WorldWideScience

Sample records for early home environment

  1. Assessing Home Environment for Early Child Development in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity of…

  2. Role of executive functioning and home environment in early reading development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, P.C.J.; Damhuis, C.M.P.; Sande, E. van de; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the role of executive functioning (EF) and home environment in the prediction of early reading development. In a longitudinal design, we followed 101 Dutch children from kindergarten to second grade. EF (attentional control, action control, short-term memory (STM)) and home factors

  3. Exploring the Potential of a Wearable Camera to Examine the Early Obesogenic Home Environment: Comparison of SenseCam Images to the Home Environment Interview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrempft, S.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Fisher, A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The obesogenic home environment is usually examined via self-report, and objective measures are required. OBJECTIVE: This study explored whether the wearable camera SenseCam can be used to examine the early obesogenic home environment and whether it is useful for validation of

  4. Music@Home: A novel instrument to assess the home musical environment in the early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politimou, Nina; Stewart, Lauren; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Franco, Fabia

    2018-01-01

    The majority of children under the age of 5 appear to show spontaneous enjoyment of singing, being exposed to music and interacting with musical instruments, but whether variations in engaging in such activities in the home could contribute to developmental outcomes is still largely unknown. Critically, researchers lack a comprehensive instrument with good psychometric properties to assess the home musical environment from infancy to the preschool years. To address this gap, this paper presents two studies that describe the development and validation of the Music@Home questionnaire, which comprises two versions: Infant and Preschool. In Study 1, an initial pool of items was generated and administered to a wide audience of parents (n = 287 for the Infant, n = 347 for the Preschool version). Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify different dimensions comprising the home musical environment of both infants and pre-schoolers, and to reduce the initial pool of items to a smaller number of meaningful items. In Study 2, convergent and divergent validity and internal and test-retest reliability of the new instrument were established, using data from a different sample of participants (n = 213 for the Infant, n = 213 for the Preschool version). The second study also investigated associations between the Music@Home and musical characteristics of the parents, such as their musical education and personal engagement with music. Overall, the Music@Home constitutes a novel, valid and reliable instrument that allows for the systematic assessment of distinct aspects of the home musical environment in families with children under the age of 5. Furthermore, the Infant and Preschool versions of the Music@Home present differential associations with musical characteristics of the parents opening a new area of inquiry into how musical exposure and interaction in the home may vary across different developmental stages.

  5. Music@Home: A novel instrument to assess the home musical environment in the early years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lauren; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Franco, Fabia

    2018-01-01

    The majority of children under the age of 5 appear to show spontaneous enjoyment of singing, being exposed to music and interacting with musical instruments, but whether variations in engaging in such activities in the home could contribute to developmental outcomes is still largely unknown. Critically, researchers lack a comprehensive instrument with good psychometric properties to assess the home musical environment from infancy to the preschool years. To address this gap, this paper presents two studies that describe the development and validation of the Music@Home questionnaire, which comprises two versions: Infant and Preschool. In Study 1, an initial pool of items was generated and administered to a wide audience of parents (n = 287 for the Infant, n = 347 for the Preschool version). Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify different dimensions comprising the home musical environment of both infants and pre-schoolers, and to reduce the initial pool of items to a smaller number of meaningful items. In Study 2, convergent and divergent validity and internal and test-retest reliability of the new instrument were established, using data from a different sample of participants (n = 213 for the Infant, n = 213 for the Preschool version). The second study also investigated associations between the Music@Home and musical characteristics of the parents, such as their musical education and personal engagement with music. Overall, the Music@Home constitutes a novel, valid and reliable instrument that allows for the systematic assessment of distinct aspects of the home musical environment in families with children under the age of 5. Furthermore, the Infant and Preschool versions of the Music@Home present differential associations with musical characteristics of the parents opening a new area of inquiry into how musical exposure and interaction in the home may vary across different developmental stages. PMID:29641607

  6. Quantifying parental preferences for interventions designed to improve home food preparation and home food environments during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virudachalam, Senbagam; Chung, Paul J; Faerber, Jennifer A; Pian, Timothy M; Thomas, Karen; Feudtner, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Though preparing healthy food at home is a critical health promotion habit, few interventions have aimed to improve parental cooking skills and behaviors. We sought to understand parents' preferences and priorities regarding interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments during early childhood. We administered a discrete choice experiment using maximum difference scaling. Eighty English-speaking parents of healthy 1-4 year-old children rated the relative importance of potential attributes of interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments. We performed latent class analysis to identify subgroups of parents with similar preferences and tested for differences between the subgroups. Participants were mostly white or black 21-45 year-old women whose prevalence of overweight/obesity mirrored the general population. Latent class analysis revealed three distinct groups of parental preferences for intervention content: a healthy cooking group, focused on nutrition and cooking healthier food; a child persuasion group, focused on convincing toddlers to eat home-cooked food; and a creative cooking group, focused on cooking without recipes, meal planning, and time-saving strategies. Younger, lower income, 1-parent households comprised the healthy cooking group, while older, higher income, 2-parent households comprised the creative cooking group (p cooked dinner regularly, unlike the other two groups (p food preparation practices. Such interventions are important for creating healthier home food environments and preventing obesity starting from early childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influences of early child nutritional status and home learning environment on child development in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Young, Melissa; Kim, Nicole; Nguyen, Son; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood development plays a key role in a child's future health, educational success, and economic status. However, suboptimal early development remains a global challenge. This study examines the influences of quality of the home learning environment (HOME) and child stunting in the first year of life on child development. We used data collected from a randomized controlled trial of preconceptional micronutrient supplementation in Vietnam (n = 1,458). The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III were used to assess cognition, language, and motor development domains at 2 years. At 1 year, 14% of children were stunted, and 15%, 58%, and 28% of children lived in poor, medium, and high HOME environments, respectively. In multivariate generalized linear regression models, living in a high HOME environment was significantly associated with higher scores (0.10 to 0.13 SD) in each of the developmental domains. Stunted children scored significantly lower for cognitive, language, and motor development (-0.11 to -0.18), compared to nonstunted children. The negative associations between stunting on development were modified by HOME; the associations were strong among children living in homes with a poor learning environment whereas they were nonsignificant for those living in high-quality learning environments. In conclusion, child stunting the first year of life was negatively associated with child development at 2 years among children in Vietnam, but a high-quality HOME appeared to attenuate these associations. Early interventions aimed at improving early child growth as well as providing a stimulating home environment are critical to ensure optimal child development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Positive Home Environment and Behaviour Development in Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalekshmi, N. B.; Dharma Raja, B. William

    2011-01-01

    Early adolescence is a period of transition when the individual changes physically and psychologically from a child to an adult. This transition involves physical, cognitive and socio- emotional changes. The developmental changes that occur during this period cause varying degree of disturbance. The changes they undergo sometimes results in…

  9. Differential Effects of Home and Preschool Learning Environments on Early Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerse, Daniel; Anders, Yvonne; Flöter, Manja; Wieduwilt, Nadine; Roßbach, Hans-Günther; Tietze, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    The present study is based on longitudinal data from a German early childhood education and care (ECEC) governmental initiative assessing children's grammatical and vocabulary development between 2;6 and 4;0 years (N = 1,331), quality of the home learning environment and quality of the preschool setting. Results showed that the quality of the home…

  10. Early Educational Intervention, Early Cumulative Risk, and the Early Home Environment as Predictors of Young Adult Outcomes within a High-Risk Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Kainz, Kirsten; Burchinal, Margaret; Wasik, Barbara H.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment were associated with young adult outcomes was investigated in a sample of 139 young adults (age 21) from high-risk families enrolled in randomized trials of early intervention. Positive effects of treatment were found for education attainment,…

  11. The Combined Influence of Air Pollution and Home Learning Environment on Early Cognitive Skills in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanair A. Lett

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive skills are one component of school readiness that reflect a child’s neurodevelopment and are influenced by environmental and social factors. Most studies assess the impact of these factors individually, without taking into consideration the complex interactions of multiple factors. The objective of this study was to examine the joint association of markers of environmental pollution and of social factors on early cognitive skills in an urban cohort of children. For this, we chose isophorone in ambient air as a marker of industrial air pollution. Low quality home learning environments was chosen as a marker of the social factors contributing to cognitive development. Using a subpopulation from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (N = 4050, isophorone exposure was assigned using the 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment. Home learning environment was assessed with a modified version of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME Inventory, and standardized math assessment scores were used as a measure of early cognitive skills. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the effect of both exposures on math scores. After adjustment for confounders, children living in areas with ambient isophorone in the upper quintile of exposure (>0.49 ng/m3 had math scores that were 1.63 points lower than their less exposed peers [95% CI: −2.91, −0.34], and children with lower HOME scores (at or below 9 out of 12 had math scores that were 1.20 points lower than children with better HOME scores [95% CI: −2.30, −0.10]. In adjusted models accounting for identified confounders and both exposures of interest, both high isophorone exposure and low HOME score remained independently associated with math scores [−1.48, 95% CI: −2.79, −0.18; −1.05, 95% CI: −2.15, 0.05, respectively]. There was no statistical evidence of interaction between the two exposures, although children with both higher isophorone

  12. The Combined Influence of Air Pollution and Home Learning Environment on Early Cognitive Skills in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Lanair A; Stingone, Jeanette A; Claudio, Luz

    2017-10-26

    Cognitive skills are one component of school readiness that reflect a child's neurodevelopment and are influenced by environmental and social factors. Most studies assess the impact of these factors individually, without taking into consideration the complex interactions of multiple factors. The objective of this study was to examine the joint association of markers of environmental pollution and of social factors on early cognitive skills in an urban cohort of children. For this, we chose isophorone in ambient air as a marker of industrial air pollution. Low quality home learning environments was chosen as a marker of the social factors contributing to cognitive development. Using a subpopulation from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (N = 4050), isophorone exposure was assigned using the 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment. Home learning environment was assessed with a modified version of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory, and standardized math assessment scores were used as a measure of early cognitive skills. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the effect of both exposures on math scores. After adjustment for confounders, children living in areas with ambient isophorone in the upper quintile of exposure (>0.49 ng/m³) had math scores that were 1.63 points lower than their less exposed peers [95% CI: -2.91, -0.34], and children with lower HOME scores (at or below 9 out of 12) had math scores that were 1.20 points lower than children with better HOME scores [95% CI: -2.30, -0.10]. In adjusted models accounting for identified confounders and both exposures of interest, both high isophorone exposure and low HOME score remained independently associated with math scores [-1.48, 95% CI: -2.79, -0.18; -1.05, 95% CI: -2.15, 0.05, respectively]. There was no statistical evidence of interaction between the two exposures, although children with both higher isophorone exposure and a low HOME score had a

  13. Home Literacy Environments and Foundational Literacy Skills for Struggling and Nonstruggling Readers in Rural Early Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Garwood, Justin D.; Bratsch-Hines, Mary; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Factors such as weak early literacy skills and living in poverty may put young students at risk for reading disabilities. While home literacy activities and access to literacy materials have been associated with positive reading outcomes for urban and suburban students, little is known about home literacy environments of rural early elementary…

  14. Exploring the Potential of a Wearable Camera to Examine the Early Obesogenic Home Environment: Comparison of SenseCam Images to the Home Environment Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrempft, Stephanie; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia Hm; Fisher, Abigail

    2017-10-12

    The obesogenic home environment is usually examined via self-report, and objective measures are required. This study explored whether the wearable camera SenseCam can be used to examine the early obesogenic home environment and whether it is useful for validation of self-report measures. A total of 15 primary caregivers of young children (mean age of child 4 years) completed the Home Environment Interview (HEI). Around 12 days after the HEI, participants wore the SenseCam at home for 4 days. A semistructured interview assessed participants' experience of wearing the SenseCam. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), percent agreement, and kappa statistics were used as validity estimates for 54 home environment features. Wearing the SenseCam was generally acceptable to those who participated. The SenseCam captured all 54 HEI features but with varying detail; 36 features (67%) had satisfactory validity (ICC or kappa ≥0.40; percent agreement ≥80 where kappa could not be calculated). Validity was good or excellent (ICC or kappa ≥0.60) for fresh fruit and vegetable availability, fresh vegetable variety, display of food and drink (except sweet snacks), family meals, child eating lunch or dinner while watching TV, garden and play equipment, the number of TVs and DVD players, and media equipment in the child's bedroom. Validity was poor (ICC or kappa Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 12.10.2017.

  15. Maternal characteristics associated with the obesogenic quality of the home environment in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrempft, S.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Fisher, A.; Fildes, A.; Wardle, J.

    2016-01-01

    The home environment is likely to influence children's diet and activity patterns and ultimately, their weight trajectories. Identifying family characteristics associated with a more 'obesogenic' home can provide insight into the determinants, and has implications for targeting and tailoring

  16. Home Environment as a Predictor of Long-Term Executive Functioning following Early Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durish, Christianne Laliberté; Yeates, Keith Owen; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H Gerry; Walz, Nicolay C; Wade, Shari L

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of the home environment to long-term executive functioning (EF) following early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants (N=134) were drawn from a larger parent study of 3- to 6-year-old children hospitalized for severe TBI (n=16), complicated mild/moderate TBI (n=44), or orthopedic injury (OI; n=74), recruited prospectively at four tertiary care hospitals in the United States and followed for an average of 6.8 years post-injury. Quality of the home environment, caregiver psychological distress, and general family functioning were assessed shortly after injury (i.e., early home) and again at follow-up (i.e., late home). Participants completed several performance-based measures of EF at follow-up. Hierarchical regression analyses examined the early and late home environment measures as predictors of EF, both as main effects and as moderators of group differences. The early and late home environment were inconsistent predictors of long-term EF across groups. Group differences in EF were significant for only the TEA-Ch Walk/Don't Walk subtest, with poorer performance in the severe TBI group. However, several significant interactions suggested that the home environment moderated group differences in EF, particularly after complicated mild/moderate TBI. The home environment is not a consistent predictor of long-term EF in children with early TBI and OI, but may moderate the effects of TBI on EF. The findings suggest that interventions designed to improve the quality of stimulation in children's home environments might reduce the long-term effects of early childhood TBI on EF. (JINS, 2018, 24, 11-21).

  17. Maternal characteristics associated with the obesogenic quality of the home environment in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrempft, Stephanie; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Fisher, Abigail; Fildes, Alison; Wardle, Jane

    2016-12-01

    The home environment is likely to influence children's diet and activity patterns and ultimately, their weight trajectories. Identifying family characteristics associated with a more 'obesogenic' home can provide insight into the determinants, and has implications for targeting and tailoring strategies to promote healthier lifestyles. The present study examined maternal characteristics associated with a more obesogenic home environment in 1113 families with preschool children. Primary caregivers (99% mothers) from the Gemini cohort completed the Home Environment Interview (HEI) when their children were 4 years old. Maternal demographics and BMI were assessed in the Gemini baseline questionnaire when the children were on average 8 months old. Maternal eating style was assessed when the children were on average 2 years old, using the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ). Responses to the HEI were standardised and summed to create a composite score of the obesogenic quality of the home; this was categorised into tertiles. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression showed that mothers who were younger (adjusted OR; 95% CI = 0.96; 0.94-0.98), less educated (1.97; 1.40-2.77), and had lower incomes (1.89; 1.43-2.49) at baseline were more likely to live in an obesogenic home environment at 4 years, as were mothers who scored higher on the DEBQ External Eating scale (1.40; 1.16-1.70) at 2 years, and had a higher baseline BMI (1.05; 1.02-1.08). Using a novel, composite measure of the home environment, this study finds that families who are more socio-economically deprived, and where the mothers are themselves heavier and have a more food responsive eating style, tend to provide a home environment with the hallmarks of a higher risk of weight gain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mining the Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J.; Krishnan, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Individuals spend a majority of their time in their home or workplace and for many, these places are our sanctuaries. As society and technology advance there is a growing interest in improving the intelligence of the environments in which we live and work. By filling home environments with sensors and collecting data during daily routines, researchers can gain insights on human daily behavior and the impact of behavior on the residents and their environments. In this article we provide an overview of the data mining opportunities and challenges that smart environments provide for researchers and offer some suggestions for future work in this area. PMID:25506128

  19. Mining the Home Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J; Krishnan, Narayanan

    2014-12-01

    Individuals spend a majority of their time in their home or workplace and for many, these places are our sanctuaries. As society and technology advance there is a growing interest in improving the intelligence of the environments in which we live and work. By filling home environments with sensors and collecting data during daily routines, researchers can gain insights on human daily behavior and the impact of behavior on the residents and their environments. In this article we provide an overview of the data mining opportunities and challenges that smart environments provide for researchers and offer some suggestions for future work in this area.

  20. Early-life home environment and risk of asthma among inner-city children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, George T; Lynch, Susan V; Bloomberg, Gordon R; Kattan, Meyer; Wood, Robert A; Gergen, Peter J; Jaffee, Katy F; Calatroni, Agustin; Bacharier, Leonard B; Beigelman, Avrahman; Sandel, Megan T; Johnson, Christine C; Faruqi, Ali; Santee, Clark; Fujimura, Kei E; Fadrosh, Douglas; Boushey, Homer; Visness, Cynthia M; Gern, James E

    2018-04-01

    Environmental exposures in early life appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of childhood asthma, but the potentially modifiable exposures that lead to asthma remain uncertain. We sought to identify early-life environmental risk factors for childhood asthma in a birth cohort of high-risk inner-city children. We examined the relationship of prenatal and early-life environmental factors to the occurrence of asthma at 7 years of age among 442 children. Higher house dust concentrations of cockroach, mouse, and cat allergens in the first 3 years of life were associated with lower risk of asthma (for cockroach allergen: odds ratio per interquartile range increase in concentration, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.36-0.86; P < .01). House dust microbiome analysis using 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing identified 202 and 171 bacterial taxa that were significantly (false discovery rate < 0.05) more or less abundant, respectively, in the homes of children with asthma. A majority of these bacteria were significantly correlated with 1 of more allergen concentrations. Other factors associated significantly positively with asthma included umbilical cord plasma cotinine concentration (odds ratio per geometric SD increase in concentration, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.00-3.09; P = .048) and maternal stress and depression scores. Among high-risk inner-city children, higher indoor levels of pet or pest allergens in infancy were associated with lower risk of asthma. The abundance of a number of bacterial taxa in house dust was associated with increased or decreased asthma risk. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure and higher maternal stress and depression scores in early life were associated with increased asthma risk. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  1. The Complex Interaction between Home Environment, Socioeconomic Status, Maternal IQ and Early Child Neurocognitive Development: A Multivariate Analysis of Data Collected in a Newborn Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ronfani

    Full Text Available The relative role of socioeconomic status (SES, home environment and maternal intelligence, as factors affecting child cognitive development in early childhood is still unclear. The aim of this study is to analyze the association of SES, home environment and maternal IQ with child neurodevelopment at 18 months.The data were collected prospectively in the PHIME study, a newborn cohort study carried out in Italy between 2007 and 2010. Maternal nonverbal abilities (IQ were evaluated using the Standard Progressive Matrices, a version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices; a direct evaluation of the home environment was carried out with the AIRE instrument, designed using the HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment model; the socioeconomic characteristics were evaluated using the SES index which takes into account parents occupation, type of employment, educational level, homeownership. The study outcome was child neurodevelopment evaluated at 18 months, with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition (BSID III. Linear regression analyses and mediation analyses were carried out to evaluate the association between the three exposures, and the scaled scores of the three main scales of BSID III (cognitive, language and motor scale, with adjustment for a wide range of potential explanatory variables.Data from 502 mother-child pairs were analyzed. Mediation analysis showed a relationship between SES and maternal IQ, with a complete mediation effect of home environment in affecting cognitive and language domains. A direct significant effect of maternal IQ on the BSID III motor development scale and the mediation effect of home environment were found.Our results show that home environment was the variable with greater influence on neurodevelopment at 18 months. The observation of how parents and children interact in the home context is crucial to adequately evaluate early child development.

  2. Asthma Home Environment Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    This checklist guides home care visitors in identifying environmental asthma triggers most commonly found in homes. It includes sections on the building, home interior and room interior and provides low-cost action steps for remediation.

  3. Six-Year-Olds' Perception of Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Children's Literacy Enjoyment, Frequency, and Early Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiescholek, Sabrina; Hilkenmeier, Johanna; Greiner, Christian; Buhl, Heike M.

    2018-01-01

    Home literacy environment (HLE) makes an important contribution to children's reading acquisition in early years. Even though some research on children's perception exists, children's reports about HLE have been neglected. The present study focuses on N = 281 six-year-old's reports about HLE and its influences on literacy enjoyment, frequency, and…

  4. The Home Literacy Environment as a Predictor of the Early Literacy Development of Children at Family-Risk of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Lorna G.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2016-01-01

    The home literacy environment (HLE) predicts language and reading development in typically developing children; relatively little is known about its association with literacy development in children at family-risk of dyslexia. We assessed the HLE at age 4 years, precursor literacy skills at age 5, and literacy outcomes at age 6, in a sample of…

  5. Pervasive Home Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, P.; Limb, R.; Payne, R.

    An increasing number of computers and other equipment, such as games consoles and multimedia appliances for the home, have networking capability. The rapid growth of broadband in the home is also fuelling the demand for people to network their homes. In the near future we will see a number of market sectors trying to 'own' the home by providing gateways either from the traditional ISP or from games and other service providers. The consumer is bombarded with attractive advertising to acquire the latest technological advances, but is left with a plethora of different appliances, which have a bewildering range of requirements and features in terms of networking, user interface, and higher-level communications protocols. In many cases, these are proprietary, preventing interworking. Such technical and usability anarchy confuses the consumer and could ultimately suppress market adoption.

  6. A community-based study of early childhood sensory stimulation in home environment associated with growth and psychomotor development in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Raza, Syed Ahsan; Kirkwood, Betty R

    2014-10-01

    Sensory stimulation (SS) is a non-nutritional modifiable risk factor for early childhood development. We assessed SS in home environment and examined its influence on physical growth and psychomotor development (PD). A cross-sectional study was conducted in 26 communities in Pakistan among children aged development. There is a need to corroborate these results by additional research for integration in health policy initiatives.

  7. Early discharge hospital at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Bradley, Daniela C; Iliffe, Steve; Doll, Helen A; Broad, Joanna; Gladman, John; Langhorne, Peter; Richards, Suzanne H; Shepperd, Sasha

    2017-06-26

    Early discharge hospital at home is a service that provides active treatment by healthcare professionals in the patient's home for a condition that otherwise would require acute hospital inpatient care. This is an update of a Cochrane review. To determine the effectiveness and cost of managing patients with early discharge hospital at home compared with inpatient hospital care. We searched the following databases to 9 January 2017: the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and EconLit. We searched clinical trials registries. Randomised trials comparing early discharge hospital at home with acute hospital inpatient care for adults. We excluded obstetric, paediatric and mental health hospital at home schemes.   DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane and EPOC. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the body of evidence for the most important outcomes. We included 32 trials (N = 4746), six of them new for this update, mainly conducted in high-income countries. We judged most of the studies to have a low or unclear risk of bias. The intervention was delivered by hospital outreach services (17 trials), community-based services (11 trials), and was co-ordinated by a hospital-based stroke team or physician in conjunction with community-based services in four trials.Studies recruiting people recovering from strokeEarly discharge hospital at home probably makes little or no difference to mortality at three to six months (risk ratio (RR) 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 1.48, N = 1114, 11 trials, moderate-certainty evidence) and may make little or no difference to the risk of hospital readmission (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.66, N = 345, 5 trials, low-certainty evidence). Hospital at home may lower the risk of living in institutional setting at six months (RR 0.63, 96% CI

  8. Home Environment Quality Mediates the Effects of an Early Intervention on Children's Social-Emotional Development in Rural Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Jenna E.; Obradovic, Jelena; Yousafzai, Aisha

    2016-01-01

    Over 200 million children under the age of 5 are not fulfilling their developmental potential due to poverty, poor health, and lack of cognitive stimulation. Experiences in early childhood have long term-effects on brain development and thus the cognitive and social-emotional skills that promote children's school success. Further, early childhood…

  9. Quality of the Home Learning Environment during Preschool Age--Domains and Contextual Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluczniok, Katharina; Lehrl, Simone; Kuger, Susanne; Rossbach, Hans-Guenther

    2013-01-01

    The quality of the home learning environment has been proven to be of major importance for child development, but little is known about the role of domain specificity in promoting early childhood learning at home and its dependence on family background. This article presents a framework of the home learning environment in early childhood that…

  10. Home Environment of Selected Filipino Gifted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawilen, Greg Tabios

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the home environment of selected Filipino gifted individuals. It aims to answer two research questions: (1) what is the giftedness profile of the selected Filipino gifted?; (2) what types of home environments do Filipino gifted have? This study uses qualitative methods, specifically narrative research strategy, to provide a…

  11. Home health agency work environments and hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrín, Olga; Flynn, Linda; Lake, Eileen T; Aiken, Linda H

    2014-10-01

    An important goal of home health care is to assist patients to remain in community living arrangements. Yet home care often fails to prevent hospitalizations and to facilitate discharges to community living, thus putting patients at risk of additional health challenges and increasing care costs. To determine the relationship between home health agency work environments and agency-level rates of acute hospitalization and discharges to community living. Analysis of linked Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Home Health Compare data and nurse survey data from 118 home health agencies. Robust regression models were used to estimate the effect of work environment ratings on between-agency variation in rates of acute hospitalization and community discharge. Home health agencies with good work environments had lower rates of acute hospitalizations and higher rates of patient discharges to community living arrangements compared with home health agencies with poor work environments. Improved work environments in home health agencies hold promise for optimizing patient outcomes and reducing use of expensive hospital and institutional care.

  12. Transparent face recognition in the home environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, G.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Bazen, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The BASIS project is about the secure application of transparent biometrics in the home environment. Due to transparency and home-setting requirements there is variance in appearance of the subject. An other problem which needs attention is the extraction of features. The quality of the extracted

  13. Early Steps to School Success (ESSS): Examining Pathways Linking Home Visiting and Language Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iruka, Iheoma U.; Brown, Deborah; Jerald, Judith; Blitch, Kimberly

    2018-01-01

    Background: Improving the home environment and parenting practices to support children's early development and learning is a key focus of many. Home visiting is one potential strategy to improve the home environment and parenting; however, more data about current programmatic efforts is needed, especially for children with multiple risks living in…

  14. Home Environment Service Knowledge Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiang; Rossello Busquet, Ana; Soler, José

    2011-01-01

    This paper makes three contributions to assist households to control their home devices in an easy way and to simplify the software installation and configuration processes across multi-vendor environments. First, a Home Environment Service Knowledge Management System is proposed, which is based...... on the knowledge implemented by ontology and uses the inference function of reasoner to find out available software services according to household requests. Second, this paper provides a concrete methodology to exploit and acquire conflict-free information from ontology knowledge by using a reasoner. At last......, a strategy of calculating the sequence of service dependency hierarchy is proposed by this paper....

  15. Early Home Supported Discharge of Stroke Patients:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Olsen, T. Skyhøj; Sørensen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A comprehensive and systematic assessment (HTA) of early home-supported discharge by a multidisciplinary team that plans, coordinates, and delivers care at home (EHSD) was undertaken and the results were compared with that of conventional rehabilitation at stroke units. METHODS......: A systematic literature search for randomized trials (RCTs) on "early supported discharge" was closed in April 2005. RCTs on EHSD without information on (i) death or institution at follow-up, (ii) change in Barthél Index, (iii) length of hospital stay, (iv) intensity of home rehabilitation, or (v) baseline...... are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: EHSD is evidenced as a dominant health intervention. However, financial barriers between municipalities and health authorities have to be overcome. For qualitative reasons, a learning path of implementation is recommended where one stroke unit in a region initiates EHSD...

  16. Heterogeneous networking in the home environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bolla, Raffaele; Davoli, Franco; Repetto, Matteo; Fragopoulos, Tasos; Serpanos, D.; Chessa, Stefano; Ferro, Erina

    2006-01-01

    The management and control at multiple protocol layers of a heterogeneous networking structure, to support multimedia applications in the home environment, is considered. The paper examines possible scenarios, and corresponding architectural solutions, also in the light of existing wireless and sensor networks technologies.

  17. Learning under uncertainty in smart home environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; McClean, Sally; Scotney, Bryan; Nugent, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Technologies and services for the home environment can provide levels of independence for elderly people to support 'ageing in place'. Learning inhabitants' patterns of carrying out daily activities is a crucial component of these technological solutions with sensor technologies being at the core of such smart environments. Nevertheless, identifying high-level activities from low-level sensor events can be a challenge, as information may be unreliable resulting in incomplete data. Our work addresses the issues of learning in the presence of incomplete data along with the identification and the prediction of inhabitants and their activities under such uncertainty. We show via the evaluation results that our approach also offers the ability to assess the impact of various sensors in the activity recognition process. The benefit of this work is that future predictions can be utilised in a proposed intervention mechanism in a real smart home environment.

  18. Home seismometer for earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Shigeki; Horiuchi, Yuko; Yamamoto, Shunroku; Nakamura, Hiromitsu; Wu, Changjiang; Rydelek, Paul A.; Kachi, Masaaki

    2009-02-01

    The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has started the practical service of Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) and a very dense deployment of receiving units is expected in the near future. The receiving/alarm unit of an EEW system is equipped with a CPU and memory and is on-line via the internet. By adding an inexpensive seismometer and A/D converter, this unit is transformed into a real-time seismic observatory, which we are calling a home seismometer. If the home seismometer is incorporated in the standard receiving unit of EEW, then the number of seismic observatories will be drastically increased. Since the background noise inside a house caused by human activity may be very large, we have developed specialized software for on-site warning using the home seismometer. We tested our software and found that our algorithm can correctly distinguish between noise and earthquakes for nearly all the events.

  19. Early Home Supported Discharge of Stroke Patients:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Olsen, T. Skyhøj; Sørensen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    : A systematic literature search for randomized trials (RCTs) on "early supported discharge" was closed in April 2005. RCTs on EHSD without information on (i) death or institution at follow-up, (ii) change in Barthél Index, (iii) length of hospital stay, (iv) intensity of home rehabilitation, or (v) baseline...... data are excluded. Seven RCTs on EHSD with 1,108 patients followed 3-12 months after discharge are selected for statistical meta-analysis of outcomes. The costs are calculated as a function of the average number of home training sessions. Economic evaluation is organized as a test of dominance (both...... of death is not significant. Length of stay is significantly reduced by 10 days (CI, 2.6-18 days). All outcomes have a nonsignificant positive covariance. The median number of home sessions is eleven, and the average cost per EHSD is 1,340 USD. The "action mechanism" and financial barriers to EHSD...

  20. Early home-supported discharge after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhorne, P.; Jepsen, Birgitte G.; Larsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    benefit most are likely to have moderate stroke severity and may be able to cooperate with rehabilitation in the home setting. Staffing requirements will vary according to several factors. These will include (a) the severity and complexity of stroke impairments, (b) the current level of community support......This report is a brief practical problem-based guide to support clinical management in the implementation of early home-supported discharge as an integrated part of stroke care. However, it is clear that skilled members of a multidisciplinary team are needed and they need to work in a coordinated......, (c) the duration of rehabilitation input, and (d) the rehabilitation targets planned. (C) 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins....

  1. Genetic Mediation of the Home Environment during Infancy: A Sibling Adoption Study of the HOME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braungart, Julia M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The home environment of nonadoptive and adoptive sibling pairs was assessed using the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment when each sibling was one and two years of age. Correlations between home environment scores for nonadoptive siblings were greater than those for adoptive siblings. (BC)

  2. Amigo - Ambient Intelligence for the networked home environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    The Amigo project develops open, standardized, interoperable middleware and attractive user services for the networked home environment. Fifteen of Europe's leading companies and research organizations in mobile and home networking, software development, consumer electronics and domestic appliances

  3. A Research Review: The Importance of Families and the Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Parents are a child's first educator. A child's family and home environment has a strong impact on his/her language and literacy development and educational achievement. This impact is stronger during the child's early years but continues throughout their school years. Many background variables affect the impact of the family and home environment…

  4. A New Inventory for Assessing "Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development ("AHEMD-SR")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila; Rodrigues, Luis Paulo

    2008-01-01

    A contemporary view of motor development considers environmental influences as critical factors in optimal growth and behavior, with the home being the primary agent. The intent of this communication is to introduce the "Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development Self-Report" ("AHEMD-SR") to early childhood practitioners. The…

  5. Cognitive Development and Home Environment of Rural Paraguayan Infants and Toddlers Participating in Pastoral del Nino, an Early Child Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peairson, Shannon; Austin, Ann M. Berghout; de Aquino, Cyle Nielsen; de Burro, Elizabeth Urbieta

    2008-01-01

    Participants included 106 infants and toddlers living in rural Paraguay and their primary caregiver. Children ranged in age from birth to 24 months and belonged to two distinct groups, including 46 children who had never participated in Pastoral del Nino, an early child development program, and 60 children who had participated in Pastoral for at…

  6. Reengineering hemodialysis for the home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, Denny

    2010-01-01

    Denny Treu of NxStage Medical, Inc., who has led the development of six dialysis systems with various companies, reports here on a home hemodialysis system that his company successfully designed specifically for home use.

  7. Developmental status and home environment among children born to immigrant women married to Taiwanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chwen-Jen; Hsu, Chiung-Wen; Chu, Yu-Roo; Han, Kuo-Chiang; Chien, Li-Yin

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine (a) the developmental status and home environments of children (6-24 months) of immigrant women married to Taiwanese men, and (b) the association of child developmental status with parental socio-demographics, maternal language abilities, and home environment qualities. Participants were 61 children and their mothers from China and Vietnam. Data were collected with interviews, home observations, and developmental testing. The children had lower cognitive and language but higher motor and social development scores compared with native norms. Home environment and maternal perceived language ability were positively associated with child development. The association of home environment and maternal language ability with early childhood development was supported for immigrant populations in Taiwan. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The family child care home environment and children's diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin-Neelon, Sara E; Vaughn, Amber E; Tovar, Alison; Østbye, Truls; Mazzucca, Stephanie; Ward, Dianne S

    2018-07-01

    Developing healthy eating behaviors and food preferences in early childhood may help establish future healthy diets. Large numbers of children spend time in child care, but little research has assessed the nutritional quality of meals and snacks in family child care homes. Therefore, it is important to assess foods and beverages provided, policies related to nutrition and feeding children, and interactions between providers and children during mealtimes. We examined associations between the nutrition environments of family child care homes and children's diet quality. We assessed the nutrition environments of 166 family child care homes using the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) (scores range: 0-21). We also recorded foods and beverages consumed by 496 children in care and calculated healthy eating index (HEI) (scores range: 0-100). We used a mixed effects linear regression model to examine the association between the EPAO nutrition environment (and EPAO sub-scales) and child HEI, controlling for potential confounders. Family child care homes had a mean (standard deviation, SD) of 7.2 (3.6) children in care, 74.1% of providers were black or African American, and children had a mean (SD) age of 35.7 (11.4) months. In adjusted multivariable models, higher EPAO nutrition score was associated with increased child HEI score (1.16; 95% CI: 0.34, 1.98; p = 0.006). Higher scores on EPAO sub-scales for foods provided (8.98; 95% CI: 3.94, 14.01; p = 0.0006), nutrition education (5.37; 95% CI: 0.80, 9.94; p = 0.02), and nutrition policy (2.36; 95% CI: 0.23, 4.49; p = 0.03) were all associated with greater child HEI score. Foods and beverages served, in addition to nutrition education and nutrition policies in family child care homes, may be promising intervention targets for improving child diet quality. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Intelligent Multi-Agent Middleware for Ubiquitous Home Networking Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Minwoo Son; Seung-Hun Lee; Dongkyoo Shin; Dongil Shin

    2008-01-01

    The next stage of the home networking environment is supposed to be ubiquitous, where each piece of material is equipped with an RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tag. To fully support the ubiquitous environment, home networking middleware should be able to recommend home services based on a user-s interests and efficiently manage information on service usage profiles for the users. Therefore, USN (Ubiquitous Sensor Network) technology, which recognizes and manages a ...

  10. Information environment, behavioral biases, and home bias in analysts’ recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Taouss, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Can information environment of a firm explain home bias in analysts’ recommendations? Can the extent of agency problems explain optimism difference between foreign and local analysts? This paper answers these questions by documenting the effect of information environment on home bias in analysts’...

  11. Home Literacy Environment: Characteristics of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Marieke; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Balkom, Hans; de Moor, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Various aspects of the home literacy environment are considered to stimulate the emergent literacy development in children without disabilities. It is important to gain insight into the home literacy environment of children with cerebral palsy given that they have been shown to have difficulty acquiring literacy skills. Aims: The aims…

  12. Home literacy environment: characteristics of children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.H.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Balkom, L.J.M. van; Moor, J.M.H. de

    2009-01-01

    Background: Various aspects of the home literacy environment are considered to stimulate the emergent literacy development in children without disabilities. It is important to gain insight into the home literacy environment of children with cerebral palsy given that they have been shown to have

  13. Parenting styles and home obesogenic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rachel; Welk, Greg; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Ihmels, Michelle

    2012-04-01

    Parenting behaviors are known to have a major impact on childhood obesity but it has proven difficult to isolate the specific mechanism of influence. The present study uses Baumrind's parenting typologies (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive) to examine associations between parenting styles and parenting practices associated with childhood obesity. Data were collected from a diverse sample of children (n = 182, ages 7-10) in an urban school district in the United States. Parenting behaviors were assessed with the Parenting Styles and Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ), a 58-item survey that categorizes parenting practices into three styles: authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive. Parent perceptions of the home obesogenic environment were assessed with the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) instrument, a simple 10 item instrument that has been shown in previous research to predict risk for overweight. Cluster analyses were used to identify patterns in the PSDQ data and these clusters were related to FNPA scores and measured BMI values in children (using ANCOVA analyses that controlled for parent income and education) to examine the impact of parenting styles on risk of overweight/obesity. The FNPA score was positively (and significantly) associated with scores on the authoritative parenting scale (r = 0.29) but negatively (and significantly) associated with scores on the authoritarian scale (r = -0.22) and permissive scale (r = -0.20). Permissive parenting was significantly associated with BMIz score but this is the only dimension that exhibited a relationship with BMI. A three-cluster solution explained 40.5% of the total variance and clusters were distinguishable by low and high z-scores on different PSDQ sub-dimensions. A cluster characterized as Permissive/Authoritarian (Cluster 2) had significantly lower FNPA scores (more obesogenic) than clusters characterized as Authoritative (Cluster 1) or Authoritarian/Authoritative (Cluster 3) after

  14. Parenting Styles and Home Obesogenic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Ihmels

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Parenting behaviors are known to have a major impact on childhood obesity but it has proven difficult to isolate the specific mechanism of influence. The present study uses Baumrind’s parenting typologies (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive to examine associations between parenting styles and parenting practices associated with childhood obesity. Data were collected from a diverse sample of children (n = 182, ages 7–10 in an urban school district in the United States. Parenting behaviors were assessed with the Parenting Styles and Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ, a 58-item survey that categorizes parenting practices into three styles: authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive. Parent perceptions of the home obesogenic environment were assessed with the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA instrument, a simple 10 item instrument that has been shown in previous research to predict risk for overweight. Cluster analyses were used to identify patterns in the PSDQ data and these clusters were related to FNPA scores and measured BMI values in children (using ANCOVA analyses that controlled for parent income and education to examine the impact of parenting styles on risk of overweight/obesity. The FNPA score was positively (and significantly associated with scores on the authoritative parenting scale (r = 0.29 but negatively (and significantly associated with scores on the authoritarian scale (r = −0.22 and permissive scale (r = −0.20. Permissive parenting was significantly associated with BMIz score but this is the only dimension that exhibited a relationship with BMI. A three-cluster solution explained 40.5% of the total variance and clusters were distinguishable by low and high z-scores on different PSDQ sub-dimensions. A cluster characterized as Permissive/Authoritarian (Cluster 2 had significantly lower FNPA scores (more obesogenic than clusters characterized as Authoritative (Cluster 1 or Authoritarian

  15. On the Design of Smart Homes: A Framework for Activity Recognition in Home Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicirelli, Franco; Fortino, Giancarlo; Giordano, Andrea; Guerrieri, Antonio; Spezzano, Giandomenico; Vinci, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    A smart home is a home environment enriched with sensing, actuation, communication and computation capabilities which permits to adapt it to inhabitants preferences and requirements. Establishing a proper strategy of actuation on the home environment can require complex computational tasks on the sensed data. This is the case of activity recognition, which consists in retrieving high-level knowledge about what occurs in the home environment and about the behaviour of the inhabitants. The inherent complexity of this application domain asks for tools able to properly support the design and implementation phases. This paper proposes a framework for the design and implementation of smart home applications focused on activity recognition in home environments. The framework mainly relies on the Cloud-assisted Agent-based Smart home Environment (CASE) architecture offering basic abstraction entities which easily allow to design and implement Smart Home applications. CASE is a three layered architecture which exploits the distributed multi-agent paradigm and the cloud technology for offering analytics services. Details about how to implement activity recognition onto the CASE architecture are supplied focusing on the low-level technological issues as well as the algorithms and the methodologies useful for the activity recognition. The effectiveness of the framework is shown through a case study consisting of a daily activity recognition of a person in a home environment.

  16. Casting the Die before the Die Is Cast: The Importance of the Home Numeracy Environment for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Frank; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical competencies are important not only for academic achievement at school but also for professional success later in life. Although we know a lot about the impact of "Home Literacy Environment" on the development of early linguistic competencies, research on "Home Numeracy Environment" (HNE) and the assessment of its…

  17. Adolescent physical activity and screen time: associations with the physical home environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farbakhsh Kian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research on the environment and physical activity has mostly focused on macro-scale environments, such as the neighborhood environment. There has been a paucity of research on the role of micro-scale and proximal environments, such as that of the home which may be particularly relevant for younger adolescents who have more limited independence and mobility. The purpose of this study was to describe associations between the home environment and adolescent physical activity, sedentary time, and screen time. Methods A total of 613 parent-adolescent dyads were included in these analyses from two ongoing cohort studies. Parents completed a Physical Activity and Media Inventory (PAMI of their home environment. Adolescent participants (49% male, 14.5 ± 1.8 years self-reported their participation in screen time behaviors and wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for one week to assess active and sedentary time. Results After adjusting for possible confounders, physical activity equipment density in the home was positively associated with accelerometer-measured physical activity (p Conclusions The home environment was associated with physical activity and screen time behavior in adolescents and differential environmental effects for males and females were observed. Additional research is warranted to more comprehensively assess the home environment and to identify obesogenic typologies of families so that early identification of at-risk families can lead to more informed, targeted intervention efforts.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset myopathy with fatal cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in childhood, people with EOMFC may also develop joint deformities called contractures that restrict the movement of ... Home Edition for Patients and Caregivers: Dilated Cardiomyopathy Neuromuscular Disease Center, Washington University Orphanet: Early-onset myopathy ...

  19. Amigo - Ambient Intelligence for the networked home environment

    OpenAIRE

    Janse, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    The Amigo project develops open, standardized, interoperable middleware and attractive user services for the networked home environment. Fifteen of Europe's leading companies and research organizations in mobile and home networking, software development, consumer electronics and domestic appliances have joined together in the Amigo project to develop an integrated interoperable home networking framework. Amigo is an IST-funded IP project. This report is the final report providing an overview ...

  20. Design considerations for medical devices in the home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman-Rivi, Diana; Collins-Mitchell, Janette; Jetley, Raoul

    2010-01-01

    Patient demographics, economic forces, and technological advancements contribute to the rise in home care services. Advanced medical devices and equipment originally designed for use by trained personnel in hospitals and clinics are increasingly migrating into the home. Unlike the clinical setting, the home is an uncontrolled environment with additional hazards. The compatibility of the device with the recipient's knowledge, abilities, lifestyle, and home environment plays a significant role in their therapy and rehabilitation. The advent of new device technologies such as wireless devices and interoperability of systems lends a new and complex perspective for medical device use in the home that must also be addressed. Adequately assessing and matching the patient and their caregiver with the appropriate device technology while considering the suitability of the home environment for device operation and maintenance is a challenge that relies on good human factors principles. There is a need to address these challenges in the growing home care sector In this article, the authors take a look at some important considerations and design issues for medical devices used in the home care environment.

  1. The stability of mastery motivation and its relationship with home environment in infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Jung; Hwang, Ai-Wen; Liao, Hua-Fang; Chen, Pau-Chung; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun

    2011-06-01

    Mastery motivation (intrinsic drives to explore and master one's environment) is a key developmental element. The aims of this study were to investigate (1) the stability of mastery motivation between 2 and 3 years of age for two genders; and (2) the associations between early home environment and toddlers' mastery motivation in children with typical development. Data of 102 children developing typically from a birth cohort study at Northern Taiwan were analyzed in two parts: (1) stability part: mastery motivation of children were measured at 2 and 3 years of age; (2) environment part: child-parent dyads were assessed from birth, 4 months, 6 months, and 2-3 years of age. Outcomes variables were measured at ages 2 and 3 years by the Dimension of Mastery Questionnaire-17th version. Main predictive variables were measured by Home Observation for Measuring Environment Inventory (HOME) to collect data of the qualities of home environment at 6 months and 2 years; by the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire to obtain 4-month activity levels; and by the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers to obtain 2-year developmental quotient (DQ). There was moderate stability of mastery motivation from 2 to 3 years, and girls' stability was higher than boys'. 6-Month HOME rather than 2-year HOME measures were positively and significantly correlated with instrumental mastery motivation even when controlling for gender, activity level, and DQ. Mastery motivation had moderate stability during the toddler period. The quality of home environment in infancy appeared to have a significant impact on toddler's mastery motivation. To promote mastery motivation, caregivers should provide better quality of home environment for infants/toddlers during the very early years. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Community Food Environment, Home Food Environment, and Fruit and Vegetable Intake of Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F.; Norman, Gregory J.; Saelens, Brian E.; Harris, Sion Kim; Kerr, Jacqueline; Rosenberg, Dori; Durant, Nefertiti; Glanz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) reliability of new food environment measures; (2) association between home food environment and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake; and (3) association between community and home food environment. Methods: In 2005, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with readministration to assess test-retest reliability. Adolescents,…

  3. Chaotic home environment is associated with reduced infant processing speed under high task demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomalski, Przemysław; Marczuk, Karolina; Pisula, Ewa; Malinowska, Anna; Kawa, Rafał; Niedźwiecka, Alicja

    2017-08-01

    Early adversity has profound long-term consequences for child development across domains. The effects of early adversity on structural and functional brain development were shown for infants under 12 months of life. However, the causal mechanisms of these effects remain relatively unexplored. Using a visual habituation task we investigated whether chaotic home environment may affect processing speed in 5.5 month-old infants (n=71). We found detrimental effects of chaos on processing speed for complex but not for simple visual stimuli. No effects of socio-economic status on infant processing speed were found although the sample was predominantly middle class. Our results indicate that chaotic early environment may adversely affect processing speed in early infancy, but only when greater cognitive resources need to be deployed. The study highlights an attractive avenue for research on the mechanisms linking home environment with the development of attention control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Work-Related Stressors Among Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) Home Visitors: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alitz, Paige J; Geary, Shana; Birriel, Pamela C; Sayi, Takudzwa; Ramakrishnan, Rema; Balogun, Omotola; Salloum, Alison; Marshall, Jennifer T

    2018-05-31

    Background The Florida Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) program delivers evidence-based home visiting services to over 1400 families each year. Home visitors are integral in providing resources for families to promote healthy pregnancy, child development, family wellness, and self-sufficiency. Due to the nature of this work, home visitors experience work-related pressures and stressors that can impact staff well-being and retention. Objectives The purpose of this study was to understand primary sources of work-related stress experienced by home visitors, subsequent effects on their engagement with program participants, and to learn of coping mechanisms used to manage stress. Methods In 2015, Florida MIECHV program evaluators conducted ten focus groups with 49 home visitors during which they ranked and discussed their top sources of work-related stress. Qualitative analysis was conducted to identify emergent themes in work-related stressors and coping/supports. Results Across all sites, the burden of paperwork and data entry were the highest ranked work-related stressors perceived as interfering with home visitors' engagement with participants. The second-highest ranked stressors included caseload management, followed by a lack of resources for families, and dangerous environments. Home visitors reported gratification in their helping relationships families, and relied on coworkers or supervisors as primary sources of workplace support along with self-care (e.g. mini-vacations, recreation, and counseling). Conclusions for practice Florida MIECHV home visitors across all ten focus groups shared similar work-related stressors that they felt diminished engagement with program participants and could impact participant and staff retention. In response, Florida MIECHV increased resources to support home visitor compensation and reduce caseloads, and obtained a competitive award from HRSA to implement a mindfulness-based stress reduction

  5. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called a syndrome. If glaucoma appears before the age of 5 without other associated abnormalities, it is called primary congenital glaucoma. Other individuals experience early onset of primary open-angle glaucoma, the most ...

  6. Influence of Affordances in the Home Environment on Motor Development of Young Children in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Mori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that the home environment is a significant factor in early child development. The present study examined influence of the multidimensional home environment on young Japanese children’s motor development. A Japanese translation of the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Self Report (AHEMD-SR was used to assess home motor affordances in 262 families. Motor ability was assessed by parental report using the Enjoji Infant Analytic Developmental Test. We also asked parents to rate their own physical activity in terms of level and years of experience. As results, we found that the home environment in Japan was generally sufficient for children’s motor development and that children’s access to Fine Motor Toys (FMT and Gross Motor Toys (GMT had the strongest influence on their development. Analysis also indicated that AHEMD-SR scores were higher for children of parents who had some level of physical activity experience compared to children whose parents indicated no physical activity experience. Parents’ self-reported activity level was correlated with higher scores for the subscales FMT and GMT and for total AHEMD-SR score. These results indicate that both the physical and social-psychological environments (parental experience and views of the home influenced children’s motor development.

  7. Environment Adaptive Lighting Systems for Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Mehmet Catalbas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an application of adaptive lighting system is proposed for smart homes. In this paper, it is suggested that, an intelligent lighting system with outdoor adaptation can be realized via a real fisheye image. During the implementation of the proposed method, the fuzzy c-means method, which is a commonly used data clustering method, has been used. The input image is divided into three different regions according to its brightness levels. Then, the RGB image is converted to CIE 1931 XYZ color space; and the obtained XYZ values are converted to x and y values. The parameters of x and y values are shown in CIE Chromaticity Diagram for different regions in the sky. Thereafter, the coordinate values are converted to Correlated Color Temperature by using two different formulas. Additionally, the conversion results are examined with respect to actual and estimated CCT values.

  8. Early Relationship Quality from Home to School: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondra, Joan I.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Swearingen, Laure; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Cohen, Meredith

    1999-01-01

    Examined role of home social relationships as predictors of social functioning in first years of school. Found that the quality of different family relationships provided relatively independent and complementary information about early social functioning in school, with more limited evidence for compensatory or protective processes at work.…

  9. Early Home Language Use and Later Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between early patterns of home language use (age 4.5 years) and vocabulary growth (ages 4.5 to 12 years) in English and Spanish for 180 Spanish-speaking language minority learners followed from ages 4.5 to 12 years. Standardized measures of vocabulary were administered to children from ages 4.5 to…

  10. An exploratory longitudinal study of social and language outcomes in children with autism in bilingual home environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Vanessa; Munson, Jeffrey A; Greenson, Jessica; Hou, Yan; Rogers, Sally; Estes, Annette M

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about outcomes of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder reared in bilingual homes. There are concerns that social communication deficits among children with autism spectrum disorder may reduce the developmental benefits of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder raised in bilingual environments. We conducted an exploratory analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal data from a larger study to explore associations between home language environment and language ability and social skills in response to early autism spectrum disorder intervention. Participants, aged 12-26 months when recruited, were a subset of a larger 2-year, randomized intervention trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00698997). Children from bilingual homes ( n = 13) began intervention with lower gesture use but otherwise demonstrated equal baseline language and social abilities as compared with age and nonverbal IQ-matched children from monolingual homes ( n = 24). Significant language growth was exhibited by children from both language groups and there was no moderating effect of home language environment. The bilingual home group demonstrated increased gesture use over the course of intervention as compared with the monolingual home group. Preliminary data revealed no basis for concerns regarding negative impact of a bilingual home environment on language or social development in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

  11. Food culture in the home environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B. F. De Wit, John; Stok, Marijn; Smolenski, Derek J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overweight epidemics, including among children and adolescents, are fuelled by contemporary obesogenic environments. Recent research and theory highlight the importance of socio-cultural factors in mitigating adverse impacts of the abundance of food in high-income countries. The current...... study examines whether family meal culture shapes young people's eating behaviors and self-regulation. METHODS: Young people aged 10-17 years were recruited through schools in four European countries: the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and the United Kingdom. A total of 2,764 participants (mean age 13...... associated with young people's eating behaviors, as was self-regulation. Significant indirect effects of family meal culture were also found, through self-regulation. CONCLUSIONS: Results confirm that family meal culture, encompassing values as well as practices, shapes young people's eating behaviors...

  12. Indian adolescents' perceptions of the home food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Neha; Riddell, Lynn; Worsley, Anthony

    2018-01-22

    The home food environment has the potential to influence the eating behaviour of adolescents. This investigation aimed to understand Indian adolescents' perspectives of their home food environments. Adolescents aged 14-16 years (n = 1026, 65.3% girls) attending private secondary schools in Kolkata completed a paper-based questionnaire during school time which included questions about family food rules, availability and accessibility of foods at home, and domestic cooking responsibility. Boys' and girls' opinions and experiences were compared through cross-tabulation analyses. Almost all the adolescents reported that fruits (91.6%) and vegetables (95.7%) were always available in their homes. Approximately two-fifths reported that sugar-sweetened beverages (36.2%) and salty snack foods (38.0%) were readily available. In 56.1% households, adolescents were expected to follow certain food rules during mealtimes (e.g. not talking with my mouth full). The majority of the respondents (80.4%) identified mothers as the primary meal providers, only a minority reported that fathers (5.1%) were responsible for preparation of family meals. This understanding of the family-environmental determinants of adolescent dietary habits provides useful directions for nutrition promotion interventions. Health and educational professionals associated with adolescents could communicate about the development of healthy home food environments to provide positive health benefits for adolescents and their families.

  13. Society, family and learning. The role of home literacy environments

    OpenAIRE

    Querejeta, Maira

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the relation between society, family, and learning. In particular, it addresses the features of home literacy environments in low income families and their impact on children's pre-literacy skills and knowledge. Sixty-two four/five-year-old children and their mothers were randomly selected for this study. The mothers were interviewed using an adaptation of a family literacy environment survey (Whitehurst, 1992). The children were assessed with specific tests to examine the...

  14. Schedules for home visits in the early postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemoto, Naohiro; Dowswell, Therese; Nagai, Shuko; Mori, Rintaro

    2017-08-02

    Maternal complications including psychological and mental health problems and neonatal morbidity have been commonly observed in the postpartum period. Home visits by health professionals or lay supporters in the weeks following the birth may prevent health problems from becoming chronic with long-term effects on women, their babies, and their families. To assess outcomes for women and babies of different home-visiting schedules during the early postpartum period. The review focuses on the frequency of home visits, the duration (when visits ended) and intensity, and on different types of home-visiting interventions. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 January 2013) and reference lists of retrieved articles. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (including cluster-RCTs) comparing different types of home-visiting interventions enrolling participants in the early postpartum period (up to 42 days after birth). We excluded studies in which women were enrolled and received an intervention during the antenatal period (even if the intervention continued into the postnatal period) and studies recruiting only women from specific high-risk groups. (e.g. women with alcohol or drug problems). Study eligibility was assessed by at least two review authors. Data extraction and assessment of risk of bias were carried out independently by at least two review authors. Data were entered into Review Manager software. We included data from 12 randomised trials with data for more than 11,000 women. The trials were carried out in countries across the world, and in both high- and low-resource settings. In low-resource settings women receiving usual care may have received no additional postnatal care after early hospital discharge.The interventions and control conditions varied considerably across studies with trials focusing on three broad types of comparisons: schedules involving more versus fewer postnatal home visits (five studies), schedules

  15. HOME VISIT QUALITY VARIATIONS IN TWO EARLY HEAD START PROGRAMS IN RELATION TO PARENTING AND CHILD VOCABULARY OUTCOMES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggman, Lori A; Cook, Gina A; Innocenti, Mark S; Jump Norman, Vonda; Boyce, Lisa K; Christiansen, Katie; Peterson, Carla A

    2016-05-01

    Home-visiting programs aiming to improve early child development have demonstrated positive outcomes, but processes within home visits to individual families are rarely documented. We examined family-level variations in the home-visiting process (N = 71) from extant video recordings of home visits in two Early Head Start programs, using an observational measure of research-based quality indicators of home-visiting practices and family engagement, the Home Visit Rating Scales (HOVRS). HOVRS scores, showing good interrater agreement and internal consistency, were significantly associated with parent- and staff-reported positive characteristics of home visiting as well as with parenting and child language outcomes tested at program exit. When home-visiting processes were higher quality during the program, home visit content was more focused on child development, families were more involved in the overall program, and most important, scores on measures of the parenting environment and children's vocabulary were higher at the end of the program. Results showed that home visit quality was indirectly associated with child language outcomes through parenting outcomes. Observation ratings of home visit quality could be useful for guiding program improvement, supporting professional development, and increasing our understanding of the links between home-visiting processes and outcomes. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  16. Multilingual children with hearing loss: Factors contributing to language use at home and in early education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kathryn; McKinnon, David H; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa YC

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between children’s cultural and linguistic diversity and child, caregiver, and environmental characteristics is important to ensure appropriate educational expectations and provisions. As part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, children’s caregivers and educators completed questionnaires on demographic characteristics, including the communication mode (oral, manual, or mixed) and languages used in home and early educational environments. This article reports an exploratory analysis to examine factors associated with language use and communication mode of children at 3 years of age. A Chi Square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) analysis was performed on data from 406 children to examine factors influencing communication mode and oral language use. The factor that most influenced children’s communication mode at home was the communication mode used by their female caregiver. Children’s communication mode in their early education environment was most related to the communication mode they used at home, and then related to the presence of additional needs in the children, female caregivers’ level of education and the male caregivers’ use of languages other than English (LOTEs). A second exploratory CHAID analysis of data for children from multilingual families (n = 106) indicated that female caregivers’ use of English at home significantly influenced whether children used a LOTE at home. Finally, the use of a LOTE at home was associated with the use of a LOTE in the early education environment. These findings serve as an initial description of the factors that were associated with the communication mode and language use of children with hearing loss. PMID:23519446

  17. Restorative Virtual Environment Design for Augmenting Nursing Home Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Pedersen, Jon Ram; Serafin, Stefania; Kofoed, Lise

    2016-01-01

    do, but more studies on content and design of proper custom designs for RVEs is necessary. This paper reviews the background for RVE design, describes four custom RVE designs for recreational VE exploration and presents user preferences among nursing home users concerning content and other pivotal......With increasing age, muscle strength decreases excessively rapidly if physical activity is not maintained. However, physical activity is increasingly difficult with age, due to balance, strength or coordination difficulties, arthritis, etc. Moreover, many nursing home residents become unable...... to experience natural surroundings. Augmenting a conventional biking exercise with a recreational virtual environment (RVE) has shown to serve as an intrinsic motivation contributor to exercise for nursing home residents. RVEs might be able to provide some of the health benefits that regular nature experiences...

  18. The Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study: Design and methods1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Gurvich, Olga; Kubik, Martha Y.; Garwick, Ann; Dudovitz, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    Background Informed and engaged parents and healthful home environments are essential for the health of youth. Although research has shown health benefits associated with family meals, to date, no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has been developed to examine the impact of a family meals intervention on behavioral and health outcomes. Methods/Design The Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study is a two-arm (intervention versus attention-only control) RCT being conducted in Minneapolis/St. Paul. Built on previous pilot research, HOME Plus aims to increase the frequency and healthfulness of family meals and snacks and reduce children’s sedentary behavior, particularly screen time, to promote healthier eating and activity behaviors and prevent obesity. HOME Plus is delivered to families in community settings. The program includes 10 monthly sessions focused on nutrition and activity education, meal planning and preparation skill development. In addition, five motivational goal-setting phone calls are conducted with parents. The primary outcome measure is age- and gender-adjusted child BMI-z score at post-intervention by treatment group. Secondary household-level outcomes include family meal frequency, home availability of healthful foods (fruits/vegetables) and unhealthful foods (high-fat/sugary snacks) and beverages (sugar-sweetened beverages), and the quality of foods served at meals and snacks. Secondary child outcomes include dietary intake of corresponding foods and beverages and screen time. Conclusions The HOME Plus RCT actively engages whole families of 8–12 year old children to promote healthier eating and activity behaviors and prevent obesity through promotion of family meals and snacks and limited media use. PMID:24480729

  19. The Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study: design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Gurvich, Olga; Kubik, Martha Y; Garwick, Ann; Dudovitz, Bonnie

    2014-05-01

    Informed and engaged parents and healthful home environments are essential for the health of youth. Although research has shown health benefits associated with family meals, to date, no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has been developed to examine the impact of a family meals intervention on behavioral and health outcomes. The Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study is a two-arm (intervention versus attention-only control) RCT being conducted in Minneapolis/St. Paul. Built on previous pilot research, HOME Plus aims to increase the frequency and healthfulness of family meals and snacks and reduce children's sedentary behavior, particularly screen time, to promote healthier eating and activity behaviors and prevent obesity. HOME Plus is delivered to families in community settings. The program includes 10 monthly sessions focused on nutrition and activity education, meal planning and preparation skill development. In addition, five motivational goal-setting phone calls are conducted with parents. The primary outcome measure is age- and gender-adjusted child BMI-z score at post-intervention by treatment group. Secondary household-level outcomes include family meal frequency, home availability of healthful foods (fruits/vegetables) and unhealthful foods (high-fat/sugary snacks) and beverages (sugar-sweetened beverages), and the quality of foods served at meals and snacks. Secondary child outcomes include dietary intake of corresponding foods and beverages and screen time. The HOME Plus RCT actively engages whole families of 8-12 year old children to promote healthier eating and activity behaviors and prevent obesity through promotion of family meals and snacks and limited media use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effectiveness of visual art on environment in nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Hsiu; Lu, Ming-Shih; Lin, Tsyr-En; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2013-06-01

    This Taiwan study investigated the effect of a visual art-based friendly environment on nursing home residents' satisfaction with their living environment. A pre-experimental design was used. Thirty-three residents in a nursing home were recruited in a one-group pre- and post-test study. The four-floor living environment was integrated using visual art, reminiscence, and gardening based on the local culture and history. Each floor was given a different theme, one that was familiar to most of the residents on the floor. The Satisfaction with Living Environment at Nursing Home Scale (SLE-NHS) was developed to measure outcomes. Of the 33 participants recruited, 27 (81.8%) were women and 6 (18.2%) were men. Their mean age was 79.24 ± 7.40 years, and 48.5% were severely dependent in activities of daily living. The SLE-NHS showed adequate reliability and validity. Its three domains were generated and defined using factor analysis. After the visual art-based intervention, the score on the "recalling old memories" subscale was significantly higher (t = -13.32, p Visual art in a nursing home is a novel method for representing the local culture and stressing the spiritual value of the elderly residents who helped create it. Older adults' aesthetic activities through visual art, including reminiscence and local culture, may enrich their spirits in later life. Older adults' aesthetic activities through visual art have been shown to improve their satisfaction with their living environment. The SLE-NHS is a useful tool for evaluating their satisfaction. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  1. 76 FR 12978 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation will meet for its first session on Wednesday... Administration for Children and Families Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home...: Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation. Date and...

  2. Smart Home : A Social, Technological and Virtual Learning and Development Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Heimovaara-Kotonen, Essi (ed.)

    2014-01-01

    All people have the right to good housing regardless of their age or functional capacity. The objective of the Smart Home environment is to present solutions that enable accessible and safe housing and promote meaningful assistance and life at home. The goal of building the Smart Home environment was to find a useroriented, comprehensive solution for the client, which maintains the client’s own control over his or her home environment. The Smart Home was also built to serve the developme...

  3. Unpacking Socio-Economic Risks for Reading and Academic Self-Concept in Primary School: Differential Effects and the Role of the Preschool Home Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Alexandria; Hall, James

    2017-01-01

    Background: Uncertainty remains concerning how children's reading and academic self-concept are related and how these are differentially affected by social disadvantage and home learning environments. Aims: To contrast the impacts of early socio-economic risks and preschool home learning environments upon British children's reading abilities and…

  4. An SEM Assessment of the Internal Structure and Predictive Validity of the Abbreviated Early Adolescent HOME Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Samuel B; Pennar, Amy L; Bradley, Robert H

    2018-05-01

    The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory is designed to assess the quality and quantity of support, stimulation, and structure provided to children in the home environment. HOME has been widely used for research and applied purposes. We focused on an abbreviated version of the Early Adolescent HOME (EA-HOME-A) that was administered to 15-year-old adolescents and their parents ( N = 958) as part of the NICHD (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Our study had two objectives. First, we hypothesized and tested a bifactor model that specified a general factor in support of the use of the HOME total score and group factors for subsets of items in support of the content domain scores. Second, we applied structural equation modeling to relate the EA-HOME-A factors to outcome factors assessing maladaptive behaviors, autonomy, self-control, and cognitive-academic performance. The results supported the construct validity of the EA-HOME-A with respect to its internal structure as well as its correlates.

  5. Home environment: association with hyperactivity/impulsivity in children with ADHD and their non-ADHD siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Aisling; Anney, Richard; Butler, Louise; O’Regan, Myra; Richardson, Thomas; Tulewicz, Edyta Maria; Fitzgerald, Michael; Gill, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective We wished to ascertain if there is an association between symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and home environment in children with ADHD and non-ADHD siblings, controlling for other environmental measures. Method 96 children with ADHD combined type (ADHD-CT) and their siblings participated in the study. Parent and teacher Conners’ rating scales were completed and home environment was assessed using the Middle Childhood and Early Adolescent Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME). ADHD symptoms were assessed for correlation with HOME in children with ADHD-CT and non-ADHD siblings and multiple regression analysis was used to control for gender, socio-economic status, exposure to nicotine, exposure to alcohol in utero, birth weight, gestational age, pregnancy and perinatal risk factors. The presence of oppositional disorders was assessed for association with HOME score in those with ADHD-CT. The multiple regression analysis was repeated controlling for environmental factors and for oppositional disorders in those with ADHD-CT. Oppositional symptoms were assessed for correlation with HOME score in non-ADHD siblings. Results Teacher-rated hyperactive/impulsive scores correlated with HOME (r = −.27, p siblings. An association between HOME and diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder or CD was found for children with ADHD-CT and between HOME and oppositional symptoms in non-ADHD siblings. Conclusions The home environment has a small but significant association with hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in children with ADHD-CT and non-ADHD siblings. This association remained when other environmental factors were taken into account. Oppositional symptoms are associated with home environment in ADHD-CT and in non-ADHD siblings. PMID:22168816

  6. Home environment, brain injury, & school performance in LBW survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Ashley Darcy; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Hanlon, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    There has been substantial research on low birthweight (LBW) as a predictor of adverse educational and cognitive outcomes. LBW infants perform worse on cognitive battery tests compared to children born at normal birthweight; however, children exposed to similar risks do not all share the same experiences. The complex, interrelated factors responsible for poor cognitive and achievement performance vary for different populations, but researchers hypothesize that the home environment may influence the infants' long-term health outcomes. Examine the home environment as a moderator in the causal pathway from neonatal brain injury to school performance in a secondary analysis of a prospectively studied, geographically defined cohort from the Neonatal Brain Hemorrhage Study. The secondary analysis sample included 543 infants with birthweights of 501 to 2,000 g who were born consecutively in three community hospitals in New Jersey between 1984 and 1986. School performance at age 9 was measured by the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement. The home environment variables were tested and analyzed using multistep hierarchical regression modeling. A moderating effect between the variable neighborhood observations and brain injury was demonstrated for the outcome math score. The moderating relationship was found in the category of children without brain injury (β = 1.76, p = .005). There were statistically significant and potentially clinical meaningful models when looking at the home environmental variables as they relate to reading and math scores. The findings suggest that at least one variable within a LBW child's socio-environmental milieu can moderate the effects of perinatal brain injury on school performance outcomes.

  7. The home food environment of overweight gatekeepers in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelman, Maartje P; de Vet, Emely; Velema, Elizabeth; Seidell, Jacob C; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain insight into (i) processed snack-food availability, (ii) processed snack-food salience and (iii) the size of dinnerware among households with overweight gatekeepers. Moreover, associations between gatekeepers' characteristics and in-home observations were determined. A cross-sectional observation of home food environments was conducted as part of a baseline measurement of a larger study. Home food environments of overweight and obese gatekeepers in the Netherlands. Household gatekeepers (n 278). Mean household size of the gatekeepers was 3.0 (SD 1.3) persons. Mean age of the gatekeepers was 45.7 (SD 9.2) years, 34.9% were overweight and 65.1% were obese. Of the gatekeepers, 20.9% had a low level of education and 42.7% had a high level of education. In 70% of the households, eight or more packages of processed snack foods were present. In 54% of the households, processed snack foods were stored close to non-processed food items and in 78% of households close to non-food items. In 33% of the households, processed snack foods were visible in the kitchen and in 15% of the households processed snack foods were visible in the living room. Of the dinnerware items, 14% (plates), 57% (glasses), 78% (dessert bowls), 67% (soup bowls) and 58% (mugs) were larger than the reference norms of the Netherlands Nutrition Centre Foundation. Older gatekeepers used significantly smaller dinnerware than younger gatekeepers. Environmental factors endorsing overconsumption are commonly present in the home environments of overweight people and could lead to unplanned eating or passive overconsumption.

  8. AT HOME IN HOSPITAL? COMPETING CONSTRUCTIONS OF HOSPITAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kellett

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Large institutions housed in large buildings are frequently regarded as the antithesis of personalised, small scale, domestic, home environments. However the attribute of ‘homeliness’ appears to be used more broadly to describe places where people feel a sense of attachment, control and identification. In a large multi-disciplinary study of a hospital rebuilding project in northern England a range of users were interviewed to ascertain their responses to the original older buildings and later the new purpose built hospital. We found both staff and patients retained a strong sense of affection for the older buildings and frequently used the language of home to describe their responses. In contrast, the newer buildings were generally recognised as efficient but impersonal, lacking many of the positive qualities they were familiar with. In addition some respondents suggested that despite efforts to include art projects, the new architectural language was inappropriate for healthcare, believing that small scale, ‘home-like’ environments were more conducive to health and well-being. The authors will draw on anthropological and architectural frameworks to analyse the data which consists of extensive interview transcripts complemented by photographs. The paper aims to understand the conceptualisations which underpin the various user responses and to offer a critique of the design language of the current healthcare building programme.

  9. Towards a future robotic home environment: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güttler, Jörg; Georgoulas, Christos; Linner, Thomas; Bock, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Demographic change has resulted in an increase of elderly people, while at the same time the number of active working people is falling. In the future, there will be less caretaking, which is necessary to support the aging population. In order to enable the aged population to live in dignity, they should be able to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) as independently as possible. The aim of this paper is to describe several solutions and concepts that can support elderly people in their ADLs in a way that allows them to stay self-sufficient for as long as possible. To reach this goal, the Building Realization and Robotics Lab is researching in the field of ambient assisted living. The idea is to implement robots and sensors in the home environment so as to efficiently support the inhabitants in their ADLs and eventually increase their independence. Through embedding vital sensors into furniture and using ICT technologies, the health status of elderly people can be remotely evaluated by a physician or family members. By investigating ergonomic aspects specific to elderly people (e.g. via an age-simulation suit), it is possible to develop and test new concepts and novel applications, which will offer innovative solutions. Via the introduction of mechatronics and robotics, the home environment can be made able to seamlessly interact with the inhabitant through gestures, vocal commands, and visual recognition algorithms. Meanwhile, several solutions have been developed that address how to build a smart home environment in order to create an ambient assisted environment. This article describes how these concepts were developed. The approach for each concept, proposed in this article, was performed as follows: (1) research of needs, (2) creating definitions of requirements, (3) identification of necessary technology and processes, (4) building initial concepts, (5) experiments in a real environment, and (6) development of the final concepts. To keep these concepts

  10. Home and workplace built environment supports for physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, Aaron J; Marx, Christine; Yang, Lin; Tabak, Rachel; Dodson, Elizabeth A; Brownson, Ross C

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity has been associated with obesity and related chronic diseases. Understanding built environment (BE) influences on specific domains of physical activity (PA) around homes and workplaces is important for public health interventions to increase population PA. To examine the association of home and workplace BE features with PA occurring across specific life domains (work, leisure, and travel). Between 2012 and 2013, telephone interviews were conducted with participants in four Missouri metropolitan areas. Questions included sociodemographic characteristics, home and workplace supports for PA, and dietary behaviors. Data analysis was conducted in 2013; logistic regression was used to examine associations between BE features and domain-specific PA. In home neighborhoods, seven of 12 BE features (availability of fruits and vegetables, presence of shops and stores, bike facilities, recreation facilities, crime rate, seeing others active, and interesting things) were associated with leisure PA. The global average score of home neighborhood BE features was associated with greater odds of travel PA (AOR=1.99, 95% CI=1.46, 2.72); leisure PA (AOR=1.84, 95% CI=1.44, 2.34); and total PA (AOR=1.41, 95% CI=1.04, 1.92). Associations between workplace neighborhoods' BE features and workplace PA were small but in the expected direction. This study offers empirical evidence on BE supports for domain-specific PA. Findings suggest that diverse, attractive, and walkable neighborhoods around workplaces support walking, bicycling, and use of public transit. Public health practitioners, researchers, and worksite leaders could benefit by utilizing worksite domains and measures from this study for future BE assessments. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A new home energy management algorithm with voltage control in a smart home environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elma, Onur; Selamogullari, Ugur Savas

    2015-01-01

    Energy management in electrical systems is one of the important issues for energy efficiency and future grid systems. Energy management is defined as a HEM (home energy management) on the residential consumer side. The HEM system plays a key role in residential demand response applications. In this study, a new HEM algorithm is proposed for smart home environments to reduce peak demand and increase the energy efficiency. The proposed algorithm includes VC (voltage control) methodology to reduce the power consumption of residential appliances so that the shifting of appliances is minimized. The results of the survey are used to produce representative load profiles for a weekday and for a weekend. Then, case studies are completed to test the proposed HEM algorithm in reducing the peak demand in the house. The main aim of the proposed HEM algorithm is to minimize the number of turned-off appliances to decrease demand so that the customer comfort is maximized. The smart home laboratory at Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey is used in case studies. Experimental results show that the proposed HEM algorithm reduces the peak demand by 17.5% with the voltage control and by 38% with both the voltage control and the appliance shifting. - Highlights: • A new HEM (home energy management) algorithm is proposed. • Voltage control in the HEM is introduced as a solution for peak load reduction. • Customer comfort is maximized by minimizing the number of turned-off appliances. • The proposed HEM algorithm is experimentally validated at a smart home laboratory. • A survey is completed to produce typical load profiles of a Turkish family.

  12. Automatic early warning systems for the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesjak Martin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Computerized, continuous monitoring environmental early warning systems are complex networks that merge measurements with the information technology. Accuracy, consistency, reliability and data quality are their most important features. Several effects may disturb their characteristics: hostile environment, unreliable communications, poor quality of equipment nonqualified users or service personnel. According to our experiences, a number of measures should be taken to enhance system performances and to maintain them at the desired level. In the paper, we are presenting an analysis of system requirements, possible disturbances and corrective measures that give the main directives for the design, construction and exploitation of the environmental early warning systems. Procedures which ensure data integrity and quality are mentioned. Finally, the contemporary system approach based on the LAN/WAN network topology with Intranet/Internet software is proposed, together with case descriptions of two already operating systems, based on computer-network principle.

  13. Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

    2013-12-18

    A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities.

  14. Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniewski, David; van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

    2013-12-01

    A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities.

  15. Developing a System of Protection for Young Children in Uruguay: Understanding the Link between the Home Environment and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Boo, Florencia; Cubides Mateus, Mayaris; Sorio, Rita; Garibotto, Giorgina; Berón, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Uruguay is making great progress in improving the lives of its youngest children. A national longitudinal early childhood-focused household survey has been, and will continue to be, an important tool for identifying concerns and targeting interventions. In a study of the home environment, the authors found that children from lower income…

  16. How Does the Neighborhood "Come through the Door?" Concentrated Disadvantage, Residential Instability, and the Home Environment for Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Emily M.; Azar, Sandra T.; Matthews, Stephen A.

    2018-01-01

    Living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with heightened risk for poor school readiness and health outcomes in early childhood, and the home environment is thought to be a primary mechanism by which neighborhood context impacts preschoolers. This study examined the effects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and neighborhood…

  17. Effects of Home Environment and Center-Based Child Care Quality on Children's Language, Communication, and Literacy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana Isabel; Pessanha, Manuela; Aguiar, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the joint effects of home environment and center-based child care quality on children's language, communication, and early literacy development, while also considering prior developmental level. Participants were 95 children (46 boys), assessed as toddlers (mean age = 26.33 months; Time 1) and preschoolers (mean age = 68.71…

  18. Parents Supporting Learning: A Non-Intensive Intervention Supporting Literacy and Numeracy in the Home Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Frank; Cohrssen, Caroline; Tayler, Collette

    2016-01-01

    In Australia, emphasis in early childhood education policy is placed on the importance of the role of the family as a child's first educator, and finding effective ways to raise the effectiveness of parents in supporting children's learning, development and well-being. International studies demonstrate that the home learning environment (HLE)…

  19. Housing Quality and Access to Material and Learning Resources within the Home Environment in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined home environment conditions (housing quality, material resources, formal and informal learning materials) and their relations with the Human Development Index (HDI) in 28 developing countries. Home environment conditions in these countries varied widely. The quality of housing and availability of material resources at home were…

  20. Unpacking socio-economic risks for reading and academic self-concept in primary school: Differential effects and the role of the preschool home learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Alexandria; Hall, James

    2017-09-01

    Uncertainty remains concerning how children's reading and academic self-concept are related and how these are differentially affected by social disadvantage and home learning environments. To contrast the impacts of early socio-economic risks and preschool home learning environments upon British children's reading abilities and academic self-concept between 7 and 10 years. n = 3,172 British children aged 3-10 years and their families. A secondary analysis of the nationally representative UK EPPE database. Multilevel structural equation modelling calculated the direct, indirect, and total impacts of early socio-economic risks (0-3 years) and preschool home learning environments (3-5 years) upon children's reading ability and academic self-concept between 7 and 10 years. Early socio-economic risk had different effects upon children's reading ability and academic self-concept. Early socio-economic risks affected children's reading at ages 7 and 10 both directly and indirectly via effects upon preschool home learning environments. By contrast, early socio-economic risks had only indirect effects upon children's academic self-concept via less stimulating home learning environments in the preschool period and by limiting reading abilities early on in primary school. Although the impacts of early socio-economic risks are larger and more easily observed upon reading than upon academic self-concept, they can impact both by making it less likely that children will experience enriching home learning environments during the preschool period. This has implications for social policymakers, early educators, and interventionists. Intervening early and improving preschool home learning environments can do more than raise children's reading abilities; secondary benefits may also be achievable upon children's self-concept. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  1. The Influence of Education and Home Environment on the Cognitive Outcomes of Preschool Children in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Biedinger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational inequality is a well-established topic among the scientific community in Western countries. Major individual differences emerge well before children arrive at school. Therefore the following analysis deals with the explanation of early differences in cognitive outcomes. However, there is not much research done in Germany. The main question is if the strong effect of the educational background and the home environment on their outcomes and on the improvement exists as well. To test this, data of the project “Preschool Education and Educational Careers among Migrant Children” was used. The results of structural equation models confirm that the home environment and the education of the parents are important for children's outcomes at the age of 3 to 4. In addition both factors also play a major role for the explanation of the improvement of the cognitive abilities. The results show that in Germany the home environment and parental education are important predictors of cognitive abilities. As a main result the study shows that it is very important to control for earlier abilities of the children and to encourage low educated parents to be active with their children, since in that way they can compensate for their lower educational background.

  2. Jump-Starting Early Childhood Education at Home: Early Learning, Parent Motivation, and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin A; Converse, Benjamin A; Gibbs, Chloe R; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-11-01

    By the time children begin formal schooling, their experiences at home have already contributed to large variations in their math and language development, and once school begins, academic achievement continues to depend strongly on influences outside of school. It is thus essential that educational reform strategies involve primary caregivers. Specifically, programs and policies should promote and support aspects of caregiver-child interaction that have been empirically demonstrated to boost early learning and should seek to impede "motivational sinkholes" that threaten to undermine caregivers' desires to engage their children effectively. This article draws on cognitive and behavioral science to detail simple, low-cost, and effective tools caregivers can employ to prepare their children for educational success and then describes conditions that can protect and facilitate caregivers' motivation to use those tools. Policy recommendations throughout focus on using existing infrastructure to more deeply engage caregivers in effective early childhood education at home. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Understanding the Home Math Environment and Its Role in Predicting Parent Report of Children's Math Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A; Ganley, Colleen M; Purpura, David J

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing literature concerning the role of the home math environment in children's math development. In this study, we examined the relation between these constructs by specifically addressing three goals. The first goal was to identify the measurement structure of the home math environment through a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The second goal was to examine the role of the home math environment in predicting parent report of children's math skills. The third goal was to test a series of potential alternative explanations for the relation between the home math environment and parent report of children's skills, specifically the direct and indirect role of household income, parent math anxiety, and parent math ability as measured by their approximate number system performance. A final sample of 339 parents of children aged 3 through 8 drawn from Mechanical Turk answered a questionnaire online. The best fitting model of the home math environment was a bifactor model with a general factor representing the general home math environment, and three specific factors representing the direct numeracy environment, the indirect numeracy environment, and the spatial environment. When examining the association of the home math environment factors to parent report of child skills, the general home math environment factor and the spatial environment were the only significant predictors. Parents who reported doing more general math activities in the home reported having children with higher math skills, whereas parents who reported doing more spatial activities reported having children with lower math skills.

  4. Understanding the Home Math Environment and Its Role in Predicting Parent Report of Children's Math Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A Hart

    Full Text Available There is a growing literature concerning the role of the home math environment in children's math development. In this study, we examined the relation between these constructs by specifically addressing three goals. The first goal was to identify the measurement structure of the home math environment through a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The second goal was to examine the role of the home math environment in predicting parent report of children's math skills. The third goal was to test a series of potential alternative explanations for the relation between the home math environment and parent report of children's skills, specifically the direct and indirect role of household income, parent math anxiety, and parent math ability as measured by their approximate number system performance. A final sample of 339 parents of children aged 3 through 8 drawn from Mechanical Turk answered a questionnaire online. The best fitting model of the home math environment was a bifactor model with a general factor representing the general home math environment, and three specific factors representing the direct numeracy environment, the indirect numeracy environment, and the spatial environment. When examining the association of the home math environment factors to parent report of child skills, the general home math environment factor and the spatial environment were the only significant predictors. Parents who reported doing more general math activities in the home reported having children with higher math skills, whereas parents who reported doing more spatial activities reported having children with lower math skills.

  5. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Home Environment and Home Social Behavior Data from the Elementary School Success Profile for Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Kate M.; Thompson, Aaron M.; Bowen, Natasha K.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the factor structure and scale quality of data provided by caregivers about the home environment and child behavior at home using the Elementary School Success Profile (ESSP) for Families. The ESSP for Families is one component of the ESSP, an online social-environmental assessment that also collects…

  6. Environment and Climate of Early Human Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Naomi E.

    2015-05-01

    Evaluating the relationships between climate, the environment, and human traits is a key part of human origins research because changes in Earth's atmosphere, oceans, landscapes, and ecosystems over the past 10 Myr shaped the selection pressures experienced by early humans. In Africa, these relationships have been influenced by a combination of high-latitude ice distributions, sea surface temperatures, and low-latitude orbital forcing that resulted in large oscillations in vegetation and moisture availability that were modulated by local basin dynamics. The importance of both climate and tectonics in shaping African landscapes means that integrated views of the ecological, environmental, and tectonic histories of a region are necessary in order to understand the relationships between climate and human evolution.

  7. Home automation and simulation of presence in empty environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Israel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since their humble beginnings at the dawn of the 20th Century until contemporary age, automation and control systems have grown exponentially in both complexity and importance. Its relevance on human activities, be they mundane tasks or crucial processes, is self-evident. Among its many utilities, automated systems acquire a noble mission when put in service to protect life and property from aggressors of any kind. This paper discusses how home automation components can be utilized to implement an alternative domestic security strategy that consists in simulating the presence of an individual in an empty environment in the absence of its owner in order dissuade potential trespassing criminals, once they would feel highly discouraged to carry the criminal act should they believe the property is occupied.

  8. Formal and informal home learning activities in relation to children's early numeracy and literacy skills: the development of a home numeracy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sowinski, Carla; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of children's home numeracy experience based on Sénéchal and LeFevre's home literacy model (Child Development, 73 (2002) 445-460). Parents of 183 children starting kindergarten in the fall (median child age=58 months) completed an early home learning experiences questionnaire. Most of the children whose parents completed the questionnaire were recruited for numeracy and literacy testing 1 year later (along with 32 children from the inner city). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to reduce survey items, and hierarchical regression analyses were used to predict the relation among parents' attitudes, academic expectations for their children, reports of formal and informal numeracy, and literacy home practices on children's test scores. Parental reports of formal home numeracy practices (e.g., practicing simple sums) predicted children's symbolic number system knowledge, whereas reports of informal exposure to games with numerical content (measured indirectly through parents' knowledge of children's games) predicted children's non-symbolic arithmetic, as did numeracy attitudes (e.g., parents' enjoyment of numeracy). The home literacy results replicated past findings; parental reports of formal literacy practices (e.g., helping their children to read words) predicted children's word reading, whereas reports of informal experiences (i.e., frequency of shared reading measured indirectly through parents' storybook knowledge) predicted children's vocabulary. These findings support a multifaceted model of children's early numeracy environment, with different types of early home experiences (formal and informal) predicting different numeracy outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The home literacy and numeracy environment in preschool: Cross-domain relations of parent-child practices and child outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Amy R; Purpura, David J

    2018-02-01

    There is a growing body of evidence indicating that home literacy and numeracy environments are predictive of children's literacy and numeracy skills within their respective domains. However, there is limited research on the relations between the home literacy environment and numeracy outcomes and between the home numeracy environment and literacy outcomes. Specifically, there is limited information on relations between the home numeracy environment and specific literacy outcomes (e.g., vocabulary). The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relations of the home literacy and numeracy environments to children's literacy and numeracy outcomes both within and across domains. Participants were 114 preschool children and their parents. Children ranged in age from 3.01 to 5.17 years (M = 4.09 years) and were 54% female and 72% Caucasian. Parents reported the frequency of parent-child literacy (code-related practices and storybook reading) and numeracy practices. Children were assessed in the fall and spring of their preschool year on their literacy (definitional vocabulary, phonological awareness, and print knowledge) and numeracy skills. Four mixed-effects regression analyses were conducted to predict each of the child outcomes. Results indicate that although code-related literacy practices and storybook reading were not broadly predictive of children's literacy and numeracy outcomes, the home numeracy environment was predictive of numeracy and definitional vocabulary outcomes. These findings demonstrate a relation between the home numeracy environment and children's language development and contribute to the growing body of research indicating the important relations between early numeracy and language development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Postpartum Teens' Perception of the Food Environments at Home and School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Rachel G.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Clarke, Megan A.; Schwarz, Cynthia D.; Haire-Joshu, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: An environment that supports healthy eating is one factor to prevent obesity. However, little is known about postpartum teen's perceptions of their home and school environments and how this relates to dietary behaviors. Purpose: This study explores the relationship between home and school environments and dietary behaviors for…

  11. Genetics Home Reference: inclusion body myopathy with early-onset Paget disease and frontotemporal dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions IBMPFD Inclusion body myopathy with early-onset Paget disease and ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Inclusion body myopathy with early-onset Paget disease and ...

  12. The Obesogenic Quality of the Home Environment: Associations with Diet, Physical Activity, TV Viewing, and BMI in Preschool Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Schrempft

    Full Text Available The home environment is thought to play a key role in early weight trajectories, although direct evidence is limited. There is general agreement that multiple factors exert small individual effects on weight-related outcomes, so use of composite measures could demonstrate stronger effects. This study therefore examined whether composite measures reflecting the 'obesogenic' home environment are associated with diet, physical activity, TV viewing, and BMI in preschool children.Families from the Gemini cohort (n = 1096 completed a telephone interview (Home Environment Interview; HEI when their children were 4 years old. Diet, physical activity, and TV viewing were reported at interview. Child height and weight measurements were taken by the parents (using standard scales and height charts and reported at interview. Responses to the HEI were standardized and summed to create four composite scores representing the food (sum of 21 variables, activity (sum of 6 variables, media (sum of 5 variables, and overall (food composite/21 + activity composite/6 + media composite/5 home environments. These were categorized into 'obesogenic risk' tertiles.Children in 'higher-risk' food environments consumed less fruit (OR; 95% CI = 0.39; 0.27-0.57 and vegetables (0.47; 0.34-0.64, and more energy-dense snacks (3.48; 2.16-5.62 and sweetened drinks (3.49; 2.10-5.81 than children in 'lower-risk' food environments. Children in 'higher-risk' activity environments were less physically active (0.43; 0.32-0.59 than children in 'lower-risk' activity environments. Children in 'higher-risk' media environments watched more TV (3.51; 2.48-4.96 than children in 'lower-risk' media environments. Neither the individual nor the overall composite measures were associated with BMI.Composite measures of the obesogenic home environment were associated as expected with diet, physical activity, and TV viewing. Associations with BMI were not apparent at this age.

  13. The Effect of the Home Environment on Physical Activity and Dietary Intake in Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Østbye, Truls; Malhotra, Rahul; Stroo, Marissa; Lovelady, Cheryl; Brouwer, Rebecca; Zucker, Nancy; Fuemmeler, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of the home environment on child health behaviors related to obesity are unclear. Purpose To examine the role of the home physical activity (PA) and food environment on corresponding outcomes in young children, and assess maternal education/work status as a moderator. Methods Overweight or obese mothers reported on the home PA and food environment (accessibility, role modeling and parental policies). Outcomes included child moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time...

  14. Effect of Maternal and Pregnancy Risk Factors on Early Neonatal Death in Planned Home Births Delivering at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachilova, Sophia; Czuzoj-Shulman, Nicholas; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2018-05-01

    The prevalence of home birth in the United States is increasing, although its safety is undetermined. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of obstetrical risk factors on early neonatal death in planned home births delivering at home. The authors conducted a retrospective 3-year cohort study consisting of planned home births that delivered at home in the United States between 2011 and 2013. The study excluded infants with congenital and chromosomal anomalies and infants born at ≤34 weeks' gestation. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the adjusted effects of individual obstetrical variables on early neonatal deaths within 7 days of delivery. During the study period, there were 71 704 planned and delivered home births. The overall early neonatal death rate was 1.5 deaths per 1000 planned home births. The risks of early neonatal death were significantly higher in nulliparous births (OR 2.71; 95% CI 1.71-4.31), women with a previous CS (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.25-5.52), non-vertex presentations (OR 4.27; 95% CI 1.33-13.75), plural births (OR 9.79; 95% CI 4.25-22.57), preterm births (OR 4.68; 95% CI 2.30-9.51), and births at ≥41 weeks of gestation (OR 1.76; 95% CI 1.09-2.84). Early neonatal deaths occur more commonly in certain obstetrical contexts. Patient selection may reduce adverse neonatal outcomes among planned home births. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Role of the Home Environment in the Transmission of Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Lori J.; Aiello, Allison E.; Larson, Elaine

    2002-01-01

    Examines current health care literature on the microbiology of the home environment, summarizing evidence of transmission within the home and assessing the effectiveness of cleaning practices and products. The article focuses on the kitchen, bathroom, and laundry room, then looks at routes of transmission of infection within the home and discusses…

  16. IoT-Based Intelligent Modeling of Smart Home Environment for Fire Prevention and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Saeed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fires usually occur in homes because of carelessness and changes in environmental conditions. They cause threats to the residential community and may result in human death and property damage. Consequently, house fires must be detected early to prevent these types of threats. The immediate notification of a fire is the most critical issue in domestic fire detection systems. Fire detection systems using wireless sensor networks sometimes do not detect a fire as a consequence of sensor failure. Wireless sensor networks (WSN consist of tiny, cheap, and low-power sensor devices that have the ability to sense the environment and can provide real-time fire detection with high accuracy. In this paper, we designed and evaluated a wireless sensor network using multiple sensors for early detection of house fires. In addition, we used the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM to avoid false alarms. To test the results of our fire detection system, we simulated a fire in a smart home using the Fire Dynamics Simulator and a language program. The simulation results showed that our system is able to detect early fire, even when a sensor is not working, while keeping the energy consumption of the sensors at an acceptable level.

  17. A Study of Smart Power Control Algorithm Using RF Communication in Smart Home Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Su-hong Shin; Kyoung-hwa Do; Byoung-soo Koh

    2013-01-01

    Today’s technologies in the IT area face the era of combination and convergence of technologies in many different areas. Through the natural interaction between people and devices in the environment where various kinds of devices are connected over a single network, they have been developing from human-oriented service technologies to smart and futuristic home technologies. Smart home technology is one of them. It is a technology of establishing a digital home in which various kinds of home a...

  18. Feasibility of BCI Control in a Realistic Smart Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmyna, Nataliya; Tarpin-Bernard, Franck; Bonnefond, Nicolas; Rivet, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Smart homes have been an active area of research, however despite considerable investment, they are not yet a reality for end-users. Moreover, there are still accessibility challenges for the elderly or the disabled, two of the main potential targets for home automation. In this exploratory study we design a control mechanism for smart homes based on Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) and apply it in the “Domus”1 smart home platform in order to evaluate the potential interest of users about BCIs at home. We enable users to control lighting, a TV set, a coffee machine and the shutters of the smart home. We evaluate the performance (accuracy, interaction time), usability and feasibility (USE questionnaire) on 12 healthy subjects and 2 disabled subjects. We find that healthy subjects achieve 77% task accuracy. However, disabled subjects achieved a better accuracy (81% compared to 77%). PMID:27616986

  19. Feasibility of BCI Control in a Realistic Smart Home Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Kosmyna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Smart homes have been an active area of research, however despite considerable investment, they are not yet a reality for end-users. Moreover, there are still accessibility challenges for the elderly or the disabled, two of the main potential targets for home automation. In this exploratory study we design a control mechanism for smart homes based on Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI and apply it in the Domus smart home platform in order to evaluate the potential interest of users about BCIs at home. We enable users to control lighting, a TV set, a coffee machine and the shutters of the smart home. We evaluate the performance (accuracy, interaction time, usability and feasibility (USE questionnaire on 12 healthy subjects and 2 disabled subjects. We find that healthy subjects achieve 77% task accuracy. However, disabled subjects achieved a better accuracy (81% compared to 77%.

  20. Feasibility of BCI Control in a Realistic Smart Home Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmyna, Nataliya; Tarpin-Bernard, Franck; Bonnefond, Nicolas; Rivet, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Smart homes have been an active area of research, however despite considerable investment, they are not yet a reality for end-users. Moreover, there are still accessibility challenges for the elderly or the disabled, two of the main potential targets for home automation. In this exploratory study we design a control mechanism for smart homes based on Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) and apply it in the "Domus" smart home platform in order to evaluate the potential interest of users about BCIs at home. We enable users to control lighting, a TV set, a coffee machine and the shutters of the smart home. We evaluate the performance (accuracy, interaction time), usability and feasibility (USE questionnaire) on 12 healthy subjects and 2 disabled subjects. We find that healthy subjects achieve 77% task accuracy. However, disabled subjects achieved a better accuracy (81% compared to 77%).

  1. The Relationship between Home Literary Environments and Attitudes toward Reading in Ninth-Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Mary Ellen

    A study determined what variables in the home literary environments of ninth-grade students influenced their attitudes toward reading. Subjects, 316 students from 2 ninth-grade classes at 2 metropolitan high schools, were given the Estes Reading Attitude Scale and a researcher-developed, 30-question inventory of their home literary environment.…

  2. Nursing Practice Environment and Registered Nurses' Job Satisfaction in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, JiSun; Flynn, Linda; Aiken, Linda H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Recruiting and retaining registered nurses (RNs) in nursing homes is problematic, and little research is available to guide efforts to make nursing homes a more attractive practice environment for RNs. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between aspects of the nursing practice environment and job satisfaction among RNs…

  3. Guiding people with early dementia home with the talkmehome service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christian Hesselman; Martine de Jong; Marcel Roest; Marike Hettinga; Matti Groot; Lammie van den Bosch; Jeffrey Brangert; Jan M. Nauta

    2012-01-01

    People suffering from mild dementia may get lost during a walk, which can be dangerous for them and adds to the anxiety felt by their informal caregivers. TalkMeHome is a new service that allows these people to get home safely in such situations using their mobile phone. They can call a remote care

  4. Adaptation and Validation of the HOME-SF as a Caregiver-Report Home Environment Measure for Use in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jennifer Chun-Li; Chiang, Tung-liang; Bradley, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a brief caregiver-report instrument for measuring the home environment of children aged three and under, as part of the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS). Instrument development was conducted by translating and adapting the Home Observation for the Measurement of Environment Inventory-Short Form (HOME-SF) which comprises…

  5. The Impact of Food Insecurity on the Home Emotional Environment Among Low-Income Mothers of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Monique; Koleilat, Maria; Whaley, Shannon E

    2018-02-14

    Objectives Household stressors, such as food insecurity, contribute to the home emotional environment and negatively affect child development. Little research on this topic has been conducted among very young children. This study aimed to examine the relationship between food insecurity and the home emotional environment, as well the extent to which the relationship may be mediated by maternal symptoms of depression. Frequency of praise, affection, and discipline of young children by mothers were examined as markers of the home emotional environment. Methods Data were collected in a cross-sectional study of mothers of children under the age of five (N = 4231). Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between level of food security and frequency of praise and discipline of children. Mediation analysis using the KHB method was conducted to test whether maternal mental health mediated the relationship between food insecurity and each outcome. Results Low and very low food security were significantly associated with higher odds of disciplining children with high frequency. Controlling for all covariates, frequency of praise was not significantly associated with level of household food insecurity. Differences in praise and discipline frequency were found by language of interview, maternal education, and employment. Conclusions for Practice Parent-child interactions, specifically related to discipline, are related to food insecurity. Further research should consider cultural patterns and mechanisms behind the relationship between food insecurity and the home environment. Household stressors begin affecting children at young ages, and early intervention is essential to prevent further negative sequelae as children grow older.

  6. Development and Construct Validation of an Inventory for Assessing the Home Environment for Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Luis Paulo; Saraiva, Linda; Gabbard, Carl

    2005-01-01

    A contemporary view of early childhood motor development considers environmental influences as critical factors in optimal growth and behavior, with the home being the primary agent. However, there has been minimal research examining the relationship between motor development and the home. The present study addresses this gap with the goal of…

  7. 75 FR 20854 - Medical Device Use in the Home Environment: Implications for the Safe and Effective Use of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ...] Medical Device Use in the Home Environment: Implications for the Safe and Effective Use of Medical Device... related to the safe and effective use of medical device technology in the home environment. The workshop... the home environment. FDA will solicit feedback on: 1. The agency's current working definition of...

  8. Musical Home Environment, Family Background, and Parenting Style on Success in School Music and in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdzinski, Stephen; Dell, Charlene; Gumm, Alan; Rinnert, Nathan; Orzolek, Douglas; Yap, Ching Ching; Cooper, Shelly; Keith, Timothy; Russell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine influences of parental involvement-home music environment, family background, and parenting style factors on success in school music and in school. Participants (N = 1114) were music students in grades 4-12 from six regions of the United States. Data were gathered about parental involvement-home environment…

  9. Project CHERISH (Children in Home Environments: Regulation To Improve Safety and Health). Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Paul Dallas

    In 1990, Project CHERISH (Children in Home Environments: Regulation to Increase Safety and Health) enabled the Texas Department of Human Services to implement and evaluate several innovative strategies to strengthen regulation of family day care homes. This report contains descriptions of those strategies, an evaluation of their efficacy, and…

  10. Home Musical Environment of Children in Singapore: On Globalization, Technology, and Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Chee-Hoo

    2008-01-01

    The home musical environments of a class of 28 first-grade children in Singapore were examined in this ethnographic study. Technology was an integral part of the soundscape in the home. The musical repertoire gathered was closely associated with electronic and pop-influenced music, approaching the styles favored by teens and adults. Particular…

  11. Enriched Home Environment Program for Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Divya; Szymanski, Monika; Schranz, Caren

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses the impact of the Enriched Home Environment Program (EHEP) on participation in home activities among two children with ASD using case study methodology. EHEP involves occupational therapists to collaborate with families of children with ASD to educate them about the impact of factors that influence child's participation within…

  12. Implementation and validation of UPnP for embedded systems in a home networking environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, T.M.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Lukkien, J.J.; Hamza, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Devices in a home environment are often equipped with general purpose network connections. There is an increasingly strong requirement that these devices cooperate in an autonomous fashion by using the functionality they find on the network. In the context of home networking, several standard

  13. The Family Home Environment, Food Insecurity, and Body Mass Index in Rural Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jennifer A.; Smit, Ellen; Branscum, Adam; Gunter, Katherine; Harvey, Marie; Manore, Melinda M.; John, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Background. Family homes are a key setting for developing lifelong eating and physical activity habits, yet little is known about how family home nutrition and physical activity (FNPA) environments influence food insecurity (FI) and childhood obesity, particularly in rural settings. Aims. This study examined associations among FNPA, FI, and body…

  14. The quality of children's home environment and attachment security in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zevalkink, D.J.; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; Bradley, Robert H

    The authors examined the relation of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory (B. M. Caldwell & R. H. Bradley, 1984) for 0- to 6-year-old Sundanese Indonesian children with the quality of the mother-child attachment relationship (n=44) and attachment-related behaviors

  15. A nursing home staff tool for the indoor visual environment : the content validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinoo, M.M.; Kort, H.S.M.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Schols, J.M.G.A.

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, over 40% of nursing home residents are estimated to have visual impairments. This results in the loss of basic visual abilities. The nursing home environment fits more or less to residents’ activities and social participation. This is referred to as environmental fit. To raise

  16. A nursing home staff tool for the indoor visual environment: The content validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcel G.L.C. Loomans; Dr. H.S.M. Kort; Marianne M. Sinoo; Jos M.G.A Schols

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, over 40% of nursing home residents are estimated to have visual impairments. This results in the loss of basic visual abilities. The nursing home environment fits more or less to residents’ activities and social participation. This is referred to as environmental fit. To raise

  17. Preschoolers' vocabulary acquisition in Chile: the roles of socioeconomic status and quality of home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohndorf, Regina T; Vermeer, Harriet J; Cárcamo, Rodrigo A; Mesman, Judi

    2018-05-01

    Preschoolers' vocabulary acquisition sets the stage for later reading ability and school achievement. This study examined the role of socioeconomic status (SES) and the quality of the home environment of seventy-seven Chilean majority and Mapuche minority families from low and lower-middle-class backgrounds in explaining individual differences in vocabulary acquisition of their three-and-a-half-year-old children. Additionally, we investigated whether the relation between SES and receptive and expressive vocabulary was mediated by the quality of the home environment as the Family Investment Model suggests. The quality of the home environment significantly predicted receptive and expressive vocabulary above and beyond ethnicity, SES, parental caregiver status, and quantity of daycare. Furthermore, the quality of the home environment mediated the relation between SES and expressive and receptive vocabulary acquisition.

  18. The Functions of the VCR in the Home Leisure Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Carolyn A.

    1992-01-01

    A telephone survey of VCR households examined VCR satisfaction, VCR use, and interpersonal communication about VCRs in relation to home entertainment, displacement, and social utility. Differential patterns were found across all functions as well as support for previous research findings that more satisfied users are heavier users. (nine…

  19. Children's Home Environments: Understanding the Role of Family Structure Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Dunifon, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the 1996 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child sample, we investigate the impact of two family events, parental divorce and the birth of a sibling, on the cognitive stimulation and emotional support provided to children in the home. We use fixed-effect regression techniques to control for unmeasured…

  20. The home food environment of overweight gatekeepers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, M.P.; de Vet, E.W.M.L.; Velema, E.; Seidell, J.C.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to gain insight into (i) processed snack-food availability, (ii) processed snack-food salience and (iii) the size of dinnerware among households with overweight gatekeepers. Moreover, associations between gatekeepers' characteristics and in-home

  1. A System for Monitoring Stroke Patients in a Home Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Bart; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Weusthof, Marcel H.H.; Hofs, D.H.W.; van Meulen, Fokke; Luinge, Hendrik J.; Lorussi, Frederico; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the changes of functional capacity and performance of stroke patients after returning home from a rehabilitation hospital is unknown for a physician, having no objective information about the intensity and quality of a patient's daily-life activities. Therefore, there is a need to develop

  2. The home food environment of overweight gatekeepers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, M.P.; Vet, de E.; Velema, E.; Seidell, J.C.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to gain insight into (i) processed snackfood availability, (ii) processed snack-food salience and (iii) the size of dinnerware among households with overweight gatekeepers. Moreover, associations between gatekeepers’ characteristics and in-home

  3. Does Home Hinder Professional Commitment? The Case of Early Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Kelvin L.; Atkinson, Laura E.

    1991-01-01

    Uses classroom observations and interviews to examine three kindergarten teachers' perceptions, focusing on gender-related differences in the balance between home and work and the development of internalized commitment. Suggests ways to make teaching a more aesthetic experience for family caregivers. Includes 19 references. (MLH)

  4. The family environment predicts long-term academic achievement and classroom behavior following traumatic brain injury in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durber, Chelsea M; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L

    2017-07-01

    This study examined how the family environment predicts long-term academic and behavioral functioning in school following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in early childhood. Using a concurrent cohort, prospective design, 15 children with severe TBI, 39 with moderate TBI, and 70 with orthopedic injury (OI) who were injured when they were 3-7 years of age were compared on tests of academic achievement and parent and teacher ratings of school performance and behavior on average 6.83 years postinjury. Soon after injury and at the longer term follow-up, families completed measures of parental psychological distress, family functioning, and quality of the home environment. Hierarchical linear regression analyses examined group differences in academic outcomes and their associations with measures of the early and later family environment. The severe TBI group, but not the moderate TBI group, performed worse than did the OI group on all achievement tests, parent ratings of academic performance, and teacher ratings of internalizing problems. Higher quality early and late home environments predicted stronger academic skills and better classroom behavior for children with both TBI and OI. The early family environment more consistently predicted academic achievement, whereas the later family environment more consistently predicted classroom functioning. The quality of the home environment predicted academic outcomes more strongly than did parental psychological distress or family functioning. TBI in early childhood has long-term consequences for academic achievement and school performance and behavior. Higher quality early and later home environments predict better school outcomes for both children with TBI and children with OI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Improved parental dietary quality is associated with children's dietary intake through the home environment

    OpenAIRE

    Fl?rez, K. R.; Richardson, A. S.; Ghosh?Dastidar, M. B.; Beckman, R.; Huang, C.; Wagner, L.; Dubowitz, T.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Improving access to supermarkets has been shown to improve some dietary outcomes, yet there is little evidence for such effects on children. Relatedly, there is a dearth of research assessing the impact of a structural change (i.e. supermarket in a former food desert) on the home environment and its relationship with children's diet. Objective Assess the relative impact of the home environment on children's diet after the introduction of a new supermarket in a food desert. ...

  6. Nursing Students' Clinical Learning Environment in Norwegian Nursing Homes: Lack of Innovative Teaching and Learning Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Berntsen, Karin; Bjørk, Ida Torunn; Brynildsen, Grethe

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nursing students hesitate to choose aged care as a career, and the aged care sectors are on an edge regarding nursing positions. Clinical learning environments may influence nursing students’ career choices. Few studies have explored learning environments in nursing homes, although students increasingly have placements there. Objectives: The aim was to produce information for developing nursing students’ learning opportunities in nursing homes. Design: A cross-sectional survey des...

  7. Socioeconomic inequalities in children’s diet: the role of the home food environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background It is well documented in the literature that low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with lower consumption of healthy foods and that these differences in consumption patterns are influenced by neighborhood food environments. Less understood is the role that SES differences in physical and social aspects of the home food environment play in consumption patterns. Methods Using data on 4th grade children from the 2009–2011 Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) study, we used mixed-effects regression models to test the magnitude of differences in the SPAN Health Eating Index (SHEI) by parental education as an indicator of SES, and the extent to which adjusting for measures of the home food environment, and measures of the neighborhood environment accounted for these SES differences. Results Small but significant differences in children’s SHEI by SES strata exist (-1.33 between highest and lowest SES categories, pfood environment and neighborhood environment measures in this model eliminates these differences (-0.7, p=0.145). Home food environment explains a greater portion of the difference. Both social (mealtime structure) and physical aspects (food availability) of the home food environment are strongly associated with consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. Conclusions Our findings suggest that modifiable parent behaviors at home can improve children’s eating habits and that the neighborhood may impact diet in ways other than through access to healthy food. PMID:26222785

  8. Building multilingual learning environments in early years education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dodman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the early language development of children with particular reference to the importance of personal multilingualism and the reasons why this should be promoted in early years education. It is argued that such an objective is best achieved by building multilingual learning environments at the level of nursery and infant schools. The characteristics of such environments are described and ways of evaluating projects designed to build them are presented.

  9. Family Relationships from Adolescence to Early Adulthood: Changes in the Family System following Firstborns' Leaving Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2011-01-01

    This study charted the course of parent-child and sibling relationships from early adolescence to early adulthood and examined how these relationships changed following firstborns' departure from their parents' home for the first time. Data were drawn from a 10-year longitudinal study of family relationships. Participants included mothers,…

  10. Developing a Home-Based Early Intervention Personnel Training Program in Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huichao; Chen, Ching-I; Chen, Chieh-Yu; Squires, Jane; Li, Wenge; Liu, Tian

    2017-01-01

    China is expected to have a rapid growth in specialized early intervention (EI) services for young children ages birth to 6 and their families. A major barrier in the provision of EI services in China is the shortage of well-trained EI personnel. In 2013, a Home-Based Early Intervention Program (HBEIP) was started at South China Normal University…

  11. Designs for Living and Learning: Transforming Early Childhood Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Deb; Carter, Margie

    While the early childhood field has formed standards to help in recognizing quality programs for children, practitioners seldom use values to guide in selection of materials or to help plan early childhood environments. This book draws on a variety of educational approaches, including Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia, to outline hundreds of…

  12. CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anette Boye; Laursen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    in obligatory evaluations of physical, psychological and aesthetic environmental dimensions of learning and education. The present study aims to elucidate how professionals and children co-operate in order to develop 'best child environments' and further study the impact of children's perspectives on pedagogy...... in Denmark inspired by Montessori and Froebel pedagogical ideas.Danish ECE pedagogues practice with reference to a double concept of 'bildung'. They navigate towards personal development of the individual child as well as neoliberal management mechanisms with focus on objectives and competencies.......Danish pedagogues mention space and material conditions, psychological dimensions and to a less extent aesthetical dimensions such as play and artwork when they are asked to describe the best child environmental practice.Relevance for Nordic educational researchThe study offers practical knowledge regarding...

  13. Socioeconomic inequalities in children's diet: the role of the home food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, Nalini; Wilkinson, Anna V; Lytle, Leslie M; Evans, Alexandra E; Saxton, Debra; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2015-07-27

    It is well documented in the literature that low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with lower consumption of healthy foods and that these differences in consumption patterns are influenced by neighborhood food environments. Less understood is the role that SES differences in physical and social aspects of the home food environment play in consumption patterns. Using data on 4th grade children from the 2009-2011 Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) study, we used mixed-effects regression models to test the magnitude of differences in the SPAN Health Eating Index (SHEI) by parental education as an indicator of SES, and the extent to which adjusting for measures of the home food environment, and measures of the neighborhood environment accounted for these SES differences. Small but significant differences in children’s SHEI by SES strata exist (-1.33 between highest and lowest SES categories, penvironment and neighborhood environment measures in this model eliminates these differences (-0.7, p=0.145). Home food environment explains a greater portion of the difference. Both social (mealtime structure) and physical aspects (food availability) of the home food environment are strongly associated with consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. Our findings suggest that modifiable parent behaviors at home can improve children’s eating habits and that the neighborhood may impact diet in ways other than through access to healthy food.

  14. Engaging life in two Irish nursing home units for people with dementia: Quantitative comparisons before and after implementing household environments.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan-Brown, Mark

    2012-09-03

    Objectives: This study compares the Social Engagement and Interactive Occupation of residents with dementia in two Irish nursing homes, before and after conversion to a household model environment. The changes were an open plan design and a functioning unit kitchen, supported by a homemaker role and operational policies which reduced task-based work in favour of person-centred care offering choice. Method: A snapshot observation method was used to obtain quantitative data of resident activity using the Assessment Tool for Occupation and Social Engagement (ATOSE). Residents were assessed for four hours, on seven different weekdays, over a six-week period both pre- and post-renovation. The exception to this was the assessment of the traditional model unit (TMU) for Nursing Home 1 which was reduced to four days due to the early start of the building work. Results: The results were consistent for both nursing homes and data were aggregated. Residents spent more time in the communal living spaces and were more likely to be active and engaged in the household model units (HMUs) compared to the TMUs. Using the independent t-test, these changes were found to be highly significant (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Creating an HMU increased the Interactive Occupation and Social Engagement of residents in the communal areas of the two nursing homes. The physical environment change, in conjunction with supportive staff procedures and organizational initiatives, improved the well-being of residents with dementia. The outcomes must be viewed in context with financial implications.

  15. Use of a virtual environment to facilitate instruction of an interprofessional home assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabus, Carla; Sabata, Dory; Antonacci, David

    2011-01-01

    Technology has become a ubiquitous part of our society and is largely embedded in today's educational system. 3D virtual reality technology can be used to simulate environments and activities and may be used as an instructional technology. The purpose of this research was to better understand the utility of a web-based virtual environment as a teaching tool to represent clinical assessment and interventions in the home environment. Specifically, students' learning outcomes related to interprofessional collaboration, patient-centered decision-making, and appreciation of the environmental and social context of functional mobility and occupational performance will be described through descriptive analysis. Thirty-four physical therapist students and 35 occupational therapist students participated in an instructor-guided virtual assessment of a client's function in a home environment utilizing a virtual environment, Second Life®. Teams formulated task-specific, functional client goals and home modification recommendations. Students revisited a solution virtual environment to view and evaluate recommendations in a follow-up instructor-guided tour. Students completed a web-based survey capturing student perception of the experience. Team assignments were analyzed based on a rubric representing learning objectives. Descriptive analysis was conducted on the survey. Assignment analysis revealed contextual and client-centered recommendations. Student surveys revealed that students found the virtual environment supportive of learning. Student surveys and reflection statements were supportive of the interprofessional collaboration. Use of a virtual environment in instruction allows an authentic means of representing interprofessional home assessment. The virtual environment allowed a temporal depiction of home environment issues and solutions providing the unique opportunity for students to evaluate home recommendations.

  16. Design semantics of connections in a smart home environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlist, van der B.J.J.; Niezen, G.; Hu, J.; Feijs, L.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    As the environments in which we live become more intelligent|through more computational power, embedded sensors and network connections between the devices that reside in the environment|there is a risk of leaving its users clueless about what is going on. User interaction changes from interaction

  17. Genetics Home Reference: early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 1 (EIEE1) is a seizure disorder characterized by a type of seizure known as ... 2 links) Health Topic: Developmental Disabilities Health Topic: Epilepsy Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) ...

  18. Feature Optimization for Long-Range Visual Homing in Changing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qidan Zhu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a feature optimization method for robot long-range feature-based visual homing in changing environments. To cope with the changing environmental appearance, the optimization procedure is introduced to distinguish the most relevant features for feature-based visual homing, including the spatial distribution, selection and updating. In the previous research on feature-based visual homing, less effort has been spent on the way to improve the feature distribution to get uniformly distributed features, which are closely related to homing performance. This paper presents a modified feature extraction algorithm to decrease the influence of anisotropic feature distribution. In addition, the feature selection and updating mechanisms, which have hardly drawn any attention in the domain of feature-based visual homing, are crucial in improving homing accuracy and in maintaining the representation of changing environments. To verify the feasibility of the proposal, several comprehensive evaluations are conducted. The results indicate that the feature optimization method can find optimal feature sets for feature-based visual homing, and adapt the appearance representation to the changing environments as well.

  19. Comparing the nutrition environment and practices of home- and centre-based child-care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Olivia J M; Vanderloo, Leigh M; Irwin, Jennifer D; Burke, Shauna M; Tucker, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    To assess and compare the nutrition environment and practices (as they relate to pre-schoolers) of centre- and home-based child-care facilities. Using a cross-sectional study design, nineteen child-care facilities (ten centre-based, nine home-based) were assessed for one full day using the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) tool (consisting of a day-long observation/review of the nutrition environment, practices and related documents). Specifically, eight nutrition-related subscales were considered. Child-care facilities in London, Ontario, Canada. Child-care facilities were recruited through directors at centre-based programmes and the providers of home-based programmes. The mean total nutrition environment EPAO scores for centre- and home-based facilities were 12·3 (sd 1·94) and 10·8 (sd 0·78) out of 20 (where a higher score indicates a more supportive environment with regard to nutrition), respectively. The difference between the total nutrition environment EPAO score for centre- and home-based facilities was approaching significance (P=0·055). For both types of facilities, the highest nutrition subscale score (out of 20) was achieved in the staff behaviours domain (centre mean=17·4; home mean=17·0) and the lowest was in the nutrition training and education domain (centre mean=3·6; home mean=2·0). Additional research is needed to confirm these findings. In order to better support child-care staff and enhance the overall nutrition environment in child care, modifications to food practices could be adopted. Specifically, the nutritional quality of foods/beverages provided to pre-schoolers could be improved, nutrition-related training for child-care staff could be provided, and a nutrition curriculum could be created to educate pre-schoolers about healthy food choices.

  20. Qualitative assessment of home environment across the different educational status of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the home environment of preschool children among 6 villages in Ludhiana district in Punjab state, India. The sample included 120 children aged 3-5 years. Eight composite scales were used to measure the home environment: learning stimulation, language stimulation, physical environment, warmth and affection, academic stimulation, role modeling, variety of experience, and acceptance. The sample reflected four educational groups for the father (illiterate, primary, matric, and graduate) and three educational groups for the mother (illiterate, primary, and matric). Findings clearly indicate that graduate level parents provided a more enriched home environment than less educated and illiterate parents. Education was unrelated to warmth and affection or acceptance between parents and children. Educated mothers showed slightly more warmth and affection. The stimulation in the growth of language and learning stimulation was significantly greater among graduate parents. Mothers encouraged their children to speak correctly, whereas illiterate mothers did not realize the importance. The lesser physical environment among lower educated parents supports findings of R.K. Srivastava (1974) on the association between lower scholastic achievement and overcrowding in the home. The study included homes where parents had sufficient financial resources to provide a safe and adequate physical environment but did not do so.

  1. Social and Nonsocial Home Environments of Infants with Nonorganic Failure-to-Thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Patrick H.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Comparison of 23 infants with nonorganic failure to thrive (NOFT) and 23 controls revealed that scores on the total Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Scale and subscales of maternal acceptance, organization of physical environment, and emotional responsivity were significantly less favorable for NOFT Ss. (Author/CL)

  2. Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Singaporean Children's Chinese Oral and Written Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Tan, Chee Lay

    2016-01-01

    In a bilingual environment such as Singaporean Chinese community, the challenge of maintaining Chinese language and sustaining Chinese culture lies in promoting the daily use of Chinese language in oral and written forms among children. Ample evidence showed the effect of the home language and literacy environment (HLE), on children's language and…

  3. Home care nurses' experience of job stress and considerations for the work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samia, Linda W; Ellenbecker, Carol Hall; Friedman, Donna Haig; Dick, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Home care nurses report increased stress in their jobs due to work environment characteristics that impact professional practice. Stressors and characteristics of the professional practice environment that moderate nurses' experience of job stress were examined in this embedded multiple case study. Real life experiences within a complex environment were drawn from interviews and observations with 29 participants across two home care agencies from one eastern U.S. state. Findings suggest that role overload, role conflict, and lack of control can be moderated in agencies where there are meaningful opportunities for shared decision making and the nurse-patient relationship is supported.

  4. Influence of the day care, home and neighbourhood environment on young children's physical activity and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christian, Hayley; Maitland, Clover; Enkel, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    to determine outdoor location of physical activity around the home and neighbourhood for a subsample (n=310). The day care environment will be objectively measured using a validated audit tool. Other potential individual, social and physical environmental influences on preschoolers' physical activity...... such as long day care. Research is required to determine how the design of day care outdoor (and indoor) spaces provides opportunities or constraints for physical activity. A significant evidence gap surrounds what objectively measured attributes of the home and neighbourhood environment influence preschoolers......' physical activity. The PLAY Spaces & Environments for Children's Physical Activity (PLAYCE) study will empirically investigate the relative and cumulative influence of the day care, home and neighbourhood environment on preschoolers' physical activity. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The PLAYCE study is a cross...

  5. EHLS at School: school-age follow-up of the Early Home Learning Study cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrupp, Elizabeth M; Bennett, Clair; Cullinane, Meabh; Hackworth, Naomi J; Berthelsen, Donna; Reilly, Sheena; Mensah, Fiona K; Gold, Lisa; Bennetts, Shannon K; Levickis, Penny; Nicholson, Jan M

    2018-05-02

    Targeted interventions during early childhood can assist families in providing strong foundations that promote children's health and wellbeing across the life course. There is growing recognition that longer follow-up times are necessary to assess intervention outcomes, as effects may change as children develop. The Early Home Learning Study, or 'EHLS', comprised two cluster randomized controlled superiority trials of a brief parenting intervention, smalltalk, aimed at supporting parents to strengthen the early childhood home learning environment of infants (6-12 months) or toddlers (12-36 months). Results showed sustained improvements in parent-child interactions and the home environment at the 32 week follow-up for the toddler but not the infant trial. The current study will therefore follow up the EHLS toddler cohort to primary school age, with the aim of addressing a gap in literature concerning long-term effects of early childhood interventions focused on improving school readiness and later developmental outcomes. 'EHLS at School' is a school-aged follow-up study of the toddler cluster randomized controlled trial (n = 1226). Data will be collected by parent-, child- and teacher-report questionnaires, recorded observations of parent-child interactions, and direct child assessment when children are aged 7.5 years old. Data linkage will provide additional data on child health and academic functioning at ages 5, 8 and 10 years. Child outcomes will be compared for families allocated to standard/usual care (control) versus those allocated to the smalltalk program (group program only or group program with additional home coaching). Findings from The Early Home Learning Study provided evidence of the benefits of the smalltalk intervention delivered via facilitated playgroups for parents of toddlers. The EHLS at School Study aims to examine the long-term outcomes of this initiative to determine whether improvements in the quality of the parent

  6. The Role of Physical Therapists in Living Environment Maintenance of the Home-bound Elderly Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemasa, Seiichi; Abe, Yoko; Nagao, Toru; Murakami, Masahito; Koeda, Hideki; Naruse, Susumu; Gotou, Makoto; Uesugi, Masayuki; Inoue, Yuri; Nanba, Yoshihumi

    2013-07-01

    [Purpose] This study explored the roles of physical therapists (PTs) in living environment maintenance, which is essential for living securely and stably at home, and examines how physical therapists can fulfill these roles more efficiently and effectively. [Subjects and Methods] A questionnaire on living environment maintenance was given to PTs working at randomly selected hospitals, health care facilities for the elderly requiring long-term care, home-visit nursing stations, and other such facilities and directly providing physical therapy to the home-bound elderly disabled. The subjects of the study were 77 PTs who returned valid responses. [Results] For awareness of systems for living environment maintenance, PTs were more aware of the system based on the Long-Term Care (LTC) Insurance Act than the system based on the Act on Welfare for the Home-Bound Elderly Disabled. PTs who have worked at two or more types of medical, welfare, and intermediate institutions were more aware of such systems than PTs who have worked at only one type. For PTs handling living environment maintenance for the home-bound elderly disabled, approximately 80% of respondents answered that they have handled some living environment maintenance, and PTs with longer clinical experience have handled more living environment maintenance cases. [Conclusion] The results demonstrated that PTs understand their living environment maintenance work well and handle the work. The results, however, also suggested that educational and operational improvements are urgently required for PTs handling living environment maintenance essential for the lives of the home-bound elderly disabled.

  7. Development of a platform to combine sensor networks and home robots to improve fall detection in the home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Toffola, Luca; Patel, Shyamal; Chen, Bor-rong; Ozsecen, Yalgin M; Puiatti, Alessandro; Bonato, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in the development of wearable sensor systems for continuous health monitoring in the home and community settings. One of the main areas of application for these wearable sensor systems is in detecting emergency events such as falls. Wearable sensors like accelerometers are increasingly being used to monitor daily activities of individuals at a risk of falls, detect emergency events and send alerts to caregivers. However, such systems tend to have a high rate of false alarms, which leads to low compliance levels. Home robots can enable caregivers with the ability to quickly make an assessment and intervene if an emergency event is detected. This can provide an additional layer for detecting false positives, which can lead to improve compliance. In this paper, we present preliminary work on the development of a fall detection system based on a combination sensor networks and home robots. The sensor network architecture comprises of body worn sensors and ambient sensors distributed in the environment. We present the software architecture and conceptual design home robotic platform. We also perform preliminary characterization of the sensor network in terms of latencies and battery lifetime.

  8. Human Behavior Drift Detection in a Smart Home Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciadri, Andrea; Trofimova, Anna A; Matteucci, Matteo; Salice, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    The proposed system aims at elderly people independent living by providing an early indicator of habits changes which might be relevant for a diagnosis of diseases. It relies on Hidden Markov Model to describe the behavior observing sensors data, while Likelihood Ratio Test gives the variation within different time periods.

  9. IMPLEMENTING AN ATTACHMENT-BASED PARENTING INTERVENTION WITHIN HOME-BASED EARLY HEAD START: HOME-VISITORS' PERCEPTIONS AND EXPERIENCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Allison L; Aparicio, Elizabeth M; Berlin, Lisa J; Jones Harden, Brenda

    2017-07-01

    Implementation of evidence-based interventions in "real-world" settings is enhanced when front-line staff view the intervention as acceptable, appropriate, and feasible. This qualitative study addresses Early Head Start (EHS) home visitors' perceptions and experiences of an evidence-based parenting intervention, the Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up program (M. Dozier, O. Lindhiem, & J. Ackerman, 2005), when added to EHS services as usual within the context of a research-practice partnership. Thematic analysis of in-depth, qualitative interviews indicates that home visitors experienced the intervention as positive and helpful for EHS families. Some challenges included scheduling and uncertainty regarding the goals of the intervention. Concerns over participation in the research centered on information exchange, confidentiality, and time limitations. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  10. Understanding the Home Math Environment and Its Role in Predicting Parent Report of Children’s Math Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Purpura, David J.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing literature concerning the role of the home math environment in children’s math development. In this study, we examined the relation between these constructs by specifically addressing three goals. The first goal was to identify the measurement structure of the home math environment through a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The second goal was to examine the role of the home math environment in predicting parent report of children’s math skills. The third goal was to test a series of potential alternative explanations for the relation between the home math environment and parent report of children’s skills, specifically the direct and indirect role of household income, parent math anxiety, and parent math ability as measured by their approximate number system performance. A final sample of 339 parents of children aged 3 through 8 drawn from Mechanical Turk answered a questionnaire online. The best fitting model of the home math environment was a bifactor model with a general factor representing the general home math environment, and three specific factors representing the direct numeracy environment, the indirect numeracy environment, and the spatial environment. When examining the association of the home math environment factors to parent report of child skills, the general home math environment factor and the spatial environment were the only significant predictors. Parents who reported doing more general math activities in the home reported having children with higher math skills, whereas parents who reported doing more spatial activities reported having children with lower math skills. PMID:28005925

  11. Unpacking socio-economic risks for reading and academic self-concept in primary school: differential effects and the role of the preschool home learning environment

    OpenAIRE

    Crampton, Alexandria; Hall, James

    2017-01-01

    Background: uncertainty remains concerning how children’s reading and academic self-concept are related and how these are differentially affected by social disadvantage and home learning environments. Aims: to contrast the impacts of early socioeconomic risks and preschool home learning environments upon British children’s reading abilities and academic self-concept between 7-10 years.Sample: n=3,172 British children aged 3-10 years and their families.Methods: a secondary analysis of the nati...

  12. The relationship of the elderly toward their home and living environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Kerbler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Housing is a basic human good and right. It plays a versatile role, allowing people to fulfil a number of needs, and it is not limited only to one’s immediate living space, but also includes an individual’s wider living environment. People’s relationship toward housing and their living environment changes over the course of their lives. Especially in old age, housing becomes more important. Research shows that the elderly want to remain in their home environments as long as possible because they are closely attached to them. In order to determine whether these findings also apply to Slovenia, this article analyses how attached the elderly in Slovenia are to their homes and wider living environment and how satisfied they are with living there. The elderly’s views were obtained with a survey, and a statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS software, based on the calculation of various statistical correlation tests. The analysis confirmed the assumption that the Slovenian elderly are also very attached to their homes or home environments and are satisfied with living there. In addition, the analysis showed some differences among the elderly in this regard depending on their age, where they live and how long they have been living in their current homes.

  13. Meeting needs for rehabilitation equipment and home adjustments among the disabled in their life environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kołłątaj

    2015-09-01

    Both the provision of orthopaedic equipment and adjustment of the home to disability are insufficient with respect to the needs. The meeting of these needs is significantly conditioned by high or very high material standard. The lack or incomplete satisfaction with the needs for rehabilitation equipment is associated with a relatively younger age, independent, single residence and low material standard. Living in an residential home means better adjustment of the living environment, and better provision with orthopaedic and rehabilitation equipment.

  14. Postpartum Teens' Perception of the Food Environments at Home and School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Rachel G; Joshu, Corinne E; Clarke, Megan A; Schwarz, Cynthia D; Haire-Joshu, Debra L

    2016-02-01

    An environment that supports healthy eating is one factor to prevent obesity. However, little is known about postpartum teen's perceptions of their home and school environments and how this relates to dietary behaviors. This study explores the relationship between home and school environments and dietary behaviors for postpartum teens. Conducted cross-sectionally during 2007-2009 across 27 states and included 889 postpartum teens enrolled in Parents as Teachers Teen Program. Data included measures of sociodemographics and perceptions of school and home food environments. A 7-day recall of snack and beverage frequency assessed dietary behaviors. Logistic regression explored associations between baseline environment measures and dietary behaviors at baseline and postintervention (approximately 5 months after baseline) for the control group. Respondents reported greater access and selection (i.e., variety of choices) of healthy foods and beverages at home than school. At baseline, fruit and vegetable intake was associated with home selection (1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.3, 2.9]) and availability (1.8, 95% CI [1.3, 2.6]), sweet snack consumption was associated with selection (1.5, 95% CI [1.0, 2.1]), and total snack consumption and sugar-sweetened beverage intake were associated with selection (snack: 2.1, 95% CI [1.5, 3.0]; beverage: 1.7, 95% CI [1.2, 2.4]) and availability (snack: 2.1, 95% CI [1.4, 3.1]; beverage: 1.5, 95% CI [1.0, 2.3]). Water intake at baseline and at the postintervention for control group teens was associated with selection (1.6, 95% CI [1.1, 2.2]). No significant associations were identified between the school environment and dietary behaviors. Interventions should target improvements in the home environment for high-risk, postpartum teens. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  15. Design semantics of connections in a smart home environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlist, van der B.J.J.; Niezen, G.; Hu, J.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Chen, L.L.; Djajadiningrat, T.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Kyffin, S.; Steffen, D.; Young, B.

    2010-01-01

    As the environments in which we live become more intelligent— through more computational power, embedded sensors and network connections between the devices that reside in the environment—there is a risk of leaving its users clueless about what is going on. User interaction changes from interaction

  16. Old and at home in an intelligent environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, M.; Erkelens, P.A.; Thabet, W.; Lucas, J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the rapid aging of the Dutch population and aging-in-place policies, an increasing demand for suitable dwellings is to be expected. A significant contribution can be provided by domotics defined as: the advanced technological equipments and services in the domestic environment to sustain and

  17. Anomaly detection using temporal data mining in a smart home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakkula, V; Cook, D J

    2008-01-01

    To many people, home is a sanctuary. With the maturing of smart home technologies, many people with cognitive and physical disabilities can lead independent lives in their own homes for extended periods of time. In this paper, we investigate the design of machine learning algorithms that support this goal. We hypothesize that machine learning algorithms can be designed to automatically learn models of resident behavior in a smart home, and that the results can be used to perform automated health monitoring and to detect anomalies. Specifically, our algorithms draw upon the temporal nature of sensor data collected in a smart home to build a model of expected activities and to detect unexpected, and possibly health-critical, events in the home. We validate our algorithms using synthetic data and real activity data collected from volunteers in an automated smart environment. The results from our experiments support our hypothesis that a model can be learned from observed smart home data and used to report anomalies, as they occur, in a smart home.

  18. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle (CITRONELLA AGAINST Microsporum canis FROM ANIMALS AND HOME ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Regina Grenier CAPOCI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytosis is a common zoonosis in urban centers. Dogs and cats have played an important role as its disseminators. Environmental decontamination is essential for the prevention of its propagation to humans and animals. However, sanitizers or disinfectants with antifungal activity, currently available, have high toxicity. The present study evaluated the in vitro effects of an extract of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus on 31 Microsporum canis isolates from animals and home environments. Susceptibility tests were performed based on document M38-A2 (2008 of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute with modifications for natural products. Although susceptibility variation was observed between the fungus tested, the concentrations that inhibited the growth of 50 and 90% of the microorganisms were low (19.5 and 78 µg/mL, respectively. Thus, this citronella extract showed potent fungistatic and fungicide activities against M. canis isolated from animals and home environments. Therefore, it could be an alternative for dermatophytosis prophylaxis in the home environment.

  19. Home

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    Military Commission Seal VWAP Login Home Go ABOUT US Organization Overview Organizational Chart Families VWAP Login CCTV Sites Travel Media MC News CCTV Sites Travel Today at OMC Home Today at OMC Daily

  20. IL-2 Enhances Gut Homing Potential of Human Naive Regulatory T Cells Early in Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Peter S; Lai, Catherine L; Hu, Mingjing; Santner-Nanan, Brigitte; Dahlstrom, Jane E; Lee, Cheng Hiang; Ajmal, Ayesha; Bullman, Amanda; Arbuckle, Susan; Al Saedi, Ahmed; Gacis, Lou; Nambiar, Reta; Williams, Andrew; Wong, Melanie; Campbell, Dianne E; Nanan, Ralph

    2018-06-15

    Recent evidence suggests early environmental factors are important for gut immune tolerance. Although the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells for gut immune homeostasis is well established, the development and tissue homing characteristics of Treg cells in children have not been studied in detail. In this article, we studied the development and homing characteristics of human peripheral blood Treg cell subsets and potential mechanisms inducing homing molecule expression in healthy children. We found contrasting patterns of circulating Treg cell gut and skin tropism, with abundant β7 integrin + Treg cells at birth and increasing cutaneous lymphocyte Ag (CLA + ) Treg cells later in life. β7 integrin + Treg cells were predominantly naive, suggesting acquisition of Treg cell gut tropism early in development. In vitro, IL-7 enhanced gut homing but reduced skin homing molecule expression in conventional T cells, whereas IL-2 induced a similar effect only in Treg cells. This effect was more pronounced in cord compared with adult blood. Our results suggest that early in life, naive Treg cells may be driven for gut tropism by their increased sensitivity to IL-2-induced β7 integrin upregulation, implicating a potential role of IL-2 in gut immune tolerance during this critical period of development. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  1. The home environment: A mediator of nutrition knowledge and diet quality in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbakh, Tamara; Freeland-Graves, Jean H

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this research was to assess adherence to the Healthy Eating Index-2010 of mothers and their adolescents (11-14 years old) and to examine the role of the home environment as a mediator of maternal nutrition knowledge and adolescent diet quality. It is hypothesized that mothers with greater knowledge impact the diet quality of their adolescents by creation of healthier home environments. A sample of 206 mother-adolescent dyads separately completed the Multidimensional Home Environment Scale, a Food Frequency Questionnaire, and a Nutrition Knowledge Scale. Body mass index-for-age percentiles were derived from weight and height measurements obtained by researcher; diet quality was estimated via the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010. Percent of maximum score on nutrition knowledge for both mothers and adolescents were poor, with lowest scores on recommendations of healthy eating and physical activity (48% and 19%, respectively). A model of maternal nutrition knowledge (independent variable) and adolescent diet quality (dependent variable) indicated that greater knowledge was associated with higher scores on total fruit (p = 0.02), whole grains (p = 0.05), seafood and plant proteins (p = 0.01), and overall diet quality (p empty calories (p = 0.01). Inclusion of the home environment as a mediator yielded significant estimates of the indirect effect (β = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.3-1.0). Within the home environment, psychological (β = 0.46), social (β = 0.23), and environmental (β = 0.65) variables were all significant mediators of nutrition knowledge on diet quality. These results emphasize the importance of maternal nutrition knowledge and the mediating effect of the home environment on the diet quality of adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and validation of the Multidimensional Home Environment Scale (MHES) for adolescents and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbakh, Tamara; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne

    2016-08-01

    The home environment is an important setting for the development of weight status in adolescence. At present a limited number of valid and reliable tools are available to evaluate the weight-related comprehensive home environment of this population. The goal of this research was to develop the Multidimensional Home Environment Scale which measures multiple components of the home. It includes psychological, social, and environmental domains from the perspective of an adolescent and the mother. Items were generated based on a literature review and then assessed for content validity by an expert panel and focus group in the target population. Internal consistency reliability was determined using Cronbach's α. Principal components analysis with varimax rotation was employed for assessment of construct validity. Temporal stability was evaluated using paired sample t-tests and bivariate correlations between responses at two different times, 1-2weeks apart. Associations between adolescent and mother responses were utilized for convergent validity. The final versions contained 32-items for adolescents and 36-items for mothers; these were administered to 218 adolescents and mothers. The subscales on the questionnaires exhibited high construct validity, internal consistency reliability (adolescent: α=0.82, mother: α=0.83) and test-retest reliability (adolescent: r=0.90, p<0.01; mother: r=0.91, p<0.01). Total home environment scores were computed, with greater scores reflecting a better health environment. These results verify the utility of the MHES as a valid and reliable instrument. This promising tool can be utilized to capture the comprehensive home environment of young adolescents (11-14years old). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intelligence, Income, and Education as Potential Influences on a Child's Home Environment: A (Maternal) Sibling-Comparison Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadd, Alexandria Ree; Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2017-01-01

    The quality of the home environment, as a predictor, is related to health, education, and emotion outcomes. However, factors influencing the quality of the home environment, as an outcome, have been understudied--particularly how children construct their own environments. Further, most previous research on family processes and outcomes has…

  4. Evaluation of an oral health education session for Early Head Start home visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatt, Kevin; Okunseri, Christopher; Flanagan, Diane; Simpson, Pippa; Cao, Yumei; Willis, Earnestine

    2016-06-01

    Home visiting programs promote the education and health of Early Head Start (EHS) children and pregnant women. However, EHS's oral health component is unevenly implemented. We conducted an educational intervention to improve oral health knowledge and motivational interviewing techniques among Wisconsin EHS home visitors. A questionnaire assessing oral health-related knowledge and confidence was administered to home visitors before and after an educational session. Changes between pre/post-responses were analyzed with McNemar's test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. After the intervention there were increases in both knowledge and confidence related to oral health communication. Knowledge increases were observed in such topics as fluoridation, dental caries, and caregivers' role in assisting and supervising children's tooth brushing. A brief educational intervention was associated with increased home visitor knowledge and confidence in communicating oral health messages to EHS caregivers and pregnant women. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  5. Palatable food consumption in children: interplay between (food) reward motivation and the home food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Decker, Annelies; Verbeken, Sandra; Sioen, Isabelle; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Braet, Caroline; Eiben, Gabriele; Pala, Valeria; Reisch, Lucia A; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2017-04-01

    To understand the importance of the home food environment on unhealthy food consumption in children high in reward sensitivity, this study tested the hypothesis that the home availability of unhealthy food moderates the effect of reward sensitivity on children's fast-food consumption frequency, exerted via food cue responsiveness. Children between 7.5 and 14 years (n = 174, 50.6% boys) reported on reward sensitivity and food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale 'external eating'). Their height and weight were measured. Parents reported on their children's fast-food consumption frequency, food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale 'food responsiveness'), and on the home availability of unhealthy foods. Two moderated mediation models were conducted, one with the parent- and one with the child-reported food cue responsiveness as mediator. Findings suggested that with a high home availability of unhealthy foods, (a) a higher fast-food consumption frequency was found in children high in reward sensitivity and (b) the relation between reward sensitivity and the fast-food consumption frequency was mediated by external eating. The findings point at the importance of the home food environment in children high in reward sensitivity. They suggest to limit the home availability of unhealthy foods. What is Known: • Reward sensitivity (RS) is positively associated with children's palatable food consumption • In adolescents, this effect is mediated by food cue responsiveness, which determines the strength of an individual's motivation to obtain food when perceiving food cues What is New: • Children high in RS may be more vulnerable to palatable food cues in their everyday food environment because of a higher food cue responsiveness • The home food environment may be an important determining factor of the palatable food consumption of these children.

  6. Essential elements of the nursing practice environment in nursing homes: Psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brouwer, Brigitte Johanna Maria; Kaljouw, Marian J; Schoonhoven, Lisette; van Achterberg, Theo

    2017-06-01

    To develop and psychometrically test the Essentials of Magnetism II in nursing homes. Increasing numbers and complex needs of older people in nursing homes strain the nursing workforce. Fewer adequately trained staff and increased care complexity raise concerns about declining quality. Nurses' practice environment has been reported to affect quality of care and productivity. The Essentials of Magnetism II © measures processes and relationships of practice environments that contribute to productivity and quality of care and can therefore be useful in identifying processes requiring change to pursue excellent practice environments. However, this instrument was not explicitly evaluated for its use in nursing home settings so far. In a preparatory phase, a cross-sectional survey study focused on face validity of the essentials of magnetism in nursing homes. A second cross-sectional survey design was then used to further test the instrument's validity and reliability. Psychometric testing included evaluation of content and construct validity, and reliability. Nurses (N = 456) working at 44 units of three nursing homes were included. Respondent acceptance, relevance and clarity were adequate. Five of the eight subscales and 54 of the 58 items did meet preset psychometric criteria. All essentials of magnetism are considered relevant for nursing homes. The subscales Adequacy of Staffing, Clinically Competent Peers, Patient Centered Culture, Autonomy and Nurse Manager Support can be used in nursing homes without problems. The other subscales cannot be directly applied to this setting. The valid subscales of the Essentials of Magnetism II instrument can be used to design excellent nursing practice environments that support nurses' delivery of care. Before using the entire instrument, however, the other subscales have to be improved. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Early home-supported discharge for patients with stroke in Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santana, Silvina; Rente, José; Neves, Conceição

    2017-01-01

    Measure at six months after stroke. Results: We randomised 190 patients of whom 34 were lost to follow-up. There were no significant differences (p > 0.5) in the average scores of Functional Independence Measure between the early home-supported discharge (69 ±22; mean ±SD) and the control groups (71 ±17...

  8. Probing a Proactive Home: Challenges in Researching and Designing Everyday Smart Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Mäyrä

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of a 3-year interdisciplinary study, this article presents an approach in which proactive information technology was introduced into homes, and discusses the derived design principles from a human-centered perspective. The application of proactive computing in homes will face particularly sensitive conditions, as familiar and reliable household elements remain strongly preferred. Since there is considerable resistance towards the increase of information technology in homes, both the calm system behaviors and the degree of variety in aesthetic designs will play major roles in the acceptance of proactive technology. If proactive technology will be an embedded part of a home’s structures and furniture, it needs to blend with the normal, cozy standards of a real living environment and aim to enhance the homeyness or the key social and aesthetic qualities of homes.

  9. Did professional attendance at home births improve early neonatal survival in Indonesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt, Laurel; Stanton, Cynthia; Ronsmans, Carine; Makowiecka, Krystyna; Adisasmita, Asri

    2009-07-01

    BACKGROUND Early neonatal mortality has been persistently high in developing countries. Indonesia, with its national policy of home-based, midwife-assisted birth, is an apt context for assessing the effect of home-based professional birth attendance on early neonatal survival. METHODS We pooled four Indonesian Demographic and Health Surveys and used multivariate logistic regression to analyse trends in first-day and early neonatal mortality. We measured the effect of the context of delivery, including place and type of provider, and tested for changes in trend when the 'Midwife in the Village' programme was initiated. RESULTS Reported first-day mortality did not decrease significantly between 1986 and 2002, whereas early neonatal mortality decreased by an average of 3.2% annually. The rate of the decline did not change over the time period, either in 1989 when the Midwife in the Village programme was initiated, or in any year following when uptake of professional care increased. In simple and multivariate analyses, there were no significant differences in first-day or early neonatal death rates comparing home-based births with or without a professional midwife. Early neonatal mortality was higher in public facilities, likely due to selection. Biological determinants (twin births, male sex, short birth interval, previous early neonatal loss) were important for both outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Decreasing newborn death rates in Indonesia are encouraging, but it is not clear that these decreases are associated with greater uptake of professional delivery care at home or in health facilities. This may suggest a need for improved training in immediate newborn care, strengthened emergency referral, and continued support for family planning policies.

  10. The influence of the neighborhood physical environment on early child health and development: A review and call for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Hayley; Zubrick, Stephen R; Foster, Sarah; Giles-Corti, Billie; Bull, Fiona; Wood, Lisa; Knuiman, Matthew; Brinkman, Sally; Houghton, Stephen; Boruff, Bryan

    2015-05-01

    This review examines evidence of the association between the neighborhood built environment, green spaces and outdoor home area, and early (0-7 years) child health and development. There was evidence that the presence of child relevant neighborhood destinations and services were positively associated with early child development domains of physical health and wellbeing and social competence. Parents׳ perceptions of neighborhood safety were positively associated with children׳s social-emotional development and general health. Population representative studies using objective measures of the built environment and valid measures of early child development are warranted to understand the impact of the built environment on early child health and development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Semantic and Virtual Reality-Enhanced Configuration of Domestic Environments: The Smart Home Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Spoladore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the Smart Home Simulator, one of the main outcomes of the D4All project. This application takes into account the variety of issues involved in the development of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL solutions, such as the peculiarity of each end-users, appliances, and technologies with their deployment and data-sharing issues. The Smart Home Simulator—a mixed reality application able to support the configuration and customization of domestic environments in AAL systems—leverages on integration capabilities of Semantic Web technologies and the possibility to model relevant knowledge (about both the dwellers and the domestic environment into formal models. It also exploits Virtual Reality technologies as an efficient means to simplify the configuration of customized AAL environments. The application and the underlying framework will be validated through two different use cases, each one foreseeing the customized configuration of a domestic environment for specific segments of users.

  12. Family socioeconomic status and child executive functions: the roles of language, home environment, and single parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsour, Khaled; Sheridan, Margaret; Jutte, Douglas; Nuru-Jeter, Amani; Hinshaw, Stephen; Boyce, W Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and child executive functions is well-documented. However, few studies have examined the role of potential mediators and moderators. We studied the independent and interactive associations between family SES and single parenthood to predict child executive functions of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and working memory and examined child expressive language abilities and family home environment as potential mediators of these associations. Sixty families from diverse SES backgrounds with a school-age target child (mean [SD] age = 9.9 [0.96] years) were evaluated. Child executive functioning was measured using a brief battery. The quality of the home environment was evaluated using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment inventory. Family SES predicted the three child executive functions under study. Single parent and family SES were interactively associated with children's inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility; such that children from low SES families who were living with one parent performed less well on executive function tests than children from similarly low SES who were living with two parents. Parental responsivity, enrichment activities and family companionship mediated the association between family SES and child inhibitory control and working memory. This study demonstrates that family SES inequalities are associated with inequalities in home environments and with inequalities in child executive functions. The impact of these disparities as they unfold in the lives of typically developing children merits further investigation and understanding.

  13. Home Environments and Perceived Needs of Anglo and Latino Families of Young Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dote-Kwan, Jamie; Chen, Deborah; Hughes, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influence of home environment, socioeconomic status, and visual functioning on mothers' perceptions of the family needs and development of 19 toddlers with visual impairments from Latino and Anglo backgrounds. Differences were found between the mothers' perceived needs based on ethnicity and their children's degree of…

  14. The Home Smoking Environment: Influence on Behaviors and Attitudes in a Racially Diverse Adolescent Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muilenburg, Jessica Legge; Latham, Teaniese; Annang, Lucy; Johnson, William D.; Burdell, Alexandra C.; West, Sabra J.; Clayton, Dixie L.

    2009-01-01

    Although studies indicate that public policy can influence the decrease in smoking behaviors, these policies have not necessarily transferred to home environments at the same rate. The authors surveyed 4,296 students in a southern urban area. African American students were 76.3% of the respondents and Caucasians accounted for 23.7%. African…

  15. Why Are Home Literacy Environment and Children's Reading Skills Associated? What Parental Skills Reveal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, Elsje; Van Zuijen, Titia L.; Bishop, Dorothy; de Jong, Peter F.

    2017-01-01

    Associations between home literacy environment and children's reading ability are often assumed to reflect a direct influence. However, heritability could account for the association between parent and child literacy-related measures. We used data from 101 mother/father/child triads to consider the

  16. The Dagara farmer at home and away: migration, environment and development in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, K.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Will people in drylands be forced to migrate due to climate change and environmental degradation? And what impact does migration have on the environment and development in the migrants’ home and destination areas? These are some of the questions this study tries to answer. Based on local case study

  17. Understanding Children's Sedentary Behaviour: A Qualitative Study of the Family Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granich, Joanna; Rosenberg, Michael; Knuiman, Matthew; Timperio, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Electronic media (EM) (television, electronic games and computer) use has been associated with overweight and obesity among children. Little is known about the time spent in sedentary behaviour (SB) among children within the family context. The aim of this study was to explore how the family home environment may influence children's…

  18. A Study of the Relationship between Academic Achievement Motivation and Home Environment among Standard Eight Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muola, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between academic achievement motivation and home environment among standard eight pupils. The study was carried out on 235 standard eight Kenyan pupils from six urban and rural primary schools randomly selected from Machakos district. Their age ranged between 13 and 17 years. Two…

  19. Television Viewing, Educational Quality of the Home Environment, and School Readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Angela Teresa; Kurtz-Costes, Beth

    1997-01-01

    Researchers examined relationships among children's television viewing, school readiness, parental employment, and the home environment's educational quality. Thirty low-income parents completed surveys. Their preschoolers completed IQ and school readiness assessments. Television viewing adversely related to school readiness and the home…

  20. The Home Literacy Environment and the English Narrative Development of Spanish-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitetti, Dana; Hammer, Carol Scheffner

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the home literacy environment (HLE) on the English narrative development of Spanish-English bilingual children from low-income backgrounds. Method: Longitudinal data were collected on 81 bilingual children from preschool through 1st grade. English narrative skills were assessed in the…

  1. Home Environments of Low SES Non-Organic Failure-to-Thrive Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert H.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Failure-to-thrive infants were more often found in homes that were disorganized and where mothers were less responsive and less accepting of their child's behavior than were normally developing infants. Results suggest that infants need a socially and physically responsive environment which they can control to some extent. (RH)

  2. The Relationship Among Socioeconomic Status, Home Environment, Parent Involvement, Child Self Concept and Child Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revicki, Dennis A.

    The relationship among socio-economic status, sibling variables, social-psychological home environment, parent involvement in intervention programs, and child self-concept and achievement were empirically investigated to determine the importance and kind of parent participation most closely related to childrens' cognitive and affective…

  3. A systematic review - physical activity in dementia: The influence of the nursing home environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderiesen, H.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Goossens, R.H.; Sonneveld, M.

    2014-01-01

    Most older persons with dementia living in nursing homes spend their days without engaging in much physical activity. This study therefore looked at the influence that the environment has on their level of physical activity, by reviewing empirical studies that measured the effects of environmental

  4. Employment, Work Conditions, and the Home Environment in Single-Mother Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lleras, Christy

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of employment status and work conditions on the quality of the home environment provided by single mothers of preschool-age children. Multivariate analyses were conducted using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The results indicate that employment status is not a significant predictor of the…

  5. Relations among Home Literacy Environment, Child Characteristics and Print Knowledge for Preschool Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook E.; Justice, Laura M.; Guo, Ying; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Pentimonti, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    To contribute to the modest body of work examining the home literacy environment (HLE) and emergent literacy outcomes for children with disabilities, this study addressed two aims: (a) to determine the unique contributions of the HLE on print knowledge of preschool children with language impairment and (b) to identify whether specific child…

  6. Investigating Maternal Self-Efficacy and Home Learning Environment of Families Enrolled in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojczyk, Kathryn Elizabeth; Haverback, Heather Rogers; Pae, Hye K.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between mothers' self-efficacy beliefs, their preschool children's home learning environments, and literacy skills. A sample of 112 mother-child dyads was recruited from Head Start centers in rural and urban communities. The measures included maternal self-efficacy and maternal perceptions of…

  7. Lightweight UDP Pervasive Protocol in Smart Home Environment Based on Labview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Wijaya; Hannats Hanafi Ichsan, Mochammad; Rizqika Akbar, Sabriansyah; Arwani, Issa

    2017-04-01

    TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) technology in a reliable environment was not a problem, but not in an environment where the entire Smart Home network connected locally. Currently employing pervasive protocols using TCP technology, when data transmission is sent, it would be slower because they have to perform handshaking process in advance and could not broadcast the data. On smart home environment, it does not need large size and complex data transmission between monitoring site and monitoring center required in Smart home strain monitoring system. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) technology is quick and simple on data transmission process. UDP can broadcast messages because the UDP did not require handshaking and with more efficient memory usage. LabVIEW is a programming language software for processing and visualization of data in the field of data acquisition. This paper proposes to examine Pervasive UDP protocol implementations in smart home environment based on LabVIEW. UDP coded in LabVIEW and experiments were performed on a PC and can work properly.

  8. Aggression in Primary Schools: The Predictive Power of the School and Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozina, Ana

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we analyse the predictive power of home and school environment-related factors for determining pupils' aggression. The multiple regression analyses are performed for fourth- and eighth-grade pupils based on the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 (N = 8394) and TIMSS 2011 (N = 9415) databases for Slovenia. At the…

  9. Associations between Parental Concern for Adolescent Weight and the Home Food Environment and Dietary Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Abbie; Crawford, David; Worsley, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Examine associations between parental concern about adolescent weight and adolescent perceptions of their dietary intake, home food availability, family mealtime environment, and parents' feeding practices. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Adolescents, aged 12-15 years from 37 secondary schools in Victoria, Australia, and their…

  10. The Home Literacy Environment of School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rebecca; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2018-01-01

    For typically developing (TD) children, the home literacy environment (HLE) impacts reading competence, yet few studies have explored the HLE of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We collected information about the HLE of children aged 7-13 with ASD and their TD peers via a parental questionnaire and examined whether there were any…

  11. Home Literacy Environment and Head Start Children's Language Development: The Role of Approaches to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined whether approaches to learning moderate the association between home literacy environment and English receptive vocabulary development. The Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (2003 cohort) was used for analysis. Latent growth curve modeling was utilized to test a quadratic model of English…

  12. Inequality and the Home Learning Environment: Predictions about Seven-Year-Olds' Language and Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2012-01-01

    Using a UK representative sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, the present study examined the unique and cumulative contribution of children's characteristics and attitudes to school, home learning environment and family's socio-economic background to children's language and literacy at the end of Key Stage 1 (age seven-years-old).…

  13. The nursing home as a learning environment: dealing with less is learning more

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molema, F.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Helmich, E.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite the imperative to develop adequate competence in caring for the growing demographic of elderly patients with complex health care problems, nursing homes are underused as learning environments for the education of future doctors; thus, the authors aimed to gain more insight into the

  14. Assessing and Comparing Physical Environments for Nursing Home Residents: Using New Tools for Greater Research Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Lois J.; Kane, Rosalie A.; Degenholtz, Howard B.; Miller, Michael J.; Grant, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We developed and tested theoretically derived procedures to observe physical environments experienced by nursing home residents at three nested levels: their rooms, the nursing unit, and the overall facility. Illustrating with selected descriptive results, in this article we discuss the development of the approach. Design and Methods: On…

  15. The Nursing Home as a Learning Environment : Dealing With Less Is Learning More

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molema, Frederique; Koopmans, Raymond; Helmich, Esther

    Purpose Despite the imperative to develop adequate competence in caring for the growing demographic of elderly patients with complex health care problems, nursing homes are underused as learning environments for the education of future doctors; thus, the authors aimed to gain more insight into the

  16. Intelligence, income, and education as potential influences on a child's home environment: A (maternal) sibling-comparison design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadd, Alexandria Ree; Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2017-07-01

    The quality of the home environment, as a predictor, is related to health, education, and emotion outcomes. However, factors influencing the quality of the home environment, as an outcome, have been understudied-particularly how children construct their own environments. Further, most previous research on family processes and outcomes has implemented between-family designs, which limit claims of causality. The present study uses kinship data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to construct a maternal sibling-comparison design to investigate how maternal and child traits predict the quality of home environment. Using a standard between-family analysis, we first replicate previous research showing a relationship between maternal intelligence and the quality of the home environment. Then, we reevaluate the link between maternal intelligence and the home environment using differences between maternal sisters on several characteristics to explain differences between home environments for their children. Following, we evaluate whether child intelligence differences are related to home environment differences in the presence of maternal characteristics. Results are compared with those from the between-family analysis. Past causal interpretations are challenged by our findings, and the role of child intelligence in the construction of the home environment emerges as a critical contributor that increases in importance with development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Could the early environment of Mars have supported the development of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Stoker, Carol R.

    1990-01-01

    The environment of Mars and its correlation to the origin of life on earth are examined. Evidence of liquid water and nitrogen on early Mars is discussed. The similarities between the early Mars and early earth environments are described.

  18. Disparities in risk communication: a pilot study of asthmatic children, their parents, and home environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biksey, Thomas; Zickmund, Susan; Wu, Felicia

    2011-05-01

    Parents' knowledge and control of asthma triggers in home environments can help reduce risks associated with asthmatic children's respiratory health. This pilot study used both qualitative and quantitative methods to determine parental knowledge of their children's asthma triggers in home environments, control of those triggers, and information received and trusted. Twelve parents of asthmatic children in the greater Pittsburgh area--8 white and 4 African American--participated in one-on-one interviews about home exposures to asthma triggers. All parents described the link between asthma symptoms and both environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and pet dander exposures. House dust mites and mold were also commonly identified asthma triggers. All 8 white parents reported receiving information from physicians about controlling home environmental triggers of asthma, but the 4 African American parents reported having received no such information. However, all 12 parents reported having greater trust in information received from physicians than from other sources. White parents were significantly more aware of potential asthma triggers and performed significantly more actions to control the triggers in their homes. African American parents noted stressful experiences with primary and secondary care, less recall of information sharing about asthma triggers, and a focus on symptom management vs trigger avoidance.

  19. Medical symptoms among pilots associated with work and home environments: a 3-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xi; Lindgren, Torsten; Norbäck, Dan

    2015-05-01

    To study associations between the cockpit environment, psychosocial work environment, home environment, and medical symptoms in a cohort of commercial pilots followed over 3 yr. A standardized questionnaire was mailed in February-March 1997 to all Stockholm-based pilots on duty in a Scandinavian flight company (N = 622); 577 (93%) participated. During this time smoking was allowed on long haul flights, but not on shorter flights. Smoking was prohibited on all flights after September 1997. The same questionnaire was sent to the cohort of 577 pilots in February-March 2000; 436 participated (76%). The questionnaire contained questions on symptoms, the psychosocial work environment, and the home environment. Associations were investigated using multiple logistic and ordinal regression. Symptoms were common, especially eye symptoms (38.5%), nose symptoms (39.9%), and tiredness (29.9%). Pilots exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on long haul flights had more eye symptoms (odds ratio = 1.91) and tiredness (odds ratio = 2.73). These symptoms were reduced when no longer exposed to ETS. Those who started working on long haul flights developed more nose symptoms. Pilots reporting increased work demands developed more nose and dermal symptoms and tiredness and those with decreased work control developed more eye symptoms. Pilots living in new houses, multifamily houses, and in recently painted homes reported more symptoms. Eliminating ETS exposure on board reduced medical symptoms. Further work to reduce ETS exposure globally is needed. Psychosocial aspects of the work environment for commercial pilots should be considered, as well as the home environment.

  20. Effect of the home environment on motor and cognitive behavior of infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquelote, Audrei F; Santos, Denise C C; Caçola, Priscila M; Montebelo, Maria Imaculada de L; Gabbard, Carl

    2012-06-01

    Although information is sparse, research suggests that affordances in the home provide essential resources that promote motor and cognitive skills in young children. The present study assessed over time, the association between motor affordances in the home and infant motor and cognitive behavior. Thirty-two (32) infants were assessed for characteristics of their home using the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development--Infant Scale and motor and cognitive behavior with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development--III. Infant's home and motor behavior were assessed at age 9 months and 6 months later with the inclusion of cognitive ability. Results for motor ability indicated that there was an overall improvement in performance from the 1st to the 2nd assessment. We found significant positive correlations between the dimensions of the home (daily activities and play materials) and global motor performance (1st assessment) and fine-motor performance on the 2nd assessment. In regard to cognitive performance (2nd assessment), results indicated a positive association with fine-motor performance. Our results suggest that motor affordances can have a positive impact on future motor ability and speculatively, later cognitive behavior in infants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Children's food store, restaurant, and home food environments and their relationship with body mass index: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsten, Joanna E; Compher, Charlene W

    2012-01-01

    This pilot research assessed the feasibility and utility of a study designed to examine the relationship between children's BMI and food store, restaurant, and home food environments. Home visits were conducted with sixth-grade children (N = 12). BMI z-scores were calculated with weight and height measurements. Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys evaluated children's food environments. The study protocol involved a feasible time duration, minimal missing data for primary variables, and participant satisfaction. Potential design problems included the homogeneous store environments and low restaurant exposure of the sample recruited from one school, and the adequacy of a single cross-sectional measure of the home environment.

  2. Validity and reliability of a home environment inventory for physical activity and media equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Mark A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how the home environmental supports physical activity and screen media usage. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the reliability and validity of a self-report instrument to comprehensively reflect the availability and accessibility of physical activity and screen media equipment in the home environment. Methods Ten families participated in the initial field testing to provide feedback for instrument development. Thirty one adult participants, each of whom had at least one child 10–17 years old, completed two Physical Activity and Media Inventory (PAMI instruments. The first PAMI was completed simultaneously, but independently, with a research assistant to assess validity. A second PAMI was completed by the participant one week later to assess reliability. Results The adult participants were mostly mothers/female guardians, mean age 38 ± 7.2 years, mostly Caucasian (52%, college educated (65%, living in single family homes (74%. Test-retest reliability was acceptable to strong for all summary variables (physical activity equipment, ICC = 0.76 to 0.99; media equipment, ICC = 0.72 to 0.96. For validation, reports from participants and research assistants were strongly correlated (physical activity, 0.67 – 0.98; media, 0.79 – 0.96. Compared to participants, research assistants reported a greater percentage of physical activity equipment as "in plain view and easy to get to" and a smaller percentage of items as "put away and difficult to get to". Conclusion Our results indicate strong evidence for the reliability and validity of the variables calculated from the PAMI. This self report inventory may be useful in assessing the availability of physical activity and screen media equipment in the home environment and could be used in conjunction with other home assessment tools (food availability, parenting styles and feeding practices to identify obesogenic home environments.

  3. Learning to care for older patients: hospitals and nursing homes as learning environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huls, Marije; de Rooij, Sophia E; Diepstraten, Annemie; Koopmans, Raymond; Helmich, Esther

    2015-03-01

    A significant challenge facing health care is the ageing of the population, which calls for a major response in medical education. Most clinical learning takes place within hospitals, but nursing homes may also represent suitable learning environments in which students can gain competencies in geriatric medicine. This study explores what students perceive as the main learning outcomes of a geriatric medicine clerkship in a hospital or a nursing home, and explicitly addresses factors that may stimulate or hamper the learning process. This qualitative study falls within a constructivist paradigm: it draws on socio-cultural learning theory and is guided by the principles of constructivist grounded theory. There were two phases of data collection. Firstly, a maximum variation sample of 68 students completed a worksheet, giving brief written answers on questions regarding their geriatric medicine clerkships. Secondly, focus group discussions were conducted with 19 purposively sampled students. We used template analysis, iteratively cycling between data collection and analysis, using a constant comparative process. Students described a broad range of learning outcomes and formative experiences that were largely distinct from their learning in previous clerkships with regard to specific geriatric knowledge, deliberate decision making, end-of-life care, interprofessional collaboration and communication. According to students, the nursing home differed from the hospital in three aspects: interprofessional collaboration was more prominent; the lower resources available in nursing homes stimulated students to be creative, and students reported having greater autonomy in nursing homes compared with the more extensive educational guidance provided in hospitals. In both hospitals and nursing homes, students not only learn to care for older patients, but also describe various broader learning outcomes necessary to become good doctors. The results of our study, in particular the

  4. The Impact of the Physical Environment on Depressive Symptoms of Older Residents Living in Care Homes: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Rachel; Sheehan, Bart; Cain, Rebecca; Griffin, James; Jennings, Paul A

    2018-05-08

    Forty percent of residents living in care homes in the United Kingdom have significant depressive symptoms. Care homes can appear to be depressing places, but whether the physical environment of homes directly affects depression in care home residents is unknown. This study explores the relationship between the physical environment and depressive symptoms of older people living in care homes. In a prospective cohort study the physical environment of 50 care homes were measured using the Sheffield Care Environment Assessment Matrix (SCEAM) and depressive symptoms of 510 residents measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). The study was supplemented with semi-structured interviews with residents living in the care homes. Quantitative data were analyzed using multi-level modeling, and qualitative data analyzed using a thematic framework approach. The overall physical environment of care homes (overall SCEAM score) did not predict depressive symptoms. Controlling for dependency, social engagement, and home type, having access to outdoor space was the only environmental variable to significantly predict depressive symptoms. Residents interviewed reported that access to outdoor space was restricted in many ways: locked doors, uneven foot paths, steep steps, and needing permission or assistance to go outside. We provide new evidence to suggest that access to outdoor space predicts depressive symptoms in older people living in care home. Interventions aimed at increasing access to outdoor spaces could positively affect depressive symptoms in older people.

  5. Conversation analysis as a method for investigating interaction in care home environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatwin, John

    2014-11-01

    This article gives an outline of how the socio-linguistic approach of conversation analysis can be applied to the analysis of carer-patient interaction in care homes. A single case study from a routine encounter in a residential care home is presented. This is used to show how the conversation analysis method works, the kinds of interactional and communication features it can expose, and what specific contribution this kind of micro-interactional approach may make to improving quality of care in these environments. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Respiratory Illness and Allergy Related to Work and Home Environment among Commercial Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xi; Lindgren, Torsten; Wieslander, Gunilla; Janson, Christer; Norbäck, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to study associations between work and home environment and prevalence and incidence of respiratory health and a history of atopy in a 3-y cohort of commercial pilots. A questionnaire was mailed in 1997 to all pilots in a Scandinavian airline company (N = 622); 577 (93%) participated. The same questionnaire was sent to the participants 3 years later, 436 participated (76%). There were questions on asthma, respiratory symptoms and infections, allergies, the cabin environment, psychosocial environment and the home environment. Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). The incidence of doctors' diagnosed asthma and atopy were 2.4 and 16.6 per 1000 person years, respectively. Pilots changing type of flight during follow-up got more airway infections (OR = 11.27; 95% CI 2.39-53.14). Those reporting decreased work control (OR = 1.85; 95% CI 1.03-3.31 for 1 unit change) and those with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home (OR = 3.73; 95% CI 1.09-12.83) had a higher incidence of atopy during follow up. Dampness or mould at home was associated with a higher prevalence of asthma symptoms (OR = 3.55; 95% CI 1.43-8.82) and airway infections (OR = 3.12 95% CI 1.27-7.68). Window pane condensation in winter at home, reported at baseline, was associated with increased incidence of asthma symptoms (OR = 4.14; 95% CI 1.32-12.97) and pilots living in newer buildings at baseline had a higher incidence of airway infections (OR = 5.23; 95% CI 1.43-19.10). In conclusion, lack of work control and ETS at home can be a risk factors for development of allergic symptoms in pilots. Window pane condensation at home can be a risk factor for incidence of asthma symptoms. Dampness and mould at home can be a risk factor for prevalence of asthma symptoms and airway infections and living in newer buildings can be a risk factor for incidence of airway infections.

  7. The effect of early postpartum home visits by health visitors: a natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Væth, Michael; Kristensen, Ingeborg

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess if the absence of early home visits influenced the mothers’ breastfeeding duration and use of medical services. Design: Data from mothers who had given birth during a strike period were compared to data from a reference period with usual work practice. Sample: The study...... included 3834 newborn and 375 health visitors, 75 of whom worked during the strike period. Intervention: All families were offered non- standardized home visits after discharge in the reference period. During the strike, the service was based on individual risk assessment. Results: Overall, no difference....... The mothers’ needs for postnatal visits differed depending on parity: primiparae underlined uncertainty, multiparae underlined previous breastfeeding experience. Mothers had missed out on guidance on all areas of the health visitors’ service. Conclusion: Non-standardized home visits by health visitors were...

  8. Home visiting and the biology of toxic stress: opportunities to address early childhood adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Andrew S

    2013-11-01

    Home visiting is an important mechanism for minimizing the lifelong effects of early childhood adversity. To do so, it must be informed by the biology of early brain and child development. Advances in neuroscience, epigenetics, and the physiology of stress are revealing the biological mechanisms underlying well-established associations between early childhood adversity and suboptimal life-course trajectories. Left unchecked, mediators of physiologic stress become toxic, alter both genome and brain, and lead to a vicious cycle of chronic stress. This so-called "toxic stress" results a wide array of behavioral attempts to blunt the stress response, a process known as "behavioral allostasis." Although behaviors like smoking, overeating, promiscuity, and substance abuse decrease stress transiently, over time they become maladaptive and result in the unhealthy lifestyles and noncommunicable diseases that are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The biology of toxic stress and the concept of behavioral allostasis shed new light on the developmental origins of lifelong disease and highlight opportunities for early intervention and prevention. Future efforts to minimize the effects of childhood adversity should focus on expanding the capacity of caregivers and communities to promote (1) the safe, stable, and nurturing relationships that buffer toxic stress, and (2) the rudimentary but foundational social-emotional, language, and cognitive skills needed to develop healthy, adaptive coping skills. Building these critical caregiver and community capacities will require a public health approach with unprecedented levels of collaboration and coordination between the healthcare, childcare, early education, early intervention, and home visiting sectors.

  9. A place for play? The influence of the home physical environment on children’s physical activity and sedentary behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The home environment is an important influence on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children, who have limited independent mobility and spend much of their time at home. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the influence of the home physical environment on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children aged 8–14 years. A literature search of peer reviewed articles published between 2005 and 2011 resulted in 38 observational studies (21 with activity outcomes, 23 with sedentary outcomes) and 11 experimental studies included in the review. The most commonly investigated behavioural outcomes were television watching and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Media equipment in the home and to a lesser extent the bedroom were positively associated with children’s sedentary behaviour. Physical activity equipment and the house and yard were not associated with physical activity, although environmental measures were exclusively self-reported. On the other hand, physical activity equipment was inversely associated with sedentary behaviours in half of studies. Observational studies that investigated the influence of the physical and social environment within the home space, found that the social environment, particularly the role of parents, was important. Experimental studies that changed the home physical environment by introducing a television limiting device successfully decreased television viewing, whereas the influence of introducing an active video game on activity outcomes was inconsistent. Results highlight that the home environment is an important influence on children’s sedentary behaviour and physical activity, about which much is still unknown. While changing or controlling the home physical environment shows promise for reducing screen based sedentary behaviour, further interventions are needed to understand the broader impact of these changes. Future studies should prioritise investigating the influence of the

  10. A place for play? The influence of the home physical environment on children's physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Clover; Stratton, Gareth; Foster, Sarah; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2013-08-17

    The home environment is an important influence on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children, who have limited independent mobility and spend much of their time at home. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the influence of the home physical environment on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children aged 8-14 years. A literature search of peer reviewed articles published between 2005 and 2011 resulted in 38 observational studies (21 with activity outcomes, 23 with sedentary outcomes) and 11 experimental studies included in the review. The most commonly investigated behavioural outcomes were television watching and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Media equipment in the home and to a lesser extent the bedroom were positively associated with children's sedentary behaviour. Physical activity equipment and the house and yard were not associated with physical activity, although environmental measures were exclusively self-reported. On the other hand, physical activity equipment was inversely associated with sedentary behaviours in half of studies. Observational studies that investigated the influence of the physical and social environment within the home space, found that the social environment, particularly the role of parents, was important. Experimental studies that changed the home physical environment by introducing a television limiting device successfully decreased television viewing, whereas the influence of introducing an active video game on activity outcomes was inconsistent. Results highlight that the home environment is an important influence on children's sedentary behaviour and physical activity, about which much is still unknown. While changing or controlling the home physical environment shows promise for reducing screen based sedentary behaviour, further interventions are needed to understand the broader impact of these changes. Future studies should prioritise investigating the influence of the home

  11. Laying a Firm Foundation: Embedding Evidence-Based Emergent Literacy Practices Into Early Intervention and Preschool Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Pamela; Watson, Maggie

    2018-04-05

    As part of this clinical forum on curriculum-based intervention, the goal of this tutorial is to share research about the importance of language and literacy foundations in natural environments during emergent literacy skill development, from infancy through preschool. Following an overview of intervention models in schools by Powell (2018), best practices at home, in child care, and in preschool settings are discussed. Speech-language pathologists in these settings will be provided a toolbox of best emergent literacy practices. A review of published literature in speech-language pathology, early intervention, early childhood education, and literacy was completed. Subsequently, an overview of the impact of early home and preschool literacy experiences are described. Research-based implementation of best practice is supported with examples of shared book reading and child-led literacy embedded in play within the coaching model of early intervention. Finally, various aspects of emergent literacy skill development in the preschool years are discussed. These include phonemic awareness, print/alphabet awareness, oral language skills, and embedded/explicit literacy. Research indicates that rich home literacy environments and exposure to rich oral language provide an important foundation for the more structured literacy environments of school. Furthermore, there is a wealth of evidence to support a variety of direct and indirect intervention practices in the home, child care, and preschool contexts to support and enhance all aspects of oral and written literacy. Application of this "toolbox" of strategies should enable speech-language pathologists to address the prevention and intervention of literacy deficits within multiple environments during book and play activities. Additionally, clinicians will have techniques to share with parents, child care providers, and preschool teachers for evidence-based literacy instruction within all settings during typical daily

  12. Detection of Early Morning Daily Activities with Static Home and Wearable Wireless Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vanderpool

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a flexible, cost-effective, wireless in-home activity monitoring system for assisting patients with cognitive impairments due to traumatic brain injury (TBI. The system locates the subject with fixed home sensors and classifies early morning bathroom activities of daily living with a wearable wireless accelerometer. The system extracts time- and frequency-domain features from the accelerometer data and classifies these features with a hybrid classifier that combines Gaussian mixture models and a finite state machine. In particular, the paper establishes that despite similarities between early morning bathroom activities of daily living, it is possible to detect and classify these activities with high accuracy. It also discusses system training and provides data to show that with proper feature selection, accurate detection and classification are possible for any subject with no subject specific training.

  13. Experiences to be a family caregiver of dependent elderly in the home environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcimar Marcelo do Couto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand the experience of caring for dependent elderly in the home environment, from the perspective of family caregivers that present burden and emotional distress. Methods: this is a qualitative research with a contribution in the Theory Grounded in Data. There were home visits for observation and semi-structured interviews with nine relatives of dependent elderly in self-care. Results: with the coding and analysis of empirical data, one can understand the daily cares in the care relationship with their elderly dependent relatives. The consolidated experiences underlie on positive experiences, such as solidarity by the established interaction and the maintenance of self-esteem, and negative as changes in daily routine and health, with stress identification related to the caregiver role. Conclusion: in the understanding of the family, their experiences as a caregiver in the home context varied between positive and negative aspects, which respectively minimize and maximize the feeling of burden and emotional distress.

  14. The impact of the home learning environment in native- vs. second-language acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleses, Dorthe; Højen, Anders; Dale, Philip S.

    ., 2007). However, little is known about the relative importance of the HLE for native- vs. second-language acquisition. This question was examined in 1,200 second-language and 8,000 native-language learners of Danish. The parents of the 3-5-year-old children completed a HLE questionnaire......The home literacy environment (HLE) has been shown to impact language and literacy skills in preschool-aged children via factors such as availability of books, frequency of reading and child age when parents began reading to the child (Burgess, Hecht, & Lonigan, 2002; Payne, Whitehurst, & Angell......, 1994). Many dual language learners (DLL) rely on interactions in the second language outside the home to acquire second-language proficiency, but the HLE also influences second-language development in DLL, whether the native language or the second language is the primary home language (Duursma et al...

  15. Promoting autonomy in a smart home environment with a smarter interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, C P; McCullagh, P J; Galway, L; Lightbody, G

    2015-01-01

    In the not too distant future, the median population age will tend towards 65; an age at which the need for dependency increases. Most older people want to remain autonomous and self-sufficient for as long as possible. As environments become smarter home automation solutions can be provided to support this aspiration. The technology discussed within this paper focuses on providing a home automation system that can be controlled by most users regardless of mobility restrictions, and hence it may be applicable to older people. It comprises a hybrid Brain-Computer Interface, home automation user interface and actuators. In the first instance, our system is controlled with conventional computer input, which is then replaced with eye tracking and finally a BCI and eye tracking collaboration. The systems have been assessed in terms of information throughput; benefits and limitations are evaluated.

  16. The home environment resources scale / O inventário de recursos do ambiente familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Maria Marturano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the development of the HERS - Home Environment Resources Scale. The HERS is based on an ecological view of development. It assesses support resources available to the child at home, which can contribute for school achievement. These resources relate to three domains: resources that promote proximal processes; activities that signal stability in family processes; parental practices that promote a home–school linkage. Previous research using the HERS has indicated acceptable indexes of internal consistency, as well as significant associations between HERS scores and measures of academic achievement and adjustment. Leisure activities, toys, books, and opportunities for the child to interact with parents at home were all related to child achievement and adjustment. Although further studies are needed to secure its reliability and validity, the instrument has proven to be a useful tool for researchers, being used by professionals who work in clinical and educational contexts.

  17. The effect of low-cost modification of the home environment on the development of respiratory symptoms in the first year of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Victoria; Piorkowski, Julie; Hernandez, Eva; Chavez, Noel; Wagner-Cassanova, Cynthia; Freels, Sally; Vergara, Carmen; Pelzel, Darlene; Hayes, Rachel; Gutierrez, Silvia; Busso, Adela; Coover, Lenore; Thorne, Peter S.; Ownby, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that environmental exposures may be related to the development of respiratory symptoms in early life. Intervention studies, however, have not produced consistent findings. Objective The Peer Education in Pregnancy Study examined the effect of home environment intervention with pregnant women at risk for having children with asthma on the development of respiratory symptoms in their infants. Methods A total of 383 pregnant women whose unborn child had a first-degree relative with an allergic history were randomized to 1 of 2 intervention groups, both of whom received general health education, smoking cessation advice, and encouragement to breastfeed. In addition, the intensive education group received 3 home visits focused on home environment modification. Home assessment was performed at baseline and after 1 year of follow-up. Respiratory symptoms were identified during the first year of life. Results Families in both intervention groups showed significant changes in several environmental factors, with significant differences between the 2 groups in insects other than cockroaches, use of mattress covers, and washing in hot water. Children in the intensive education group had slightly lower incidence rates of respiratory symptoms, but few differences were statistically significant. Conclusions The results of this study do not provide strong support for a primary intervention focused on general modification of the home environment during pregnancy for high-risk children. It does not address the effects of more aggressive approaches or of interventions targeting individual environmental factors. PMID:20084841

  18. IoT-Based Intelligent Modeling of Smart Home Environment for Fire Prevention and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal Saeed; Anand Paul; Abdul Rehman; Won Hwa Hong; Hyuncheol Seo

    2018-01-01

    Fires usually occur in homes because of carelessness and changes in environmental conditions. They cause threats to the residential community and may result in human death and property damage. Consequently, house fires must be detected early to prevent these types of threats. The immediate notification of a fire is the most critical issue in domestic fire detection systems. Fire detection systems using wireless sensor networks sometimes do not detect a fire as a consequence of sensor failure....

  19. Multilingual children with hearing loss: Factors contributing to language use at home and in early education

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, Kathryn; McKinnon, David H; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa YC

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between children’s cultural and linguistic diversity and child, caregiver, and environmental characteristics is important to ensure appropriate educational expectations and provisions. As part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, children’s caregivers and educators completed questionnaires on demographic characteristics, including the communication mode (oral, manual, or mixed) and languages used in home and early educa...

  20. Miller Early Childhood Sustained Home-visiting (MECSH trial: design, method and sample description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Teresa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Home visiting programs comprising intensive and sustained visits by professionals (usually nurses over the first two years of life show promise in promoting child health and family functioning, and ameliorating disadvantage. Australian evidence of the effectiveness of sustained nurse home visiting in early childhood is limited. This paper describes the method and cohort characteristics of the first Australian study of sustained home visiting commencing antenatally and continuing to child-age two years for at-risk mothers in a disadvantaged community (the Miller Early Childhood Sustained Home-visiting trial. Methods and design Mothers reporting risks for poorer parenting outcomes residing in an area of socioeconomic disadvantage were recruited between February 2003 and March 2005. Mothers randomised to the intervention group received a standardised program of nurse home visiting. Interviews and observations covering child, maternal, family and environmental issues were undertaken with mothers antenatally and at 1, 12 and 24 months postpartum. Standardised tests of child development and maternal-child interaction were undertaken at 18 and 30 months postpartum. Information from hospital and community heath records was also obtained. Discussion A total of 338 women were identified and invited to participate, and 208 were recruited to the study. Rates of active follow-up were 86% at 12 months, 74% at 24 months and 63% at 30 months postpartum. Participation in particular data points ranged from 66% at 1 month to 51% at 24 months postpartum. Rates of active follow-up and data point participation were not significantly different for the intervention or comparison group at any data point. Mothers who presented for antenatal care prior to 20 weeks pregnant, those with household income from full-time employment and those who reported being abused themselves as a child were more likely to be retained in the study. The Miller Early

  1. [Chronic home-care patients and their primary health care environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao Curiel, I; Gastaminza Santacoloma, A M; García García, J A; Quindimil Vázquez, J A; López Rivas, J L; Huidobro Fernández, L

    1994-03-15

    Describing the primary level of attention to chronic home patients (CHP), their quality or life and the one of their home carers. Descriptive transverse study. Teaching Unit of Family of Sestao (Vizcaya) urban environment. 197 CHP patients with subacute, chronic illnesses or in terminal stages or handicapped, that is to say, people who cannot attend the Medical Centre and needing constant home care (longer than 4 weeks) although they do not need to be in hospital at the moment. A questionnaire made up by the researching group. April-June 1992. The clinical histories and home interviews. Mean age (78 +/- 23) years old; 70% were women; average of health problems of patients (4.2 +/- 4); average of drug consumption by patients (3.6 +/- 4); average of one visit to each patient per two months; 75% did not need derivation. The average age of people looking after them was (58 +/- 28) years old and 77.3% of them were women. Their average QL index was (9 +/- 2.4) out of 10, 9.2% had a QL index between 4 and 7 although there was nobody under 3. We have found an old population, mostly women with an average of health problems of (4.24 +/- 4) and who are polymedicated. 9.4 of them are not looked after by anybody. Generally their homes are habitable enough. In 77.3% of the cases the carers are women and 65.6% do not receive any domiciliary help.

  2. Understanding children's sedentary behaviour: a qualitative study of the family home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granich, Joanna; Rosenberg, Michael; Knuiman, Matthew; Timperio, Anna

    2010-04-01

    Electronic media (EM) (television, electronic games and computer) use has been associated with overweight and obesity among children. Little is known about the time spent in sedentary behaviour (SB) among children within the family context. The aim of this study was to explore how the family home environment may influence children's electronic-based SB. Focus groups and family interviews were conducted with 11- to 12-year old children (n = 54) and their parents (n = 38) using a semi-structured discussion guide. Transcripts were analysed using a thematic content approach. A brief self-completed questionnaire was also used to measure leisure behaviour and electronic devices at home. Children incorporated both sedentary and physical activities into their weekly routine. Factors influencing children's EM use included parent and sibling modelling and reinforcement, personal cognitions, the physical home environment and household EM use rules and restrictions. Participants were not concerned about the excessive time children spent with EM. This under-recognition emerged as a personal influencing factor and was viewed as a major barrier to modifying children's electronic-based SB. Efforts to reduce SB in children should focus on the influencing factors that reciprocally interact within the family home. An emphasis on increasing awareness about the risks associated with spending excessive time in screen-based activities should be a priority when developing intervention strategies aimed at modifying the time children spend in SB.

  3. An Efficient Secure Scheme Based on Hierarchical Topology in the Smart Home Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansik Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As the Internet of Things (IoT has developed, the emerging sensor network (ESN that integrates emerging technologies, such as autonomous driving, cyber-physical systems, mobile nodes, and existing sensor networks has been in the limelight. Smart homes have been researched and developed by various companies and organizations. Emerging sensor networks have some issues of providing secure service according to a new environment, such as a smart home, and the problems of low power and low-computing capacity for the sensor that previous sensor networks were equipped with. This study classifies various sensors used in smart homes into three classes and contains the hierarchical topology for efficient communication. In addition, a scheme for establishing secure communication among sensors based on physical unclonable functions (PUFs that cannot be physically cloned is suggested in regard to the sensor’s low performance. In addition, we analyzed this scheme by conducting security and performance evaluations proving to constitute secure channels while consuming fewer resources. We believe that our scheme can provide secure communication by using fewer resources in a smart home environment in the future.

  4. Early olfactory environment influences social behaviour in adult Octodon degus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Natalia; Martínez-Harms, Jaime; Vásquez, Rodrigo A; Mpodozis, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the extent to which manipulation of early olfactory environment can influence social behaviours in the South American Hystricognath rodent Octodon degus. The early olfactory environment of newborn degus was manipulated by scenting all litter members with eucalyptol during the first month of life. The social behaviour of sexually mature animals (5-7 months old) towards conspecifics was then assessed using a y-maze to compare the response of control (naïve) and treated animals to two different olfactory configurations (experiment 1): (i) a non-familiarized conspecific impregnated with eucalyptol (eucalyptol arm) presented against (ii) a non-familiarized unscented conspecific (control arm). In addition, in dyadic encounters, we assessed the behaviour of control and eucalyptol treated animals towards a non-familiarized conspecific scented with eucalyptol (experiment 2). We found that control subjects explored and spent significantly less time in the eucalyptol arm, indicating neophobic behaviours towards the artificially scented conspecific. Treated subjects explored and spent similar time in both arms of the maze, showing the same interest for both olfactory stimuli presented. During dyadic encounters in experiment 2, an interaction effect between early experience and sex was observed. Control males escaped and avoided their scented partner more frequently than eucalyptol treated male subjects and than females. Both groups did not differ in the exploration of their scented partners, suggesting that avoidance within agonistic context does not relate to neophobic behaviours. Our results suggest that the exposure to eucalyptol during early ontogeny decreases evasive behaviours within an agonistic context as a result of olfactory learning. Altogether, these results indicate that olfactory cues learned in early ontogeny can influence olfactory-guided behaviours in adult degus.

  5. Exploring family home food environments: Household resources needed to utilise weekly deliveries of free fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Sophie A; Mainvil, Louise A; Coveney, John D

    2017-04-01

    An adapted ethnographic approach was used to explore household factors that influence family fruit and vegetable consumption when access and cost barriers are removed. 'Structural' barriers, such as food affordability and accessibility, are likely to influence fruit and vegetable consumption in disadvantaged households, but households may require additional resources (human and social) to increase consumption. Five low-income and five high-income households with children (N = 39 individuals) were observed in their home environment for three months. Including both advantaged and disadvantaged families allowed exploration of socioeconomic factors influencing these households. Each household received a free box of fresh fruit and vegetables each week for 10-12 weeks, delivered to their home, and were home-visited twice a week by a researcher (40+ hours per household). An inductive analysis of rich observational and discussion data revealed themes describing factors influencing household fruit and vegetable consumption. Household food cultures were dynamic and influenced by available resources. Even when free produce was delivered to homes, these households required human resource (personal drivers influenced by early life exposure and household dynamics) and external social networks to make use of them. When household finances and/or labour were limited, there was greater dependence on external organisations for tangible support. Even when structural barriers were removed, disadvantaged families needed a range of resources across the life course to improve eating behaviours, including sufficient, motivated and skilled labour and harmonious family relationships. Strategies targeting these households must consider structural, social, cultural and intra-familial influences on food choice. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  6. Making time for family meals: Parental influences, home eating environments, barriers and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Blake L

    2018-04-06

    Frequent family mealtimes have been associated with numerous positive dietary, health, and behavioral outcomes for children and families. This review article summarizes some of the beneficial outcomes associated with having frequent family dinners. Current trends in family dinner frequency are discussed in the context of barriers that influence how often families eat dinner together, including time issues, work issues, and distractions in the home environment. Next, several parental influences and home environment factors that promote healthy and consistent family dinners are outlined. Finally, limitations are discussed and a few practical suggestions are mentioned to help encourage families, employers, and policy-makers to make family mealtimes a regular practice for as many families as possible. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Family Home Food Environment and Nutrition-Related Parent and Child Personal and Behavioral Outcomes of the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Friend, Sarah; Horning, Melissa; Flattum, Colleen; Draxten, Michelle; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Gurvich, Olga; Garwick, Ann; Story, Mary; Kubik, Martha Y

    2018-02-01

    Research has demonstrated a significant positive association between frequent family meals and children's dietary intake; however, the promotion of healthful family meals has not been rigorously tested for key food environment and nutrition-related behavioral outcomes in a randomized trial. To describe family home food environment and nutrition-related parent and child personal and behavioral outcomes of the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment Plus program, the first rigorously tested family meals intervention targeting childhood obesity prevention. Randomized controlled trial. Baseline, postintervention (12 months, 93% retention), and follow-up (21 months, 89% retention) data (surveys and dietary recalls) were collected. Children aged 8 to 12 years (N=160) and their parents were randomized to intervention (n=81) or control (n=79) groups. The intervention included five parent goal-setting calls and 10 monthly sessions delivered to families in community settings that focused on experiential nutrition activities and education, meal planning, cooking skill development, and reducing screen time. Family home food environment outcomes and nutrition-related child and parent personal and behavioral outcomes. Analyses used generalized linear mixed models. Primary comparisons were contrasts between intervention and control groups at postintervention and follow-up, with adjustments for child age and parent education. Compared with control parents, intervention parents showed greater improvement over time in scores of self-efficacy for identifying appropriate portion sizes, with significant differences in adjusted means at both post-intervention (P=0.002) and follow-up (P=0.01). Intervention children were less likely to consume at least one sugar-sweetened beverage daily at post-intervention than control children (P=0.04). The Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment Plus program involved the entire family and targeted personal, behavioral, and

  8. IoT Privacy and Security Challenges for Smart Home Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Huichen Lin; Neil W. Bergmann

    2016-01-01

    Often the Internet of Things (IoT) is considered as a single problem domain, with proposed solutions intended to be applied across a wide range of applications. However, the privacy and security needs of critical engineering infrastructure or sensitive commercial operations are very different to the needs of a domestic Smart Home environment. Additionally, the financial and human resources available to implement security and privacy vary greatly between application domains. In domestic enviro...

  9. Dialogue management in a home machine environment : linguistic components over an agent architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Quesada Moreno, José Francisco; García, Federico; Sena Pichardo, María Esther; Bernal Bermejo, José Ángel; Amores Carredano, José Gabriel de

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the main characteristics of an Agent-based Architecture for the design and implementation of a Spoken Dialogue System. From a theoretical point of view, the system is based on the Information State Update approach, in particular, the system aims at the management of Natural Command Language Dialogue Moves in a Home Machine Environment. Specifically, the paper is focused on the Natural Language Understanding and Dialogue Management Agents...

  10. The effect of the home environment on physical activity and dietary intake in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østbye, T; Malhotra, R; Stroo, M; Lovelady, C; Brouwer, R; Zucker, N; Fuemmeler, B

    2013-10-01

    The effects of the home environment on child health behaviors related to obesity are unclear. To examine the role of the home physical activity (PA) and food environment on corresponding outcomes in young children, and assess maternal education/work status as a moderator. Overweight or obese mothers reported on the home PA and food environment (accessibility, role modeling and parental policies). Outcomes included child moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time derived from accelerometer data and two dietary factors ('junk' and healthy food intake scores) based on factor analysis of mother-reported food intake. Linear regression models assessed the net effect (controlling for child demographics, study arm, supplemental time point, maternal education/work status, child body mass index and accelerometer wear time (for PA outcomes)) of the home environment on the outcomes and moderation by maternal education/work status. Data were collected in North Carolina from 2007 to 2011. Parental policies supporting PA increased MVPA time, and limiting access to unhealthy foods increased the healthy food intake score. Role modeling of healthy eating behaviors increased the healthy food intake score among children of mothers with no college education. Among children of mothers with no college education and not working, limiting access to unhealthy foods and role modeling reduced 'junk' food intake scores whereas parental policies supporting family meals increased 'junk' food intake scores. To promote MVPA, parental policies supporting child PA are warranted. Limited access to unhealthy foods and role modeling of healthy eating may improve the quality of the child's food intake.

  11. Home care after early discharge: impact on healthy mothers and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelsdottir, Björk; Lam-de Jonge, Willemien; Edman, Gunnar; Wiklund, Ingela

    2013-08-01

    to compare early discharge with home care versus standard postpartum care in terms of mothers' sense of security; contact between mother, newborn and partner; emotions towards breast feeding; and breast-feeding duration at one and three months after birth. retrospective case-control study. a labour ward unit in Stockholm, Sweden handling both normal and complicated births. 96 women with single, uncomplicated pregnancies and births, and their healthy newborns. early discharge at 12-24 hours post partum with 2-3 home visits during the first week after birth. The intervention group consisted of women who had a normal vaginal birth (n=45). This group was compared with healthy controls who received standard postnatal care at the hospital (n=51). mothers' sense of security was measured using the Parents' Postnatal Sense of Security Scale. Contact between mother, child and father, and emotions towards breast feeding were measured using the Alliance Scale, and breast-feeding rates at one and three months post partum were recorded. women in the intervention group reported a greater sense of security in the first postnatal week but had more negative emotions towards breast feeding compared with the control group. At three months post partum, 74% of the newborns in the intervention group were fully breast fed versus 93% in the control group (p=0.021). Contact between the mother, newborn and partner did not differ between the groups. early discharge with home care is a feasible option for healthy women and newborns, but randomised controlled studies are needed to investigate the effects of home care on breast-feeding rates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An integrated healthcare system for personalized chronic disease care in home-hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sangjin; Youn, Chan-Hyun; Shim, Eun Bo; Kim, Moonjung; Cho, Young Min; Peng, Limei

    2012-07-01

    Facing the increasing demands and challenges in the area of chronic disease care, various studies on the healthcare system which can, whenever and wherever, extract and process patient data have been conducted. Chronic diseases are the long-term diseases and require the processes of the real-time monitoring, multidimensional quantitative analysis, and the classification of patients' diagnostic information. A healthcare system for chronic diseases is characterized as an at-hospital and at-home service according to a targeted environment. Both services basically aim to provide patients with accurate diagnoses of disease by monitoring a variety of physical states with a number of monitoring methods, but there are differences between home and hospital environments, and the different characteristics should be considered in order to provide more accurate diagnoses for patients, especially, patients having chronic diseases. In this paper, we propose a patient status classification method for effectively identifying and classifying chronic diseases and show the validity of the proposed method. Furthermore, we present a new healthcare system architecture that integrates the at-home and at-hospital environment and discuss the applicability of the architecture using practical target services.

  13. A Virtual Bioinformatics Knowledge Environment for Early Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Daniel; Srivastava, Sudhir; Johnsey, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Discovery of disease biomarkers for cancer is a leading focus of early detection. The National Cancer Institute created a network of collaborating institutions focused on the discovery and validation of cancer biomarkers called the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). Informatics plays a key role in enabling a virtual knowledge environment that provides scientists real time access to distributed data sets located at research institutions across the nation. The distributed and heterogeneous nature of the collaboration makes data sharing across institutions very difficult. EDRN has developed a comprehensive informatics effort focused on developing a national infrastructure enabling seamless access, sharing and discovery of science data resources across all EDRN sites. This paper will discuss the EDRN knowledge system architecture, its objectives and its accomplishments.

  14. Home environment as a predictor of child's language: A mediating role of family literacy activities and symbolic play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja-Peklaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In our study, we explored the ways in which SES-related factors of family environment affect child's language across toddlerhood and early childhood. We proposed a mediational path model in which we presumed that family literacy activities and parental encouragement of symbolic play acted as mediating variables, mediating the effect of parental education, family possessions and parent-to-child speech on child's language. The sample included 99 families with children, aged from 1 to 6 years. The data were collected in the family home, mostly via direct observation and by using a semi-structured interview with parents. The findings suggest that high-SES parents and parents who used a more complex and supportive speech, more frequently involved their children in different literacy activities. The effect of the parent-to-child speech on child's language proved to be mediated by parental use of mental transformations during symbolic play with a child.

  15. Home visitation programs: An untapped opportunity for the delivery of early childhood obesity prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; de la Haye, Kayla; Galama, Titus; Goran, Michael I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Extant obesity efforts have had limited impact among low-income underserved children, in part because of limitations inherent to existing programs: 1) short duration and low intensity; 2) late timing of implementation, when children are already overweight or obese; 3) intervention delivery limiting their accessibility and sustainability; and 4) failure to address barriers such as a lack of culturally competent services, poverty and housing instability, which interfere with healthy lifestyle changes. Objective This concept paper proposes an innovative model of obesity prevention implemented in infancy and sustained throughout early childhood to address the limitations of current obesity prevention efforts. Specifically, we propose to integrate sustained, weekly, in-home obesity prevention as part of the services already delivered by ongoing Home Visitation Programs, which currently do not target obesity prevention. Conclusion The home visiting structure represents an ideal model for impactful obesity prevention as home visitation programs: (1) already provide comprehensive services to diverse low-income infants and families who are most at risk for obesity and poor health due to socio-economic and structural conditions; (2) services are initiated in infancy and sustained throughout critical developmental periods for the formation of healthy/unhealthy behaviors; and (3) have been in place for more than 40 years, with a widespread presence across the United States and nationwide, which is critical for the scalability and sustainability of obesity prevention. PMID:27911984

  16. Home visitation programs: an untapped opportunity for the delivery of early childhood obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, S-J; de la Haye, K; Galama, T; Goran, M I

    2017-02-01

    Extant obesity efforts have had limited impact among low-income underserved children, in part because of limitations inherent to existing programs: (i) short duration and low intensity; (ii) late timing of implementation, when children are already overweight or obese; (iii) intervention delivery limiting their accessibility and sustainability; and (iv) failure to address barriers such as a lack of culturally competent services, poverty and housing instability, which interfere with healthy lifestyle changes. This concept paper proposes an innovative model of obesity prevention implemented in infancy and sustained throughout early childhood to address the limitations of current obesity prevention efforts. Specifically, we propose to integrate sustained, weekly, in-home obesity prevention as part of the services already delivered by ongoing Home Visitation Programs, which currently do not target obesity prevention. The home visiting structure represents an ideal model for impactful obesity prevention as home visitation programs: (i) already provide comprehensive services to diverse low-income infants and families who are most at risk for obesity and poor health because of socio-economic and structural conditions; (ii) services are initiated in infancy and sustained throughout critical developmental periods for the formation of healthy/unhealthy behaviors; and (iii) have been in place for more than 40 years, with a widespread presence across the United States and nationwide, which is critical for the scalability and sustainability of obesity prevention. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  17. The family environment in early childhood has a long-term effect on self-esteem: A longitudinal study from birth to age 27 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich

    2018-04-01

    A better understanding is needed of the factors that shape the development of individual differences in self-esteem. Using a prospective longitudinal design, this research tested whether the family environment in early childhood predicts self-esteem in later developmental periods. Data came from a nationally representative U.S. sample of 8,711 participants, who reported on their self-esteem biannually from age 8 to 27 years. Moreover, during the participants' first 6 years of life, biannual assessments of their mothers provided information on the quality of the home environment (covering quality of parenting, cognitive stimulation, and physical home environment), quality of parental relationship, presence of father, maternal depression, and poverty status of the family. The analyses were conducted using nonlinear regression analyses of age-dependent correlation coefficients, which were controlled for the effects of child gender and ethnicity. The results suggested that the family environment in early childhood significantly predicted self-esteem as the children grew up. Although the effects became smaller with age, the effects were still present during young adulthood. The largest effects emerged for quality of home environment. Moreover, the results suggested that the effects of home environment, presence of father, and poverty are enduring, as indicated by a nonzero asymptote in the time course of effects from age 8 to 27 years. Finally, quality of home environment partially accounted for the effects of the other predictors. The findings suggest that the home environment is a key factor in early childhood that influences the long-term development of self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Engaging Urban Parents of Early Adolescents in Parenting Interventions: Home Visits vs. Group Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2014-01-01

    Interventions targeting parents of young children have shown effectiveness, but research is lacking about best practices for engaging parents of early adolescents. Low levels of enrollment and attendance in parenting interventions present major problems for researchers and clinicians. Effective and efficient ways to engage and collaborate with parents to strengthen parenting practices and to promote healthy development of early adolescents are needed. This exploratory mixed methods study examined the feasibility of three methods of engaging parents in positive parenting activities. Participants were parents of youth ages 11-13 enrolled in three urban, public middle schools in neighborhoods characterized by high rates of community violence. Families ( N = 144) were randomized into one of three interventions: six home sessions, two home sessions followed by four group sessions, or six group sessions. The majority of parents were single, non-Hispanic, African American mothers. Urban parents of middle school students were more likely to participate in home visits than in group sessions; offering a combination did not increase participation in the group sessions. As only 34% of those who consented participated in the intervention, qualitative data were examined to explain the reasons for non-participation.

  19. The Role of Parenting Practices in the Home Environment among Underserved Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Beth A; McGinn, Aileen P; Lounsbury, David W; Diamantis, Pamela M; Groisman-Perelstein, Adriana E; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Isasi, Carmen R

    2015-08-01

    The home environment, which includes parenting practices, is an important setting in which children develop their health behaviors. We examined the role of parenting practices in the home environment among underserved youth. We examined baseline data of a family-focused pediatric obesity intervention. Parenting practices (monitoring, discipline, limit setting of soda/snacks [SS] and screen media [SM], pressure to eat, and reinforcement) and availability of fruits/vegetables (FV) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), family meals, television (TV) watching during meals, TVs in the home, owning active video games/sports equipment, and household food security were assessed in 301 parent/caregivers of overweight/obese children (ages 7-12 years; BMI≥85th percentile). Associations were evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Parents/caregivers (ages 22-67 years) were largely Hispanic/Latino (74.1%), female (92.4%), and reported high levels of limit setting SS and low levels of pressure to eat. Parent age, gender, country of birth, and years living in the United States accounted for differences among several parenting practices. Adjusted logistic regression models identified several statistically significant associations, including: Monitoring was positively associated with availability FV (odds ratio [OR]=2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25, 3.82); limit setting SS was inversely associated with availability of SSBs (OR=0.40; 95% CI, 0.21, 0.75); and limit setting SM was inversely associated with TV viewing during family meals (OR=0.51; 95% CI, 0.31, 0.85). Nearly 40% of our population was food insecure, and food insecurity was positively associated with pressure to eat (OR=1.77; 95% CI, 1.01, 3.15). Parenting practices play an important role in the home environment, and longitudinal studies are needed to examine these associations in the context of family-focused pediatric obesity

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    AF Branding & Trademark Licensing Join the Air Force Home About Us The Air Force Symbol Display Resources Document Library TM Connect Search AF Branding and Trademark Licensing Program: important links Legal Documents 10 U.S.C. § 2260 15 U.S.C. § 167;167; 1114-1125 DODI 5535.12, DoD Branding and

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    intersect as Attack Wing leaders change roles The 112th COS postured as cyber shield for Pa. infrastructure 111th Attack Wing 111th Attack Wing 21st Century Guard Airmen Home News Photos Art Video Resources - The Balance Search 111th Attack Wing: COMMUNITY/ENVIRO May 16, 2018; Pa. Department of Health update

  2. The impact of the residential built environment on work at home adoption frequency: An example from Northern California

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Wei (Laura); Mokhtarian, Patricia L.; Handy, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Working at home is widely viewed as a useful travel-reduction strategy, and it is partly for that reason that considerable research related to telecommuting and home-based work has been conducted in the last two decades. This study examines the effect of residential neighborhood built environment (BE) factors on working at home. After systematically presenting and categorizing various relevant elements of the BE and reviewing related studies, we develop a multinomial logit (MNL) model of work...

  3. [Influence of home nurture environment on language development and social emotion in children with developmental language disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Kai; Liu, Gui-Hua; Qian, Qin-Fang; Ge, Pin; Xie, Yan-Qin; Yang, Min-Yan; Wang, Zhang-Qiong; Ou, Ping

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the influence of home nurture environment on language development and social emotion in children with developmental language disorder (DLD). The 1-3 Years Child Home Nurture Environment Scale, Gesell Developmental Scale, and Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment Scale were used for the evaluation of 125 children with DLD. A total of 130 children with normal language development matched for age and sex were enrolled as control group. Compared with the control group, the DLD group had a significantly higher proportion of children in a bad home nurture environment and significantly lower scores of all domains of home nurture environment (Pnurture environment score was positively correlated with the level of language development (r=0.536, Pnurture environment had direct influence on language development in children with DLD and affected their language development via the mediating effect of social emotion. Home nurture environment influences language development and social emotion in children with DLD, and social emotion has a partial mediating effect between home nurture environment and language development.

  4. Asthma and obesity in three-year-old urban children: role of sex and home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Chambers, Earle C; Rosario, Andres; Duarte, Cristiane S

    2011-07-01

    To examine whether the relationship between obesity and asthma in young girls and boys can be explained by social and physical characteristics of the home environment. We examined the relationship between asthma and obesity in children in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n=1815). Asthma was determined through maternal report of asthma diagnosis by a doctor (active in past 12 months). Weight and height of child was measured during an in-home visit. Data on home social (maternal depression, intimate partner violence) and physical environmental factors (housing quality, tobacco exposure) were collected via questionnaire. Ten percent of children had active asthma, 19% of children were overweight, and 17% of children were obese. In fully adjusted models, obese children had twice the odds of having asthma (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.5-3.3) compared with children of normal body weight. In stratified analyses, overweight boys, but not overweight girls, had increased of odds of asthma. Obese boys and girls had increased odds of asthma compared with boys and girls of normal body weight. The relationship between asthma and obesity is present in boys and girls as young as 3 years of age; a relationship between being overweight and asthma is only present among boys. This relationship is not attributable to shared social and environmental factors of the children's home. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutrition accesses among patients receiving enteral treatment in the home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznajder, Janusz; Ślefarska-Wasilewska, Marta; Wójcik, Piotr

    2017-10-31

    Enteral feeding in the home environment is connected with creating access to digestive tract, and thanks to that, this kind of treatment is possible. The gold standard in enteral nutrition is PEG, other types of access are: nasogastric tube, gastronomy and jejunostomy. In the article 851 patients who were treated nutritionally in the home environment, in the nutrition clinic, Nutrimed Górny Śląsk, were analyzed. It was described how, in practice, the schedule of nutrition access looks like in the nutrition clinic at a time of qualifying patients to the treatment (PEG 47,35%, gastronomy 18,91%, nasogastric tube 17,39%,jejunostomy 16,33%) and how it changes among patients treated in the nutrition clinic during specific period of time - to the treatment there were qualified patients with at least three-month period of therapy ( second evaluation: PEG 37,01%, gastrostomy 31,13%, nasogastric tube 16,98%, jejunostomy 15,86%). The structure of changes was described, also the routine and the place in what exchanging or changing nutrition access was analyzed. The biggest changes in quantity, among all groups of ill people concerned patients with PEG and gastronomy. In most cases the intervention connected with exchanging access to the digestive tract could be implemented at patient's home.

  6. Home Reading Environment and Brain Activation in Preschool Children Listening to Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, John S; Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Mendelsohn, Alan L; DeWitt, Tom; Holland, Scott K

    2015-09-01

    Parent-child reading is widely advocated to promote cognitive development, including in recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics to begin this practice at birth. Although parent-child reading has been shown in behavioral studies to improve oral language and print concepts, quantifiable effects on the brain have not been previously studied. Our study used blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the relationship between home reading environment and brain activity during a story listening task in a sample of preschool-age children. We hypothesized that while listening to stories, children with greater home reading exposure would exhibit higher activation of left-sided brain regions involved with semantic processing (extraction of meaning). Nineteen 3- to 5-year-old children were selected from a longitudinal study of normal brain development. All completed blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging using an age-appropriate story listening task, where narrative alternated with tones. We performed a series of whole-brain regression analyses applying composite, subscale, and individual reading-related items from the validated StimQ-P measure of home cognitive environment as explanatory variables for neural activation. Higher reading exposure (StimQ-P Reading subscale score) was positively correlated (P eco-bio-developmental models of emergent literacy. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Building Health Promotion into the Job of Home Care Aides: Transformation of the Workplace Health Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Muramatsu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Home care aides (HCAs, predominantly women, constitute one of the fastest growing occupations in the United States. HCAs work in clients’ homes that lack typical workplace resources and benefits. This mixed-methods study examined how HCAs’ work environment was transformed by a pilot workplace health promotion program that targeted clients as well as workers. The intervention started with training HCAs to deliver a gentle physical activity program to their older clients in a Medicaid-funded home care program. Older HCAs aged 50+ reported increased time doing the types of physical activity that they delivered to their clients (stretching or strengthening exercise (p = 0.027. Almost all (98% HCAs were satisfied with the program. These quantitative results were corroborated by qualitative data from open-ended survey questions and focus groups. HCAs described how they exercised with clients and how the psychosocial work environment changed with the program. Building physical activity into HCAs’ job is feasible and can effectively promote HCAs’ health, especially among older HCAs.

  8. Building Health Promotion into the Job of Home Care Aides: Transformation of the Workplace Health Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Naoko; Yin, Lijuan; Lin, Ting-Ti

    2017-04-05

    Home care aides (HCAs), predominantly women, constitute one of the fastest growing occupations in the United States. HCAs work in clients' homes that lack typical workplace resources and benefits. This mixed-methods study examined how HCAs' work environment was transformed by a pilot workplace health promotion program that targeted clients as well as workers. The intervention started with training HCAs to deliver a gentle physical activity program to their older clients in a Medicaid-funded home care program. Older HCAs aged 50+ reported increased time doing the types of physical activity that they delivered to their clients (stretching or strengthening exercise) ( p = 0.027). Almost all (98%) HCAs were satisfied with the program. These quantitative results were corroborated by qualitative data from open-ended survey questions and focus groups. HCAs described how they exercised with clients and how the psychosocial work environment changed with the program. Building physical activity into HCAs' job is feasible and can effectively promote HCAs' health, especially among older HCAs.

  9. US and Dutch nurse experiences with fall prevention technology within nursing home environment and workflow: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenberg, Ann E.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Overdevest, Vera G.P.; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Johnson II, Theodore M.

    2017-01-01

    Falls remain a major geriatric problem, and the search for new solutions continues. We investigated how existing fall prevention technology was experienced within nursing home nurses' environment and workflow. Our NIH-funded study in an American nursing home was followed by a cultural learning

  10. Family Home Childcare Providers: A Comparison of Subsidized and Non-Subsidized Working Environments and Employee Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriner, Michael; Schlee, Bethanne M.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Cornille, Thomas A.; Mullis, Ann K.

    2008-01-01

    Federal and State Governments provide childcare subsidies for low-income working families. This study compares the encountered issues and working environments of family home providers of subsidized and non-subsidized childcare. Questionnaires were distributed throughout a southeastern state in the United States to 548 family home childcare…

  11. US and Dutch nurse experiences with fall prevention technology within nursing home environment and workflow : a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenberg, Ann E.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Overdevest, Vera G.P.; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Johnson II, Theodore M.

    2017-01-01

    Falls remain a major geriatric problem, and the search for new solutions continues. We investigated how existing fall prevention technology was experienced within nursing home nurses' environment and workflow. Our NIH-funded study in an American nursing home was followed by a cultural learning

  12. Differences between early and late involvement of palliative home care in oncology care: A focus group study with palliative home care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhollander, Naomi; Deliens, Luc; Van Belle, Simon; De Vleminck, Aline; Pardon, Koen

    2018-05-01

    To date, no randomised controlled trials on the integration of specialised palliative home care into oncology care have been identified. Information on whether existing models of integrated care are applicable to the home care system and how working procedures and skills of the palliative care teams might require adaptation is missing. To gain insight into differences between early and late involvement and the effect on existing working procedures and skills as perceived by palliative home care teams. Qualitative study - focus group interviews. Six palliative home care teams in Flanders, Belgium. Participants included physicians, nurses and psychologists. Differences were found concerning (1) reasons for initiation, (2) planning of care process, (3) focus on future goals versus problems, (4) opportunity to provide holistic care, (5) empowerment of patients and (6) empowerment of professional caregivers. A shift from a medical approach to a more holistic approach is the most noticeable. Being involved earlier also results in a more structured follow-up and in empowering the patient to be part of the decision-making process. Early involvement creates the need for transmural collaboration, which leads to the teams taking on more supporting and coordinating tasks. Being involved earlier leads to different tasks and working procedures and to the need for transmural collaboration. Future research might focus on the development of an intervention model for the early integration of palliative home care into oncology care. To develop this model, components of existing models might need to be adapted or extended.

  13. An Efficient Recommendation Filter Model on Smart Home Big Data Analytics for Enhanced Living Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Xie, Xiaoyun; Shu, Wanneng; Xiong, Naixue

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid growth of wireless sensor applications, the user interfaces and configurations of smart homes have become so complicated and inflexible that users usually have to spend a great amount of time studying them and adapting to their expected operation. In order to improve user experience, a weighted hybrid recommender system based on a Kalman Filter model is proposed to predict what users might want to do next, especially when users are located in a smart home with an enhanced living environment. Specifically, a weight hybridization method was introduced, which combines contextual collaborative filter and the contextual content-based recommendations. This method inherits the advantages of the optimum regression and the stability features of the proposed adaptive Kalman Filter model, and it can predict and revise the weight of each system component dynamically. Experimental results show that the hybrid recommender system can optimize the distribution of weights of each component, and achieve more reasonable recall and precision rates. PMID:27754456

  14. Integrity mechanism for eHealth tele-monitoring system in smart home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantas, Georgios; Lymberopoulos, Dimitrios; Komninos, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    During the past few years, a lot of effort has been invested in research and development of eHealth tele-monitoring systems that will provide many benefits for healthcare delivery from the healthcare provider to the patient's home. However, there is a plethora of security requirements in eHealth tele-monitoring systems. Data integrity of the transferred medical data is one of the most important security requirements that should be satisfied in these systems, since medical information is extremely sensitive information, and even sometimes life threatening information. In this paper, we present a data integrity mechanism for eHealth tele-monitoring system that operates in a smart home environment. Agent technology is applied to achieve data integrity with the use of cryptographic smart cards. Furthermore, the overall security infrastructure and its various components are described.

  15. Indoor environment and installations in nursing home; Binnenmilieu en installaties in het verpleeghuis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoof, J.; Kort, H.S.M.; Duijnstee, M.S.H. [Kenniscentrum Innovatie van Zorgverlening, Faculteit Gezondheidszorg, Hogeschool Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Hensen, J.L.M.; Rutten, P.G.S. [Unit Building Physics and Systems, Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    The majority of nursing home residents are older adults with dementia. People with dementia may have an altered sensitivity for indoor environmental conditions, which can induce problematic behaviour with burdensome symptoms. This paper provides an overview of the ageing of senses and needs of older adults with dementia in relation to the indoor environment. Results can help designers and building services engineers to create optima[ environmental conditions in nursing homes. [Dutch] De verpleeghuizen in Nederland bieden zorg en verblijf aan ouderen met een intensieve zorgvraag. Het grote aantal installaties dat in deze woonvorm aanwezig is dient zo te worden ontworpen en geinstalleerd dat deze optimaal comfort bieden aan bewoners en zorgprofessionals. Ouderen met dementie vormen de grootste groep bewoners en hebben zeer specifieke behoeften voor het binnenmilieu. Door hiervan uit te gaan bij ontwerp en installatie, ontstaat een verpleeghuis dat ten dienste staat van alle bewoners en overige gebouwgebruikers.

  16. An Efficient Recommendation Filter Model on Smart Home Big Data Analytics for Enhanced Living Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of wireless sensor applications, the user interfaces and configurations of smart homes have become so complicated and inflexible that users usually have to spend a great amount of time studying them and adapting to their expected operation. In order to improve user experience, a weighted hybrid recommender system based on a Kalman Filter model is proposed to predict what users might want to do next, especially when users are located in a smart home with an enhanced living environment. Specifically, a weight hybridization method was introduced, which combines contextual collaborative filter and the contextual content-based recommendations. This method inherits the advantages of the optimum regression and the stability features of the proposed adaptive Kalman Filter model, and it can predict and revise the weight of each system component dynamically. Experimental results show that the hybrid recommender system can optimize the distribution of weights of each component, and achieve more reasonable recall and precision rates.

  17. An Efficient Recommendation Filter Model on Smart Home Big Data Analytics for Enhanced Living Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Xie, Xiaoyun; Shu, Wanneng; Xiong, Naixue

    2016-10-15

    With the rapid growth of wireless sensor applications, the user interfaces and configurations of smart homes have become so complicated and inflexible that users usually have to spend a great amount of time studying them and adapting to their expected operation. In order to improve user experience, a weighted hybrid recommender system based on a Kalman Filter model is proposed to predict what users might want to do next, especially when users are located in a smart home with an enhanced living environment. Specifically, a weight hybridization method was introduced, which combines contextual collaborative filter and the contextual content-based recommendations. This method inherits the advantages of the optimum regression and the stability features of the proposed adaptive Kalman Filter model, and it can predict and revise the weight of each system component dynamically. Experimental results show that the hybrid recommender system can optimize the distribution of weights of each component, and achieve more reasonable recall and precision rates.

  18. [Influence of social environment on caries prevalence in early childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusek, Ivan; Carević, Momir; Tusek, Jasmina

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is a special form of caries that affects decideous teeth with rapid progression and numerous complications. The aim of the study was to define the prevalence of ECC in children of the South Backa area, the importance of social environment for the prevalence and severity of ECC, and define the model for its prevention. The survey was the cross-sectional analytical study in the 10% sample of children, aged 13-64 months, different sex, social status and human environment. Severity and prevalence of ECC were assessed by dental check-ups. The epidemiological data were obtained by the interview of parents. The tests of significant statistical differences were performed by the analysis variance and chi2 (p family (46.9%) and in part-time employed mothers (47.2%) who had only elementary education (59.3%) and were poorly informed about oral health. The highest prevalence (47.1%) of ECC was found in children whose parents had the lowest income per month. Type 1 of ECC was the most presented one (75.0%). The higher prevalence and more severe ECC were found in the third and the next born male child from rural environment.

  19. Multisensory environments for leisure: promoting well-being in nursing home residents with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Helen; Burns, Ian; Savage, Sally

    2004-02-01

    Multisensory environments such as Snoezelen rooms are becoming increasingly popular in health care facilities for older individuals. There is limited reliable evidence of the benefits of such innovations, and the effect they have on residents, caregivers, and visitors in these facilities. This two-stage project examined how effective two types of multisensory environments were in improving the well-being of older individuals with dementia. The two multisensory environments were a Snoezelen room and a landscaped garden. These environments were compared to the experience of the normal living environment. The observed response of 24 residents with dementia in a nursing home was measured during time spent in the Snoezelen room, in the garden, and in the living room. In the second part of the project, face-to-face interviews were conducted with six caregivers and six visitors to obtain their responses to the multisensory environments. These interviews identified the components of the environments most used and enjoyed by residents and the ways in which they could be improved to maximize well-being.

  20. Ethnic/racial disparities in adolescents' home food environments and linkages to dietary intake and weight status

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Nicole; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Berge, Jerica M.; Arcan, Chrisa; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Research is needed to confirm that public health recommendations for home/family food environments are equally relevant for diverse populations. This study examined ethnic/racial differences in the home/family environments of adolescents and associations with dietary intake and weight status. The sample included 2,382 ethnically/racially diverse adolescents and their parents enrolled in coordinated studies, EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) and Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Act...

  1. Are parental concerns for child TV viewing associated with child TV viewing and the home sedentary environment?

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Natalie; Salmon, Jo; Crawford, David; Campbell, Karen; Timperio, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Time spent watching television affects multiple aspects of child and adolescent health. Although a diverse range of factors have been found to be associated with young people's television viewing, parents and the home environment are particularly influential. However, little is known about whether parents, particularly those who are concerned about their child's television viewing habits, translate their concern into action by providing supportive home environments (e.g. r...

  2. ENRICHING THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF STIMULATION AND SUPPORT AVAILBLE TO A CHILD IN THE HOME ENVIROMENT THROUGHT THE USE OF STANDARDIZED TOOLS IN EARLY INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu TOMA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the use of Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME in early inter­ven­tion in a research project inRepublicofMoldova. The goal of the article is to describe the structure of the instrument, show how it has been used successfully in a study on children with development delay or at risk in order to measure the effectiveness of the intervention in early intervention practices. These are followed by studies showing how the HOME has been used to evaluate interventions. Although most interventions are not designed primarily on the basis of the HOME outcomes, the instrument has been used as a measure of the effectiveness of the intervention schedule. HOME has been used extensively in research to reveal relationships between several aspects of the home environment and children’s developmental outcomes.ÎMBUNĂTĂŢIREA CALITĂŢII ŞI CANTITĂŢII  ÎN SUPORTUL DE STIMULARE, DISPONIBIL COPILULUI ÎN MEDIUL „HOME” PRIN TEHNOLOGIILE TIPIZATE ÎN INTERVENŢII PRECOCEÎn articol este descrisă utilizarea Testului (HOME în intervenţie timpurie într-un proiect de cercetare din Republica Moldova. Scopul urmărit în acest demers ştiinţific este de a descrie structura instrumentului, de a prezenta modul în care acesta a fost utilizat cu succes într-un studiu privind copiii cu întârziere de dezvoltare sau risc, de a măsura eficienţa practicilor de intervenţie timpurie. Deşi cele mai multe intervenţii nu sunt efectuate în principal pe baza rezultatelor HOME, instrumentul a fost folosit cu scopul de a evalua eficienţa programului de intervenţie.  HOME a fost utilizat pe scară largă în cercetare pentru a descoperi relaţiile dintre mai multe aspecte ale mediului de origine şi rezultatele privind dezvoltarea copiilor.

  3. Personalized gesture interactions for cyber-physical smart-home environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yihua LOU; Wenjun WU; Radu-Daniel VATAVU; Wei-Tek TSAI

    2017-01-01

    A gesture-based interaction system for smart homes is a part of a complex cyber-physical environment,for which researchers and developers need to address major challenges in providing personalized gesture interactions.However,current research efforts have not tackled the problem of personalized gesture recognition that often involves user identification.To address this problem,we propose in this work a new event-driven service-oriented framework called gesture services for cyber-physical environments (GS-CPE) that extends the architecture of our previous work gesture profile for web services (GPWS).To provide user identification functionality,GS-CPE introduces a two-phase cascading gesture password recognition algorithm for gesture-based user identification using a two-phase cascading classifier with the hidden Markov model and the Golden Section Search,which achieves an accuracy rate of 96.2% with a small training dataset.To support personalized gesture interaction,an enhanced version of the Dynamic Time Warping algorithm with multiple gestural input sources and dynamic template adaptation support is implemented.Our experimental results demonstrate the performance of the algorithm can achieve an average accuracy rate of 98.5% in practical scenarios.Comparison results reveal that GS-CPE has faster response time and higher accuracy rate than other gesture interaction systems designed for smart-home environments.

  4. Educational and home-environment asthma interventions for children in urban, low-income, minority families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Kristen; Nabors, Laura; Lang, Myia; Bernstein, Jonathan

    2018-02-08

    This review examined the impact of environmental change and educational interventions targeting young children from minority groups living in urban environments and who were from low-income families. A scoping methodology was used to find research across six databases, including CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. 299 studies were identified. Duplicates were removed leaving 159 studies. After reviewing for inclusion and exclusion criteria, 23 manuscripts were identified for this study: 11 featured home-environment change interventions and 12 emphasized education of children. Studies were reviewed to determine key interventions and outcomes for children. Both environmental interventions and educational programs had positive outcomes. Interventions did not always impact health outcomes, such as emergency department visits. Results indicated many of the environmental change and education interventions improved asthma management and some symptoms. A multipronged approach may be a good method for targeting both education and change in the home and school environment to promote the well-being of young children in urban areas. New research with careful documentation of information about study participants, dose of intervention (i.e., number and duration of sessions, booster sessions) and specific intervention components also will provide guidance for future research.

  5. A systematic review--physical activity in dementia: the influence of the nursing home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderiesen, Hester; Scherder, Erik J A; Goossens, Richard H M; Sonneveld, Marieke H

    2014-11-01

    Most older persons with dementia living in nursing homes spend their days without engaging in much physical activity. This study therefore looked at the influence that the environment has on their level of physical activity, by reviewing empirical studies that measured the effects of environmental stimuli on the physical activity of nursing home residents suffering from dementia. The electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were used for the search. The search covered studies published between January 1993 and December 2012, and revealed 3187 abstracts. 326 studies were selected as potentially relevant; of these, 24 met all the inclusion criteria. Positive results on the residents' levels of physical activity were found for music, a homelike environment and functional modifications. Predominantly positive results were also found for the small-scale group living concepts. Mixed results were found for bright or timed light, the multisensory environment and differences in the building footprint. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy-efficient privacy protection for smart home environments using behavioral semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Homin; Basaran, Can; Park, Taejoon; Son, Sang Hyuk

    2014-09-02

    Research on smart environments saturated with ubiquitous computing devices is rapidly advancing while raising serious privacy issues. According to recent studies, privacy concerns significantly hinder widespread adoption of smart home technologies. Previous work has shown that it is possible to infer the activities of daily living within environments equipped with wireless sensors by monitoring radio fingerprints and traffic patterns. Since data encryption cannot prevent privacy invasions exploiting transmission pattern analysis and statistical inference, various methods based on fake data generation for concealing traffic patterns have been studied. In this paper, we describe an energy-efficient, light-weight, low-latency algorithm for creating dummy activities that are semantically similar to the observed phenomena. By using these cloaking activities, the amount of  fake data transmissions can be flexibly controlled to support a trade-off between energy efficiency and privacy protection. According to the experiments using real data collected from a smart home environment, our proposed method can extend the lifetime of the network by more than 2× compared to the previous methods in the literature. Furthermore, the activity cloaking method supports low latency transmission of real data while also significantly reducing the accuracy of the wireless snooping attacks.

  7. Energy-Efficient Privacy Protection for Smart Home Environments Using Behavioral Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homin Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on smart environments saturated with ubiquitous computing devices is rapidly advancing while raising serious privacy issues. According to recent studies, privacy concerns significantly hinder widespread adoption of smart home technologies. Previous work has shown that it is possible to infer the activities of daily living within environments equipped with wireless sensors by monitoring radio fingerprints and traffic patterns. Since data encryption cannot prevent privacy invasions exploiting transmission pattern analysis and statistical inference, various methods based on fake data generation for concealing traffic patterns have been studied. In this paper, we describe an energy-efficient, light-weight, low-latency algorithm for creating dummy activities that are semantically similar to the observed phenomena. By using these cloaking activities, the amount of  fake data transmissions can be flexibly controlled to support a trade-off between energy efficiency and privacy protection. According to the experiments using real data collected from a smart home environment, our proposed method can extend the lifetime of the network by more than 2× compared to the previous methods in the literature. Furthermore, the activity cloaking method supports low latency transmission of real data while also significantly reducing the accuracy of the wireless snooping attacks.

  8. Influence of the day care, home and neighbourhood environment on young children's physical activity and health: protocol for the PLAYCE observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Hayley; Maitland, Clover; Enkel, Stephanie; Trapp, Georgina; Trost, Stewart G; Schipperijn, Jasper; Boruff, Bryan; Lester, Leanne; Rosenberg, Michael; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2016-12-08

    The early years are a critical period in a child's health and development, yet most preschool children fail to meet physical activity guidelines. Outside of the home and neighbourhood, children spend a large proportion of time within early childhood education and care (ECEC) services such as long day care. Research is required to determine how the design of day care outdoor (and indoor) spaces provides opportunities or constraints for physical activity. A significant evidence gap surrounds what objectively measured attributes of the home and neighbourhood environment influence preschoolers' physical activity. The PLAY Spaces & Environments for Children's Physical Activity (PLAYCE) study will empirically investigate the relative and cumulative influence of the day care, home and neighbourhood environment on preschoolers' physical activity. The PLAYCE study is a cross-sectional observational study (April 2015 to April 2018) of 2400 children aged 2-5 years attending long day care in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. Accelerometers will measure physical activity with indoor physical activity measured using radio frequency identification. Global positioning systems will be used to determine outdoor location of physical activity around the home and neighbourhood for a subsample (n=310). The day care environment will be objectively measured using a validated audit tool. Other potential individual, social and physical environmental influences on preschoolers' physical activity will be collected by geographic information systems measures, parent and day care educator surveys. Ethical approval has been granted by The University of Western Australia Human Ethics Research Committee, approval number RA/4/1/7417. Findings will be published in international peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences. Key findings will be disseminated to stakeholders, collaborators, policymakers and practitioners working in the ECEC sector. Day care centre directors

  9. Sporothrix schenckii in a hospital and home environment in the city of Pelotas/RS - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella S. Mattei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the isolation of S. schenckii in hospital and home environments in Brazil. Samples were collected from surfaces of a veterinary service place and at home. S. schenckii was detected in 1.5% of the samples from the hospital environment. However, this fungus was isolated from all sampled areas in home environments. The isolation of S. schenckii deonstrates that these surfaces could act as infection sources to anials and huans. Therefore, employees and pet owners could be exposed to this agent, and the contamination, through surfaces, could occur through the traumatic inoculation of the fungus or by direct contact with pre-existing lesions.Esse estudo descreve o isolamento de S. schenckii em ambiente hospitalar e domiciliar, no Brasil. Foram colhidas amostras de superfície de local de atendimento veterinário e ambiente domiciliar. S. schenckii foi isolado em 1,5% das amostras do ambiente hospitalar. Entretanto, esse fungo foi isolado em todas as amostras do ambiente domiciliar. O isolamento do S. schenckii demonstra a importância dessas superfícies atuarem como fontes de infecção para animais e humanos. Portanto, funcionários e proprietários de animais de estimação estariam expostos a esse agente e a contaminação, através das superfícies, poderia ocorrer pela inoculação traumática do fungo ou pelo contato direto com lesões pré-existentes.

  10. The home physical environment and its relationship with physical activity and sedentary behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-10-01

    Reviews of neighborhood (macro) environment characteristics such as the presence of sidewalks and esthetics have shown significant correlations with resident physical activity (PA) and sedentary (SD) behavior. Currently, no comprehensive review has appraised and collected available evidence on the home (micro) physical environment. The purpose of this review was to examine how the home physical environment relates to adult and child PA and SD behaviors. Articles were searched during May 2014 using Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases which yielded 3265 potential studies. Papers were considered eligible if they investigated the presence of PA (ie. exercise equipment, exergaming devices) or SD (ie. television, videogames) equipment and PA or SD behavior. After, screening and manual cross-referencing, 49 studies (20 experimental and 29 observational designs) were found to meet the eligibility criteria. Interventions that reduced sedentary time by using TV limiting devices were shown to be effective for children but the results were limited for adults. Overall, large exercise equipment (ie. treadmills), and prominent exergaming materials (exergaming bike, dance mats) were found to be more effective than smaller devices. Observational studies revealed that location and quantity of televisions correlated with SD behavior with the latter having a greater effect on girls. This was similarly found for the quantity of PA equipment which also correlated with behavior in females. Given the large market for exercise equipment, videos and exergaming, the limited work performed on its effectiveness in homes is alarming. Future research should focus on developing stronger randomized controlled trials, investigate the location of PA equipment, and examine mediators of the gender discrepancy found in contemporary studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploring How the Home Environment Influences Eating and Physical Activity Habits of Low-Income, Latino Children of Predominantly Immigrant Families: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Wallington, Sherrie F; Lees, Faith D; Greaney, Mary L

    2018-05-14

    Latinos are the largest and fastest growing minority population group in the United States, and children in low-income Latino families are at elevated risk of becoming overweight or having obesity. A child’s home is an important social environment in which he/she develops and maintains dietary and physical activity (PA) habits that ultimately impact weight status. Previous research suggests the parents are central to creating a home environment that facilitates or hinders the development of children’s early healthy eating and PA habits. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore low-income Latino parents’ beliefs, parenting styles, and parenting practices related to their children’s eating and PA behaviors while at home. Qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs) with 33 low-income Latino parents of preschool children 2 to 5 years of age. FGDs were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Data analyses revealed that most parents recognize the importance of healthy eating and PA for their children and themselves. However, daily life demands including conflicting schedules, long working hours, financial constraints, and neighborhood safety concerns, etc., impact parents’ ability to create a home environment supportive of these behaviors. This study provides information about how the home environment may influence low-income Latino preschool children’s eating and PA habits, which may be useful for health promotion and disease prevention efforts targeting low-income Latino families with young children, and for developing home-based and parenting interventions to prevent and control childhood obesity among this population group. Pediatric healthcare providers can play an important role in facilitating communication, providing education, and offering guidance to low-income Latino parents that support their children’s development of early healthy eating and PA habits, while taking into account daily life barriers faced

  12. Multilevel and Hybrid Architecture for Device Abstraction and Context Information Management in Smart Home Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Víctor; González, Roberto; San Martín, Luis Ángel; Campos, Antonio; Lobato, Vanesa

    Hardware device management, and context information acquisition and abstraction are key factors to develop the ambient intelligent paradigm in smart homes. This work presents an architecture that addresses these two problems and provides a usable framework to develop applications easily. In contrast to other proposals, this work addresses performance issues specifically. Results show that the execution performance of the developed prototype is suitable for deployment in a real environment. In addition, the modular design of the system allows the user to develop applications using different techniques and different levels of abstraction.

  13. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE PATTERNS AND THE EARLY ENVIRONMENT OF DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlies, Lauren; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Bryan, Greg; Tumlinson, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that abundance pattern differences exist between low metallicity stars in the Milky Way stellar halo and those in the dwarf satellite galaxies. This paper takes a first look at what role the early environment for pre-galactic star formation might have played in shaping these stellar populations. In particular, we consider whether differences in cross-pollution between the progenitors of the stellar halo and the satellites could help to explain the differences in abundance patterns. Using an N-body simulation, we find that the progenitor halos of the main halo are primarily clustered together at z = 10 while the progenitors of the satellite galaxies remain on the outskirts of this cluster. Next, analytically modeled supernova-driven winds show that main halo progenitors cross-pollute each other more effectively while satellite galaxy progenitors remain more isolated. Thus, inhomogeneous cross-pollution as a result of different high-z spatial locations of each system's progenitors can help to explain observed differences in abundance patterns today. Conversely, these differences are a signature of the inhomogeneity of metal enrichment at early times

  14. Neighborhood and home food environment and children's diet and obesity: Evidence from military personnel's installation assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shier, Victoria; Nicosia, Nancy; Datar, Ashlesha

    2016-06-01

    Research and policy initiatives are increasingly focused on the role of neighborhood food environment in children's diet and obesity. However, existing evidence relies on observational data that is limited by neighborhood selection bias. The Military Teenagers' Environments, Exercise, and Nutrition Study (M-TEENS) leverages the quasi-random variation in neighborhood environment generated by military personnel's assignment to installations to examine whether neighborhood food environments are associated with children's dietary behaviors and BMI. Our results suggest that neither the actual nor the perceived availability of particular food outlets in the neighborhood is associated with children's diet or BMI. The availability of supermarkets and convenience stores in the neighborhood was not associated with where families shop for food or children's dietary behaviors. Further, the type of store that families shop at was not associated with the healthiness of food available at home. Similarly, availability of fast food and restaurants was unrelated to children's dietary behaviors or how often children eat fast food or restaurant meals. However, the healthiness of food available at home was associated with healthy dietary behaviors while eating at fast food outlets and restaurants were associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors in children. Further, parental supervision, including limits on snack foods and meals eaten as a family, was associated with dietary behaviors. These findings suggest that focusing only on the neighborhood food environment may ignore important factors that influence children's outcomes. Future research should also consider how families make decisions about what foods to purchase, where to shop for foods and eating out, how closely to monitor their children's food intake, and, ultimately how these decisions collectively impact children's outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Home grocery delivery improves the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants: results of an 8-week pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Amy A; Raynor, Hollie A; Niemeier, Heather M; Wing, Rena R

    2007-11-14

    Household food availability is consistently linked to dietary intake; yet behavioral weight control treatment includes only minimal instruction on how to change the home environment to support dietary goals. This pilot study examined whether it is feasible to change the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants through the use of a commercially available grocery home delivery service. Overweight participants (N = 28; BMI = 31.7 +/- 3.6 kg/m2; 89.3% women, 47.9 +/- 9.5 years) were randomly assigned to 8-weeks of standard behavioral weight loss (SBT) or to SBT plus home food delivery (SBT+Home). SBT+Home participants were instructed to do their household grocery shopping via an online service affiliated with a regional supermarket chain and were reimbursed for delivery charges. Compared to SBT, SBT+Home produced significantly greater reductions in the total number of foods in the home (p = .01) and number of foods that were high in fat (p = .002). While the groups did not differ in 8-week weight losses, within SBT+Home there was a trend for the number of home deliveries to be associated with weight loss (p = .08). Participants reported that the home delivery service was easy to use and that it helped decrease impulse purchases and lead to healthier choices; however, few planned to continue using the service after the study. Encouraging weight loss participants to use a commercially available online grocery ordering and home delivery service reduces the overall number of food items in the home and decreases access to high-fat food choices. More research is needed to determine whether this is a viable strategy to strengthen stimulus control and improve weight loss outcomes.

  16. Home grocery delivery improves the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants: Results of an 8-week pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemeier Heather M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Household food availability is consistently linked to dietary intake; yet behavioral weight control treatment includes only minimal instruction on how to change the home environment to support dietary goals. This pilot study examined whether it is feasible to change the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants through the use of a commercially available grocery home delivery service. Methods Overweight participants (N = 28; BMI = 31.7 ± 3.6 kg/m2; 89.3% women, 47.9 ± 9.5 years were randomly assigned to 8-weeks of standard behavioral weight loss (SBT or to SBT plus home food delivery (SBT+Home. SBT+Home participants were instructed to do their household grocery shopping via an online service affiliated with a regional supermarket chain and were reimbursed for delivery charges. Results Compared to SBT, SBT+Home produced significantly greater reductions in the total number of foods in the home (p = .01 and number of foods that were high in fat (p = .002. While the groups did not differ in 8-week weight losses, within SBT+Home there was a trend for the number of home deliveries to be associated with weight loss (p = .08. Participants reported that the home delivery service was easy to use and that it helped decrease impulse purchases and lead to healthier choices; however, few planned to continue using the service after the study. Conclusion Encouraging weight loss participants to use a commercially available online grocery ordering and home delivery service reduces the overall number of food items in the home and decreases access to high-fat food choices. More research is needed to determine whether this is a viable strategy to strengthen stimulus control and improve weight loss outcomes.

  17. The Home Literacy Environment and the English Narrative Development of Spanish–English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Carol Scheffner

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the home literacy environment (HLE) on the English narrative development of Spanish–English bilingual children from low-income backgrounds. Method Longitudinal data were collected on 81 bilingual children from preschool through 1st grade. English narrative skills were assessed in the fall and spring of each year. Microstructure measures included mean length of utterance in morphemes and number of different words. The Narrative Scoring Scheme (Heilmann, Miller, Nockerts, & Dunaway, 2010) measured macrostructure. Each fall, the children's mothers reported the frequency of literacy activities and number of children's books in the home. Growth curve modeling was used to describe the children's narrative development and the impact of the HLE over time. Results Significant growth occurred for all narrative measures. The HLE did not affect microstructure growth. The frequency with which mothers read to their children had a positive impact on the growth of the children's total Narrative Scoring Scheme scores. Other aspects of the HLE, such as the frequency with which the mothers told stories, did not affect macrostructure development. Conclusions These results provide information about the development of English narrative abilities and demonstrate the importance of frequent book reading for the overall narrative quality of children from Spanish-speaking homes who are learning English. PMID:27701625

  18. Relationships between Vacant Homes and Food Swamps: A Longitudinal Study of an Urban Food Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mui, Yeeli; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Thornton, Rachel L J; Pollack Porter, Keshia; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2017-11-21

    Research indicates that living in neighborhoods with high concentrations of boarded-up vacant homes is associated with premature mortality due to cancer and diabetes, but the mechanism for this relationship is unclear. Boarded-up housing may indirectly impact residents' health by affecting their food environment. We evaluated the association between changes in vacancy rates and changes in the density of unhealthy food outlets as a proportion of all food outlets, termed the food swamp index, in Baltimore, MD (USA) from 2001 to 2012, using neighborhood fixed-effects linear regression models. Over the study period, the average food swamp index increased from 93.5 to 95.3 percentage points across all neighborhoods. Among non-African American neighborhoods, increases in the vacancy rate were associated with statistically significant decreases in the food swamp index (b = -0.38; 90% CI, -0.64 to -0.12; p -value: 0.015), after accounting for changes in neighborhood SES, racial diversity, and population size. A positive association was found among low-SES neighborhoods (b = 0.15; 90% CI, 0.037 to 0.27; p -value: 0.031). Vacant homes may influence the composition of food outlets in urban neighborhoods. Future research should further elucidate the mechanisms by which more distal, contextual factors, such as boarded-up vacant homes, may affect food choices and diet-related health outcomes.

  19. Multilingual home environment and specific language impairment: a case-control study in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuk, Daniel Ka Leung; Wong, Virginia; Leung, Gabriel Matthew

    2005-07-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is a common developmental disorder in young children. To investigate the association between multilingual home environment and SLI, we conducted a case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese children over a 4-year period in the Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital. Consecutive medical records of all new referrals below 5 years of age were reviewed and children diagnosed with SLI (case) were compared with those referred with other developmental and behavioural problems who had been assessed as having normal language and overall development (control) using the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale. SLI was defined as those with a language quotient more than one standard deviation below the mean and below the general developmental quotient in children with normal general developmental quotient, but without neurological or other organic diseases. We used binary and ordinal logistic regression to assess any association between SLI and multilingual exposure at home, adjusting for age and gender of subjects, parental age, education level and occupational status, number of siblings, family history of language delay and main caregiver at home. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the effect of covariates on the language comprehension and expression standard scores assessed by the Reynell Developmental Language Scale. A total of 326 cases and 304 controls were included. The mean ages of cases and controls were 2.56 and 2.89 years respectively. Boys predominated in both groups (cases, 75.2%; controls, 60.2%). The children were exposed to between one and four languages at home, the major ones being Cantonese Chinese followed by English. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of SLI was 2.94; [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.82, 4.74] for multilingual compared with monolingual exposure. A significant linear dose-response relationship was found (OR of SLI = 2.58 [1.72, 3.88] for each additional language to which the child was exposed). Male

  20. Relationships between the home environment and physical activity and dietary patterns of preschool children: a cross-sectional study

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    Curnow Fiona

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess relationships between characteristics of the home environment and preschool children's physical activity and dietary patterns. Methods Homes of 280 preschool children were visited and information obtained by direct observation and parent interview regarding physical and nutritional characteristics of the home environment. Children's physical activity, sedentary behaviour and dietary patterns were measured using standardised parent-report questionnaires. Associations were analysed using analysis of variance and correlation. Results Parental physical activity (p = 0.03–0.008, size of backyard (p = 0.001 and amount of outdoor play equipment (p = 0.003 were associated with more outdoor play. Fewer rules about television viewing (p Conclusion Physical attributes of the home environment and parental behaviours are associated with preschool children's physical activity, sedentary behaviour and dietary patterns. Many of these variables are modifiable and could be targeted in childhood obesity prevention and management.

  1. Influence of social environment on caries prevalence in early childhood

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    Tušek Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Early childhood caries (ECC is a special form of caries that affects decideous teeth with rapid progression and numerous complications. Objective. The aim of the study was to define the prevalence of ECC in children of the South Bačka area, the importance of social environment for the prevalence and severity of ECC, and define the model for its prevention. Methods. The survey was the cross-sectional analytical study in the 10% sample of children, aged 13-64 months, different sex, social status and human environment. Severity and prevalence of ECC were assessed by dental check-ups. The epidemiological data were obtained by the interview of parents. The tests of significant statistical differences were performed by the analysis variance and χ2 (p<0.05 test, as well as interdependence of ECC and single characteristics that could be a predictor of the disease by the logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of ECC was 30.5%. The highest disease frequency was found in children of male sex (35.1%, out of kindergardens (54.2%, in the third and the next born child in the family (46.9% and in part-time employed mothers (47.2% who had only elementary education (59.3% and were poorly informed about oral health. The highest prevalence (47.1% of ECC was found in children whose parents had the lowest income per month. Type 1 of ECC was the most presented one (75.0%. Conclusion. The higher prevalence and more severe ECC were found in the third and the next born male child from rural environment.

  2. Understanding the Independent and Joint Associations of the Home and Workplace Built Environments on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehner, Christine M.; Allen, Peg; Barlow, Carolyn E.; Marx, Christine M.; Brownson, Ross C.; Schootman, Mario

    2013-01-01

    This observational study examined the associations of built environment features around the home and workplace with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) based on a treadmill test and body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)2). The study included 8,857 adults aged 20–88 years who completed a preventive medical examination in 2000–2007 while living in 12 Texas counties. Analyses examining workplace neighborhood characteristics included a subset of 4,734 participants. Built environment variables were derived around addresses by using geographic information systems. Models were adjusted for individual-level and census block group–level demographics and socioeconomic status, smoking, BMI (in CRF models), and all other home or workplace built environment variables. CRF was associated with higher intersection density, higher number of private exercise facilities around the home and workplace, larger area of vegetation around the home, and shorter distance to the closest city center. Aside from vegetation, these same built environment features around the home were also associated with BMI. Participants who lived and worked in neighborhoods in the lowest tertiles for intersection density and the number of private exercise facilities had lower CRF and higher BMI values than participants who lived and worked in higher tertiles for these variables. This study contributes new evidence to suggest that built environment features around homes and workplaces may affect health. PMID:23942215

  3. Associations between home environment and after-school physical activity and sedentary time among 6th grade children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Erica Y; Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Dowda, Marsha; Forthofer, Melinda; Saunders, Ruth P; Pate, Russell R

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations of various elements of the home environment with after-school physical activity and sedentary time in 671 sixth-grade children (Mage = 11.49 ± 0.5 years). Children’s after-school total physical activity (TPA), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time were measured by accelerometry. Parents completed surveys assessing elements of the home social and physical environment. Mixed-model regression analyses were used to examine the associations between each element of the home environment and children’s after-school physical activity and sedentary time. Availability of home physical activity resources was associated positively with after-school TPA and negatively with after-school sedentary time in boys. Parental support was associated positively with after-school TPA and MVPA and negatively with after-school sedentary time in girls. The home physical environment was associated with boys’ after-school physical activity and sedentary time, whereas the home social environment was associated with girls’ after-school physical activity and sedentary time. PMID:25386734

  4. IoT Privacy and Security Challenges for Smart Home Environments

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    Huichen Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Often the Internet of Things (IoT is considered as a single problem domain, with proposed solutions intended to be applied across a wide range of applications. However, the privacy and security needs of critical engineering infrastructure or sensitive commercial operations are very different to the needs of a domestic Smart Home environment. Additionally, the financial and human resources available to implement security and privacy vary greatly between application domains. In domestic environments, human issues may be as important as technical issues. After surveying existing solutions for enhancing IoT security, the paper identifies key future requirements for trusted Smart Home systems. A gateway architecture is selected as the most appropriate for resource-constrained devices, and for high system availability. Two key technologies to assist system auto-management are identified. Firstly, support for system auto-configuration will enhance system security. Secondly, the automatic update of system software and firmware is needed to maintain ongoing secure system operation.

  5. The relationship between prenatal care, personal alcohol abuse and alcohol abuse in the home environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    GREKIN, EMILY R.; ONDERSMA, STEVEN J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been inconsistent, perhaps because (a) alcohol use during pregnancy is substantially under-reported and (b) studies have not considered the wider social network in which maternal alcohol use takes place. The current study attempts to clarify relationships between personal alcohol use, alcohol use in the home environment, and prenatal care in a sample of post-partum women. Methods Participants were 107 low-income, primarily African-American women. All participants completed a computer-based screening which assessed personal and environmental alcohol use, prenatal care and mental health. Findings Environmental alcohol use was related to delayed prenatal care while personal alcohol use was not. More specifically, after controlling for demographic variables, the presence of more than three person-episodes of binge drinking in a woman’s home environment increased the odds of seriously compromized prenatal care by a factor of seven. Conclusions Findings suggest the need to further assess environmental alcohol use and to examine the reliability of personal alcohol use measures. PMID:24391354

  6. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the school and home language environments of preschool-aged children with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Sloane; Audet, Lisa; Harjusola-Webb, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to begin to characterize and compare the school and home language environments of 10 preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Naturalistic language samples were collected from each child, utilizing Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) digital voice recorder technology, at 3-month intervals over the course of one year. LENA software was used to identify 15-min segments of each sample that represented the highest number of adult words used during interactions with each child for all school and home language samples. Selected segments were transcribed and analyzed using Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT). LENA data was utilized to evaluate quantitative characteristics of the school and home language environments and SALT data was utilized to evaluate quantitative and qualitative characteristics of language environment. Results revealed many similarities in home and school language environments including the degree of semantic richness, and complexity of adult language, types of utterances, and pragmatic functions of utterances used by adults during interactions with child participants. Study implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. The reader will be able to, (1) describe how two language sampling technologies can be utilized together to collect and analyze language samples, (2) describe characteristics of the school and home language environments of young children with ASD, and (3) identify environmental factors that may lead to more positive expressive language outcomes of young children with ASD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving Outcomes for Teenage Pregnancy and Early Parenthood for Young People in Out-of-Home Care: A Review of the Literature

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    Mendes, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Young people leaving out-of-home care are overrepresented among teenage parents. This paper examines the research literature and identifies key factors that contribute to early pregnancy and parenthood for care leavers, the challenges of early parenting and the positive effects of early parenting. The implications for out-of-home care policy and…

  8. Effects of Early Literacy Environments on the Reading Attitudes, Behaviours and Values of Veteran Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Roberta; Red Owl, R. H.

    2013-01-01

    Research has linked early literacy environments to the attitudes, behaviours and instructional values of reading teachers, but most prior research has addressed preservice or early inservice teachers. This mixed-methods, hypothesis-generating, "Q" methodology-based study explored the relationship between early literacy environments and…

  9. Evaluation of cleaning methods applied in home environments after renovation and remodeling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiin, L.-M.; Lu, S.-E.; Sannoh, Sulaiman; Lim, B.S.; Rhoads, G.G.

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a cleaning trial in 40 northern New Jersey homes where home renovation and remodeling (R and R) activities were undertaken. Two cleaning protocols were used in the study: a specific method recommended by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), in the 1995 'Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Housing', using a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtered vacuum cleaner and a tri-sodium phosphate solution (TSP); and an alternative method using a household vacuum cleaner and a household detergent. Eligible homes were built before the 1970s with potential lead-based paint and had recent R and R activities without thorough cleaning. The two cleaning protocols were randomly assigned to the participants' homes and followed the HUD-recommended three-step procedure: vacuuming, wet washing, and repeat vacuuming. Wipe sampling was conducted on floor surfaces or windowsills before and after cleaning to evaluate the efficacy. All floor and windowsill data indicated that both methods (TSP/HEPA and non-TSP/non-HEPA) were effective in reducing lead loading on the surfaces (P<0.001). When cleaning was applied to surfaces with initial lead loading above the clearance standards, the reductions were even greater, above 95% for either cleaning method. The mixed-effect model analysis showed no significant difference between the two methods. Baseline lead loading was found to be associated with lead loading reduction significantly on floors (P<0.001) and marginally on windowsills (P=0.077). Such relations were different between the two cleaning methods significantly on floors (P<0.001) and marginally on windowsills (P=0.066), with the TSP/HEPA method being favored for higher baseline levels and the non-TSP/non-HEPA method for lower baseline levels. For the 10 homes with lead abatement, almost all post-cleaning lead loadings were below the standards using either cleaning method. Based on our results, we recommend that

  10. Meeting needs for rehabilitation equipment and home adjustments among the disabled in their life environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kołłątaj

    2015-09-01

    residence and low material standard. Living in an residential home means better adjustment of the living environment, and better provision with orthopaedic and rehabilitation equipment.

  11. Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens Species Group Recovery from Human Homes Varies Seasonally and by Environment.

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    Susanna K Remold

    Full Text Available By shedding light on variation in time as well as in space, long-term biogeographic studies can help us define organisms' distribution patterns and understand their underlying drivers. Here we examine distributions of Pseudomonas in and around 15 human homes, focusing on the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups. We describe recovery from 10,941 samples collected during up to 8 visits per home, occurring on average 2.6 times per year. We collected a mean of 141 samples per visit, from sites in most rooms of the house, from the surrounding yards, and from human and pet occupants. We recovered Pseudomonas in 9.7% of samples, with the majority of isolates being from the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups (approximately 62% and 23% of Pseudomonas samples recovered respectively. Although representatives of both groups were recovered from every season, every house, and every type of environment sampled, recovery was highly variable across houses and samplings. Whereas recovery of P. putida group was higher in summer and fall than in winter and spring, P. fluorescens group isolates were most often recovered in spring. P. putida group recovery from soils was substantially higher than its recovery from all other environment types, while higher P. fluorescens group recovery from soils than from other sites was much less pronounced. Both species groups were recovered from skin and upper respiratory tract samples from healthy humans and pets, although this occurred infrequently. This study indicates that even species that are able to survive under a broad range of conditions can be rare and variable in their distributions in space and in time. For such groups, determining patterns and causes of stochastic and seasonal variability may be more important for understanding the processes driving their biogeography than the identity of the types of environments in which they can be found.

  12. Status of knowledge on student-learning environments in nursing homes: A mixed-method systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husebø, Anne Marie Lunde; Storm, Marianne; Våga, Bodil Bø; Rosenberg, Adriana; Akerjordet, Kristin

    2018-04-01

    To give an overview of empirical studies investigating nursing homes as a learning environment during nursing students' clinical practice. A supportive clinical learning environment is crucial to students' learning and for their development into reflective and capable practitioners. Nursing students' experience with clinical practice can be decisive in future workplace choices. A competent workforce is needed for the future care of older people. Opportunities for maximum learning among nursing students during clinical practice studies in nursing homes should therefore be explored. Mixed-method systematic review using PRISMA guidelines, on learning environments in nursing homes, published in English between 2005-2015. Search of CINAHL with Full Text, Academic Search Premier, MEDLINE and SocINDEX with Full Text, in combination with journal hand searches. Three hundred and thirty-six titles were identified. Twenty studies met the review inclusion criteria. Assessment of methodological quality was based on the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Data were extracted and synthesised using a data analysis method for integrative reviews. Twenty articles were included. The majority of the studies showed moderately high methodological quality. Four main themes emerged from data synthesis: "Student characteristic and earlier experience"; "Nursing home ward environment"; "Quality of mentoring relationship and learning methods"; and "Students' achieved nursing competencies." Nursing home learning environments may be optimised by a well-prepared academic-clinical partnership, supervision by encouraging mentors and high-quality nursing care of older people. Positive learning experiences may increase students' professional development through achievement of basic nursing skills and competencies and motivate them to choose the nursing home as their future workplace. An optimal learning environment can be ensured by thorough preplacement preparations in academia and in nursing home wards

  13. Early-Type Galaxy Star Formation Histories in Different Environments

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    Fitzpatrick, Patrick; Graves, G.

    2014-01-01

    We use very high-S/N stacked spectra of ˜29,000 nearby quiescent early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to investigate variations in their star formation histories (SFHs) with environment at fixed position along and perpendicular to the Fundamental Plane (FP). We separate galaxies in the three-dimensional FP space defined by galaxy effective radius Re, central stellar velocity dispersion σ, and surface brightness residual from the FP, ΔIe. We use the SDSS group catalogue of Yang et al. to further separate galaxies into three categories by their “identities” within their respective dark matter halos: central “Brightest Group Galaxies” (BGGs); Satellites; and Isolateds (those which are “most massive” in a dark matter halo with no Satellites). Within each category, we construct high-S/N mean stacked spectra to determine mean singleburst ages, [Fe/H], and [Mg/Fe] based on the stellar population synthesis models of R. Schiavon. This allows us to study variations in the stellar population properties (SPPs) with local group environment at fixed structure (i.e., fixed position in FP-space). We find that the SFHs of quiescent ETGs are almost entirely determined by their structural parameters σ and ΔIe. Any variation with local group environment at fixed structure is only slight: Satellites have the oldest stellar populations, 0.02 dex older than BGGs and 0.04 dex older than Isolateds; BGGs have the highest Fe-enrichments, 0.01 dex higher than Isolateds and 0.02 dex higher than Satellites; there are no differences in Mg-enhancement between BGGs, Isolateds, and Satellites. Our observation that, to zeroth-order, the SFHs of quiescent ETGs are fully captured by their structures places important qualitative constraints on the degree to which late-time evolutionary processes (those which occur after a galaxy’s initial formation and main star-forming lifetime) can alter their SFHs/structures.

  14. Influence of Maternal Care on Behavioural Development of Domestic Dogs (Canis Familiaris Living in a Home Environment

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    Giovanna Guardini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Maternal care has been shown to affect the development of the brain, behaviour, social skills and emotional systems of the young of many mammalian species including dogs. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of maternal care on the behavioural responses of family dog puppies towards environmental and social stimuli. In order to do this, maternal care (licking puppy’s ano-genital area, licking the puppy, nursing and mother-puppy contact during the first three weeks after birth was assessed in 12 litters of domestic dog puppies reared in home environments (total = 72 puppies. The behavioural responses of puppies were assessed in an arena and an isolation test, which were performed when the puppies were two-month old. Data were analysed using principal components analysis and projection to latent structures regression. A systematic relationship was found between maternal care and behaviour in both tests. In the arena test, maternal care was found to be positively associated with approach to the stranger, attention oriented to the stranger, time spent near the enclosure, yawning, whining and yelping (R2Y = 0.613, p = 8.2 × 10−9. Amount of maternal care was negatively associated with the number of squares crossed and the time spent individually playing with the rope. In the isolation test, the amount of maternal care was positively associated with standing posture, paw lifting, and howling, and it was negatively associated with yawning, lying down and nose licking (R2Y = 0.507, p = 0.000626. These results suggest that the amount of maternal care received during early life influences the pattern of behavioural responses and coping strategies of puppies at two-months of age. On the basis of these findings it could be speculated that early maternal care contributes to adaption to the environment in which family puppies are developing, with particular regard to social relationships with people.

  15. Influence of Maternal Care on Behavioural Development of Domestic Dogs (Canis Familiaris) Living in a Home Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardini, Giovanna; Bowen, Jon; Mariti, Chiara; Fatjó, Jaume; Sighieri, Claudio; Gazzano, Angelo

    2017-12-05

    Maternal care has been shown to affect the development of the brain, behaviour, social skills and emotional systems of the young of many mammalian species including dogs. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of maternal care on the behavioural responses of family dog puppies towards environmental and social stimuli. In order to do this, maternal care (licking puppy's ano-genital area, licking the puppy, nursing and mother-puppy contact) during the first three weeks after birth was assessed in 12 litters of domestic dog puppies reared in home environments (total = 72 puppies). The behavioural responses of puppies were assessed in an arena and an isolation test, which were performed when the puppies were two-month old. Data were analysed using principal components analysis and projection to latent structures regression. A systematic relationship was found between maternal care and behaviour in both tests. In the arena test, maternal care was found to be positively associated with approach to the stranger, attention oriented to the stranger, time spent near the enclosure, yawning, whining and yelping (R²Y = 0.613, p = 8.2 × 10 -9 ). Amount of maternal care was negatively associated with the number of squares crossed and the time spent individually playing with the rope. In the isolation test, the amount of maternal care was positively associated with standing posture, paw lifting, and howling, and it was negatively associated with yawning, lying down and nose licking (R²Y = 0.507, p = 0.000626). These results suggest that the amount of maternal care received during early life influences the pattern of behavioural responses and coping strategies of puppies at two-months of age. On the basis of these findings it could be speculated that early maternal care contributes to adaption to the environment in which family puppies are developing, with particular regard to social relationships with people.

  16. Fall risk assessment and early-warning for toddler behaviors at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mau-Tsuen; Chuang, Min-Wen

    2013-12-10

    Accidental falls are the major cause of serious injuries in toddlers, with most of these falls happening at home. Instead of providing immediate fall detection based on short-term observations, this paper proposes an early-warning childcare system to monitor fall-prone behaviors of toddlers at home. Using 3D human skeleton tracking and floor plane detection based on depth images captured by a Kinect system, eight fall-prone behavioral modules of toddlers are developed and organized according to four essential criteria: posture, motion, balance, and altitude. The final fall risk assessment is generated by a multi-modal fusion using either a weighted mean thresholding or a support vector machine (SVM) classification. Optimizations are performed to determine local parameter in each module and global parameters of the multi-modal fusion. Experimental results show that the proposed system can assess fall risks and trigger alarms with an accuracy rate of 92% at a speed of 20 frames per second.

  17. Fall Risk Assessment and Early-Warning for Toddler Behaviors at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mau-Tsuen Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Accidental falls are the major cause of serious injuries in toddlers, with most of these falls happening at home. Instead of providing immediate fall detection based on short-term observations, this paper proposes an early-warning childcare system to monitor fall-prone behaviors of toddlers at home. Using 3D human skeleton tracking and floor plane detection based on depth images captured by a Kinect system, eight fall-prone behavioral modules of toddlers are developed and organized according to four essential criteria: posture, motion, balance, and altitude. The final fall risk assessment is generated by a multi-modal fusion using either a weighted mean thresholding or a support vector machine (SVM classification. Optimizations are performed to determine local parameter in each module and global parameters of the multi-modal fusion. Experimental results show that the proposed system can assess fall risks and trigger alarms with an accuracy rate of 92% at a speed of 20 frames per second.

  18. Fall Risk Assessment and Early-Warning for Toddler Behaviors at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mau-Tsuen; Chuang, Min-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Accidental falls are the major cause of serious injuries in toddlers, with most of these falls happening at home. Instead of providing immediate fall detection based on short-term observations, this paper proposes an early-warning childcare system to monitor fall-prone behaviors of toddlers at home. Using 3D human skeleton tracking and floor plane detection based on depth images captured by a Kinect system, eight fall-prone behavioral modules of toddlers are developed and organized according to four essential criteria: posture, motion, balance, and altitude. The final fall risk assessment is generated by a multi-modal fusion using either a weighted mean thresholding or a support vector machine (SVM) classification. Optimizations are performed to determine local parameter in each module and global parameters of the multi-modal fusion. Experimental results show that the proposed system can assess fall risks and trigger alarms with an accuracy rate of 92% at a speed of 20 frames per second. PMID:24335727

  19. Home and Community Language Proficiency in Spanish-English Early Bilingual University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Jens

    2017-10-17

    This study assessed home and community language proficiency in Spanish-English bilingual university students to investigate whether the vocabulary gap reported in studies of bilingual children persists into adulthood. Sixty-five early bilinguals (mean age = 21 years) were assessed in English and Spanish vocabulary and verbal reasoning ability using subtests of the Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-Revised (Schrank & Woodcock, 2009). Their English scores were compared to 74 monolinguals matched in age and level of education. Participants also completed a background questionnaire. Bilinguals scored below the monolingual control group on both subtests, and the difference was larger for vocabulary compared to verbal reasoning. However, bilinguals were close to the population mean for verbal reasoning. Spanish scores were on average lower than English scores, but participants differed widely in their degree of balance. Participants with an earlier age of acquisition of English and more current exposure to English tended to be more dominant in English. Vocabulary tests in the home or community language may underestimate bilingual university students' true verbal ability and should be interpreted with caution in high-stakes situations. Verbal reasoning ability may be more indicative of a bilingual's verbal ability.

  20. The Association between Quality Improvement Initiatives in Dementia Care and Supportive Psychosocial Work Environments in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Miharu; Tei-Tominaga, Maki

    2018-05-08

    Background : Quality improvement initiatives can help nursing homes strengthen psychosocial work environments. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between supportive psychosocial work environment, and professional and organizational characteristics regarding quality improvement initiatives in dementia care. Methods : A paper questionnaire survey was administered to a convenience sample of 365 professional caregivers in 12 special nursing homes in Japan. Psychosocial work environment was assessed using the Social Capital and Ethical Climate at the Workplace Scale to calculate a score of social capital in the workplace, ethical leadership, and exclusive workplace climate. Variables for quality improvement initiatives included type of home (unit-type or traditional), presence of additional benefit for dementia care, and professionalism in dementia care among caregivers evaluated using the Japanese version of the Sense of Competence in Dementia Care Staff Scale. Results : Elevated professionalism and unit-type home were significantly associated with high social capital, strong ethical leadership, and low exclusive workplace climate. The presence of dementia care benefit was not associated with any subscale of psychosocial work environment. Conclusions : Quality improvement initiatives to foster supportive psychosocial work environment should enhance professionalism in dementia care with unit-based team building of professional caregivers in special nursing homes.

  1. The Association between Quality Improvement Initiatives in Dementia Care and Supportive Psychosocial Work Environments in Nursing Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miharu Nakanishi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quality improvement initiatives can help nursing homes strengthen psychosocial work environments. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between supportive psychosocial work environment, and professional and organizational characteristics regarding quality improvement initiatives in dementia care. Methods: A paper questionnaire survey was administered to a convenience sample of 365 professional caregivers in 12 special nursing homes in Japan. Psychosocial work environment was assessed using the Social Capital and Ethical Climate at the Workplace Scale to calculate a score of social capital in the workplace, ethical leadership, and exclusive workplace climate. Variables for quality improvement initiatives included type of home (unit-type or traditional, presence of additional benefit for dementia care, and professionalism in dementia care among caregivers evaluated using the Japanese version of the Sense of Competence in Dementia Care Staff Scale. Results: Elevated professionalism and unit-type home were significantly associated with high social capital, strong ethical leadership, and low exclusive workplace climate. The presence of dementia care benefit was not associated with any subscale of psychosocial work environment. Conclusions: Quality improvement initiatives to foster supportive psychosocial work environment should enhance professionalism in dementia care with unit-based team building of professional caregivers in special nursing homes.

  2. Associations between characteristics of the home food environment and fruit and vegetable intake in preschool children: A cross-sectional study

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    Wyse Rebecca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childhood is critical to the development of lifelong food habits. Given the high proportion of children with inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, identification of modifiable factors associated with higher consumption may be useful in developing interventions to address this public health issue. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of the home food environment that are associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption in a sample of Australian preschool children. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted with 396 parents of 3 to 5 year-old children attending 30 preschools within the Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia. Children's fruit and vegetable consumption was measured using a valid and reliable subscale from the Children's Dietary Questionnaire. Associations were investigated between children's fruit and vegetable intake and characteristics of the home food environment including parental role-modeling, parental providing behaviour, fruit and vegetable availability, fruit and vegetable accessibility, pressure to eat, family eating policies and family mealtime practices. Characteristics of the home food environment that showed evidence of an association with children's fruit and vegetable consumption in simple regression models were entered into a backwards stepwise multiple regression analysis. The multiple regression analysis used generalised linear mixed models, controlled for parental education, household income and child gender, and was adjusted for the correlation between children's fruit and vegetable consumption within a preschool. Results The multiple regression analysis found positive associations between children's fruit and vegetable consumption and parental fruit and vegetable intake (p = 0.005, fruit and vegetable availability (p = 0.006 and accessibility (p = 0.012, the number of occasions each day that parents provided their child with fruit and vegetables

  3. A qualitative examination of home and neighborhood environments for obesity prevention in rural adults

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    Ballard Denise

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The home and neighborhood environments may be important in obesity prevention by virtue of food availability, food preparation, cues and opportunities for physical activity, and family support. To date, little research has examined how home and neighborhood environments in rural communities may support or hinder healthy eating and physical activity. This paper reports characteristics of rural homes and neighborhoods related to physical activity environments, availability of healthy foods, and family support for physical activity and maintaining an ideal body weight. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 African American and White adults over 50 years of age in two rural counties in Southwest Georgia. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two members of the research team using standard methods of qualitative analysis. Themes were then identified and data matrices were used to identify patterns by gender or race. Results Neighborhood features that supported physical activity were plenty of land, minimal traffic and living in a safe and friendly neighborhood. The major barrier was lack of recreational facilities. The majority of participants were not physically active with their family members due to schedule conflicts and lack of time. Family member-initiated efforts to encourage physical activity met with mixed results, with refusals, procrastination, and increased activity all reported. Participants generally reported it was easy to get healthy foods, although cost barriers and the need to drive to a larger town for a supermarket with good variety were noted as obstacles. Family conversations about weight had occurred for about half of the participants, with reactions ranging from agreement about the need to lose weight to frustration. Conclusion This study suggests that successful environmental change strategies to promote physical activity and healthy eating in rural neighborhoods may

  4. Effects of Home Visitation on Maternal Competencies, Family Environment, and Child Development: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierau, Susan; Dähne, Verena; Brand, Tilman; Kurtz, Vivien; von Klitzing, Kai; Jungmann, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Based on the US Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) program, the German home visiting program "Pro Kind" offered support for socially and financially disadvantaged first-time mothers from pregnancy until the children's second birthday. A multi-centered, longitudinal randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to assess its effectiveness on mothers and children. A total of 755 women with multiple risk factors were recruited, 394 received regular home visits (treatment group), while 361 only had access to standard community services (control group). Program influences on family environment (e.g., quality of home, social support), maternal competencies (e.g., maternal self-efficacy, empathy, parenting style), and child development (e.g., cognitive and motor development) were assessed from mothers' program intake in pregnancy to children's second birthday based on self-reports in regular interviews and developmental tests. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) models showed small, but significant positive treatment effects on parental self-efficacy, and marginally significant effects on social support, and knowledge on child rearing. Maternal stress, self-efficacy, and feelings of attachment in the TG tend to show a more positive development over time. Subgroup effects were found for high-risk mothers in the TG, who reported more social support over time and, generally, had children with higher developmental scores compared to their CG counterparts. Post hoc analyses of implementation variables revealed the quality of the helping relationship as a significant indicator of treatment effects. Results are discussed in terms of implementation and public policy differences between NFP and Pro Kind.

  5. The light spot test: Measuring anxiety in mice in an automated home-cage environment.

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    Aarts, Emmeke; Maroteaux, Gregoire; Loos, Maarten; Koopmans, Bastijn; Kovačević, Jovana; Smit, August B; Verhage, Matthijs; Sluis, Sophie van der

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral tests of animals in a controlled experimental setting provide a valuable tool to advance understanding of genotype-phenotype relations, and to study the effects of genetic and environmental manipulations. To optimally benefit from the increasing numbers of genetically engineered mice, reliable high-throughput methods for comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of mice lines have become a necessity. Here, we describe the development and validation of an anxiety test, the light spot test, that allows for unsupervised, automated, high-throughput testing of mice in a home-cage system. This automated behavioral test circumvents bias introduced by pretest handling, and enables recording both baseline behavior and the behavioral test response over a prolonged period of time. We demonstrate that the light spot test induces a behavioral response in C57BL/6J mice. This behavior reverts to baseline when the aversive stimulus is switched off, and is blunted by treatment with the anxiolytic drug Diazepam, demonstrating predictive validity of the assay, and indicating that the observed behavioral response has a significant anxiety component. Also, we investigated the effectiveness of the light spot test as part of sequential testing for different behavioral aspects in the home-cage. Two learning tests, administered prior to the light spot test, affected the light spot test parameters. The light spot test is a novel, automated assay for anxiety-related high-throughput testing of mice in an automated home-cage environment, allowing for both comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of mice, and rapid screening of pharmacological compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Violence against the elderly in the home environment: prevalence and associated factors (Recife, State of Pernambuco)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Andrezza Marques; Leal, Márcia Carrera Campos; Marques, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Eskinazi, Fernanda Maria Vieira; Duque, Amanda Marques

    2012-08-01

    The scope of this paper was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with domestic violence against the elderly. It is a cross-sectional study with 274 subjects, aged 60 years or more, of both sexes. Data were collected through interviews at home or in the USF based on a script structured in three parts: questionnaire with socio-demographic and bio-demographic information, two rating scales and a tool for identifying abuse. Among the respondents, 20.8% reported having experienced at least one type of violence in their home environment. An association was revealed between those living with a greater number of individuals, among women and elderly people who are dependent for day-to-day activities. After applying the logistic regression model, only the variables of sex and family configuration were significantly associated, with evidence of greater frequency among those who lived with six or more residents and women. These findings highlight the magnitude and seriousness of the problem and point to the need for action to combat violence against the elderly.

  7. Home food environment in relation to children's diet quality and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Sarah C; Glanz, Karen; Zhou, Chuan; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian E

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to explore relationships among the home food environment (HFE), child/parent characteristics, diet quality, and measured weight status among 699 child-parent pairs from King County, WA, and San Diego County, CA. HFE variables included parenting style/feeding practices, food rules, frequency of eating out, home food availability, and parents' perceptions of food costs. Child dietary intake was measured by 3-day recall and diet quality indicators included fruits and vegetables, sweet/savory snacks, high-calorie beverages, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score. Individual linear regression models were run in which child BMI z score and child diet quality indicators were dependent variables and HFE variables and child/parent characteristics were independent variables of interest. Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with parental encouragement/modeling (β=.68, Ppermissive feeding style (-1.04, Ppermissive feeding style (0.14, Pparent's use of food restriction (0.21, Ppermissive feeding style (0.16, Pparenting around eating and food availability are related to child diet quality and weight status. These factors should be considered when designing interventions for improving child health. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Communicative Coping Behavior Checklist: Observation of Persons With Dementia in the Home Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Pamela A; Ruth, Julia; Latella, Lauren; Talisman, Nicholas

    2016-08-01

    Communication contributes to increased stress, mortality, and decreased quality of life (QOL) for persons with dementia (PWD) and caregivers. PWD use communicative coping behaviors (CCBs) to manage the demands of the disease. However, most assessments neither look for nor give credit to communication behaviors. This is the first study to examine CCBs in the home environment as measured by the Communicative Coping Behavior Checklist (CCBC). This cross-sectional quantitative study included 26 dementia and 18 cognitively normal control dyads. Raters observed their partners' CCBs at home, over several weeks and completed the CCBC. We analyzed the endorsement rates (how often behaviors were observed by a rater) of emotion and activity-focused CCBs in dementia and control dyads. The primary outcome was rate of CCB endorsement. Secondary outcomes included dementia diagnosis, cognitive status, depressive mood, life satisfaction (SWL) and QOL. Dementia dyads endorsed 11 of 23 CCBs significantly more than control dyads. Action-focused CCBs (p endorsement rates of action-focused than emotion-focused CCBs were seen in dementia dyads. We conclude that attention to CCBs during treatment and care will improve QOL and SWL of PWD and caregivers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Self care of patients with chronic venous ulcers in the home environment.

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    Thiago Gonçalves do Nascimento Piropo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The venous ulcer is a skin lesion that affects the lower third of the legs. Is associated with chronic venous insufficiency, is the leading cause of ulcers of the lower limbs. Can interfere with the quality of life of patients, because it generates negative repercussions on social and economic sphere. The aim of this study was to identify self-care in the home environment of patients with venous ulcers, to assess the occurrence of alternative therapy use and verifythe involvement of domestic trauma. Methodologically, this study takes a quantitative and qualitative analytical cross-sectional held at the Clinical School of Physiotherapy, State University of Southwest Bahia / UESB / Jequié-BA, from January 2007 to September 2008. Data were collected through a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. The results showed that 100% of the participants played self care of their injuries, including with respect to occlusion and bandages when needed. However, 6.25% said they had not received adequate information to perform self-care. Concluded that it is necessary to interact and produce a mechanism between education and health assistance for the development of the practice of self-care in family life at home.

  10. Characterising food environment exposure at home, at work, and along commuting journeys using data on adults in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoine, Thomas; Monsivais, Pablo

    2013-06-27

    Socio-ecological models of behaviour suggest that dietary behaviours are potentially shaped by exposure to the food environment ('foodscape'). Research on associations between the foodscape and diet and health has largely focussed on foodscapes around the home, despite recognition that non-home environments are likely to be important in a more complete assessment of foodscape exposure. This paper characterises and describes foodscape exposure of different types, at home, at work, and along commuting routes for a sample of working adults in Cambridgeshire, UK. Home and work locations, and transport habits for 2,696 adults aged 29-60 were drawn from the Fenland Study, UK. Food outlet locations were obtained from local councils and classified by type - we focus on convenience stores, restaurants, supermarkets and takeaway food outlets. Density of and proximity to food outlets was characterised at home and work. Commuting routes were modelled based on the shortest street network distance between home and work, with exposure (counts of food outlets) that accounted for travel mode and frequency. We describe these three domains of food environment exposure using descriptive and inferential statistics. For all types of food outlet, we found very different foodscapes around homes and workplaces (with overall outlet exposure at work 125% higher), as well as a potentially substantial exposure contribution from commuting routes. On average, work and commuting environments each contributed to foodscape exposure at least equally to residential neighbourhoods, which only accounted for roughly 30% of total exposure. Furthermore, for participants with highest overall exposure to takeaway food outlets, workplaces accounted for most of the exposure. Levels of relative exposure between home, work and commuting environments were poorly correlated. Relying solely on residential neighbourhood characterisation greatly underestimated total foodscape exposure in this sample, with levels of

  11. Activity Recognition Using Hybrid Generative/Discriminative Models on Home Environments Using Binary Sensors

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    Araceli Sanchis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Activities of daily living are good indicators of elderly health status, and activity recognition in smart environments is a well-known problem that has been previously addressed by several studies. In this paper, we describe the use of two powerful machine learning schemes, ANN (Artificial Neural Network and SVM (Support Vector Machines, within the framework of HMM (Hidden Markov Model in order to tackle the task of activity recognition in a home setting. The output scores of the discriminative models, after processing, are used as observation probabilities of the hybrid approach. We evaluate our approach by comparing these hybrid models with other classical activity recognition methods using five real datasets. We show how the hybrid models achieve significantly better recognition performance, with significance level p < 0:05, proving that the hybrid approach is better suited for the addressed domain.

  12. A micropalaeontological and palynological insight into Early Carboniferous floodplain environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Carys; Kearsey, Timothy; Davies, Sarah; Millward, David; Marshall, John; Reeves, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Romer's Gap, the interval following the end Devonian mass extinction, is traditionally considered to be depauperate in tetrapod and fish fossils. A major research project (TW:eed -Tetrapod World: early evolution and diversification) focusing on the Tournaisian Ballagan Formation of Scotland is investigating how early Carboniferous ecosystems rebuilt following the extinction. A multi-proxy approach, combining sedimentology, micropalaeontology and palynology, is used to investigate the different floodplain environments in which tetrapods, fish, arthropods and molluscs lived. The formation is characterised by an overbank facies association of siltstone, sandstone and palaeosols, interbedded with dolostone and evaporite units, and cut by fluvial sandstone facies associations of fining-upwards conglomerate lags, cross-bedded sandstone and rippled siltstone. Macrofossils are identified from 326 horizons within a 520 metre thick Ballagan Formation field section at Burnmouth, near Berwick-upon-Tweed, Scottish Borders. Common fauna are ostracods, bivalves, arthropods, sarcopterygians, dipnoans, acanthodians, tetrapods and chondrichthyans. Quantitative microfossil picking of the three sedimentary rock types in which tetrapods occur was undertaken to gain further insight into the palaeoecology. The sediments are; 1) laminated grey siltstones, deposited in floodplain lakes; 2) sandy siltstones, grey siltstones with millimetre size clasts. 71% of these beds overlie palaeosols or desiccated surfaces and are formed in small-scale flooding events; 3) conglomerates, mostly lags at the base of thick sandstones, with centimetre sized siltstone, sandstone and dolostone clasts. Grey siltstones contain a microfauna of common plant fragments, megaspores and sparse actinopterygian and rhizodont fragments. Sandy siltstones have the highest fossil diversity and contain microfossil fragments of plants, megaspores, charcoal, ostracods, actinopterygians, rhizodonts, eurypterids and rarer non

  13. O inventário de recursos do ambiente familiar The home environment resources scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Maria Marturano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é descrever o desenvolvimento do RAF - Inventário de Recursos do Ambiente Familiar. Baseado na concepção ecológica do desenvolvimento, o RAF avalia recursos do ambiente familiar que podem contribuir para o aprendizado acadêmico nos anos do ensino fundamental, em três domínios: recursos que promovem processos proximais; atividades que sinalizam estabilidade na vida familiar; práticas parentais que promovem a ligação família-escola. Uma revisão de pesquisas que utilizaram o RAF indica índices aceitáveis de consistência interna, bem como associação entre escores no RAF e indicadores de desempenho escolar e ajustamento. Passeios, brinquedos e livros, bem como oportunidades de interação com os pais em casa, foram recursos relacionados a indicadores de bom desempenho escolar e ajustamento. Embora ainda sejam necessários estudos de validação e fidedignidade, o inventário tem sido uma ferramenta útil para pesquisadores e pode ser usado por profissionais que trabalham em contexto clínico ou educacional.The aim of this article is to describe the development of the HERS - Home Environment Resources Scale. The HERS is based on an ecological view of development. It assesses support resources available to the child at home, which can contribute for school achievement. These resources relate to three domains: resources that promote proximal processes; activities that signal stability in family processes; parental practices that promote a home-school linkage. Previous research using the HERS has indicated acceptable indexes of internal consistency, as well as significant associations between HERS scores and measures of academic achievement and adjustment. Leisure activities, toys, books, and opportunities for the child to interact with parents at home were all related to child achievement and adjustment. Although further studies are needed to secure its reliability and validity, the instrument has proven to be a

  14. Home environmental influences on children's language and reading skills in a genetically sensitive design: Are socioeconomic status and home literacy environment environmental mediators and moderators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Wong, Simpson W L; Waye, Mary M Y; Zheng, Mo

    2017-12-01

    This twin study examined how family socioeconomic status (SES) and home literacy environment (HLE) contributes to Chinese language and reading skills. It included 312 Chinese twin pairs aged 3 to 11. Children were individually administered tasks of Chinese word reading, receptive vocabulary and reading-related cognitive skills, and nonverbal reasoning ability. Information on home environment was collected through parent-reported questionnaires. Results showed that SES and HLE mediated shared environmental influences but did not moderate genetic influences on general language and reading abilities. Also, SES and HLE mediated shared environmental contributions to receptive vocabulary and syllable and rhyme awareness, but not orthographic skills. The findings of this study add to past twin studies that focused on alphabetic languages, suggesting that these links could be universal across languages. They also extend existing findings on SES and HLE's contributions to reading-related cognitive skills. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Are parental concerns for child TV viewing associated with child TV viewing and the home sedentary environment?

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    Crawford David

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time spent watching television affects multiple aspects of child and adolescent health. Although a diverse range of factors have been found to be associated with young people's television viewing, parents and the home environment are particularly influential. However, little is known about whether parents, particularly those who are concerned about their child's television viewing habits, translate their concern into action by providing supportive home environments (e.g. rules restricting screen-time behaviours, limited access to screen-based media. The aim of this study was to examine associations between parental concerns for child television viewing and child television viewing and the home sedentary environment. Methods Parents of children aged 5-6 years ('younger' children, n = 430 and 10-12 years ('older children', n = 640 reported usual duration of their child's television (TV viewing, their concerns regarding the amount of time their child spends watching TV, and on aspects of the home environment. Regression analyses examined associations between parental concern and child TV viewing, and between parental concern and aspects of the home environment. Analyses were stratified by age group. Results Children of concerned parents watched more TV than those whose parents were not concerned (B = 9.63, 95% CI = 1.58-17.68, p = 0.02 and B = 15.82, 95% CI = 8.85-22.80, p Conclusions Children of concerned parents watched more TV than those whose parents who were not concerned. Parents appear to recognise excessive television viewing in their children and these parents appear to engage in conflicting parental approaches despite these concerns. Interventions targeting concerned parents may be an innovative way of reaching children most in need of strategies to reduce their television viewing and harnessing this parental concern may offer considerable opportunity to change the family and home environment.

  16. Adequacy of the Regular Early Education Classroom Environment for Students with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cherylee M.; Packer, Tanya L.; Passmore, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the classroom environment that students with visual impairment typically experience in regular Australian early education. Adequacy of the classroom environment (teacher training and experience, teacher support, parent involvement, adult involvement, inclusive attitude, individualization of the curriculum, physical…

  17. Clinical use of sensory gardens and outdoor environments in norwegian nursing homes: a cross-sectional e-mail survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen; Kirkevold, Marit

    2015-01-01

    Gardens and outdoor environments offer multiple therapeutic possibilities for the residents in nursing homes. Web-based questionnaires were sent to 488 nursing home leaders and 121 leaders responded. The clinical impressions of the leaders and staff regarding the benefits of sensory gardens (SGs) to the residents were consistent with previous research. SGs facilitated taking residents outdoors, offered convenient topics for communication and facilitated social privacy for relatives. For improved clinical use of SGs and outdoor environments, systematic assessment of residents' interests, performance and experiences when outdoors, implementation of seasonal clinical programmes and educational programmes for leaders and staff are recommended.

  18. Nursing home nurses' experiences of resident transfers to the emergency department: no empathy for our work environment difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiu-Hsin; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Huang, Hsiu-Li

    2016-03-01

    To explore the experiences of nursing home nurses when they transfer residents from nursing homes to the emergency department in Taiwan. The transfer of residents between nursing homes and emergency departments challenges continuity of care. Understanding nursing home nurses' experiences during these transfers may help to improve residents' continuity of care. However, few empirical data are available on these nurses' transfer experiences worldwide, and none could be found in Asian countries. Qualitative descriptive study. Data were collected from August 2012-June 2013 in audiotaped, individual, in-depth interviews with 25 nurses at five nursing homes in Taiwan. Interview transcripts were analysed by constant comparative analysis. Analysis of interview transcripts revealed that the core theme of nursing home nurses' transfer experience was discontinuity in nursing home to emergency department transitions. This core theme comprised three themes: discontinuity in family involvement, discontinuity in medical resources and expectations, and discontinuity in nurses' professional role. Nursing home nurses need a working environment that is better connected to residents' family members and more immediate and/or easier access to acute care for residents. Communication between nurses and residents' family could be improved by using text messages or social media by mobile phones, which are widely used in Taiwan and worldwide. To improve access to acute care, we suggest developing a real-time telehealth transfer system tailored to the medical culture and policies of each country. This system should facilitate communication among nursing home staff, family members and hospital staff. Our findings on nurses' experiences during transfer of nursing home residents to the emergency department can be used to design more effective transfer policies such as telemedicine systems in Taiwan and other Asian countries or in those with large populations of Chinese immigrants. © 2016 John

  19. Relations among Neighborhood Social Networks, Home Literacy Environments, and Children's Expressive Vocabulary in Suburban At-Risk Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Powell, Douglas R.; Diamond, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    In response to increasing research and policy interest in the neighborhood context of early school success, this study examined relations among neighborhood social networks, home literacy practices/resources, and children's expressive vocabulary in a suburban at-risk sample in the USA at the beginning of the school year. In a Structural Equation…

  20. Early Intervention with Children of Dyslexic Parents: Effects of Computer-Based Reading Instruction at Home on Literacy Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regtvoort, Anne G. F. M.; van der Leij, Aryan

    2007-01-01

    The hereditary basis of dyslexia makes it possible to identify children at risk early on. Pre-reading children genetically at risk received during 14 weeks a home- and computer-based training in phonemic awareness and letter-sound relationships in the context of reading instruction. At posttest training effects were found for both phonemic…

  1. A pilot study on early home-based intervention through an intelligent baby gym (CareToy) in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Bartalena, Laura; Cecchi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CareToy is an intelligent system, inspired by baby gyms, aimed to provide an intensive, individualized, home-based and family-centred early intervention (EI) program. AIMS: A pilot study was carried out to explore the feasibility of CareToy intervention in preterm infants, aged 3....... An adequately powered randomized clinical trial is warranted....

  2. Early intervention with children of dyslexic parents: Effects of computer-based reading instruction at home on literacy acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtvoort, A.G.F.M.; van der Leij, A.

    2007-01-01

    The hereditary basis of dyslexia makes it possible to identify children at risk early on. Pre-reading children genetically at risk received during 14 weeks a home- and computer-based training in phonemic awareness and letter-sound relationships in the context of reading instruction. At posttest

  3. A Review of the Monograph “Home as a Living Environment of a Person: a Psychological Study”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vachkov I.V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The reviewed book is a fundamental work of a group of scientists led by a well-known expert in the field of environment psychology, Professor S.K. Nartova – Bochaver. The monograph presents results of a systematic and multifaceted study of a completely new scientific field – the psychology of the home, as the main human life environment that determines one's individuality, social interaction and life success and which is the most powerful ecological and social resource. Prerequisites for the selection of the new subject of study, stages of developing of the completely new category apparatus and also methodology of home – person relations are outlined. The main content of the book is a description of the research results of the formation of various home concepts, subjective models of a friendly home in adolescence, home resources for positive functioning in adolescence and youth, affection and estrangement to home in one’s life perspective. Present book is addressed to a wide range of readers and will be useful to specialists of different profiles: psychologists, psychotherapists, teachers, architects, designers.

  4. Home environment relationships with children’s physical activity, sedentary time, and screen time by socioeconomic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandon Pooja S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children in households of lower socioeconomic status (SES are more likely to be overweight/obese. We aimed to determine if home physical activity (PA environments differed by SES and to explore home environment mediators of the relation of family SES to children’s PA and sedentary behavior. Methods Participants were 715 children aged 6 to 11 from the Neighborhood Impact on Kids (NIK Study. Household SES was examined using highest educational attainment and income. Home environment was measured by parent report on a survey. Outcomes were child’s accelerometer-measured PA and parent-reported screen time. Mediation analyses were conducted for home environment factors that varied by SES. Results Children from lower income households had greater media access in their bedrooms (TV 52% vs. 14%, DVD player 39% vs. 14%, video games 21% vs. 9% but lower access to portable play equipment (bikes 85% vs. 98%, jump ropes 69% vs. 83% compared to higher income children. Lower SES families had more restrictive rules about PA (2.5 vs. 2.0. Across SES, children watched TV/DVDs with parents/siblings more often than they engaged in PA with them. Parents of lower SES watched TV/DVDs with their children more often (3.1 vs. 2.5 days/week. Neither total daily and home-based MVPA nor sedentary time differed by SES. Children’s daily screen time varied from 1.7 hours/day in high SES to 2.4 in low SES families. Media in the bedroom was related to screen time, and screen time with parents was a mediator of the SES--screen time relationship. Conclusions Lower SES home environments provided more opportunities for sedentary behavior and fewer for PA. Removing electronic media from children’s bedrooms has the potential to reduce disparities in chronic disease risk.

  5. Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program (MIECHV): Building Health and Early Development with the Pediatric Family-Centered Medical Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, David W.

    2013-01-01

    President Obama announced his Early Learning Agenda during his Second Inaugural Address. This announcement has galvanized a special focus on early childhood policy and practices, for the prenatal to 5-year-old period, to improve educational outcomes for America's youth. The emergent science of early childhood development places an emphasis on…

  6. Let's Play at My House: Effects of the Home Environment on the Social Behavior of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Victoria W.; Lore, Richard K.

    1979-01-01

    Results showed that preschool children at home initiated both more positive and aggressive social interactions and were more effective in attracting a visiting child into play than were children away from home. This was the case even when the child at home had been shyer during the first meeting of the children. (JMB)

  7. The relationship between children's home food environment and dietary patterns in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Carine; Haerens, Leen; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Maes, Lea

    2010-10-01

    To identify the correlates of the home food environment (parents' intake, availability and food-related parenting practices) at the age of 10 years with dietary patterns during childhood and in adolescence. Primary-school children of fifty-nine Flemish elementary schools completed a questionnaire at school in 2002. Four years later they completed a questionnaire by e-mail or mail at home. Their parents completed a questionnaire on food-related parenting practices at baseline. Longitudinal study. The analyses included 609 matched questionnaires. Multi-level regression analyses were used to identify baseline parenting practices (pressure, reward, negotiation, catering on demand, permissiveness, verbal praise, avoiding negative modelling, availability of healthy/unhealthy food items and mothers' fruit and vegetable (F&V) and excess scores) associated with children's dietary patterns (F&V and excess scores). Mother's F&V score was a significant positive independent predictor for children's F&V score at baseline and follow-up, whereas availability of unhealthy foods was significantly negatively associated with both scores. Negotiation was positively associated with children's follow-up score of F&V, while permissiveness was positively associated with children's follow-up excess score. Availability of unhealthy foods and mother's excess score were positively related to children's excess score at baseline and follow-up. Parental intake and restricting the availability of unhealthy foods not only appeared to have a consistent impact on children's and adolescents' diets, but also negotiating and less permissive food-related parenting practices may improve adolescents' diets.

  8. Parenting style, the home environment, and screen time of 5-year-old children; the 'be active, eat right' study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydian Veldhuis

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we investigated associations of parenting style and the social and physical home environment on watching TV and using computers or game consoles among 5-year-old children. METHODS: This study uses baseline data concerning 5-year-old children (n = 3067 collected for the 'Be active, eat right' study. RESULTS: Children of parents with a higher score on the parenting style dimension involvement, were more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Overall, families with an authoritative or authoritarian parenting style had lower percentages of children's screen time compared to families with an indulgent or neglectful style, but no significant difference in OR was found. In families with rules about screen time, children were less likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day and more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The number of TVs and computers or game consoles in the household was positively associated with screen time, and children with a TV or computer or game console in their bedroom were more likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day or spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of the association between parenting style and screen time of 5-year-olds was found to be relatively modest. The associations found between the social and physical environment and children's screen time are independent of parenting style. Interventions to reduce children's screen time might be most effective when they support parents specifically with introducing family rules related to screen time and prevent the presence of a TV or computer or game console in the child's room.

  9. Parenting style, the home environment, and screen time of 5-year-old children; the 'be active, eat right' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Lydian; van Grieken, Amy; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy A; Raat, Hein

    2014-01-01

    The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we investigated associations of parenting style and the social and physical home environment on watching TV and using computers or game consoles among 5-year-old children. This study uses baseline data concerning 5-year-old children (n = 3067) collected for the 'Be active, eat right' study. Children of parents with a higher score on the parenting style dimension involvement, were more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Overall, families with an authoritative or authoritarian parenting style had lower percentages of children's screen time compared to families with an indulgent or neglectful style, but no significant difference in OR was found. In families with rules about screen time, children were less likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day and more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The number of TVs and computers or game consoles in the household was positively associated with screen time, and children with a TV or computer or game console in their bedroom were more likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day or spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The magnitude of the association between parenting style and screen time of 5-year-olds was found to be relatively modest. The associations found between the social and physical environment and children's screen time are independent of parenting style. Interventions to reduce children's screen time might be most effective when they support parents specifically with introducing family rules related to screen time and prevent the presence of a TV or computer or game console in the child's room.

  10. An HL7-FHIR-based Object Model for a Home-Centered Data Warehouse for Ambient Assisted Living Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartze, Jonas; Jansen, Lars; Schrom, Harald; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Haux, Reinhold; Marschollek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Current AAL environments focus on assisting a single person with seperated technologies. There is no interoperability between sub-domains in home environments, like building energy management or housing industry services. BASIS (Building Automation by a Scalable and Intelligent System) aims to integrate all sensors and actuators into a single, efficient home bus. First step is to create a semtically enriched data warehouse object model. We choose FHIR and built an object model mainly based on the Observation, Device and Location resources with minor extensions needed by AAL-foreign sub domains. FHIR turned out to be very flexible and complete for other home related sub-domains. The object model is implemented in a separated software-partition storing all structural and procedural data of BASIS.

  11. Open Science Grid (OSG) Ticket Synchronization: Keeping Your Home Field Advantage In A Distributed Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Kyle; Hayashi, Soichi; Teige, Scott; Quick, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Large distributed computing collaborations, such as the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), face many issues when it comes to providing a working grid environment for their users. One of these is exchanging tickets between various ticketing systems in use by grid collaborations. Ticket systems such as Footprints, RT, Remedy, and ServiceNow all have different schema that must be addressed in order to provide a reliable exchange of information between support entities and users in different grid environments. To combat this problem, OSG Operations has created a ticket synchronization interface called GOC-TX that relies on web services instead of error-prone email parsing methods of the past. Synchronizing tickets between different ticketing systems allows any user or support entity to work on a ticket in their home environment, thus providing a familiar and comfortable place to provide updates without having to learn another ticketing system. The interface is built in a way that it is generic enough that it can be customized for nearly any ticketing system with a web-service interface with only minor changes. This allows us to be flexible and rapidly bring new ticket synchronization online. Synchronization can be triggered by different methods including mail, web services interface, and active messaging. GOC-TX currently interfaces with Global Grid User Support (GGUS) for WLCG, Remedy at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL), and Request Tracker (RT) at the Virtual Data Toolkit (VDT). Work is progressing on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) ServiceNow synchronization. This paper will explain the problems faced by OSG and how they led OSG to create and implement this ticket synchronization system along with the technical details that allow synchronization to be preformed at a production level.

  12. Open Science Grid (OSG) Ticket Synchronization: Keeping Your Home Field Advantage In A Distributed Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Kyle; Hayashi, Soichi; Teige, Scott; Quick, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Large distributed computing collaborations, such as the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), face many issues when it comes to providing a working grid environment for their users. One of these is exchanging tickets between various ticketing systems in use by grid collaborations. Ticket systems such as Footprints, RT, Remedy, and ServiceNow all have different schema that must be addressed in order to provide a reliable exchange of information between support entities and users in different grid environments. To combat this problem, OSG Operations has created a ticket synchronization interface called GOC-TX that relies on web services instead of error-prone email parsing methods of the past. Synchronizing tickets between different ticketing systems allows any user or support entity to work on a ticket in their home environment, thus providing a familiar and comfortable place to provide updates without having to learn another ticketing system. The interface is built in a way that it is generic enough that it can be customized for nearly any ticketing system with a web-service interface with only minor changes. This allows us to be flexible and rapidly bring new ticket synchronization online. Synchronization can be triggered by different methods including mail, web services interface, and active messaging. GOC-TX currently interfaces with Global Grid User Support (GGUS) for WLCG, Remedy at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL), and Request Tracker (RT) at the Virtual Data Toolkit (VDT). Work is progressing on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) ServiceNow synchronization. This paper will explain the problems faced by OSG and how they led OSG to create and implement this ticket synchronization system along with the technical details that allow synchronization to be preformed at a production level.

  13. Are parental concerns for child TV viewing associated with child TV viewing and the home sedentary environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Time spent watching television affects multiple aspects of child and adolescent health. Although a diverse range of factors have been found to be associated with young people's television viewing, parents and the home environment are particularly influential. However, little is known about whether parents, particularly those who are concerned about their child's television viewing habits, translate their concern into action by providing supportive home environments (e.g. rules restricting screen-time behaviours, limited access to screen-based media). The aim of this study was to examine associations between parental concerns for child television viewing and child television viewing and the home sedentary environment. Methods Parents of children aged 5-6 years ('younger' children, n = 430) and 10-12 years ('older children', n = 640) reported usual duration of their child's television (TV) viewing, their concerns regarding the amount of time their child spends watching TV, and on aspects of the home environment. Regression analyses examined associations between parental concern and child TV viewing, and between parental concern and aspects of the home environment. Analyses were stratified by age group. Results Children of concerned parents watched more TV than those whose parents were not concerned (B = 9.63, 95% CI = 1.58-17.68, p = 0.02 and B = 15.82, 95% CI = 8.85-22.80, p television, and with parental restriction of sedentary behaviours and offering sedentary activities (i.e. TV viewing or computer use) as a reward for good behaviour among older and young children. Furthermore, parents of older children who were concerned had fewer televisions in the home and a lower count of sedentary equipment in the home. Conclusions Children of concerned parents watched more TV than those whose parents who were not concerned. Parents appear to recognise excessive television viewing in their children and these parents appear to engage in conflicting parental

  14. The home literacy environment: exploring how media and parent-child interactions are associated with children’s language production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebeskind, K.G.; Piotrowski, J.; Lapierre, M.A.; Linebarger, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Children who start school with strong language skills initiate a trajectory of academic success, while children with weaker skills are likely to struggle. Research has demonstrated that media and parent-child interactions, both characteristics of the home literacy environment, influence children's

  15. SuperAssist: A User-Assistant Collaborative Environment for the supervision of medical instrument use at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanson Henkemans, O.A.; Neerincx, M.A.; Lindenberg, J.; Mast, C.A.P.G. van der

    2007-01-01

    With the rise of Transmural care, patients increasingly use medical instruments at home. Maintenance and troubleshooting greatly determines the safety and accuracy of these instruments. For the supervision of these complex tasks, we developed a User-Assistant Collaborative Environment (U-ACE). We

  16. Preschoolers' Vocabulary Acquisition in Chile: The Roles of Socioeconomic Status and Quality of Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohndorf, Regina T.; Vermeer, Harriet J.; Cárcamo, Rodrigo A.; Mesman, Judi

    2018-01-01

    Preschoolers' vocabulary acquisition sets the stage for later reading ability and school achievement. This study examined the role of socioeconomic status (SES) and the quality of the home environment of seventy-seven Chilean majority and Mapuche minority families from low and lower-middle-class backgrounds in explaining individual differences in…

  17. Implementation of an Embedded Web Server Application for Wireless Control of Brain Computer Interface Based Home Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Eda Akman; Bay, Ömer Faruk; Güler, İnan

    2016-01-01

    Brain Computer Interface (BCI) based environment control systems could facilitate life of people with neuromuscular diseases, reduces dependence on their caregivers, and improves their quality of life. As well as easy usage, low-cost, and robust system performance, mobility is an important functionality expected from a practical BCI system in real life. In this study, in order to enhance users' mobility, we propose internet based wireless communication between BCI system and home environment. We designed and implemented a prototype of an embedded low-cost, low power, easy to use web server which is employed in internet based wireless control of a BCI based home environment. The embedded web server provides remote access to the environmental control module through BCI and web interfaces. While the proposed system offers to BCI users enhanced mobility, it also provides remote control of the home environment by caregivers as well as the individuals in initial stages of neuromuscular disease. The input of BCI system is P300 potentials. We used Region Based Paradigm (RBP) as stimulus interface. Performance of the BCI system is evaluated on data recorded from 8 non-disabled subjects. The experimental results indicate that the proposed web server enables internet based wireless control of electrical home appliances successfully through BCIs.

  18. Methicillin resistance of airborne coagulase-negative staphylococci in homes of persons having contact with a hospital environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Danuta O; Pacha, Jerzy Z; Idzik, Danuta

    2009-04-01

    The persons having contact with a hospital environment (hospital personnel workers and discharged patients) are highly exposed to colonization with multidrug-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the airborne Staphylococcus genus features in homes in which inhabitants have had contact with the hospital environment. Airborne bacteria were collected using a 6-stage Anderson impactor. The Staphylococcus species composition and resistance to methicillin, and other antimicrobial agents among 3 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) species (S cohnii spp cohnii, S epidermidis, S hominis), were determined. Antibiotic resistance of isolates was tested using the agar screen method with methicillin, the polymerase chain reaction technique to detect the mecA gene, and the disk diffusion method. A higher prevalence of methicillin-resistant (MR) strains among the species isolated (40% of S epidermidis, 40% of S hominis, and 60% of S cohnii spp cohnii) was found in homes of persons who had contact with a hospital environment compared with the reference homes (only 12% of S hominis). The mecA gene was revealed in all MR S epidermidis strains and in some MR S hominis (50%) and S cohnii spp cohnii (33%) strains. All isolated MR CNS strains were susceptible to vancomycin, rifampicin, and linezolid. High numbers of airborne multidrug-resistant MR CNS in the homes of persons having contact with a hospital environment indicates that such inhabitants pose a risk of intrafamilial spreading of MR strains via air.

  19. The Role of Home Literacy Environment, Mentalizing, Expressive Verbal Ability, and Print Exposure in Third and Fourth Graders’ Reading Comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, Inouk E.; Mol, Suzanne E.; Jolles, Jelle

    2017-01-01

    Children with a rich home literacy environment generally show better reading comprehension. For children in the higher grades of primary school, this relation is thought to be indirect. We propose a model in which this relation ran via children’s higher order language and cognitive skills (i.e.,

  20. Robotic Services at Home: An Initialization System Based on Robots' Information and User Preferences in Unknown Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Nur Safwati Mohd

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One important issue in robotic services is the construction of the robotic system in the actual environment. In other words, robots must perform environment sensing or have information on real objects, such as location and 3D dimensions, in order to live together with humans. It is crucial to have a mechanism to create an actual robotic system (intelligent space such that there is no initialization framework for the objects in the environment, or we have to perform SLAM and object recognition as well as mapping to generate a useful environmental database. In intelligent space research, normally the objects are attached to various sensors in order to extract the necessary information. However, that approach will highly depend on sensor accuracy and the robotic system will be burdened if there are too many sensors in an environment. Therefore, in this paper we present a system in which a robot can obtain information about an object and even create the furniture layout map for an unknown environment. Our approach is intended to improve home-based robotic services by taking into account the user or individual preferences for the Intelligent Space (IS. With this information, we can create an informational map of the home-based environment for the realization of robot assistance of humans in their daily activities at home, especially for disabled people. The result shows the system design and development in our approach by using model-based system engineering.

  1. Implementation and assessment of an early home-based intervention on infant attachment organisation: the CAPEDP attachment study in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereno, Susana; Guedeney, Nicole; Dugravier, Romain; Greacen, Tim; Saïas, Thomas; Tubach, Florence; Guédeney, Antoine

    2013-06-01

    Attachment is a long-term emotional link between infants and their mothers. Attachment quality influences subsequent psychosocial relationships, the ability to manage stress and, consequently, later mental health. Home intervention programmes targeting infant attachment have been implemented in several contexts with varying degrees of efficacy. Within the CAPEDP study (Parental Skills and Attachment in Early Childhood: reduction of risks linked to mental health problems and promotion of resilience), a subsample of 120 families were recruited with the objective of assessing the impact of this home-visiting programme on infant attachment organisation using the Strange Situation Procedure. The present paper describes the methodology used in this ancillary study.

  2. Hypothalamic obesity after treatment for craniopharyngioma: the importance of the home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijneke, Ruud W H; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y N; de Boer, Nienke Y; van Zundert, Suzanne; van Trotsenburg, Paul A S; Stoelinga, Femke; van Santen, Hanneke M

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamic obesity after treatment for craniopharyngioma is a well-recognized, severe problem. Treatment of hypothalamic obesity is difficult and often frustrating for the patient, the parents and the professional care-giver. Because hypothalamic obesity is caused by an underlying medical disorder, it is often assumed that regular diet and exercise are not beneficial to reduce the extraordinarily high body mass index, and in fact, lifestyle interventions have been shown to be insufficient in case of extreme hypothalamic obesity. Nevertheless, it is important to realize that also in this situation, informal care delivered by the family and appropriate parenting styles are required to minimize the obesity problem. We present a case in which weight gain in the home situation was considered unstoppable, and a very early mortality due to complications of the severe increasing obesity was considered inevitable. A permissive approach toward food intake became leading with rapid weight increase since a restrictive lifestyle was considered a senseless burden for the child. By admission to our hospital for a longer period of time, weight reduction was realized, and the merely permissive approach could be changed into active purposeful care by adequate information, instruction, guidance and encouragement of the affected child and her parents. This case illustrates that, although this type of obesity has a pathological origin, parental and environmental influences remain of extreme importance.

  3. Team functioning as a predictor of patient outcomes in early medical home implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Frances M; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Yoon, Jean

    2018-03-12

    New models of patient-centered primary care such as the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) depend on high levels of interdisciplinary primary care team functioning to achieve improved outcomes. A few studies have qualitatively assessed barriers and facilitators to optimal team functioning; however, we know of no prior study that assesses PCMH team functioning in relationship to patient health outcomes. The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between primary care team functioning, patients' use of acute care, and mortality. Retrospective longitudinal cohort analysis of patient outcomes measured at two time points (2012 and 2013) after PCMH implementation began in Veterans Health Administration practices. Multilevel models examined practice-level measures of team functioning in relationship to patient outcomes (all-cause and ambulatory care-sensitive condition-related hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and mortality). We controlled for practice-level factors likely to affect team functioning, including leadership support, provider and staff burnout, and staffing sufficiency, as well as for individual patient characteristics. We also tested the model among a subgroup of vulnerable patients (homeless, mentally ill, or with dementia). In adjusted analyses, higher team functioning was associated with lower mortality (OR = 0.92, p = .04) among all patients and with fewer all-cause admissions (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.90, p team functioning within PCMH models for achieving improved patient outcomes. A focus on team functioning is important especially in the early implementation of team-based primary care models.

  4. Correlates of quality of life for individuals with dementia living at home: the role of home environment, caregiver, and patient-related characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitlin, Laura N; Hodgson, Nancy; Piersol, Catherine Verrier; Hess, Edward; Hauck, Walter W

    2014-06-01

    To examine prevalence of modifiable risk factors and their contribution to patient quality of life (QoL) as rated by dementia patients and family caregivers. Cross-sectional. Home environment. 88 patients and their caregivers. Modifiable characteristics of home environments, patients, and caregivers were observed or obtained through interview. Demographics and ratings of patients' QoL were obtained from patients and caregivers. Patients had mean Mini-mental Status Examination (MMSE) score = 17.7 ± 4.6, (range: 10-28) on an average 7.7 ± 2.4 neuropsychiatric behaviors, 6.0 ± 3.1 health conditions and moderate functional challenges; 70.7% (N = 58) had fall risk; 60.5% (N = 52) had sleep problems at least once weekly; and 42.5% (N = 37) had pain. An average of 8.1 ± 5.2 home hazards and 5.4 ± 4.1 adaptations were observed; 51.7% had unmet device/navigation needs. Patients' and caregivers' QoL ratings were unrelated to MMSE; and patients' self-rated QoL was higher than rated by caregivers. Number of health conditions and unmet device/navigation needs were inversely associated with patient self-rated QoL, and number of health conditions, frequency of behaviors, and level of negative communications were inversely associated with caregiver's assessment of patient QoL. Positive endorsement of caregiving was positively associated with caregiver's appraisal of patient QoL. Other factors were unrelated. Most patients lived at home with high fall risk, unmanaged behavioral symptoms, pain, sleep disturbances, environmental challenges, and multiple hazards. Except for health, factors associated with lower QoL differed for patients and caregivers. Results suggest need to improve QoL by addressing modifiable risk factors and tailoring interventions to patient and caregiver perspectives. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Decision-making processes shaping the home food environments of young adult women with and without children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskind, Ilana G; Woodruff, Rebecca C; Ballard, Denise; Cherry, Sabrina T; Daniel, Sandra; Haardörfer, Regine; Kegler, Michelle C

    2017-06-01

    Although young adult women consume the majority of their total daily energy intake from home food sources, the decision-making processes that shape their home food environments have received limited attention. Further, how decision-making may be affected by the transformative experience of motherhood is unknown. In this study, we explore the factors that influence two key decision-making processes-food choices while grocery shopping and the use of non-home food sources-and whether there are differences by motherhood status. In-depth interviews were conducted with 40 women, aged 20-29, living in southwest Georgia. Thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data stratified by whether or not children were present in the home. Decision-making was affected by numerous factors, which differed across groups. In regard to grocery shopping, women with children more frequently discussed the influence of nutrition and the preferences of children, while women without children more frequently discussed the influence of taste and the preferences of other household members. Cost, convenience, weight control, and pre-planning meals emerged as salient in both groups. In regard to the use of non-home food sources, convenience and taste were discussed by both groups, while social factors were only discussed by women without children. The cost of eating out was the only reason cited for eating inside the home, and this factor only emerged among women with children. Motherhood may be an important contributor to the decision-making processes that shape young adult women's home food environments. Interventions may find success in framing messaging to emphasize factors identified as motivating healthy decisions, such as protecting the health of children, and practical strategies may be adapted from those already in use, such as pre-planning and budgeting for healthy meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Home food environment factors associated with the presence of fruit and vegetables at dinner: A direct observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofholz, Amanda C; Tate, Allan D; Draxten, Michelle L; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Berge, Jerica M

    2016-01-01

    Little research exists about the factors influencing the foods available at family meals. This study examines the home food environment factors contributing to the presence of fruit and vegetables at family meals. Home food inventory (HFI) and survey data were collected from low-income, minority families (n = 120) with children 6-12 years old. Observations from video-recorded family dinner meals, totaling 800 videos, were used to measure the frequency at which fruit and vegetables were served. Multiple regression was used to investigate how the fruit and vegetables in the HFI and other home food environment factors were related to the number of days fruit and vegetables were served at dinner during the observation period. Availability and accessibility of fruit and vegetables in the home were each found to be significantly associated with the presence of fruits and vegetables at family dinners. Of the fruit and vegetable categories (i.e., fresh, canned, or frozen), having fresh fruit and vegetables available in the home was found to be most strongly associated with serving fruit and vegetables at dinner, respectively. Higher parent intake of vegetables was associated with the presence of vegetables at dinners, and parent meal planning was associated with the presence of fruit at dinners. Increasing the availability and accessibility of fresh fruit and vegetables in the home may be an effective approach to increasing the presence of fruits and vegetables at family dinners, especially among low-income, minority households. It is also essential to understand why families are not using all fruits and vegetables (e.g., canned and frozen) available in the home for family meals. Family meals are a place to promote the increased presence of both fruit and vegetables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between a Child’s Cognitive Skills Andthe Inclusion of Age Appropriate Toys in the Home Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Kavousipor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: With respect to the significance of toys, playing, and the home environment on children’s development, the present study investigates the relationship between gross motor and fine motor toys existing athome and in the home environment, withchild cognitive skills such as problem-solving, communication, and personal–social skills. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with the participation of 140 mother–child couples (children between the ages of 18 and42 months of age randomly selected from the healthcare centers of the city of Shiraz. Employing the questionnaire of the Affordance in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Self Report (AHEMD-SR and the Ages & Stages Questionnaires®, Third Edition (ASQ-3™, both of which have validity and reliability in Iran, the required data were collected,the relationship between children’s cognitive development was evaluated by ASQ, and the toys and the home environment evaluated by AHEMD-SR was calculated by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: Studying the relationships revealed that playing with toys related to gross movement stimulation have weak correlations with all three skills of theASQ considered in the present study, i.e.,communication(r=0.218, P=0.001, problem solving(r=0.168, P=0.02, andpersonal–social skills(r=0.187, P=0.04. Nevertheless, toys related to fine movement stimulation had very low correlations.In addition, the final score of the AHEMD-SR, including toys and other aspects of the home environment, indicate an important relationship with the personal–social skill item of the ASQ (r=0.367, P=0.02. Conclusion: With regard to the findings of the present study, theinside-home space characteristic and playing with appropriate toys maymotivate the child’s cognitive development. Making parents and healthcare officials aware ofthe appropriate toys and the home environment, therefore, seems to be necessary.

  8. Early results of experiments with responsive open learning environments

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, M.; Wolpers, M.; Shen, R.; Ullrich, C.; Klamma, R.; Renzel, D.; Richert, A.; Heiden, B. von der

    2011-01-01

    Responsive open learning environments (ROLEs) are the next generation of personal learning environments (PLEs). While PLEs rely on the simple aggregation of existing content and services mainly using Web 2.0 technologies, ROLEs are transforming lifelong learning by introducing a new infrastructure on a global scale while dealing with existing learning management systems, institutions, and technologies. The requirements engineering process in highly populated test-beds is as important as the t...

  9. Assessment of nutrition and physical activity environments in family child care homes: modification and psychometric testing of the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber E. Vaughn

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early care and education (ECE settings play an important role in shaping the nutrition and physical activity habits of young children. Increasing research attention is being directed toward family child care homes (FCCHs specifically. However, existing measures of child care nutrition and physical activity environments are limited in that they have been created for use with center-based programs and require modification for studies involving FCCHs. This paper describes the modification of the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO for use in FCCHs. Methods The EPAO underwent a through modification process that incorporated an updated format for the data collection instrument, assessment of emerging best practices, tailoring to the FCCH environment, and creation of a new scoring rubric. The new instrument was implemented as part of a larger randomized control trial. To assess inter-rater reliability, observations on 61 different days were performed independently by two data collectors. To assess construct validity, associations between EPAO scores and measures of children’s dietary intake (Healthy Eating Index (HEI score and physical activity (accelerometer-measured minutes per hour of moderate to vigorous physical activity, MVPA were examined. Results The modified EPAO assesses 38 nutrition and 27 physical activity best practices, which can be summarized into 7 nutrition-related and 10 physical activity-related environmental sub- scores as well as overall nutrition and overall physical activity scores. There was generally good agreement between data collectors (ICC > 0.60. Reliability was slightly lower for feeding practices and physical activity education and professional development (ICC = 0.56 and 0.22, respectively. Child HEI was significantly correlated with the overall nutrition score (r = 0.23, foods provided (r = 0.28, beverages provided (r = 0.15, nutrition education and professional

  10. Assessment of nutrition and physical activity environments in family child care homes: modification and psychometric testing of the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Amber E; Mazzucca, Stephanie; Burney, Regan; Østbye, Truls; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Tovar, Alison; Ward, Dianne S

    2017-08-29

    Early care and education (ECE) settings play an important role in shaping the nutrition and physical activity habits of young children. Increasing research attention is being directed toward family child care homes (FCCHs) specifically. However, existing measures of child care nutrition and physical activity environments are limited in that they have been created for use with center-based programs and require modification for studies involving FCCHs. This paper describes the modification of the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) for use in FCCHs. The EPAO underwent a through modification process that incorporated an updated format for the data collection instrument, assessment of emerging best practices, tailoring to the FCCH environment, and creation of a new scoring rubric. The new instrument was implemented as part of a larger randomized control trial. To assess inter-rater reliability, observations on 61 different days were performed independently by two data collectors. To assess construct validity, associations between EPAO scores and measures of children's dietary intake (Healthy Eating Index (HEI) score) and physical activity (accelerometer-measured minutes per hour of moderate to vigorous physical activity, MVPA) were examined. The modified EPAO assesses 38 nutrition and 27 physical activity best practices, which can be summarized into 7 nutrition-related and 10 physical activity-related environmental sub- scores as well as overall nutrition and overall physical activity scores. There was generally good agreement between data collectors (ICC > 0.60). Reliability was slightly lower for feeding practices and physical activity education and professional development (ICC = 0.56 and 0.22, respectively). Child HEI was significantly correlated with the overall nutrition score (r = 0.23), foods provided (r = 0.28), beverages provided (r = 0.15), nutrition education and professional development (r = 0.21), and nutrition policy (r

  11. Parent and child screen-viewing time and home media environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Gama, Augusta; Carvalhal, Isabel Mourão; Nogueira, Helena; Rosado, Vítor; Padez, Cristina

    2012-08-01

    Screen-viewing time has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Data on the predictors of youth screen-viewing time is predominately from older children in North America. Parental and home media environment factors that are associated with screen-viewing time could be targeted in interventions. Examine if parental screen-viewing time and electronic media (access to game equipment, TVs, PCs, and laptops) environment factors were associated with Portuguese children's screen-viewing time and if associations differed by child age (families with children aged 3-10 years. Data were collected in 2009-2010 and analyzed in 2011. Outcomes were child spending ≥2 hours watching TV and ≥1 hour per day playing with combined other media. Exposures were mothers and fathers watching ≥2 hours of TV and electronic media variables. Parental TV-viewing time was strongly associated with child weekday and weekend TV-viewing time across all four gender and age subgroups. Maternal TV-viewing time was a stronger predictor of child TV-viewing time than paternal TV-viewing time. There was very limited evidence that parental TV-viewing time was associated with combined other media time among boys or girls. Access to electronic game equipment increased the likelihood that children spent >1 hour using combined other media on weekdays and weekend days. Parental TV-viewing time was associated with Portuguese children's TV-viewing time. The numbers of TVs in the household and electronic games equipment access were also associated with TV- and combined other media-viewing/usage time. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationships between frequency of family meals, BMI and nutritional aspects of the home food environment among New Zealand adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Jennifer; Scragg, Robert; Schaaf, David; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni

    2008-10-23

    Previous research has documented the positive effects of family meals on the dietary quality of adolescents. The objective of the current study is to examine associations between frequency of family meals and body mass index (BMI), other aspects of the home food environment, and related nutrition behaviors. Data were collected during baseline measurements of the Pacific Obesity Prevention In Communities study. In total, 3245 ethnically diverse students completed a questionnaire about their nutrition behaviors and were weighed and measured for height. In total, 42% of adolescents ate a family meal on all of the previous five school nights. Frequency of family meals was modestly associated with BMI in bivariate analysis (p = 0.045), but lost significance when demographic characteristics were included in the model. Frequency of family meals was associated with many positive aspects of home food environment and positive nutrition behaviors, including parental support for healthy eating, limits on television use, having fruit available at home, consuming five fruits and vegetables a day, eating breakfast, and bringing lunch from home. Surprisingly, no relationships were observed between frequency of family meals and accessibility and consumption of many high fat/high sugar foods. Our findings suggest that the positive effect of family meals may reflect an overall positive home food environment. Families who have meals together have more healthful foods available at home and support their child in eating healthfully. There were no relationships between family meals and high fat/high sugar foods; this suggest that while families may prioritize eating together, messages about limiting the availability and consumption of these snack foods are not getting through.

  13. Relationships between frequency of family meals, BMI and nutritional aspects of the home food environment among New Zealand adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaaf David

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has documented the positive effects of family meals on the dietary quality of adolescents. The objective of the current study is to examine associations between frequency of family meals and body mass index (BMI, other aspects of the home food environment, and related nutrition behaviors. Methods Data were collected during baseline measurements of the Pacific Obesity Prevention In Communities study. In total, 3245 ethnically diverse students completed a questionnaire about their nutrition behaviors and were weighed and measured for height. Results In total, 42% of adolescents ate a family meal on all of the previous five school nights. Frequency of family meals was modestly associated with BMI in bivariate analysis (p = 0.045, but lost significance when demographic characteristics were included in the model. Frequency of family meals was associated with many positive aspects of home food environment and positive nutrition behaviors, including parental support for healthy eating, limits on television use, having fruit available at home, consuming five fruits and vegetables a day, eating breakfast, and bringing lunch from home. Surprisingly, no relationships were observed between frequency of family meals and accessibility and consumption of many high fat/high sugar foods. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the positive effect of family meals may reflect an overall positive home food environment. Families who have meals together have more healthful foods available at home and support their child in eating healthfully. There were no relationships between family meals and high fat/high sugar foods; this suggest that while families may prioritize eating together, messages about limiting the availability and consumption of these snack foods are not getting through.

  14. Mealtime family interactions in home environments of children with loss of control eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Julia; Hartmann, Andrea Sabrina; Rief, Winfried; Hilbert, Anja

    2011-06-01

    Experimental and self-report studies have shown that parents have a strong influence on their normal or overweight children's eating behavior, i.e. through parental feeding behavior or communication. Studies in children with loss of control (LOC) eating that have investigated this relationship are scarce, and ecologically valid observational studies are missing. This study examined family functioning at mealtimes in home environments in 43 families of a child with LOC eating and 31 families of a child without LOC eating; the children were 8-13 years old. Familial interactions, child eating behavior, and parental mealtime behavior were assessed using the Mealtime Family Interaction Coding System, observation of bite speed of the child, and self-report questionnaires. Less healthy patterns of communication (U=201.53, pchild with LOC eating compared to those without LOC eating. Children with LOC eating (M=4.73, SD=1.88) ate faster than controls (M=3.71, SD=1.19; pchild's eating behavior. Parent-child communication training should be tested as an intervention for children with LOC episodes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Parenting characteristics in the home environment and adolescent overweight: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Wall, Melanie; Bauer, Katherine W; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2010-04-01

    Parenting style and parental support and modeling of physical activity and healthy dietary intake have been linked to youth weight status, although findings have been inconsistent across studies. Furthermore, little is known about how these factors co-occur, and the influence of the coexistence of these factors on adolescents' weight. This article examines the relationship between the co-occurrence of various parenting characteristics and adolescents' weight status. Data are from Project EAT (eating among teens), a population-based study of 4,746 diverse adolescents. Theoretical and latent class groupings of parenting styles and parenting practices were created. Regression analyses examined the relationship between the created variables and adolescents' BMI. Having an authoritarian mother was associated with higher BMI in sons. The co-occurrence of an authoritarian mother and neglectful father was associated with higher BMI for sons. Daughters' whose fathers did not model or encourage healthy behaviors reported higher BMIs. The co-occurrence of neither parent modeling healthy behaviors was associated with higher BMIs for sons, and incongruent parental modeling and encouraging of healthy behaviors was associated with higher BMIs in daughters. Although, further research into the complex dynamics of the home environment is needed, findings indicate that authoritarian parenting style is associated with higher adolescent weight status and incongruent parenting styles and practices between mothers and fathers are associated with higher adolescent weight status.

  16. Path Planning Method for UUV Homing and Docking in Movement Disorders Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheping Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Path planning method for unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV homing and docking in movement disorders environment is proposed in this paper. Firstly, cost function is proposed for path planning. Then, a novel particle swarm optimization (NPSO is proposed and applied to find the waypoint with minimum value of cost function. Then, a strategy for UUV enters into the mother vessel with a fixed angle being proposed. Finally, the test function is introduced to analyze the performance of NPSO and compare with basic particle swarm optimization (BPSO, inertia weight particle swarm optimization (LWPSO, EPSO, and time-varying acceleration coefficient (TVAC. It has turned out that, for unimodal functions, NPSO performed better searching accuracy and stability than other algorithms, and, for multimodal functions, the performance of NPSO is similar to TVAC. Then, the simulation of UUV path planning is presented, and it showed that, with the strategy proposed in this paper, UUV can dodge obstacles and threats, and search for the efficiency path.

  17. Food Insecurity and Rural Adolescent Personal Health, Home, and Academic Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafelt, Amy; Hearst, Mary O; Wang, Qi; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2016-06-01

    Food-insecure (FIS) adolescents struggle in school and with health and mental health more often than food-secure (FS) adolescents. Rural communities experience important disparities in health, but little is known about rural FIS adolescents. This study aims to describe select characteristics of rural adolescents by food-security status. Baseline analysis using data from a randomized trial to increase school breakfast participation (SBP) in rural Minnesota high schools. Students completed a survey regarding food security, characteristics, and home and school environments. Schools provided academic data and staff measured height and weight. Food security was dichotomized as FS vs FIS. Bivariate analysis, multivariate linear/logistic regression, and testing for interaction of food security and sex were performed. Food-insecure adolescents reported poorer health, less exercise, had lower grades, and higher SBP (p breakfast (p = .05). All associations except reported benefits remained significant after adjustment. Interactions were identified with girls' grade point average and with boys' caloric and added sugar intake. Negative associations among food insecurity and positive youth development are identified in our sample. Policy and environmental strategies should address the complexities of these associations, including exploration of the role of school meals. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  18. More than downloading : Visualization of data produced by sensors in a home environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bremstedt Pedersen, Ivan; Andersson, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    A home automation system usually contains a set of tools that users use to control devices in their homes, often remotely. These devices often include but are not limited to light switches, thermostats, thermometers, window blinds, and climate controls. The potential for these kinds of systems is huge because of the sheer number of devices that could be controlled and managed with minimal and inexpensive extra hardware. Many of the appliances in a normal home could benefit from being connecte...

  19. Recognition of Voice Commands by Multisource ASR and Noise Cancellation in a Smart Home Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Vacher , Michel; Lecouteux , Benjamin; Portet , François

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present a multisource ASR system to detect home automation orders in various everyday listening conditions in a realistic home. The system is based on a state of the art echo cancellation stage that feeds recently introduced ASR techniques. The evaluation was conducted on a realistic noisy data set acquired in a smart home where a microphone was placed near the noise source and several other microphones were placed in different rooms. This distant spe...

  20. Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development: A Cross-Cultural Study between American and Lebanese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diala Ammar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts have been devoted to map the relations between the home environment and selected aspects of child’s development. A recent instrument was developed that aimed at assessing the affordances in the home environment, the AHEMD-SR. Although the AHEMD-SR gave insight into affordances in the home, it was focused on two specific populations from the United States and Portugal. Currently, there is limited research regarding the validity of this instrument when used in different cultures. The purpose of this study was to compare a sample of Middle Eastern children to the normative sample that was used to validate the AHEMD. Results showed a significance difference between the socioeconomic statuses between the groups. Concerning factor analysis, results showed that the Lebanese group had five factors loading as did the American/Portuguese sample but with variables loading differently. Interestingly, the Lebanese group showed higher scores for affordances inside the home such replica toys and games. Our findings show that the state of the environment may play a role in the affordances and development. Future work is needed to look at the specific loading and possible variables that may be included in the AHMED-SR to look at other cultures that may have other limitations.

  1. Family Child Care Learning Environments: Caregiver Knowledge and Practices Related to Early Literacy and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Beth M.; Morse, Erika E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a stratified-random survey of family child care providers' backgrounds, caregiving environments, practices, attitudes, and knowledge related to language, literacy, and mathematics development for preschool children. Descriptive results are consistent with prior studies suggesting that home-based providers are…

  2. Children's Early Literacy Environment in Chinese and American Indian Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-lei; Bernas, Ronan; Eberhard, Philippe

    This study examined how Chinese and American Indian mothers support their young children's early literacy development in everyday interactions. Twenty mother-child dyads in each cultural community participated in the study. Analysis of videotaped interactions indicated that the mothers in the two communities differed greatly in the ways they…

  3. Structure, environment and strategic outcome: a study of Pennsylvania nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaronson, W E; Zinn, J S; Rosko, M D

    1995-02-01

    This study applies Porter's model of competitive advantage to the nursing home industry. Discriminant analysis is used to identify organizational and environmental characteristics associated with nursing homes which have demonstrated valued strategic outcomes, and to distinguish the more successful nursing homes from their rivals. The results of the discriminant analysis suggest that nursing homes with superior payer mix outcomes are distinguishable from their less successful rivals in areas associated with a focused generic strategy. The study suggests that nursing homes which are better staffed, of smaller size and lower price are more likely to achieve high levels of self-pay utilization. Independent living units, continuing care retirement communities in particular, are likely to act synergistically with nursing home organizational characteristics to enhance competitive advantage by linking the value chain of the nursing home to that of retirement housing. Nursing homes with higher proportions of Medicare were found to provide a unique product when compared to their rivals. Profit status does not discriminate better self-pay strategic utilization, but for-profit facilities are more likely to pursue a Medicare strategy. Concern was raised that, as nursing homes become more strategically oriented, Medicaid access may become more problematic.

  4. Prescription drugs in nursing homes: managing costs and quality in a complex environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Dan; Ramchand, Rajeev; Abramson, Richard; Tumlinson, Anne

    2002-11-12

    This brief provides a description of prescription drug use in nursing homes and a summary of current policy issues in this area. The brief first profiles the nursing home pharmaceutical market, outlining the major trends in demographics and drug utilization, the supply chain by which drugs go from manufacturers to pharmacies to nursing home residents, and the alternative arrangements by which prescription drugs in nursing homes are financed. The brief then provides a synopsis of current policy issues, focusing in turn on cost containment and quality improvement initiatives.

  5. 'right@home': a randomised controlled trial of sustained nurse home visiting from pregnancy to child age 2 years, versus usual care, to improve parent care, parent responsivity and the home learning environment at 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeld, Sharon; Price, Anna; Bryson, Hannah; Bruce, Tracey; Mensah, Fiona; Orsini, Francesca; Gold, Lisa; Hiscock, Harriet; Smith, Charlene; Bishop, Lara; Jackson, Dianne; Kemp, Lynn

    2017-03-20

    By the time children start school, inequities in learning, development and health outcomes are already evident. Sustained nurse home visiting (SNHV) offers a potential platform for families experiencing adversity, who often have limited access to services. While SNHV programmes have been growing in popularity in Australia and internationally, it is not known whether they can improve children's learning and development when offered via the Australian service system. The right@home trial aims to investigate the effectiveness of an SNHV programme, offered to women from pregnancy to child age 2 years, in improving parent care of and responsivity to the child, and the home learning environment. Pregnant Australian women (n=722) are identified after completing a screening survey of 10 factors known to predict children's learning and development (eg, young pregnancy, poor mental or physical health, lack of support). Consenting women-surveyed while attending clinics at 10 hospitals in Victoria and Tasmania-are enrolled if they report having 2 or more risk factors. The intervention comprises 25 home visits from pregnancy to 2 years, focusing on parent care of the child, responsivity to the child and providing a good quality home learning environment. The standard, universal, Australian child and family health service provides the comparator (control). Primary outcome measures include a combination of parent-reported and objective assessments of children's sleep, safety, nutrition, parenting styles and the home learning environment, including the Home Observation of the Environment Inventory and items adapted from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. This study is approved by the Royal Children's Hospital Human Research Ethics Committees (HREC 32296) and site-specific HRECs. The investigators and sponsor will communicate the trial results to stakeholders, participants, healthcare professionals, the public and other relevant groups via presentations and

  6. Planned home compared with planned hospital births in the Netherlands: intrapartum and early neonatal death in low-risk pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooy, Jacoba; Poeran, Jashvant; de Graaf, Johanna P; Birnie, Erwin; Denktasş, Semiha; Steegers, Eric A P; Bonsel, Gouke J

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the intrapartum and early neonatal mortality rate of planned home birth with planned hospital birth in community midwife-led deliveries after case mix adjustment. The perinatal outcome of 679,952 low-risk women was obtained from the Netherlands Perinatal Registry (2000-2007). This group represents all women who had a choice between home and hospital birth. Two different analyses were performed: natural prospective approach (intention-to-treat-like analysis) and perfect guideline approach (per-protocol-like analysis). Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated. Case mix was based on the presence of at least one of the following: congenital abnormalities, small for gestational age, preterm birth, or low Apgar score. We also investigated the potential risk role of intended place of birth. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression was used to investigate the potential risk role of intended place of birth. Intrapartum and neonatal death at 0-7 days was observed in 0.15% of planned home compared with 0.18% in planned hospital births (crude relative risk 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71-0.91). After case mix adjustment, the relation is reversed, showing nonsignificant increased mortality risk of home birth (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.91-1.21). In certain subgroups, additional mortality may arise at home if risk conditions emerge at birth (up to 20% increase). Home birth, under routine conditions, is generally not associated with increased intrapartum and early neonatal death, yet in subgroups, additional risk cannot be excluded.

  7. Do indoor environments influence asthma and asthma-related symptoms among adults in homes? A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the results of epidemiological studies focusing on the detrimental effects of home environmental factors on asthma morbidity in adults. We reviewed the literature on indoor air quality (IAQ, physical and sociodemographic factors, and asthma morbidity in homes, and identified commonly reported asthma, allergic, and respiratory symptoms involving the home environment. Reported IAQ and asthma morbidity data strongly indicated positive associations between indoor air pollution and adverse health effects in most studies. Indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke. Environmental exposure may increase an adult’s risk of developing asthma and also may increase the risk of asthma exacerbations. Evaluation of present IAQ levels, exposure characteristics, and the role of exposure to these factors in relation to asthma morbidity is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity.

  8. The psychology of home environments: a call for research on residential space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lindsay T; Gosling, Samuel D; Travis, Christopher K

    2015-05-01

    Homes are important: People devote much of their thought, time, and resources to selecting, modifying, and decorating their living spaces, and they may be devastated when their homes must be sold or are destroyed. Yet the empirical psychological literature says virtually nothing about the roles that homes might play in people's lives. We argue that homes provide an informative context for a wide variety of studies examining how social, developmental, cognitive, and other psychological processes play out in a consequential real-world setting. The topic of homes is also well suited to collaborations with a diverse array of disciplines ranging from architecture and engineering to sociology and law. We illustrate the potential insights to be gained from studying homes with an exploratory study that maps the psychological ambiances (e.g., romance, comfort, togetherness) that people desire in their homes; we identify six broad ambiance dimensions (restoration, kinship, storage, stimulation, intimacy, productivity) that show mean differences across rooms. We connect these findings to existing work on situation selection in emotion regulation. These ideas provide only an initial foray into the domain of residential space, but they hint at the productive roles that homes and other spaces could play in psychological theorizing and research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Operating environment and USA nursing homes' participation in the subacute care market: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Qaseem, Amir; Mkanta, William

    2009-02-01

    We examined the impact of environmental factors on USA nursing homes' participation in the subacute care market. Findings suggest that the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 did not have a significant impact in the participation of nursing homes in the subacute care market from 1998 to 2000. However, there was a declining trend in the participation of nursing homes in the subacute care market after the implementation of Medicare prospective payment system (PPS). Furthermore, nursing homes with a higher proportion of Medicare residents were more likely to exit the subacute care market after PPS. Results also suggest that nursing homes have responded strategically to the environmental demand for subacute care services. Nursing homes located in markets with higher Medicare managed care penetration were more likely to offer subacute care services. Environmental munificence was also an important predictor of nursing home innovation into subacute care. Nursing homes in states with higher Medicaid reimbursement and those in less competitive markets were more likely to participate in the subacute care market.

  10. 75 FR 68784 - Healthy Indoor Environment Protocols for Home Energy Upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... carefully crafted to stimulate the growth of a vibrant, private sector- led market for residential energy... collaboration to help overcome barriers to these recommended healthy homes actions. Additional resources... assistance and other home energy retrofit program guidance and training materials, and collaboration to help...

  11. Essential elements of the nursing practice environment in nursing homes: Psychometric evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, B.J.M. de; Kaljouw, M.J.; Schoonhoven, L.; Achterberg, T. van

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To develop and psychometrically test the Essentials of Magnetism II in nursing homes. BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers and complex needs of older people in nursing homes strain the nursing workforce. Fewer adequately trained staff and increased care complexity raise concerns about

  12. Early discharge and home care after unplanned cesarean birth: nursing care time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooten, D; Knapp, H; Borucki, L; Jacobsen, B; Finkler, S; Arnold, L; Mennuti, M

    1996-09-01

    This study examined the mean nursing time spent providing discharge planning and home care to women who delivered by unplanned cesarean birth and examined differences in nursing time required by women with and without morbidity. A secondary analysis of nursing time from a randomized trial of transitional care (discharge planning and home follow-up) provided to women after cesarean delivery. An urban tertiary-care hospital. The sample (N = 61) of black and white women who had unplanned cesarean births and their full-term newborn was selected randomly. Forty-four percent of the women had experienced pregnancy complications. Advanced practice nurses provided discharge planning and 8-week home follow-up consisting of home visits, telephone outreach, and daily telephone availability. Nursing time required was dictated by patient need and provider judgment rather than by reimbursement plan. More than half of the women required more than two home visits; mean home visit time was 1 hour. For women who experienced morbidity mean discharge planning time was 20 minutes more and mean home visit time 40 minutes more. Current health care services that provide one or two 1-hour home visits to childbearing women at high risk may not be meeting the education and resource needs of this group.

  13. Drought early warning and risk management in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    Drought has long been recognized as falling into the category of incremental but long-term and cumulative environmental changes, also termed slow-onset or creeping events. These event types would include: air and water quality decline, desertification processes, deforestation and forest fragmentation, loss of biodiversity and habitats, and nitrogen overloading, among others. Climate scientists continue to struggle with recognizing the onset of drought and scientists and policy makers continue to debate the basis (i.e., criteria) for declaring an end to a drought. Risk-based management approaches to drought planning at the national and regional levels have been recommended repeatedly over the years but their prototyping, testing and operational implementation have been limited. This presentation will outline two avenues for disaster risk reduction in the context of drought (1) integrated early warning information systems, and (2) linking disaster risk reduction to climate change adaptation strategies. Adaptation involves not only using operational facilities and infrastructure to cope with the immediate problems but also leaving slack or reserve for coping with multiple stress problems that produce extreme impacts and surprise. Increasing the 'anticipatability' of an event, involves both monitoring of key indicators from appropriate baseline data, and observing early warning signs that assumptions in risk management plans are failing and critical transitions are occurring. Illustrative cases will be drawn from the IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters (2011), the UN Global Assessment of Disaster Risk Reduction (2011) and implementation activities in which the author has been engaged. Most drought early warning systems have tended to focus on the development and use of physical system indicators and forecasts of trends and thresholds. We show that successful early warning systems that meet expectations of risk management also have

  14. ASSOCIATION OF EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES WITH RISK FACTORS IN COMMUNITY HOMES OF INSTITUTO COLOMBIANO DE BIENESTAR FAMILIAR IN ZIPAQUIRÁ, COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Macías, Carmenza; Díaz, Diana; Caycedo, Marta; Lamus, Francisco; Rincón, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: the goal of this study was to establish the association of social and biological risk factors with early childhood caries (ECC) in children from community homes of Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF) in Zipaquirá, Colombia. Methods: descriptive cross-sectional study conducted by universities in 546 children aged 24 to 60 months. The following conditions were identified: socio-demographic variables, hygiene habits, O’Leary index and DMFT index, anthropom...

  15. The dynamic relationship between daily activities, home environment, and identity when living with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærsk, Jesper Larsen

    The importance of daily activities and home to identity when living with advanced cancer Introduction Research within occupational science and gerontology has documented that being engaged in daily activities and having relational bonds to home are important to identity formation. For people living...... with advanced cancer in Denmark it is of priority to be able to live at home for as long as possible. For approximately 80% their home is the preferred place to die. Studies indicate home is the place where people with advanced cancer spent most of their day and are engaged in most of their daily activities...... with advanced cancer in Denmark may experience challenges to how they can form and express their identity through what they do and where they live. Objectives The purpose of this study is to generate knowledge about how people with advanced cancer through their words and actions express: • The importance...

  16. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Oppert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire, CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire. Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively. Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies.

  17. Optimal joint scheduling of electrical and thermal appliances in a smart home environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, Elham; Zakariazadeh, Alireza; Jadid, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal appliances are scheduled based on desired temperature and energy prices. • A discomfort index has been introduced within the home energy scheduling model. • Appliances are scheduled based on activity probability and desired options. • Starting probability depends on the social random factor and consumption behavior. - Abstract: With the development of home area network, residents have the opportunity to schedule their power usage in the home by themselves aiming at reducing electricity expenses. Moreover, as renewable energy sources are deployed in home, a home energy management system needs to consider both energy consumption and generation simultaneously to minimize the energy cost. In this paper, a smart home energy management model has been presented in which electrical and thermal appliances are jointly scheduled. The proposed method aims at minimizing the electricity cost of a residential customer by scheduling various type of appliances considering the residents consumption behavior, seasonal probability, social random factor, discomfort index and appliances starting probability functions. In this model, the home central controller receives the electricity price information, environmental factors data as well as the resident desired options in order to optimally schedule appliances including electrical and thermal. The scheduling approach is tested on a typical home including variety of home appliances, a small wind turbine, photovoltaic panel, combined heat and power unit, boiler and electrical and thermal storages over a 24-h period. The results show that the scheduling of different appliances can be reached simultaneously by using the proposed formulation. Moreover, simulation results evidenced that the proposed home energy management model exhibits a lower cost and, therefore, is more economical.

  18. Early intervention of multiple home visits to prevent childhood obesity in a disadvantaged population: a home-based randomised controlled trial (Healthy Beginnings Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alperstein Garth

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that a proportion of children as young as two years are already overweight. This indicates that obesity prevention programs that commence as early as possible and are family-focused are needed. This Healthy Beginnings Trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial (RCT of a home visiting intervention in preventing the early onset of childhood overweight and obesity. The intervention will be conducted over the first two years of life to increase healthy feeding behaviours and physical activity, decrease physical inactivity, enhance parent-child interaction, and hence reduce overweight and obesity among children at 2 and 5 years of age in the most socially and economically disadvantaged areas of Sydney, Australia. Methods/design This RCT will be conducted with a consecutive sample of 782 first time mothers with their newborn children. Pregnant women who are expecting their first child, and who are between weeks 24 and 34 of their pregnancy, will be invited to participate in the trial at the antenatal clinic. Informed consent will be obtained and participants will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or the control group. The allocation will be concealed by sequentially numbered, sealed opaque envelopes containing a computer generated random number. The intervention comprises eight home visits from a specially trained community nurse over two years and pro-active telephone support between the visits. Main outcomes include a duration of breastfeeding measured at 6 and 12 months, b introduction of solids measured at 4 and 6 months, c nutrition, physical activity and television viewing measured at 24 months, and d overweight/obesity status at age 2 and 5 years. Discussion The results of this trial will ascertain whether the home based early intervention is effective in preventing the early onset of childhood overweight and obesity. If proved to be effective, it

  19. Relationships between the home environment and physical activity and dietary patterns of preschool children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrier, Nicola J; Magarey, Anthea A; Golley, Rebecca; Curnow, Fiona; Sawyer, Michael G

    2008-05-30

    To assess relationships between characteristics of the home environment and preschool children's physical activity and dietary patterns. Homes of 280 preschool children were visited and information obtained by direct observation and parent interview regarding physical and nutritional characteristics of the home environment. Children's physical activity, sedentary behaviour and dietary patterns were measured using standardised parent-report questionnaires. Associations were analysed using analysis of variance and correlation. Parental physical activity (p = 0.03-0.008), size of backyard (p = 0.001) and amount of outdoor play equipment (p = 0.003) were associated with more outdoor play. Fewer rules about television viewing (p playstation (p = 0.02) were associated with more indoor sedentary time. Higher fruit and vegetable intake was associated with restricting children's access to fruit juice (p = 0.02) and restricting high fat/sugar snacks (p = 0.009). Lower intake of non-core foods was associated with restricting children's access to fruit juice (p = 0.007), cordial/carbonated drinks (p < 0.001) and high fat/sugar snacks (p = 0.003). Lower fruit and vegetable intake was associated with reminding child to 'eat up' (p = 0.007) and offering food rewards to eat main meal (p = 0.04). Higher intake of non-core foods was associated with giving food 'treats' (p = 0.03) and offering food rewards to eat main meal (p = 0.04). The availability of food groups in the home was associated with children's intake of these foods (fruit and vegetables, p < 0.001; fat in dairy, p = <0.001; sweetened beverages, p = 0.004-<0.001; non-core foods, p = 0.01-<0.001). Physical attributes of the home environment and parental behaviours are associated with preschool children's physical activity, sedentary behaviour and dietary patterns. Many of these variables are modifiable and could be targeted in childhood obesity prevention and management.

  20. Mobile and Home-based Vendors’ Contributions to the Retail Food Environment in Rural South Texas Mexican-origin Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Zulema; Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R

    2012-01-01

    A growing concern with high rates of obesity and overweight among immigrant minority populations in the U.S. has focused attention on the availability and accessibility to healthy foods in such communities. Small-scale vending in rural, impoverished and underserved areas, however, is generally overlooked; yet, this type of informal activity and source for food is particularly important in such environs, or “food desserts,” where traditional forms of work and mainstream food outlets are limited or even absent. This exploratory study investigates two types of small-scale food vending that take place in rural colonias, or Mexican-origin settlements along the South Texas border with Mexico: mobile and home-based. Using a convenience sample of 23 vendors who live and work in Texas colonias, this study identifies the characteristics associated with mobile and home-based food vendors and their businesses and its contributions to the rural food environment. Findings reveal that mobile and home-based vending provides a variety of food and beverage options to colonia residents, and suggests that home-based vendors contribute a greater assortment of food options, including some healthier food items, than mobile food vendors, which offer and sell a limited range of products. Findings may contribute to the development of innovative policy solutions and interventions aimed at increasing healthy food options or reducing health disparities in immigrant communities. PMID:22531289

  1. Care workers health in Swiss nursing homes and its association with psychosocial work environment: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaini, Suzanne R; Zúñiga, Franziska; Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Simon, Michael; Kunz, Regina; De Geest, Sabina; Schwendimann, Rene

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated poor health of care workers in nursing homes. Yet, little is known about the prevalence of physical and mental health outcomes, and their associations with the psychosocial work environment in nursing homes. (1) To explore the prevalence of physical and mental health outcomes of care workers in Swiss nursing homes, (2) their association with psychosocial work environment. This is a secondary data analysis of the cross-sectional Swiss Nursing Home Human Resources Project (SHURP). We used survey data on socio-demographic characteristics and work environment factors from care workers (N=3471) working in Swiss nursing homes (N=155), collected between May 2012 and April 2013. GEE logistic regression models were used to estimate the relationship between psychosocial work environment and physical and mental health outcomes, taking into account care workers' age. Back pain (19.0%) and emotional exhaustion (24.2%) were the most frequent self-reported physical and mental health. Back pain was associated with increased workload (odds ratios (OR) 1.52, confidence interval (CI) 1.29-1.79), conflict with other health professionals and lack of recognition (OR 1.72, CI 1.40-2.11), and frequent verbal aggression by residents (OR 1.36, CI 1.06-1.74), and inversely associated with staffing adequacy (OR 0.69, CI 0.56-0.84); emotional exhaustion was associated with increased workload (OR 1.96, CI 1.65-2.34), lack of job preparation (OR 1.41, CI 1.14-1.73), and conflict with other health professionals and lack of recognition (OR 1.68, CI 1.37-2.06), and inversely associated with leadership (OR 0.70, CI 0.56-0.87). Physical and mental health among care workers in Swiss nursing homes is of concern. Modifying psychosocial work environment factors offer promising strategies to improve health. Longitudinal studies are needed to conduct targeted assessments of care workers health status, taking into account their age, along with the exposure to all four

  2. The early to mid-Miocene environment of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, A. C.; Lewis, A.

    2012-12-01

    Paleoecological studies in the Transantarctic Mountains of the McMurdo region provide evidence that the climate was both warmer and wetter in the early to mid-Miocene than it was during the late Miocene. The climate change was accompanied by a shift from wet- to cold-based glaciation in the TAM and the probable growth of the polar ice sheet. Terrestrial and freshwater aquatic fossil assemblages from the Friis Hills (77°S) and the Olympus Range (77°S), with endpoint 40Ar/39Ar ages on tephras of 19.76 Ma and 14.07 Ma, respectively, indicate climatic cooling during the interval. At c.14 Ma, the temperature dropped below the threshold required to support the plants and insects of a tundra biome, and they became extinct. This interpretation is supported by pollen studies from Ross Sea cores. The extinction of the tundra biota on the continent appears to have been time-transgressive, occurring at 12.8 Ma on the Antarctic Peninsula. Evidence of climatic cooling from early to mid-Miocene is based on a decrease in biodiversity. During interglacial phases of the early Miocene, the poorly drained valley of the Friis Hills supported a sexually-reproducing moss community dominated by Campylium cf. polygamum, which today grows on the margins of lakes and in soil between boulders. Wood and leaves of Nothofagus (Southern Beech), and the seeds of at least five other angiosperm species are preserved as fossils. In addition, there are abundant megaspores and spiny, curved leaves of the aquatic lycopod Isoetes (Quillwort), as well as chitinous remains of curculionid beetles and Chironomidae (midges). During glacial phases, the only fossils found are Nothofagus leaves of a species which appears to be different than that associated with the interglacial phases. Pollen supports the interpretation that there was more than one species of Nothofagus in the vegetation. The types and numbers of species indicate that the vegetation was a shrub tundra. The closest modern analog for the fossil

  3. An adverse early life environment can enhance stress resilience in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Sara; Zimmermann, Christoph; Kalideris, Georgia; Lesuis, Sylvie L; Arloth, Janine; Uribe, Andrés; Dournes, Carine; Balsevich, Georgia; Hartmann, Jakob; Masana, Mercè; Binder, Elisabeth B; Spengler, Dietmar; Schmidt, Mathias V

    2017-04-01

    Chronic stress is a major risk factor for depression. Interestingly, not all individuals develop psychopathology after chronic stress exposure. In contrast to the prevailing view that stress effects are cumulative and increase stress vulnerability throughout life, the match/mismatch hypothesis of psychiatric disorders. The match/mismatch hypothesis proposes that individuals who experience moderate levels of early life psychosocial stress can acquire resilience to renewed stress exposure later in life. Here, we have tested this hypothesis by comparing the developmental effects of 2 opposite early life conditions, when followed by 2 opposite adult environments. Male Balb/c mice were exposed to either adverse early life conditions (limited nesting and bedding material) or a supportive rearing environment (early handling). At adulthood, the animals of each group were either housed with an ovariectomized female (supportive environment) or underwent chronic social defeat stress (socially adverse environment) for 3 weeks. At the end of the adult manipulations, all of the animals were returned to standard housing conditions. Then, we compared the neuroendocrine, behavioral and molecular effects of the interaction between early and adult environment. Our study shows that early life adversity does not necessarily result in increased vulnerability to stress. Specific endophenotypes, like hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, anxiety-related behavior and glucocorticoid receptor expression levels in the hippocampus were not significantly altered when adversity is experienced during early life and in adulthood, and are mainly affected by either early life or adult life adversity alone. Overall our data support the notion that being raised in a stressful environment prepares the offspring to better cope with a challenging adult environment and emphasize the role of early life experiences in shaping adult responsiveness to stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. Relationships between frequency of family meals, BMI and nutritional aspects of the home food environment among New Zealand adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Utter, Jennifer; Scragg, Robert; Schaaf, David; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous research has documented the positive effects of family meals on the dietary quality of adolescents. The objective of the current study is to examine associations between frequency of family meals and body mass index (BMI), other aspects of the home food environment, and related nutrition behaviors. Methods Data were collected during baseline measurements of the Pacific Obesity Prevention In Communities study. In total, 3245 ethnically diverse students completed a ...

  5. Designing Recreational Virtual Environments for Older Adult Nursing Home Residents - How Nature And Content Matter For Improving Augmented Exercise Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Pedersen, Jon Ram; Serafin, Stefania; Maculewicz, Justyna

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the design for restorative virtual environments (RVEs), specifically developed to augment rehabilitation exercise for older adult users living at nursing homes, in order to increase exercise motivation. User evaluations on these RVE designs suggest that the soundscapes did...... not have a noticeable role for user experience. Moreover, soundscapes might simply be perceived congruent with the visuals, and thus seamlessly accepted by users as an inherent part of the augmented exercise experience....

  6. Ethnic/racial disparities in adolescents' home food environments and linkages to dietary intake and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Eisenberg, Marla E; Berge, Jerica M; Arcan, Chrisa; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Research is needed to confirm that public health recommendations for home/family food environments are equally relevant for diverse populations. This study examined ethnic/racial differences in the home/family environments of adolescents and associations with dietary intake and weight status. The sample included 2374 ethnically/racially diverse adolescents and their parents enrolled in coordinated studies, EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) and Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens), in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area. Adolescents and parents completed surveys and adolescents completed anthropometric measurements in 2009-2010. Nearly all home/family environment variables (n=7 of 8 examined) were found to vary significantly across the ethnic/racial groups. Several of the home/family food environment variables were significantly associated with one or more adolescent outcome in expected directions. For example, parental modeling of healthy food choices was inversely associated with BMI z-score (p=0.03) and positively associated with fruit/vegetable consumption (peating was associated with lower intake of sugar-sweetened beverages only among youth representing the White, African American, Asian, and mixed/other ethnic/racial groups and was unrelated to intake among East African, Hispanic, and Native American youth. Food and nutrition professionals along with other providers of health programs and services for adolescents should encourage ethnically/racially diverse parents to follow existing recommendations to promote healthy eating such as modeling nutrient-dense food choices, but also recognize the need for cultural sensitivity in providing such guidance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Impact of Home Environment Factors on Academic Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in Garki Area District, Abuja - Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    L. T. Dzever

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the impact of home environment factors on the academic performance of public secondary school students in Garki Area District, Abuja, Nigeria. The stratified sampling technique was used to select 300 students from six public schools, while the simple random sampling technique was used to administer the questionnaire. The study utilized a descriptive survey research design for the study. Also, data on student’s academic performance was obtained from student’s scores in four ...

  8. Mitigating effects of the home environment on inattention and overactivity in children adopted from Romanian orphanages: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Audet, Karyn Nicole

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the potential mitigating effects of the adoptive home environment on inattention and overactivity (I/O) in children adopted from Romanian orphanages. Three groups were studied: (1) Children who experienced at least 8 months of deprivation in an orphanage prior to being adopted to British Columbia (RO group), (2) Children adopted to British Columbia from Romanian orphanages prior to 4-months-of-age (EA group), and (3) Canadian born non-adopted children (CB grou...

  9. The analysis and design of urban near-home environments according to psycho-social needs and behavior of human beings

    OpenAIRE

    Serpil, Burçak

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1996. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves 129-132. In this study, the design of urban near-home environments is examined considering the social and psychological needs of human beings as well as human spatial behavior. After an introduction to the concepts such as environment, near-home environments, human-e...

  10. An Efficient Recommendation Filter Model on Smart Home Big Data Analytics for Enhanced Living Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Chen; Xiaoyun Xie; Wanneng Shu; Naixue Xiong

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid growth of wireless sensor applications, the user interfaces and configurations of smart homes have become so complicated and inflexible that users usually have to spend a great amount of time studying them and adapting to their expected operation. In order to improve user experience, a weighted hybrid recommender system based on a Kalman Filter model is proposed to predict what users might want to do next, especially when users are located in a smart home with an enhanced livin...

  11. [Influence of in-home nursing care on the weight of the early discharged preterm newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Miró, R; Lluch Canut, M T; Figueras Aloy, J; Esqué Ruiz, M T; Arroyo Gili, L; Bella Rodríguez, J; Carbonell Estrany, X

    2014-12-01

    In-Home nursing care of the preterm newborn helps to bring the family situation to normal, promotes breastfeeding and development of the newborn, and enables the reorganization of health care resources. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that in-home nursing care of the preterm newborn leads to an increase in weight and a similar morbidity. A total of 65 cases and 65 controls (matched by weight, age and sex) were studied, all of them preterm newborns born in hospital and weighing less than 2100 g at discharge. In-home nursing care was carried out by a pediatrician neonatologist, as well as two nurses specialized in neonatology who made several visits to the home. Weight gain was calculated as g/day and g/Kg/day, comparing the first week of the study with the week prior to the beginning of the study. The groups were comparable. Weight gain in the group with home nursing care was 38 g per day, significantly higher than the weight gain in the control group (31 g/day). The independent predictive variables of the increase in g/Kg/day during the study were in-home nursing care, male gender, breastfeeding less, and not having suffered from a peri-intraventricular hemorrhage. Neonatal morbidity was similar in both groups. In-home care was associated with a greater weight gain of the newborn at home than during their stay in the hospital, and can be considered safe because neonatal morbidity was not increased. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. SVM to detect the presence of visitors in a smart home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Johanna; Larimer, Nicole; Kaye, Jeffrey A; Pavel, Misha; Hayes, Tamara L

    2012-01-01

    With the rising age of the population, there is increased need to help elderly maintain their independence. Smart homes, employing passive sensor networks and pervasive computing techniques, enable the unobtrusive assessment of activities and behaviors of the elderly which can be useful for health state assessment and intervention. Due to the multiple health benefits associated with socializing, accurately tracking whether an individual has visitors to their home is one of the more important aspects of elders' behaviors that could be assessed with smart home technology. With this goal, we have developed a preliminary SVM model to identify periods where untagged visitors are present in the home. Using the dwell time, number of sensor firings, and number of transitions between major living spaces (living room, dining room, kitchen and bathroom) as features in the model, and self report from two subjects as ground truth, we were able to accurately detect the presence of visitors in the home with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.90 and 0.89 for subject 1, and of 0.67 and 0.78 for subject 2, respectively. These preliminary data demonstrate the feasibility of detecting visitors with in-home sensor data, but highlight the need for more advanced modeling techniques so the model performs well for all subjects and all types of visitors.

  13. Double Jeopardy: Poorer Social-Emotional Outcomes for Children in the NICHD SECCYD Experiencing Home and Child-Care Environments that Confer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watamura, Sarah Enos; Phillips, Deborah A.; Morrissey, Taryn W.; McCartney, Kathleen; Bub, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network (NICHD SECCYD), the authors examined whether interactions between home and child-care quality affect children's social-emotional adjustment at 24, 36, and 54 months (N = 771). Triadic splits on quality of home and child care were used to…

  14. Migration to Broadband and Ubiquitous Environments by Using Fiber-Optic Technologies in Access/Home Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Kimio

    2016-03-01

    The recent dramatic advances in information and communication technologies have yielded new environments. However, adoption still differs area by area. To realize the future broadband environment that everyone can enjoy everywhere, several technical issues have to be resolved before network penetration becomes ubiquitous. One such key is the use of fiber optics for the home and mobile services. This article overviews initial observations drawn from numerical survey data gathered over the last decade in several countries/regions, and gives some example scenarios for network/service evolution. One result implies that implementing new/future services must consider the gross domestic product impact.

  15. Digital Disconnect or Digital Difference? A Socio-Ecological Perspective on Young Children's Technology Use in the Home and the Early Childhood Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Susan; Henderson, Michael; Gronn, Donna; Scott, Anne; Mirkhil, Moska

    2017-01-01

    A digital disconnect perspective is founded on an assumption that technology use in the home is frequent, creative and generative, and that technology use in the early childhood centre should be the same as that found in the home. However, such arguments divert our attention from understanding the nature of the setting and thereby from an…

  16. Life style and home environment are associated with racial disparities of asthma and allergy in Northeast Texas children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yuexia, E-mail: ysun@engr.psu.edu [Texas Institute of Allergy, Indoor Environment and Energy (TxAIRE), University of Texas at Tyler, 3900 University Blvd, Tyler, Tx 75799 (United States); Architecture Engineering Department, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Engineering Unit A, State College, PA 16802 (United States); Sundell, Jan, E-mail: ja.sundell@gmail.com [Dept of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Haidian District, Beijing City 100084 (China); The Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Shapingba District, Chongqing City 400030 (China)

    2011-09-15

    A high prevalence and racial disparities in asthma and allergy have been observed in American children. This study aimed to identify risk factors for asthma and allergy among children, and their contribution to racial disparities in allergy prevalence. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out among children aged 1-8 years in Northeast Texas 2008-2009. The health conditions, life style and home environment of 3766 children were surveyed by parental questionnaires through e.g. daycares, elementary school, and medical clinics. Among participants who indicated their ethnicity, 255 were Mexican-Americans, 178 Afro-Americans and 969 Caucasians. Afro-American children had a significantly higher prevalence of asthma and eczema. Caucasian had the highest prevalence of rhinitis. Compared to Mexican-American children, Afro-American and Caucasian children were breast fed shorter time, more often went to day care center, had pets and environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home more often. For all children, being at a day care center, being exposed to dampness and environmental tobacco smoke at home were strong risk factors for asthma and allergy. Central air conditioning system was associated with an increased prevalence of wheeze among Mexican-American children, while pets were associated with an increased risk of rhinitis among Afro-American and Caucasian children. Caucasian children were generally not healthier than relatively poor Mexican-American children. Differences in the prevalence of asthma and allergy between races cannot be explained by socioeconomic status only. Life style and home environmental exposures are important risk factors for asthma and allergy in Northeast Texas children. - Highlights: {yields} This is a general population cross-sectional study in Northeast Texas. {yields} Racial disparity of allergy cannot be explained by socioeconomic status only. {yields} Life style and home environment caused racial disparity of allergy in children

  17. Life style and home environment are associated with racial disparities of asthma and allergy in Northeast Texas children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yuexia; Sundell, Jan

    2011-01-01

    A high prevalence and racial disparities in asthma and allergy have been observed in American children. This study aimed to identify risk factors for asthma and allergy among children, and their contribution to racial disparities in allergy prevalence. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out among children aged 1-8 years in Northeast Texas 2008-2009. The health conditions, life style and home environment of 3766 children were surveyed by parental questionnaires through e.g. daycares, elementary school, and medical clinics. Among participants who indicated their ethnicity, 255 were Mexican-Americans, 178 Afro-Americans and 969 Caucasians. Afro-American children had a significantly higher prevalence of asthma and eczema. Caucasian had the highest prevalence of rhinitis. Compared to Mexican-American children, Afro-American and Caucasian children were breast fed shorter time, more often went to day care center, had pets and environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home more often. For all children, being at a day care center, being exposed to dampness and environmental tobacco smoke at home were strong risk factors for asthma and allergy. Central air conditioning system was associated with an increased prevalence of wheeze among Mexican-American children, while pets were associated with an increased risk of rhinitis among Afro-American and Caucasian children. Caucasian children were generally not healthier than relatively poor Mexican-American children. Differences in the prevalence of asthma and allergy between races cannot be explained by socioeconomic status only. Life style and home environmental exposures are important risk factors for asthma and allergy in Northeast Texas children. - Highlights: → This is a general population cross-sectional study in Northeast Texas. → Racial disparity of allergy cannot be explained by socioeconomic status only. → Life style and home environment caused racial disparity of allergy in children. → Daycare

  18. An Empirical Investigation of the Dimensionality of the Physical Literacy Environment in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Yeager Pelatti, Christina

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the dimensionality of the physical literacy environment of early childhood education classrooms. Data on the classroom physical literacy environment were collected from 245 classrooms using the Classroom Literacy Observation Profile. A combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis was used to identify five…

  19. An Examination of Classroom Social Environment on Motivation and Engagement of College Early Entrant Honors Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    This study set out to examine the relationships between the classroom social environment, motivation, engagement and achievement of a group of early entrant Honors students at a large urban university. Prior research on the classroom environment, motivation, engagement and high ability students was examined, leading to the assumption that the…

  20. Feasibility and Acceptability of an Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention: Results from the Healthy Homes, Healthy Families Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akilah Dulin Keita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of a home-based early childhood obesity prevention intervention designed to empower low-income racially/ethnically diverse parents to modify their children’s health behaviors. Methods. We used a prospective design with pre-/posttest evaluation of 50 parent-child pairs (children aged 2 to 5 years to examine potential changes in dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors among children at baseline and four-month follow-up. Results. 39 (78% parent-child pairs completed evaluation data at 4-month follow-up. Vegetable intake among children significantly increased at follow-up (0.54 cups at 4 months compared to 0.28 cups at baseline, P=0.001 and ounces of fruit juice decreased at follow-up (11.9 ounces at 4 months compared to 16.0 ounces at baseline, P=0.036. Sedentary behaviors also improved. Children significantly decreased time spent watching TV on weekdays (P<0.01 and also reduced weekend TV time. In addition, the number of homes with TV sets in the child’s bedroom also decreased (P<0.0013. Conclusions. The findings indicate that a home-based early childhood obesity prevention intervention is feasible, acceptable and demonstrates short-term effects on dietary and sedentary behaviors of low-income racially/ethnically diverse children.

  1. Comparative characteristics of the home care nursing services used by community-dwelling older people from urban and rural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiak, Ewa; Kostka, Tomasz

    2013-06-01

    To compare home care nursing services use by community-dwelling older people from urban and rural environments in Poland. In the current literature, there is a lack of data based on multidimensional geriatric assessment concerning the provision of care delivered by nurses for older people from urban and rural environments. Cross-sectional random survey. Between 2006-2010, a random sample of 935 older people (over 65 years of age) from an urban environment and 812 from a neighbouring rural environment were interviewed in a cross-sectional survey. The rural dwellers (82·8%) nominated their family members as care providers more often than the city inhabitants (51·2%). Home nursing care was provided to 4·1% of people in the city and 6·5% in the county. Poststroke condition, poor nutritional status, and low physical activity level, as well as low scores for activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and Mini-Mental State Examination values, were all determinants of nursing care, both in urban and rural areas. In the urban environment, additional predictors of nursing care use were age, presence of ischaemic heart disease, diabetes and respiratory disorders, number of medications taken, and a high depression score. Poor functional status is the most important determinant of nursing care use in both environments. In the urban environment, a considerable proportion of community-dwelling elders live alone. In the rural environment, older people usually have someone available for potential care services. The main problem seems to be seeking nursing care only in advanced deterioration of functional status. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Organizational change, psychosocial work environment, and non-disability early retirement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinegaard, Nina; Jensen, Johan Høy; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the impact of organizational change and psychosocial work environment on non-disability early retirement among senior public service employees. Methods: In January and February 2011, Danish senior public service employees aged 58–64 years (N=3254) from the Capital...... psychosocial work environment contribute to non-disability early retirement among senior public service employees, measured at work-unit level....... Region of Denmark responded to a survey assessing psychosocial work environment (ie, social capital, organizational justice, and quality of management). Work-unit organizational changes (ie, change of management, merging, demerging, and relocation) were recorded from January 2009 to March 2011. Weekly...

  3. Pure random search for ambient sensor distribution optimisation in a smart home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P; Nugent, Chris D; Wang, Hui; Chen, Liming

    2011-01-01

    Smart homes are living spaces facilitated with technology to allow individuals to remain in their own homes for longer, rather than be institutionalised. Sensors are the fundamental physical layer with any smart home, as the data they generate is used to inform decision support systems, facilitating appropriate actuator actions. Positioning of sensors is therefore a fundamental characteristic of a smart home. Contemporary smart home sensor distribution is aligned to either a) a total coverage approach; b) a human assessment approach. These methods for sensor arrangement are not data driven strategies, are unempirical and frequently irrational. This Study hypothesised that sensor deployment directed by an optimisation method that utilises inhabitants' spatial frequency data as the search space, would produce more optimal sensor distributions vs. the current method of sensor deployment by engineers. Seven human engineers were tasked to create sensor distributions based on perceived utility for 9 deployment scenarios. A Pure Random Search (PRS) algorithm was then tasked to create matched sensor distributions. The PRS method produced superior distributions in 98.4% of test cases (n=64) against human engineer instructed deployments when the engineers had no access to the spatial frequency data, and in 92.0% of test cases (n=64) when engineers had full access to these data. These results thus confirmed the hypothesis.

  4. Is School a Better Environment than Home for Digital Game-Based Learning? The Case of GraphoGame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miia Ronimus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated how the use of an online reading game differs in home and school environments. First and second graders (N = 194 participated in an 8-week training during which they used the reading program GraphoGame either at home or at school under the supervision of parents or teachers. Child participants were recommended by parents and teachers recruited from the list of GraphoGame users, and adults decided whether the training took place at home or at school. We measured the frequency and duration of playing, children’s engagement, development of reading skill and reading interest, and adult supportive involvement. The results revealed that children who played GraphoGame at school showed higher engagement and used it more frequently than players at home. Although teachers were more involved in the children’s playing than were parents, only parental involvement was significantly associated with a child’s engagement during training and the child’s learning outcomes.

  5. Asthma and obesity among 3 year old urban children: The role of sex and the home environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Chambers, Earle; Rosario, Andres; Duarte, Cristiane S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine whether the relationship between obesity and asthma in young girls and boys can be explained by social and physical characteristics of the home environment. Study design We examined the relationship between asthma and obesity among children in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (N=1815). Asthma was determined through maternal report of asthma diagnosis by a doctor (active in past 12 months). Weight and height of child was measured during an in-home visit. Data on home social (maternal depression, intimate partner violence) and physical environmental factors (housing quality, tobacco exposure) were collected by questionnaire. Results Ten percent of children had active asthma, 19% were overweight and 17% were obese. In fully adjusted models, obese children had twice the odds of having asthma (OR 2.3 95%CI 1.5, 3.3) compared with children of normal body weight. In stratified analyses overweight boys, but not overweight girls, had an increased of odds of asthma. Obese boys and girls had an increased odds of asthma compared with boys and girls of normal body weight. Conclusion The relationship between asthma and obesity is present in boys and girls as young as 3 years of age, a relationship between being overweight and asthma is only present among boys. This relationship is not attributable to shared social and environmental factors of the children’s home. PMID:21392787

  6. Emotional learning of undergraduate medical students in an early nursing attachment in a hospital or nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Prins, Judith; Laan, Roland; Koopmans, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    Entering medicine for the first time is highly impressive for students, but we know little about the actual emotional learning processes taking place. We aimed to get more insight into expectations, experiences and emotions of students during their first clinical experiences in a hospital compared to a nursing home. We carried out a qualitative and a quantitative survey by administering questionnaires about expectations, impressive experiences and learning activities within two cohorts of first-year medical students before and after a 4-week nursing attachment. Despite different expectations, students reported similar experiences and learning activities for the nursing home and the hospital. Most impressive events were related to patient care, being a trainee, or professional identities being challenged. Students in nursing homes most often referred to their own relationships with patients. Students expressed different emotions, and frequently experienced positive and negative emotions at the same time. Rewarding experiences (not only difficult or stressful events) do matter for medical professional development. Students need to learn how to deal with and feel strengthened by the emotions evoked during clinical experiences, which should be supported by educators. The nursing home and the hospital seem to be equally suited as learning environments.

  7. Preparing for the unexpected: violence in the home care environment, one agency's story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Sarah Via; Clark, Rebecca Culver; Glick, Roger E

    2013-06-01

    Home care and hospice agencies, bound by regulations, prepare for emergencies and disasters by creating policies and protocols for management of emergency situations, perhaps conducting table top or other types of drills, and discussing hazards likely to impact home care. Is this preparation merely an exercise to meet a requirement, or is it life-saving preparation? For one home care agency, the emergency exercise saved the day as the scenario enacted in the drill was actually lived out a few weeks after the exercise-a scenario the agency leaders hoped they would never face. This account explores how the agency prepared to meet the emergent situation and details lessons learned in the aftermath.

  8. HOW DO DEGRADABLE/BIODEGRADABLE PLASTIC MATERIALS DECOMPOSE IN HOME COMPOSTING ENVIRONMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Vaverková

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides information about biodegradability of polymeric (biodegradable/degradable materials advertised as 100%-degradable or certified as compostable, which may be a part of biodegradable waste, in home composting conditions. It describes an experiment that took place in home wooden compost bins and contained 9 samples that are commonly available in retail chains in the Czech Republic and Poland. The experiment lasted for the period of 12 weeks. Based on the results thereof it can be concluded that polyethylene samples with additive (samples 2, 4, 7 have not decomposed, their color has not changed and that no degradation or physical changes have occurred. Samples 1, 3 and 5 certified as compostable have not decomposed. Sample 6 exhibited the highest decomposition rate. Samples 8, 9 (tableware exhibited high degree of decomposition. The main conclusion from this study is that degradable/biodegradable plastics or plastics certified as compostable are not suitable for home composting.

  9. Glue Ear, Hearing Loss and IQ: An Association Moderated by the Child’s Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amanda J.; Maw, Richard; Midgley, Elizabeth; Golding, Jean; Steer, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Background Glue ear or otitis media with effusion (OME) is common in children and may be associated with hearing loss (HL). For most children it has no long lasting effects on cognitive development but it is unclear whether there are subgroups at higher risk of sequelae. Objectives To examine the association between a score comprising the number of times a child had OME and HL (OME/HL score) in the first four/five years of life and IQ at age 4 and 8. To examine whether any association between OME/HL and IQ is moderated by socioeconomic, child or family factors. Methods Prospective, longitudinal cohort study: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). 1155 children tested using tympanometry on up to nine occasions and hearing for speech (word recognition) on up to three occasions between age 8 months and 5 years. An OME/HL score was created and associations with IQ at ages 4 and 8 were examined. Potential moderators included a measure of the child’s cognitive stimulation at home (HOME score). Results For the whole sample at age 4 the group with the highest 10% OME/HL scores had performance IQ 5 points lower [95% CI −9, −1] and verbal IQ 6 points lower [95% CI −10, −3] than the unaffected group. By age 8 the evidence for group differences was weak. There were significant interactions between OME/HL and the HOME score: those with high OME/HL scores and low 18 month HOME scores had lower IQ at age 4 and 8 than those with high OME/HL scores and high HOME scores. Adjusted mean differences ranged from 5 to 8 IQ points at age 4 and 8. Conclusions The cognitive development of children from homes with lower levels of cognitive stimulation is susceptible to the effects of glue ear and hearing loss. PMID:24498289

  10. Early home treatment of childhood fevers with ineffective antimalarials is deleterious in the outcome of severe malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumese Peter E

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis and prompt treatment including appropriate home-based treatment of malaria is a major strategy for malaria control. A major determinant of clinical outcome in case management is compliance and adherence to effective antimalarial regimen. Home-based malaria treatment with inappropriate medicines is ineffective and there is insufficient evidence on how this contributes to the outcome of severe malaria. This study evaluated the effects of pre-hospital antimalarial drugs use on the presentation and outcome of severe malaria in children in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods Two hundred and sixty-eight children with a median age of 30 months comprising 114 children with cerebral malaria and 154 with severe malarial anaemia (as defined by WHO were prospectively enrolled. Data on socio-demographic data, treatments given at home, clinical course and outcome of admission were collected and analysed. Results A total of 168 children had treatment with an antimalarial treatment at home before presenting at the hospital when there was no improvement. There were no significant differences in the haematocrit levels, parasite counts and nutritional status of the pre-hospital treated and untreated groups. The most commonly used antimalarial medicine was chloroquine. Treatment policy was revised to Artemesinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT in 2005 as a response to unacceptable levels of therapeutic failures with chloroquine, however chloroquine use remains high. The risk of presenting as cerebral malaria was 1.63 times higher with pre-hospital use of chloroquine for treatment of malaria, with a four-fold increase in the risk of mortality. Controlling for other confounding factors including age and clinical severity, pre-hospital treatment with chloroquine was an independent predictor of mortality. Conclusion This study showed that, home treatment with chloroquine significantly impacts on the outcome of severe malaria. This finding

  11. Continuity and Change in the Home Literacy Environment as Predictors of Growth in Vocabulary and Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénéchal, Monique; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and ten English-speaking children schooled in French were followed from kindergarten to Grade 2 (M[subscript age]: T1 = 5;6, T2 = 6;4, T3 = 6;11, T4 = 7;11). The findings provided strong support for the Home Literacy Model (Sénéchal, M., 2002) because in this sample the home language was independent of the language of instruction. The…

  12. A posture recognition based fall detection system for monitoring an elderly person in a smart home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Rhuma, Adel; Naqvi, Syed Mohsen; Wang, Liang; Chambers, Jonathon

    2012-11-01

    We propose a novel computer vision based fall detection system for monitoring an elderly person in a home care application. Background subtraction is applied to extract the foreground human body and the result is improved by using certain post-processing. Information from ellipse fitting and a projection histogram along the axes of the ellipse are used as the features for distinguishing different postures of the human. These features are then fed into a directed acyclic graph support vector machine (DAGSVM) for posture classification, the result of which is then combined with derived floor information to detect a fall. From a dataset of 15 people, we show that our fall detection system can achieve a high fall detection rate (97.08%) and a very low false detection rate (0.8%) in a simulated home environment.

  13. Differences in beliefs and home environments regarding energy balance behaviors according to parental education and ethnicity among schoolchildren in Europe: the ENERGY cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brug, Johannes; Uijtdewilligen, Léonie; van Stralen, Maartje M; Singh, Amika S; ChinAPaw, Mai J M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lien, Nanna; Bere, Elling; Maes, Lea; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Jan, Nataša; Kovacs, Eva; Dössegger, Alain; Manios, Yannis; te Velde, Saskia J

    2014-06-17

    To explore differences in personal and home environmental factors that are regarded as determinants of energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) according to parental education and ethnic background among 10-12 year old schoolchildren across Europe. A school-based survey among 10-12 year olds was conducted in eight countries across Europe. A range of personal and home environment variables relevant for soft drink consumption, daily breakfast, sport participation and TV time was assessed by means of child report. Personal factors included attitude, health beliefs, and preference/liking. Home environment factors included parental subjective norm, modeling, support, practices and home availability. Children were classified based on parental education (i.e., low vs. high) and ethnic background (i.e., native vs. non-native). Data from 6018 children originating from 83 schools were included in the analyses. Multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that the majority of the factors tested -and especially home environment variables- were more favorable among children from higher educated parents and from native ethnicity. None of the personal and home environment factors was found to be more favorable among children from lower educated parents or non-native ethnicity. The present study indicates that schoolchildren from lower educated and non-native parents across Europe have EBRB-related beliefs and are exposed to home environments that are less favorable for engagement in healthy EBRBs.

  14. Work and Family Environments and the Adoption of Computer-Supported Supplemental Work-at-Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, Linda Elizabeth; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey received responses from 307 men and 147 women in managerial/professional positions. Those who use computers for work at home after office hours had higher task variety, role overload, work-family interference, and stress. However, there were no significant differences in marital and family satisfaction of those who did supplemental work…

  15. Children's food choice process in the home environment. A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsten, Joanna E; Deatrick, Janet A; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Compher, Charlene W

    2012-02-01

    This qualitative descriptive study explored children's food choices in the home with particular attention to environmental influences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11- to 14-year-old children (n=47) from one middle school. A data-driven content analysis using selected principles of grounded theory was performed. Children's food choices in the home emerged as a process that involved three interacting components, the child, the parent, and the food, embedded within the context of time. Children's structured activities throughout the day, week, and year provided an overall context for food choices. Parents affected children's food choices through their presence in the home, time pressure and activity prioritization, incorporation of family members' preferences, food preparation effort and skills, and financial and health concerns. Parents created food options through food purchasing and preparation and indirectly affected children's food choices by setting rules, providing information, and modeling behaviors. Children affected parents' decisions by communicating food preferences. For children, important aspects of the food itself included its availability at home and attributes related to taste, preparation, and cost. Children evaluated potential food options based on their hunger level, food preferences, time pressure and activity prioritization, food preparation effort and skills, and expected physical consequences of food. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Home Language Environment of Monolingual and Bilingual Children and Their Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheele, Anna F.; Leseman, Paul P. M.; Mayo, Aziza Y.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between home language learning activities and vocabulary in a sample of monolingual native Dutch (n = 58) and bilingual immigrant Moroccan-Dutch (n = 46) and Turkish-Dutch (n = 55) 3-year-olds, speaking Tarifit-Berber, a nonscripted language, and Turkish as their first language (L1), respectively. Despite…

  17. Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multifamily Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Arikian, Aimee; Doherty, William J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore multiple family members' perceptions of risk and protective factors for healthful eating and physical activity in the home. Design: Ten multifamily focus groups were conducted with 26 families. Setting and Participants: Community setting with primarily black and white families. Family members (n = 103) were aged 8 to 61…

  18. Perceptions of the Home Environments of Graduate Students Raised in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jacqueline S.; Juntune, Joyce

    2018-01-01

    Current literature has identified a growing achievement gap experienced by students raised in poverty. However, some students from poverty can defeat the odds and succeed academically with advanced degrees. Nine graduate students self-identified as being raised in poverty participated in this study. The home-related experiences that led to their…

  19. Early home-based intervention in the Netherlands for children at familial risk of dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Otterloo, S.G.; van der Leij, A.; Henrichs, L.F.

    2009-01-01

    Dutch children at higher familial risk of reading disability received a home-based intervention programme before formal reading instruction started to investigate whether this would reduce the risk of dyslexia. The experimental group (n=23) received a specific training in phoneme awareness and

  20. Early Home-Based Intervention in the Netherlands for Children at Familial Risk of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Otterloo, Sandra G.; van der Leij, Aryan; Henrichs, Lotte F.

    2009-01-01

    Dutch children at higher familial risk of reading disability received a home-based intervention programme before formal reading instruction started to investigate whether this would reduce the risk of dyslexia. The experimental group (n = 23) received a specific training in phoneme awareness and letter knowledge. A control group (n = 25) received…

  1. Interpersonal Psychotherapy with a Parenting Enhancement Adapted for In-Home Delivery in Early Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeber, Linda S.; Schwartz, Todd A.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Canuso, Regina; Lewis, Virginia; Matsuda, Yui

    2014-01-01

    Formidable barriers prevent low-income mothers from accessing evidence-based treatment for depressive symptoms that compromise their ability to provide sensitive, responsive parenting for their infant or toddler. interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), an evidence-based psychotherapy for depression, was tailored for in-home delivery to mothers…

  2. Work environment characteristics associated with quality of care in Dutch nursing homes: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Ramona; Rossum, Erik van; Verbeek, Hilde; Halfens, Ruud J G; Tan, Frans E S; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Hamers, Jan P H

    2017-01-01

    A lack of relationship between direct care staffing levels and quality of care, as found in prior studies, underscores the importance of considering the quality of the work environment instead of only considering staff ratios. Only a few studies, however, have combined direct care staffing with work environment characteristics when assessing the relationship with quality of care in nursing homes. To examine the relationship between direct care staffing levels, work environment characteristics and perceived quality of care in Dutch nursing homes. Cross-sectional, observational study in cooperation with the Dutch Prevalence Measurement of Care Problems. Twenty-four somatic and 31 psychogeriatric wards from 21 nursing homes in the Netherlands. Forty-one ward managers and 274 staff members (registered nurses or certified nurse assistants) from the 55 participating wards. Ward rosters were discussed with managers to obtain an insight into direct care staffing levels (i.e, total direct care staff hours per resident per day). Participating staff members completed a questionnaire on work environment characteristics (i.e., ward culture, team climate, communication and coordination, role model availability, and multidisciplinary collaboration) and they rated the quality of care in their ward. Data were analyzed using multilevel linear regression analyses (random intercept). Separate analyses were conducted for somatic and psychogeriatric wards. In general, staff members were satisfied with the quality of care in their wards. Staff members from psychogeriatric wards scored higher on the statement 'In the event that a family member had to be admitted to a nursing home now, I would recommend this ward'. A better team climate was related to better perceived quality of care in both ward types (p≤0.020). In somatic wards, there was a positive association between multidisciplinary collaboration and agreement by staff of ward recommendation for a family member (p=0.028). In

  3. Randomized trial of the ForeseeHome monitoring device for early detection of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The HOme Monitoring of the Eye (HOME) study design - HOME Study report number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Emily Y; Clemons, Traci E; Bressler, Susan B; Elman, Michael J; Danis, Ronald P; Domalpally, Amitha; Heier, Jeffrey S; Kim, Judy E; Garfinkel, Richard A

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of a home-monitoring device with tele-monitoring compared with standard care in detection of progression to choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the US. Participants, aged 55 to 90 years, at high risk of developing CNV associated with AMD were recruited to the HOme Monitoring of Eye (HOME) Study, an unmasked, multi-center, randomized trial of the ForeseeHome (FH) device plus standard care vs. standard care alone. The FH device utilizes preferential hyperacuity perimetry and tele-monitoring to detect changes in vision function associated with development of CNV, potentially prior to symptom and visual acuity loss. After establishing baseline measurements, subsequent changes on follow-up are detected by the device, causing the monitoring center to alert the clinical center to recall participants for an exam. Standard care consists of instructions for self-monitoring visual changes with subsequent self-report to the clinical center. The primary objective of this study is to determine whether home monitoring plus standard care in comparison with standard care alone, results in earlier detection of incident CNV with better present visual acuity. The primary outcome is the decline in visual acuity at CNV diagnosis from baseline. Detection of CNV prior to substantial vision loss is critical as vision outcome following anti-angiogenic therapy is dependent on the visual acuity at initiation of treatment. HOME Study is the first large scale study to test the use of home tele-monitoring system in the management of AMD patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Home literacy experiences and early childhood disability: a descriptive study using the National Household Education Surveys (NHES) program database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit-Smith, Allison; Cabell, Sonia Q; Justice, Laura M

    2010-01-01

    The present article illustrates how the National Household Education Surveys (NHES; U.S. Department of Education, 2009) database might be used to address questions of relevance to researchers who are concerned with literacy development among young children. Following a general description of the NHES database, a study is provided that examines the extent to which parent-reported home literacy activities and child emergent literacy skills differ for children with (a) developmental disabilities versus those who are developing typically, (b) single disability versus multiple disabilities, and (c) speech-language disability only versus other types of disabilities. Four hundred and seventy-eight preschool-age children with disabilities and a typically developing matched sample (based on parent report) were identified in the 2005 administration of the Early Childhood Program Participation (ECPP) Survey in the NHES database. Parent responses to survey items were then compared between groups. After controlling for age and socioeconomic status, no significant differences were found in the frequency of home literacy activities for children with and without disabilities. Parents reported higher levels of emergent literacy skills for typically developing children relative to children with disabilities. These findings suggest the importance of considering the home literacy experiences and emergent literacy skills of young children with disabilities when making clinical recommendations.

  5. Effects of the level of early productivity on the lifespan of ewes in contrasting flock environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douhard, F; Jopson, N B; Friggens, N C; Amer, P R

    2016-12-01

    Selection for high levels of prolificacy has allowed substantial improvements in the production efficiency of New Zealand (NZ) sheep farms, but the consequences on ewe lifetime performance are mostly unknown. In this study, the relationship between the level of prolificacy early in ewes' productive lives and their probability to survive later (i.e. stayability) was evaluated in two contrasting NZ flock environments. Records were obtained from 6605 ewes from four ram breeder flocks representing either a moderate (n=2) or a highly variable (n=2) nutritional environment. All ewes lambed for the first time at 2 years of age and were mated the following year. The number of lambs born during the first 2 years of productive life (NLB2-3) was used as a measure of early prolificacy. Effects of NLB2-3 on stayability to 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 years old were analysed using logistic regression. Curvilinear effects (logit-transformed) were detected (Pewe stayability was reduced when the proportion of the litter that survived from birth to weaning (i.e. ewe rearing ability) was submaximal during the early productive life. High prolific ewes had a low rearing ability whatever the environment whereas the rearing ability of lowly prolific ewes was apparently more sensitive to the nutritional environment. The poor maternal performance of ewes with low levels of NLB2-3 led to a premature culling by breeders whereas the high early reproductive effort associated with high levels of NLB2-3 seemed to be at the cost of ewes' survival, even in the moderate flock environment. In conclusion, the flock environment influenced the level of early prolificacy beyond which ewe longevity was reduced. It is suggested that further selection for high and early prolificacy in NZ flocks is likely to impair ewes' lifetime productivity.

  6. Cross-sectional associations between high-deprivation home and neighbourhood environments, and health-related variables among Liverpool children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Robert J; Boddy, Lynne M; Knowles, Zoe R; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) To investigate differences in health-related, home and neighbourhood environmental variables between Liverpool children living in areas of high deprivation (HD) and medium-to-high deprivation (MD) and (2) to assess associations between these perceived home and neighbourhood environments and health-related variables stratified by deprivation group. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting 10 Liverpool primary schools in 2014. Participants 194 children aged 9–10 years. Main outcome measures Health-related variables (self-reported physical activity (PA) (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, PAQ-C), cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI) z-scores, waist circumference), home environment variables: (garden/backyard access, independent mobility, screen-based media restrictions, bedroom media) and neighbourhood walkability (Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale for Youth, NEWS-Y). Explanatory measures Area deprivation. Results There were significant differences between HD and MD children's BMI z-scores (p<0.01), waist circumference (p<0.001) and cardiorespiratory fitness (p<0.01). HD children had significantly higher bedroom media availability (p<0.05) and independent mobility scores than MD children (p<0.05). MD children had significantly higher residential density and neighbourhood aesthetics scores, and lower crime safety, pedestrian and road traffic safety scores than HD children, all of which indicated higher walkability (p<0.01). HD children's BMI z-scores (β=−0.29, p<0.01) and waist circumferences (β=−0.27, p<0.01) were inversely associated with neighbourhood aesthetics. HD children's PA was negatively associated with bedroom media (β=−0.24, p<0.01), and MD children's PA was positively associated with independent mobility (β=0.25, p<0.01). MD children's independent mobility was inversely associated with crime safety (β=−0.28, p<0.01) and neighbourhood aesthetics (β=−0.24, p<0.05). Conclusions Children

  7. Semantic Approach to Smart Home Data Aggregation Multi-sensor Data Processing for Smart Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fano Ramparany

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One salient feature of data produced by the IoT is its heterogeneity. Despite this heterogeneity, future IoT applications including Smart Home, Smart City, Smart Energy services, will require that all data be easily compared, correlated and merged, and that interpretation of this resulting aggregate into higher level context better matches people needs and requirements. In this paper we propose a framework based on semantic technologies for aggregating IoT data. Our approach has been assessed in the domain of the Smart Home with real data provided by Orange Homelive solution. We show that our approach enables simple reasoning mechanisms to be conducted on the aggregated data, so that contexts such as the presence, activities of people as well as abnormal situations requiring corrective actions, be inferred.

  8. Evaluation of Bluetooth communications for the deployment of assisted living technologies in home environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Michael J; Burns, Adrian; Dishongh, Terry

    2007-01-01

    Using five different commercially available class one and class two Bluetooth dongles a total of seven homes which represented a cross section of typical Irish homes were surveyed to determine the effect of construction methods, house size, sensor placement, host placement, antenna design and RF interference had on the link quality of Bluetooth enabled sensors. The results obtained indicates there is high variability in the link quality which is determined by the quality of the BT radio, placement of the antenna on both the master and slave, the number of walls which must be penetrated and the construction materials used in the wall. The placement of the sensor was the single biggest factor in determining the link quality. The type of construction used in the interior walls has significant influence also. The final factor of significant influence was the type of antenna used on the Bluetooth dongle. The use of an external antenna gave significantly better range performance than an internal antenna.

  9. Support for ECHONET-based smart home environments in the universAAL ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Van Cu; Lim, Yuto; Tan, Yasuo; Chong, Nak Young

    2018-01-01

    With the advent of information and communication technology, many Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) solutions are being proposed to increase the quality of life of elderly people and reduce health and social care costs. Among these AAL solutions, universAAL seems to be the most promising platform for easy and economical development of AAL services. However, in its current state, the platform is incompatible with smart home systems which are based on the ECHONET standard. This paper presents the b...

  10. An Adaptive Privacy Protection Method for Smart Home Environments Using Supervised Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingsha He

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, smart home technologies have started to be widely used, bringing a great deal of convenience to people’s daily lives. At the same time, privacy issues have become particularly prominent. Traditional encryption methods can no longer meet the needs of privacy protection in smart home applications, since attacks can be launched even without the need for access to the cipher. Rather, attacks can be successfully realized through analyzing the frequency of radio signals, as well as the timestamp series, so that the daily activities of the residents in the smart home can be learnt. Such types of attacks can achieve a very high success rate, making them a great threat to users’ privacy. In this paper, we propose an adaptive method based on sample data analysis and supervised learning (SDASL, to hide the patterns of daily routines of residents that would adapt to dynamically changing network loads. Compared to some existing solutions, our proposed method exhibits advantages such as low energy consumption, low latency, strong adaptability, and effective privacy protection.

  11. Dehydration of Older Patients in Institutional Care and the Home Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lešnik, Amadeus; Piko, Nejc; Železnik, Danica; Bevc, Sebastjan

    2017-11-01

    Dehydration in older adults is an important clinical problem associated with more comorbidities, longer hospital stays, and higher mortality rates. However, in daily clinical practice, no single gold standard marker of hydration status in older adults is available. The aim of the current study was to define the fluid balance status in older adults residing in institutional care or the home. Four hundred ten patients (192 from institutional care and 218 from home care) 65 and older from the region of lower Styria (Slovenia) were included in the study. Serum osmolality, electrolytes, and blood urea nitrogen to creatinine (BUN:Cr) ratio were used to identify dehydration. Statistically significant differences were found between groups in serum osmolality and BUN:Cr ratio. Moreover, dehydration (defined as increased serum osmolality) was significantly more common in patients in institutional care than home care (51% versus 41.3%, respectively). The results confirm that dehydration is a common clinical problem in older adults, especially in those from institutional care. Although many methods of determining hydration status in older adults have been proposed, no gold standard exists, making hydration evaluation difficult in this population. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2017; 10(6):260-266.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Home Environment and Self-Efficacy Beliefs among Native American, African American, and Latino Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert H

    2018-05-07

    Context helps determine what individuals experience in the settings they inhabit. Context also helps determine the likelihood that those experiences will promote adaptive development. Theory suggests likely interplay between various aspects of home context and development of ideas about self that influence patterns of development for children. This study addressed relations between two aspects of home life (companionship and investment, modeling and encouragement) and three types of self-efficacy beliefs (enlisting social resources, independent learning, self-regulatory behavior) considered important for long-term adaptive functioning. The study focused on three groups of minority adolescents (Native American, African American, Latino). Relations were examined using regression models that also included four aspects of household risk that often hinder the development of self-efficacy. Although findings varied somewhat across the three groups, significant relations emerged between the two domains of home life examined and self-efficacy beliefs in all three groups, even controlling for overall household risk. Companionship and investment appeared particularly relevant for African American adolescents, while modeling and encouragement appeared particularly relevant for Native American adolescents. Both were relevant for Latino adolescents. © 2018 Family Process Institute.

  13. Positive work environments of early-career registered nurses and the correlation with physician verbal abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Carol S; Kovner, Christine T; Obeidat, Rana F; Budin, Wendy C

    2013-01-01

    Verbal abuse in the workplace is experienced by registered nurses (RNs) worldwide; physicians are one of the main sources of verbal abuse. To examine the relationship between levels of physician verbal abuse of early-career RNs and demographics, work attributes, and perceived work environment. Fourth wave of a mailed national panel survey of early career RNs begun in 2006. RNs' perception of verbal abuse by physicians was significantly associated with poor workgroup cohesion, lower supervisory and mentor support, greater quantitative workload, organizational constraints, and nurse-colleague verbal abuse, as well as RNs' lower job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intent to stay. RNs working in unfavorable work environments experience more physician abuse and have less favorable work attitudes. Causality is unclear: do poor working conditions create an environment in which physicians are more likely to be abusive, or does verbal abuse by physicians create an unfavorable work environment? Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploring associations between perceived home and work neighborhood environments, diet behaviors, and obesity: Results from a survey of employed adults in Missouri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Tabak, PhD, RD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary behaviors are associated with obesity, and may be influenced by the environment. The objective of the current work was to investigate whether perceptions of built environment factors related to eating in the residential neighborhood will have different, independent associations with BMI and dietary behaviors than perceived built environment factors in the worksite neighborhood. In 2012–2013, a cross-sectional telephone-survey of Missouri adults (n = 2015 assessed perceptions of home and workplace built environment factors related to eating, dietary behaviors, and height and weight. Logistic regression models explored associations between perceived neighborhood built environment variables, diet, and obesity. The only variable associated with any of the outcomes explored in the fully adjusted models was the home neighborhood composite scale. None of the work environment variables were significantly associated with any of the health/behavior outcomes after adjustment. Few associations were found after adjustment for personal and job-related characteristics, and none were identified with the workplace neighborhood environment. While few home environment associations were found after adjustment, and none were identified with the perceived workplace neighborhood environment, the current study adds to the limited literature looking at associations between the perceived neighborhood around the workplace neighborhood and the perceived neighborhood around the home and dietary behaviors and obesity in adults. Future studies are needed to determine whether relationships between these environments and behavior exist, and if so, if they are causal and warrant intervention attempts.

  15. Analysis of commode grab bar usage for the monitoring of older adults in the smart home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcelus, Amaya; Holtzman, Megan; Goubran, Rafik; Sveistrup, Heidi; Guitard, Paulette; Knoefel, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of falls inside the home is a common yet potentially hazardous issue for adults as they age. Even with the installation of physical aids such as grab bars, weight transfers on and off a toilet or bathtub can become increasingly difficult as a person's level of physical mobility and sense of balance deteriorate. Detecting this deterioration becomes an important goal in fall prevention within a smart home. This paper develops an unobtrusive method of analyzing the usage of toilet grab bars using pressure sensors embedded into the arm rests of a commode. Clinical parameters are successfully extracted automatically from a series of stand-to-sit (StSi) and sit-to-stand (SiSt) transfers performed by a trial group of young and older adults. A preliminary comparison of the parameters indicates differences between the two groups, and aligns well with published characteristics obtained using accelerometers worn on the body. The unobtrusive nature of this method provides a useful tool to be incorporated into a system of continuous monitoring of older adults within the smart home environment.

  16. Effectiveness of Home-Based Exercises Without Supervision by Physical Therapists for Patients With Early-Stage Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Kosuke; Asakawa, Takashi; Kamide, Naoto; Yorimoto, Keisuke; Yoneda, Masaki; Kikuchi, Yutaka; Sawada, Makoto; Komori, Tetsuo

    2018-03-31

    To verify the effects of structured home-based exercises without supervision by a physical therapist in patients with early-stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A historical controlled study that is part of a multicenter collaborative study. Rehabilitation departments at general hospitals and outpatient clinics with a neurology department. Patients (N=21) with ALS were enrolled and designated as the home-based exercise (Home-EX) group, and they performed unsupervised home-based exercises. As a control group, 84 patients with ALS who underwent supervised exercise with a physical therapist for 6 months were extracted from a database of patients with ALS and matched with the Home-EX group in terms of their basic attributes and clinical features. The Home-EX group was instructed to perform structured home-based exercises without supervision by a physical therapist that consisted of muscle stretching, muscle training, and functional training for 6 months. The primary outcome was the score on the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R), which is composed of 3 domains: bulbar function, limb function, and respiratory function. The score ranges from 0 to 48 points, with a higher score indicating better function. In the Home-EX group, 15 patients completed the home-based exercises for 6 months, and 6 patients dropped out because of medical reasons or disease progression. No adverse events were reported. The Home-EX group was found to have a significantly higher respiratory function subscore and total score on the ALSFRS-R than the control group at follow-up (P<.001 and P<.05, respectively). Structured home-based exercises without supervision by a physical therapist could be used to alleviate functional deterioration in patients with early-stage ALS. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. From unified messaging towards I-centric Services for the virtual home environment

    CERN Document Server

    van der Meer, S

    2001-01-01

    The vision of user centric information and an architecture for the realization of user centric services was discussed. The illustrated framework shows that these ideas can be assembled to set up an environment where services that allow users to interact with their environment are possible. The technologies integrated into the system were platform localization capabilities, environment awareness, communication capabilities and information storage capabilities. (Edited abstract)

  18. The National Asthma Survey--New York State: association of the home environment with current asthma status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang; Lurie, Melissa; Gomez, Marta; Reddy, Amanda; Pandya, Kruti; Medvesky, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The National Asthma Survey--New York State (NYS), a telephone survey of NYS residents, was conducted in 2002-2003 to further understand the burden of asthma among adults and children and to identify health, socioeconomic, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with asthma. A total of 1,412 households with at least one member with current asthma and 2,290 control households answered questions about their home environment (e.g., presence of asthma triggers and practices that promote or reduce common asthma triggers). RESULTS; For children younger than 18 years of age, we found statistically significant positive associations between current asthma and the presence of mold (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3, 3.3), air cleaners (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.1), dehumidifiers (AOR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.4, 2.7), and humidifiers (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1, 2.3). For adults, there were statistically significant positive associations with the presence of mold (AOR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.8, 3.4), air cleaners (AOR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.7, 2.8), and humidifiers (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1, 1.8). There were no statistically significant associations with the presence of cockroaches, pets, or tobacco smoke, while use of a wood-burning stove or fireplace was significantly more prevalent in control homes. Asthma guidelines emphasize the importance of reducing triggers in the home as part of a multifaceted approach to asthma control. Despite these guidelines, many asthma triggers (specifically, mold) were as prevalent or more so in the homes of New Yorkers with asthma as compared with control households. Public health interventions in NYS should focus on educating households about potential asthma triggers and their sources and teach methods to prevent, reduce, or eliminate them.

  19. Affordances in the home environment for motor development: Validity and reliability for the use in daycare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Alessandra Bombarda; Valentini, Nadia Cristina; Bandeira, Paulo Felipe Ribeiro

    2017-05-01

    The range of stimuli provided by physical space, toys and care practices contributes to the motor, cognitive and social development of children. However, assessing the quality of child education environments is a challenge, and can be considered a health promotion initiative. This study investigated the validity of the criterion, content, construct and reliability of the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development - Infant Scale (AHEMD-IS), version 3-18 months, for the use in daycare settings. Content validation was conducted with the participation of seven motor development and health care experts; and, face validity by 20 specialists in health and education. The results indicate the suitability of the adapted AHEMD-IS, evidencing its validity for the daycare setting a potential tool to assess the opportunities that the collective context offers to child development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rhinitis, Asthma and Respiratory Infections among Adults in Relation to the Home Environment in Multi-Family Buildings in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Engvall, Karin; Smedje, Greta; Norbäck, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for rhinitis, asthma and respiratory infections in the home environment were studied by a questionnaire survey. Totally 5775 occupants (≥18 years old) from a stratified random sample of multi-family buildings in Sweden participated (46%). 51.0% had rhinitis in the last 3 months (current rhinitis); 11.5% doctor diagnosed asthma; 46.4% respiratory infections in the last 3 months and 11.9% antibiotic medication for respiratory infections in the last 12 months. Associations between home environment and health were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, controlling for gender, age and smoking and mutual adjustment. Buildings constructed during 1960–1975 were risk factors for day time breathlessness (OR = 1.53, 95%CI 1.03–2.29). And those constructed during 1976–1985 had more current rhinitis (OR = 1.43, 95%CI 1.12–1.84) and respiratory infections (OR = 1.46, 95%CI 1.21–1.78). Cities with higher population density had more current rhinitis (p = 0.008) and respiratory infections (pBuilding dampness was a risk factor for wheeze (OR = 1.42, 95%CI 1.08–1.86) and day time breathlessness (OR = 1.57, 95%CI 1.09–2.27). Building dampness was a risk factor for health among those below 66 years old. Odor at home was a risk factor for doctor diagnosed asthma (OR = 1.49, 95%CI 1.08–2.06) and current asthma (OR = 1.52, 95%CI 1.03–2.24). Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was a risk factor for current asthma (OR = 1.53, 95%CI 1.09–2.16). Window pane condensation was a risk factor for antibiotic medication for respiratory infections (OR = 1.41, 95%CI 1.10–1.82). In conclusion, rhinitis, asthma and respiratory infections were related to a number of factors in the home environment. Certain building years (1961–1985), building dampness, window pane condensation and odor in the dwelling may be risk factors. PMID:25136984

  1. Validation of a survey instrument to assess home environments for physical activity and healthy eating in overweight children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crane Lori A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few measures exist to measure the overall home environment for its ability to support physical activity (PA and healthy eating in overweight children. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the reliability and validity of such a measure. Methods The Home Environment Survey (HES was developed to reflect availability, accessibility, parental role modelling, and parental policies related to PA resources, fruits and vegetables (F&V, and sugar sweetened drinks and snacks (SS. Parents of overweight children (n = 219 completed the HES and concurrent behavioural assessments. Children completed the Block Kids survey and wore an accelerometer for one week. A subset of parents (n = 156 completed the HES a second time to determine test-retest reliability. Finally, 41 parent dyads living in the same home (n = 41 completed the survey to determine inter-rater reliability. Initial psychometric analyses were completed to trim items from the measure based on lack of variability in responses, moderate or higher item to scale correlation, or contribution to strong internal consistency. Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were completed using intraclass correlation coefficients. Validity was assessed using Pearson correlations between the HES scores and child and parent nutrition and PA. Results Eight items were removed and acceptable internal consistency was documented for all scales (α = .66–84 with the exception of the F&V accessibility. The F&V accessibility was reduced to a single item because the other two items did not meet reliability standards. Test-retest reliability was high (r > .75 for all scales. Inter-rater reliability varied across scales (r = .22–.89. PA accessibility, parent role modelling, and parental policies were all related significantly to child (r = .14–.21 and parent (r = .15–.31 PA. Similarly, availability of F&V and SS, parental role modelling, and parental policies were related to child (r

  2. The density of tobacco retailers in home and school environments and relationship with adolescent smoking behaviours in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, N K; Tisch, C; Pearce, J; Richardson, E A; Mitchell, R

    2016-01-01

    Neighbourhood retailing of tobacco products has been implicated in affecting smoking prevalence rates. Long-term smoking usually begins in adolescence and tobacco control strategies have often focused on regulating 'child spaces', such as areas in proximity to schools. This cross-sectional study examines the association between adolescent smoking behaviour and tobacco retail outlet density around home and school environments in Scotland. Data detailing the geographic location of every outlet registered to sell tobacco products in Scotland were acquired from the Scottish Tobacco Retailers Register and used to create a retail outlet density measure for every postcode. This measure was joined to individual responses of the Scottish Schools Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey (n=20 446). Using logistic regression models, we explored the association between the density of retailers, around both home and school address, and smoking behaviours. Those living in the areas of highest density of retailers around the home environment had 53% higher odds of reporting having ever smoked (95% CI 1.27 to 1.85, pretail density had lower odds of having ever smoked (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.86 pretail outlets in residential neighbourhoods is associated with increased odds of both ever smoked and current smoking among adolescents in Scotland. Policymakers may be advised to focus on reducing the overall density of tobacco outlets, rather than concentrating on 'child spaces'. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. [Personal emergency call system based on human vital and system technical parameters in a Smart Home environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampicke, M; Schadow, B; Rossdeutscher, W; Fellbaum, K; Boenick, U

    2002-11-01

    Progress in microtechnology and radio transmission technology has enabled the development of highly reliable emergency-call systems. The present article describes systems that have been specially designed to improve the safety and independence of handicapped and elderly persons living at home. For such persons immediate help in an emergency situation is of crucial importance. The technical state of the art of emergency-call systems specially developed for use by the elderly, is briefly discussed, in particular the well-known radio emergency-call button, with the aid of which an alarm can be activated manually. This system, however, does not offer adequate safety in all emergency situations. Alternative or complementary systems designed to automatically trigger an alarm on the basis of the recording and evaluation of so-called vital parameters, are therefore proposed. In addition, in a smart-home environment with networked devices, further parameters--so-called environment parameters can be used. It is found that the identification of an emergency situation becomes more reliable as the number of parameters employed increases.

  4. Relationships of family conflict, cohesion, and chaos in the home environment on maternal and child food-related behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Quick, Virginia; Zhang, Man; Jin, Yanhong; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2018-04-01

    This study examined how food-related behaviours differed in mothers and their preschool children by levels of family functioning (cohesion and conflict) and household disorganization (chaos). A nationally representative sample of mothers of preschoolers completed an online survey assessing food-related behaviours of themselves and their children. Maternal and child diet, eating behaviours, and health status; household availability of fruits/vegetables, salty/fatty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages; family mealtime atmosphere; and family conflict, cohesion, and household chaos were assessed with valid, reliable scales. Cluster analyses assigned families into low, middle, and high conflict, cohesion, and chaos groups. Participants (n = 550) were 72% White, and 82% had some post-secondary education. Regression analysis examining the association of cluster grouping levels on diet-related behaviour measures revealed that positive home environments (i.e., low family conflict, high family cohesion, and low household chaos) were associated with healthier food-related behaviours (e.g., increased fruits/vegetables intake), whereas negative home environments (i.e., high family conflict, low family cohesion, and high household chaos) were associated with unhealthy food-related behaviours (e.g., greater % total calories from fat) even after controlling for sociodemographic and related behavioural factors. Findings suggest family functioning and household chaos are associated with food-related behaviours. This frequently overlooked component of family interaction may affect intervention outcomes and objectives of educational and interventional initiatives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Extending Wireless Broadband Network Architectures with Home Gateways, Localization, and Physical Environment Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelling Kristoffersen, Kåre; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Chen, Jianjun

    2005-01-01

    homes. It must bridge across the most prevalent standard protocols for data, video, telephony and telemetry, and must be able to automatically discover new devices in a residence and allow over the air/wire provisioning, billing, management and aggregation of new services from multiple service providers...... is initially demonstrated in a 52 DECT base station installation covering four office buildings of total 4500 m2 . Finally the paper proposes the application of a commercial off-the-shelf wireless broadband network as a sensor network, without any additional hardware, for physical intrusion detection of e...

  6. E-Books in the Early Literacy Environment: Is There Added Value for Vocabulary Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskos, Kathleen A.; Sullivan, Shannon; Simpson, Danielle; Zuzolo, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Using a theory of affordances, this study examines the introduction of e-books into the early literacy environment as resources that can increase children's opportunity for learning vocabulary. Added value was observed under conditions of (1) book browsing, (2) instruction, and (3) a print-only condition. A total of 33 4-year-olds (18 boys, 15…

  7. THE SLACS SURVEY. VIII. THE RELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT AND INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphael; Gorecki, Alexia; Marshall, Philip J.; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Bolton, Adam S.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Burles, Scott

    2009-01-01

    We study the relation between the internal structure of early-type galaxies and their environment using 70 strong gravitational lenses from the SLACS Survey. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database is used to determine two measures of overdensity of galaxies around each lens-the projected

  8. Nature and the Outdoor Learning Environment: The Forgotten Resource in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies now confirm the economic, academic, and social importance of high-quality early childhood education. At the same time, a substantial body of research indicates that an outdoor learning and play environment with diverse natural elements advances and enriches all of the domains relevant to the development, health, and well-being…

  9. Children's perceptions of their home and neighborhood environments, and their association with objectively measured physical activity: a qualitative and quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, C; Salmon, J; Ball, K

    2005-02-01

    Environmental factors may have an important influence on children's physical activity, yet children's perspectives of their home and neighborhood environments have not been widely assessed. The aim of this study was to investigate children's perceptions of their environments, and to examine associations between these perceptions and objectively measured physical activity. The sample consisted of 147, 10-year-old Australian children, who drew maps of their home and neighborhood environments. A subsample of children photographed places and things in these environments that were important to them. The maps were analyzed for themes, and for the frequency with which particular objects and locations appeared. Physical activity was objectively measured using accelerometers. Six themes emerged from the qualitative analysis of the maps and photographs: the family home; opportunities for physical activity and sedentary pursuits; food items and locations; green space and outside areas; the school and opportunities for social interaction. Of the 11 variables established from these themes, one home and two neighborhood factors were associated with children's physical activity. These findings contribute to a broader understanding of children's perceptions of their environment, and highlight the potential importance of the home and neighborhood environments for promoting physical activity behavior.

  10. Verbal abuse from nurse colleagues and work environment of early career registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budin, Wendy C; Brewer, Carol S; Chao, Ying-Yu; Kovner, Christine

    2013-09-01

    This study examined relationships between verbal abuse from nurse colleagues and demographic characteristics, work attributes, and work attitudes of early career registered nurses (RNs). Data are from the fourth wave of a national panel survey of early career RNs begun in 2006. The final analytic sample included 1,407 RNs. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample, analysis of variance to compare means, and chi square to compare categorical variables. RNs reporting higher levels of verbal abuse from nurse colleagues were more likely to be unmarried, work in a hospital setting, or work in a non-magnet hospital. They also had lower job satisfaction, and less organizational commitment, autonomy, and intent to stay. Lastly, they perceived their work environments unfavorably. Data support the hypothesis that early career RNs are vulnerable to the effects of verbal abuse from nurse colleagues. Although more verbal abuse is seen in environments with unfavorable working conditions, and RNs working in such environments tend to have less favorable work attitudes, one cannot assume causality. It is unclear if poor working conditions create an environment where verbal abuse is tolerated or if verbal abuse creates an unfavorable work environment. There is a need to develop and test evidence-based interventions to deal with the problems inherent with verbal abuse from nurse colleagues. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  11. Environmental opportunities questionnaire: development of a measure of the environment supporting early motor development in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doralp, Samantha; Bartlett, Doreen J

    2013-09-01

    The development and testing of a measure evaluating the quality and variability in the home environment as it relates to the motor development of infants during the first year of life. A sample of 112 boys and 95 girls with a mean age of 7.1 months (SD 1.8) and GA of 39.6 weeks (SD 1.5) participated in the study. The measurement development process was divided into three phases: measurement development (item generation or selection of items from existing measurement tools), pilot testing to determine acceptability and feasibility to parents, and exploratory factor analysis to organize items into meaningful concepts. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were also determined. The environmental opportunities questionnaire (EOQ) is a feasible 21-item measure comprised of three factors including opportunities in the play space, sensory variety and parental encouragement. Overall, test-retest reliability was 0.92 (CI 0.84-0.96) and the internal consistency is 0.79. The EOQ emphasizes quality of the environment and access to equipment and toys that have the potential to facilitate early motor development. The preliminary analyses reported here suggest more work could be done on the EOQ to strengthen its use for research or clinical purposes; however, it is adequate for use in its current form. Implications for Rehabilitation New and feasible 21-item questionnaire that enables identification of malleable environmental factors that serve as potential points of intervention for children that are not developing typically. Therapeutic tool for use by therapists to inform and guide discussions with caregivers about potential influences of environmental, social and attitudinal factors in their child's early development.

  12. When the clinic becomes a home. Successful VCT and ART services in a stressful environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapaah, Jonathan Mensah; Spronk, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    With the upscaling of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-poor countries, many HIV-positive persons in Ghana have been accessing treatment in hospitals. Prevalence is relatively low compared to other African countries, 1.30%. HIV/AIDS remains heavily stigmatised in Ghana, which influences the provision and use of ART. This article investigates how HIV-positive persons accessing care and treatment go about their everyday lives in the ART clinic and how they have eventually come to see the clinic as a safe place that they call 'home'. The study took place in two Ghanaian hospitals in the Ashanti Region which in 2013 had the country's highest HIV prevalence rate of 1.30% [Ghana Health Service [GHS]/National AIDS Control Programme [NACP] (2013). 2013 HIV Sentinel Survey Report, Accra, Ghana]. It was conducted through ethnographic research, with data gathered in the two facilities through participant observation, conversations and in-depth interviews. It took place over a period of 15 months, between 2007 and 2010. In all, 24 health workers and 22 clients were interviewed in depth, while informal conversations were held with many others. The findings show that clients have adopted the clinic as a second home and used it to carry out various activities in order to avoid identification and stigmatisation as People Living with AIDS (PLWA). The most dramatic outcome was that, contrary to Ghanaian norms and values, people turned to non-kin for assistance. Accordingly, fellow clients and health personnel, rather than relatives, have become their 'therapy management group' [Janzen, J. M. (1987). Therapy Management: Concept, Reality, Process. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 1(1), 68-84]. The clients have thus created a fictive family within the clinic - made up of health workers (as 'parents'), the clients themselves (as 'children') and the peer educators (as 'aunts' and 'uncles'). In the face of persistent stigma associated with HIV infection in Ghana, the use of the

  13. Odors and sensations of humidity and dryness in relation to sick building syndrome and home environment in Chongqing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wang

    Full Text Available The prevalence of perceptions of odors and sensations of air humidity and sick building syndrome symptoms in domestic environments were studied using responses to a questionnaire on the home environment. Parents of 4530 1-8 year old children from randomly selected kindergartens in Chongqing, China participated. Stuffy odor, unpleasant odor, pungent odor, mold odor, tobacco smoke odor, humid air and dry air in the last three month (weekly or sometimes was reported by 31.4%, 26.5%, 16.1%, 10.6%, 33.0%, 32.1% and 37.2% of the parents, respectively. The prevalence of parents' SBS symptoms (weekly or sometimes were: 78.7% for general symptoms, 74.3% for mucosal symptoms and 47.5% for skin symptoms. Multi-nominal regression analyses for associations between odors/sensations of air humidity and SBS symptoms showed that the odds ratio for "weekly" SBS symptoms were consistently higher than for "sometimes" SBS symptoms. Living near a main road or highway, redecoration, and new furniture were risk factors for perceptions of odors and sensations of humid air and dry air. Dampness related problems (mold spots, damp stains, water damage and condensation were all risk factors for perceptions of odors and sensations of humid air and dry air, as was the presence of cockroaches, rats, and mosquitoes/flies, use of mosquito-repellent incense and incense. Protective factors included cleaning the child's bedroom every day and frequently exposing bedding to sunshine. In conclusion, adults' perceptions of odors and sensations of humid air and dry air are related to factors of the home environment and SBS symptoms are related to odor perceptions.

  14. Airborne particles in indoor environment of homes, schools, offices and aged care facilities: The main routes of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, L; Ayoko, G A; Bae, G N; Buonanno, G; Chao, C Y H; Clifford, S; Fu, S C; Hänninen, O; He, C; Isaxon, C; Mazaheri, M; Salthammer, T; Waring, M S; Wierzbicka, A

    2017-11-01

    It has been shown that the exposure to airborne particulate matter is one of the most significant environmental risks people face. Since indoor environment is where people spend the majority of time, in order to protect against this risk, the origin of the particles needs to be understood: do they come from indoor, outdoor sources or both? Further, this question needs to be answered separately for each of the PM mass/number size fractions, as they originate from different sources. Numerous studies have been conducted for specific indoor environments or under specific setting. Here our aim was to go beyond the specifics of individual studies, and to explore, based on pooled data from the literature, whether there are generalizable trends in routes of exposure at homes, schools and day cares, offices and aged care facilities. To do this, we quantified the overall 24h and occupancy weighted means of PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PN - particle number concentration. Based on this, we developed a summary of the indoor versus outdoor origin of indoor particles and compared the means to the WHO guidelines (for PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) and to the typical levels reported for urban environments (PN). We showed that the main origins of particle metrics differ from one type of indoor environment to another. For homes, outdoor air is the main origin of PM 10 and PM 2.5 but PN originate from indoor sources; for schools and day cares, outdoor air is the source of PN while PM 10 and PM 2.5 have indoor sources; and for offices, outdoor air is the source of all three particle size fractions. While each individual building is different, leading to differences in exposure and ideally necessitating its own assessment (which is very rarely done), our findings point to the existence of generalizable trends for the main types of indoor environments where people spend time, and therefore to the type of prevention measures which need to be considered in general for these environments. Copyright © 2017 The

  15. Marketing environment dynamics and implications for pricing strategies: the case of home health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, B J; Barlow, D

    1999-01-01

    This research reviews the factors affecting the pricing or rate schedules of home health care agencies. A large number of factors affect costs and thus rate structures. The major factors include reimbursement structures with accompanying discount structures, administrative burdens, and risks. Channel issues include bargaining power, competition, and size. Staffing issues affect pricing and product through the provider level, productivity, and quality outcomes. Physician and patient issues include quality concerns and choices. These factors are discussed in light of overall marketing strategy and the interaction of pricing with other marketing controllables such as product, place/distribution, and promotion. Economic and accounting principles are also reviewed with consideration to understanding direct and indirect costs in order to enable negotiators to effectively price health care services.

  16. Analyzing Activity Behavior and Movement in a Naturalistic Environment Using Smart Home Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Dawadi, Prafulla

    2015-11-01

    One of the many services that intelligent systems can provide is the ability to analyze the impact of different medical conditions on daily behavior. In this study, we use smart home and wearable sensors to collect data, while ( n = 84) older adults perform complex activities of daily living. We analyze the data using machine learning techniques and reveal that differences between healthy older adults and adults with Parkinson disease not only exist in their activity patterns, but that these differences can be automatically recognized. Our machine learning classifiers reach an accuracy of 0.97 with an area under the ROC curve value of 0.97 in distinguishing these groups. Our permutation-based testing confirms that the sensor-based differences between these groups are statistically significant.

  17. Integration of cognitive and physical training in a smart home environment for the elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Evdokimos I; Billis, Antonis; Hlauschek, Walter; Panek, Paul; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2010-01-01

    Our research work is towards a service that can support senior citizens towards their independent living and active ageing. As it is suggested, physical and cognitive exercise training can contribute to a significant prolongation of personal autonomy and participation in society across prevailing age-related impairments such as cognitive decline. In the current paper, the approach of combination of both physical and cognitive training--adopted by LLM project--is discussed related to other similar projects that have taken place in the area of elderly home care and training. The aim of this work is to describe the technical design details of the integration process of the LLM service, which is based on a Web service architecture and to discuss alternative interface elements to be included in the LLM platform in terms of enabling user accessibility and acceptance.

  18. Mapping the Early Language Environment Using All-Day Recordings and Automated Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey A; Warren, Steven F; Montgomery, Judith K; Greenwood, Charles R; Kimbrough Oller, D; Hansen, John H L; Paul, Terrance D

    2017-05-17

    This research provided a first-generation standardization of automated language environment estimates, validated these estimates against standard language assessments, and extended on previous research reporting language behavior differences across socioeconomic groups. Typically developing children between 2 to 48 months of age completed monthly, daylong recordings in their natural language environments over a span of approximately 6-38 months. The resulting data set contained 3,213 12-hr recordings automatically analyzed by using the Language Environment Analysis (LENA) System to generate estimates of (a) the number of adult words in the child's environment, (b) the amount of caregiver-child interaction, and (c) the frequency of child vocal output. Child vocalization frequency and turn-taking increased with age, whereas adult word counts were age independent after early infancy. Child vocalization and conversational turn estimates predicted 7%-16% of the variance observed in child language assessment scores. Lower socioeconomic status (SES) children produced fewer vocalizations, engaged in fewer adult-child interactions, and were exposed to fewer daily adult words compared with their higher socioeconomic status peers, but within-group variability was high. The results offer new insight into the landscape of the early language environment, with clinical implications for identification of children at-risk for impoverished language environments.

  19. Exploring Patterns of Activities of Daily Living in the Home Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tönis, Thijs; op den Akker, Harm; Boerema, Simone Theresa; van Polen, Freek; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Dimitrova, D.C.; Blom, K.C.H.; Meratnia, Nirvana

    2011-01-01

    Senior citizens tend to live longer and longer independently. Judging whether a senior person is still capable of living on his own is often based on the occurrence of incidents, with all consequences thereof. In the specific case of early dementia, the symptoms are not immediately apparent and the

  20. Early home-based intervention in the Netherlands for children at familial risk of dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Otterloo, Sandra G; van der Leij, Aryan; Henrichs, Lotte F

    2009-08-01

    Dutch children at higher familial risk of reading disability received a home-based intervention programme before formal reading instruction started to investigate whether this would reduce the risk of dyslexia. The experimental group (n=23) received a specific training in phoneme awareness and letter knowledge. A control group (n=25) received a non-specific training in morphology, syntax, and vocabulary. Both interventions were designed to take 10 min a day, 5 days a week for 10 weeks. Most parents were sufficiently able to work with the programme properly. At post-test the experimental group had gained more on phoneme awareness than the control group. The control group gained more on one of the morphology measures. On average, these specific training results did not lead to significant group differences in first-grade reading and spelling measures. However, fewer experimental children scored below 10th percentile on word recognition. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The Therapeutic Environment Screening Survey for Nursing Homes (TESS-NH): an observational instrument for assessing the physical environment of institutional settings for persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Philip D; Mitchell, C Madeline; Weisman, Gerald; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Foley, Kristie M Long; Lynn, Mary; Calkins, Margaret; Lawton, M Powell; Teresi, Jeanne; Grant, Leslie; Lindeman, David; Montgomery, Rhonda

    2002-03-01

    To develop an observational instrument that describes the ability of physical environments of institutional settings to address therapeutic goals for persons with dementia. A National Institute on Aging workgroup identified and subsequently revised items that evaluated exit control, maintenance, cleanliness, safety, orientation/cueing, privacy, unit autonomy, outdoor access, lighting, noise, visual/tactile stimulation, space/seating, and familiarity/homelikeness. The final instrument contains 84 discrete items and one global rating. A summary scale, the Special Care Unit Environmental Quality Scale (SCUEQS), consists of 18 items. Lighting items were validated using portable light meters. Concurrent criterion validation compared SCUEQS scores with the Professional Environmental Assessment Protocol (PEAP). Interrater kappa statistics for 74% of items were above.60. For another 10% of items, kappas could not be calculated due to empty cells, but interrater agreement was above 80%. The SCUEQS demonstrated an interrater reliability of.93, a test--retest reliability of.88, and an internal consistency of.81--.83. Light meter ratings correlated significantly with the Therapeutic Environment Screening Survey for Nursing Homes (TESS-NH) lighting items (r =.29--.38, p =.01--.04), and the SCUEQS correlated significantly with global PEAP ratings (r =.52, p TESS-NH efficiently assesses discrete elements of the physical environment and has strong reliability and validity. The SCUEQS provides a quantitative measure of environmental quality in institutional settings.

  2. Early Parenting and Children's Relational and Physical Aggression in the Preschool and Home Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Juan F.; Weigel, Stephanie M.; Crick, Nicki R.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Woods, Kathleen E.; Yeh, Elizabeth A. Jansen; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated early parent-child relationships and how children's use of relational and physical aggression varies with aspects of those relationships during the preschool years. Specifically, parenting styles, parents' use of psychological control, and parents' report of their children's reunion behaviors were assessed. Analyses…

  3. Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Streptococcus Pneumoniae and Serotypes Indentified among Nursing Home Residents in Comparison to the Elderly and Patients Younger than 65 Years Living in Domestic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolšek-Šušteršič, Maja; Beg Krasnič, Andreja; Mioč, Verica; Paragi, Metka; Rifel, Janez

    2017-09-01

    In Slovenia, there is little data available on pneumococcal vaccination rates and no data on asymptomatic NPCR and serotypes in the population of nursing home residents in comparison to the elderly living in domestic environment, therefore the goal was to gain these data. A cross sectional epidemiological study was performed. Nasopharyngeal swabs from 151 nursing home residents, 150 elderly living in domestic environment, and 38 adults less than 65 years old were collected twice (in two consecutive years). The swabs were analysed for pneumococcal identification and serotyping. Patient data were collected from medical files and medical history. No statistically significant differences in NPCR were seen between compared groups in two consecutive years. An average NPCR in two consecutive years in nursing home residents was 1.45%, in the elderly living in domestic environment 0.85%, and in adults less than 65 years old 7.05%. Serotypes identified among nursing home residents were 6B and 9N, among the group of elderly living in domestic environment, 6A and among adults less than 65 years old, 35F, 18C and 3. Pneumococcal vaccination rates were low (3.3% in nursing home residents, 6% in the elderly from domestic environment and 0% in the group of adults less than 65 years old). Our data suggests that NPCR and the proportion of people vaccinated with pneumococcal vaccine among the elderly are low. We identified different serotypes in all groups, only one person was a chronic carrier (serotype 35F).

  4. Testing objective measures of motor impairment in early Parkinson's disease: Feasibility study of an at-home testing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Christopher G; Stebbins, Glenn T; Wolff, David; DeLeeuw, William; Bronte-Stewart, Helen; Elble, Rodger; Hallett, Mark; Nutt, John; Ramig, Lorraine; Sanger, Terence; Wu, Allan D; Kraus, Peter H; Blasucci, Lucia M; Shamim, Ejaz A; Sethi, Kapil D; Spielman, Jennifer; Kubota, Ken; Grove, Andrew S; Dishman, Eric; Taylor, C Barr

    2009-03-15

    We tested the feasibility of a computer based at-home testing device (AHTD) in early-stage, unmedicated Parkinson's disease (PD) patients over 6 months. We measured compliance, technical reliability, and patient satisfaction to weekly assessments of tremor, small and large muscle bradykinesia, speech, reaction/movement times, and complex motor control. relative to the UPDRS motor score. The AHTD is a 6.5'' x 10'' computerized assessment battery. Data are stored on a USB memory stick and sent by internet to a central data repository as encrypted data packets. Although not designed or powered to measure change, the study collected data to observe patterns relative to UPDRS motor scores. Fifty-two PD patients enrolled, and 50 completed the 6 month trial, 48 remaining without medication. Patients complied with 90.6% of weekly 30-minute assessments, and 98.5% of data packets were successfully transmitted and decrypted. On a 100-point scale, patient satisfaction with the program at study end was 87.2 (range: 80-100). UPDRS motor scores significantly worsened over 6 months, and trends for worsening over time occurred for alternating finger taps (P = 0.08), tremor (P = 0.06) and speech (P = 0.11). Change in tremor was a significant predictor of change in UPDRS (P = 0.047) and was detected in the first month of the study. This new computer-based technology offers a feasible format for assessing PD-related impairment from home. The high patient compliance and satisfaction suggest the feasibility of its incorporation into larger clinical trials, especially when travel is difficult and early changes or frequent data collection are considered important to document.

  5. Going Outside While Staying Inside - Exercise Motivation with Immersive vs. Non–Immersive Recreational Virtual Environment Augmentation for Older Adult Nursing Home Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Pedersen, Jon Ram; Serafin, Stefania; Kofoed, Lise

    2016-01-01

    Virtual technology and immersive experiences are not very often associated with older adults. Recent studies suggest that exercise augmentation using flat screen-based virtual environments, which allow nursing home residents to experience virtual places different from the nursing home, can increase...... the intrinsic motivation of nursing home residents. In this paper, we increase the immersive properties of such augmentation through an Oculus Rift Head Mounted Display, to evaluate the effect on the older adults’ sense of presence, if it has any relation to the level of intrinsic motivation to exercise...

  6. Associations Between Early Family Meal Environment Quality and Later Well-Being in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbec, Marie-Josée; Pagani, Linda S

    Past research suggests a positive link between family meals and child and adolescent health. Although researchers have often relied on how often families eat together, this may not capture the complexity of the experience. Using a birth cohort, this study examines the prospective associations between the environmental quality of the family meal experience at age 6 years and child well-being at age 10. Participants are 1492 children of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development. When children were age 6, parents reported on their typical family meal environment quality. At age 10, parents, teachers, and children themselves provided information on lifestyle habits, academic achievement, and social adjustment, respectively. The relationship between early family meal environment quality and later child outcomes was analyzed using a series of multivariate linear regression. Family meal environment quality at age 6 predicted higher levels of general fitness and lower levels of soft drink consumption, physical aggression, oppositional behavior, nonaggressive delinquency, and reactive aggression at age 10. These relationships were adjusted for child characteristics (sex, temperament problems and cognitive abilities, and baseline body mass index [BMI]) and family characteristics (family configuration and functioning, maternal education, depression, and BMI). From a population-health perspective, our findings suggest that family meals have long-term influences on children's biopsychosocial well-being. At a time when family meal frequency is on a natural decline in the population, this environmental characteristic can become a target of home-based interventions and could be featured in information campaigns that aim to optimize child development.

  7. A Socio-Ecological Examination of Weight-Related Characteristics of the Home Environment and Lifestyles of Households with Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Quick

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Home environment and family lifestyle practices have an influence on child obesity risk, thereby making it critical to systematically examine these factors. Thus, parents (n = 489 of preschool children completed a cross-sectional online survey which was the baseline data collection conducted, before randomization, in the HomeStyles program. The survey comprehensively assessed these factors using a socio-ecological approach, incorporating intrapersonal, interpersonal and environmental measures. Healthy intrapersonal dietary behaviors identified were parent and child intakes of recommended amounts of 100% juice and low intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages. Unhealthy behaviors included low milk intake and high parent fat intake. The home environment’s food supply was found to support healthy intakes of 100% juice and sugar-sweetened beverages, but provided too little milk and ample quantities of salty/fatty snacks. Physical activity levels, sedentary activity and the home’s physical activity and media environment were found to be less than ideal. Environmental supports for active play inside homes were moderate and somewhat better in the area immediately outside homes and in the neighborhood. Family interpersonal interaction measures revealed several positive behaviors, including frequent family meals. Parents had considerable self-efficacy in their ability to perform food- and physical activity-related childhood obesity protective practices. This study identified lifestyle practices and home environment characteristics that health educators could target to help parents promote optimal child development and lower their children’s risk for obesity.

  8. Quality of the Preschool and Home Environment as a Context of Children's Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umek, Ljubica Marjanovic; Kranjc, Simona; Fekonja, Urska; Bajc, Katja

    2006-01-01

    Studies in the area of developmental psychology--especially those carried out in the past thirty years--show that preschool quality, both at the structural and process levels, in combination with the quality of the family environment influences various areas of children's development and learning. The goal of this study is to determine the effect…

  9. [The influence of caregivers' anxiety and the home environment on child abuse. A study of children attending child-care centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Yukiko; Tanaka, Emiko; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tomisaki, Etsuko; Watanabe, Taeko; Tokutake, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Misako; Sugita, Chihiro; Anme, Tokie

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of child abuse is increasing in Japan. Therefore, we need appropriate and practical approaches for implementing feasible prevention, early detection, and support services for abused children. The purpose of this study was to examine child-rearing anxieties and the home environment as factors affecting caregivers of suspected abused children who attend child-care centers . First, we applied the millennium edition of the Japan Child and Family Research Institute (JCFRI) Child Rearing Support Questionnaire, and the Index of Child Care Environment (ICCE), for 1,801 caregivers whose children were enrolled in child-care centers based in City A. The millennium edition of the JCFRI Child Rearing Support Questionnaire measures difficulties in childcare for caregivers in terms of feelings, anxiety, and tendencies toward depression. The ICCE measures the quality and frequency of involvement of caregivers with their children and the child-care environment. Next, we interviewed the directors and child-care professionals in the centers to collect information on child abuse. The children were divided into two groups: abused and non-abused. The "abused group" consisted of the children whom the directors and professionals of the child-care centers suspected of being "possibly abused" and so had been placed under the protection of the center; furthermore, the center exchanged information with the City A Municipality "City A municipal government" about these children. We conducted Fisher's exact test to examine the relationship between the "abused group" and the "non-abused group," in relation to child-rearing anxiety and the children's home environments. Questionnaire scores from the two groups were assessed. We calculated odds ratios to examine the significant factors related to child abuse. Our dependent variable was child abuse, our main independent variables were items related to child-care difficulties and the child-care environment, and the moderating variables

  10. Early and adult social environments have independent effects on individual fitness in a social vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Vérane; Lemaître, Jean-François; Allainé, Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-08-22

    Evidence that the social environment at critical stages of life-history shapes individual trajectories is accumulating. Previous studies have identified either current or delayed effects of social environments on fitness components, but no study has yet analysed fitness consequences of social environments at different life stages simultaneously. To fill the gap, we use an extensive dataset collected during a 24-year intensive monitoring of a population of Alpine marmots (Marmota marmota), a long-lived social rodent. We test whether the number of helpers in early life and over the dominance tenure length has an impact on litter size at weaning, juvenile survival, longevity and lifetime reproductive success (LRS) of dominant females. Dominant females, who were born into a group containing many helpers and experiencing a high number of accumulated helpers over dominance tenure length showed an increased LRS through an increased longevity. We provide evidence that in a wild vertebrate, both early and adult social environments influence individual fitness, acting additionally and independently. These findings demonstrate that helpers have both short- and long-term effects on dominant female Alpine marmots and that the social environment at the time of birth can play a key role in shaping individual fitness in social vertebrates. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. The Impact of Home Environment Factors on Academic Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in Garki Area District, Abuja - Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Dzever

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the impact of home environment factors on the academic performance of public secondary school students in Garki Area District, Abuja, Nigeria. The stratified sampling technique was used to select 300 students from six public schools, while the simple random sampling technique was used to administer the questionnaire. The study utilized a descriptive survey research design for the study. Also, data on student’s academic performance was obtained from student’s scores in four selected school subjects. Data obtained was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques; Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple regression analysis (ANOVA. The results result revealed a positive and significant relationship between permissive patenting style with academic performance (p0.05. Also, the result from the study identified income, educational background and occupational level as well as permissive parenting style as the main predictive variables influencing students’ academic performance.

  12. Is Adolescent Body Weight Associated With Parental Beliefs About Overweight, Attitudes Towards Food, and the Home Environment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krömker, D.; Stolberg, A.; Müller, C.

    2015-01-01

    BMI is negatively and weakly associated with dislike of cooking, identification with the way of eating and the perceived benefit of healthy eating (response efficacy). Half of the parents assessed their children’s overweight and obesity correctly, while the other half underestimated it. No difference was found......Parents play a crucial role in the development of childhood overweight and also in controling overweight. This study investigated a broad set of parental factors, including general attitudes towards food (price, identity, cooking, ecology, mood, dieting, convenience, functionality), social...... cognitions concerning overweight (risk perception, self-efficacy for exercising and healthy eating, response efficacy for exercising and healthy eating) and characteristics of the home environment (restriction of snacks, regular family meals, parents involved in sports) and their association...

  13. Design of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Model for Home Lightings and Clean Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ani, Vincent Anayochukwu, E-mail: vincent_ani@yahoo.com [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    2016-01-11

    This paper gives a well-documented health risk of fuel-based lighting (kerosene lamps and fuel-powered generators) and proposed a design of a stand-alone solar PV system for sustainable home lightings in rural Nigerian area. The design was done in three different patterns of electricity consumptions with energy efficient lightings (EELs) using two different battery types (Rolls Surrette 6CS25PS and Hoppecke 10 OpzS 1000) on; (i) judicious power consumption, (ii) normal power consumption, and (iii) excess power consumption; and compared them with the incandescent light bulb consumption. The stand-alone photovoltaic energy systems were designed to match the rural Nigerian sunlight and weather conditions to meet the required lightings of the household. The objective function and constraints for the design models were formulated and optimization procedures were used to demonstrate the best solution (reliability at the lowest lifecycle cost). Initial capital costs as well as annualized costs over 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years were quantified and documented. The design identified the most cost-effective and reliable solar and battery array among the patterns of electricity consumption with EEL options (judicious power consumption, normal power consumption, and excess power consumption).

  14. Extended use of grey water for irrigating home gardens in an arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ismaili, Abdulrahim M; Ahmed, Mushtaque; Al-Busaidi, Ahmed; Al-Adawi, Seif; Tandlich, Roman; Al-Amri, Mohammed

    2017-05-01

    The use of treated grey water (GW) for home gardens, peri-urban agriculture and landscaping is becoming popular in many water stressed countries such as Oman. This study aims to investigate the treatment efficacy, health and chemical concerns, cost-benefits and maintenance protocol of a GW treatment system as well as the effect of irrigation with GW on crop yield. Therefore, a decentralized homemade GW treatment system was installed in a newly constructed house in Muscat, Oman and studied over a 2-year period. The treated GW was found to be suitable for irrigation as per Omani standards. GW when mixed with kitchen effluent substituted the use of nutrient supplements for plants and did not show any harmful chemical or biological contamination. The capital cost of the system was around US $980, and the annual operating cost was US $78 with annual income and savings from the system being around US $572 indicating a payback period of nearly 2 years. It was found that the system required simple but regular maintenance particularly cleaning of the top layer of the filter. It can be concluded from this study that such a GW system should be technically, economically and environmentally feasible in Oman. Also, wider acceptance by the general public to the idea of GW reuse will help in mitigating the water shortage problem of the country to some extent.

  15. Navigating the flow: individual and continuum models for homing in flowing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Kevin J; Hillen, Thomas

    2015-11-06

    Navigation for aquatic and airborne species often takes place in the face of complicated flows, from persistent currents to highly unpredictable storms. Hydrodynamic models are capable of simulating flow dynamics and provide the impetus for much individual-based modelling, in which particle-sized individuals are immersed into a flowing medium. These models yield insights on the impact of currents on population distributions from fish eggs to large organisms, yet their computational demands and intractability reduce their capacity to generate the broader, less parameter-specific, insights allowed by traditional continuous approaches. In this paper, we formulate an individual-based model for navigation within a flowing field and apply scaling to derive its corresponding macroscopic and continuous model. We apply it to various movement classes, from drifters that simply go with the flow to navigators that respond to environmental orienteering cues. The utility of the model is demonstrated via its application to 'homing' problems and, in particular, the navigation of the marine green turtle Chelonia mydas to Ascension Island. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Design of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic (PV Models for Home Lightings and Clean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Anayochukwu Ani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a well-documented health risks of fuel-based lighting (kerosene lamps and fuel-powered generators and proposed a design of a stand-alone solar PV system for sustainable home lightings in rural Nigerian area. The design was done in three different patterns of electricity consumptions with energy efficient lightings (EELs using two different battery types (Rolls Surrette 6CS25PS and hoppecke 10 OpzS 1000 on; i judicious power consumption, ii normal power consumption, iii excess power consumption; and compared them with the incandescent light bulb consumption. The stand-alone photovoltaic energy systems were designed to match the rural Nigerian sunlight and weather conditions to meet the required lightings of the household. The objective function and constraints for the design models were formulated and optimization procedure were used to demonstrate the best solution (reliability at the lowest lifecycle cost. Initial capital costs as well as annualized costs over 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years were quantified and documented. The design identified the most cost-effective and reliable solar and battery array among the patterns of electricity consumption with energy efficient lighting options (judicious power consumption, normal power consumption, and excess power consumption.

  17. An Efficient Framework for Development of Task-Oriented Dialog Systems in a Smart Home Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmin Park

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, with the increasing interest in conversational agents for smart homes, task-oriented dialog systems are being actively researched. However, most of these studies are focused on the individual modules of such a system, and there is an evident lack of research on a dialog framework that can integrate and manage the entire dialog system. Therefore, in this study, we propose a framework that enables the user to effectively develop an intelligent dialog system. The proposed framework ontologically expresses the knowledge required for the task-oriented dialog system’s process and can build a dialog system by editing the dialog knowledge. In addition, the framework provides a module router that can indirectly run externally developed modules. Further, it enables a more intelligent conversation by providing a hierarchical argument structure (HAS to manage the various argument representations included in natural language sentences. To verify the practicality of the framework, an experiment was conducted in which developers without any previous experience in developing a dialog system developed task-oriented dialog systems using the proposed framework. The experimental results show that even beginner dialog system developers can develop a high-level task-oriented dialog system.

  18. An Efficient Framework for Development of Task-Oriented Dialog Systems in a Smart Home Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngmin; Kang, Sangwoo; Seo, Jungyun

    2018-05-16

    In recent times, with the increasing interest in conversational agents for smart homes, task-oriented dialog systems are being actively researched. However, most of these studies are focused on the individual modules of such a system, and there is an evident lack of research on a dialog framework that can integrate and manage the entire dialog system. Therefore, in this study, we propose a framework that enables the user to effectively develop an intelligent dialog system. The proposed framework ontologically expresses the knowledge required for the task-oriented dialog system's process and can build a dialog system by editing the dialog knowledge. In addition, the framework provides a module router that can indirectly run externally developed modules. Further, it enables a more intelligent conversation by providing a hierarchical argument structure (HAS) to manage the various argument representations included in natural language sentences. To verify the practicality of the framework, an experiment was conducted in which developers without any previous experience in developing a dialog system developed task-oriented dialog systems using the proposed framework. The experimental results show that even beginner dialog system developers can develop a high-level task-oriented dialog system.

  19. Recommendations service for chronic disease patient in multimodel sensors home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Maqbool; Ali, Taqdir; Khan, Wajahat Ali; Afzal, Muhammad; Lee, Sungyoung; Latif, Khalid

    2015-03-01

    With advanced technologies in hand, there exist potential applications and services built around monitoring activities of daily living (ADL) of elderly people at nursing homes. Most of the elderly people in these facilities are suffering from different chronic diseases such as dementia. Existing technologies are mainly focusing on non-medication interventions and monitoring of ADL for addressing loss of autonomy or well-being. Monitoring and managing ADL related to cognitive behaviors for non-medication intervention are very effective in improving dementia patients' conditions. However, cognitive functions of patients can be improved if appropriate recommendations of medications are delivered at a particular time. Previously we developed the Secured Wireless Sensor Network Integrated Cloud Computing for Ubiquitous-Life Care (SC(3)). SC(3) services were limited to monitoring ADL of elderly people with Alzheimer's disease and providing non-medication recommendations to the patient. In this article, we propose a system called the Smart Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) as an integral part of the SC(3) platform. Using the Smart CDSS, patients are provided with access to medication recommendations of expert physicians. Physicians are provided with an interface to create clinical knowledge for medication recommendations and to observe the patient's condition. The clinical knowledge created by physicians as the knowledge base of the Smart CDSS produces recommendations to the caregiver for medications based on each patient's symptoms.

  20. Design of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Model for Home Lightings and Clean Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ani, Vincent Anayochukwu

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a well-documented health risk of fuel-based lighting (kerosene lamps and fuel-powered generators) and proposed a design of a stand-alone solar PV system for sustainable home lightings in rural Nigerian area. The design was done in three different patterns of electricity consumptions with energy efficient lightings (EELs) using two different battery types (Rolls Surrette 6CS25PS and Hoppecke 10 OpzS 1000) on; (i) judicious power consumption, (ii) normal power consumption, and (iii) excess power consumption; and compared them with the incandescent light bulb consumption. The stand-alone photovoltaic energy systems were designed to match the rural Nigerian sunlight and weather conditions to meet the required lightings of the household. The objective function and constraints for the design models were formulated and optimization procedures were used to demonstrate the best solution (reliability at the lowest lifecycle cost). Initial capital costs as well as annualized costs over 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years were quantified and documented. The design identified the most cost-effective and reliable solar and battery array among the patterns of electricity consumption with EEL options (judicious power consumption, normal power consumption, and excess power consumption).