high-quality, well powered, longitudinal studies to unravel cause from effect. Besides the immune system, also the stress system and health behaviors are altered in ELA. We discuss probable underlying mechanisms based on epigenetic programming that could explain the ELA immune phenotype and whether this is a direct effect of immune programming or an indirect consequence of changes in behavior or stress reactivity. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will help define effective strategies to prevent or counteract negative ELA-associated outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early life stress, HPA axis adaptation and mechanisms contributing to later health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi eManiam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which then modulates the degree of adaptation and response to a later stressor. It is known that early life stress can impact on later health but less is known about how early life stress impairs HPA axis activity, contributing to maladaptation of the stress response system. Early life stress exposure (either prenatally or in the early postnatal period can impact developmental pathways resulting in lasting structural and regulatory changes that predispose to adulthood disease. Epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that early life stress produces long-term hyper responsiveness to stress with exaggerated circulating glucocorticoids, and enhanced anxiety and depression-like behaviours. Recently, evidence has emerged on early life stress induced metabolic derangements, for example hyperinsulinemia and altered insulin sensitivity on exposure to a high energy diet later in life. This draws our attention to the contribution of later environment to disease vulnerability. Early life stress can alter the expression of genes in peripheral tissues, such as the glucocorticoid receptor and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1. We propose that interactions between altered HPA axis activity and liver 11β-HSD1 modulates both tissue and circulating glucocorticoid availability, with adverse metabolic consequences. This review discusses the potential mechanisms underlying early life stress induced maladaptation of the HPA axis, and its subsequent effects on energy utilisation and expenditure. The effects of positive later environments as a means of ameliorating early life stress induced health deficits, and proposed mechanisms underpinning the interaction between early life stress and subsequent detrimental environmental exposures on metabolic risk will be outlined. Limitations in current methodology linking early life stress and later health outcomes will also

  20. Early-Life Stress, HPA Axis Adaptation, and Mechanisms Contributing to Later Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Antoniadis, Christopher; Morris, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which then modulates the degree of adaptation and response to a later stressor. It is known that early-life stress can impact on later health but less is known about how early-life stress impairs HPA axis activity, contributing to maladaptation of the stress–response system. Early-life stress exposure (either prenatally or in the early postnatal period) can impact developmental pathways resulting in lasting structural and regulatory changes that predispose to adulthood disease. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have demonstrated that early-life stress produces long term hyper-responsiveness to stress with exaggerated circulating glucocorticoids, and enhanced anxiety and depression-like behaviors. Recently, evidence has emerged on early-life stress-induced metabolic derangements, for example hyperinsulinemia and altered insulin sensitivity on exposure to a high energy diet later in life. This draws our attention to the contribution of later environment to disease vulnerability. Early-life stress can alter the expression of genes in peripheral tissues, such as the glucocorticoid receptor and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1). We propose that interactions between altered HPA axis activity and liver 11β-HSD1 modulates both tissue and circulating glucocorticoid availability, with adverse metabolic consequences. This review discusses the potential mechanisms underlying early-life stress-induced maladaptation of the HPA axis, and its subsequent effects on energy utilization and expenditure. The effects of positive later environments as a means of ameliorating early-life stress-induced health deficits, and proposed mechanisms underpinning the interaction between early-life stress and subsequent detrimental environmental exposures on metabolic risk will be outlined. Limitations in current methodology linking early-life stress and later health outcomes will also be

  1. The Serotonin Transporter and Early Life Stress: Translational Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelien D. A. Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between the serotonin transporter (SERT linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR and adverse early life stressing (ELS events is associated with enhanced stress susceptibility and risk to develop mental disorders like major depression, anxiety, and aggressiveness. In particular, human short allele carriers are at increased risk. This 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is absent in the rodent SERT gene, but heterozygous SERT knockout rodents (SERT+/− show several similarities to the human S-allele carrier, therefore creating an animal model of the human situation. Many rodent studies investigated ELS interactions in SERT knockout rodents combined with ELS. However, underlying neuromolecular mechanisms of the (maladaptive responses to adversity displayed by SERT rodents remain to be elucidated. Here, we provide a comprehensive review including studies describing mechanisms underlying SERT variation × ELS interactions in rodents. Alterations at the level of translation and transcription but also epigenetic alterations considerably contribute to underlying mechanisms of SERT variation × ELS interactions. In particular, SERT+/− rodents exposed to adverse early rearing environment may be of high translational and predictive value to the more stress sensitive human short-allele carrier, considering the similarity in neurochemical alterations. Therefore, SERT+/− rodents are highly relevant in research that aims to unravel the complex psychopathology of mental disorders. So far, most studies fail to show solid evidence for increased vulnerability to develop affective-like behavior after ELS in SERT+/− rodents. Several reasons may underlie these failures, e.g., (1 stressors used might not be optimal or severe enough to induce maladaptations, (2 effects in females are not sufficiently studied, and (3 few studies include both behavioral manifestations and molecular correlates of ELS-induced effects in SERT+/− rodents. Of course, one should not

  2. The Serotonin Transporter and Early Life Stress: Translational Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwing, Danielle J.; Buwalda, Bauke; van der Zee, Eddy A.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Olivier, Jocelien D. A.

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between the serotonin transporter (SERT) linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and adverse early life stressing (ELS) events is associated with enhanced stress susceptibility and risk to develop mental disorders like major depression, anxiety, and aggressiveness. In particular, human short allele carriers are at increased risk. This 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is absent in the rodent SERT gene, but heterozygous SERT knockout rodents (SERT+/−) show several similarities to the human S-allele carrier, therefore creating an animal model of the human situation. Many rodent studies investigated ELS interactions in SERT knockout rodents combined with ELS. However, underlying neuromolecular mechanisms of the (mal)adaptive responses to adversity displayed by SERT rodents remain to be elucidated. Here, we provide a comprehensive review including studies describing mechanisms underlying SERT variation × ELS interactions in rodents. Alterations at the level of translation and transcription but also epigenetic alterations considerably contribute to underlying mechanisms of SERT variation × ELS interactions. In particular, SERT+/− rodents exposed to adverse early rearing environment may be of high translational and predictive value to the more stress sensitive human short-allele carrier, considering the similarity in neurochemical alterations. Therefore, SERT+/− rodents are highly relevant in research that aims to unravel the complex psychopathology of mental disorders. So far, most studies fail to show solid evidence for increased vulnerability to develop affective-like behavior after ELS in SERT+/− rodents. Several reasons may underlie these failures, e.g., (1) stressors used might not be optimal or severe enough to induce maladaptations, (2) effects in females are not sufficiently studied, and (3) few studies include both behavioral manifestations and molecular correlates of ELS-induced effects in SERT+/− rodents. Of course, one should not exclude the

  3. Early life factors and risk of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu eShrestha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although little is known about etiology of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma, early life factors are suspected in the etiology. We explored this hypothesis using linked data from the California Cancer Registry and the California birth rolls. Incident cases were 359 children < 6 year old (218 embryonal, 81 alveolar, 60 others diagnosed in 1988-2008. Controls (205,173, frequency matched on birth year (1986-2007, were randomly selected from the birth rolls. We examined association of birth characteristics such as birth weight, size for gestational age, and timing of prenatal care with all-type rhabdomyosarcoma, embryonal and alveolar subtypes. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were estimated using logistic regression. In contrast to a previous study, we observed statistically non-significant association for embryonal subtype among high birth weight (4000-5250 grams children for term births [OR (95%CI: 1.28 (0.85, 1.92] and all births adjusted for gestational age [OR (95%CI: 1.21 (0.81, 1.81]. On the other hand, statistically significant 1.7-fold increased risk of alveolar subtype (95%CI: 1.02, 2.87 was observed among children with late or no prenatal care and a 1.3-fold increased risk of all rhabdomyosarcoma subtypes among children of fathers ≥ 35 years old at child birth (95%CI: 1.00, 1.75, independent of all covariates. Our finding positive association on male sex for all rhabdomyosarcoma types is consistent with previous studies. While we did not find a convincingly positive association between high birth weight and RMS, our findings on paternal age at childbirth and prenatal care supports the hypothesis that prenatal environment modifies risk for childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

  4. The Use of the Lead and Line by Early Navigators in the North Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kemp

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws attention to the lack of information as to how early North Sea sailors navigated, particularly during the one thousand year period that followed Roman times. The lead and line was the only navigational aid available for most of this period, but there is little recorded as to whether it was used simply for ensuring a ship or boat had enough water to proceed or whether, together with the knowledge it provided of the nature of the sea bed, it was used as a more positive position fixing device. The author would appreciate any information relating to navigation techniques used during this period.

  5. Local adaptation in brown trout early life-history traits: implications for climate change adaptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.F.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Pertoldi, C.

    2008-01-01

    to adapt. Temperature-related adaptability in traits related to phenology and early life history are expected to be particularly important in salmonid fishes. We focused on the latter and investigated whether four populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) are locally adapted in early life-history traits...

  6. Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

  7. The role of marriage in the causal pathway from economic conditions early in life to mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G.J.; Gupta, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the interplay between early-life conditions and marital status, as determinants of adult mortality. We use individual data from Dutch registers (years 1815-2000), combined with business cycle conditions in childhood as indicators of early-life conditions. The empirical analysis

  8. Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group promotes integration of early-life events and exposures into public health cancer research, control, prevention, and policy strategies to reduce the cancer burden in the United States and globally.

  9. Struggling to survive: early life challenges in relation to the backtest in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camerlink, I.; Ursinus, W.W.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Intensively reared piglets may face many early life challenges and these may affect behavior. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between piglets’ early life circumstances and their behavioral response in a backtest. Hereto, 992 piglets of 14 d of age were subjected to a

  10. Age- and sex-dependent effects of early life stress on hippocampal neurogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loi, M.; Koricka, S.; Lucassen, P.J.; Joëls, M.

    2014-01-01

    Early life stress is a well-documented risk factor for the development of psychopathology in genetically predisposed individuals. As it is hard to study how early life stress impacts human brain structure and function, various animal models have been developed to address this issue. The models

  11. Early-Life Diet Affects Host Microbiota and Later-Life Defenses Against Parasites in Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutie, Sarah A; Shea, Lauren A; Kupselaitis, Marinna; Wilkinson, Christina L; Kohl, Kevin D; Rohr, Jason R

    2017-10-01

    Food resources can affect the health of organisms by altering their symbiotic microbiota and affecting energy reserves for host defenses against parasites. Different diets can vary in their macronutrient content and therefore they might favor certain bacterial communities of the host and affect the development and maintenance of the immune system, such as the inflammatory or antibody responses. Thus, testing the effect of diet, especially for animals with wide diet breadths, on host-associated microbiota and defenses against parasites might be important in determining infection and disease risk. Here, we test whether the early-life diet of Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) affects early- and later-life microbiota as well as later-life defenses against skin-penetrating, gut worms (Aplectana hamatospicula). We fed tadpoles two ecologically common diets: a diet of conspecifics or a diet of algae (Arthrospira sp.). We then: (1) characterized the gut microbiota of tadpoles and adults; and (2) challenged adult frogs with parasitic worms and measured host resistance (including the antibody-mediated immune response) and tolerance of infections. Tadpole diet affected bacterial communities in the guts of tadpoles but did not have enduring effects on the bacterial communities of adults. In contrast, tadpole diet had enduring effects on host resistance and tolerance of infections in adult frogs. Frogs that were fed a conspecific-based diet as tadpoles were more resistant to worm penetration compared with frogs that were fed an alga-based diet as tadpoles, but less resistant to worm establishment, which may be related to their suppressed antibody response during worm establishment. Furthermore, frogs that were fed a conspecific-based diet as tadpoles were more tolerant to the effect of parasite abundance on host mass during worm establishment. Overall, our study demonstrates that the diet of Cuban tree frog tadpoles affects the gut microbiota and defenses against

  12. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterstein, Dana E; Tijerina, Pamella B; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B; Zelikoff, Judith T

    2016-04-12

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13-16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4-6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.

  13. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterstein, Dana E.; Tijerina, Pamella B.; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S.; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B.; Zelikoff, Judith T.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13–16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4–6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology. PMID:27077873

  14. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana E. Lauterstein

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13–16 mg/mL or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND 4–6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq. Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.

  15. [Evaluation of quality of life in school children with a history of early severe malnutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grandis, E S; Armelini, P A; Cuestas, E

    2014-12-01

    Severe malnutrition in young children may lead to long-term complications, in particular learning and psychosocial disorders linked to health related quality of life (HRQOL). The aim of this study was to evaluate HRQOL in children whit a history of severe malnutrition before 2 years of life, expecting to find lower scores in these patients. A comparative study was performed on schoolchildren between 5 and 12 years with a history of early severe malnutrition, excluding those with chronic diseases. The Controls were healthy siblings of patients. The sample size was estimated as 26 subjects per group (Total=52). Sociodemographic variables were recorded and the HRQOL was assessed with PedsQL4.0. Chi square and Student t test were applied. Significance level: Psocial dimension: 88.80±3.05 vs 95.71±1.52 (P<.0001), and school dimension: 74.58±3.80 vs 85.00±3.51 (P<.0001). Patients with a history of early severe malnutrition, showed significantly lower HRQOL scores compared with controls. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Broncho-esophageal fistula leading to lung abscess: a life-threatening emergency detected on FDG PET/CT in a case of carcinoma of middle third esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puranik, Ameya D.; Purandare, Nilendu C.; Agrawal, Archi; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2013-01-01

    Sinister undesirable pathologies often accompany malignancies. Though the entire emphasis is on cancer management, these benign conditions are more life-threatening than the primary malignancy itself. We report an interesting imaging finding of broncho-esophageal fistula leading to lung abscess on 18 F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) in large middle esophageal cancer, which due to early detection, was promptly managed. (author)

  17. Broncho-esophageal fistula leading to lung abscess: A life-threatening emergency detected on FDG PET/CT in a case of carcinoma of middle third esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Ameya D; Purandare, Nilendu C; Agrawal, Archi; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2013-07-01

    Sinister undesirable pathologies often accompany malignancies. Though the entire emphasis is on cancer management, these benign conditions are more life-threatening than the primary malignancy itself. We report an interesting imaging finding of broncho-esophageal fistula leading to lung abscess on (18)F- fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) in large middle esophageal cancer, which due to early detection, was promptly managed.

  18. Early life nutritional programming of health and disease in The Gambia

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, S. E.

    2015-01-01

    Exposures during the early life (periconceptional, prenatal and early postnatal) period are increasingly recognized as playing an important role in the aetiology of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD), including coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis. The ?Developmental Origins of Health and Disease? (DOHaD) hypothesis states that these disorders originate through unbalanced nutrition early in life and risk is highest when there is a ?mismatch? betw...

  19. Life cycle assessment (LCA of lead-free solders from the environmental protection aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitovski Aleksandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Life-cycle assessment (LCA presents a relatively new approach, which allows comprehensive environmental consequences analysis of a product system over its entire life. This analysis is increasingly being used in the industry, as a tool for investigation of the influence of the product system on the environment, and serves as a protection and prevention tool in ecological management. This method is used to predict possible influences of a certain material to the environment through different development stages of the material. In LCA, the product systems are evaluated on a functionally equivalent basis, which, in this case, was 1000 cubic centimeters of an alloy. Two of the LCA phases, life-cycle inventory (LCA and life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA, are needed to calculate the environmental impacts. Methodology of LCIA applied in this analysis aligns every input and output influence into 16 different categories, divided in two subcategories. The life-cycle assessment reaserch review of the leadfree solders Sn-Cu, SAC (Sn-Ag-Cu, BSA (Bi-Sb-Ag and SABC (Sn-Ag-Bi-Cu respectively, is given in this paper, from the environmental protection aspect starting from production, through application process and finally, reclamation at the end-of-life, i.e. recycling. There are several opportunities for reducing the overall environmental and human health impacts of solder used in electronics manufacturing based on the results of the LCA, such as: using secondary metals reclaimed through post-industrial recycling; power consumption reducing by replacing older, less efficient reflow assembly equipment, or by optimizing the current equipment to perform at the elevated temperatures required for lead-free soldering, etc. The LCA analysis was done comparatively in relation to widely used Sn-Pb solder material. Additionally, the impact factors of material consumption, energy use, water and air reserves, human health and ecotoxicity have been ALSO considered including

  20. The die is cast: arsenic exposure in early life and disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David J

    2013-12-16

    Early life exposure to arsenic in humans and mice produces similar patterns of disease in later life. Given the long interval between exposure and effect, epigenetic effects of early life exposure to arsenic may account for the development and progression of disease in both species. Mode of action and dosimetric studies in the mouse may help assess the role of age at exposure as a factor in susceptibility to the toxic and carcinogenic effects of arsenic in humans.

  1. Life Event Stress and Binge Eating Among Adolescents: The Roles of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xingwei; Cai, Taisheng; He, Jinbo; Lu, Yao; Wu, Siyao

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the relationships between life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating among adolescents and investigated the effects of early maladaptive schemas and impulsivity on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Specifically, we examined a moderated mediation model in which early maladaptive schemas mediated this relationship and impulsivity moderated the mediation effect. Life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating were investigated in a sample of 2172 seventh-, eighth- and tenth-grade middle and high school students (mean age = 14.55 years, standard deviation = 1.29). The results indicated that adolescents with greater life event stress, more early maladaptive schemas and higher levels of impulsivity displayed more severe binge eating. In addition, early maladaptive schemas mediated the relationship between life event stress and binge eating, while impulsivity moderated this relationship. Furthermore, impulsivity also moderated the mediation effect of early maladaptive schemas; as impulsivity levels increased, the strength of the association between life event stress and early maladaptive schemas increased. This study illustrates the importance of understanding individual differences and their effects on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Early-life adversity programs emotional functions and the neuroendocrine stress system: the contribution of nutrition, metabolic hormones and epigenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Kit-Yi; Naninck, Eva F G; Schmidt, Mathias V; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that early-life adversities, such as abuse or neglect, can increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. Remarkably, the lasting consequences of stress during this sensitive period on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and emotional function closely resemble the long-term effects of early malnutrition and suggest a possible common pathway mediating these effects. During early-life, brain development is affected by both exogenous factors, like nutrition and maternal care as well as by endogenous modulators including stress hormones. These elements, while mostly considered for their independent actions, clearly do not act alone but rather in a synergistic manner. In order to better understand how the programming by early-life stress takes place, it is important to gain further insight into the exact interplay of these key elements, the possible common pathways as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate their effects. We here review evidence that exposure to both early-life stress and early-life under-/malnutrition similarly lead to life-long alterations on the neuroendocrine stress system and modify emotional functions. We further discuss how the different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and next suggest a possible role for the early-life adversity induced alterations in metabolic hormones and nutrient availability in shaping later stress responses and emotional function throughout life, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms. Such knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies, which gives the advantage of viewing the synergistic action of a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity.

  3. Early Memories as a Guide to Client Movement through Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavik, Steve

    1991-01-01

    Outlines the theory of the significance of early memories used as a projective tool by Adlerian psychologists. Describes a procedure for elicitation and interpretation of early memories and provides several examples of their use in an encouraging therapeutic context. Attempts to show effectiveness of this technique in assessing client issues and…

  4. Promoting School and Life Success through Early Childhood Family Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood family literacy programs have great potential to positively influence children and families. This article presents the core values and key components of high quality early childhood family literacy programs. The benefits and cost effectiveness of these programs are also discussed.

  5. Sucrose exposure in early life alters adult motivation and weight gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristianne R M Frazier

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The cause of the current increase in obesity in westernized nations is poorly understood but is frequently attributed to a 'thrifty genotype,' an evolutionary predisposition to store calories in times of plenty to protect against future scarcity. In modern, industrialized environments that provide a ready, uninterrupted supply of energy-rich foods at low cost, this genetic predisposition is hypothesized to lead to obesity. Children are also exposed to this 'obesogenic' environment; however, whether such early dietary experience has developmental effects and contributes to adult vulnerability to obesity is unknown. Using mice, we tested the hypothesis that dietary experience during childhood and adolescence affects adult obesity risk. We gave mice unlimited or no access to sucrose for a short period post-weaning and measured sucrose-seeking, food consumption, and weight gain in adulthood. Unlimited access to sucrose early in life reduced sucrose-seeking when work was required to obtain it. When high-sugar/high-fat dietary options were made freely-available, however, the sucrose-exposed mice gained more weight than mice without early sucrose exposure. These results suggest that early, unlimited exposure to sucrose reduces motivation to acquire sucrose but promotes weight gain in adulthood when the cost of acquiring palatable, energy dense foods is low. This study demonstrates that early post-weaning experience can modify the expression of a 'thrifty genotype' and alter an adult animal's response to its environment, a finding consistent with evidence of pre- and peri-natal programming of adult obesity risk by maternal nutritional status. Our findings suggest the window for developmental effects of diet may extend into childhood, an observation with potentially important implications for both research and public policy in addressing the rising incidence of obesity.

  6. Sucrose exposure in early life alters adult motivation and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Cristianne R M; Mason, Peggy; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Beeler, Jeff A

    2008-09-17

    The cause of the current increase in obesity in westernized nations is poorly understood but is frequently attributed to a 'thrifty genotype,' an evolutionary predisposition to store calories in times of plenty to protect against future scarcity. In modern, industrialized environments that provide a ready, uninterrupted supply of energy-rich foods at low cost, this genetic predisposition is hypothesized to lead to obesity. Children are also exposed to this 'obesogenic' environment; however, whether such early dietary experience has developmental effects and contributes to adult vulnerability to obesity is unknown. Using mice, we tested the hypothesis that dietary experience during childhood and adolescence affects adult obesity risk. We gave mice unlimited or no access to sucrose for a short period post-weaning and measured sucrose-seeking, food consumption, and weight gain in adulthood. Unlimited access to sucrose early in life reduced sucrose-seeking when work was required to obtain it. When high-sugar/high-fat dietary options were made freely-available, however, the sucrose-exposed mice gained more weight than mice without early sucrose exposure. These results suggest that early, unlimited exposure to sucrose reduces motivation to acquire sucrose but promotes weight gain in adulthood when the cost of acquiring palatable, energy dense foods is low. This study demonstrates that early post-weaning experience can modify the expression of a 'thrifty genotype' and alter an adult animal's response to its environment, a finding consistent with evidence of pre- and peri-natal programming of adult obesity risk by maternal nutritional status. Our findings suggest the window for developmental effects of diet may extend into childhood, an observation with potentially important implications for both research and public policy in addressing the rising incidence of obesity.

  7. An adverse early life environment can enhance stress resilience in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Sara; Zimmermann, Christoph; Kalideris, Georgia; Lesuis, Sylvie L; Arloth, Janine; Uribe, Andrés; Dournes, Carine; Balsevich, Georgia; Hartmann, Jakob; Masana, Mercè; Binder, Elisabeth B; Spengler, Dietmar; Schmidt, Mathias V

    2017-04-01

    Chronic stress is a major risk factor for depression. Interestingly, not all individuals develop psychopathology after chronic stress exposure. In contrast to the prevailing view that stress effects are cumulative and increase stress vulnerability throughout life, the match/mismatch hypothesis of psychiatric disorders. The match/mismatch hypothesis proposes that individuals who experience moderate levels of early life psychosocial stress can acquire resilience to renewed stress exposure later in life. Here, we have tested this hypothesis by comparing the developmental effects of 2 opposite early life conditions, when followed by 2 opposite adult environments. Male Balb/c mice were exposed to either adverse early life conditions (limited nesting and bedding material) or a supportive rearing environment (early handling). At adulthood, the animals of each group were either housed with an ovariectomized female (supportive environment) or underwent chronic social defeat stress (socially adverse environment) for 3 weeks. At the end of the adult manipulations, all of the animals were returned to standard housing conditions. Then, we compared the neuroendocrine, behavioral and molecular effects of the interaction between early and adult environment. Our study shows that early life adversity does not necessarily result in increased vulnerability to stress. Specific endophenotypes, like hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, anxiety-related behavior and glucocorticoid receptor expression levels in the hippocampus were not significantly altered when adversity is experienced during early life and in adulthood, and are mainly affected by either early life or adult life adversity alone. Overall our data support the notion that being raised in a stressful environment prepares the offspring to better cope with a challenging adult environment and emphasize the role of early life experiences in shaping adult responsiveness to stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. Early feeding and early life housing conditions influence the response towards a noninfectious lung challenge in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, K; de Vries Reilingh, G; Bolhuis, J E; Kemp, B; Lammers, A

    2015-09-01

    Early life conditions such as feed and water availability immediately post hatch (PH) and housing conditions may influence immune development and therefore immune reactivity later in life. The current study addressed the consequences of a combination of these 2 early life conditions for immune reactivity, i.e., the specific antibody response towards a non-infectious lung challenge. Broiler chicks received feed and water either immediately p.h. or with a 72 h delay and were either reared in a floor or a cage system. At 4 weeks of age, chicks received either an intra-tracheally administered Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/Human Serum Albumin (HUSA) challenge or a placebo, and antibody titers were measured up to day 14 after administration of the challenge. Chicks housed on the floor and which had a delayed access to feed p.h. showed the highest antibody titers against HuSA. These chicks also showed the strongest sickness response and poorest performance in response to the challenge, indicating that chicks with delayed access to feed might be more sensitive to an environment with higher antigenic pressure. In conclusion, results from the present study show that early life feeding strategy and housing conditions influence a chick's response to an immune challenge later in life. These 2 early life factors should therefore be taken into account when striving for a balance between disease resistance and performance in poultry. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Low-grade disease activity in early life precedes childhood asthma and allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard

    2016-01-01

    of an early life disease activity prior to clinical symptoms to understand the anteceding pathophysiological steps towards childhood asthma and allergy. The thesis is built on seven studies from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2000) birth cohort examining biomarkers of disease...... protein X (u-EPX), which is contained in the eosinophil granules. Elevated u-EPX in asymptomatic neonates was associated with development of allergic sensitization and nasal eosinophilia, but not with wheezing or asthma (III). These findings suggest the presence of an ongoing low-grade disease process......Asthma and allergies are today the most common chronic diseases in children and the leading causes of school absences, chronic medication usage, emergency department visits and hospitalizations, which affect all members of the family and represent a significant societal and scientific challenge...

  10. Family Instability and Exposure to Violence in the Early Life Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Shannon E; Stritzel, Haley; Smith, Chelsea; Crosnoe, Robert

    2017-10-11

    Family instability has been linked with a host of outcomes across the early life course. This study extends this literature by connecting instability with violence in the community by examining the associations among family structure, family structure change, and secondary exposure to violence during adolescence across diverse segments of the population. Using longitudinal data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods study, we found that living with a single parent and experiencing family structure changes were associated with secondary exposure to violence. Multiple group models suggest that partner change translated into more exposure for boys than girls. Findings also suggest that family instability may lead to more secondary exposure to violence for African American youth. © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  11. Early-life exposure to fibroblast growth factor-2 facilitates context-dependent long-term memory in developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Bronwyn M; Richardson, Rick

    2010-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) is a potent neurotrophic factor that is involved in brain development and the formation of long-term memory. It has recently been shown that acute FGF2, administered at the time of learning, enhances long-term memory for contextual fear conditioning as well as extinction of conditioned fear in developing rats. As other research has shown that administering FGF2 on the first day of life leads to long-term morphological changes in the hippocampus, in the present study we investigated whether early life exposure to FGF2 affects contextual fear conditioning, and renewal following extinction, later in life. Experiment 1 demonstrated that a single injection of FGF2 on Postnatal Day (PND) 1 did not lead to any detectable changes in contextual fear conditioning in PND 16 or PND 23 rats. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrated that 5 days of injections of FGF2 (from PND 1-5) facilitated contextual fear conditioning in PND 16 and PND 23 rats. Experiment 4 demonstrated that the observed facilitation of memory was not due to FGF2 increasing rats' sensitivity to foot shock. Experiment 5 showed that early life exposure to FGF2 did not affect learning about a discrete conditioned stimulus, but did allow PND 16 rats to use contextual information in more complex ways, leading to context-dependent extinction of conditioned fear. These results further implicate FGF2 as a critical signal involved in the development of learning and memory.

  12. Exposure to low dose benzo[a]pyrene during early life stages causes symptoms similar to cardiac hypertrophy in adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lixing; Gao, Dongxu; Zhang, Youyu; Wang, Chonggang; Zuo, Zhenghong

    2014-07-15

    Growing evidence indicates that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can lead to cardiac hypertrophy and recent research indicates that exposure to low dose crude oil during early embryonic development may lead to impacts on heart health at later life stages. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exposure during early life stages to low dose benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), as a high-ring PAH, would lead to cardiac hypertrophy at later life stages. Zebrafish were exposed to low dose BaP until 96 hpf, then transferred to clean water and maintained for a year before histological and molecular biological analysis. Our results showed that exposure to low level BaP during early life stages increased heart weight to body weight ratios and deposited collagen in the heart of adult zebrafish. ANP, BNP and c-Myc were also induced in the heart of adult zebrafish by BaP. These results proved that low level BaP exposure during early life stages caused symptoms similar to cardiac hypertrophy in adult zebrafish. Our results displayed an elevated expression of CdC42, RhoA, p-ERK1, 2 and Rac1. Therefore, the mechanism of the cardiac hypertrophy caused by BaP exposure during early life stages may be through inducing the expression of CdC42, RhoA and Rac1, together with activating ERK1, 2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Early Life Family Conflict, Social Interactions, and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Henderson, Neha A; Kamarck, Thomas W; Muldoon, Matthew F; Manuck, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Conflict in early life family environments is known to affect psychosocial functioning and coping styles into adulthood and is reported to negatively affect access to psychosocial resources that are critical to the management of stress. However, it remains unknown whether early life family conflict similarly affects subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. We predicted that family conflict in early life would be associated with greater mean intima-media thickness (IMT), a subclinical marker of CVD risk, in adulthood. Data were collected in a community sample of 503 adults (47.4 % male, mean [standard deviation] age = 42.8 [7.3] years). Associations between family conflict in early life with IMT (assessed using B-mode ultrasound) in adulthood were examined using regression analysis. We also tested for indirect effects of early life family conflict on mean IMT through ecological momentary assessment reports of social interactions, diversity of social roles, and perceived social support. Linear regression analyses adjusted for demographics and physiological risk factors showed conflict in early life associated with greater mean IMT (β = 0.08, t(447) = 2.13, p = .034, R = 0.46). Early life conflict was significantly related to diversity of social roles, perceived social support, and ecological momentary assessment reports of pleasant and social conflict interactions. Significant indirect effects of early life conflict on mean IMT were observed through fewer pleasant social interactions and more frequent social conflict interactions in adulthood (β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0001-0.0014] and β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0002-0.0015], respectively). These findings provide initial evidence that family conflict in early life heightens CVD risk in adulthood, in part by shaping the quality of adulthood social interactions.

  14. Early Life Trauma Exposure and Stress Sensitivity in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Grasso, Damion J.; Ford, Julian D.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The current study replicates and extends work with adults that highlights the relationship between trauma exposure and distress in response to subsequent, nontraumatic life stressors. Methods The sample included 213 2–4-year-old children in which 64.3% had a history of potential trauma exposure. Children were categorized into 4 groups based on trauma history and current life stress. Results In a multivariate analysis of variance, trauma-exposed children with current life stressors h...

  15. Xenohormesis in early life: New avenues of research to explore anti-aging strategies through the maternal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medina, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Aging is a progressive internal physiological deterioration of the organism, leading to the occurrence of age-related lethal diseases. It has become a major societal challenge to understand the processes that drive aging and to develop rational pharmacological agents and dietary approaches to fight against age-related deterioration and diseases. Interestingly, several lines of evidence highlight an influence of the developmental period on the risk of age-related diseases later in life. This field is known as the developmental origins of health and disease. Following this logic, studying the modification of maternal diet during early life may provide innovative new anti-aging approaches. Nutritional and psychological stresses during gestation are associated with poorer offspring health conditions in late life, and must be avoided during pregnancy. Besides these recommendations, very little has been published about the possible use of maternal diet to program offspring for healthy aging and an extended lifespan. Such health benefits may be provided by different foreign molecules, and particularly the phytochemicals produced by stressed plants, or xenohormetins. The xenohormesis hypothesis proposes that xenohormetins are signals of environmental change and trigger a beneficial adaptive response in individuals who consume them. No studies to date have investigated whether the consumption of stressed plants during pregnancy and lactation could provide chemical cues that impact early life programming and thus influence the future health and lifespan of offspring. Investigating the effect of xenohormesis in early life will involve adding edible plants exposed to different stressors (i.e. UV light, heat, ozone, etc.) to maternal diet and the exposure of offspring to this xenohormetin-enriched maternal diet at different periods of their prenatal life. The hypothesis proposed in this article is a potential tool to decipher the possible impact of xenohormesis during early

  16. The process leading to affirmation of life with cleft lip and cleft palate: the importance of acquiring coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiya, Tomoko; Ito, Mikiko; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to understand the experiences of people with cleft lip and cleft palate (CLCP) and to describe the processes and factors leading to the acquisition of high self-esteem. Semi-structured interviews were conducted of 19 subjects with CLCP recruited via hospitals and through snowball sampling, and the results were analyzed qualitatively, comparing high and low self-esteem groups. Participants with high self-esteem had gone through the phases of "noticing their difference from others", "knowing about and deepening their understanding of CLCP", "no denial of their life with CLCP" and "affirmation of life with CLCP". Seven factor categories including "received sufficient explanation of CLCP condition (from parents) in the early stage", "have not received negative messages about CLCP" and "feeling the presence of someone who accepts their feelings and supports them" were extracted as factors promoting these processes. Knowing about and understanding CLCP enables individuals to acquire a sense of coherence in their lives, which may be related to gaining a feeling of control over their cleft condition, acquiring a sense of autonomy, and finding a meaning for their lives. Thus, medical professionals should provide explanations that enable patients to understand CLCP, and also facilitate interaction between patients with the same condition. © 2011 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2011 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  17. Life history plasticity of a tropical seabird in response to El Niño anomalies during early life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ancona

    Full Text Available Food shortage and other challenges associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO experienced early in life may have long-term impacts on life history traits, but these potential impacts remain virtually unexplored. By monitoring 2556 blue-footed boobies from 11 cohorts, we showed that birds facing warm water ENSO conditions (and probably low food availability in the natal year were underweight at fledging, recruited earlier and bred less frequently, but showed no deficit in longevity or breeding success over the first 10 years. Life history impacts of ENSO were substantial when experienced in the prenatal year, the natal year, or the second year of life, and absent when experienced in the third year of life, implying that harsh conditions have greater effects when experienced earlier in life. Sexual differences in impacts depended on the age when warm water conditions were experienced: pre-natal and natal experience, respectively, induced early recruitment and influenced the relationship between age and laying date only in females, whereas second year experience reduced total breeding success only of males. Most surprising were positive transgenerational impacts in females: daughters of females that experienced ENSO conditions in their natal year showed improved breeding success. Developmental plasticity of boobies thus enables them to largely neutralize potential long-term impacts of harsh climatic conditions experienced early in life.

  18. Life history plasticity of a tropical seabird in response to El Niño anomalies during early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, Sergio; Drummond, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Food shortage and other challenges associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) experienced early in life may have long-term impacts on life history traits, but these potential impacts remain virtually unexplored. By monitoring 2556 blue-footed boobies from 11 cohorts, we showed that birds facing warm water ENSO conditions (and probably low food availability) in the natal year were underweight at fledging, recruited earlier and bred less frequently, but showed no deficit in longevity or breeding success over the first 10 years. Life history impacts of ENSO were substantial when experienced in the prenatal year, the natal year, or the second year of life, and absent when experienced in the third year of life, implying that harsh conditions have greater effects when experienced earlier in life. Sexual differences in impacts depended on the age when warm water conditions were experienced: pre-natal and natal experience, respectively, induced early recruitment and influenced the relationship between age and laying date only in females, whereas second year experience reduced total breeding success only of males. Most surprising were positive transgenerational impacts in females: daughters of females that experienced ENSO conditions in their natal year showed improved breeding success. Developmental plasticity of boobies thus enables them to largely neutralize potential long-term impacts of harsh climatic conditions experienced early in life.

  19. Early Life Histories of Fishes: New Developmental, Ecological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ontogeny and life history models revisited' which is an unabridged .... Hamburg, Germany, in August 1984. The papers are ..... Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York and ... lessons to be learnt from the well-illustrated keys and for.

  20. The European Lead Factory: A Blueprint for Public-Private Partnerships in Early Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karawajczyk, Anna; Orrling, Kristina M; de Vlieger, Jon S B; Rijnders, Ton; Tzalis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The European Lead Factory (ELF) is a public-private partnership (PPP) that provides researchers in Europe with a unique platform for translation of innovative biology and chemistry into high-quality starting points for drug discovery. It combines an exceptional collection of small molecules, high-throughput screening (HTS) infrastructure, and hit follow-up capabilities to advance research projects from both private companies and publicly funded researchers. By active interactions with the wider European life science community, ELF connects and unites bright ideas, talent, and experience from several disciplines. As a result, ELF is a unique, collaborative lead generation engine that has so far resulted in >4,500 hit compounds with a defined biological activity from 83 successfully completed HTS and hit evaluation campaigns. The PPP has also produced more than 120,000 novel innovative library compounds that complement the 327,000 compounds contributed by the participating pharmaceutical companies. Intrinsic to its setup, ELF enables breakthroughs in areas with unmet medical and societal needs, where no individual entity would be able to create a comparable impact in such a short time.

  1. The European Lead Factory: A Blueprint for Public–Private Partnerships in Early Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karawajczyk, Anna; Orrling, Kristina M.; de Vlieger, Jon S. B.; Rijnders, Ton; Tzalis, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    The European Lead Factory (ELF) is a public–private partnership (PPP) that provides researchers in Europe with a unique platform for translation of innovative biology and chemistry into high-quality starting points for drug discovery. It combines an exceptional collection of small molecules, high-throughput screening (HTS) infrastructure, and hit follow-up capabilities to advance research projects from both private companies and publicly funded researchers. By active interactions with the wider European life science community, ELF connects and unites bright ideas, talent, and experience from several disciplines. As a result, ELF is a unique, collaborative lead generation engine that has so far resulted in >4,500 hit compounds with a defined biological activity from 83 successfully completed HTS and hit evaluation campaigns. The PPP has also produced more than 120,000 novel innovative library compounds that complement the 327,000 compounds contributed by the participating pharmaceutical companies. Intrinsic to its setup, ELF enables breakthroughs in areas with unmet medical and societal needs, where no individual entity would be able to create a comparable impact in such a short time. PMID:28154815

  2. The role of early-life educational quality and literacy in explaining racial disparities in cognition in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Shannon; Gross, Alden L; Shih, Regina A; Sachs, Bonnie C; Glymour, M Maria; Bangen, Katherine J; Benitez, Andreana; Skinner, Jeannine; Schneider, Brooke C; Manly, Jennifer J

    2015-07-01

    Racial disparities in late-life cognition persist even after accounting for educational attainment. We examined whether early-life educational quality and literacy in later life help explain these disparities. We used longitudinal data from the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP). Educational quality (percent white students; urban/rural school; combined grades in classroom) was operationalized using canonical correlation analysis. Late-life literacy (reading comprehension and ability, writing) was operationalized using confirmatory factor analysis. We examined whether these factors attenuated race-related differences in late-life cognition. The sample consisted of 1,679 U.S.-born, non-Hispanic, community-living adults aged 65-102 (71% black, 29% white; 70% women). Accounting for educational quality and literacy reduced disparities by 29% for general cognitive functioning, 26% for memory, and 32% for executive functioning but did not predict differences in rate of cognitive change. Early-life educational quality and literacy in late life explain a substantial portion of race-related disparities in late-life cognitive function. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Early-Life Stressors, Personality Development, and Fast Life Strategies: An Evolutionary Perspective on Malevolent Personality Features

    OpenAIRE

    Árpád Csathó; Béla Birkás

    2018-01-01

    Life history theory posits that behavioral adaptation to various environmental (ecological and/or social) conditions encountered during childhood is regulated by a wide variety of different traits resulting in various behavioral strategies. Unpredictable and harsh conditions tend to produce fast life history strategies, characterized by early maturation, a higher number of sexual partners to whom one is less attached, and less parenting of offspring. Unpredictability and harshness not only af...

  4. Gitelman syndrome manifesting in early childhood and leading to delayed puberty: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Farhan

    2012-10-01

    . Conclusion Diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome is usually made incidentally during adolescence or early adulthood based on clinical and biochemical findings. We report that Gitelman syndrome can present during the early childhood years. If undiagnosed and untreated, it can lead to growth retardation and delayed puberty.

  5. Gitelman syndrome manifesting in early childhood and leading to delayed puberty: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Farhan; Sultan, Mubashar; Qamar, Khola; Jawad, Ali; Jawa, Ali

    2012-10-02

    during adolescence or early adulthood based on clinical and biochemical findings. We report that Gitelman syndrome can present during the early childhood years. If undiagnosed and untreated, it can lead to growth retardation and delayed puberty.

  6. The Environmental Burdens of Lead-Acid Batteries in China: Insights from an Integrated Material Flow Analysis and Life Cycle Assessment of Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lead-acid batteries (LABs, a widely used energy storage equipment in cars and electric vehicles, are becoming serious problems due to their high environmental impact. In this study, an integrated method, combining material flow analysis with life cycle assessment, was developed to analyze the environmental emissions and burdens of lead in LABs. The environmental burdens from other materials in LABs were not included. The results indicated that the amount of primary lead used in LABs accounted for 77% of the total lead production in 2014 in China. The amount of discharged lead into the environment was 8.54 × 105 tonnes, which was mainly from raw material extraction (57.2%. The largest environmental burden was from the raw materials extraction and processing, which accounted for 81.7% of the total environmental burdens. The environmental burdens of the environmental toxicity potential, human toxicity potential-cancer, human toxicity potential-non-cancer, water footprint and land use accounted for more than 90% at this stage. Moreover, the environmental burdens from primary lead was much more serious than regenerated lead. On the basis of the results, main practical measures and policies were proposed to reduce the lead emissions and environmental burdens of LABs in China, namely establishing an effective LABs recycling system, enlarging the market share of the legal regenerated lead, regulating the production of regenerated lead, and avoiding the long-distance transportation of the waste LABs.

  7. Quantifying Cost Risk Early in the Life Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mar, B.

    2004-01-01

    A new method for analyzing life cycle cost risk on large programs is presented that responds to an increased emphasis on improving sustainability for long-term programs. This method provides better long-term risk assessment and risk management techniques. It combines standard Monte Carlo analysis of risk drivers and a new data-driven method developed by the BMDO. The approach permits quantification of risks throughout the entire life cycle without resorting to difficult to support subjective methods. The BMDO methodology is shown to be relatively straightforward to apply to a specific component or process within a project using standard technical risk assessment methods. The total impact on system is obtained using the program WBS, which allows for the capture of correlated risks shared by multiple WBS items. Once the correlations and individual component risks are captured, a Monte Carlo simulation can be run using a modeling tool such as ANALYTICA to produce the overall life cycle cost risk

  8. Hydrological and thermal effects of hydropeaking on early life stages of salmonids: A modelling approach for implementing mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Mulet, Roser; Saltveit, Svein Jakob; Alfredsen, Knut Tore

    2016-12-15

    Alterations in hydrological and thermal regimes can potentially affect salmonid early life stages development and survival. The dewatering of salmon spawning redds due to hydropeaking can lead to mortality in early life stages, with higher impact on the alevins as they have lower tolerance to dewatering than the eggs. Flow-related mitigation measures can reduce early life stage mortality. We present a set of modelling tools to assess impacts and mitigation options to minimise the risk of mortality in early life stages in hydropeaking rivers. We successfully modelled long-term hydrological and thermal alterations and consequences for development rates. We estimated the risk of early life stages mortality and assessed the cost-effectiveness of implementing three release-related mitigation options (A,B,C). The economic cost of mitigation was low and ranged between 0.7% and 2.6% of the annual hydropower production. Options reducing the flow during spawning (B and C) in addition to only release minimum flows during development (A) were considered more effective for egg and alevin survival. Options B and C were however constraint by water availability in the system for certain years, and therefore only option A was always feasible. The set of modelling tools used in this study were satisfactory and their applications can be useful especially in systems where little field data is available. Targeted measures built on well-informed modelling tools can be tested on their effectiveness to mitigate dewatering effects vs. the hydropower system capacity to release or conserve water for power production. Environmental flow releases targeting specific ecological objectives can provide better cost-effective options than conventional operational rules complying with general legislation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Low-grade disease activity in early life precedes childhood asthma and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard

    2016-08-01

    Asthma and allergies are today the most common chronic diseases in children and the leading causes of school absences, chronic medication usage, emergency department visits and hospitalizations, which affect all members of the family and represent a significant societal and scientific challenge. These highly prevalent disorders are thought to originate from immune distortion in early childhood, but the etiology and heterogeneity of the disease mechanisms are not understood, which hampers preventive initiatives and makes treatment inadequate. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the presence of an early life disease activity prior to clinical symptoms to understand the anteceding pathophysiological steps towards childhood asthma and allergy. The thesis is built on seven studies from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2000) birth cohort examining biomarkers of disease activity in 411 asymptomatic neonates in cord blood (I-II), urine (III), exhaled breath (IV-V) and infant lung function (VI-VII) in relation to the subsequent development of asthma and allergy during the first seven years of life. In papers I-II, we studied cord blood chemokines and 25(OH)-vitamin D, which represent a proxy of the inborn immature immune system, the intrauterine milieu, and the maternal immune health during pregnancy. High levels of the Th2-related chemokine CCL22 and high CCL22/CXCL11 ratio were positively correlated with total IgE level during preschool age (II). This suggests an inborn Th2 skewing of the immune system in healthy newborns subsequently developing elevated total IgE antibodies, which is considered to increase the risk of asthma and allergies later in life. Additionally, deficient cord blood 25(OH)-vitamin D levels were associated with a 2.7-fold increased risk of recurrent wheeze at age 0-7 years (I). Together, these findings support the concept that early life immune programming in the pre-symptomatic era plays an essential role

  10. Paternal effects on early life history traits in Northwest Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroll, M.-M.; Peck, M.A.; Butts, Ian A.E.

    2013-01-01

    It is important to understand parental effects on early life history of fish as manifested, for example, in individual fitness of offspring. Immediately after fertilization, parental contributions (both genetic and non-genetic) to embryos will affect larval ontogeny, physiology, morphology...... and survival. In marine fish, rates of natural mortality are highest during early life and are negatively correlated with rates of growth and body size. In these early life stages (eggs, larvae, young juveniles) subtle differences in mortality can cause large differences in recruitment and year-class success...... and can serve as important sources of variation during early life stages in fishes. Overall, these findings have implications for furthering the understanding of recruitment variability and can be used to optimize reproductive output for the aquaculture industry. In addition, the data suggests...

  11. Is epigenetics an important link between early life events and adult disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epigenetic mechanisms provide one potential explanation for how environmental influences in early life cause long-term changes in chronic disease susceptibility. Whereas epigenetic dysregulation is increasingly implicated in various rare developmental syndromes and cancer, the role of epigenetics in...

  12. Early life adversity and telomere length: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridout, K K; Levandowski, M; Ridout, S J; Gantz, L; Goonan, K; Palermo, D; Price, L H; Tyrka, A R

    2018-04-01

    Early adversity, in the form of abuse, neglect, socioeconomic status and other adverse experiences, is associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes. To understand the biologic mechanisms underlying these associations, studies have evaluated the relationship between early adversity and telomere length, a marker of cellular senescence. Such results have varied in regard to the size and significance of this relationship. Using meta-analytic techniques, we aimed to clarify the relationship between early adversity and telomere length while exploring factors affecting the association, including adversity type, timing and study design. A comprehensive search in July 2016 of PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science identified 2462 studies. Multiple reviewers appraised studies for inclusion or exclusion using a priori criteria; 3.9% met inclusion criteria. Data were extracted into a structured form; the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale assessed study quality, validity and bias. Forty-one studies (N=30 773) met inclusion criteria. Early adversity and telomere length were significantly associated (Cohen's d effect size=-0.35; 95% CI, -0.46 to -0.24; P<0.0001). Sensitivity analyses revealed no outlier effects. Adversity type and timing significantly impacted the association with telomere length (P<0.0001 and P=0.0025, respectively). Subgroup and meta-regression analyses revealed that medication use, medical or psychiatric conditions, case-control vs longitudinal study design, methodological factors, age and smoking significantly affected the relationship. Comprehensive evaluations of adversity demonstrated more extensive telomere length changes. These results suggest that early adversity may have long-lasting physiological consequences contributing to disease risk and biological aging.

  13. The tree of life might be rooted in the branch leading to Nanoarchaeota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giulio, Massimo

    2007-10-15

    It is suggested that the tree of life might be rooted in the domain of the Archaea, in the branch leading to the phylum of Nanoarchaeota. This hypothesis seems to be corroborated by the uniqueness and ancestrality of some traits possessed by Nanoarchaeum equitans, such as split genes separately codifying for the 5' and 3' halves of the tRNA molecule. These half genes are the oldest ancestral form of gene we have ever seen. This, along with the absence of operons from the genome of N. equitans, would seem to indicate that this genome is a molecular fossil of the evolutionary stage which the ancestral genomes had reached when the first lines of divergence were established. Moreover, the late appearance of DNA coinciding with the rooting of the universal phylogenetic tree would make the genome of N. equitans a witness to this fundamental event.

  14. Effect of Early- and Adult-Life Socioeconomic Circumstances on Physical Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Sieber, Stefan; Guessous, Idris; Orsholits, Dan; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Kliegel, Matthias; Stringhini, Silvia; Swinnen, Stephan P; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine; Cullati, Stéphane; Boisgontier, Matthieu P

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations between early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity (level and evolution) in aging using large-scale longitudinal data. This study used the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a 10-yr population-based cohort study with repeated measurements in five waves, every 2 yr between 2004 and 2013. Self-reported physical inactivity (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), household income (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), educational attainment (wave of the first measurement occasion), and early-life socioeconomic circumstance (wave 3) were collected in 22,846 individuals 50 to 95 yr of age. Risk of physical inactivity was increased for women with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.86). With aging, the risk of physical inactivity increased for both sexes and was strongest for those with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (OR, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.02-1.06) for women; OR, 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00-1.05) for men), with the former effect being more robust than the latter one. The association between early-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity was mediated by adult-life socioeconomic circumstances, with education being the strongest mediator. Early-life socioeconomic circumstances predicted high levels of physical inactivity at older ages, but this effect was mediated by socioeconomic indicators in adult life. This finding has implications for public health policies, which should continue to promote education to reduce physical inactivity in people at older ages and to ensure optimal healthy aging trajectories, especially among women with disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances.

  15. Health-related quality of life in early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenvold, Mogens

    2010-09-01

    The treatment of primary breast cancer usually consists of surgery often followed by adjuvant therapy (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal treatment, etc.) to reduce the risk of recurrence. The cancer diagnosis and the treatments may have significant impact on the patients' quality of life. This thesis deals with scientific aspects and clinical results of a study aimed at assessing the impact of breast cancer (and its treatment) on the patients' quality of life. Studies such as this assessing the problems and symptoms experienced by the patients are often referred to as health-related quality of life (HRQL) research. HRQL research deals with subjective experiences and raises challenging, scientific questions. Therefore, much attention was directed towards methodological issues in this clinically motivated project. The study was a prospective, longitudinal, questionnaire-based investigation of women with newly diagnosed breast cancer registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group's DBCG 89 Program. The patients were sub-divided into low-risk and high-risk patients. High-risk patients were offered randomisation in one of three randomised adjuvant therapy trials involving chemotherapy, ovarian ablation, and endocrine therapy. After a literature study and interviews with breast cancer patients, a questionnaire was composed that included two widely used standard questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale) and a DBCG 89 Questionnaire developed for this study. A total of 1,898 eligible patients were invited by post to participate in the study involving six assessments over a 2-year period, and 1,713 patients (90%) completed the first questionnaire. Furthermore, a questionnaire was sent to 872 women selected at random from the general population; 608 (70%) responded. The multi-item scales of the two standard questionnaires were analysed for so-called differential item functioning (DIF) in order to investigate whether the

  16. Effects of early life adverse experiences on brain activity: Implications from maternal separation models in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi eNishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences can affect the formation of neuronal circuits and exert long-lasting influences on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated MS, an animal model of early life stress, can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis and can affect subsequent brain function and emotional behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been completely elucidated. In this review, we introduce various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT, an end product of the HPA axis in rodents. We then present a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression, a biological marker of neuronal activity. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we discuss how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders. Furthermore, alterations in gene expression in adult mice exposed to MS, especially epigenetic changes of DNA methylation, are discussed.

  17. Nutrition in early life and the programming of adult disease: the first 1000 days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Villares, José Manuel

    2016-07-12

    Development during fetal life and infancy is characterized by rapid growth as well as the maturation of organs and systems. Changes, both in quality and quality, in nutrients during these periods may permanently infl uence the way these organs mature and function. These effects are termed as “programming” and play an important role in the presence of non-transmissible diseases through the lifespan. Specially cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders and carbohydrate intolerance. Nutritional deficits during pregnancy, leading to intrauterine growth restriction, are associated to a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, and coronary disease among the offspring. This infl uence does not stop with the delivery but early nutrition in infancy, type of lactation, and the way and time solid foods are introduced, does play a role in this programming. Nutritional and non-nutritional factors alter the expression of some genes, resulting in effective remodeling of tissue structure and functionality. These epigenetic modifications can be transmitted to further generations, adding evidence that hereditable epigenetic modifications play a critical role in nutritional programming. But, at the same time, it opens a window of opportunity to decrease the burden of non-transmissible disease by a clever advise on nutrition during pregnancy and across the first 2 years of life (the so-called 1000 days strategy).

  18. Early Overfeed-Induced Obesity Leads to Brown Adipose Tissue Hypoactivity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas L. de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Brown adipose tissue activation has been considered a potential anti-obesity mechanism because it is able to expend energy through thermogenesis. In contrast, white adipose tissue stores energy, contributing to obesity. We investigated whether the early programming of obesity by overfeeding during lactation changes structure of interscapular brown adipose tissue in adulthood and its effects on thermogenesis. Methods: Birth of litters was considered day 0. On day 2, litter size was adjusted to normal (9 pups and small (3 pups litters. On day 21, the litters were weaned. A temperature transponder was implanted underneath interscapular brown adipose tissue pads of 81-day-old animals; local temperature was measured during light and dark periods between days 87 and 90. The animals were euthanized, and tissue and blood samples were collected for further analysis. The vagus and retroperitoneal sympathetic nerve activity was recorded. Results: Small litter rats presented significant lower interscapular brown adipose tissue temperature during the light (NL 37.6°C vs. SL 37.2°C and dark (NL 38°C vs. SL 37.6°C periods compared to controls. Morphology of small litter brown adipose tissue showed fewer lipid droplets in the tissue center and more and larger in the periphery. The activity of vagus nerve was 19,9% greater in the small litter than in control (pConclusion: Early overfeeding programming of obesity changes the interscapular brown adipose tissue structure in adulthood, leading to local thermogenesis hypoactivity, which may contribute to obesity in adults.

  19. Early overfeed-induced obesity leads to brown adipose tissue hypoactivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Douglas L; Fabrício, Gabriel S; Trombini, Amanda B; Pavanello, Audrei; Tófolo, Laize P; da Silva Ribeiro, Tatiane A; de Freitas Mathias, Paulo C; Palma-Rigo, Kesia

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue activation has been considered a potential anti-obesity mechanism because it is able to expend energy through thermogenesis. In contrast, white adipose tissue stores energy, contributing to obesity. We investigated whether the early programming of obesity by overfeeding during lactation changes structure of interscapular brown adipose tissue in adulthood and its effects on thermogenesis. Birth of litters was considered day 0. On day 2, litter size was adjusted to normal (9 pups) and small (3 pups) litters. On day 21, the litters were weaned. A temperature transponder was implanted underneath interscapular brown adipose tissue pads of 81-day-old animals; local temperature was measured during light and dark periods between days 87 and 90. The animals were euthanized, and tissue and blood samples were collected for further analysis. The vagus and retroperitoneal sympathetic nerve activity was recorded. Small litter rats presented significant lower interscapular brown adipose tissue temperature during the light (NL 37.6°C vs. SL 37.2°C) and dark (NL 38°C vs. SL 37.6°C) periods compared to controls. Morphology of small litter brown adipose tissue showed fewer lipid droplets in the tissue center and more and larger in the periphery. The activity of vagus nerve was 19,9% greater in the small litter than in control (p<0.01), and no difference was observed in the sympathetic nerve activity. In adulthood, the small litter rats were 11,7% heavier than the controls and presented higher glycemia 13,1%, insulinemia 70% and corticosteronemia 92,6%. Early overfeeding programming of obesity changes the interscapular brown adipose tissue structure in adulthood, leading to local thermogenesis hypoactivity, which may contribute to obesity in adults. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The OBELIX project: early life exposure to endocrine disruptors and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, Juliette; Hamers, Timo; van Eck van der Sluijs-van de Bor, Margot; Schoeters, Greet; van der Ven, Leo; Eggesbo, Merete; Koppe, Janna; Feinberg, Max; Trnovec, Tomas

    2011-12-01

    The hypothesis of whether early life exposure (both pre- and early postnatal) to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be a risk factor for obesity and related metabolic diseases later in life will be tested in the European research project OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals: LInking prenatal eXposure to the development of obesity later in life). OBELIX is a 4-y project that started in May 2009 and which has the following 5 main objectives: 1) to assess early life exposure in humans to major classes of EDCs identified as potential inducers of obesity (ie, dioxin-like compounds, non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, and perfluorinated compounds) by using mother-child cohorts from 4 European regions with different food-contaminant exposure patterns; 2) to relate early life exposure to EDCs with clinical markers, novel biomarkers, and health-effect data related to obesity; 3) to perform hazard characterization of early life exposure to EDCs for the development of obesity later in life by using a mouse model; 4) to determine mechanisms of action of obesogenic EDCs on developmental programming with in vivo and in vitro genomics and epigenetic analyses; and 5) to perform risk assessments of prenatal exposure to obesogenic EDCs in food by integrating maternal exposure through food-contaminant exposure and health-effect data in children and hazard data in animal studies.

  1. The associations between early life circumstances and later life health and employment in the Netherlands and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, M.; Kalwij, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, this paper provides empirical evidence for the Netherlands and Spain on the associations between individuals’ early life circumstances—measured by health and socioeconomic status (SES) during childhood—educational attainment, and

  2. Fertility and early-life mortality: Evidence from smallpox vaccination in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ager, Philipp; Hansen, Casper Worm; Jensen, Peter Sandholt

    2018-01-01

    The smallpox vaccination method was the paramount medical innovation of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. We exploit the introduction of the smallpox vaccine in Sweden to identify the causal effect of early-life mortality on fertility. Our analysis shows that parishes in counties with highe...... a small insignificant effect on the number of surviving children and natural population growth....

  3. Costs and quality of life for prehabilitation and early rehabilitation after surgery of the lumbar spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Rotbøll; Andreasen, Jakob Huus; Asmussen, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    During the recent years improved operation techniques and administrative procedures have been developed for early rehabilitation. At the same time preoperative lifestyle intervention (prehabilitation) has revealed a large potential for additional risk reduction. The aim was to assess the quality...... of life and to estimate the cost-effectiveness of standard care versus an integrated programme including prehabilitation and early rehabilitation....

  4. Neurobiologic Correlates of Attention and Memory Deficits Following Critical Illness in Early Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Raisa M; IJsselstijn, Hanneke; Madderom, Marlous J; Rietman, André B; Smits, Marion; van Heijst, Arno F J; Tibboel, Dick; White, Tonya; Muetzel, Ryan L

    2017-10-01

    Survivors of critical illness in early life are at risk of long-term-memory and attention impairments. However, their neurobiologic substrates remain largely unknown. A prospective follow-up study. Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Thirty-eight school-age (8-12 yr) survivors of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and/or congenital diaphragmatic hernia with an intelligence quotient greater than or equal to 80 and a below average score (z score ≤ -1.5) on one or more memory tests. None. Intelligence, attention, memory, executive functioning, and visuospatial processing were assessed and compared with reference data. White matter microstructure and hippocampal volume were assessed using diffusion tensor imaging and structural MRI, respectively. Global fractional anisotropy was positively associated with selective attention (β = 0.53; p = 0.030) and sustained attention (β = 0.48; p = 0.018). Mean diffusivity in the left parahippocampal region of the cingulum was negatively associated with visuospatial memory, both immediate (β = -0.48; p = 0.030) and delayed recall (β = -0.47; p = 0.030). Mean diffusivity in the parahippocampal region of the cingulum was negatively associated with verbal memory delayed recall (left: β = -0.52, p = 0.021; right: β = -0.52, p = 0.021). Hippocampal volume was positively associated with verbal memory delayed recall (left: β = 0.44, p = 0.037; right: β = 0.67, p = 0.012). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation type did not influence the structure-function relationships. Our findings indicate specific neurobiologic correlates of attention and memory deficits in school-age survivors of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and congenital diaphragmatic hernia. A better understanding of the neurobiology following critical illness, both in early and in adult life, may lead to earlier identification of patients at risk for impaired

  5. Oral treatment with enrofloxacin early in life promotes Th2-mediated immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzępa, Anna; Majewska-Szczepanik, Monika; Kowalczyk, Paulina; Woźniak, Dorota; Motyl, Sylwia; Szczepanik, Marian

    2016-02-01

    Th2 lymphocytes play a crucial role in the development of allergy. These pathologies are caused by coordinated production of the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 that regulate the activity of eosinophils, basophils and B cells. According to the 'hygiene hypothesis', the reduced exposure to microorganisms favors allergy occurrence. The advances in medicine in the field of infection therapy promoted an increasing application of antibiotics which, apart from eliminating pathogens, also partially eliminate the microbiota. Epicutaneous (EC) immunization with ovalbumin (OVA) followed by OVA challenge was used to study the influence of partial gut flora depletion by oral treatment with enrofloxacin on type-2 immune response. Current work describes the influence of enrofloxacin application on anti-OVA antibody production and cytokine synthesis in young and adult mice. Immune response in adult mice is less sensitive to modification of natural gut flora. We observed that enrofloxacin treatment of adult mice leads to significant decrease of anti-OVA IgG2a production while synthesis of anti-OVA IgE was not changed. The production of type-1 (IFN-γ), type-2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13) and Th17-associated (IL-17A) cytokines was inhibited. On the other hand, treatment of young mice with enrofloxacin significantly upregulates the production of anti-OVA IgE and inhibits the secretion of anti-OVA IgG2a antibodies. Additionally, treatment with enrofloxacin early in life prior to OVA immunization results in increased production of type-2 (IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) cytokines. Our results clearly indicate that the immune system is more vulnerable to decreased bacterial exposure early in life that may promote development of allergy. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. CO2-level Dependent Effects of Ocean Acidification on Squid, Doryteuthis pealeii, Early Life History

    KAUST Repository

    Zakroff, Casey J.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean acidification is predicted to lead to global oceanic decreases in pH of up to 0.3 units within the next 100 years. However, those levels are already being reached currently in coastal regions due to natural CO2 variability. Squid are a vital component of the pelagic ecosystem, holding a unique niche as a highly active predatory invertebrate and major prey stock for upper trophic levels. This study examined the effects of a range of ocean acidification regimes on the early life history of a coastal squid species, the Atlantic longfin squid, Doryteuthis pealeii. Eggs were raised in a flow-through ocean acidification system at CO2 levels ranging from ambient (400ppm) to 2200ppm. Time to hatching, hatching efficiency, and hatchling mantle lengths, yolk sac sizes, and statoliths were all examined to elucidate stress effects. Delays in hatching time of at least a day were seen at exposures above 1300ppm in all trials under controlled conditions. Mantle lengths were significantly reduced at exposures above 1300 ppm. Yolk sac sizes varied between CO2 treatments, but no distinct pattern emerged. Statoliths were increasingly porous and malformed as CO2 exposures increased, and were significantly reduced in surface area at exposures above 1300ppm. Doryteuthis pealeii appears to be able to withstand acidosis stress without major effects up to 1300ppm, but is strongly impacted past that threshold. Since yolk consumption did not vary among treatments, it appears that during its early life stages, D. pealeii reallocates its available energy budget away from somatic growth and system development in order to mitigate the stress of acidosis.

  7. ABC transporters and xenobiotic defense systems in early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, Christian; Segner, Helmut; Fent, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Embryos of oviparous fish, in contrast to (ovo) viviparous species, develop in the aquatic environment, and therefore need solute transport systems at their body surfaces for maintaining internal homeostasis and defending against potentially harmful substances. We hypothesized that solute transporters undergo changes in tissue distribution from the embryo to the larval stage. We therefore studied the mRNA profiles of eight ABC transporters (abcb1a, abcb1b, abcc1, abcc2, abcc3, abcc4, abcc5, abcg2) and three solute carriers (oatp1d, putative oatp2 putative, mate1) in different body regions (head, yolk sac epithelium, abdominal viscera, skin/muscles) of developing rainbow trout. Additionally, we investigated mRNA levels of phase I (cyp1a, cyp3a) and phase II (gstp, putative ugt1, putative ugt2) biotransformation enzymes. The study covered the developmental period from the eleuthero-embryo stage to the first-feeding larval stage (1-20days post-hatch, dph). At 1dph, transcripts of abcc2, abcc4, abcg2, cyp3a, gstp, putative mate1, and putative oatp2 occurred primarily in the yolk sac epithelium, whereas at later stages expression of these genes was predominantly observed in the abdominal viscera. The functional activity of ABC transporters in fish early life stages was assessed by rhodamine B accumulation assays. Finally, we investigated the potential impact of xenobiotics (clotrimazole, clofibric acid) on the ABC and biotransformation systems of trout early life stages. While clofibric acid had no effect, clotrimazole lead to an increased rhodamine B accumulation. The results provide evidence that the transition from the eleuthero-embryo to the larval stage is accompanied by a major alteration in tissue expression of ABC transporters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Protein needs early in life and long-term health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F.; Greer, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    foods have been introduced. At this age, mean protein intake is ∼3 times as high as the physiologic requirement, but some children receive 4-5 times their physiologic requirement. Protein from cow milk constitutes a main part of protein intake in toddlers and seems to have a specific effect on insulin......-like growth factor I concentrations and growth. Meat has a high protein content, but the small amounts of meat needed to ensure good iron status have less impact on total protein intake. The difference in protein intake between breastfed and formula-fed infants is likely to play a role in the difference...... between breastfed and formula-fed infants. There is emerging evidence that high protein intake during the first 2 y of life is a risk factor for later development of overweight and obesity. It therefore seems prudent to avoid a high protein intake during the first 2 y of life. This could be accomplished...

  9. Health-related quality of life in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønvold, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of primary breast cancer usually consists of surgery often followed by adjuvant therapy (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal treatment, etc.) to reduce the risk of recurrence. The cancer diagnosis and the treatments may have significant impact on the patients' quality of life....... This thesis deals with scientific aspects and clinical results of a study aimed at assessing the impact of breast cancer (and its treatment) on the patients' quality of life. Studies such as this assessing the problems and symptoms experienced by the patients are often referred to as health-related quality...... study to be impaired in patients receiving chemotherapy. Similarly, current review articles on HRQL effects of adjuvant chemotherapy mention only relatively few of these topics. Concerning HRQL after the treatment period, our main finding was that many symptoms and problems had declined or disappeared...

  10. The first thousand days – intestinal microbiology of early life: establishing a symbiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, H.; Oozeer, R.; Knipping, K.; Belzer, C.; Knol, J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of the intestinal microbiota in the first years of life is a dynamic process significantly influenced by early-life nutrition. Pioneer bacteria colonizing the infant intestinal tract and the gradual diversification to a stable climax ecosystem plays a crucial role in establishing

  11. Determinants of Growth, Adiposity and Bone Mass in Early Life : The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Heppe (Denise)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Environmental influences during fetal life and early infancy have been suggested to influence body composition throughout the life-course. Especially poor fetal nutrition and fetal growth restriction have been designated important risk factors for gaining high fat mass

  12. Family Quality of Life: A Key Outcome in Early Childhood Intervention Services--A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopti, Anoo; Brown, Ted; Lentin, Primrose

    2016-01-01

    A scoping review was conducted to identify factors influencing the quality of life of families of children with disability. The review also explored the scales used to measure family quality of life (FQOL) as an outcome in early childhood intervention services (ECIS). Multiple databases were searched from 2000 to 2013 to include studies pertinent…

  13. Metabolic Disruption Early in Life is Associated With Latent Carcinogenic Activity of Dichloroacetic Acid in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life environmental factors can influence later-life susceptibility to cancer. Recent evidence suggests that metabolic pathways may mediate this type of latency effect. Previously, we reported that short-term exposure to dichloroacetic acid (DCA) increased liver cancer in mi...

  14. Early Life Adversity as a Predictor of Sense of Purpose during Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick L.; Turiano, Nicholas A.; Burrow, Anthony L.

    2018-01-01

    Feeling a sense of purpose in life appears to hold consistent benefits for positive aging and well-being. As such, it is important to consider the potential factors that promote or hinder the development of purposefulness over the lifespan. For instance, it remains unclear whether early life experiences, particularly adverse ones, may hold lasting…

  15. Latent carcinogenicity of early-life exposure to dichloroacetic acid in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractEnvironmental exposures occurring early in life may have an important influence on cancer risk later in life. Here we investigated carryover effects of young-adult exposure to dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a small molecule analog of pyruvate and low-level environmental cont...

  16. Bereavement in early life and later childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    indicator, and subsequent risk of overweight in school-aged children. Methods: We followed 46,401 singletons born in Denmark who underwent annual health examinations at 7-13 years of age in school of Copenhagen. A total of 492 children experienced bereavement by death of a parent during the first 6 years...... of life. We compared BMI levels, changes in BMI, and the prevalence of overweight at 7-13 years of age between bereaved and non-bereaved children. Results: Between bereaved children and non-bereaved children, there were no differences in average BMI levels at any age or changes in BMI at 7-13 years of age....... Bereavement during the first 6 years of life was not associated with an increased risk of overweight at 7-13 years of age. Conclusion: This study did not support that stress induced by bereavement during the first 6 years of life has significant influence on overweight in later childhood. Copyright © 2012 S...

  17. Early-Life Effects on Adult Physical Activity: Concepts, Relevance, and Experimental Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Theodore; Cadney, Marcell D; Waterland, Robert A

    Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of physical activity are generally associated with positive health outcomes, although excessive exercise can have adverse consequences. Whether and how such relationships occur in wild animals is unknown. Behavioral variation among individuals arises from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well as from developmental programming (persistent effects of early-life environment). Although tremendous progress has been made in identifying genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in behavior, early-life effects are not well understood. Early-life effects can in some cases persist across multiple generations following a single exposure and, in principle, may constrain or facilitate the rate of evolution at multiple levels of biological organization. Understanding the mechanisms of such transgenerational effects (e.g., exposure to stress hormones in utero, inherited epigenetic alterations) may prove crucial to explaining unexpected and/or sex-specific responses to selection as well as limits to adaptation. One area receiving increased attention is early-life effects on adult physical activity. Correlational data from epidemiological studies suggest that early-life nutritional stress can (adversely) affect adult human activity levels and associated physiological traits (e.g., body composition, metabolic health). The few existing studies of laboratory rodents demonstrate that both maternal and early-life exercise can affect adult levels of physical activity and related phenotypes. Going forward, rodents offer many opportunities for experimental studies of (multigenerational) early-life effects, including studies that use maternal

  18. Early-Life Exposure to Antibiotics, Alterations in the Intestinal Microbiome, and Risk of Metabolic Disease in Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yallapragada, Sushmita G; Nash, Colleen B; Robinson, Daniel T

    2015-11-01

    The intestinal microbiome is a complex ecosystem of microorganisms that colonize the human gastrointestinal tract. The microbiome evolves rapidly in early life with contributions from diet, genetics and immunomodulatory factors. Changes in composition of the microbiota due to antibiotics may lead to negative long-term effects including obesity and diabetes mellitus, as evidenced by both animal and large human studies. Inappropriate exposures to antibiotics occur frequently in early childhood. Therefore, an evidence-based system of antimicrobial use should be employed by all providers, especially those who care for pediatric patients. This article explores the natural evolution of the intestinal microbiome from the perinatal period into early childhood, the effect of antibiotics on the microbial ecology, and the implications for future health and disease. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Positive emotions in early life and longevity: findings from the nun study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, D D; Snowdon, D A; Friesen, W V

    2001-05-01

    Handwritten autobiographies from 180 Catholic nuns, composed when participants were a mean age of 22 years, were scored for emotional content and related to survival during ages 75 to 95. A strong inverse association was found between positive emotional content in these writings and risk of mortality in late life (p < .001). As the quartile ranking of positive emotion in early life increased, there was a stepwise decrease in risk of mortality resulting in a 2.5-fold difference between the lowest and highest quartiles. Positive emotional content in early-life autobiographies was strongly associated with longevity 6 decades later. Underlying mechanisms of balanced emotional states are discussed.

  20. Propagandizing the Healthy, Bolshevik Life in the Early USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Tricia A

    2017-11-01

    This essay outlines the problems facing Soviet health authorities at the inception of the People's Commissariat of Public Health in 1918 and the innovative methods employed in sanitary enlightenment propaganda in Russia throughout the 1920s. Beset by funding issues and supply problems, the emissaries of health chose the cheapest means of health improvement (propaganda) with the most cost-effective method (prevention), and crowed of great successes even as large portions of the nation still suffered from lack of contact with sanitary authorities. Targeting Soviet citizens at every stage and space of life, the envoys of public health spread the message of prophylaxis.

  1. Early-life influences on obesity: from preconception to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Krawetz, Stephen A; Rizzo, Nico S; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria; Szymanski, Linda M; Barkin, Shari; Yatkine, Ann; Waterland, Robert A; Mennella, Julie A; Desai, Mina; Ross, Michael G; Krebs, Nancy F; Young, Bridget E; Wardle, Jane; Wrann, Christiane D; Kral, John G

    2015-07-01

    The double burden of under- and overnutrition profoundly affects human health globally. According to the World Health Organization, obesity and diabetes rates have almost doubled worldwide since 1980, and, in 2011, more than 40 million children under 5 years of age were overweight. Ecologic factors, parental genetics and fitness, and the intrauterine environment significantly influence the likelihood of offspring developing the dysmetabolic diathesis of obesity. This report examines the effects of these factors, including preconception, intrauterine and postnatal energy balance affecting programming of transgenerational transmission, and development of chronic diseases later in life-in particular, diabesity and its comorbidities. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Mental Health Nurse's Exposure to Workplace Violence Leads to Job Stress, Which Leads to Reduced Professional Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhaki, Michal; Bluvstein, Irit; Peles Bortz, Anat; Kostistky, Hava; Bar Noy, Dor; Filshtinsky, Vivian; Theilla, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    Professional quality of life (ProQOL) reflects how individuals feel about their work as helpers. Psychiatric ward nurses cope with significant psychological and physical challenges, including exposure to verbal and physical violence. This study was based on two aspects of ProQOL, the positive compassion satisfaction, and the negative compassion fatigue, with the aim of investigating the relation of ProQOL to job stress and violence exposure at a large mental health center. Data were collected from 114 mental health nurses (49/63 M/F) who completed a self-administered questionnaire examining violence exposure, ProQOL, and job stress. The results showed that during the last year, almost all nurses (88.6%) experienced verbal violence, and more than half (56.1%) experienced physical violence. Only 2.6% experienced no violence. ProQOL was not associated with violence exposure but was reduced by work stress and by previous exposure to violence; nurses who perceived their work as more stressful had lower satisfaction from their work. In conclusion, although most mental health nurses are exposed to physical and verbal violence, their ProQOL is more related to job stress than to workplace violence (WPV). Hospital managements should conduct work stress reduction intervention programs and promote strategizes to reduce WPV. Further exploration of (a) factors affecting ProQOL and (b) the effect of violence coping workshops on ProQOL is warranted.

  3. The Nun study: clinically silent AD, neuronal hypertrophy, and linguistic skills in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, D; Markesbery, W R; Gross, M; Pletnikova, O; Rudow, G; Zandi, P; Troncoso, J C

    2009-09-01

    It is common to find substantial Alzheimer disease (AD) lesions, i.e., neuritic beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, in the autopsied brains of elderly subjects with normal cognition assessed shortly before death. We have termed this status asymptomatic AD (ASYMAD). We assessed the morphologic substrate of ASYMAD compared to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in subjects from the Nun Study. In addition, possible correlations between linguistic abilities in early life and the presence of AD pathology with and without clinical manifestations in late life were considered. Design-based stereology was used to measure the volumes of neuronal cell bodies, nuclei, and nucleoli in the CA1 region of hippocampus (CA1). Four groups of subjects were compared: ASYMAD (n = 10), MCI (n = 5), AD (n = 10), and age-matched controls (n = 13). Linguistic ability assessed in early life was compared among all groups. A significant hypertrophy of the cell bodies (+44.9%), nuclei (+59.7%), and nucleoli (+80.2%) in the CA1 neurons was found in ASYMAD compared with MCI. Similar differences were observed with controls. Furthermore, significant higher idea density scores in early life were observed in controls and ASYMAD group compared to MCI and AD groups. 1) Neuronal hypertrophy may constitute an early cellular response to Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology or reflect compensatory mechanisms that prevent cognitive impairment despite substantial AD lesions; 2) higher idea density scores in early life are associated with intact cognition in late life despite the presence of AD lesions.

  4. Early life stress paradigms in rodents: potential animal models of depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mathias V; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Meijer, Onno C

    2011-03-01

    While human depressive illness is indeed uniquely human, many of its symptoms may be modeled in rodents. Based on human etiology, the assumption has been made that depression-like behavior in rats and mice can be modulated by some of the powerful early life programming effects that are known to occur after manipulations in the first weeks of life. Here we review the evidence that is available in literature for early life manipulation as risk factors for the development of depression-like symptoms such as anhedonia, passive coping strategies, and neuroendocrine changes. Early life paradigms that were evaluated include early handling, separation, and deprivation protocols, as well as enriched and impoverished environments. We have also included a small number of stress-related pharmacological models. We find that for most early life paradigms per se, the actual validity for depression is limited. A number of models have not been tested with respect to classical depression-like behaviors, while in many cases, the outcome of such experiments is variable and depends on strain and additional factors. Because programming effects confer vulnerability rather than disease, a number of paradigms hold promise for usefulness in depression research, in combination with the proper genetic background and adult life challenges.

  5. Exposure to chronic early-life stress lastingly alters the adipose tissue, the leptin system and changes the vulnerability to western-style diet later in life in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yam, Kit-Yi; Naninck, Eva F. G.; Abbink, M. R.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Schipper, L.; de Beukelaar, J W K; Grefhorst, Aldo; Oosting, A.; van der Beek, E. M.; Lucassen, P. J.; Korosi, Aniko

    Early-life stress (ES) increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline in adulthood. Interestingly, this is often comorbid with metabolic disorders, such as obesity. However, it is unclear whether ES leads to lasting metabolic changes and to what extent this is

  6. Exposure to chronic early-life stress lastingly alters the adipose tissue, the leptin system and changes the vulnerability to western-style diet later in life in mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yam, K.Y.; Naninck, E.F.G.; Abbink, M.R.; la Fleur, S.E.; Schipper, L.; van den Beukel, J.C.; Grefhorst, A.; Oosting, A.; van der Beek, E.M.; Lucassen, P.J.; Korosi, A.

    Early-life stress (ES) increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline in adulthood. Interestingly, this is often comorbid with metabolic disorders, such as obesity. However, it is unclear whether ES leads to lasting metabolic changes and to what extent this is

  7. Using physiology and behaviour to understand the responses of fish early life stages to toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, K A; McNeil, P L

    2012-12-01

    The use of early life stages of fishes (embryos and larvae) in toxicity testing has been in existence for a long time, generally utilizing endpoints such as morphological defects and mortality. Behavioural endpoints, however, may represent a more insightful evaluation of the ecological effects of toxicants. Indeed, recent years have seen a considerable increase in the use of behavioural measurements in early life stages reflecting a substantial rise in zebrafish Danio rerio early life-stage toxicity testing and the development of automated behavioural monitoring systems. Current behavioural endpoints identified for early life stages in response to toxicant exposure include spontaneous activity, predator avoidance, capture of live food, shoaling ability and interaction with other individuals. Less frequently used endpoints include measurement of anxiogenic behaviours and cognitive ability, both of which are suggested here as future indicators of toxicant disruption. For many simple behavioural endpoints, there is still a need to link behavioural effects with ecological relevance; currently, only a limited number of studies have addressed this issue. Understanding the physiological mechanisms that underlie toxicant effects on behaviour so early in life has received far less attention, perhaps because physiological measurements can be difficult to carry out on individuals of this size. The most commonly established physiological links with behavioural disruption in early life stages are similar to those seen in juveniles and adults including sensory deprivation (olfaction, lateral line and vision), altered neurogenesis and neurotransmitter concentrations. This review highlights the importance of understanding the integrated behavioural and physiological response of early life stages to toxicants and identifies knowledge gaps which present exciting areas for future research. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Blood pressure in young adulthood and residential greenness in the early-life environment of twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijnens, Esmée M; Nawrot, Tim S; Loos, Ruth Jf; Gielen, Marij; Vlietinck, Robert; Derom, Catherine; Zeegers, Maurice P

    2017-06-05

    Previous research shows that, besides risk factors in adult life, the early-life environment can influence blood pressure and hypertension in adults. However, the effects of residential traffic exposure and residential greenness in the early-life on blood pressure in young adulthood are currently unknown. Ambulatory (24-h) blood pressures of 278 twins (132 pairs) of the East Flanders Prospective Twins Study were obtained at the age of 18 to 25 years. Prenatal and adulthood residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign prenatal and postnatal traffic and greenness indicators. Mixed modelling was performed to investigate blood pressure in association with greenness while adjusting for potential confounding factors. Night-time systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with greenness at the residential address in twins living at the same address their entire life (non-movers, n = 97, 34.9%). An interquartile increase in residential greenness exposure (1000 m radius) was associated with a 3.59 mmHg (95% CI: -6.0 to -1.23; p = 0.005) lower adult night systolic blood pressure. Among twins who were living at a different address than their birth address at time of the measurement (n = 181, 65.1%), night-time blood pressure was inversely associated with residential surrounding greenness at adult age as well as with residential greenness in early-life. However after additional adjustment for residential greenness exposure in adulthood, only residential greenness exposure in early-life was significantly associated with night systolic blood pressure. While no significant effect of adult residential greenness with adult blood pressure was observed, while accounting for the early-life greenness exposure. Lower residential greenness in the early-life environment was independently associated with a higher adult blood pressure. This indicates that residential greenness has persistent effects on blood pressure.

  9. Early morning – A temporal interstice in urban life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mubi Brighenti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Early morning is a critical threshold in daily urban rhythms1. But exactly, a threshold between what and what? As known, the Western imagination of the city is premised upon some overarching dichotomies, some great divides. In spatial terms, the city/countryside divide, or the city/territory, serves as a distinction which has traditionally informed the way we make sense of the urban experience at large. Indeed, urbanism – as opposed to ruralism – has been classically associated with human density, social heterogeneity, impersonal role-based interaction and segmental human relations. And incidentally, sociology as a discipline was born precisely as an investigation into this divide, then phrased as traditional versus modern, or mechanic versus organic.

  10. Early Life Arsenic Exposure and Acute and Long-term Responses to Influenza A Infection in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsey, Kathryn A.; Foong, Rachel E.; Sly, Peter D.; Larcombe, Alexander N.; Zosky, Graeme R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Arsenic is a significant global environmental health problem. Exposure to arsenic in early life has been shown to increase the rate of respiratory infections during infancy, reduce childhood lung function, and increase the rates of bronchiectasis in early adulthood. Objective: We aimed to determine if early life exposure to arsenic exacerbates the response to early life influenza infection in mice. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to arsenic in utero and throughout postnatal lif...

  11. Depression is an independent determinant of life satisfaction early after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterveer, Daniëlla M; Mishre, Radha Rambaran; van Oort, Andrea; Bodde, Karin; Aerden, Leo A M

    2017-03-06

    Life satisfaction is reduced in stroke patients. However, as a rule, rehabilitation goals are not aimed at life satisfaction, but at activities and participation. In order to optimize life satisfaction in stroke patients, rehabilitation should take into account the determinants of life satisfaction. The aim of this study was therefore to determine what factors are independent determinants of life satisfaction in a large group of patients early after stroke. Stroke-surviving patients were examined by a specialized nurse 6 weeks after discharge from hospital or rehabilitation setting. A standardized history and several screening lists, including the Lisat-9, were completed. Step-wise regression was used to identify independent determinants of life satisfaction. A total of 284 stroke-surviving patients were included in the study. Of these, 117 answered all of the Lisat-9 questions. Most patients (66.5%) rated their life as a whole as "satisfying" or "very satisfying". More depressive symptoms were independently associated with lower life satisfaction (p life early after a stroke. The score on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression items is independently associated with life satisfaction. Physicians should therefore pay close attention to the mood of these patients.

  12. Great Physicists - The Life and Times of Leading Physicists from Galileo to Hawking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cropper, William H

    2002-01-01

    The author, a former American chemistry professor, has organized his book into nine parts with 29 chapters, covering, in a fairly historical sequence and systematic conceptual progression, all fundamentals of today's physics: i.e., mechanics, thermodynamics, electromagnetism, statistical mechanics, relativity, quantum mechanics, nuclear physics, particle physics, astronomy-astrophysics-cosmology. Obviously, the 20th century (when about 90% of professional physicists of all time worked) assumes with five topics the dominant role in this enterprise. For each topic, a small number (ranging from one to eight) of leading personalities is selected and the biographies of these 29 physicists, including two women (Marie Curie and Lise Meitner), are presented in some detail together with their achievements in the particular topic. Important relevant contributions of other scholars to each topic are also discussed. In addition, Cropper provides each of the topics with a short 'historical synopsis' justifying his selection of key persons. One may argue that concentrating on leading physicists constitutes an old-fashioned approach to displaying the history and contents of fundamental topics in physics. However, the mixture of biographies and explanation of leading contributions given here will certainly serve for a larger public, not just professional physicists and scientists, as a guide through the exciting development of physical ideas and discoveries. In general, the presentation of the material is quite satisfactory (with only few slips, e.g., in the Meitner story, where the author follows too closely a new biography) and gives the essence of the great advances in physics since the 15th century. One notices perhaps the limitation of the author in cases where no biography in English is available - this would also explain the omission of some of the main contributors to atomic and particle physics, such as Arnold Sommerfeld and Hideki Yukawa, or that French or Russian

  13. BOOK REVIEW: Great Physicists - The Life and Times of Leading Physicists from Galileo to Hawking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, William H.

    2002-11-01

    The author, a former American chemistry professor, has organized his book into nine parts with 29 chapters, covering, in a fairly historical sequence and systemtic conceptual progression, all fundamentals of today's physics: i.e., mechanics, thermodynamics, electromagnetism, statistical mechanics, relativity, quantum mechanics, nuclear physics, particle physics, astronomy-astrophysics-cosmology. Obviously, the 20th century (when about 90% of professional physicists of all time worked) assumes with five topics the dominant role in this enterprise. For each topic, a small number (ranging from one to eight) of leading personalities is selected and the biographies of these 29 physicists, including two women (Marie Curie and Lise Meitner), are presented in some detail together with their achievements in the particular topic. Important relevant contributions of other scholars to each topic are also discussed. In addition, Cropper provides each of the topics with a short 'historical synopsis' justifying his selection of key persons. One may argue that concentrating on leading physicists constitutes an old-fashioned approach to displaying the history and contents of fundamental topics in physics. However, the mixture of biographies and explanation of leading contributions given here will certainly serve for a larger public, not just professional physicists and scientists, as a guide through the exciting development of physical ideas and discoveries. In general, the presentation of the material is quite satisfactory (with only few slips, e.g., in the Meitner story, where the author follows too closely a new biography) and gives the essence of the great advances in physics since the 15th century. One notices perhaps the limitation of the author in cases where no biography in English is available - this would also explain the omission of some of the main contributors to atomic and particle physics, such as Arnold Sommerfeld and Hideki Yukawa, or that French or Russian readers

  14. Uncertainty analysis of infinite homogeneous lead and sodium cooled fast reactors at beginning of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhanen, R.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to estimate breeding ratio, radiation damage rate and minor actinide transmutation rate of infinite homogeneous lead and sodium cooled fast reactors. Uncertainty analysis is performed taking into account uncertainty in nuclear data and composition of the reactors. We use the recently released ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data library and restrict the work to the beginning of reactor life. We work under multigroup approximation. The Bondarenko method is used to acquire effective cross sections for the homogeneous reactor. Modeling error and numerical error are estimated. The adjoint sensitivity analysis is performed to calculate generalized adjoint fluxes for the responses. The generalized adjoint fluxes are used to calculate first order sensitivities of the responses to model parameters. The acquired sensitivities are used to propagate uncertainties in the input data to find out uncertainties in the responses. We show that the uncertainty in model parameters is the dominant source of uncertainty, followed by modeling error, input data precision and numerical error. The uncertainty due to composition of the reactor is low. We identify main sources of uncertainty and note that the low-fidelity evaluation of 16 O is problematic due to lack of correlation between total and elastic reactions

  15. Uncertainty analysis of infinite homogeneous lead and sodium cooled fast reactors at beginning of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, R., E-mail: risto.vanhanen@aalto.fi

    2015-03-15

    The objective of the present work is to estimate breeding ratio, radiation damage rate and minor actinide transmutation rate of infinite homogeneous lead and sodium cooled fast reactors. Uncertainty analysis is performed taking into account uncertainty in nuclear data and composition of the reactors. We use the recently released ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data library and restrict the work to the beginning of reactor life. We work under multigroup approximation. The Bondarenko method is used to acquire effective cross sections for the homogeneous reactor. Modeling error and numerical error are estimated. The adjoint sensitivity analysis is performed to calculate generalized adjoint fluxes for the responses. The generalized adjoint fluxes are used to calculate first order sensitivities of the responses to model parameters. The acquired sensitivities are used to propagate uncertainties in the input data to find out uncertainties in the responses. We show that the uncertainty in model parameters is the dominant source of uncertainty, followed by modeling error, input data precision and numerical error. The uncertainty due to composition of the reactor is low. We identify main sources of uncertainty and note that the low-fidelity evaluation of {sup 16}O is problematic due to lack of correlation between total and elastic reactions.

  16. Alcohol, psychomotor-stimulants and behaviour: methodological considerations in preclinical models of early-life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell-Dowling, Kate; Miczek, Klaus A

    2018-04-01

    In order to assess the risk associated with early-life stress, there has been an increase in the amount of preclinical studies investigating early-life stress. There are many challenges associated with investigating early-life stress in animal models and ensuring that such models are appropriate and clinically relevant. The purpose of this review is to highlight the methodological considerations in the design of preclinical studies investigating the effects of early-life stress on alcohol and psychomotor-stimulant intake and behaviour. The protocols employed for exploring early-life stress were investigated and summarised. Experimental variables include animals, stress models, and endpoints employed. The findings in this paper suggest that there is little consistency among these studies and so the interpretation of these results may not be as clinically relevant as previously thought. The standardisation of these simple stress procedures means that results will be more comparable between studies and that results generated will give us a more robust understanding of what can and may be happening in the human and veterinary clinic.

  17. Life as an early career researcher: interview with Catherine Martel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    Catherine Martel speaks to Francesca Lake, Managing Commissioning Editor: Catherine Martel obtained her PhD from the Université de Montréal and pursued a postdoctoral fellowship first at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York (NY, USA), then at Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis (MO, USA), and obtained the Junior Investigator Award for Women from the Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology council of the American Heart Association. Her postdoctoral work is certainly groundbreaking and brings forward new considerations in the field: she discovered that the lymphatic vessel route, the network that runs in parallel with the blood vessels, is critical for removing cholesterol from multiple tissues, including the aortic wall. In 2013, she joined the Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology Early Career Committee, eager to bring a Canadian perspective to the group and get involved in council activities. Since 2014, she is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Medicine at the Université de Montréal, and a research scientist at the Montreal Heart Institute. Her research program now focuses on characterizing the physiopathologic role of the lymphatics in the initiation, progression and regression of atherosclerosis. Basic and translational research will allow her team to identify the causes of lymphatic dysfunction, and eventually target potential therapeutic strategies aiming at improving lymphatic function at the different levels of the atherothrombotic disease. You can follow her laboratory at @LaboMartel_ICM.

  18. Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Adriana P S; Rodrigues, Ricardo V; Sampaio, Luís A; Romano, Luis A; Tesser, Marcelo B

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20) from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching). Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were dehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm), but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm). From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia.

  19. Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA P.S. OTERO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20 from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching. Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were dehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm, but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm. From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia.

  20. Natural selection and sex differences in morbidity and mortality in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J C

    2000-01-07

    Both morbidity and mortality are consistently reported to be higher in males than in females in early life, but no explanation for these findings has been offered. This paper argues that the sex difference in early vulnerability can be attributed to the natural selection of optimal maternal strategies for maximizing lifetime reproductive success, as modelled previously by Trivers and Willard. These authors theorized that males and females offer different returns on parental investment depending on the state of the environment. Natural selection has therefore favoured maternal ability to manipulate offspring sex in response to environmental conditions in early life, as shown in variation in the sex ratio at birth. This argument can be extended to the whole period of parental investment until weaning. Male vulnerability in response to environmental stress in early life is predicted to have been favoured by natural selection. This vulnerability is most evident in the harsh conditions resulting from pre-term birth, but can also be seen in term infants, and manifests as greater morbidity and mortality persisting into early childhood. Malnutrition, interacting with infection after birth, is suggested as the fundamental trigger mechanism. The model suggests that whatever improvements are made in medical care, any environmental stress will always affect males more severely than females in early life. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  1. Antibiotic exposure in early life and childhood overweight and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sara H; Shrestha, Sarita; Bjerregaard, Lise G

    2018-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies investigating the association between antibiotic exposure in infancy and risk of childhood overweight and obesity. Thirteen studies counting a total of 527,504 children were included in the systematic review and eight were...... included in meta-analyses. Exposure to antibiotics in infancy was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) of childhood overweight and obesity (OR = 1.11 [95% CI 1.02-1.20]). Whereas exposure to one treatment only and exposure between 6 and 24 months were not associated with increased risk of childhood...... overweight and obesity, exposure to more than one treatment was associated with an OR of 1.24 (95% CI 1.09-1.43) and exposure within the first six months of life was associated with an OR of 1.20 (95% CI 1.04-1.37). In conclusion, antibiotic exposure in infancy is associated with a slightly increased risk...

  2. Bayesian analysis of the astrobiological implications of life's early emergence on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, David S; Turner, Edwin L

    2012-01-10

    Life arose on Earth sometime in the first few hundred million years after the young planet had cooled to the point that it could support water-based organisms on its surface. The early emergence of life on Earth has been taken as evidence that the probability of abiogenesis is high, if starting from young Earth-like conditions. We revisit this argument quantitatively in a bayesian statistical framework. By constructing a simple model of the probability of abiogenesis, we calculate a bayesian estimate of its posterior probability, given the data that life emerged fairly early in Earth's history and that, billions of years later, curious creatures noted this fact and considered its implications. We find that, given only this very limited empirical information, the choice of bayesian prior for the abiogenesis probability parameter has a dominant influence on the computed posterior probability. Although terrestrial life's early emergence provides evidence that life might be abundant in the universe if early-Earth-like conditions are common, the evidence is inconclusive and indeed is consistent with an arbitrarily low intrinsic probability of abiogenesis for plausible uninformative priors. Finding a single case of life arising independently of our lineage (on Earth, elsewhere in the solar system, or on an extrasolar planet) would provide much stronger evidence that abiogenesis is not extremely rare in the universe.

  3. Lead exposure and early child neurodevelopment among children 12-24 months in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashala-Abotnes, Espérance; Mumbere, Pépé Penghele; Mishika, Jeannette Mukanya; Ndjukendi, Ally Omba; Mpaka, Davin Beya; Bumoko, Makila-Mabe Guy; Kayembe, Tharcisse Kalula; Tshala-Katumbay, Désiré; Kazadi, Théodore Kayembe; Okitundu, Daniel Luwa E-Andjafono

    2016-12-01

    Childhood lead exposure remains a problem in developing countries, and little is known about its effects on early child neurodevelopment and temperament in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We, therefore, conducted this study to determine the association between lead exposure and the neurodevelopment and behaviour of children aged 12-24 months in Kinshasa, DRC. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and June 2012, and parents of 104 children were invited to participate. Blood lead levels (BLLs) of each child were tested using the flame atomic spectrophotometry method. All children were subject to a clinical examination and assessed with two selected early child neurodevelopmental tools, the Gensini-Gavito and the baby characteristics questionnaire, to measure their neurodevelopment and temperament. Detectable BLLs ranged from 1 to 30 μg/dl with a geometric mean of 6.9 (SD 4.8) μg/dl. BLLs at 5-9 and ≥10 μg/dl were significantly associated with the child temperament (p early child neurodevelopment and temperament. Children exposed to lead were reported with more temperament difficulties at even blood lead levels <10 μg/dl, suggesting the need for preventive and intervention measures to reduce lead exposure among children in Kinshasa, DRC.

  4. Early-life income inequality and adolescent health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Frank J; Gariépy, Geneviève; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Currie, Candace

    2017-02-01

    A prevailing hypothesis about the association between income inequality and poor health is that inequality intensifies social hierarchies, increases stress, erodes social and material resources that support health, and subsequently harms health. However, the evidence in support of this hypothesis is limited by cross-sectional, ecological studies and a scarcity of developmental studies. To address this limitation, we used pooled, multilevel data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study to examine lagged, cumulative, and trajectory associations between early-life income inequality and adolescent health and well-being. Psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction were assessed in surveys of 11- to 15-year-olds in 40 countries between 1994 and 2014. We linked these data to national Gini indices of income inequality for every life year from 1979 to 2014. The results showed that exposure to income inequality from 0 to 4 years predicted psychosomatic symptoms and lower life satisfaction in females after controlling lifetime mean income inequality, national per capita income, family affluence, age, and cohort and period effects. The cumulative income inequality exposure in infancy and childhood (i.e., average Gini index from birth to age 10) related to lower life satisfaction in female adolescents but not to symptoms. Finally, individual trajectories in early-life inequality (i.e., linear slopes in Gini indices from birth to 10 years) related to fewer symptoms and higher life satisfaction in females, indicating that earlier exposures mattered more to predicting health and wellbeing. No such associations with early-life income inequality were found in males. These results help to establish the antecedent-consequence conditions in the association between income inequality and health and suggest that both the magnitude and timing of income inequality in early life have developmental consequences that manifest in reduced health and well-being in adolescent girls

  5. Early life treatment with vancomycin reduces diabetes incidence in NOD mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Vogensen, Finn Kvist

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from an uncontrolled T cell mediated destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells in the pancreas. Causal factors include a combination of genetics, early life incidents and the food we eat. The involved adaptive immune response can be down regulated by a regulato...... of the mechanisms regulating intestinal immune homeostasis toward a proinflammatory mucosal environment.......Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from an uncontrolled T cell mediated destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells in the pancreas. Causal factors include a combination of genetics, early life incidents and the food we eat. The involved adaptive immune response can be down regulated by a regulatory...... immune response and a fine-tuned balance between these immunological components is crucial for characteristics of the disease, such as severity, onset time and recovery. The balance between the regulatory and the adaptive immune response is heavily influenced by early life bacterial stimulation...

  6. Forebrain CRF1 Modulates Early-Life Stress-Programmed Cognitive Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Rammes, Gerhard; Kraev, Igor; Wolf, Miriam; Liebl, Claudia; Scharf, Sebastian H.; Rice, Courtney J.; Wurst, Wolfgang; Holsboer, Florian; Deussing, Jan M.; Baram, Tallie Z.; Stewart, Michael G.; Müller, Marianne B.; Schmidt, Mathias V.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood traumatic events hamper the development of the hippocampus and impair declarative memory in susceptible individuals. Persistent elevations of hippocampal corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), acting through CRF receptor 1 (CRF1), in experimental models of early-life stress have suggested a role for this endogenous stress hormone in the resulting structural modifications and cognitive dysfunction. However, direct testing of this possibility has been difficult. In the current study, we subjected conditional forebrain CRF1 knock-out (CRF1-CKO) mice to an impoverished postnatal environment and examined the role of forebrain CRF1 in the long-lasting effects of early-life stress on learning and memory. Early-life stress impaired spatial learning and memory in wild-type mice, and postnatal forebrain CRF overexpression reproduced these deleterious effects. Cognitive deficits in stressed wild-type mice were associated with disrupted long-term potentiation (LTP) and a reduced number of dendritic spines in area CA3 but not in CA1. Forebrain CRF1 deficiency restored cognitive function, LTP and spine density in area CA3, and augmented CA1 LTP and spine density in stressed mice. In addition, early-life stress differentially regulated the amount of hippocampal excitatory and inhibitory synapses in wild-type and CRF1-CKO mice, accompanied by alterations in the neurexin-neuroligin complex. These data suggest that the functional, structural and molecular changes evoked by early-life stress are at least partly dependent on persistent forebrain CRF1 signaling, providing a molecular target for the prevention of cognitive deficits in adults with a history of early-life adversity. PMID:21940453

  7. Early Life Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Childhood Obesity and Neurodevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may increase the risk of childhood diseases by disrupting hormonally mediated processes critical for growth and development during gestation, infancy, or childhood. The fetus, infant, and child may have enhanced sensitivity to environmental stressors like EDCs due to rapid development and greater exposure to some EDCs that results from their developmentally appropriate behavior, anatomy, and physiology. This review summarizes epidemiological studies examining the relations of early-life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates, triclosan, and perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) with childhood neurobehavioral disorders and obesity. The available epidemiological evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to several of these ubiquitous EDCs is associated with adverse neurobehavior (BPA and phthalates) and excess adiposity or increased risk of obesity/overweight (PFAS). Quantifying the effects of EDC mixtures, improving EDC exposure assessment, reducing bias from confounding, identifying periods of heightened vulnerability, and elucidating the presence and nature of sexually dimorphic EDC effects would result in stronger inferences from epidemiological studies. Ultimately, better estimates of the causal effects of EDC exposures on child health could help identify susceptible sub-populations and lead to public health interventions to reduce these exposures. PMID:27857130

  8. Early-Life Stressors, Personality Development, and Fast Life Strategies: An Evolutionary Perspective on Malevolent Personality Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád Csathó

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Life history theory posits that behavioral adaptation to various environmental (ecological and/or social conditions encountered during childhood is regulated by a wide variety of different traits resulting in various behavioral strategies. Unpredictable and harsh conditions tend to produce fast life history strategies, characterized by early maturation, a higher number of sexual partners to whom one is less attached, and less parenting of offspring. Unpredictability and harshness not only affects dispositional social and emotional functioning, but may also promote the development of personality traits linked to higher rates of instability in social relationships or more self-interested behavior. Similarly, detrimental childhood experiences, such as poor parental care or high parent-child conflict, affect personality development and may create a more distrustful, malicious interpersonal style. The aim of this brief review is to survey and summarize findings on the impact of negative early-life experiences on the development of personality and fast life history strategies. By demonstrating that there are parallels in adaptations to adversity in these two domains, we hope to lend weight to current and future attempts to provide a comprehensive insight of personality traits and functions at the ultimate and proximate levels.

  9. Early-Life Stressors, Personality Development, and Fast Life Strategies: An Evolutionary Perspective on Malevolent Personality Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csathó, Árpád; Birkás, Béla

    2018-01-01

    Life history theory posits that behavioral adaptation to various environmental (ecological and/or social) conditions encountered during childhood is regulated by a wide variety of different traits resulting in various behavioral strategies. Unpredictable and harsh conditions tend to produce fast life history strategies, characterized by early maturation, a higher number of sexual partners to whom one is less attached, and less parenting of offspring. Unpredictability and harshness not only affects dispositional social and emotional functioning, but may also promote the development of personality traits linked to higher rates of instability in social relationships or more self-interested behavior. Similarly, detrimental childhood experiences, such as poor parental care or high parent-child conflict, affect personality development and may create a more distrustful, malicious interpersonal style. The aim of this brief review is to survey and summarize findings on the impact of negative early-life experiences on the development of personality and fast life history strategies. By demonstrating that there are parallels in adaptations to adversity in these two domains, we hope to lend weight to current and future attempts to provide a comprehensive insight of personality traits and functions at the ultimate and proximate levels.

  10. Early-life Nutrition and Cardiometabolic Health across the Life Course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.T.M. Leermakers (Lisan)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis describes the relation between nutrition and cardiometabolic health, with the focus on nutritional exposures in pregnancy and early childhood. A systematic review of the literature was performed to describe the effects of the nutrients lutein and choline

  11. The influence of early exposure to vitamin D for development of diseases later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Abrahamsen, Bo; Bauerek, Marta Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common among otherwise healthy pregnant women and may have consequences for them as well as the early development and long-term health of their children. However, the importance of maternal vitamin D status on offspring health later in life has not been widely studied....... The present study includes an in-depth examination of the influence of exposure to vitamin D early in life for development of fractures of the wrist, arm and clavicle; obesity, and type 1 diabetes (T1D) during child- and adulthood....

  12. Does early-life family income influence later dental pain experience? A prospective 14-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Z; Peres, M A; Liu, P; Mejia, G C; Armfield, J M; Peres, K G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between early-life family income and dental pain experience from childhood to early adulthood. Data came from a 14-year prospective study (1991/1992-2005/2006) carried out in South Australia, which included children and adolescents aged 4-17 years (N = 9875) at baseline. The outcome was dental pain experience obtained at baseline, 14 years later in adulthood and at a middle point of time. The main explanatory variable was early-life family income collected at baseline. The prevalence of dental pain was 22.8% at baseline, 19.3% at 'middle time' and 39.3% at follow up. The proportion of people classified as 'poor' at baseline was 27.7%. Being poor early in life was significantly associated with dental pain at 14-year follow up (odds ratio = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.27-1.66). Early-life relative poverty is associated with more frequent dental pain across the 14-year follow up and may be a key exposure variable for later dental conditions. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  13. Early life adversity is associated with brain changes in subjects at family risk for depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carballedo, Angela

    2012-12-01

    The interplay of genetic and early environmental factors is recognized as an important factor in the aetiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the present study was to examine whether reduced volume of hippocampus and frontal brain regions involved in emotional regulation are already present in unaffected healthy individuals at genetic risk of suffering MDD and to investigate whether early life adversity is a relevant factor interacting with these reduced brain structures.

  14. Early-Life Nutritional Programming of Type 2 Diabetes: Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiserman, Alexander M

    2017-03-05

    Consistent evidence from both experimental and human studies suggest that inadequate nutrition in early life can contribute to risk of developing metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adult life. In human populations, most findings supporting a causative relationship between early-life malnutrition and subsequent risk of T2D were obtained from quasi-experimental studies ('natural experiments'). Prenatal and/or early postnatal exposures to famine were demonstrated to be associated with higher risk of T2D in many cohorts around the world. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of epigenetic regulation of gene expression as a possible major contributor to the link between the early-life famine exposure and T2D in adulthood. Findings from these studies suggest that prenatal exposure to the famine may result in induction of persistent epigenetic changes that have adaptive significance in postnatal development but can predispose to metabolic disorders including T2D at the late stages of life. In this review, quasi-experimental data on the developmental programming of T2D are summarized and recent research findings on changes in DNA methylation that mediate these effects are discussed.

  15. Early deprivation leads to long-term reductions in motivation for reward and 5-HT1A binding and both effects are reversed by fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventopoulos, Michail; Russig, Holger; Feldon, Joram; Pryce, Christopher R; Opacka-Juffry, Jolanta

    2009-03-01

    Early life stress is a risk factor in aetiology of depression. In rats, early life stress can lead to pro-depressive biomarkers in adulthood. The present study in male Wistar rats investigated the effects of early life deprivation and fluoxetine on motivation for reward, activity in the forced swim test, and brain monoamine receptors, in adulthood. P1-14 pups were isolated for 4 h/day (early deprivation, ED) or were handled for 1 min (CON). They were weaned at PND21 and left undisturbed until 4-6 months old. The ED and CON groups were halved to receive either vehicle or fluoxetine (FLX, 10 mg/kg, 31 days). Thus, four treatment groups were studied: CON-VEH, CON-FLX, ED-VEH and ED-FLX, n = 8 each. On a progressive ratio schedule, ED-VEH animals showed significantly reduced motivation to obtain sucrose versus CON-VEH, and this reward-motivation deficit was reversed by FLX. Activity in the forced swim test was unaffected by ED and increased by FLX. Quantitative autoradiography was used to determine 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C receptor binding with [O-methyl-(3)H]WAY 100635 and [(3)H]mesulergine (added spiperone and 8-OH-DPAT), respectively. In ED-VEH versus CON-VEH, 5-HT1A receptor binding was significantly reduced in anterior cingulate, motor cortex, ventral hippocampal CA1 and dorsal raphé; this was reversed by chronic FLX. Concomitant ED-dependent reductions observed in 5-HT2C (motor and frontal cortices, ventral CA1 and dorsal raphé) and D2 (dorsolateral striatum and accumbens) binding were not reversed by FLX. Because chronic FLX treatment reversed the ED-induced behavioural and 5-HT1A binding deficits, the 5-HT1A receptor is implicated as a selective therapeutic target.

  16. Early Intravenous Delivery of Human Brain Stromal Cells Modulates Systemic Inflammation and Leads to Vasoprotection in Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badner, Anna; Vawda, Reaz; Laliberte, Alex; Hong, James; Mikhail, Mirriam; Jose, Alejandro; Dragas, Rachel; Fehlings, Michael

    2016-08-01

    : Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a life-threatening condition with multifaceted complications and limited treatment options. In SCI, the initial physical trauma is closely followed by a series of secondary events, including inflammation and blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption, which further exacerbate injury. This secondary pathology is partially mediated by the systemic immune response to trauma, in which cytokine production leads to the recruitment/activation of inflammatory cells. Because early intravenous delivery of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been shown to mitigate inflammation in various models of neurologic disease, this study aimed to assess these effects in a rat model of SCI (C7-T1, 35-gram clip compression) using human brain-derived stromal cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction for a human-specific DNA sequence was used to assess cell biodistribution/clearance and confirmed that only a small proportion (approximately 0.001%-0.002%) of cells are delivered to the spinal cord, with the majority residing in the lung, liver, and spleen. Intriguingly, although cell populations drastically declined in all aforementioned organs, there remained a persistent population in the spleen at 7 days. Furthermore, the cell infusion significantly increased splenic and circulating levels of interleukin-10-a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine. Through this suppression of the systemic inflammatory response, the cells also reduced acute spinal cord BSCB permeability, hemorrhage, and lesion volume. These early effects further translated into enhanced functional recovery and tissue sparing 10 weeks after SCI. This work demonstrates an exciting therapeutic approach whereby a minimally invasive cell-transplantation procedure can effectively reduce secondary damage after SCI through systemic immunomodulation. Central nervous system pericytes (perivascular stromal cells) have recently gained significant attention within the scientific community. In addition to

  17. Early-Life Characteristics, Psychiatric History, and Cognition Trajectories in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Although considerable attention has been paid to the relationship between later-life depression and cognitive function, the relationship between a history of psychiatric problems and cognitive function is not very well documented. Few studies of relationships between childhood health, childhood disadvantage, and cognitive…

  18. Long-Term Effects of Early-Life Otitis Media on Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumach, Anne; Gerrits, Ellen; Chenault, Michelene; Anteunis, Lucien

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to examine the long-term consequences of early-life otitis media (OM) and the associated hearing loss (HL) on language skills of school-aged children. Method: In a prospective study, the middle-ear status of 65 Dutch healthy-born children was documented every 3 months during their first 2 years of life;…

  19. Does adversity early in life affect general population suicide rates? a cross-national study

    OpenAIRE

    Ritesh Bhandarkar; Ajit Shah

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. Methods: The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. Results: General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the pe...

  20. Stable carbon isotope fractionation in the search for life on early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, L. J.; Desmarais, D.

    1989-01-01

    The utility of measurements of C-13/C-12 ratios in organic vs inorganic deposits for searching for signs of life on early Mars is considered. It is suggested that three assumptions are necessary. First, if there was life on Mars, it caused the fractionation of carbon isotopes in analogy with past biological activity on earth. Second, the fractionation would be detectable. Third, if a fractionation would be observed, there exist no abiotic explanations for the observed fractionation pattern.

  1. Development of atopic dermatitis and its association with prenatal and early life exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Roduit, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Over 20% of children in industrialized countries are affected by atopic dermatitis. From epidemiological studies, it is quite obvious that the worldwide prevalence of atopic dermatitis has considerably increased over the past decades and constitutes a major public health problem. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that occurs in very early life and frequently precedes the development of asthma and allergic rhinitis during the first several years of life. Although a large...

  2. The decline of venture capital investment in early-stage life sciences poses a challenge to continued innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jonathan J

    2015-02-01

    A key element required for translating new knowledge into effective therapies is early-stage venture capital that finances the work needed to identify a lead molecule or medical device prototype and to develop it to the proof-of-concept stage. This early investment is distinguished by great uncertainty over whether the molecule or prototype is safe and effective, the stability of the regulatory standards to which clinical trials are designed, and the likelihood that large follow-on investments for commercial development can be secured. Regulatory and reimbursement policies have a profound impact on the amount of capital and the types of life science projects that investors pursue. In this article I analyze several recent trends in early-stage venture capital funding, describe how these trends are influenced by regulatory and reimbursement policies, and discuss the role of policy makers in bringing new treatments to market. Policy makers can foster renewed private investment into critically needed early-stage products by increasing Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding and public support for clinical trials in targeted areas of interest; creating regulatory pathways to enable early testing of experimental compounds in limited populations; and offering economic incentives for investors and developers in designated therapeutic areas. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. Tooth loss early in life suppresses neurogenesis and synaptophysin expression in the hippocampus and impairs learning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Kin-Ya; Murabayashi, Chika; Kotachi, Mika; Suzuki, Ayumi; Mori, Daisuke; Sato, Yuichi; Onozuka, Minoru; Azuma, Kagaku; Iinuma, Mitsuo

    2017-02-01

    Tooth loss induced neurological alterations through activation of a stress hormone, corticosterone. Age-related hippocampal morphological and functional changes were accelerated by early tooth loss in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8). In order to explore the mechanism underlying the impaired hippocampal function resulting from early masticatory dysfunction due to tooth loss, we investigated the effects of early tooth loss on plasma corticosterone levels, learning ability, neurogenesis, and synaptophysin expression in the hippocampus later in life of SAMP8 mice. We examined the effects of tooth loss soon after tooth eruption (1 month of age) on plasma corticosterone levels, learning ability in the Morris water maze, newborn cell proliferation, survival and differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, and synaptophysin expression in the hippocampus of aged (8 months of age) SAMP8 mice. Aged mice with early tooth loss exhibited increased plasma corticosterone levels, hippocampus-dependent learning deficits in the Morris water maze, decreased cell proliferation, and cell survival in the dentate gyrus, and suppressed synaptophysin expression in the hippocampus. Newborn cell differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, however, was not affected by early tooth loss. These findings suggest that learning deficits in aged SAMP8 mice with tooth loss soon after tooth eruption are associated with suppressed neurogenesis and decreased synaptophysin expression resulting from increased plasma corticosterone levels, and that long-term tooth loss leads to impaired cognitive function in older age. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Restoring Serotonergic Homeostasis in the Lateral Hypothalamus Rescues Sleep Disturbances Induced by Early-Life Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazea, Mary; Patchev, Alexandre V; Anderzhanova, Elmira; Leidmaa, Este; Pissioti, Anna; Flachskamm, Cornelia; Almeida, Osborne F X; Kimura, Mayumi

    2018-01-10

    Early-life obesity predisposes to obesity in adulthood, a condition with broad medical implications including sleep disorders, which can exacerbate metabolic disturbances and disrupt cognitive and affective behaviors. In this study, we examined the long-term impact of transient peripubertal diet-induced obesity (ppDIO, induced between 4 and 10 weeks of age) on sleep-wake behavior in male mice. EEG and EMG recordings revealed that ppDIO increases sleep during the active phase but reduces resting-phase sleep quality. This impaired sleep phenotype persisted for up to 1 year, although animals were returned to a non-obesiogenic diet from postnatal week 11 onwards. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for the ppDIO-induced alterations in sleep, we focused on the lateral hypothalamus (LH). Mice exposed to ppDIO did not show altered mRNA expression levels of orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone, two peptides that are important for sleep-wake behavior and food intake. Conversely, the LH of ppDIO-exposed mice had reduced contents of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a neurotransmitter involved in both sleep-wake and satiety regulation. Interestingly, an acute peripheral injection of the satiety-signaling peptide YY 3-36 increased 5-HT turnover in the LH and ameliorated the ppDIO-induced sleep disturbances, suggesting the therapeutic potential of this peptide. These findings provide new insights into how sleep-wake behavior is programmed during early life and how peripheral and central signals are integrated to coordinate sleep. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Adult physiology and behavior are strongly influenced by dynamic reorganization of the brain during puberty. The present work shows that obesity during puberty leads to persistently dysregulated patterns of sleep and wakefulness by blunting serotonergic signaling in the lateral hypothalamus. It also shows that pharmacological mimicry of satiety with peptide YY 3-36 can reverse this neurochemical imbalance and

  5. Early life exposure to antibiotics and the subsequent development of eczema, wheeze, and allergic sensitization in the first 2 years of life: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummeling, Ischa; Stelma, Foekje F.; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Snijders, Bianca E. P.; Penders, John; Huber, Machteld; van Ree, Ronald; van den Brandt, Piet A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic exposure in early life may be associated with atopic disease development either by interfering with bacterial commensal flora or by modifying the course of bacterial infections. We evaluated early life exposure to antibiotics and the subsequent development of eczema, wheeze,

  6. Early-Life Parent-Child Relationships and Adult Children's Support of Unpartnered Parents in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen; Wu, Hsueh-Sheng

    2018-02-08

    The proportion of older adults who are unpartnered has increased significantly over the past 25 years. Unpartnered older adults often rely on their adult children for support. Most previous studies have focused on proximal factors associated with adult children's support of their parents, while few have examined distal factors, such as parent-child relationships formed during childhood. This study fills the gap by investigating the direct and indirect associations between early-life parent-child relationships and adult children's upward transfers to unpartnered parents. Data came from two supplements to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, in which respondents were asked about their relationships with mothers and fathers before age 17 and their transfers of time and money to parents in 2013. Path models were estimated for unpartnered mother-adult child dyads and father-adult child dyads separately. For adult children of unpartnered mothers, psychological closeness has a direct, positive association with time transfer, while physical violence has an indirect association with time transfer through adult children's marital status. For adult children of unpartnered fathers, psychological closeness has neither a direct nor an indirect association with time or money transfer, but physical violence has a direct, negative association with time transfer. Early-life parent-child relationships play a pivotal role in influencing adult children's caregiving behavior, both directly and indirectly. Our findings suggest that by improving their relationships with children early in life, parents may be able to increase the amount of time transfer that they receive in late life. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Early life factors and dental caries in 5-year-old children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangyu; Bernabé, Eduardo; Liu, Xuenan; Gallagher, Jennifer E; Zheng, Shuguo

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between early life factors and dental caries among 5-year-old Chinese children. Data from 9722 preschool children who participated in the third National Oral Health Survey of China were analysed. Information on early life (birth weight, breastfeeding and age when toothbrushing started), child (sex, ethnicity, birth order and dental behaviours) and family factors (parental education, household income, place of residence, number of children in the family, respondent's age and relation to the child) were obtained from parental questionnaires. Children were also clinically examined to assess dental caries experience using the decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index. The association of early life factors with dmft was evaluated in negative binomial regression models. We found that birth weight was not associated with dental caries experience; children who were exclusively and predominantly formula-fed had lower dmft values than those exclusively breastfed; and children who started brushing later in life had higher dmft values than those who were brushing within the first year. Only one in seven of all children received regular toothbrushing twice per day, and only 34.7% had commenced toothbrushing by the age of 3 years. This study shows certain early life factors play a role in dental caries among Chinese preschool children and provides important insights to shape public health initiatives on the importance of introducing early toothbrushing. The early environment, especially the age when parents introduce toothbrushing to their children, can be an important factor to prevent childhood dental caries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The human early-life exposome (HELIX): project rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Slama, Rémy; Robinson, Oliver; Chatzi, Leda; Coen, Muireann; van den Hazel, Peter; Thomsen, Cathrine; Wright, John; Athersuch, Toby J; Avellana, Narcis; Basagaña, Xavier; Brochot, Celine; Bucchini, Luca; Bustamante, Mariona; Carracedo, Angel; Casas, Maribel; Estivill, Xavier; Fairley, Lesley; van Gent, Diana; Gonzalez, Juan R; Granum, Berit; Gražulevičienė, Regina; Gutzkow, Kristine B; Julvez, Jordi; Keun, Hector C; Kogevinas, Manolis; McEachan, Rosemary R C; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Sabidó, Eduard; Schwarze, Per E; Siroux, Valérie; Sunyer, Jordi; Want, Elizabeth J; Zeman, Florence; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2014-06-01

    Developmental periods in early life may be particularly vulnerable to impacts of environmental exposures. Human research on this topic has generally focused on single exposure-health effect relationships. The "exposome" concept encompasses the totality of exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome. The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) project is a new collaborative research project that aims to implement novel exposure assessment and biomarker methods to characterize early-life exposure to multiple environmental factors and associate these with omics biomarkers and child health outcomes, thus characterizing the "early-life exposome." Here we describe the general design of the project. In six existing birth cohort studies in Europe, HELIX will estimate prenatal and postnatal exposure to a broad range of chemical and physical exposures. Exposure models will be developed for the full cohorts totaling 32,000 mother-child pairs, and biomarkers will be measured in a subset of 1,200 mother-child pairs. Nested repeat-sampling panel studies (n = 150) will collect data on biomarker variability, use smartphones to assess mobility and physical activity, and perform personal exposure monitoring. Omics techniques will determine molecular profiles (metabolome, proteome, transcriptome, epigenome) associated with exposures. Statistical methods for multiple exposures will provide exposure-response estimates for fetal and child growth, obesity, neurodevelopment, and respiratory outcomes. A health impact assessment exercise will evaluate risks and benefits of combined exposures. HELIX is one of the first attempts to describe the early-life exposome of European populations and unravel its relation to omics markers and health in childhood. As proof of concept, it will form an important first step toward the life-course exposome.

  9. Lake sediments record prehistoric lead pollution related to early copper production in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeani, David P; Abbott, Mark B; Steinman, Byron A; Bain, Daniel J

    2013-06-04

    The mining and use of copper by prehistoric people on Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula is one of the oldest examples of metalworking. We analyzed the concentration of lead, titanium, magnesium, iron, and organic matter in sediment cores recovered from three lakes located near mine pits to investigate the timing, location, and magnitude of ancient copper mining pollution. Lead concentrations were normalized to lithogenic metals and organic matter to account for processes that can influence natural (or background) lead delivery. Nearly simultaneous lead enrichments occurred at Lake Manganese and Copper Falls Lake ∼8000 and 7000 years before present (yr BP), indicating that copper extraction occurred concurrently in at least two locations on the peninsula. The poor temporal coherence among the lead enrichments from ∼6300 to 5000 yr BP at each lake suggests that the focus of copper mining and annealing shifted through time. In sediment younger than ∼5000 yr BP, lead concentrations remain at background levels at all three lakes, excluding historic lead increases starting ∼150 yr BP. Our work demonstrates that lead emissions associated with both the historic and Old Copper Complex tradition are detectable and can be used to determine the temporal and geographic pattern of metal pollution.

  10. Early Life Conditions and Trends in Mortality at Later Life: Is There any Relationship?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Amiri (Masoud)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and gastric cancer have fallen during recent decades, especially in developed countries; however, IHD and stroke remain among the top leading causes of death in Europe. Furthermore, wide geographic variations in mortality rates and

  11. Automatic segmentation of the hippocampus for preterm neonates from early-in-life to term-equivalent age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Guo

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: MAGeT-Brain is capable of segmenting hippocampi accurately in preterm neonates, even at early-in-life. Hippocampal asymmetry with a larger right side is demonstrated on early-in-life images, suggesting that this phenomenon has its onset in the 3rd trimester of gestation. Hippocampal volume assessed at the time of early-in-life and term-equivalent age is linearly associated with GA at birth, whereby smaller volumes are associated with earlier birth.

  12. Early Archean serpentine mud volcanoes at Isua, Greenland, as a niche for early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Marie-Laure; Quitté, Ghylaine; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Rosing, Minik T; Reynard, Bruno; Moynier, Frederic; Douchet, Chantal; Albarède, Francis

    2011-10-25

    The Isua Supracrustal Belt, Greenland, of Early Archean age (3.81-3.70 Ga) represents the oldest crustal segment on Earth. Its complex lithology comprises an ophiolite-like unit and volcanic rocks reminiscent of boninites, which tie Isua supracrustals to an island arc environment. We here present zinc (Zn) isotope compositions measured on serpentinites and other rocks from the Isua supracrustal sequence and on serpentinites from modern ophiolites, midocean ridges, and the Mariana forearc. In stark contrast to modern midocean ridge and ophiolite serpentinites, Zn in Isua and Mariana serpentinites is markedly depleted in heavy isotopes with respect to the igneous average. Based on recent results of Zn isotope fractionation between coexisting species in solution, the Isua serpentinites were permeated by carbonate-rich, high-pH hydrothermal solutions at medium temperature (100-300 °C). Zinc isotopes therefore stand out as a pH meter for fossil hydrothermal solutions. The geochemical features of the Isua fluids resemble the interstitial fluids sampled in the mud volcano serpentinites of the Mariana forearc. The reduced character and the high pH inferred for these fluids make Archean serpentine mud volcanoes a particularly favorable setting for the early stabilization of amino acids.

  13. Dual influences of early-life maternal deprivation on histone deacetylase activity and recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque Filho, Manoel Osório; de Freitas, Betânia Souza; Garcia, Rebeca Carvalho Lacerda; Crivelaro, Pedro Castilhos de Freitas; Schröder, Nadja; de Lima, Maria Noêmia Martins

    2017-03-06

    Exposure to stress early in life may negatively impact nervous system functioning, including increasing the proneness to learning and memory impairments later in life. Maternal deprivation, a model of early-life stress, hinders memory in adult rats and lessens brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hippocampus in a very heterogeneous way among individuals. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the possible epigenetic modulation underlying recognition memory impairment and reduced BDNF levels in the hippocampus of adult maternally deprived rats. We also evaluated the potential ameliorating properties of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, sodium butyrate, on memory deficits and BDNF changes related to maternal deprivation. Maternally deprived animals were categorized as 'inferior learners' and 'superior learners' according to their performance in object recognition memory task in comparison to controls. Results indicated that HDAC activity was higher in individuals submitted to maternal deprivation with the worst cognitive performance (inferior learners). Acute administration of sodium butyrate increased histone H3 acetylation and BDNF levels, and restored recognition memory in maternally deprived animals with the worst cognitive performance. Moreover, we also showed that there is a positive correlation between BDNF levels and memory performance. Taken together, the results indicated that HDAC inhibitors could be considered as a possible therapeutic agent to improve cognitive performance in inferior learners. Further studies need to be conducted for a better comprehension of the mechanisms related to persistent alterations observed in adult life induced by early stressful circumstances and those leading to resilience. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Sperm Activity and Early Life Stages of the Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Vihtakari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Larval stages are among those most vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA. Projected atmospheric CO2 levels for the end of this century may lead to negative impacts on communities dominated by calcifying taxa with planktonic life stages. We exposed Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm and early life stages to pHT levels of 8.0 (current pH and 7.6 (2100 level by manipulating pCO2 level (380 and 1000 ppm. Sperm activity was examined at ambient temperatures (16–17 °C using individual males as replicates. We also assessed the effects of temperature (ambient and ≈20 °C and pH on larval size, survival, respiration and calcification of late trochophore/early D-veliger stages using a cross-factorial design. Increased pCO2 had a negative effect on the percentage of motile sperm (mean response ratio R= 71% and sperm swimming speed (R= 74%, possibly indicating reduced fertilization capacity of sperm in low concentrations. Increased temperature had a more prominent effect on larval stages than pCO2, reducing performance (RSize = 90% and RSurvival = 70% and increasing energy demand (RRespiration = 429%. We observed no significant interactions between pCO2 and temperature. Our results suggest that increasing temperature might have a larger impact on very early larval stages of M. galloprovincialis than OA at levels predicted for the end of the century.

  15. The Everyday Life of Children Across Early Childhood Institution and The Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the everyday life of Danish children across different social practices and explores what this outset can tell us about the life of children and families. Building on the critique of classical approaches in developmental psychology (e.g. Burman 1994; James, Jenks, & Prout...... 1998) and family research (e.g. Leira 1993; Thorne & Yalom 1982) the article puts forward a decentred approach to family life. The aim is to show how the institutional context and family context sets conditions for each other - and that interplay sets conditions for the development of the children...... and professionals influences the parents' possibilities for supporting their children's life outside the family. That means that the institutional practice influences their possibilities as parents. Keywords: children's perspectives; family life; early childhood institution; communities of children; parent (and...

  16. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  17. Helping families: childcare, early education and the work-life balance

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer, M.; Crawford, C.; Dearden, L.

    2005-01-01

    Since Labour came to power in May 1997, there have been substantial increases in spending aimed at helping families with formal childcare, early education and the work-life balance. We look at the effects of these reforms and at the proposals of the parties in this area.

  18. Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

  19. Early life developmental effects of marine persistent organic pollutants on the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs Anselmo, H.M.R.; Koerting, L.; Devito, S.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Dubbeldam, M.; Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.; Murk, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    A new 16-day echinoid early life stage (ELS) bioassay was developed to allow for prolonged observation of possible adverse effects during embryogenesis and larval development of the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris. Subsequently, the newly developed bioassay was applied to study the effects of key

  20. The consequences of early life adversity: neurobiological, behavioural and epigenetic adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maccari, S.; Krugers, H.J.; Morley-Fletcher, S.; Szyf, M.; Brunton, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    During the perinatal period, the brain is particularly sensitive to remodelling by environmental factors. Adverse early life experiences, such as stress exposure or sub-optimal maternal care can have long-lasting detrimental consequences for an individual. This phenomenon is often referred to as

  1. Early-in-life thermal performance of UO2--PuO2 fast reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.B.; Leggett, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results from the combined analyses of two thermal performance tests, HEDL P-19 and HEDL P-20 are described. The tests were designed to provide data on the power required to cause incipient fuel melting early in life under conditions prototypic of FFTF driver fuel pins and similar FBR fuel systems

  2. Family Quality of Life for Families in Early Intervention in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Joana M.; Baqués, Natasha; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Dalmau, Mariona; Giné, Climent; Gràcia, Marta; Vilaseca, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Early intervention (EI) has been shown to be an essential resource for meeting the needs and priorities of children with intellectual and developmental disability and their families. The objective of this study was to examine (a) the perceived quality of life of families attending EI centers in Spain and (b) its relationship with characteristics…

  3. Early-life Socio-economic Status and Adult Health: The Role of Positive Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Kyle W; LeRoy, Angie S; Fagundes, Christopher P

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a further understanding of the relationship between early-life socio-economic status (SES) and adult health disparities. This was accomplished through evaluation of state indicators of positive and negative affect as mechanisms through which early-life SES was associated with susceptibility to a rhinovirus (i.e. the common cold). Analyses were conducted among 286 adults in a viral challenge study in which participants were exposed to a rhinovirus via nasal drops and cold symptoms were evaluated over a period of 5 days. Participant age, body mass index, sex, education, ethnicity, pre-challenge virus-specific antibody titres and subjective adult SES, along with virus type and season of participation, were included as covariates. Early-life SES was associated with cold incidence through state positive affect, but not state negative affect. In addition, contrast analysis indicated that the indirect effect through state positive affect was stronger than the indirect effect through state negative affect. Findings provide further support for early-life SES being an important variable associated with adult health, and that state self-reported positive affect may be an underlying mechanism associated with susceptibility to rhinoviruses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Hyper-excitability and epilepsy generated by chronic early-life stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline M. Dubé

    2015-01-01

    In conclusion, CES of limited duration has long-lasting effects on brain excitability and may promote age-specific seizures and epilepsy. Whereas the mechanisms involved require further study, these findings provide important insights into environmental contributions to early-life seizures.

  5. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment among Mexican American Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…

  6. Gut microbiota in early life and its impact on allergic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, N.B.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis addresses the development of the intestinal microbiota in infancy, investigated by different molecular approaches (all based on rRNA gene analysis), and includes studies describing consequences of early life modulation of microbiota, by supplementation of probiotics, on composition and

  7. Association of early-life antibiotic use and protective effects of breastfeeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpela, Katri; Salonen, Anne; Virta, Lauri J.; Kekkonen, Riina A.; Vos, de Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Long duration of breastfeeding is known to reduce the frequency of infections and the risk of overweight, both of which are prevalent health problems among children, but the mechanisms are unclear. Objectives: To test whether early-life antibiotic use in children prevents the

  8. Early life stress shapes female reproductive strategy through eggshell pigmentation in Japanese quail

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duval, C.; Zimmer, C.; Mikšík, Ivan; Cassey, P.; Spencer, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 208, Nov 1 (2014), s. 146-153 ISSN 0016-6480 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : breeding conditions * early-life stress * eggshell pigmentation * Japanese quail Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.470, year: 2014

  9. Externally driven mortality of cod early life stages in the central Baltic: hydrography vs. predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, Matthias

    pressure by clupeids on the early life stages of cod could have enhanced cod recruitment in recent years. The analyses are based on a large dataset of stomach content of clupeids, cod egg abundances from ichthyoplankton surveys, and hydrographic measurements. We investigate temporal and spatial variability...

  10. Parent Attachment and Early Adolescents' Life Satisfaction: The Mediating Effect of Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.

    2013-01-01

    Research using an attachment theory framework has provided evidence that parent attachment is one of the crucial determinants of psychological adjustment in adolescents, including global life satisfaction (LS). This study investigated the interrelationships among parent attachment, hope, and LS during early adolescence, including the mediation…

  11. Maternal Early Life Experiences and Parenting: The Mediating Role of Cortisol and Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests that early life adversity may affect subsequent parenting. Animal studies investigating mechanisms of transmission have focused on biological factors; whereas research in humans has emphasized cognitive and psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that neuropsychological and physiological factors would act as mediators…

  12. Effect of early-life gut mucosal compromise on disease progression in NOD mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Katja M.; Hansen, Camilla HF; Krych, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    Disease expression in spontaneous nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice depends on environmental stimuli such as stress, diet, and gut microbiota composition. We evaluated a brief, early-life gut intervention in which pups were weaned to low-dose dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). We hypothesized that the mucus...

  13. Impaired Cognition in Rats with Cortical Dysplasia: Additional Impact of Early-Life Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marcella M.; Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal; Holmes, Gregory L.; Scott, Rod C.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most common and serious co-morbidities in patients with epilepsy is cognitive impairment. While early-life seizures are considered a major cause for cognitive impairment, it is not known whether it is the seizures, the underlying neurological substrate or a combination that has the largest impact on eventual learning and memory. Teasing…

  14. DNA Methylation: A Mechanism for Embedding Early Life Experiences in the Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyf, Moshe; Bick, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Although epidemiological data provide evidence that early life experience plays a critical role in human development, the mechanism of how this works remains in question. Recent data from human and animal literature suggest that epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, are involved not only in cellular differentiation but also in the…

  15. Immunological effects of reduced mucosal integrity in the early life of BALB/c mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Katja Maria Bangsgaard; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Krych, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    Certain stimuli at the gut barrier may be necessary in early life to establish a proper balance of immune tolerance. We evaluated a compromised barrier in juvenile mice in relation to microbiota and local and systemic immunity. BALB/c mice were treated with a low dose of dextran sulfate sodium (D...

  16. Barium distributions in teeth reveal early-life dietary transitions in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Christine; Smith, Tanya M; Bradman, Asa; Hinde, Katie; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Bishop, David; Hare, Dominic J; Doble, Philip; Eskenazi, Brenda; Arora, Manish

    2013-06-13

    Early-life dietary transitions reflect fundamental aspects of primate evolution and are important determinants of health in contemporary human populations. Weaning is critical to developmental and reproductive rates; early weaning can have detrimental health effects but enables shorter inter-birth intervals, which influences population growth. Uncovering early-life dietary history in fossils is hampered by the absence of prospectively validated biomarkers that are not modified during fossilization. Here we show that large dietary shifts in early life manifest as compositional variations in dental tissues. Teeth from human children and captive macaques, with prospectively recorded diet histories, demonstrate that barium (Ba) distributions accurately reflect dietary transitions from the introduction of mother's milk through the weaning process. We also document dietary transitions in a Middle Palaeolithic juvenile Neanderthal, which shows a pattern of exclusive breastfeeding for seven months, followed by seven months of supplementation. After this point, Ba levels in enamel returned to baseline prenatal levels, indicating an abrupt cessation of breastfeeding at 1.2 years of age. Integration of Ba spatial distributions and histological mapping of tooth formation enables novel studies of the evolution of human life history, dietary ontogeny in wild primates, and human health investigations through accurate reconstructions of breastfeeding history.

  17. Barium distributions in teeth reveal early life dietary transitions in primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Christine; Smith, Tanya M.; Bradman, Asa; Hinde, Katie; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Bishop, David; Hare, Dominic J.; Doble, Philip; Eskenazi, Brenda; Arora, Manish

    2013-01-01

    Early life dietary transitions reflect fundamental aspects of primate evolution and are important determinants of health in contemporary human populations1,2. Weaning is critical to developmental and reproductive rates; early weaning can have detrimental health effects but enables shorter inter-birth intervals, which influences population growth3. Uncovering early life dietary history in fossils is hampered by the absence of prospectively-validated biomarkers that are not modified during fossilisation4. Here we show that major dietary shifts in early life manifest as compositional variations in dental tissues. Teeth from human children and captive macaques, with prospectively-recorded diet histories, demonstrate that barium (Ba) distributions accurately reflect dietary transitions from the introduction of mother’s milk and through the weaning process. We also document transitions in a Middle Palaeolithic juvenile Neanderthal, which shows a pattern of exclusive breastfeeding for seven months, followed by seven months of supplementation. After this point, Ba levels in enamel returned to baseline prenatal levels, suggesting an abrupt cessation of breastfeeding at 1.2 years of age. Integration of Ba spatial distributions and histological mapping of tooth formation enables novel studies of the evolution of human life history, dietary ontogeny in wild primates, and human health investigations through accurate reconstructions of breastfeeding history. PMID:23698370

  18. Organizational design configurations in the early stages of firm’s life cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, Luigi; Gianecchini, Martina; Campagnolo, Diego

    2017-01-01

    http://ocs.editorial.upv.es/index.php/CARMA/CARMA2016 Mosca, L.; Gianecchini, M.; Campagnolo, D. (2017). Organizational design configurations in the early stages of firm’s life cycle. Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. doi:10.4995/CARMA2016.2015.3104. OCS

  19. Temperature influences selective mortality during the early life stages of a coral reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauna L Rankin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD, early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality.

  20. Work-Life Balance, Burnout, and Satisfaction of Early Career Pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starmer, Amy J; Frintner, Mary Pat; Freed, Gary L

    2016-04-01

    Data describing factors associated with work-life balance, burnout, and career and life satisfaction for early career pediatricians are limited. We sought to identify personal and work factors related to these outcomes. We analyzed 2013 survey data of pediatricians who graduated residency between 2002 and 2004. Dependent variables included: (1) balance between personal and professional commitments, (2) current burnout in work, (3) career satisfaction, and (4) life satisfaction. Multivariable logistic regression examined associations of personal and work characteristics with each of the 4 dependent variables. A total of 93% of participants completed the survey (n = 840). A majority reported career (83%) and life (71%) satisfaction. Fewer reported current appropriate work-life balance (43%) or burnout (30%). In multivariable modeling, excellent/very good health, having support from physician colleagues, and adequate resources for patient care were all found to be associated with a lower prevalence of burnout and a higher likelihood of work-life balance and career and life satisfaction. Having children, race, and clinical specialty were not found to be significantly associated with any of the 4 outcome measures. Female gender was associated with a lower likelihood of balance and career satisfaction but did not have an association with burnout or life satisfaction. Burnout and struggles with work-life balance are common; dissatisfaction with life and career are a concern for some early career pediatricians. Efforts to minimize these outcomes should focus on encouragement of modifiable factors, including health supervision, peer support, and ensuring sufficient patient care resources. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Tara A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (four day) exposures using three doses each of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and one year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embyos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting this is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2 and plasma T3 decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages after hatching are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild.

  2. Korean Survivors of the Japanese "Comfort Women" System: Understanding the Lifelong Consequences of Early Life Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee Hoon; Lee, KyongWeon; Hand, Michelle D; Anderson, Keith A; Schleitwiler, Tess E

    2016-01-01

    Prior to and during World War II, thousands of girls and young women were abducted from Korea and forced into sexual slavery by the Japanese government. Termed comfort women, these girls and young women suffered extreme sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and trauma. Research on this group is not well-developed and people know little of the impact of this early life trauma on the lives of these women who are now in later life. Using snowball sampling, 16 older adult survivors of the comfort women system participated in semistructured qualitative interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted to gain an understanding of the trauma that these women suffered and how it impacted their lives. Results revealed the depths of the abuse these women suffered, including repeated rapes, physical beatings, humiliation, forced surgery and sterilization, and social exclusion. These early traumatic experiences appeared to reverberate throughout their lives in their family relations, their inability to marry and to conceive children, and their emotional and physical well-being throughout the life course and into later life. The experiences of these survivors illustrate the lasting impact of early-life trauma and can guide interventions with current survivors of sexual abuse or trafficking.

  3. Analysis of Potentials to Increase Iranian life Expectancy with Removing the Leading Causes of Mortality in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sasanipour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent studies on Iranian mortality clearly underscore the role of cardiovascular diseases, unintentional injuries, and cancers as three leading causes of reduced life expectancy during the last three decades. The purpose of current study is to measure the effect of these causes on 2010 life table for Iran. Materials & Method:The number of registered death by age and sex and death distribution by cause for Iran in 2010 are obtained from death registration system operated by the Ministry of Health and to know more about the population at risk population forecast information of the Statistical Centre of Iran (SCI is used. The obtained data are analyzed using Multiple Decrement Life Table and Kitagava analysis method. Results: The results show that three leading causes of death are account for 13 years potential lost life of Iranian men and women. More detailed results indicate that cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and unintentional injuries play larger roles in this regard while men are more likely to die by unintentional injuries than women. Life expectancy of middle aged men are more affected by unintentional injuries while old aged women are more affected by cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion: Particular consideration of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases of both sexes and males death by unintentional injuries is of utmost importance in reducing mortality rate and increasing life expectancy as a result.

  4. Design and safety aspect of lead and lead-bismuth cooled long-life small safe fast reactors for various core configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, S.; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    Design and safety aspects of long-life small safe fast reactors using liquid lead or lead-bismuth coolant with metallic or nitride fuel are discussed. Neutronic analyses are performed to investigate the effect of core height to diameter ratio (H/D) on design performance of the proposed reactors. All reactors are subjected to the constraint of 12 years operation without refueling and shuffling with constant 150 MWt reactor power and also to the requirement of maximum excess reactivity during burnup to be less than 0.1%Δk. The results show that the pancake design with H/D of ∼2/3 gives the most negative coolant void coefficient under the requirements for excess reactivity. Modified designs with the central region axially fulfilled with fertile material are proposed to improve the coolant void coefficient. Thermal-hydraulic analysis results show the possibility to operate the reactors up to the end of life without changing their orifice pattern, necessary pumping power for the proposed design smaller than the conventional large sodium cooled FBR, and the natural circulation contribution of 25-40% at the normal operating condition. The reactivity feedback coefficients are also estimated and appeared to be negative for all the components including the coolant density coefficient. (author)

  5. Early life stress interactions with the epigenome: potential mechanisms driving vulnerability towards psychiatric illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Michael Foster

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century a body of literature concerning the long lasting effects of early environment was produced. Adverse experiences in early life, or early life stress (ELS), is associated with a higher risk for developing various psychiatric illnesses. The mechanisms driving the complex interplay between ELS and adult phenotype has baffled many investigators for decades. Over the last decade, the new field of neuroepigenetics has emerged as one possible mechanism by which ELS can have far reaching effects on adult phenotype, behavior, and risk for psychiatric illness. Here we review two commonly investigated epigenetic mechanisms, histone modifications and DNA methylation, and the emerging field of neuroepigenetics as they relate to ELS. We discuss the current animal literature demonstrating ELS induced epigenetic modulation of gene expression that results in altered adult phenotypes. We also briefly discuss other areas in which neuroepigenetics has emerged as a potential mechanism underlying environmental and genetic interactions. PMID:25003947

  6. Early-life stress interactions with the epigenome: potential mechanisms driving vulnerability toward psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Candace R; Olive, M Foster

    2014-09-01

    Throughout the 20th century a body of literature concerning the long-lasting effects of the early environment was produced. Adverse experiences in early life, or early-life stress (ELS), is associated with a higher risk of developing various psychiatric illnesses. The mechanisms driving the complex interplay between ELS and adult phenotype has baffled many investigators for decades. Over the last decade, the new field of neuroepigenetics has emerged as one possible mechanism by which ELS can have far-reaching effects on adult phenotype, behavior, and risk for psychiatric illness. Here we review two commonly investigated epigenetic mechanisms, histone modifications and DNA methylation, and the emerging field of neuroepigenetics as they relate to ELS. We discuss the current animal literature demonstrating ELS-induced epigenetic modulation of gene expression that results in altered adult phenotypes. We also briefly discuss other areas in which neuroepigenetics has emerged as a potential mechanism underlying environmental and genetic interactions.

  7. Early-life sensitization to hen's egg predicts asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis at 14 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth Soegaard; Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben

    2017-01-01

    to groups of and to individual allergens and asthma and RC at 6 and 14 years compared to a reference group with no sensitization. RESULTS: Both transient and persistent early-life sensitization to cow's milk or hen's egg proteins were associated with asthma (aOR 3.99(1.41-11.32) and 5.95(1.78-19.92)) and RC...... (aOR 2.94(1.19-7.28) and 6.18(1.86-20.53)) at 14 years, this association being driven mainly by sensitization to hen's egg. Transient early-life sensitization to HDM had increased risk of asthma (aOR 3.80(1.17-12.41)) at 14 years. CONCLUSIONS: Early transient and persistent IgE sensitization to hen......'s egg was associated with asthma and RC at 14 years. Furthermore, sensitization to HDM was associated with asthma at 14 years. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  8. Coping with a changing environment: The effects of early life stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A.; Madaro, Angelico; Fraser, Thomas W.K.

    2016-01-01

    to environmental changes is particularly evident at early life stages. We investigated the performance of salmon, previously subjected to an unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) treatment at an early age (10 month old parr), over several months and life stages. The UCS fish showed overall higher specific growth...... rates compared with unstressed controls after smoltification, a particularly challenging life stage, and after seawater transfer. Furthermore, subjecting fish to acute stress at the end of the experiment, we found that UCS groups had an overall lower hypothalamic catecholaminergic and brain stem...... serotonergic response to stress compared with control groups. In addition, serotonergic activity was negatively correlated with final growth rates,which implies that serotonin responsive individuals have growth disadvantages. Altogether, our results may imply that a subduedmonoaminergic response in stressful...

  9. Resistance to early-life stress in mice: effects of genetic background and stress duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene M. Savignac

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Early-life stress can induce marked behavioural and physiological impairments in adulthood including cognitive deficits, depression, anxiety and gastrointestinal dysfunction. Although robust rat models of early-life stress exist there are few established effective paradigms in the mouse. Genetic background and protocol parameters used are two critical variables in such model development.Thus we investigated the impact of two different early-life stress protocols in two commonly used inbred mouse strains. C57BL/6 and innately anxious BALB/c male mice were maternally deprived 3 hrs daily, either from postnatal day 1 to 14 (Protocol 1 or 6 to 10 (Protocol 2. Animals were assessed in adulthood for cognitive performance (spontaneous alternation behaviour test, anxiety (open field, light/dark box and elevated plus maze tests and depression-related behaviours (forced swim test in addition to stress-sensitive physiological changes. Overall, the results showed that early-life stressed mice from both strains displayed good cognitive ability and no elevations in anxiety. However, paradoxical changes occurred in C57BL/6 mice as the longer protocol (protocol 1 decreased anxiety in the light-dark box and increased exploration in the elevated plus maze. In BALB/c mice there were also limited effects of maternal separation with both separation protocols inducing reductions in stress-induced defecation and protocol 1 reducing the colon length. These data suggest that, independent of stress duration, mice from both strains were on the whole resilient to the maladaptive effects of early-life stress. Thus maternal-separation models of brain-gut axis dysfunction should rely on either different stressor protocols or other strains of mice.

  10. Teaching and Leading with Emotional Intelligence: A Dilemma-Based Casebook for Early Care and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Peggy Daly

    2017-01-01

    In this much-needed text, the author provides dilemma-based teaching cases that teachers and early childhood leaders can analyze and discuss to build problem-solving and decision-making skills. Readers will reflect on challenges they are likely to experience in practice, addressing issues such as linguistically and culturally isolated children,…

  11. Kindling of Life Stress in Bipolar Disorder: Effects of Early Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G; Weiss, Rachel B; Burke, Taylor A; Boland, Elaine M; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2017-05-01

    Most theoretical frameworks regarding the role of life stress in bipolar disorders (BD) do not incorporate the possibility of a changing relationship between psychosocial context and episode initiation across the course of the disorder. The kindling hypothesis theorizes that over the longitudinal course of recurrent affective disorders, the relationship between major life stressors and episode initiation declines (Post, 1992). The present study aimed to test an extension of the kindling hypothesis in BD by examining the effect of early life adversity on the relationship between proximal life events and prospectively assessed mood episodes. Data from 145 bipolar participants (59.3% female, 75.2% Caucasian, and mean age of 20.19 years; SD = 1.75 years) were collected as part of the Temple-Wisconsin Longitudinal Investigation of Bipolar Spectrum Project (112 Bipolar II; 33 Cyclothymic disorder). Participants completed a self-report measure of early adversity at baseline and interview-assessed mood episodes and life events at regular 4-month follow-ups. Results indicate that early childhood adversity sensitized bipolar participants to the effects of recent stressors only for depressive episodes and not hypomanic episodes within BD. This was particularly the case with minor negative events. The current study extends prior research examining the kindling model in BD using a methodologically rigorous assessment of life stressors and mood episode occurrence. Clinicians should assess experiences of early adversity in individuals with BD as it may impact reactivity to developing depressive episodes in response to future stressors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Lead user innovation and entrepreneurship in the virtual world: A study of Second Life residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra, Y.

    2009-01-01

    While prior research have investigated factors, processes and pathways traversed in lead user innovation within the three-dimensional concept of space and time, there is a scant attention on lead user innovation and ‘user entrepreneurship’ that take place within the four-dimensional concept of space

  13. [Quality of life in visual impaired children treated for Early Visual Stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messa, Alcione Aparecida; Nakanami, Célia Regina; Lopes, Marcia Caires Bestilleiro

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of life in visually impaired children followed in the Early Visual Stimulation Ambulatory of Unifesp in two moments, before and after rehabilitational intervention of multiprofessional team. A CVFQ quality of life questionnaire was used. This instrument has a version for less than three years old children and another one for children older than three years (three to seven years) divided in six subscales: General health, General vision health, Competence, Personality, Family impact and Treatment. The correlation between the subscales on two moments was significant. There was a statistically significant difference in general vision health (p=0,029) and other important differences obtained in general health, family impact and quality of life general score. The questionnaire showed to be effective in order to measure the quality of life related to vision on families followed on this ambulatory. The multidisciplinary interventions provided visual function and familiar quality of life improvement. The quality of life related to vision in children followed in Early Visual Stimulation Ambulatory of Unifesp showed a significant improvement on general vision health.

  14. Effects of maternal history of depression and early life maltreatment on children's health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Katja; Fuchs, Anna; Bermpohl, Felix; Meyer, Justus; Führer, Daniel; Reichl, Corinna; Reck, Corinna; Kluczniok, Dorothea; Kaess, Michael; Hindi Attar, Catherine; Möhler, Eva; Bierbaum, Anna-Lena; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Jaite, Charlotte; Winter, Sibylle Maria; Herpertz, Sabine C; Brunner, Romuald; Bödeker, Katja; Resch, Franz

    2018-01-01

    There is a well-established link between maternal depression and child mental health. Similar effects have been found for maternal history of early life maltreatment (ELM). However, studies investigating the relationship of children's quality of life and maternal depression are scarce and none have been conducted for the association with maternal ELM. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal history of ELM and depression on children's health-related quality of life and to identify mediating factors accounting for these effects. Our study involved 194 mothers with and without history of depression and/or ELM and their children between five and 12 years. Children's health-related quality of life was assessed by maternal proxy- and child self-ratings using the KIDSCREEN. We considered maternal sensitivity and maternal parenting stress as potential mediators. We found an effect of maternal history of depression but not of maternal history of ELM on health-related quality of life. Maternal stress and sensitivity mediated the effects of maternal depression on child global health-related quality of life, as well as on the dimensions Autonomy & Parent Relation, School Environment (maternal and child rating), and Physical Wellbeing (child rating). Due to the cross-sectional design of the study, causal interpretations must be made with caution. Some scales yielded low internal consistency. Maternal impairments in areas of parenting which possibly developed during acute depression persist even after remission of acute affective symptoms. Interventions should target parenting stress and sensitivity in parents with prior depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of body size, nutrition and socioeconomic position in early life on the epigenome: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, Jane; Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Hardy, Rebecca

    2017-07-05

    Body size, nutrition and socioeconomic position (SEP) in early life have been associated with a range of later life health outcomes. Epigenetic regulation is one mechanism through which these early life factors may impact later life health. The aim of this review protocol is to outline procedures to document the influence of body size, nutrition and SEP in early life on the epigenome. MEDLINE, Embase and BIOSIS will be systematically searched using pre-defined keywords. Additional studies will be identified through manual searching of reference lists. Two independent researchers will assess the eligibility and quality of each study, with disagreements being resolved through discussion or a third reviewer. Studies will be included if they have epigenetic markers measured either at the same time as, or after, the early life exposure and, have a measure of body size, nutrition or SEP in early life (up to 12 years), are in the English language and are from a sample of community-dwelling participants. This protocol will be used to collate the evidence for the effect of early life factors on the epigenome. Findings will form a component of a wider research study examining epigenetic responses to exposures in early life and over the life course and its impact on healthy ageing using data from population-based cohort studies. PROSPERO CRD42016050193.

  16. Early-Life Nutritional Programming of Cognition-The Fundamental Role of Epigenetic Mechanisms in Mediating the Relation between Early-Life Environment and Learning and Memory Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Laura; Chen, Hong; Pan, Yuan-Xiang

    2017-03-01

    The perinatal period is a window of heightened plasticity that lays the groundwork for future anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral outcomes. During this time, maternal diet plays a pivotal role in the maturation of vital organs and the establishment of neuronal connections. However, when perinatal nutrition is either lacking in specific micro- and macronutrients or overloaded with excess calories, the consequences can be devastating and long lasting. The brain is particularly sensitive to perinatal insults, with several neurologic and psychiatric disorders having been linked to a poor in utero environment. Diseases characterized by learning and memory impairments, such as autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer disease, are hypothesized to be attributed in part to environmental factors, and evidence suggests that the etiology of these conditions may date back to very early life. In this review, we discuss the role of the early-life diet in shaping cognitive outcomes in offspring. We explore the endocrine and immune mechanisms responsible for these phenotypes and discuss how these systemic factors converge to change the brain's epigenetic landscape and regulate learning and memory across the lifespan. Through understanding the maternal programming of cognition, critical steps may be taken toward preventing and treating diseases that compromise learning and memory. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Early life environmental and pharmacological stressors result in persistent dysregulations of the serotonergic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiyan eWong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulations in the brain serotonergic system and exposure to environmental stressors have been implicated in the development of major depressive disorder. Here, we investigate the interactions between the stress and serotonergic systems by characterizing the behavioral and biochemical effects of chronic stress applied during early-life or adulthood in wild type (WT mice and mice with deficient tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2 function. We showed that chronic mild stress applied in adulthood did not affect the behaviors and serotonin levels of WT and TPH2 knock-in (KI mice. Whereas, maternal separation (MS stress increased anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors of WT mice, with no detectable behavioral changes in TPH2 KI mice. Biochemically, we found that MS WT mice had reduced brain serotonin levels, which was attributed to increased expression of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A. The increased MAO A expression was detected in MS WT mice at 4 weeks old and adulthood. No change in TPH2 expression was detected. To determine whether a pharmacological stressor, dexamethasone (Dex, will result in similar biochemical results obtained from MS, we used an in vitro system, SH-SY5Y cells, and found that Dex treatment resulted in increased MAO A expression levels. We then treated WT mice with Dex for 5 days, either during postnatal days 7-11 or adulthood. Both groups of Dex treated WT mice had reduced basal corticosterone and glucocorticoid receptors expression levels. However, only Dex treatment during PND7-11 resulted in reduced serotonin levels and increased MAO A expression. Just as with MS WT mice, TPH2 expression in PND7-11 Dex-treated WT mice was unaffected. Taken together, our findings suggest that both environmental and pharmacological stressors affect the expression of MAO A, and not TPH2, when applied during the critical postnatal period. This leads to long-lasting perturbations in the serotonergic system, and results in anxiety- and depressive

  18. Early life nutritional programming of health and disease in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S E

    2016-04-01

    Exposures during the early life (periconceptional, prenatal and early postnatal) period are increasingly recognized as playing an important role in the aetiology of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD), including coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis. The 'Developmental Origins of Health and Disease' (DOHaD) hypothesis states that these disorders originate through unbalanced nutrition early in life and risk is highest when there is a 'mismatch' between the early- and later-life environments. Thus, the DOHaD hypothesis would predict highest risk in countries where an excess of infants are born with low birth weight and where there is a rapid transition to nutritional adequacy or excess in adulthood. Here, I will review data from work conducted in rural Gambia, West Africa. Using demographic data dating back to the 1940s, the follow-up of randomized controlled trials of nutritional supplementation in pregnancy and the 'experiment of nature' that seasonality in this region provides, we have investigated the DOHaD hypothesis in a population with high rates of maternal and infant under-nutrition, a high burden from infectious disease, and an emerging risk of NCDs.

  19. Opportunities During Early Life for Cancer Prevention: Highlights From a Series of Virtual Meetings With Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Dawn M.; Buchanan, Natasha D.

    2018-01-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that early life exposures can affect lifetime cancer risk. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Cancer Prevention Across the Lifespan Workgroup hosted a series of virtual meetings with select experts to discuss the state of the evidence linking factors during the prenatal period and early childhood to subsequent risk of both pediatric and adult cancers. In this article, we present the results from a qualitative analysis of the meeting transcripts and summarize themes that emerged from our discussions with meeting participants. Themes included the state of the evidence linking early life factors to cancer risk, research gaps and challenges, the level of evidence needed to support taking public health action, and the challenges of communicating complex, and sometimes conflicting, scientific findings to the public. Opportunities for collaboration among public health agencies and other stakeholders were identified during these discussions. Potential next steps for the CDC and its partners included advancing and building upon epidemiology and surveillance work, developing and using evidence from multiple sources to inform decision-making, disseminating and communicating research findings in a clear and effective way, and expanding collaborations with grantees and other partners. As the science on early life factors and cancer risk continues to evolve, there are opportunities for collaboration to translate science into actionable public health practice. PMID:27940972

  20. Early parental loss and depression history: associations with recent life stress in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavich, George M; Monroe, Scott M; Gotlib, Ian H

    2011-09-01

    Although exposure to early adversity and prior experiences with depression have both been associated with lower levels of precipitating life stress in depression, it is unclear whether these stress sensitization effects are similar for all types of stress or whether they are specific to stressors that may be particularly depressogenic, such as those involving interpersonal loss. To investigate this issue, we administered structured, interview-based measures of early adversity, depression history, and recent life stress to one hundred adults who were diagnosed with major depressive disorder. As predicted, individuals who experienced early parental loss or prolonged separation (i.e., lasting one year or longer) and persons with more lifetime episodes of depression became depressed following lower levels of life stress occurring in the etiologically-central time period of three months prior to onset of depression. Importantly, however, additional analyses revealed that these effects were unique to stressors involving interpersonal loss. These data highlight potential stressor-specific effects in stress sensitization and demonstrate for the first time that individuals exposed to early parental loss or separation, and persons with greater histories of MDD, may be selectively sensitized to stressors involving interpersonal loss. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Getting serious about the early-life epilepsies: Lessons from the world of pediatric oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Anne T; Goldman, Stewart

    2018-05-01

    Early-life epilepsies represent a group of many individually rare and often complex developmental brain disorders associated with lifelong devastating consequences and high risk for early mortality. The quantity and quality of evidence needed to guide the evaluation and treatment to optimize outcomes of affected children is minimal; most children are treated within an evidence-free practice zone based solely on anecdote and lore. The remarkable advances in diagnostics and therapeutics are implemented haphazardly with no systematic effort to understand their effects and value. This stands in stark contrast to the evidence-rich practice of the Children's Oncology Group, where standard of care treatments are identified through rigorous, multicenter research studies, and the vast majority of patients are treated on protocols developed from that research. As a consequence, overall mortality for childhood cancers has declined from ∼90% in the 1950s to ∼20% today. The situations of these 2 rare disease specialties are contrasted, and some suggestions for moving early-life epilepsy onto a fast track for success are offered. Chief amongst these is that early-life epilepsy should be treated with the same urgency as pediatric cancer. The best diagnostics and evidence-based treatments should be used in a systematic fashion right from the start, not after the child and family have been subjected to the ravages of the disorder for months or years. This will require unity and cooperation among physicians, researchers, and institutions across state and national borders. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Instrumental learning and cognitive flexibility processes are impaired in children exposed to early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Madeline B; Shannon Bowen, Katherine E; Hanson, Jamie L; Pollak, Seth D

    2017-10-19

    Children who experience severe early life stress show persistent deficits in many aspects of cognitive and social adaptation. Early stress might be associated with these broad changes in functioning because it impairs general learning mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we examined whether individuals who experienced abusive caregiving in childhood had difficulties with instrumental learning and/or cognitive flexibility as adolescents. Fifty-three 14-17-year-old adolescents (31 exposed to high levels of childhood stress, 22 control) completed an fMRI task that required them to first learn associations in the environment and then update those pairings. Adolescents with histories of early life stress eventually learned to pair stimuli with both positive and negative outcomes, but did so more slowly than their peers. Furthermore, these stress-exposed adolescents showed markedly impaired cognitive flexibility; they were less able than their peers to update those pairings when the contingencies changed. These learning problems were reflected in abnormal activity in learning- and attention-related brain circuitry. Both altered patterns of learning and neural activation were associated with the severity of lifetime stress that the adolescents had experienced. Taken together, the results of this experiment suggest that basic learning processes are impaired in adolescents exposed to early life stress. These general learning mechanisms may help explain the emergence of social problems observed in these individuals. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Studying Practices of Leading--Qualitative Shadowing in Early Childhood Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hognestad, Karin; Bøe, Marit

    2016-01-01

    This article considers qualitative shadowing as a fruitful method to investigate leadership practices. We propose that an approach to practice that takes into account the activities of "sayings, doings and relatings" offers a fresh perspective on how to obtain rich data on practices of leading. The value of this idea is illustrated from…

  4. Conceptual model for quality of life among adults with congenital or early deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; McKee, Michael; Smith, Scott R; Hopper, Melinda; Kavin, Denise; Atcherson, Samuel R

    2014-07-01

    A conceptual model of health-related quality of life (QoL) is needed to describe key themes that impact perceived QoL in adults with congenital or early deafness. To revise University of Washington Center for Disability Policy and Research's conceptual model of health promotion and QoL, with suggestions for applying the model to improving programs or services that target deaf adults with early deafness. Purposive and theoretical sampling of 35 adults who were born or became deaf early was planned in a 1-year study. In-depth semi-structured interviews probed deaf adult participants' perceptions about quality of life as a deaf individual. Data saturation was reached at the 17th interview with 2 additional interviews for validation, resulting in a total sample of 19 deaf adults. Coding and thematic analysis were conducted to develop the conceptual model. Our conceptual model delineates the relationships between health status (self-acceptance, coping with limitations), intrinsic (functional communication skills, navigating barriers/self-advocacy, resilience) and extrinsic (acceptance by others, access to information, educating others) factors in their influence on deaf adult quality of life outcomes at home, college, work, and in the community. Findings demonstrate the need for the programs and services to consider not only factors intrinsic to the deaf individual but also extrinsic factors in enhancing perceived quality of life outcomes among people with a range of functional hearing and language preferences, including American Sign Language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Early-life Social Isolation Impairs the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neuronal Activity and Serotonergic System in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko eSoga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation in early life deregulates the serotonergic system of the brain, compromising reproductive function. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus are critical to the inhibitory regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity in the brain and release of luteinising hormone by the pituitary gland. Although GnIH responds to stress, the role of GnIH in social isolation-induced deregulation of the serotonin system and reproductive function remains unclear. We investigated the effect of social isolation in early life on the serotonergic–GnIH neuronal system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-tagged GnIH-transgenic rats. Socially isolated rats were observed for anxious and depressive behaviours. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined c-Fos protein expression in EGFP–GnIH neurons in 9-week-old adult male rats after 6 weeks post-weaning isolation or group -housing. We also inspected serotonergic fibre juxtapositions in EGFP–GnIH neurons in control and socially isolated male rats. Socially isolated rats exhibited anxious and depressive behaviours. The total number of EGFP–GnIH neurons was the same in control and socially isolated rats, but c-Fos expression in GnIH neurons was significantly reduced in socially isolated rats. Serotonin fibre juxtapositions on EGFP–GnIH neurons was also lower in socially isolated rats. In addition, levels of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus were significantly attenuated in these rats. These results suggest that social isolation in early life results in lower serotonin levels, which reduce GnIH neuronal activity and may lead to reproductive failure.

  6. Early-life experiences and the development of adult diseases with a focus on mental illness: The Human Birth Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Stefania; Polese, Daniela; Reynaert, Marie-Line; Amici, Tiziana; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Fagioli, Francesca

    2017-02-07

    In mammals, early adverse experiences, including mother-pup interactions, shape the response of an individual to chronic stress or to stress-related diseases during adult life. This has led to the elaboration of the theory of the developmental origins of health and disease, in particular adult diseases such as cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. In addition, in humans, as stated by Massimo Fagioli's Human Birth Theory, birth is healthy and equal for all individuals, so that mental illness develop exclusively in the postnatal period because of the quality of the relationship in the first year of life. Thus, this review focuses on the importance of programming during the early developmental period on the manifestation of adult diseases in both animal models and humans. Considering the obvious differences between animals and humans we cannot systematically move from animal models to humans. Consequently, in the first part of this review, we will discuss how animal models can be used to dissect the influence of adverse events occurring during the prenatal and postnatal periods on the developmental trajectories of the offspring, and in the second part, we will discuss the role of postnatal critical periods on the development of mental diseases in humans. Epigenetic mechanisms that cause reversible modifications in gene expression, driving the development of a pathological phenotype in response to a negative early postnatal environment, may lie at the core of this programming, thereby providing potential new therapeutic targets. The concept of the Human Birth Theory leads to a comprehension of the mental illness as a pathology of the human relationship immediately after birth and during the first year of life. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Early-Life Social Isolation Impairs the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neuronal Activity and Serotonergic System in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Tomoko; Teo, Chuin Hau; Cham, Kai Lin; Idris, Marshita Mohd; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation in early life deregulates the serotonergic system of the brain, compromising reproductive function. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus are critical to the inhibitory regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity in the brain and release of luteinizing hormone by the pituitary gland. Although GnIH responds to stress, the role of GnIH in social isolation-induced deregulation of the serotonin system and reproductive function remains unclear. We investigated the effect of social isolation in early life on the serotonergic-GnIH neuronal system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged GnIH transgenic rats. Socially isolated rats were observed for anxious and depressive behaviors. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined c-Fos protein expression in EGFP-GnIH neurons in 9-week-old adult male rats after 6 weeks post-weaning isolation or group housing. We also inspected serotonergic fiber juxtapositions in EGFP-GnIH neurons in control and socially isolated male rats. Socially isolated rats exhibited anxious and depressive behaviors. The total number of EGFP-GnIH neurons was the same in control and socially isolated rats, but c-Fos expression in GnIH neurons was significantly reduced in socially isolated rats. Serotonin fiber juxtapositions on EGFP-GnIH neurons were also lower in socially isolated rats. In addition, levels of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus were significantly attenuated in these rats. These results suggest that social isolation in early-life results in lower serotonin levels, which reduce GnIH neuronal activity and may lead to reproductive failure.

  8. Organizing effects of adverse early-life condition on body mass, compensatory growth and reproduction : experimental studies in rock pigeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Bin-Yan; Dijkstra, Cor; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    Early-life food conditions can have profound impact on adult behavioural performance. In song birds, early-life food conditions affect adult physiology and cognitive performance such as song learning and spatial learning. However, effects on reproductive behaviour other than song, such as visual

  9. Effects of early-life adversity on immune function are mediated by prenatal environment: Role of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Bodnar, Tamara S; Holman, Parker J; Baglot, Samantha L; Lan, Ni; Weinberg, Joanne

    2017-11-01

    The contribution of the early postnatal environment to the pervasive effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is poorly understood. Moreover, PAE often carries increased risk of exposure to adversity/stress during early life. Dysregulation of immune function may play a role in how pre- and/or postnatal adversity/stress alters brain development. Here, we combine two animal models to examine whether PAE differentially increases vulnerability to immune dysregulation in response to early-life adversity. PAE and control litters were exposed to either limited bedding (postnatal day [PN] 8-12) to model early-life adversity or normal bedding, and maternal behavior and pup vocalizations were recorded. Peripheral (serum) and central (amygdala) immune (cytokines and C-reactive protein - CRP) responses of PAE animals to early-life adversity were evaluated at PN12. Insufficient bedding increased negative maternal behavior in both groups. Early-life adversity increased vocalization in all animals; however, PAE pups vocalized less than controls. Early-life adversity reduced serum TNF-α, KC/GRO, and IL-10 levels in control but not PAE animals. PAE increased serum CRP, and levels were even higher in pups exposed to adversity. Finally, PAE reduced KC/GRO and increased IL-10 levels in the amygdala. Our results indicate that PAE alters immune system development and both behavioral and immune responses to early-life adversity, which could have subsequent consequences for brain development and later life health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Victims of Chinese famine in early life have increased risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Caizheng; Wang, Jing; Wang, Fei; Han, Xu; Hu, Hua; Yuan, Jing; Miao, Xiaoping; Yao, Ping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Pan, An; Zheng, Dan; Tang, Yuhan; Yang, Handong; Wu, Tangchun; He, Meian

    2018-02-05

    To investigate the association of exposure to the Chinese famine during early life with metabolic syndrome risk in adults. There were 7,915 participants from Dongfeng-Tongji cohort were included in the present study. Participants were classified as non-exposed group, fetal exposed group, early childhood-, mid childhood-, and late childhood-exposed groups, respectively. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to International Diabetes Foundation criteria (2005). Logistic regression model was used to explore the association between famine exposure in early life and metabolic syndrome risk in adults. The metabolic syndrome prevalence in non-, fetal-, early childhood-, mid childhood-, and late childhood- exposed groups were 25.2%, 26.9%, 30.3%, 32.7%, and 32.7%, respectively. Compared with non-exposed group, participants exposed to famine in the fetal (0.96, 95% CI: 0.77-1.20), early childhood (1.24, 95% CI: 1.01-1.52), mid childhood (1.39, 95% CI: 1.13-1.72), and late childhood (1.33, 95% CI: 1.08-1.63) had higher metabolic syndrome prevalence risk in adults after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend metabolic syndrome prevalence risk than non-exposed women (P for trend metabolic syndrome prevalence risk (P for interaction = 0.0001). Results in the present study indicated that exposure to famine in early life increases the risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood, particularly in women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early life trauma and attachment: Immediate and enduring effects on neurobehavioral and stress axis development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millie eRincón-Cortés

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over half a century of converging clinical and animal research indicates that early life experiences induce enduring neuroplasticity of the HPA-axis and the developing brain. This experience-induced neuroplasticity is due to alterations in the frequency and intensity of stimulation of pups’ sensory systems (i.e. olfactory, somatosensory, gustatory embedded in mother-infant interactions. This stimulation provides hidden regulators of pups’ behavioral, physiological and neural responses that have both immediate and enduring consequences, including those involving the stress response. While variation in stimulation can produce individual differences and adaptive behaviors, pathological early life experiences can induce maladaptive behaviors, initiate a pathway to pathology and increase risk for later life psychopathologies, such as mood and affective disorders, suggesting that infant attachment relationships program later life neurobehavioral function. Recent evidence suggests that the effects of maternal presence or absence during this sensory stimulation provide a major modulatory role in neural and endocrine system responses, which have minimal impact on pups’ immediate neurobehavior but a robust impact on neurobehavioral development. This concept is reviewed here using two complementary rodent models of infant trauma within attachment: infant paired odor-shock conditioning (mimicking maternal odor attachment learning and rearing with an abusive mother, that converge in producing a similar behavioral phenotype in later life including depressive-like behavior as well as disrupted HPA-axis and amygdala function. The importance of maternal social presence on pups’ immediate and enduring brain and behavior suggests unique processing of sensory stimuli in early life that could provide insight into the development of novel strategies for prevention and therapeutic interventions for trauma experienced with the abusive caregiver.

  12. Assessment of the Amount of Hepatohistopatological and Enzymatic Changes after Chronic Lead Intoxication In Utero and Throughout Life in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Mohammadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In order to evaluate the functional changes of liver after lead intoxication, activity of enzymes, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, as well as pathological changes of the liver were assessed in the present study.Methods: Male and female Albino Rats (40 in total in five 8-rat groups were exposed to 0, 5, 10, 15, and 40mg lead acetate dissolved in 1 liter drinking water, from the onset of embryonic life to 16th week of life. At the end of 16th week, the animals were anesthetized with chloroform, and blood sampling from heart was performed. After serum separation for biochemical analysis, liver was taken out and fixed in 15% formalin for histopathological studies. Activity of ALT, AST, and ALP, as well as lead concentration of the serum samples were measured using spectrophotometrical method and graphite furnace atomic absorption, respectively. The tissue sections were histologically studied under light microscopy after staining by hematoxylin/eosin. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey's test, and p<0.05 was considered significant.Results: In this study, liver enzymes activities had direct relation with the serum lead concentration, and showed a significant increase compared to the control groups. Histological changes were observed as inflammation, lymphocyte infiltration to liver tissue, and liver cells necrosis.Conclusion: According to the results of this study, long-time exposure to lead results in dose- and time-dependent liver injury.

  13. Clavicular bone tunnel malposition leads to early failures in coracoclavicular ligament reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jay B; Shaha, James S; Rowles, Douglas J; Bottoni, Craig R; Shaha, Steven H; Tokish, John M

    2013-01-01

    Modern techniques for the treatment of acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocations have largely centered on free tendon graft reconstructions. Recent biomechanical studies have demonstrated that an anatomic reconstruction with 2 clavicular bone tunnels more closely matches the properties of native coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments than more traditional techniques. No study has analyzed tunnel position in regard to risk of early failure. To evaluate the effect of clavicular tunnel position in CC ligament reconstruction as a risk of early failure. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective review was performed of a consecutive series of CC ligament reconstructions performed with 2 clavicular bone tunnels and a free tendon graft. The population was largely a young, active-duty military group of patients. Radiographs were analyzed for the maintenance of reduction and location of clavicular bone tunnels using a picture archiving and communication system. The distance from the lateral border of the clavicle to the center of each bone tunnel was divided by the total clavicular length to establish a ratio. Medical records were reviewed for operative details and functional outcome. Failure was defined as loss of intraoperative reduction. The overall failure rate was 28.6% (8/28) at an average of 7.4 weeks postoperatively. Comparison of bone tunnel position showed that medialized bone tunnels were a significant predictor for early loss of reduction for the conoid (a ratio of 0.292 vs 0.248; P = .012) and trapezoid bone tunnels (a ratio of 0.171 vs 0.128; P = .004); this correlated to an average of 7 to 9 mm more medial in the reconstructions that failed. Reconstructions performed with a conoid ratio of ≥0.30 were significantly more likely to fail (5/5, 100%) than were those performed lateral to a ratio of 0.30 (3/23, 13.0%) (P < .01). There were no failures when the conoid ratio was <0.25 (0/10, 0%). Conoid tunnel placement was also statistically significant for

  14. Reconstructing the life-time lead exposure in children using dentine in deciduous teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, Thomas J., E-mail: shepherdtj@aol.com [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Dirks, Wendy [Centre for Oral Health Research, School of Dental Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4BW (United Kingdom); Manmee, Charuwan; Hodgson, Susan [Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX (United Kingdom); Banks, David A. [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Averley, Paul [Centre for Oral Health Research, School of Dental Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4BW (United Kingdom); Queensway Dental Practice, 170 Queensway, Billingham, Teesside TS23 2NT (United Kingdom); Pless-Mulloli, Tanja [Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX (United Kingdom); Newcastle Institute for Research on Sustainability, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Data are presented to demonstrate that the circumpulpal dentine of deciduous teeth can be used to reconstruct a detailed record of childhood exposure to lead. By combining high spatial resolution laser ablation ICP-MS with dental histology, information was acquired on the concentration of lead in dentine from in utero to several years after birth, using a true time template of dentine growth. Time corrected lead analyses for pairs of deciduous molars confirmed that between-tooth variation for the same child was negligible and that meaningful exposure histories can be obtained from a single, multi-point ablation transect on longitudinal sections of individual teeth. For a laser beam of 100 {mu}m diameter, the lead signal for each ablation point represented a time span of 42 days. Simultaneous analyses for Sr, Zn and Mg suggest that the incorporation of Pb into dentine (carbonated apatite) is most likely controlled by nanocrystal growth mechanisms. The study also highlights the importance of discriminating between primary and secondary dentine and the dangers of translating lead analyses into blood lead estimates without determining the age or duration of dentine sampled. Further work is in progress to validate deciduous teeth as blood lead biomarkers. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reconstruction of childhood exposure history to Pb using deciduous tooth dentine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb analyses acquired for dentine growth increments of 42 days. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly correlated Pb concentration profiles for pairs of deciduous molars. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Data for Sr, Zn and Mg provide a model for the incorporation of Pb into dentine.

  15. Reconstructing the life-time lead exposure in children using dentine in deciduous teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, Thomas J.; Dirks, Wendy; Manmee, Charuwan; Hodgson, Susan; Banks, David A.; Averley, Paul; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Data are presented to demonstrate that the circumpulpal dentine of deciduous teeth can be used to reconstruct a detailed record of childhood exposure to lead. By combining high spatial resolution laser ablation ICP-MS with dental histology, information was acquired on the concentration of lead in dentine from in utero to several years after birth, using a true time template of dentine growth. Time corrected lead analyses for pairs of deciduous molars confirmed that between-tooth variation for the same child was negligible and that meaningful exposure histories can be obtained from a single, multi-point ablation transect on longitudinal sections of individual teeth. For a laser beam of 100 μm diameter, the lead signal for each ablation point represented a time span of 42 days. Simultaneous analyses for Sr, Zn and Mg suggest that the incorporation of Pb into dentine (carbonated apatite) is most likely controlled by nanocrystal growth mechanisms. The study also highlights the importance of discriminating between primary and secondary dentine and the dangers of translating lead analyses into blood lead estimates without determining the age or duration of dentine sampled. Further work is in progress to validate deciduous teeth as blood lead biomarkers. - Highlights: ► Reconstruction of childhood exposure history to Pb using deciduous tooth dentine. ► Pb analyses acquired for dentine growth increments of 42 days. ► Highly correlated Pb concentration profiles for pairs of deciduous molars. ► Data for Sr, Zn and Mg provide a model for the incorporation of Pb into dentine.

  16. Trust and School Life: The Role of Trust for Learning, Teaching, Leading, and Bridging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Maele, Dimitri, Ed.; Forsyth, Patrick B., Ed.; Van Houtte, Miek, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This book samples recent and emerging trust research in education including an array of conceptual approaches, measurement innovations, and explored determinants and outcomes of trust. The collection of pathways explores the phenomenon of trust and establishes the significance of trust relationships in school life. It emboldens the claim that…

  17. Psoriasis nurse of the year helped me lead a normal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-09

    I have had psoriasis for about 20 years. I can safely say that the care I have received from advanced nurse practitioner Zahira Koreja over the past two years is the best I have ever had. Her care has been instrumental in helping me finally live a normal life by keeping my psoriasis under control.

  18. A study on lead myristate (LM) soap film crystal by positron annihilation life spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zikang; Yu xianchun

    1992-01-01

    The quality of the LM soap film crystal is determined by means of the positron annihilation life spectroscopy. It is found that the technology to be used to make soap film will influence the film quality and the film quality can be improved by a reasonable heat treatment

  19. Effects of food restriction across stages of juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and adult life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J W Y; Kölliker, M

    2014-11-01

    Organisms have to allocate limited resources among multiple life-history traits, which can result in physiological trade-offs, and variation in environmental conditions experienced during ontogeny can influence reproduction later in life. Food restriction may lead to an adaptive reallocation of the limited resources among traits as a phenotypically plastic adjustment, or it can act as an overall constraint with detrimental effects throughout reproductive life. In this study, we investigated experimentally the effects of food restriction during different stages of the juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and reproductive success in females and males of the European earwig Forficula auricularia. Individuals either received limited or unlimited access to food across three different stages of development (fully crossed) allowing us to identify sensitive periods during development and to test both additive and interactive effects of food limitation across stages on development and reproduction. Food restriction during the early and late juvenile stage had additive negative effects on juvenile survival and adult body weight. With regard to reproductive success of females which produce up to two clutches in their lifetime, restriction specifically in the late juvenile stage led to smaller first and second clutch size, lower probability of second clutch production and reduced hatching success in the second clutch. Reproductive success of females was not significantly affected when their male mates experienced food restriction during their development. Our findings in general support the 'silver-spoon' hypothesis in that food restriction during juvenile development poses constraints on development and reproduction throughout life. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Early Life Stress as a Risk Factor for Substance use Disorders: Clinical and Neurobiological Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Varghese, Sajoy Purathumuriyil; Montalvo-Ortiz, Janitza L.; Csernansky, John G.; Eiger, Rodney I.; Herrold, Amy A.; Koola, Maju Mathew; Dong, Hongxin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early Life Stress (ELS) can profoundly influence an individual′s genotype and phenotype. Effects of ELS can manifest in the short-term, late life and even in subsequent generations. ELS activate corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF); CRF influences drug seeking and addiction. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of endogenous elevated levels of CRF on addiction. Materials and Methods: Inducible forebrain over-expression of CRF mice (tetop-CRH x CaMKII-tTA) was used for...

  1. Contrasting shrub species respond to early summer temperatures leading to correspondence of shrub growth patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijers, Stef; Pape, Roland; Löffler, Jörg; Myers-Smith, Isla H.

    2018-03-01

    The Arctic-alpine biome is warming rapidly, resulting in a gradual replacement of low statured species by taller woody species in many tundra ecosystems. In northwest North America, the remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), suggests an increase in productivity of the Arctic and alpine tundra and a decrease in productivity of boreal forests. However, the responses of contrasting shrub species growing at the same sites to climate drivers remain largely unexplored. Here, we test growth, climate, and NDVI relationships of two contrasting species: the expanding tall deciduous shrub Salix pulchra and the circumarctic evergreen dwarf shrub Cassiope tetragona from an alpine tundra site in the Pika valley in the Kluane Region, southwest Yukon Territories, Canada. We found that annual growth variability of both species at this site is strongly driven by early summer temperatures, despite their contrasting traits and habitats. Shrub growth chronologies for both species were correlated with the regional climate signal and showed spatial correspondence with interannual variation in NDVI in surrounding alpine and Arctic regions. Our results suggest that early summer warming represents a common driver of vegetation change for contrasting shrub species growing in different habitats in the same alpine environments.

  2. CDKL5 alterations lead to early epileptic encephalopathy in both genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jao-Shwann; Shimojima, Keiko; Takayama, Rumiko; Natsume, Jun; Shichiji, Minobu; Hirasawa, Kyoko; Imai, Kaoru; Okanishi, Tohru; Mizuno, Seiji; Okumura, Akihisa; Sugawara, Midori; Ito, Tomoshiro; Ikeda, Hiroko; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Oguni, Hirokazu; Imai, Katsumi; Osawa, Makiko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2011-10-01

    Genetic mutations of the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 gene (CDKL5) have been reported in patients with epileptic encephalopathy, which is characterized by intractable seizures and severe-to-profound developmental delay. We investigated the clinical relevance of CDKL5 alterations in both genders. A total of 125 patients with epileptic encephalopathy were examined for genomic copy number aberrations, and 119 patients with no such aberrations were further examined for CDKL5 mutations. Five patients with Rett syndrome, who did not show methyl CpG-binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) mutations, were also examined for CDKL5 mutations. One male and three female patients showed submicroscopic deletions including CDKL5, and two male and six female patients showed CDKL5 nucleotide alterations. Development of early onset seizure was a characteristic clinical feature for the patients with CDKL5 alterations in both genders despite polymorphous seizure types, including myoclonic seizures, tonic seizures, and spasms. Severe developmental delays and mild frontal lobe atrophies revealed by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were observed in almost all patients, and there was no gender difference in phenotypic features. We observed that 5% of the male patients and 14% of the female patients with epileptic encephalopathy had CDKL5 alterations. These findings indicate that alterations in CDKL5 are associated with early epileptic encephalopathy in both female and male patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  3. Early-life bisphenol a exposure and child body mass index: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Joseph M; Lanphear, Bruce P; Calafat, Antonia M; Deria, Sirad; Khoury, Jane; Howe, Chanelle J; Venners, Scott A

    2014-11-01

    Early-life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may increase childhood obesity risk, but few prospective epidemiological studies have investigated this relationship. We sought to determine whether early-life exposure to BPA was associated with increased body mass index (BMI) at 2-5 years of age in 297 mother-child pairs from Cincinnati, Ohio (HOME Study). Urinary BPA concentrations were measured in samples collected from pregnant women during the second and third trimesters and their children at 1 and 2 years of age. BMI z-scores were calculated from weight/height measures conducted annually from 2 through 5 years of age. We used linear mixed models to estimate BMI differences or trajectories with increasing creatinine-normalized BPA concentrations. After confounder adjustment, each 10-fold increase in prenatal (β = -0.1; 95% CI: -0.5, 0.3) or early-childhood (β = -0.2; 95% CI: -0.6, 0.1) BPA concentrations was associated with a modest and nonsignificant reduction in child BMI. These inverse associations were suggestively stronger in girls than in boys [prenatal effect measure modification (EMM) p-value = 0.30, early-childhood EMM p-value = 0.05], but sex-specific associations were imprecise. Children in the highest early-childhood BPA tercile had lower BMI at 2 years (difference = -0.3; 95% CI: -0.6, 0.0) and larger increases in their BMI slope from 2 through 5 years (BMI increase per year = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.18) than children in the lowest tercile (BMI increase per year = 0.07; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.13). All associations were attenuated without creatinine normalization. Prenatal and early-childhood BPA exposures were not associated with increased BMI at 2-5 years of age, but higher early-childhood BPA exposures were associated with accelerated growth during this period.

  4. Expression of Autoactivated Stromelysin-1 in Mammary Glands of Transgenic Mice Leads to a Reactive Stroma During Early Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomasset, N.; Lochter, A.; Sympson, C.J.; Lund, L.R.; Williams, D.R.; Behrendtsen, O.; Werb, Z.; Bissell, M.J.

    1998-04-24

    cells produce fibronectin, collagens, proteoglycans, and some components of the BM, as well as a number of proteinases that can effectively degrade BM constituents. Stromal and epithelial cells of the mammary gland interact to regulate BM synthesis and degradation and, thus, mammary function. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading enzymes involved in mammary gland morphogenesis and involution. During late pregnancy and lactation, when the gland becomes fully functional, the expression of MMPs is low however, during involution, when the gland loses function and is remodeled, synthesis of ECM-degrading proteinases increases dramatically.11 Disturbance of the balance between MMPs and MMP inhibitors leads to either unscheduled involution or prolonged lactation. Mammary glands of virgin mice expressing an autoactivating stromelysin-1 (SL-1) transgene display supernumerary branches and precocious alveolar development, accompanied by the synthesis of {beta}-casein at levels found normally only during early pregnancy. During late pregnancy, increased expression of the SL-1 transgene leads to a reduction in expression of pregnancy-specific genes. Later in life, some SL-1 transgenic mice develop hyperplastic, dysplastic, and ductal carcinoma in situ-like lesions, as well as malignant tumors. Little is known about the sequence of changes that occurs before formation of an overt reactive stroma in breast cancer. In the present study, we address the question of whether and how the stromal compartment is altered as a consequence of inappropriate SL-1 transgene expression in the epithelium.

  5. Influences of spawning timing, water temperature, and climatic warming on early life history phenology in western Alaska sockeye salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Morgan M.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Quinn, Thomas P.; Adkison, Milo D.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Bartz, Krista K.; Young, Daniel B.; Westley, Peter A. H.

    2018-01-01

    We applied an empirical model to predict hatching and emergence timing for 25 western Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations in four lake-nursery systems to explore current patterns and potential responses of early life history phenology to warming water temperatures. Given experienced temperature regimes during development, we predicted hatching to occur in as few as 58 d to as many as 260 d depending on spawning timing and temperature. For a focal lake spawning population, our climate-lake temperature model predicted a water temperature increase of 0.7 to 1.4 °C from 2015 to 2099 during the incubation period, which translated to a 16 d to 30 d earlier hatching timing. The most extreme scenarios of warming advanced development by approximately a week earlier than historical minima and thus climatic warming may lead to only modest shifts in phenology during the early life history stage of this population. The marked variation in the predicted timing of hatching and emergence among populations in close proximity on the landscape may serve to buffer this metapopulation from climate change.

  6. Early life influences on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, Janet; Sonnappa, Samatha

    2013-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not simply a disease of old age that is largely restricted to heavy smokers, but may be associated with insults to the developing lung during foetal life and the first few years of postnatal life, when lung growth and development are rapid. A better understanding of the long-term effects of early life factors, such as intrauterine growth restriction, prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke and other pollutants, preterm delivery and childhood respiratory illnesses, on the subsequent development of chronic respiratory disease is imperative if appropriate preventive and management strategies to reduce the burden of COPD are to be developed. The extent to which insults to the developing lung are associated with increased risk of COPD in later life depends on the underlying cause, timing and severity of such derangements. Suboptimal conditions in utero result in aberrations of lung development such that affected individuals are born with reduced lung function, which tends to remain diminished throughout life, thereby increasing the risk both of wheezing disorders during childhood and subsequent COPD in genetically susceptible individuals. If the current trend towards the ever-increasing incidence of COPD is to be reversed, it is essential to minimize risks to the developing lung by improvements in antenatal and neonatal care, and to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposures to environmental pollutants, including passive tobacco smoke. Furthermore, adult physicians need to recognize that lung disease is potentially associated with early life insults and provide better education regarding diet, exercise and avoidance of smoking to preserve precious reserves of lung function in susceptible adults. This review focuses on factors that adversely influence lung development in utero and during the first 5 years of life, thereby predisposing to subsequent COPD.

  7. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  8. Influence of early life exposure, host genetics and diet on the mouse gut microbiome and metabolome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snijders, Antoine M.; Langley, Sasha A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Brislawn, Colin J.; Noecker, Cecilia; Zink, Erika M.; Fansler, Sarah J.; Casey, Cameron P.; Miller, Darla R.; Huang, Yurong; Karpen, Gary H.; Celniker, Susan E.; Brown, James B.; Borenstein, Elhanan; Jansson, Janet K.; Metz, Thomas O.; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2016-11-28

    Although the gut microbiome plays important roles in host physiology, health and disease1, we lack understanding of the complex interplay between host genetics and early life environment on the microbial and metabolic composition of the gut.We used the genetically diverse Collaborative Cross mouse system2 to discover that early life history impacts themicrobiome composition, whereas dietary changes have only a moderate effect. By contrast, the gut metabolome was shaped mostly by diet, with specific non-dietary metabolites explained by microbial metabolism. Quantitative trait analysis identified mouse genetic trait loci (QTL) that impact the abundances of specific microbes. Human orthologues of genes in the mouse QTL are implicated in gastrointestinal cancer. Additionally, genes located in mouse QTL for Lactobacillales abundance are implicated in arthritis, rheumatic disease and diabetes. Furthermore, Lactobacillales abundance was predictive of higher host T-helper cell counts, suggesting an important link between Lactobacillales and host adaptive immunity.

  9. Stress exposure in early post-natal life reduces telomere length: an experimental demonstration in a long-lived seabird

    OpenAIRE

    Herborn, Katherine A.; Heidinger, Britt J.; Boner, Winnie; Noguera, Jose C.; Adam, Aileen; Daunt, Francis; Monaghan, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to stressors early in life is associated with faster ageing and reduced longevity. One important mechanism that could underlie these late life effects is increased telomere loss. Telomere length in early post-natal life is an important predictor of subsequent lifespan, but the factors underpinning its variability are poorly understood. Recent human studies have linked stress exposure to increased telomere loss. These studies have of necessity been non-experimental and are consequentl...

  10. Early but not late blindness leads to enhanced arithmetic and working memory abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormal, Valérie; Crollen, Virginie; Baumans, Christine; Lepore, Franco; Collignon, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    Behavioural and neurophysiological evidence suggest that vision plays an important role in the emergence and development of arithmetic abilities. However, how visual deprivation impacts on the development of arithmetic processing remains poorly understood. We compared the performances of early (EB), late blind (LB) and sighted control (SC) individuals during various arithmetic tasks involving addition, subtraction and multiplication of various complexities. We also assessed working memory (WM) performances to determine if they relate to a blind person's arithmetic capacities. Results showed that EB participants performed better than LB and SC in arithmetic tasks, especially in conditions in which verbal routines and WM abilities are needed. Moreover, EB participants also showed higher WM abilities. Together, our findings demonstrate that the absence of developmental vision does not prevent the development of refined arithmetic skills and can even trigger the refinement of these abilities in specific tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Early weight-bearing after periacetabular osteotomy leads to a high incidence of postoperative pelvic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Tanino, Hiromasa; Sato, Tatsuya; Nishida, Yasuhiro; Matsuno, Takeo

    2014-07-11

    It has not been shown whether accelerated rehabilitation following periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is effective for early recovery. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare complication rates in patients with standard and accelerated rehabilitation protocols who underwent PAO. Between January 2002 and August 2011, patients with a lateral center-edge (CE) angle of rehabilitation protocol. In 65 patients (76 hips) with the accelerated rehabilitation protocol, postoperative strengthening of the hip, thigh and core musculature was begun on the day of surgery as tolerated. The exercise program included active hip range of motion, and gentle isometric hamstring and quadriceps muscle sets; these exercises were performed for 30 minutes in the morning and 30 minutes in the afternoon with a physical therapist every weekday for 6 weeks. Full weight-bearing with two axillary crutches started on the day of surgery as tolerated. Complications were evaluated for 2 years. The clinical results at the time of follow-up were similar in the two groups. The average periods between the osteotomy and full-weight-bearing walking without support were 4.2 months and 6.9 months in patients with the accelerated and standard rehabilitation protocols (P rehabilitation protocol could achieve earlier recovery of patients. However, postoperative fractures of the ischial ramus and posterior column of the pelvis were more frequently found in patients with the accelerated rehabilitation protocol (8/76) than in those with the standard rehabilitation protocol (1/80) (P = 0.013). The accelerated rehabilitation protocol seems to have advantages for early muscle recovery in patients undergoing PAO; however, postoperative pelvic fracture rates were unacceptably high in patients with this protocol.

  12. Perceived early-life maternal care and the cortisol response to repeated psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engert, Veronika; Efanov, Simona I; Dedovic, Katarina; Duchesne, Annie; Dagher, Alain; Pruessner, Jens C

    2010-11-01

    In the past decade, a body of animal and human research has revealed a profound influence of early-life experiences, ranging from variations in parenting behaviour to severe adversity, on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation in adulthood. In our own previous studies, we have shown how variations in early-life parental care influence the development of the hippocampus and modify the cortisol awakening response. In the present study, we investigated the influence of early-life maternal care on cortisol, heart rate and subjective psychological responses to the repeated administration of a psychosocial laboratory stressor in a population of 63 healthy young adults. Low, medium and high early-life maternal care groups were identified using the Parental Bonding Instrument. Controlling for the effect of sex, we found an inverted u-shaped relation between increasing levels of maternal care and cortisol stress responsivity. Specifically, overall and stress-induced cortisol levels went from below normal in the low maternal care, to normal in the medium care, back to below normal in the high maternal care groups. We found no group differences with respect to heart rate and subjective psychological stress measures. Whereas low and high maternal care groups exhibited similarly low endocrine stress responses, their psychological profiles were opposed with increased levels of depression and anxiety and decreased self-esteem in the low care group. Sex was unequally distributed among maternal care groups, whereby the number of men with low maternal care was too small to allow introducing sex as a second between-group variable. We discuss the potential significance of this dissociation between endocrine and psychological parameters with respect to stress vulnerability and resistance for each maternal care group.

  13. Early life programming as a target for prevention of child and adolescent mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Andrew James; Galbally, Megan; Gannon, Tara; Symeonides, Christos

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns future policy development and programs of research for the prevention of mental disorders based on research emerging from fetal and early life programming. The current review offers an overview of findings on pregnancy exposures such as maternal mental health, lifestyle factors, and potential teratogenic and neurotoxic exposures on child outcomes. Outcomes of interest are common child and adolescent mental disorders including hyperactive, behavioral and emotional disorders...

  14. Early Life Factors and Adult Leisure Time Physical Inactivity Stability and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Physical inactivity has a high prevalence and associated disease burden. A better understanding of influences on sustaining and changing inactive lifestyles is needed. We aimed to establish whether leisure time inactivity was stable in midadulthood and whether early life factors were associated with inactivity patterns. In the 1958 British birth cohort (n = 12,271), leisure time inactivity (frequency, less than once a week) assessed at 33 and 50 yr was categorized as "never inactive," "persistently inactive," "deteriorating," or "improving." Early life factors (birth to 16 yr) were categorized into three (physical, social, and behavioral) domains. Using multinomial logistic regression, we assessed associations with inactivity persistence and change of factors within each early life domain and the three domains combined with and without adjustment for adult factors. Inactivity prevalence was similar at 33 and 50 yr (approximately 31%), but 17% deteriorated and 18% improved with age. In models adjusted for all domains simultaneously, factors associated with inactivity persistence versus never inactive were prepubertal stature (8% lower risk/height SD), poor hand control/coordination (17% higher risk/increase on four-point scale), cognition (16% lower/SD in ability) (physical); parental divorce (25% higher), class at birth (7% higher/reduction on four-point scale), minimal parental education (16% higher), household amenities (2% higher/increase in 19-point score (high = poor)) (social); and inactivity (22% higher/reduction in activity on four-point scale), low sports aptitude (47% higher), smoking (30% higher) (behavioral). All except stature, parental education, sports aptitude, and smoking were associated also with inactivity deterioration. Poor hand control/coordination was the only factor associated with improved status (13% lower/increase on four-point scale) versus persistently inactive. Adult leisure time inactivity is moderately stable. Early life factors are

  15. Effects of Early-Life Stress on Actions, Habits, and the Neural Systems Supporting Instrumental Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Tara

    2017-01-01

    Factors contributing to the formation of habits, defined as the stimulus-response associations that form the basis of much human and animal behavior, are not well understood, and although habits are believed to underlie many negative health behaviors such as addictions, the extent to which findings from animal research on habits apply in the human is largely unknown. In Study 1 (Chapter 2), we conducted two experiments on appetitive habit formation in adults with a history of early-life stres...

  16. Contribution of maternal smoking during pregnancy and lead exposure to early child behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, G A; Liu, X; Pine, D S; Graziano, J H

    2001-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy elevates risk for later child behavior problems. Because prior studies considered only Western settings, where smoking co-occurs with social disadvantage, we examined this association in Yugoslavia, a different cultural setting. Mothers enrolled in pregnancy as the low-exposure group in a prospective study of lead exposure were interviewed about health, including smoking history. A total of 199 children were assessed on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at ages 4, 4 1/2, and 5 years. Average cumulative blood lead (BPb) was determined from serial samples taken biannually since delivery. Longitudinal analyses were derived from 191 children with available data on behavior and covariates. Smoking was unrelated to social adversity. Controlling for age, gender, birthweight, ethnicity, maternal education, and Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Acceptance, smoking was associated with worse scores on almost all subscales; BPb concentration was related to small increases in the Delinquency subscale. Daughters of smokers received significantly higher scores on Somatic Complaints compared to daughters of nonsmokers, consistent with other work relating biological factors and internalizing problems in young girls. Because the present smoking/child behavior associations persist after control for individual and social factors also related to behavior problems, possible biological mediators are considered.

  17. Early childhood development coming of age: science through the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Walker, Susan P; Fernald, Lia C H; Andersen, Christopher T; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Lu, Chunling; McCoy, Dana C; Fink, Günther; Shawar, Yusra R; Shiffman, Jeremy; Devercelli, Amanda E; Wodon, Quentin T; Vargas-Barón, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2017-01-07

    Early childhood development programmes vary in coordination and quality, with inadequate and inequitable access, especially for children younger than 3 years. New estimates, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty, indicate that 250 million children (43%) younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. There is therefore an urgent need to increase multisectoral coverage of quality programming that incorporates health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and early learning. Equitable early childhood policies and programmes are crucial for meeting Sustainable Development Goals, and for children to develop the intellectual skills, creativity, and wellbeing required to become healthy and productive adults. In this paper, the first in a three part Series on early childhood development, we examine recent scientific progress and global commitments to early childhood development. Research, programmes, and policies have advanced substantially since 2000, with new neuroscientific evidence linking early adversity and nurturing care with brain development and function throughout the life course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of early communication skills in the first two years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuker, Karin T; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Donders, Rogier; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2013-02-01

    The first two years of life is a crucially important period for the development of communication skills. In this study joint attention and language development were monthly assessed between 8 and 24 months of age in a sample of 23 typically developing children to establish the developmental trajectory of specific joint attention skills, to investigate the developmental interrelations of these different joint attention skills with vocabulary size, and to examine whether the order of development of following and directing attention influences the development of other early communication skills such as language. All joint attention skills emerged between 8 and 15 months of age and responsive joint attention skills tend to emerge before initiative joint attention. Early joint attention skills influenced later language development, but not the other way around. Children in whom directing attention with gaze alternation developed early (in age or order) showed a relatively larger early vocabulary growth. A fine grained mapping of the normal development of early communication skills can be helpful in the early detection of abnormalities in these skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Racial and gender discrimination, early life factors, and chronic physical health conditions in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (n = 168; average age, 41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression owing to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Fifty percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health condition (relative risk, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health condition(s) was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychoneuroimmunology of Early-Life Stress: The Hidden Wounds of Childhood Trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; J Lewis, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    The brain and the immune system are not fully formed at birth, but rather continue to mature in response to the postnatal environment. The two-way interaction between the brain and the immune system makes it possible for childhood psychosocial stressors to affect immune system development, which in turn can affect brain development and its long-term functioning. Drawing from experimental animal models and observational human studies, we propose that the psychoneuroimmunology of early-life stress can offer an innovative framework to understand and treat psychopathology linked to childhood trauma. Early-life stress predicts later inflammation, and there are striking analogies between the neurobiological correlates of early-life stress and of inflammation. Furthermore, there are overlapping trans-diagnostic patterns of association of childhood trauma and inflammation with clinical outcomes. These findings suggest new strategies to remediate the effect of childhood trauma before the onset of clinical symptoms, such as anti-inflammatory interventions and potentiation of adaptive immunity. Similar strategies might be used to ameliorate the unfavorable treatment response described in psychiatric patients with a history of childhood trauma. PMID:27629365

  1. Older siblings, pets and early life infections: impact on gut microbiota and allergy prevalence during the first three years of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain

    Background: Early life infections and presence of older siblings or pets in the household are factors known to affect the risk of developing allergic diseases, and this effect is suggested to be mediated by interactions between microbes and the immune system. However, very limited research has been...... done on the effect of these factors on the developing gut microbiota in infants. Thus, we aimed to elucidate associations between older siblings, pets and early life infections, the microbial gut communities at 9 and 18 months of age and the prevalence of allergies in three year old children. Methods...... of respiratory allergy, eczema and presence of older siblings, pets and early life infections, previously collected through interviews with parents, were compared to the obtained data on bacterial taxonomy. Results: Early life infections were positively associated with the risk of developing respiratory allergy...

  2. Evolutionary conserved neural signature of early life stress affects animal social competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Cecilia; Fischer, Stefan; Aubin-Horth, Nadia; Taborsky, Barbara

    2018-01-31

    In vertebrates, the early social environment can persistently influence behaviour and social competence later in life. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying variation in animal social competence are largely unknown. In rats, high-quality maternal care causes an upregulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors ( gr ) and reduces offspring stress responsiveness. This identifies gr regulation as a candidate mechanism for maintaining variation in animal social competence. We tested this hypothesis in a highly social cichlid fish, Neolamprologus pulcher , reared with or without caring parents. We find that the molecular pathway translating early social experience into later-life alterations of the stress axis is homologous across vertebrates: fish reared with parents expressed the glucocorticoid receptor gr1 more in the telencephalon. Furthermore, expression levels of the transcription factor egr-1 (early growth response 1) were associated with gr1 expression in the telencephalon and hypothalamus. When blocking glucocorticoid receptors (GR) with an antagonist, mifepristone (RU486), parent-reared individuals showed more socially appropriate, submissive behaviour when intruding on a larger conspecific's territory. Remarkably, mifepristone-treated fish were less attacked by territory owners and had a higher likelihood of territory takeover. Our results indicate that early social-environment effects on stress axis programming are mediated by an evolutionary conserved molecular pathway, which is causally involved in environmentally induced variation of animal social competence. © 2018 The Author(s).

  3. The Redox Cycler Plasmodione Is a Fast-Acting Antimalarial Lead Compound with Pronounced Activity against Sexual and Early Asexual Blood-Stage Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Katharina; Deregnaucourt, Christiane; Goetz, Alice-Anne; Tzanova, Tzvetomira; Gallo, Valentina; Arese, Paolo; Pradines, Bruno; Adjalley, Sophie H; Bagrel, Denyse; Blandin, Stephanie; Lanzer, Michael; Davioud-Charvet, Elisabeth

    2016-09-01

    Previously, we presented the chemical design of a promising series of antimalarial agents, 3-[substituted-benzyl]-menadiones, with potent in vitro and in vivo activities. Ongoing studies on the mode of action of antimalarial 3-[substituted-benzyl]-menadiones revealed that these agents disturb the redox balance of the parasitized erythrocyte by acting as redox cyclers-a strategy that is broadly recognized for the development of new antimalarial agents. Here we report a detailed parasitological characterization of the in vitro activity profile of the lead compound 3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-menadione 1c (henceforth called plasmodione) against intraerythrocytic stages of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum We show that plasmodione acts rapidly against asexual blood stages, thereby disrupting the clinically relevant intraerythrocytic life cycle of the parasite, and furthermore has potent activity against early gametocytes. The lead's antiplasmodial activity was unaffected by the most common mechanisms of resistance to clinically used antimalarials. Moreover, plasmodione has a low potential to induce drug resistance and a high killing speed, as observed by culturing parasites under continuous drug pressure. Drug interactions with licensed antimalarial drugs were also established using the fixed-ratio isobologram method. Initial toxicological profiling suggests that plasmodione is a safe agent for possible human use. Our studies identify plasmodione as a promising antimalarial lead compound and strongly support the future development of redox-active benzylmenadiones as antimalarial agents. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, T A; Iwanowicz, L R; McCormick, S D

    2014-07-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (4 day) exposures using three doses each of 17 α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17 β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and 1 year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embryos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting plasma Vtg is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2, and plasma T3 was decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  5. Habitability and the Possibility of Extraterrestrial Life in the Early Telescope Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Early telescopic observations of the Moon and planets prompted great interest in the already-existing debate about the possibility of life on the Moon and other worlds. New observations of the lunar surface, revealing an apparently Earth-like terrain and possibly the presence of bodies of water, were often considered in relation to their implications for the existence of lunar inhabitants. This depended upon establishing what constituted the fundamental requirements for life and the boundaries of habitability. The growing support for the heliocentric Copernican astronomy was also changing perceptions of the relationships between the Earth, the Moon, and the planets. Works such as Johannes Kepler’s Somnium and John Wilkins’ The Discovery of a World in the Moone presented views of extraterrestrial life that were shifting from the supernatural to the natural, in correspondence with the celestial bodies’ new positions in the cosmos. This paper considers how these and other works from the early telescope era reveal changes in the nature of astronomical speculation about extraterrestrial life and the conditions construed as “habitability,” and what significance that history has for us today in the new era of extrasolar planet discovery.

  6. Increased amygdala reactivity following early life stress: a potential resilience enhancer role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Toki, Shigeru; Siegle, Greg J; Takamura, Masahiro; Takaishi, Yoshiyuki; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Okada, Go; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Nakao, Takashi; Muranaka, Hiroyuki; Kaseda, Yumiko; Murakami, Tsuneji; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2017-01-18

    Amygdala hyper-reactivity is sometimes assumed to be a vulnerability factor that predates depression; however, in healthy people, who experience early life stress but do not become depressed, it may represent a resilience mechanism. We aimed to test these hypothesis examining whether increased amygdala activity in association with a history of early life stress (ELS) was negatively or positively associated with depressive symptoms and impact of negative life event stress in never-depressed adults. Twenty-four healthy participants completed an individually tailored negative mood induction task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assessment along with evaluation of ELS. Mood change and amygdala reactivity were increased in never-depressed participants who reported ELS compared to participants who reported no ELS. Yet, increased amygdala reactivity lowered effects of ELS on depressive symptoms and negative life events stress. Amygdala reactivity also had positive functional connectivity with the bilateral DLPFC, motor cortex and striatum in people with ELS during sad memory recall. Increased amygdala activity in those with ELS was associated with decreased symptoms and increased neural features, consistent with emotion regulation, suggesting that preservation of robust amygdala reactions may reflect a stress buffering or resilience enhancing factor against depression and negative stressful events.

  7. Development of the cortisol circadian rhythm in the light of stress early in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Sterre S H; Beijers, Roseriet; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2015-12-01

    The secretion of the stress hormone cortisol follows a diurnal circadian rhythm. There are indications that this rhythm is affected by stress early in life. This paper addresses the development of the cortisol circadian rhythm between 1 and 6 years of age, and the role of maternal stress and anxiety early in the child's life on this (developing) rhythm. Participants were 193 healthy mother-child dyads from a community sample. Self-reported maternal stress and anxiety and physiological stress (saliva cortisol), were assessed prenatally (gestational week 37). Postnatally, self-reported maternal stress and anxiety were measured at 3, 6, 12, 30, and 72 months. Saliva cortisol samples from the children were collected on two days (four times each day) at 12, 30, and 72 months of age. The total amount of cortisol during the day and the cortisol decline over the day were determined to indicate children's cortisol circadian rhythm. Multilevel analyses showed that the total amount of cortisol decreased between 1 and 6 years. Furthermore, more maternal pregnancy-specific stress was related to higher total amounts of cortisol in the child. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal anxiety were associated with flatter cortisol declines in children. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal daily hassles were associated with steeper child cortisol declines over the day. These results indicated developmental change in children's cortisol secretion from 1 to 6 years and associations between maternal stress and anxiety early in children's lives and children's cortisol circadian rhythm in early childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. IL-1 and IL-23 mediate early IL-17A production in pulmonary inflammation leading to late fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paméla Gasse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating as yet untreatable disease. We demonstrated recently the predominant role of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β expression in the establishment of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice. METHODS: The contribution of IL-23 or IL-17 in pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis was assessed using the bleomycin model in deficient mice. RESULTS: We show that bleomycin or IL-1β-induced lung injury leads to increased expression of early IL-23p19, and IL-17A or IL-17F expression. Early IL-23p19 and IL-17A, but not IL-17F, and IL-17RA signaling are required for inflammatory response to BLM as shown with gene deficient mice or mice treated with neutralizing antibodies. Using FACS analysis, we show a very early IL-17A and IL-17F expression by RORγt(+ γδ T cells and to a lesser extent by CD4αβ(+ T cells, but not by iNKT cells, 24 hrs after BLM administration. Moreover, IL-23p19 and IL-17A expressions or IL-17RA signaling are necessary to pulmonary TGF-β1 production, collagen deposition and evolution to fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the existence of an early IL-1β-IL-23-IL-17A axis leading to pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and identify innate IL-23 and IL-17A as interesting drug targets for IL-1β driven lung pathology.

  9. Early-Life Exposure to the Great Smog of 1952 and the Development of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Prashant; Zivin, Joshua Graff; Mullins, Jamie T; Neidell, Matthew

    2016-12-15

    Little is known about the long-term effects of air pollution exposure and the root causes of asthma. We use exposure to intense air pollution from the 1952 Great Smog of London as a natural experiment to examine both issues. To determine whether exposure to extreme air pollution in utero or soon after birth affects asthma development later in life. This was a natural experiment using the unanticipated pollution event by comparing the prevalence of asthma between those exposed to the Great Smog in utero or the first year of life with those conceived well before or after the incident and those residing outside the affected area at the time of the smog. Prevalence of asthma during childhood (ages 0-15) and adulthood (ages >15) is analyzed for 2,916 respondents to the Life History portion of the English Longitudinal Study on Aging born from 1945 to 1955. Exposure to the Great Smog in the first year of life increases the likelihood of childhood asthma by 19.87 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.37-36.38). We also find suggestive evidence that early-life exposure led to a 9.53 percentage point increase (95% CI, -4.85 to 23.91) in the likelihood of adult asthma and exposure in utero led to a 7.91 percentage point increase (95% CI, -2.39 to 18.20) in the likelihood of childhood asthma. These results are the first to link early-life pollution exposure to later development of asthma using a natural experiment, suggesting the legacy of the Great Smog is ongoing.

  10. Does early-life income inequality predict self-reported health in later life? Evidence from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Dean R; Burkhauser, Richard V; Hahn, Markus H; Wilkins, Roger

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the association between adult health and the income inequality they experienced as children up to 80 years earlier. Our inequality data track shares of national income held by top percentiles from 1913 to 2009. We average those data over the same early-life years and merge them to individual data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics data for 1984-2009. Controlling for demographic and economic factors, we find both men and women are statistically more likely to report poorer health if income was more unequally distributed during the first years of their lives. The association is robust to alternative specifications of income inequality and time trends and remains significant even when we control for differences in overall childhood health. Our results constitute prima facie evidence that adults' health may be adversely affected by the income inequality they experienced as children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A case of short-coupled premature ventricular beat-induced ventricular fibrillation with early repolarization in the inferolateral leads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekazu Kondo, MD

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes a 19-year-old man with early repolarization (ER in the inferolateral leads and a normal QT interval who survived a cardiac arrest that was likely related to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT. Electrocardiograms (ECGs also showed unifocal premature ventricular beats (PVBs with a relatively narrow QRS duration. A Holter ECG documented occasional short-coupled PVBs following non-sustained VTs. Pharmacological stress testing was also performed to assess the effects of anti-arrhythmic drugs on ER (the J wave and PVBs. We performed successful radiofrequency catheter ablation to prevent the recurrence of ventricular fibrillation after cardioverter-defibrillator implantation.

  12. Kita driven expression of oncogenic HRAS leads to early onset and highly penetrant melanoma in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Santoriello

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is the most aggressive and lethal form of skin cancer. Because of the increasing incidence and high lethality of melanoma, animal models for continuously observing melanoma formation and progression as well as for testing pharmacological agents are needed.Using the combinatorial Gal4-UAS system, we have developed a zebrafish transgenic line that expresses oncogenic HRAS under the kita promoter. Already at 3 days transgenic kita-GFP-RAS larvae show a hyper-pigmentation phenotype as earliest evidence of abnormal melanocyte growth. By 2-4 weeks, masses of transformed melanocytes form in the tail stalk of the majority of kita-GFP-RAS transgenic fish. The adult tumors evident between 1-3 months of age faithfully reproduce the immunological, histological and molecular phenotypes of human melanoma, but on a condensed time-line. Furthermore, they show transplantability, dependence on mitfa expression and do not require additional mutations in tumor suppressors. In contrast to kita expressing melanocyte progenitors that efficiently develop melanoma, mitfa expressing progenitors in a second Gal4-driver line were 4 times less efficient in developing melanoma during the three months observation period.This indicates that zebrafish kita promoter is a powerful tool for driving oncogene expression in the right cells and at the right level to induce early onset melanoma in the presence of tumor suppressors. Thus our zebrafish model provides a link between kita expressing melanocyte progenitors and melanoma and offers the advantage of a larval phenotype suitable for large scale drug and genetic modifier screens.

  13. Early life stress determines the effects of glucocorticoids and stress on hippocampal function: Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Anup G; Arp, Marit; Velzing, Els; Lesuis, Sylvie L; Schmidt, Mathias V; Holsboer, Florian; Joëls, Marian; Krugers, Harm J

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to early-life adversity may program brain function to prepare individuals for adaptation to matching environmental contexts. In this study we tested this hypothesis in more detail by examining the effects of early-life stress - induced by raising offspring with limited nesting and bedding material from postnatal days 2-9 - in various behavioral tasks and on synaptic function in adult mice. Early-life stress impaired adult performance in the hippocampal dependent low-arousing object-in-context recognition memory task. This effect was absent when animals were exposed to a single stressor before training. Early-life stress did not alter high-arousing context and auditory fear conditioning. Early-life stress-induced behavioral modifications were not associated with alterations in the dendritic architecture of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons or principal neurons of the basolateral amygdala. However, early-life stress reduced the ratio of NMDA to AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents and glutamate release probability specifically in hippocampal CA1 neurons, but not in the basolateral amygdala. These ex vivo effects in the hippocampus were abolished by acute glucocorticoid treatment. Our findings support that early-life stress can hamper object-in-context learning via pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms that affect hippocampal function but these effects are counteracted by acute stress or elevated glucocorticoid levels. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Early life trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, and allostatic load in a sample of American Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Zaneta; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; McDonell, Michael; Nelson, Lonnie; Buchwald, Dedra; Manson, Spero

    2017-05-06

    Among American Indians, prior research has found associations between early life trauma and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. Given the physiological changes associated with PTSD, early life trauma could indirectly contribute to chronic disease risk. However, the impact of early life trauma on adult physical health in this population has not been previously investigated. We evaluated associations among early life trauma, PTSD, and 13 physiological biomarkers that index cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine, anthropometric, and immune function in adulthood by conducting correlation and structural equation modeling path analyses (N = 197). Physiological systems were analyzed individually as well as in a composite measure of allostatic load. We found early life trauma was related to PTSD, which in turn was related to elevated allostatic load in adulthood. Among the various components of allostatic load, the neuroendocrine system was the only one significantly related to early life stress and subsequent PTSD development. Changes in allostatic load might reflect adaptive adjustments that maximize short-term survival by enhancing stress reactivity, but at a cost to later health. Interventions should focus on improving access to resources for children who experience early life trauma in order to avoid PTSD and other harmful sequelae. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Early-life conditions and health at older ages: The mediating role of educational attainment, family and employment trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpino, Bruno; Gumà, Jordi; Julià, Albert

    2018-01-01

    We examine to what extent the effect of early-life conditions (health and socioeconomic status) on health in later life is mediated by educational attainment and life-course trajectories (fertility, partnership, employment). Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (N = 12,034), we apply, separately by gender, multichannel sequence analysis and cluster analysis to obtain groups of similar family and employment histories. The KHB method is used to disentangle direct and indirect effects of early-life conditions on health. Early-life-conditions indirectly impact on health in later life as result of their influence on education and family and employment trajectories. For example, between 22% and 42% of the effect of low parental socio-economic status at childhood on the three considered health outcomes at older age is explained by educational attainment for women. Even higher percentages are found for men (35% - 57%). On the contrary, the positive effect of poor health at childhood on poor health at older ages is not significantly mediated by education and life-course trajectories. Education captures most of the mediating effect of parental socio-economic status. More specifically, between 66% and 75% of the indirect effect of low parental socio-economic status at childhood on the three considered health outcomes at older age is explained by educational attainment for women. Again, higher percentages are found for men (86% - 93%). Early-life conditions, especially socioeconomic status, influence family and employment trajectories indirectly through their impact on education. We also find a persistent direct impact of early-life conditions on health at older ages. Our findings demonstrate that early-life experiences influence education and life-course trajectories and health in later life, suggesting that public investments in children are expected to produce long lasting effects on people's lives throughout the different phases of their

  16. Individual variations in maternal care early in life correlate with later life decision-making and c-fos expression in prefrontal subregions of rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hasselt, F.N.; Visser, L.; Tieskens, J.M.; Cornelisse, S.; Baars, A.M.; Lavrijsen, M.; Krugers, H.J.; van den Bos, R.; Joëls, M.

    2012-01-01

    Early life adversity affects hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, alters cognitive functioning and in humans is thought to increase the vulnerability to psychopathology-e.g. depression, anxiety and schizophrenia- later in life. Here we investigated whether subtle natural variations among

  17. Individual variations in maternal care early in life correlate with later life decision-making and c-fos expression in prefrontal subregions of rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hasselt, F.N.; de Visser, L.; Tieskens, J.M.; Cornelisse, S.; Baars, A.M.; Lavrijsen, M.; Krugers, H.J.; van den Bos, R.; Joëls, M.

    2012-01-01

    Early life adversity affects hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, alters cognitive functioning and in humans is thought to increase the vulnerability to psychopathology--e.g. depression, anxiety and schizophrenia--later in life. Here we investigated whether subtle natural variations among

  18. Cell wall structures leading to cultivar differences in softening rates develop early during apple (Malus x domestica) fruit growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jovyn K T; Schröder, Roswitha; Sutherland, Paul W; Hallett, Ian C; Hall, Miriam I; Prakash, Roneel; Smith, Bronwen G; Melton, Laurence D; Johnston, Jason W

    2013-11-19

    There is a paucity of information regarding development of fruit tissue microstructure and changes in the cell walls during fruit growth, and how these developmental processes differ between cultivars with contrasting softening behaviour. In this study we compare two apple cultivars that show different softening rates during fruit development and ripening. We investigate whether these different softening behaviours manifest themselves late during ethylene-induced softening in the ripening phase, or early during fruit expansion and maturation. 'Scifresh' (slow softening) and 'Royal Gala' (rapid softening) apples show differences in cortical microstructure and cell adhesion as early as the cell expansion phase. 'Scifresh' apples showed reduced loss of firmness and greater dry matter accumulation compared with 'Royal Gala' during early fruit development, suggesting differences in resource allocation that influence tissue structural properties. Tricellular junctions in 'Scifresh' were rich in highly-esterified pectin, contributing to stronger cell adhesion and an increased resistance to the development of large airspaces during cell expansion. Consequently, mature fruit of 'Scifresh' showed larger, more angular shaped cells than 'Royal Gala', with less airspaces and denser tissue. Stronger cell adhesion in ripe 'Scifresh' resulted in tissue fracture by cell rupture rather than by cell-to-cell-separation as seen in 'Royal Gala'. CDTA-soluble pectin differed in both cultivars during development, implicating its involvement in cell adhesion. Low pectin methylesterase activity during early stages of fruit development coupled with the lack of immuno-detectable PG was associated with increased cell adhesion in 'Scifresh'. Our results indicate that cell wall structures leading to differences in softening rates of apple fruit develop early during fruit growth and well before the induction of the ripening process.

  19. Enduring neurobehavioral effects of early life trauma mediated through learning and corticosterone suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Moriceau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Early life trauma alters later life emotions, including fear. To better understand mediating mechanisms, we subjected pups to either predictable or unpredictable trauma, in the form of paired or unpaired odor-0.5mA shock conditioning which, during a sensitive period, produces an odor preference and no learning respectively. Fear conditioning and its neural correlates were then assessed after the sensitive period at postnatal day (PN13 or in adulthood, ages when amygdala-dependent fear occurs. Our results revealed that paired odor-shock conditioning starting during the sensitive period (PN8-12 blocked fear conditioning in older infants (PN13 and pups continued to express olfactory bulb-dependent odor preference learning. This PN13 fear learning inhibition was also associated with suppression of shock-induced corticosterone, although the age appropriate amygdala-dependent fear learning was reinstated with systemic corticosterone (3mg/kg during conditioning. On the other hand, sensitive period odor-shock conditioning did not prevent adult fear conditioning, although freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake and corticosterone levels were attenuated compared to adult conditioning without infant conditioning. Normal levels of freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake were induced with systemic corticosterone (5mg/kg during adult conditioning. These results suggest that the contingency of early life trauma mediates at least some effects of early life stress through learning and suppression of corticosterone levels. However, developmental differences between infants and adults are expressed with PN13 infants’ learning consistent with the original learned preference, while adult conditioning overrides the original learned preference with attenuated amygdala-dependent fear learning.

  20. Early-Life Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Childhood Metabolic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, Abby F; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Mora, Ana M; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily; Sagiv, Sharon K

    2017-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic chemicals that may persist in the environment and in humans. There is a possible association between early-life PFAS exposure and metabolic dysfunction in later life, but data are limited. We studied 665 mother-child pairs in Project Viva, a Boston, Massachusetts-area cohort recruited 1999-2002. We quantified concentrations of PFASs [perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA)] in maternal plasma collected at the first prenatal visit (median, 9.6 weeks gestation) and in child plasma from the mid-childhood research visit (median, 7.7 years). We assessed leptin, adiponectin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in mid-childhood. We fit covariate-adjusted linear regression models and conducted stratified analyses by child sex. Children with higher PFAS concentrations had lower HOMA-IR [e.g., -10.1% (95% CI: -17.3, -2.3) per interquartile range increment in PFOA]. This inverse association between child PFAS and HOMA-IR was more pronounced in females [e.g., PFOA: -15.6% (95% CI: -25.4, -4.6) vs. -6.1% (95% CI: -16.2, 5.2) for males]. Child PFAS plasma concentrations were not associated with leptin or adiponectin. Prenatal PFAS plasma concentrations were not associated with leptin, adiponectin, or HOMA-IR in offspring. We found no evidence for an adverse effect of early-life PFAS exposure on metabolic function in mid-childhood. In fact, children with higher PFAS concentrations had lower insulin resistance. Citation: Fleisch AF, Rifas-Shiman SL, Mora AM, Calafat AM, Ye X, Luttmann-Gibson H, Gillman MW, Oken E, Sagiv SK. 2017. Early-life exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and childhood metabolic function. Environ Health Perspect 125:481-487; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP303.

  1. Stress, fatigue, and sleep quality leading up to and following a stressful life event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laethem, Michelle; Beckers, Debby G J; Dijksterhuis, Ap; Geurts, Sabine A E

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to examine (a) the time course of stress, fatigue, and sleep quality among PhD students awaiting a stressful event and (b) whether daily anticipation of this event influences day-level stress, fatigue, and sleep quality. Forty-four PhD students completed evening and morning questionnaires on eight days from 1 month before their dissertation defense until one month thereafter. Results showed increased stress leading up to the defense, while fatigue and sleep quality remained unchanged. Comparing the night before the defense with the night after, stress rapidly decreased, whereas fatigue and sleep quality increased. Following the defense, stress and sleep quality remained stable, whereas fatigue declined. Stress 1 month before the defense was higher than 1 month thereafter. Regarding day-level relations, stress was adversely affected by negative anticipation and favorably by positive outcome expectancy, whereas positive anticipation had no influence. Positive outcome expectancy was an important predictor of improved sleep quality. We conclude that stress may be elevated long before a stressful event takes place but that one can recover rather quickly from temporary stress. Positive outcome expectancy of a stressful event may be an important predictor of reduced day-level stress and improved day-level sleep quality leading up to a stressful event. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Early-life adversity-induced long-term epigenetic programming associated with early onset of chronic physical aggression: Studies in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Chekhonin, Vladimir P

    2017-06-05

    To examine whether chronic physical aggression (CPA) in adulthood can be epigenetically programmed early in life due to exposure to early-life adversity. Literature search of public databases such as PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus. Children/adolescents susceptible for CPA and exposed to early-life abuse fail to efficiently cope with stress that in turn results in the development of CPA later in life. This phenomenon was observed in humans and animal models of aggression. The susceptibility to aggression is a complex trait that is regulated by the interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms mediate this interaction. Subjects exposed to stress early in life exhibited long-term epigenetic programming that can influence their behaviour in adulthood. This programming affects expression of many genes not only in the brain but also in other systems such as neuroendocrine and immune. The propensity to adult CPA behaviour in subjects experienced to early-life adversity is mediated by epigenetic programming that involves long-term systemic epigenetic alterations in a whole genome.

  3. Orofacial pain and quality of life in early adolescents in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Badiyani, Bhumika K; Kumar, Amit; Dixit, Garima; Sharma, Prachi; Agrawal, Sugandha

    2016-08-18

    Orofacial pain may have an impact on quality of life. It may affect the overall well-being of an individual. To assess the prevalence of orofacial pain and its impact on quality of life in early adolescents in Indore city, India. This was a cross-sectional study which included a total of 800 children selected from various public and private schools located in Indore city, India. A questionnaire was developed which collected information on sociodemographic characteristics and previous dental visits. The severity of pain was assessed using Von Korff pain scale and quality of life using the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12). The chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed. The overall prevalence of orofacial pain was found to be 17.9%. Toothache (10.1%) was found to be the most prevalent orofacial pain followed by temporomandibular joint pain (4.3%). The highest severity of pain (Grades 3 and 4) was reported for toothache followed by temporomandibular joint pain. The results of the logistic regression model showed that the prevalence of orofacial pain (odds ratio=7.18, p-valueorofacial pain has a negative influence on the quality of life of adolescents. Effective policies should be created to improve the quality of life of adolescents focusing on oral health education and prevention of oral diseases.

  4. Alterations in the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis in animals submitted to early-life trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Diniz Machado

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Changes in maternal care can affect offspring’s thyroid hormone T3 levels. Pups from highly caring mothers have higher levels of thyroid hormone T3. In humans, physical abuse in childhood is related to lower levels of T3 in adolescence. This study aimed at verifying if early-life trauma in rodents is correlated with T3 levels in adulthood. Methods: From the second day of life, litters of Wistar rats were subjected to reduced nesting material (Early–Life Stress-ELS or standard care (Controls. In adult life, the animals were chronically exposed to standard diet or standard diet + palatable diet and plasma T3 levels were measured before and after the exposition to diet. Results: Thyroid hormone T3 levels in adult life correlated negatively with the licking and grooming (LG scores in the ELS group. This correlation disappeared when the animals had the opportunity to choose between two diets chronically. Conclusion: The adverse environment affected maternal behavior and caused marks on the metabolism of the intervention group (T3, which were reverted by chronic palatable food consumption. Keywords: Trauma; T3; stress

  5. Spatio-temporal variability in western Baltic cod early life stage survival mediated by egg buoyancy, hydrography and hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H-H.; Hüssy, K.; Huwer, B.

    2012-01-01

    Spatio-temporal variability in western Baltic cod early life stage survival mediated by egg buoyancy, hydrography and hydrodynamics. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 1744–1752.To disentangle the effects of different drivers on recruitment variability of marine fish, a spatially and temporally...... explicit understanding of both the spawning stock size and the early life stage dynamics is required. The objectives of this study are to assess the transport of western Baltic cod early life stages as well as the variability in environmentally-mediated survival along drift routes in relation to both...

  6. Early-life soy exposure and gender-role play behavior in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adgent, Margaret A; Daniels, Julie L; Edwards, Lloyd J; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Rogan, Walter J

    2011-12-01

    Soy-based infant formula contains high levels of isoflavones. These estrogen-like compounds have been shown to induce changes in sexually dimorphic behaviors in animals exposed in early development. We examined gender-role play behavior in relation to soy-based and non-soy-based infant feeding methods among children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We studied 3,664 boys and 3,412 girls. Four exposure categories were created using data from questionnaires administered at 6 and 15 months postpartum: primarily breast, early formula (referent), early soy, and late soy. Gender-role play behavior was assessed using the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI). Associations between infant feeding and PSAI scores at 42 months of age were assessed using linear regression. Post hoc analyses of PSAI scores at 30 and 57 months were also conducted. Early-infancy soy use was reported for approximately 2% of participants. Mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] PSAI scores at 42 months were 62.3 (62.0, 62.6) and 36.9 (36.6, 37.2) for boys and girls, respectively. After adjustment, early soy (vs. early formula) feeding was associated with higher (less feminine) PSAI scores in girls (β = 2.66; 95% CI: 0.19, 5.12) but was not significantly associated with PSAI scores in boys. The association between soy exposure and PSAI scores in girls was substantially attenuated at 30 and 57 months. Although not consistent throughout childhood, early-life soy exposure was associated with less female-typical play behavior in girls at 42 months of age. Soy exposure was not significantly associated with play behavior in boys.

  7. National quality indicators and policies from 15 countries leading in adult end-of-life care: a systematic environmental scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdun, Claudia; Luckett, Tim; Lorenz, Karl A; Phillips, Jane

    2018-06-01

    The importance of measuring the quality of end-of-life care provision is undisputed, but determining how best to achieve this is yet to be confirmed. This study sought to identify and describe national end-of-life care quality indicators and supporting policies used by countries leading in their end-of-life care provision. A systematic environmental scan that included a web search to identify relevant national policies and indicators; hand searching for additional materials; information from experts listed for the top 10 (n=15) countries ranked in the 'quality of care' category of the 2015 Quality of Death Index study; and snowballing from Index experts. Ten countries (66%) have national policy support for end-of-life care measurement, five have national indicator sets, with two indicator sets suitable for all service providers. No countries mandate indicator use, and there is limited evidence of consumer engagement in development of indicators. Two thirds of the 128 identified indicators are outcomes measures (62%), and 38% are process measures. Most indicators pertain to symptom management (38%), social care (32%) or care delivery (27%). Measurement of end-of-life care quality varies globally and rarely covers all care domains or service providers. There is a need to reduce duplication of indicator development, involve consumers, consider all care providers and ensure measurable and relevant indicators to improve end-of-life care experiences for patients and families. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Repair of Composites: Design Choices Leading to Lower Life-Cycle Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassapoglou, Christos; Rangelov, Konstantin; Rangelov, Svilen

    2017-08-01

    The fabrication cost of composite aircraft structures is revisited and the effect of part size on cost is examined with emphasis on design decisions which affect the ease of (bonded) repair and the total cost of the part and subsequent repairs. The case of moderately loaded stiffened fuselage or wing panels under compression is analysed in detail and the fabrication cost of the panel made as a single piece or as an assembly of smaller identical components or modules is determined. The cost of special purpose repairs for two different damage sizes is compared to removing and replacing damaged modules. Hand layup and automated processing are compared. It is found that for certain repair sizes removing and replacing modules leads to lower overall cost as compared to applying a special purpose repair.

  9. Life in the fast lane: high-throughput chemistry for lead generation and optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, D

    2001-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has come under increasing pressure due to regulatory restrictions on the marketing and pricing of drugs, competition, and the escalating costs of developing new drugs. These forces can be addressed by the identification of novel targets, reductions in the development time of new drugs, and increased productivity. Emphasis has been placed on identifying and validating new targets and on lead generation: the response from industry has been very evident in genomics and high throughput screening, where new technologies have been applied, usually coupled with a high degree of automation. The combination of numerous new potential biological targets and the ability to screen large numbers of compounds against many of these targets has generated the need for large diverse compound collections. To address this requirement, high-throughput chemistry has become an integral part of the drug discovery process. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. IL-2 Enhances Gut Homing Potential of Human Naive Regulatory T Cells Early in Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Peter S; Lai, Catherine L; Hu, Mingjing; Santner-Nanan, Brigitte; Dahlstrom, Jane E; Lee, Cheng Hiang; Ajmal, Ayesha; Bullman, Amanda; Arbuckle, Susan; Al Saedi, Ahmed; Gacis, Lou; Nambiar, Reta; Williams, Andrew; Wong, Melanie; Campbell, Dianne E; Nanan, Ralph

    2018-06-15

    Recent evidence suggests early environmental factors are important for gut immune tolerance. Although the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells for gut immune homeostasis is well established, the development and tissue homing characteristics of Treg cells in children have not been studied in detail. In this article, we studied the development and homing characteristics of human peripheral blood Treg cell subsets and potential mechanisms inducing homing molecule expression in healthy children. We found contrasting patterns of circulating Treg cell gut and skin tropism, with abundant β7 integrin + Treg cells at birth and increasing cutaneous lymphocyte Ag (CLA + ) Treg cells later in life. β7 integrin + Treg cells were predominantly naive, suggesting acquisition of Treg cell gut tropism early in development. In vitro, IL-7 enhanced gut homing but reduced skin homing molecule expression in conventional T cells, whereas IL-2 induced a similar effect only in Treg cells. This effect was more pronounced in cord compared with adult blood. Our results suggest that early in life, naive Treg cells may be driven for gut tropism by their increased sensitivity to IL-2-induced β7 integrin upregulation, implicating a potential role of IL-2 in gut immune tolerance during this critical period of development. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Risk of childhood overweight after exposure to tobacco smoking in prenatal and early postnatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Susanne Eifer; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Andersen, Camilla Schou

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified with avai......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified...... with available information on maternal smoking status in child's pre- and postnatal life and child's birth weight, and weight and height at age 7 years. Outcome was overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force gender and age specific body mass index. Smoking exposure was categorized into four...... groups: no exposure (n = 25,076); exposure only during pregnancy (n = 3,343); exposure only postnatally (n = 140); and exposure during pregnancy and postnatally (n = 4,188). Risk of overweight according to smoking status as well as dose-response relationships were estimated by crude and adjusted odds...

  12. Preclinical Immunomodulation by the Probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V in Early Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo-Adrover, Maria Del Mar; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida; Pérez-Cano, Francisco José

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of supplementation with the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on the maturation of the intestinal and circulating immune system during suckling. In order to achieve this purpose, neonatal Lewis rats were supplemented with the probiotic strain from the 6th to the 18th day of life. The animals were weighed during the study, and faecal samples were obtained and evaluated daily. On day 19, rats were euthanized and intestinal wash samples, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells, splenocytes and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) were obtained. The probiotic supplementation in early life did not modify the growth curve and did not enhance the systemic immune maturation. However, it increased the proportion of cells bearing TLR4 in the MLN and IEL, and enhanced the percentage of the integrin αEβ7+ and CD62L+ cells in the MLN and that of the integrin αEβ7+ cells in the IEL, suggesting an enhancement of the homing process of naïve T lymphocytes to the MLN, and the retention of activated lymphocytes in the intraepithelial compartment. Interestingly, B. breve M-16V enhanced the intestinal IgA synthesis. In conclusion, supplementation with the probiotic strain B. breve M-16V during suckling improves the development of mucosal immunity in early life.

  13. Preclinical Immunomodulation by the Probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V in Early Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Del Mar Rigo-Adrover

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of supplementation with the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on the maturation of the intestinal and circulating immune system during suckling. In order to achieve this purpose, neonatal Lewis rats were supplemented with the probiotic strain from the 6th to the 18th day of life. The animals were weighed during the study, and faecal samples were obtained and evaluated daily. On day 19, rats were euthanized and intestinal wash samples, mesenteric lymph node (MLN cells, splenocytes and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL were obtained. The probiotic supplementation in early life did not modify the growth curve and did not enhance the systemic immune maturation. However, it increased the proportion of cells bearing TLR4 in the MLN and IEL, and enhanced the percentage of the integrin αEβ7+ and CD62L+ cells in the MLN and that of the integrin αEβ7+ cells in the IEL, suggesting an enhancement of the homing process of naïve T lymphocytes to the MLN, and the retention of activated lymphocytes in the intraepithelial compartment. Interestingly, B. breve M-16V enhanced the intestinal IgA synthesis. In conclusion, supplementation with the probiotic strain B. breve M-16V during suckling improves the development of mucosal immunity in early life.

  14. Patterns of Early-Life Gut Microbial Colonization during Human Immune Development: An Ecological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Laforest-Lapointe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in gut microbial colonization during early life have been reported in infants that later developed asthma, allergies, type 1 diabetes, as well as in inflammatory bowel disease patients, previous to disease flares. Mechanistic studies in animal models have established that microbial alterations influence disease pathogenesis via changes in immune system maturation. Strong evidence points to the presence of a window of opportunity in early life, during which changes in gut microbial colonization can result in immune dysregulation that predisposes susceptible hosts to disease. Although the ecological patterns of microbial succession in the first year of life have been partly defined in specific human cohorts, the taxonomic and functional features, and diversity thresholds that characterize these microbial alterations are, for the most part, unknown. In this review, we summarize the most important links between the temporal mosaics of gut microbial colonization and the age-dependent immune functions that rely on them. We also highlight the importance of applying ecology theory to design studies that explore the interactions between this complex ecosystem and the host immune system. Focusing research efforts on understanding the importance of temporally structured patterns of diversity, keystone groups, and inter-kingdom microbial interactions for ecosystem functions has great potential to enable the development of biologically sound interventions aimed at maintaining and/or improving immune system development and preventing disease.

  15. Great Physicists - The Life and Times of Leading Physicists from Galileo to Hawking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, William H.

    2004-09-01

    Here is a lively history of modern physics, as seen through the lives of thirty men and women from the pantheon of physics. William H. Cropper vividly portrays the life and accomplishments of such giants as Galileo and Isaac Newton, Marie Curie and Ernest Rutherford, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, right up to contemporary figures such as Richard Feynman, Murray Gell-Mann, and Stephen Hawking. We meet scientists--all geniuses--who could be gregarious, aloof, unpretentious, friendly, dogged, imperious, generous to colleagues or contentious rivals. As Cropper captures their personalities, he also offers vivid portraits of their great moments of discovery, their bitter feuds, their relations with family and friends, their religious beliefs and education. In addition, Cropper has grouped these biographies by discipline--mechanics, thermodynamics, particle physics, and others--each section beginning with a historical overview. Thus in the section on quantum mechanics, readers can see how the work of Max Planck influenced Niels Bohr, and how Bohr in turn influenced Werner Heisenberg. Our understanding of the physical world has increased dramatically in the last four centuries. With Great Physicists , readers can retrace the footsteps of the men and women who led the way.

  16. Differential impact of Met receptor gene interaction with early-life stress on neuronal morphology and behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heun-Johnson, Hanke; Levitt, Pat

    2018-02-01

    Early adversity in childhood increases the risk of anxiety, mood, and post-traumatic stress disorders in adulthood, and specific gene-by-environment interactions may increase risk further. A common functional variant in the promoter region of the gene encoding the human MET receptor tyrosine kinase (rs1858830 ' C' allele) reduces expression of MET and is associated with altered cortical circuit function and structural connectivity. Mice with reduced Met expression exhibit changes in anxiety-like and conditioned fear behavior, precocious synaptic maturation in the hippocampus, and reduced neuronal arbor complexity and synaptogenesis. These phenotypes also can be produced independently by early adversity in wild-type mice. The present study addresses the outcome of combining early-life stress and genetic influences that alter timing of maturation on enduring functional and structural phenotypes. Using a model of reduced Met expression ( Met +/- ) and early-life stress from postnatal day 2-9, social, anxiety-like, and contextual fear behaviors in later life were measured. Mice that experienced early-life stress exhibited impairments in social interaction, whereas alterations in anxiety-like behavior and fear learning were driven by Met haploinsufficiency, independent of rearing condition. Early-life stress or reduced Met expression decreased arbor complexity of ventral hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons projecting to basolateral amygdala. Paradoxically, arbor complexity in Met +/- mice was increased following early-life stress, and thus not different from arbors in wild-type mice raised in control conditions. The changes in dendritic morphology are consistent with the hypothesis that the physiological state of maturation of CA1 neurons in Met +/- mice influences their responsiveness to early-life stress. The dissociation of behavioral and structural changes suggests that there may be phenotype-specific sensitivities to early-life stress.

  17. Inequality in oral health related to early and later life social conditions: a study of elderly in Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülcan, Ferda; Ekbäck, Gunnar; Ordell, Sven; Lie, Stein Atle; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2015-02-10

    A life course perspective recognizes influences of socially patterned exposures on oral health across the life span. This study assessed the influence of early and later life social conditions on tooth loss and oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) of people aged 65 and 70 years. Whether social inequalities in oral health changed after the usual age of retirement was also examined. In accordance with "the latent effect life course model", it was hypothesized that adverse early-life social conditions increase the risk of subsequent tooth loss and impaired OIDP, independent of later-life social conditions. Data were obtained from two cohorts studies conducted in Sweden and Norway. The 2007 and 2012 waves of the surveys were used for the present study. Early-life social conditions were measured in terms of gender, education and country of birth, and later-life social conditions were assessed by working status, marital status and size of social network. Logistic regression and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to analyse the data. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) was used to adjust estimates for missing responses and loss to follow-up. Early-life social conditions contributed to tooth loss and OIDP in each survey year and both countries independent of later-life social conditions. Lower education correlated positively with tooth loss, but did not influence OIDP. Foreign country of birth correlated positively with oral impacts in Sweden only. Later-life social conditions were the strongest predictors of tooth loss and OIDP across survey years and countries. GEE revealed significant interactions between social network and survey year, and between marital status and survey year on tooth loss. The results confirmed the latent effect life course model in that early and later life social conditions had independent effects on tooth loss and OIDP among the elderly in Norway and Sweden. Between age 65 and 70, inequalities in tooth loss related to marital

  18. Time course for memory dysfunction in early-life and late-life major depression: a longitudinal study from the Juntendo University Mood Disorder Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeshima, Hitoshi; Baba, Hajime; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Satomura, Emi; Namekawa, Yuki; Takebayashi, Naoko; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Toshihito; Mimura, Masaru; Arai, Heii

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with depression also have memory dysfunctions during depressive episodes. These dysfunctions partially remain immediately after remission from a depressive state; however, it is unclear whether these residual memory dysfunctions may disappear through long-term remission from depression. The present study compared patients during early-life (agelife (age ≥ 60) depression while in their remitted stage with healthy controls to elucidate the impact of a long-term course on memory. Logical memory from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised was administered to 67 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (47 patients with early-life depression and residual 20 patients with late-life depression) and 50 healthy controls. MDD patients received memory assessments at the time of their initial remission and at a follow-up three years after remission. At the time of initial remission, scores for logical memory were significantly lower in both patient groups compared to matched controls. At follow-up, memory dysfunction for early-life MDD patients disappeared, whereas scores in the late-life MDD group remained significantly lower than those of matched controls. All patients in the present study were on antidepressant medications. Our findings suggested that the progress of memory performance in late-life MDD patients may be different from early-life MDD patients. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Law Enforcement Agency Defibrillation (LEA-D): proceedings of the National Center for Early Defibrillation Police AED Issues Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosesso, Vincent N; Newman, Mary M; Ornato, Joseph P; Paris, Paul M; Andersen, Leon; Brinsfield, Kathryn; Dunnavant, Gregory R; Frederick, Jay; Groh, William J; Johnston, Steven; Lerner, E Brooke; Murphy, George P; Myerburg, Robert J; Rosenberg, Donald G; Savino, Mitchell; Sayre, Michael R; Sciammarella, Joseph; Schoen, Valerie; Vargo, Philip; van Alem, Anouk; White, Roger D

    2002-01-01

    Why does LEA-D intervention seem to work in some systems but not others? Panelists agreed that some factors that delay rapid access to treatment, such as long travel distances in rural areas, may represent insurmountable barriers. Other factors, however, may be addressed more readily. These include: absence of a medical response culture, discomfort with the role of medical intervention, insecurity with the use of medical devices, a lack of proactive medical direction, infrequent refresher training, and dependence on EMS intervention. Panelists agreed that successful LEA-D programs possess ten key attributes (Table 6). In the end, the goal remains "early" defibrillation, not "police" defibrillation. It does not matter whether the rescuer wears a blue uniform--or any uniform, for that matter--so long as the defibrillator reaches the victim quickly. If LEA personnel routinely arrive at medical emergencies after other emergency responders or after 8 minutes have elapsed from the time of collapse, an LEA-D program will be unlikely to provide added value. Similarly, if police frequently arrive first, but the department is unwilling or unable to cultivate the attributes of successful LEA-D programs, efforts to improve survival may not be realized. In most communities, however, LEA-D programs have tremendous lifesaving potential and are well worth the investment of time and resources. Law enforcement agencies considering adoption of AED programs should review the frequency with which police arrive first at medical emergencies and LEA response intervals to determine whether AED programs might help improve survival in their communities. It is time for law enforcement agency defibrillation to become the rule, not the exception.

  20. ACTH Prevents Deficits in Fear Extinction Associated with Early Life Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Massey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Early life seizures are often associated with cognitive and psychiatric comorbidities that are detrimental to quality of life. In a rat model of early life seizures (ELS, we explored long-term cognitive outcomes in adult rats. Using ACTH, an endogeneous HPA-axis hormone given to children with severe epilepsy, we sought to prevent cognitive deficits. Through comparisons with dexamethasone, we sought to dissociate the corticosteroid effects of ACTH from other potential mechanisms of action. We found that while rats with a history of ELS were able to acquire a conditioned fear learning paradigm as well as controls, these rats had significant deficits in their ability to extinguish fearful memories. ACTH treatment did not alter any seizure parameters but nevertheless was able to significantly improve this fear extinction, while dexamethasone treatment during the same period did not. This ACTH effect was specific for fear extinction deficits and not for spatial learning deficits in a water maze. Additionally, ACTH did not alter seizure latency or duration suggesting that cognitive and seizure outcomes may be dissociable. Expression levels of melanocortin receptors, which bind ACTH, were found to be significantly lower in animals that had experienced ELS than in control animals, potentially implicating central melanocortin receptor dysregulation in the effects of ELS and suggesting a mechanism of action for ACTH. Taken together, these data suggest that early treatment with ACTH can have significant long-term consequences for cognition in animals with a history of ELS independently of seizure cessation, and may act in part through a CNS melanocortin receptor pathway.

  1. Initial Treatment for Nonsyndromic Early-Life Epilepsy: An Unexpected Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellhaas, Renée A; Berg, Anne T; Grinspan, Zachary M; Wusthoff, Courtney J; Millichap, John J; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Coryell, Jason; Saneto, Russell P; Chu, Catherine J; Joshi, Sucheta M; Sullivan, Joseph E; Knupp, Kelly G; Kossoff, Eric H; Keator, Cynthia; Wirrell, Elaine C; Mytinger, John R; Valencia, Ignacio; Massey, Shavonne; Gaillard, William D

    2017-10-01

    There are no evidence-based guidelines on the preferred approach to treating early-life epilepsy. We examined initial therapy selection in a contemporary US cohort of children with newly diagnosed, nonsyndromic, early-life epilepsy (onset before age three years). Seventeen pediatric epilepsy centers participated in a prospective cohort study of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy with onset under 36 months of age. Details regarding demographics, seizure types, and initial medication selections were obtained from medical records. About half of the 495 enrolled children with new-onset, nonsyndromic epilepsy were less than 12 months old at the time of diagnosis (n = 263, 53%) and about half (n = 260, 52%) had epilepsy with focal features. Of 464 who were treated with monotherapy, 95% received one of five drugs: levetiracetam (n = 291, 63%), oxcarbazepine (n = 67, 14%), phenobarbital (n = 57, 12%), topiramate (n = 16, 3.4%), and zonisamide (n = 13, 2.8%). Phenobarbital was prescribed first for 50 of 163 (31%) infants less than six months old versus seven of 300 (2.3%) of children six months or older (P epilepsy presentation (focal, generalized, mixed/uncertain). Between the first and second treatment choices, 367 (74%) of children received levetiracetam within the first year after diagnosis. Without any specific effort, the pediatric epilepsy community has developed an unexpectedly consistent approach to initial treatment selection for early-life epilepsy. This suggests that a standard practice is emerging and could be utilized as a widely acceptable basis of comparison in future drug studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. High novelty-seeking rats are resilient to negative physiological effects of the early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Sarah M; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to early life stress dramatically impacts adult behavior, physiology, and neuroendocrine function. Using rats bred for novelty-seeking differences and known to display divergent anxiety, depression, and stress vulnerability, we examined the interaction between early life adversity and genetic predisposition for high- versus low-emotional reactivity. Thus, bred Low Novelty Responder (bLR) rats, which naturally exhibit high anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and bred High Novelty Responder (bHR) rats, which show low anxiety/depression together with elevated aggression, impulsivity, and addictive behavior, were subjected to daily 3 h maternal separation (MS) stress postnatal days 1-14. We hypothesized that MS stress would differentially impact adult bHR/bLR behavior, physiology (stress-induced defecation), and neuroendocrine reactivity. While MS stress did not impact bHR and bLR anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and elevated plus maze, it exacerbated bLRs' already high physiological response to stress - stress-induced defecation. In both tests, MS bLR adult offspring showed exaggerated stress-induced defecation compared to bLR controls while bHR offspring were unaffected. MS also selectively impacted bLRs' (but not bHRs') neuroendocrine stress reactivity, producing an exaggerated corticosterone acute stress response in MS bLR versus control bLR rats. These findings highlight how genetic predisposition shapes individuals' response to early life stress. Future work will explore neural mechanisms underlying the distinct behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of MS in bHR/bLR animals.

  3. Diet Quality throughout Early Life in Relation to Allergic Sensitization and Atopic Diseases in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh N. Nguyen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Early-life nutrition is an important modifiable determinant in the development of a child’s immune system, and may thereby influence the risk of allergic sensitization and atopic diseases. However, associations between overall dietary patterns and atopic diseases in childhood remain unclear. We examined associations of diet quality in early life with allergic sensitization, self-reported physician-diagnosed inhalant and food allergies, eczema, and asthma among 5225 children participating in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Diet was assessed during pregnancy, infancy, and childhood using validated food-frequency questionnaires. We calculated food-based diet quality scores (0–10 or 0–15, reflecting adherence to dietary guidelines. At age 10 years, allergic sensitization was assessed with skin prick tests. Information on physician-diagnosed inhalant and food allergies, eczema, and asthma was obtained with questionnaires. We observed no associations between diet quality during pregnancy and allergic sensitization (odds ratio (OR = 1.05 per point in the diet score, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.99, 1.13, allergies (0.96, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.04, eczema (0.99, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.06, or asthma (0.93, 95% CI: 0.85, 1.03 in childhood. Also, diet quality in infancy or childhood were not associated with atopic outcomes in childhood. Our findings do not support our hypothesis that a healthy dietary pattern in early life is associated with a lower risk of allergic sensitization or atopic diseases in childhood.

  4. Quality of life and adherence to treatment in early-treated Brazilian phenylketonuria pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, E; Maia, H S; Monteiro, C B; Carvalho, L M; Tonon, T; Vanz, A P; Schwartz, I V D; Ribeiro, M G

    2017-12-11

    Early dietary treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU), an inborn error of phenylalanine (Phe) metabolism, results in normal cognitive development. Although health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of PKU patients has been reported as unaffected in high-income countries, there are scarce data concerning HRQoL and adherence to treatment of PKU children and adolescents from Brazil. The present study compared HRQoL scores in core dimensions of Brazilian early-treated PKU pediatric patients with those of a reference population, and explored possible relationships between adherence to treatment and HRQoL. Early-treated PKU pediatric patient HRQoL was evaluated by self- and parent-proxy reports of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) core scales. Adherence to treatment was evaluated by median Phe levels and percentage of results within the therapeutic target range in two periods. Means for total and core scales scores of PedsQL self- and parent proxy-reports of PKU patients were significantly lower than their respective means for controls. Adequacy of median Phe concentrations and the mean percentage of values in the target range fell substantially from the first year of life to the last year of this study. There was no significant difference in mean total and core scale scores for self- and parent proxy-reports between patients with adequate and those with inadequate median Phe concentrations. The harmful consequences for intellectual capacity caused by poor adherence to dietary treatment could explain the observed decrease in all HRQoL scales, especially in school functioning. Healthcare system and financial difficulties may also have influenced negatively all HRQoL dimensions.

  5. Early-Life Social Isolation Influences Mouse Ultrasonic Vocalizations during Male-Male Social Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesom, Sarah M; Finton, Caitlyn J; Sell, Gabrielle L; Hurley, Laura M

    2017-01-01

    Early-life social isolation has profound effects on adult social competence. This is often expressed as increased aggression or inappropriate displays of courtship-related behaviors. The social incompetence exhibited by isolated animals could be in part due to an altered ability to participate in communicatory exchanges. House mice (Mus musculus) present an excellent model for exploring this idea, because social isolation has a well-established influence on their social behavior, and mice engage in communication via multiple sensory modalities. Here, we tested the prediction that social isolation during early life would influence ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) emitted by adult male mice during same-sex social encounters. Starting at three weeks of age, male mice were housed individually or in social groups of four males for five weeks, after which they were placed in one of three types of paired social encounters. Pair types consisted of: two individually housed males, two socially housed males, or an individually housed and a socially housed male ("mixed" pairs). Vocal behavior (USVs) and non-vocal behaviors were recorded from these 15-minute social interactions. Pairs of mice consisting of at least one individually housed male emitted more and longer USVs, with a greater proportional use of USVs containing frequency jumps and 50-kHz components. Individually housed males in the mixed social pairs exhibited increased levels of mounting behavior towards the socially housed males. Mounting in these pairs was positively correlated with increased number and duration of USVs as well as increased proportional use of spectrally more complex USVs. These findings demonstrate that USVs are part of the suite of social behaviors influenced by early-life social isolation, and suggest that altered vocal communication following isolation reflects reduced social competence.

  6. Early-life risperidone enhances locomotor responses to amphetamine during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Stubbeman, Bobbie; Brown, Clifford J; Yates, Justin R; Bardgett, Mark E

    2017-10-05

    Antipsychotic drug prescriptions for pediatric populations have increased over the past 20 years, particularly the use of atypical antipsychotic drugs such as risperidone. Most antipsychotic drugs target forebrain dopamine systems, and early-life antipsychotic drug exposure could conceivably reset forebrain neurotransmitter function in a permanent manner that persists into adulthood. This study determined whether chronic risperidone administration during development modified locomotor responses to the dopamine/norepinephrine agonist, D-amphetamine, in adult rats. Thirty-five male Long-Evans rats received an injection of one of four doses of risperidone (vehicle, .3, 1.0, 3.0mg/kg) each day from postnatal day 14 through 42. Locomotor activity was measured for 1h on postnatal days 46 and 47, and then for 24h once a week over the next two weeks. Beginning on postnatal day 75, rats received one of four doses of amphetamine (saline, .3, 1.0, 3.0mg/kg) once a week for four weeks. Locomotor activity was measured for 27h after amphetamine injection. Rats administered risperidone early in life demonstrated increased activity during the 1 and 24h test sessions conducted prior to postnatal day 75. Taking into account baseline group differences, these same rats exhibited significantly more locomotor activity in response to the moderate dose of amphetamine relative to controls. These results suggest that early-life treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs, like risperidone, permanently alters forebrain catecholamine function and increases sensitivity to drugs that target such function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Early life vincristine exposure evokes mechanical pain hypersensitivity in the developing rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schappacher, Katie A; Styczynski, Lauren; Baccei, Mark L

    2017-09-01

    Vincristine (VNC) is commonly used to treat pediatric cancers, including the most prevalent childhood malignancy, acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although clinical evidence suggests that VNC causes peripheral neuropathy in children, the degree to which pediatric chemotherapeutic regimens influence pain sensitivity throughout life remains unclear, in part because of the lack of an established animal model of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain during early life. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of VNC exposure between postnatal days (P) 11 and 21 on mechanical and thermal pain sensitivity in the developing rat. Low doses of VNC (15 or 30 μg/kg) failed to alter nociceptive withdrawal reflexes at any age examined compared with vehicle-injected littermate controls. Meanwhile, high dose VNC (60 μg/kg) evoked mechanical hypersensitivity in both sexes beginning at P26 that persisted until adulthood and included both static and dynamic mechanical allodynia. Hind paw withdrawal latencies to noxious heat and cold were unaffected by high doses of VNC, suggesting a selective effect of neonatal VNC on mechanical pain sensitivity. Gross and fine motor function appeared normal after VNC treatment, although a small decrease in weight gain was observed. The VNC regimen also produced a significant decrease in intraepidermal nerve fiber density in the hind paw skin by P33. Overall, the present results demonstrate that high-dose administration of VNC during the early postnatal period selectively evokes a mechanical hypersensitivity that is slow to emerge during adolescence, providing further evidence that aberrant sensory input during early life can have prolonged consequences for pain processing.

  8. Dietary acid load in early life and bone health in childhood: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Audry H; Franco, Oscar H; Voortman, Trudy; de Jonge, Ester A L; Gordillo, Noelia G; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van den Hooven, Edith H

    2015-12-01

    Dietary contribution to acid-base balance in early life may influence subsequent bone mineralization. Previous studies reported inconsistent results regarding the associations between dietary acid load and bone mass. We examined the associations of dietary acid load in early life with bone health in childhood. In a prospective, multiethnic, population-based cohort study of 2850 children, we estimated dietary acid load as dietary potential renal acid load (dPRAL), based on dietary intakes of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and protein, and as a protein intake to potassium intake ratio (Pro:K) at 1 y of age and in a subgroup at 2 y of age : Bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), area-adjusted BMC, and bone area were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the median age of 6 y. Data were analyzed by using multivariable linear regression models. After adjusting for relevant maternal and child factors, dietary acid load estimated as either dPRAL or Pro:K ratio was not consistently associated with childhood bone health. Associations did not differ by sex, ethnicity, weight status, or vitamin D supplementation. Only in those children with high protein intake in our population (i.e., >42 g/d), a 1-unit increase in dPRAL (mEq/d) was inversely associated with BMC (difference: -0.32 g; 95% CI: -0.64, -0.01 g). Dietary acid load in early life was not consistently associated with bone health in childhood. Further research is needed to explore the extent to which dietary acid load in later childhood may affect current and future bone health. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Analgesia for early-life pain prevents deficits in adult anxiety and stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, Nicole C; Karom, Mary C; Murphy, Anne Z

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in rats have established that inflammatory pain experienced on the day of birth (P0) decreases sensitivity to acute noxious, anxiety- and stress-provoking stimuli. However, to date, the impact of early-life pain on adult responses to chronic stress is not known. Further, the ability of morphine, administered at the time of injury, to mitigate changes in adult behavioral and hormonal responses to acute or chronic stressors has not been examined. P0 male and female Sprague-Dawley rat pups were given an intraplantar injection of 1% carrageenan or handled in an identical manner in the presence or absence of morphine. As adults, rats that experienced early-life pain displayed decreased sensitivity to acute stressors, as indicated by increased time in the inner area of the Open Field, and increased latency to immobility and decreased time immobile in the Forced Swim Test (FST). An accelerated return of corticosterone to baseline was also observed. Morphine administration at the time of injury completely reversed this 'hyporesponsive' phenotype. By contrast, following 7 days of chronic variable stress, injured animals displayed a 'hyperresponsive' phenotype in that they initiated immobility and spent significantly more time immobile in the FST than controls. Responses to chronic stress were also rescued in animals that received morphine at the time of injury. These data suggest that analgesia for early-life pain prevents adult hyposensitivity to acute anxiety- and stress-provoking stimuli and increased vulnerability to chronic stress, and have important clinical implications for the management of pain in infants. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Zinc in Early Life: A Key Element in the Fetus and Preterm Neonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrin, Gianluca; Berni Canani, Roberto; Di Chiara, Maria; Pietravalle, Andrea; Aleandri, Vincenzo; Conte, Francesca; De Curtis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is a key element for growth and development. In this narrative review, we focus on the role of dietary zinc in early life (including embryo, fetus and preterm neonate), analyzing consequences of zinc deficiency and adequacy of current recommendations on dietary zinc. We performed a systematic search of articles on the role of zinc in early life. We selected and analyzed 81 studies. Results of this analysis showed that preservation of zinc balance is of critical importance for the avoidance of possible consequences of low zinc levels on pre- and post-natal life. Insufficient quantities of zinc during embryogenesis may influence the final phenotype of all organs. Maternal zinc restriction during pregnancy influences fetal growth, while adequate zinc supplementation during pregnancy may result in a reduction of the risk of preterm birth. Preterm neonates are at particular risk to develop zinc deficiency due to a combination of different factors: (i) low body stores due to reduced time for placental transfer of zinc; (ii) increased endogenous losses; and (iii) marginal intake. Early diagnosis of zinc deficiency, through the measurement of serum zinc concentrations, may be essential to avoid severe prenatal and postnatal consequences in these patients. Typical clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency are growth impairment and dermatitis. Increasing data suggest that moderate zinc deficiency may have significant subclinical effects, increasing the risk of several complications typical of preterm neonates (i.e., necrotizing enterocolitis, chronic lung disease, and retinopathy), and that current recommended intakes should be revised to meet zinc requirements of extremely preterm neonates. Future studies evaluating the adequacy of current recommendations are advocated. PMID:26690476

  11. Associations of Midlife to Late Life Fatigue With Physical Performance and Strength in Early Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna Regina; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of fatigue in midlife and later life with physical performance and strength in early old age. METHODS: Data on approximately 1800 men and women from the UK Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development with data on fatigue at ages 43 and 60...... points. These associations were robust and were maintained after adjustment for a range of covariates including physical activity and health status. CONCLUSIONS: Reports of frequent fatigue were associated with poorer physical performance in early old age, especially if sustained from midlife to later...... to 64 years were used. Fatigue was defined as perceived tiredness and was assessed prospectively at ages 43 and 60 to 64 years. At both ages, participants were categorized as having no, occasional, or frequent fatigue. Physical performance and strength were measured at age 60 to 64 years using four...

  12. Early-Life Antibiotic Exposure, Gut Microbiota Development, and Predisposition to Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Meghan B; Moossavi, Shirin; Owora, Arthur; Sepehri, Shadi

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotics are often prescribed inappropriately to infants and young children, with potentially adverse effects on the developing gut microbiota and related metabolic processes. We review evidence from 17 epidemiologic studies suggesting that antibiotic exposure during critical periods of early development may influence weight gain and the development of obesity. Complementary research in both humans and rodents indicates that gut microbiota play a key role in this process, although further research is needed to confirm and characterize the causal mechanisms involved. Obesity is a complex and multifactorial condition; thus, a multipronged prevention strategy will be required to curb the current obesity epidemic. Evidence to date suggests this strategy should include the judicious use of antibiotics, especially in early life when the developing gut microbiota is particularly susceptible to perturbations with long-lasting implications for metabolic programming and obesity risk. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Depression and quality of life in monogenic compared to idiopathic, early-onset Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasten, Meike; Kertelge, Lena; Tadic, Vera

    2012-01-01

    , and 44% of manifesting carriers of mutations in PD genes, but was rare in the nonmanifesting carriers (7%) and healthy controls (5%). Subjects with Parkinson-associated depression reported fewer feelings of guilt or self-doubt than treated controls, but the occurrence of suicidal ideation was associated......Quality of life (QoL) is decreased in PD and is linked with depression and anxiety. However, little is known about QoL in monogenic PD. Subjects with mutations in PD genes were recruited from ongoing family and genetic studies (manifesting carriers, n = 23; nonmanifesting carriers, n = 19......). For comparison purposes, we included patients with idiopathic PD (IPD; n = 128; early onset, n = 38; late onset, n = 90), healthy controls (n = 127), and data on depressive symptoms of 144 patients with major depression (treated controls). Depression affected 31% of early-onset PD cases, 21% of late-onset cases...

  14. Early Life Lung Antioxidant Levels and Response to Ozone: Influence of Sex and Maturation in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract. Epidemiologic studies of air pollution effects on respiratory health report significant modification by sex. Studies of children suggest stronger effects among boys in early life and girls in later childhood. In adults, particularly the elderly, studies report stronger...

  15. Intrinsic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Activities in Early Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Jens C; Schultz, Bernadette; Fruth, Daniela; Fabian, Eric; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Hidding, Björn; Salinas, Edward R

    2017-09-01

    Early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio, zf) are gaining attention as an alternative invivo test system for drug discovery, early developmental toxicity screenings and chemical testing in ecotoxicological and toxicological testing strategies. Previous studies have demonstrated transcriptional evidence for xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME) during early zf development. However, elaborate experiments on XME activities during development are incomplete. In this work, the intrinsic activities of representative phase I and II XME were monitored by transformation of putative zf model substrates analyzed using photometry and high pressure liquid chromatography techniques. Six different defined stages of zf development (between 2.5 h postfertilization (hpf) to 120 hpf) were investigated by preparing a subcellular fraction from whole organism homogenates. We demonstrated that zf embryos as early as 2.5 hpf possess intrinsic metabolic activities for esterase, Aldh, Gst, and Cyp1a above the methodological detection limit. The activities of the enzymes Cyp3a and Nat were measurable during later stages in development. Activities represent dynamic patterns during development. The role of XME activities revealed in this work is relevant for the assessing toxicity in this test system and therefore contributes to a valuable characterization of zf embryos as an alternative testing organism in toxicology. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Sustainable poverty amelioration through early life education in a peri-urban community of Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka A. Abosede

    2010-06-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine early life education for under-fives as a means of economic empowerment of mothers and sustainable poverty amelioration. Method: The methodology included a non-randomised selection of 34 disadvantaged mothers by criteria, a prospective intervention utilising community resources to organise early childhood education, an in-depth interview of mothers, and observation of the outcomes over a 5-year period. Results: The result of the study showed that no mother preferred keeping a child older than three years at home. Access to early childhood education gave mothers opportunity to undergo vocational training (1, 2.8% and take up new/additional jobs (12, 35.3%. All mothers and 32 (80% of the participating families more than doubled their income, earning up to twenty thousand Naira (approximately $182 per month from the first year of participation. Finally, selection criteria and periodic assessment of immunisation/growth monitoring records of participants’ children improved compliance with primary health care service utilisation. Conclusion: Organisation of early childhood education had the potential for sustainable poverty amelioration through economic empowerment of mothers.

  17. Early life history and habitat ecology of estuarine fishes: responses to natural and human induced change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Able

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the early life history of fishes and their habitats has proceeded from basic natural history to ecology, but we often need to return to natural history to address deficiencies in conceptual and quantitative models of ecosystems. This understanding is further limited by the complex life history of fishes and the lack of appreciation of shifting baselines in estuaries. These inadequacies are especially evident when we try to address the effects of human influences, e.g. fishing, urbanization, and climate change. Often our baselines are inadequate or inaccurate. Our work has detected these along the coasts of the U.S. in extensive time series of larval fish ingress into estuaries, studies of the effects of urbanization, and responses to catastrophes such as the BP oil spill. Long-term monitoring, especially, continues to provide critical insights

  18. Early-life adversity facilitates acquisition of cocaine self-administration and induces persistent anhedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Bolton

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Early-life adversity increases the risk for emotional disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. Anhedonia, thought to be a core feature of these disorders, is provoked by our naturalistic rodent model of childhood adversity (i.e., rearing pups for one week in cages with limited bedding and nesting, LBN. Drug use and addiction are highly comorbid with psychiatric disorders featuring anhedonia, yet effects of LBN on drug-seeking behavior and the reward and stress-related circuits that underlie it remain unknown. Here we examined the effects of LBN on cocaine intake and seeking, using a battery of behavioral tests measuring distinct aspects of cocaine reward, and for comparison, chocolate intake. We also examined activation of neurons within the pleasure/reward and stress circuits following cocaine in LBN and control rats. Early-life adversity reduced spontaneous intake of palatable chocolate, extending prior reports of sucrose and social-play anhedonia. In a within-session cocaine behavioral economic test, LBN rats self-administered lower dosages of cocaine under low-effort conditions, consistent with a reduced hedonic set-point for cocaine, and potentially anhedonia. In contrast, cocaine demand elasticity was not consistently affected, indicating no major changes in motivation to maintain preferred cocaine blood levels. These changes were selective, as LBN did not cause an overt anxiety-like phenotype, nor did it affect sensitivity to self-administered cocaine dose, responding for cocaine under extinction conditions, cocaine- or cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking, or locomotor response to acute cocaine. However, high Fos expression was seen after cocaine in both reward- and stress-related brain regions of LBN rats, including nucleus accumbens core, central amygdala, and lateral habenula. In contrast, hypothalamic orexin neuron activation after cocaine was significantly attenuated in LBN rats. Together, these findings demonstrate

  19. Intelligence and early life mortality: Findings from a longitudinal sample of youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M; Schwartz, Joseph A; Connolly, Eric J; Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed Said; Kobeisy, Ahmed Nezar; Barnes, J C; Boutwell, Brian B

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined whether adolescent IQ predicted risk for mortality by the age of 32. Analyses of data from the Add Health revealed that IQ was related to mortality risk, such that respondents with relatively lower IQs were significantly more likely to experience early life mortality when compared to respondents with relatively higher IQs. This association remained statistically significant even after controlling for a host of covariates such as race, gender, involvement in violent behaviors, levels of self-control, and poverty. The average IQ of deceased respondents was approximately 95, whereas the average IQ of living respondents was about 100.

  20. Challenges to studying the health effects of early life environmental chemical exposures on children's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Joseph M; Gray, Kimberly

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiological studies play an important role in quantifying how early life environmental chemical exposures influence the risk of childhood diseases. These studies face at least four major challenges that can produce noise when trying to identify signals of associations between chemical exposure and childhood health. Challenges include accurately estimating chemical exposure, confounding from causes of both exposure and disease, identifying periods of heightened vulnerability to chemical exposures, and determining the effects of chemical mixtures. We provide recommendations that will aid in identifying these signals with more precision.

  1. Recovery in eastern Baltic cod: is increased recruitment caused by decreased predation on early life stages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment...... in the second half of the 2000s, new analyses of stomach content of sprat and herring were conducted, to elucidate the contribution of changes in predation pressure on cod recruitment. Comparison of stomach contents of sprat and herring in 2004–2008 with data from the 1990s showed a similar diet composition...

  2. Serpentinization and its implications for life on the early Earth and Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Mitch; Blake, David; Hoehler, Tori; McCollom, Thomas

    2006-04-01

    Ophiolites, sections of ocean crust tectonically displaced onto land, offer significant potential to support chemolithoautotrophic life through the provision of energy and reducing power during aqueous alteration of their highly reduced mineralogies. There is substantial chemical disequilibrium between the primary olivine and pyroxene mineralogy of these ophiolites and the fluids circulating through them. This disequilibrium represents a potential source of chemical energy that could sustain life. Moreover, E (h)-pH conditions resulting from rock- water interactions in ultrabasic rocks are conducive to important abiotic processes antecedent to the origin of life. Serpentinization--the reaction of olivine- and pyroxene-rich rocks with water--produces magnetite, hydroxide, and serpentine minerals, and liberates molecular hydrogen, a source of energy and electrons that can be readily utilized by a broad array of chemosynthetic organisms. These systems are viewed as important analogs for potential early ecosystems on both Earth and Mars, where highly reducing mineralogy was likely widespread in an undifferentiated crust. Secondary phases precipitated during serpentinization have the capability to preserve organic or mineral biosignatures. We describe the petrology and mineral chemistry of an ophiolite-hosted cold spring in northern California and propose criteria to aid in the identification of serpentinizing terranes on Mars that have the potential to harbor chemosynthetic life.

  3. Early Diagnosis and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for IL10R Deficiency Leading to Very Early-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease Are Essential in Familial Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Edeer Karaca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations of immune homeostasis in the gut may result in development of inflammatory bowel disease. A five-month-old girl was referred for recurrent respiratory and genitourinary tract infections, sepsis in neonatal period, chronic diarrhea, perianal abscess, rectovaginal fistula, and hyperemic skin lesions. She was born to second-degree consanguineous, healthy parents. Her elder siblings were lost at 4 months of age due to sepsis and 1 year of age due to inflammatory bowel disease, respectively. Absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, immunoglobulin levels, and lymphocyte subsets were normal ruling out severe congenital neutropenia and classic severe combined immunodeficiencies. Quantitative determination of oxidative burst was normal, excluding chronic granulomatous disease. Colonoscopy revealed granulation, ulceration, and pseudopolyps, compatible with colitis. Very early-onset colitis and perianal disease leading to fistula formation suggested probability of inherited deficiencies of IL-10 or IL-10 receptor. A mutation at position c.G477A in exon of the IL10RB gene, resulting in a stop codon at position p.W159X, was identified. The patient underwent myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from full matched father at 11 months of age. Perianal lesions, chronic diarrhea, and recurrent infections resolved after transplantation. IL-10/IL-10R deficiencies must be considered in patients with early-onset enterocolitis.

  4. Quality of life of early stage colorectal cancer patients in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrabti, Hind; Amziren, Mounia; ElGhissassi, Ibrahim; Bensouda, Youssef; Berrada, Narjiss; Abahssain, Halima; Boutayeb, Saber; El Fakir, Samira; Nejjari, Chakib; Benider, Abdellatif; Mellas, Nawfel; El Mesbahi, Omar; Bennani, Maria; Bekkali, Rachid; Zidouh, Ahmed; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-10-12

    A multicentre cohort study was held in Morocco, designed to evaluate the quality of life of cancer patients. The aim of this paper is to report the assessment of the quality of life of early colorectal cancer patients, before and after cancer treatment, to identify other factors which are related to this quality of life. We used the third version of the QLQ-C30 questionnaire of the European organization for Research and treatment of Cancer (EORTC) after a transcultural validation. The Data collection was done at inclusion and then every twelve weeks to achieve one year of follow up. Overall 294 patients presented with early colorectal cancer, the median age was 56 years (range: 21-88). The male-female sex ratio was 1.17. At inclusion, the global health status was the most affected functional dimension. For symptoms: financial difficulties and fatigue scores were the highest ones. Emotional and social functions were significantly worse in rectal cancer. Most symptoms were more present in rectal cancer. At inclusion, global health status score was significantly worse in stage III. Anorexia was significantly more important among colorectal female patients. For Patients over 70 years-old, the difference was statistically significant for the physical function item which was lower. Overall, Functional dimensions scores were improved after chemotherapy. The symptoms scores did not differ significantly for patients treated by radiotherapy, between inclusion and at one year. Our EORTC QLQ C30 scores are overall comparable to the reference values. Neither chemotherapy, nor radiotherapy worsened the quality of life at one year.

  5. High-Resolution Lipidomics of the Early Life Stages of the Red Seaweed Porphyra dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Elisabete; Azevedo, Vitor; Melo, Tânia; Rego, Andreia M; V Evtuguin, Dmitry; Domingues, Pedro; Calado, Ricardo; Pereira, Rui; Abreu, Maria H; Domingues, Maria R

    2018-01-17

    Porphyra dioica is a commercial seaweed consumed all over the world, mostly in the shape of nori sheets used for "sushi" preparation. It is a well-known part of the Asian diet with health benefits, which have been associated, among others, to the high levels of n -3 and n- 6 fatty acids in this red alga. However, other highly valued lipids of Porphyra are polar lipids that remain largely undescribed and can have both nutritional value and bioactivity, thus could contribute to the valorization of this seaweed. In this context, the present work aims to identify the lipidome of two life cycle stages of the Atlantic species Porphyra dioica : the early life stage conchocelis produced in an indoor-nursery, and young blades produced outdoors using an integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) framework. Both the blades (gametophyte) and conchocelis (sporophyte) are commercialized in the food and cosmetics sectors. Liquid chromatography coupled to Q-Exactive high resolution-mass spectrometry (MS) platform was used to gain insight into the lipidome of these species. Our results allowed the identification of 110 and 100 lipid molecular species in the lipidome of the blade and conchocelis, respectively. These lipid molecular species were distributed as follows (blade/conchocelis): 14/15 glycolipids (GLs), 93/79 phospholipids (PLs), and 3/6 betaine lipids. Both life stages displayed a similar profile of GLs and comprised 20:4( n -6) and 20:5( n -3) fatty acids that contribute to n -3 and n -6 fatty acid pool recorded and rank among the molecular species with higher potential bioactivity. PLs' profile was different between the two life stages surveyed, mainly due to the number and relative abundance of molecular species. This finding suggests that differences between both life stages were more likely related with shifts in the lipids of extraplastidial membranes rather than in plastidial membranes. PLs contained n -6 and n -3 precursors and in both life stages of Porphyra

  6. High-Resolution Lipidomics of the Early Life Stages of the Red Seaweed Porphyra dioica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete da Costa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyra dioica is a commercial seaweed consumed all over the world, mostly in the shape of nori sheets used for “sushi” preparation. It is a well-known part of the Asian diet with health benefits, which have been associated, among others, to the high levels of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in this red alga. However, other highly valued lipids of Porphyra are polar lipids that remain largely undescribed and can have both nutritional value and bioactivity, thus could contribute to the valorization of this seaweed. In this context, the present work aims to identify the lipidome of two life cycle stages of the Atlantic species Porphyra dioica: the early life stage conchocelis produced in an indoor-nursery, and young blades produced outdoors using an integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA framework. Both the blades (gametophyte and conchocelis (sporophyte are commercialized in the food and cosmetics sectors. Liquid chromatography coupled to Q–Exactive high resolution-mass spectrometry (MS platform was used to gain insight into the lipidome of these species. Our results allowed the identification of 110 and 100 lipid molecular species in the lipidome of the blade and conchocelis, respectively. These lipid molecular species were distributed as follows (blade/conchocelis: 14/15 glycolipids (GLs, 93/79 phospholipids (PLs, and 3/6 betaine lipids. Both life stages displayed a similar profile of GLs and comprised 20:4(n-6 and 20:5(n-3 fatty acids that contribute to n-3 and n-6 fatty acid pool recorded and rank among the molecular species with higher potential bioactivity. PLs’ profile was different between the two life stages surveyed, mainly due to the number and relative abundance of molecular species. This finding suggests that differences between both life stages were more likely related with shifts in the lipids of extraplastidial membranes rather than in plastidial membranes. PLs contained n-6 and n-3 precursors and in both life stages of

  7. Being born under adverse economic conditions leads to a higher cardiovascular mortality rate later in life: evidence based on individuals born at different stages of the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-05-01

    We connect the recent medical and economic literatures on the long-run effects of early-life conditions by analyzing the effects of economic conditions on the individual cardiovascular (CV) mortality rate later in life, using individual data records from the Danish Twin Registry covering births since the 1870s and including the cause of death. To capture exogenous variation of conditions early in life, we use the state of the business cycle around birth. We find significant negative effects of economic conditions around birth on the individual CV mortality rate at higher ages. There is no effect on the cancer-specific mortality rate. From variation within and between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs born under different conditions, we conclude that the fate of an individual is more strongly determined by genetic and household-environmental factors if early-life conditions are poor. Individual-specific qualities come more to fruition if the starting position in life is better.

  8. Intra- and Trans-Generational Costs of Reduced Female Body Size Caused by Food Limitation Early in Life in Mites

    OpenAIRE

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Food limitation early in life may be compensated for by developmental plasticity resulting in accelerated development enhancing survival at the expense of small adult body size. However and especially for females in non-matching maternal and offspring environments, being smaller than the standard may incur considerable intra- and trans-generational costs. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we evaluated the costs of small female body size induced by food limitation early in life i...

  9. Linguistic ability in early life and the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular disease. Findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, D A; Greiner, L H; Markesbery, W R

    2000-04-01

    Findings from the Nun Study indicate that low linguistic ability in early life has a strong association with dementia and premature death in late life. In the present study, we investigated the relationship of linguistic ability in early life to the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular disease. The analyses were done on a subset of 74 participants in the Nun Study for whom we had handwritten autobiographies completed some time between the ages of 19 and 37 (mean = 23 years). An average of 62 years after writing the autobiographies, when the participants were 78 to 97 years old, they died and their brains were removed for our neuropathologic studies. Linguistic ability in early life was measured by the idea (proposition) density of the autobiographies, i.e., a standard measure of the content of ideas in text samples. Idea density scores from early life had strong inverse correlations with the severity of Alzheimer's disease pathology in the neocortex: Correlations between idea density scores and neurofibrillary tangle counts were -0.59 for the frontal lobe, -0.48 for the temporal lobe, and -0.49 for the parietal lobe (all p values < 0.0001). Idea density scores were unrelated to the severity of atherosclerosis of the major arteries at the base of the brain and to the presence of lacunar and large brain infarcts. Low linguistic ability in early life may reflect suboptimal neurological and cognitive development, which might increase susceptibility to the development of Alzheimer's disease pathology in late life.

  10. Early life stress affects mortality rate more than social behavior, gene expression or oxidative damage in honey bee workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueppell, Olav; Yousefi, Babak; Collazo, Juan; Smith, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Early life stressors can affect aging and life expectancy in positive or negative ways. Individuals can adjust their behavior and molecular physiology based on early life experiences but relatively few studies have connected such mechanisms to demographic patterns in social organisms. Sociality buffers individuals from environmental influences and it is unclear how much early life stress affects later life history. Workers of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) were exposed to two stressors, Varroa parasitism and Paraquat exposure, early in life. Consequences were measured at the molecular, behavioral, and demographic level. While treatments did not significantly affect levels of oxidative damage, expression of select genes, and titers of the common deformed wing virus, most of these measures were affected by age. Some of the age effects, such as declining levels of deformed wing virus and oxidative damage, were opposite to our predictions but may be explained by demographic selection. Further analyses suggested some influences of worker behavior on mortality and indicated weak treatment effects on behavior. The latter effects were inconsistent among the two experiments. However, mortality rate was consistently reduced by Varroa mite stress during development. Thus, mortality was more responsive to early life stress than our other response variables. The lack of treatment effects on these measures may be due to the social organization of honey bees that buffers the individual from the impact of stressful developmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. No Smoke Without Fire: the hidden costs of early life exposure to landscape fire emissions in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jina, A.; Marlier, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Air pollution from landscape fire emissions can have devastating effects upon public health. The consequent health costs place a burden upon the economies of many nations, particularly in developing countries. Recent research has assessed contemporaneous mortality due to respiratory infections or cardiovascular disease, but little has looked at the potential long-term consequences and hidden costs of exposure to fire pollution at a population scale. The difficulty of quantifying these costs is partly due to incomplete or inaccurate health data in many developing countries, and is further compounded by sparse air pollution monitoring data. While satellite data partially compensates for this, there can still be significant gaps in data availability and difficulty in retrieving surface concentrations. In this study, we demonstrate the dramatic long-term health and human development consequences of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure by using modeled PM2.5 to quantify repeated exposure to landscape fire emissions in Indonesia, which is prone to large, catastrophic fires during El Niño conditions. Surface PM2.5 concentrations at 2x2.5° resolution are obtained from GISS-E2-Puccini (the new version of the NASA GISS ModelE general circulation model), run with monthly fire emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). 24-hour ambient PM2.5 concentrations across Indonesia are matched to geographically and socioeconomically representative longitudinal surveys conducted by the Indonesian government. We find important medium- to long-term morbidity associated with early life exposure to ambient air pollution from fire emissions. Our analysis indicates that children exposed to high levels of PM2.5 in utero are more likely to suffer from impaired physical and cognitive development. A one standard deviation increase in ambient air pollution, derived from the GISS-E2-Puccini model, leads to effects that are directly comparable to those from indoor air

  12. Risk of Hyperglycemia and Diabetes after Early-Life Famine Exposure: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyu Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggested that malnutrition during early life may play an essential role in later outcomes and disease risk in adulthood. We aimed to investigate the risks of hyperglycemia and diabetes 50 years after early-life famine exposure in a Northeastern Chinese population. We used the data from 5690 adults born between 1956 and 1965 in selected communities from a 2012 cross-sectional study. The early-childhood exposure cohort showed an increased risk of hyperglycemia compared with the unexposed cohort in the female population (odds ratio (OR 1.46; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.04, 2.06. The increased risk of diabetes in the early-childhood and fetal exposure cohorts was 37.0% (95% CI 1.05–1.79 and 50% (95% CI 1.15–1.96, respectively. For women, the risk of diabetes was more pronounced in the fetal-exposed cohort (OR 1.82; 95% CI 1.26–2.63 than in the early-childhood cohort (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.08–2.26. Early-life exposure to famine increased the risk of diabetes. Furthermore, early-childhood exposure to famine might increase the risk of hyperglycemia in women. A policy for preventing early life malnutrition should be drafted by the government to prevent hyperglycemia and diabetes in adulthood.

  13. Globalising Early Childhood Teacher Education: A Study of Student Life Histories and Course Experience in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farell, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Globalisation in early childhood teacher education is examined in light of a study of the life histories and course experience of students in early childhood teacher education in Queensland, Australia. Contemporary teacher education is embedded in global economies, new technologies and marketisation, which, in turn, may contribute to students…

  14. Early-Life Telomere Dynamics Differ between the Sexes and Predict Growth in the Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Parolini

    Full Text Available Telomeres are conserved DNA-protein structures at the termini of eukaryotic chromosomes which contribute to maintenance of genome integrity, and their shortening leads to cell senescence, with negative consequences for organismal functions. Because telomere erosion is influenced by extrinsic and endogenous factors, telomere dynamics may provide a mechanistic basis for evolutionary and physiological trade-offs. Yet, knowledge of fundamental aspects of telomere biology under natural selection regimes, including sex- and context-dependent variation in early-life, and the covariation between telomere dynamics and growth, is scant. In this study of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica we investigated the sex-dependent telomere erosion during nestling period, and the covariation between relative telomere length and body and plumage growth. Finally, we tested whether any covariation between growth traits and relative telomere length depends on the social environment, as influenced by sibling sex ratio. Relative telomere length declined on average over the period of nestling maximal growth rate (between 7 and 16 days of age and differently covaried with initial relative telomere length in either sex. The frequency distribution of changes in relative telomere length was bimodal, with most nestlings decreasing and some increasing relative telomere length, but none of the offspring traits predicted the a posteriori identified group to which individual nestlings belonged. Tail and wing length increased with relative telomere length, but more steeply in males than females, and this relationship held both at the within- and among-broods levels. Moreover, the increase in plumage phenotypic values was steeper when the sex ratio of an individual's siblings was female-biased. Our study provides evidence for telomere shortening during early life according to subtly different dynamics in either sex. Furthermore, it shows that the positive covariation between growth and

  15. On Becoming Batman: An Ethnographic Examination of Hero Imagery in Early-Career Residential Life Emergency Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Danielle K.

    2016-01-01

    Emergency response is an essential function of all residential life staff, but particularly for resident assistants serving on the front line. This organizational ethnography examined the role that professional identity played for early-career residential life practitioners engaged in emergency management. The data elucidated heroism as a…

  16. The Dutch famine of 1944-45 as a human laboratory: changes in the early life environment and adult health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumey, L.H.; van Poppel, F.W.A.; Lumey, L.H.; Vaiserman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of men and women exposed to the Dutch famine of 1944-1945 (also known as the Dutch ‘Hunger winter’) during different periods of life are important because they provide an opportunity to look at long-term effects of disturbances in the early life environment. For ethical and practical

  17. The Longitudinal Relation Between Accumulation of Adverse Life Events and Body Mass Index From Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenburg, Leonie K.; Smidt, Nynke; Liefbroer, Aart C.

    Objective: Stressors, such as adverse life events, can cause weight changes through behavioral and biological mechanisms. Whether the accumulation of adverse life events is related to body mass index (BMI) across multiple time points from early adolescence to young adulthood has not been

  18. The longitudinal relation between accumulation of adverse life events and body mass index from early adolescence to young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenburg, Leonie K.; Smidt, Nynke; Liefbroer, Aart C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Stressors, such as adverse life events, can cause weight changes through behavioral and biological mechanisms. Whether the accumulation of adverse life events is related to body mass index (BMI) across multiple time points from early adolescence to young adulthood has not been

  19. The Longitudinal Relation Between Accumulation of Adverse Life Events and Body Mass Index From Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenburg, L.; Smidt, N.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Stressors, such as adverse life events, can cause weight changes through behavioral and biological mechanisms. Whether the accumulation of adverse life events is related to body mass index (BMI) across multiple time points from early adolescence to young adulthood has not been

  20. A critical review: early life nutrition and prenatal programming for adult disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan-Olah, Mary; Duarte-Gardea, Maria; Lechuga, Julia

    2015-12-01

    To present the evidence in relation to early life nutrition and foetal programming for adult disease. Epigenetics is a new and growing area of study investigating the impact of the intrauterine environment on the lifelong health of individuals. Discursive paper. Searches were conducted in a range of electronic health databases. Hand searches located additional articles for review. Maternal search terms included: pregnancy; nutrition; diet; obesity; over nutrition; under nutrition. Offspring related search terms included: macrosomia; intrauterine growth restriction; epigenetics; foetal programming; childhood obesity; adolescent obesity; adolescent type 2 diabetes. Results indicate that foetal programming for adult disease occurs in response to particular insults during vulnerable developmental periods. Four main areas of foetal exposure were identified in this review: (1) under nutrition; (2) over nutrition; (3) gestational diabetes mellitus; and (4) infant catch-up growth. Numerous studies also described the trans-generational nature of foetal programming. Overall, foetal exposure to excess or insufficient nutrition during vulnerable developmental periods appears to result in a lifelong predisposition to obesity and adult disease, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiac disease. For the infant who has been undernourished during early life, a predisposition to renal disease also occurs. Pregnancy is a time when women are engaged in health systems and are receptive to health messages. These factors suggest that pregnancy may be an optimal time for dietary education and intervention. There is a particular need for education on healthy diet and for interventions which aim to limit over consumption of calories. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Toxicity of crude oil to early life stages of two fish species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, L.M.; Hodson, P.V. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Brown, R.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; King, T.; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2004-07-01

    Fish exposed to crude oil in their early life stages exhibit signs of dioxin-like toxicity which is linked to the presence of alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Exposure is characterized by the presence of blue-sac disease which manifests itself in edema, hemorrhaging, deformities and induction of CYP1A enzymes. In this study, the extent of CYP1A induction and BSD was compared in the early life stages of rainbow trout and Japanese medaka following exposure to two crude oils (Scotian Shelf and Alaskan North Slope Crude). Embryos were exposed to a broad range of concentrations of chemically enhanced water fractions of both oils which have unique PAH composition and chemical characteristics. It was assumed that Alaskan North Slope Crude would be more toxic than Scotian Shelf because it has a higher PAH concentration. The occurrence and severity of BSD was characterized along with the extent of PAH exposure. Preliminary results confirm that PAH exposure is greater for Alaskan North Slope Crude and that the responses of the two fish species were highly correlated.

  2. Early-Life Stress Triggers Juvenile Zebra Finches to Switch Social Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farine, Damien R; Spencer, Karen A; Boogert, Neeltje J

    2015-08-17

    Stress during early life can cause disease and cognitive impairment in humans and non-humans alike. However, stress and other environmental factors can also program developmental pathways. We investigate whether differential exposure to developmental stress can drive divergent social learning strategies between siblings. In many species, juveniles acquire essential foraging skills by copying others: they can copy peers (horizontal social learning), learn from their parents (vertical social learning), or learn from other adults (oblique social learning). However, whether juveniles' learning strategies are condition dependent largely remains a mystery. We found that juvenile zebra finches living in flocks socially learned novel foraging skills exclusively from adults. By experimentally manipulating developmental stress, we further show that social learning targets are phenotypically plastic. While control juveniles learned foraging skills from their parents, their siblings, exposed as nestlings to experimentally elevated stress hormone levels, learned exclusively from unrelated adults. Thus, early-life conditions triggered individuals to switch strategies from vertical to oblique social learning. This switch could arise from stress-induced differences in developmental rate, cognitive and physical state, or the use of stress as an environmental cue. Acquisition of alternative social learning strategies may impact juveniles' fit to their environment and ultimately change their developmental trajectories. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Early-life stress and the development of obesity and insulin resistance in juvenile bonnet macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Daniel; Banerji, Mary Ann; Shorman, Igor; Smith, Eric L P; Coplan, Jeremy D; Rosenblum, Leonard A; Kral, John G

    2007-05-01

    Stress is a risk factor for chronic illnesses such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension and has been postulated to cause the metabolic syndrome via perturbation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In our model of early-life stress (variable foraging demand [VFD]), food insecurity is imposed on monkey mothers for 16 weeks beginning when their nursing offspring are 3-5 months of age. Under VFD, food availability is never restricted, and the infant's growth is unaffected. VFD rearing does, however, cause a range of neurobiological abnormalities, including dysregulation of the HPA axis, manifested in abnormal cerebrospinal fluid cortisol and corticotropin-releasing factor levels. We previously reported spontaneous occurrence of metabolic syndrome in 14% of normally reared peripubertal bonnet macaques given ad libitum access to standard monkey chow. Here, we show that compared with normally reared monkeys, peripubertal VFD juveniles exhibit greater weight, BMI, abdominal circumference, and glucagon-like peptide-1 and decreased glucose disposal rates during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Our data suggest that early-life stress during a critical period of neuro development can result in the peripubertal emergence of obesity and insulin resistance.

  4. Early Life Factors, Obesity Risk, and the Metabolome of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschert, Sebastian; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Jacoby, Peter; Uhl, Olaf; Koletzko, Berthold; Oddy, Wendy H; Hellmuth, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases such as obesity have become a serious global public health epidemic. This study aimed to examine whether there was an association between early life factors (with a special focus on breastfeeding) BMI, waist circumference, and the metabolome in offspring at 20 years. Data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study were analyzed using 1,024 plasma samples from the 20-year follow-up. A liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry metabolomics approach was used to measure metabolites. Multiple linear regression models were performed and adjusted for relevant confounders. Inverse probability weighting was used to adjust the 20-year data for differences in socioeconomic variables between participants and nonparticipants since the commencement of the study. An inverse association between breastfeeding and BMI or waist circumference at 20 years was lost after adjusting for parental prepregnancy BMI and maternal smoking during pregnancy. There was no significant effect of breastfeeding on metabolite concentrations at 20 years. Although other studies have shown associations between breastfeeding, obesity, and metabolite concentrations at younger ages, this was not evident in our study in young adults. We found no association of metabolites previously associated with waist circumference at 20 years and breastfeeding in early life. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  5. Early Maternal Deprivation Enhances Voluntary Alcohol Intake Induced by Exposure to Stressful Events Later in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Peñasco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9, on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  6. An exploration of addiction in adults experiencing early-life stress: a metasynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Araujo Bastos Teixeira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to review and synthesize qualitative research on the links between early-life stress and addiction behaviours in adulthood. Method: metasynthesis to review qualitative research findings based on procedures that outline how to identify themes or constructs across studies in a specific area. Comprehensive searches of multiple electronic databases were performed. The initial search yielded 1050 articles and the titles and abstracts were screened for inclusion based on predetermined criteria. Thirty-eight full text, peer-reviewed articles were retrieved and assessed by three independent reviewers. Twelve articles were eligible for full review and appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP tools. Results: the findings revealed that clear associations exist between early-life stress and addictive behaviours in adulthood, such as between trauma in childhood, violence, and addictive behaviours. A common theme in the findings indicates that participants turn to addictive substances as a way of strategically coping with stressful childhood experiences, regardless of the harmful side effects or detrimental social outcomes. Conclusion: it can be inferred that addiction may be viewed as a way to deal with adversity in childhood and that there is an interrelationship between addiction, domestic violence and crime.

  7. Altering the trajectory of early postnatal cortical development can lead to structural and behavioural features of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chomiak Taylor

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a behaviourally defined neurodevelopmental disorder with unknown etiology. Recent studies in autistic children consistently point to neuropathological and functional abnormalities in the temporal association cortex (TeA and its associated structures. It has been proposed that the trajectory of postnatal development in these regions may undergo accelerated maturational alterations that predominantly affect sensory recognition and social interaction. Indeed, the temporal association regions that are important for sensory recognition and social interaction are one of the last regions to mature suggesting a potential vulnerability to early maturation. However, direct evaluation of the emerging hypothesis that an altered time course of early postnatal development can lead to an ASD phenotype remains lacking. Results We used electrophysiological, histological, and behavioural techniques to investigate if the known neuronal maturational promoter valproate, similar to that in culture systems, can influence the normal developmental trajectory of TeA in vivo. Brain sections obtained from postnatal rat pups treated with VPA in vivo revealed that almost 40% of cortical cells in TeA prematurely exhibited adult-like intrinsic electrophysiological properties and that this was often associated with gross cortical hypertrophy and a reduced predisposition for social play behaviour. Conclusions The co-manifestation of these functional, structural and behavioural features suggests that alteration of the developmental time course in certain high-order cortical networks may play an important role in the neurophysiological basis of autism.

  8. Effects of Early-Life Adversity on Hippocampal Structures and Associated HPA Axis Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Brigitte; Puetz, Vanessa B; Scharke, Wolfgang; von Polier, Georg G; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2018-01-01

    Early-life adversity (ELA) is one of the major risk factors for serious mental and physical health risks later in life. ELA has been associated with dysfunctional neurodevelopment, especially in brain structures such as the hippocampus, and with dysfunction of the stress system, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Children who have experienced ELA are also more likely to suffer from mental health disorders such as depression later in life. The exact interplay of aberrant neurodevelopment and HPA axis dysfunction as risks for psychopathology is not yet clear. We investigated volume differences in the bilateral hippocampus and in stress-sensitive hippocampal subfields, behavior problems, and diurnal cortisol activity in 24 children who had experienced documented ELA (including out-of-home placement) in a circumscribed duration of adversity only in their first 3 years of life in comparison to data on 25 control children raised by their biological parents. Hippocampal volumes and stress-sensitive hippocampal subfields (Cornu ammonis [CA]1, CA3, and the granule-cell layer of the dentate gyrus [GCL-DG]) were significantly smaller in children who had experienced ELA, taking psychiatric diagnoses and dimensional psychopathological symptoms into account. ELA moderated the relationship between left hippocampal volume and cortisol: in the control group, hippocampal volumes were not related to diurnal cortisol, while in ELA children, a positive linear relationship between left hippocampal volume and diurnal cortisol was present. Our findings show that ELA is associated with altered development of the hippocampus, and an altered relationship between hippocampal volume and HPA axis activity in youth in care, even after they have lived in stable and caring foster family environments for years. Altered hippocampal development after ELA could thus be associated with a risk phenotype for the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. © 2017 S. Karger

  9. Neuropeptides as mediators of the early-life impact on the brain; implications for alcohol use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid eNylander

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The brain is constantly exposed to external and internal input and to function in an ever-changing environment we are dependent on processes that enable the brain to adapt to new stimuli. Exposure to postnatal environmental stimuli can interfere with vital adaption processes and cause long-term changes in physiological function and behaviour. Early-life alterations in brain function may result in impaired ability to adapt to new situations, in altered sensitivity to challenges later in life and thereby mediate risk or protection for psychopathology such as alcohol use disorders (AUD. In clinical research the studies of mechanisms, mediators and causal relation between early environmental factors and vulnerability to AUD are restricted and attempts are made to find valid animal models for studies of the early-life influence on the brain. This review focuses on rodent models and the effects of adverse and naturalistic conditions on peptide networks within the brain and pituitary gland. Importantly, the consequences of alcohol addiction are not discussed but rather neurobiological alterations that can cause risk consumption and vulnerability to addiction. The article reviews earlier results and includes new data with emphasis on endogenous opioid peptides but also oxytocin and vasopressin. These peptides are vital for developmental processes and it is hypothesized that early-life changes in peptide networks may interfere with neuronal processes and thereby contribute the individual vulnerability for AUD. The summarized results indicate a link between early-life rearing conditions, opioids and ethanol consumption and that the ethanol-induced effects and the treatment with opioid antagonists later in life are dependent on early-life experiences. Endogenous opioids are therefore of interest to further study in the early-life impact on individual differences in vulnerability to AUD and treatment outcome.

  10. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Cong

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, p< 0.05-0.01. Male infants were found to begin with a low α-diversity, whereas females tended to have a higher diversity shortly after birth. Female infants were more likely to have higher abundance of Clostridiates, and lower abundance of Enterobacteriales than males during early life. Infants fed mother's own breastmilk (MBM had a higher diversity of gut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types

  11. Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life Childhood Conditions, Midlife Environment and Parental Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890-91 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found that parental longevity and some midlife characteristics proved to be significant predictors of longevity while the role of childhood conditions was less important. More centenarians were born in the second half of the year compared to controls, suggesting early origins of longevity. We found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are the farmer occupation at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is surprisingly the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880-95. We found that male gender of centenarian has significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives

  12. Life-cycle energy optimisation : A proposed methodology for integrating environmental considerations early in the vehicle engineering design process

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, Ciarán J.; Göransson, Peter; Funazaki, Atsushi; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Edlund, Stefan; Gunnarsson, Cecilia; Lundow, Jan-Olov; Cerin, Pontus; Cameron, Christopher J.; Wennhage, Per; Potting, José

    2016-01-01

    To enable the consideration of life cycle environmental impacts in the early stages of vehicle design, a methodology using the proxy of life cycle energy is proposed in this paper. The trade-offs in energy between vehicle production, operational performance and end-of-life are formulated as a mathematical problem, and simultaneously balanced with other transport-related functionalities, and may be optimised. The methodology is illustrated through an example design study, which is deliberately...

  13. Early adverse life events are associated with altered brain network architecture in a sex- dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpana Gupta, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early adverse life events (EALs increase the risk for chronic medical and psychiatric disorders by altering early neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to examine associations between EALs and network properties of core brain regions in the emotion regulation and salience networks, and to test the influence of sex on these associations. Methods: Resting-state functional and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging were obtained in healthy individuals (61 men, 63 women. Functional and anatomical network properties of centrality and segregation were calculated for the core regions of the two networks using graph theory. Moderator analyses were applied to test hypotheses. Results: The type of adversity experienced influences brain wiring differently, as higher general EALs were associated with decreased functional and anatomical centrality in salience and emotion regulation regions, while physical and emotional EALs were associated with increased anatomical centrality and segregation in emotion regulation regions. Sex moderated the associations between EALs and measures of centrality; with decreased centrality of salience and emotion regulation regions with increased general EALs in females, and increased centrality in salience regions with higher physical and emotional EALs in males. Increased segregation of salience regions was associated with increased general EALs in males. Centrality of the amygdala was associated with physical symptoms, and segregation of salience regions was correlated with higher somatization in men only. Conclusions: Emotion regulation and salience regions are susceptible to topological brain restructuring associated with EALs. The male and female brains appear to be differently affected by specific types of EALs. Keywords: Early adverse traumatic life events, Centrality, Segregation, Network metrics, Moderating effects of sex, Emotion regulation network, Salience network

  14. Air pollution in early life and adult mortality from ch