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Sample records for early epidemic growth

  1. Mathematical models to characterize early epidemic growth: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Sattenspiel, Lisa; Bansal, Shweta; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-09-01

    There is a long tradition of using mathematical models to generate insights into the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases and assess the potential impact of different intervention strategies. The increasing use of mathematical models for epidemic forecasting has highlighted the importance of designing reliable models that capture the baseline transmission characteristics of specific pathogens and social contexts. More refined models are needed however, in particular to account for variation in the early growth dynamics of real epidemics and to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms at play. Here, we review recent progress on modeling and characterizing early epidemic growth patterns from infectious disease outbreak data, and survey the types of mathematical formulations that are most useful for capturing a diversity of early epidemic growth profiles, ranging from sub-exponential to exponential growth dynamics. Specifically, we review mathematical models that incorporate spatial details or realistic population mixing structures, including meta-population models, individual-based network models, and simple SIR-type models that incorporate the effects of reactive behavior changes or inhomogeneous mixing. In this process, we also analyze simulation data stemming from detailed large-scale agent-based models previously designed and calibrated to study how realistic social networks and disease transmission characteristics shape early epidemic growth patterns, general transmission dynamics, and control of international disease emergencies such as the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa.

  2. Effects of clustered transmission on epidemic growth Comment on "Mathematical models to characterize early epidemic growth: A review" by Gerardo Chowell et al.

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    Merler, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    Characterizing the early growth profile of an epidemic outbreak is key for predicting the likely trajectory of the number of cases and for designing adequate control measures. Epidemic profiles characterized by exponential growth have been widely observed in the past and a grounding theoretical framework for the analysis of infectious disease dynamics was provided by the pioneering work of Kermack and McKendrick [1]. In particular, exponential growth stems from the assumption that pathogens spread in homogeneous mixing populations; that is, individuals of the population mix uniformly and randomly with each other. However, this assumption was readily recognized as highly questionable [2], and sub-exponential profiles of epidemic growth have been observed in a number of epidemic outbreaks, including HIV/AIDS, foot-and-mouth disease, measles and, more recently, Ebola [3,4].

  3. Characterizing the reproduction number of epidemics with early subexponential growth dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone

    2016-01-01

    Early estimates of the transmission potential of emerging and re-emerging infections are increasingly used to inform public health authorities on the level of risk posed by outbreaks. Existing methods to estimate the reproduction number generally assume exponential growth in case incidence...... in the first few disease generations, before susceptible depletion sets in. In reality, outbreaks can display subexponential (i.e. polynomial) growth in the first few disease generations, owing to clustering in contact patterns, spatial effects, inhomogeneous mixing, reactive behaviour changes or other...... mechanisms. Here, we introduce the generalized growth model to characterize the early growth profile of outbreaks and estimate the effective reproduction number, with no need for explicit assumptions about the shape of epidemic growth. We demonstrate this phenomenological approach using analytical results...

  4. The need for data science in epidemic modelling. Comment on: "Mathematical models to characterize early epidemic growth: A review" by Gerardo Chowell et al.

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    Danon, Leon; Brooks-Pollock, Ellen

    2016-09-01

    In their review, Chowell et al. consider the ability of mathematical models to predict early epidemic growth [1]. In particular, they question the central prediction of classical differential equation models that the number of cases grows exponentially during the early stages of an epidemic. Using examples including HIV and Ebola, they argue that classical models fail to capture key qualitative features of early growth and describe a selection of models that do capture non-exponential epidemic growth. An implication of this failure is that predictions may be inaccurate and unusable, highlighting the need for care when embarking upon modelling using classical methodology. There remains a lack of understanding of the mechanisms driving many observed epidemic patterns; we argue that data science should form a fundamental component of epidemic modelling, providing a rigorous methodology for data-driven approaches, rather than trying to enforce established frameworks. The need for refinement of classical models provides a strong argument for the use of data science, to identify qualitative characteristics and pinpoint the mechanisms responsible for the observed epidemic patterns.

  5. Power law incidence rate in epidemic models. Comment on: "Mathematical models to characterize early epidemic growth: A review" by Gerardo Chowell et al.

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    Allen, Linda J. S.

    2016-09-01

    Dr. Chowell and colleagues emphasize the importance of considering a variety of modeling approaches to characterize the growth of an epidemic during the early stages [1]. A fit of data from the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak to models indicates sub-exponential growth, in contrast to the classic, homogeneous-mixing SIR model with exponential growth. With incidence rate βSI / N and S approximately equal to the total population size N, the number of new infections in an SIR epidemic model grows exponentially as in the differential equation,

  6. Pros and cons of estimating the reproduction number from early epidemic growth rate of influenza A (H1N1 2009

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    Chowell Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many parts of the world, the exponential growth rate of infections during the initial epidemic phase has been used to make statistical inferences on the reproduction number, R, a summary measure of the transmission potential for the novel influenza A (H1N1 2009. The growth rate at the initial stage of the epidemic in Japan led to estimates for R in the range 2.0 to 2.6, capturing the intensity of the initial outbreak among school-age children in May 2009. Methods An updated estimate of R that takes into account the epidemic data from 29 May to 14 July is provided. An age-structured renewal process is employed to capture the age-dependent transmission dynamics, jointly estimating the reproduction number, the age-dependent susceptibility and the relative contribution of imported cases to secondary transmission. Pitfalls in estimating epidemic growth rates are identified and used for scrutinizing and re-assessing the results of our earlier estimate of R. Results Maximum likelihood estimates of R using the data from 29 May to 14 July ranged from 1.21 to 1.35. The next-generation matrix, based on our age-structured model, predicts that only 17.5% of the population will experience infection by the end of the first pandemic wave. Our earlier estimate of R did not fully capture the population-wide epidemic in quantifying the next-generation matrix from the estimated growth rate during the initial stage of the pandemic in Japan. Conclusions In order to quantify R from the growth rate of cases, it is essential that the selected model captures the underlying transmission dynamics embedded in the data. Exploring additional epidemiological information will be useful for assessing the temporal dynamics. Although the simple concept of R is more easily grasped by the general public than that of the next-generation matrix, the matrix incorporating detailed information (e.g., age-specificity is essential for reducing the levels of

  7. Is it growing exponentially fast? -- Impact of assuming exponential growth for characterizing and forecasting epidemics with initial near-exponential growth dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-10-01

    The increasing use of mathematical models for epidemic forecasting has highlighted the importance of designing models that capture the baseline transmission characteristics in order to generate reliable epidemic forecasts. Improved models for epidemic forecasting could be achieved by identifying signature features of epidemic growth, which could inform the design of models of disease spread and reveal important characteristics of the transmission process. In particular, it is often taken for granted that the early growth phase of different growth processes in nature follow early exponential growth dynamics. In the context of infectious disease spread, this assumption is often convenient to describe a transmission process with mass action kinetics using differential equations and generate analytic expressions and estimates of the reproduction number. In this article, we carry out a simulation study to illustrate the impact of incorrectly assuming an exponential-growth model to characterize the early phase (e.g., 3-5 disease generation intervals) of an infectious disease outbreak that follows near-exponential growth dynamics. Specifically, we assess the impact on: 1) goodness of fit, 2) bias on the growth parameter, and 3) the impact on short-term epidemic forecasts. Designing transmission models and statistical approaches that more flexibly capture the profile of epidemic growth could lead to enhanced model fit, improved estimates of key transmission parameters, and more realistic epidemic forecasts.

  8. Understanding apparently non-exponential outbreaks Comment on "Mathematical models to characterize early epidemic growth: A review" by Gerardo Chowell et al.

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    Champredon, David; Earn, David J. D.

    2016-09-01

    Mechanistic mathematical modelling of the population dynamics of infectious diseases has advanced tremendously over the last few decades [1-6]. Transmission models have been applied to countless diseases of public health importance, including seasonal and pandemic influenza [7], childhood diseases such as measles [8,9] and whooping cough [10], vector transmitted diseases such as malaria [11] and dengue [12], and waterborne diseases such as cholera [13-15]. Much attention in recent years has been directed to emergent diseases such as SARS [16], new subtypes of influenza [17,18], Ebola [19,20], and Zika [21], for which an understanding of early outbreak dynamics is critical.

  9. FluBreaks: early epidemic detection from Google flu trends.

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    Pervaiz, Fahad; Pervaiz, Mansoor; Abdur Rehman, Nabeel; Saif, Umar

    2012-10-04

    The Google Flu Trends service was launched in 2008 to track changes in the volume of online search queries related to flu-like symptoms. Over the last few years, the trend data produced by this service has shown a consistent relationship with the actual number of flu reports collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), often identifying increases in flu cases weeks in advance of CDC records. However, contrary to popular belief, Google Flu Trends is not an early epidemic detection system. Instead, it is designed as a baseline indicator of the trend, or changes, in the number of disease cases. To evaluate whether these trends can be used as a basis for an early warning system for epidemics. We present the first detailed algorithmic analysis of how Google Flu Trends can be used as a basis for building a fully automated system for early warning of epidemics in advance of methods used by the CDC. Based on our work, we present a novel early epidemic detection system, called FluBreaks (dritte.org/flubreaks), based on Google Flu Trends data. We compared the accuracy and practicality of three types of algorithms: normal distribution algorithms, Poisson distribution algorithms, and negative binomial distribution algorithms. We explored the relative merits of these methods, and related our findings to changes in Internet penetration and population size for the regions in Google Flu Trends providing data. Across our performance metrics of percentage true-positives (RTP), percentage false-positives (RFP), percentage overlap (OT), and percentage early alarms (EA), Poisson- and negative binomial-based algorithms performed better in all except RFP. Poisson-based algorithms had average values of 99%, 28%, 71%, and 76% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively, whereas negative binomial-based algorithms had average values of 97.8%, 17.8%, 60%, and 55% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively. Moreover, the EA was also affected by the region's population size

  10. An online operational rainfall-monitoring resource for epidemic malaria early warning systems in Africa

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    Grover-Kopec, Emily; Kawano, Mika; Klaver, Robert W.; Blumenthal, Benno; Ceccato, Pietro; Connor, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    Periodic epidemics of malaria are a major public health problem for many sub-Saharan African countries. Populations in epidemic prone areas have a poorly developed immunity to malaria and the disease remains life threatening to all age groups. The impact of epidemics could be minimized by prediction and improved prevention through timely vector control and deployment of appropriate drugs. Malaria Early Warning Systems are advocated as a means of improving the opportunity for preparedness and timely response.

  11. development of an epidemic early warning system in Mpwapwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using retrospective epidemiological data to determine malaria epidemic prone areas and ... 3Regional Medical Ojfice, P.O. Box 904, Dodoma, Tanzania ... Similarly, a remarkably high number of severely affected and admitted malaria patients were recorded in 1999 .... examined in the laboratories were positive for malaria.

  12. An online operational rainfall-monitoring resource for epidemic malaria early warning systems in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceccato Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Periodic epidemics of malaria are a major public health problem for many sub-Saharan African countries. Populations in epidemic prone areas have a poorly developed immunity to malaria and the disease remains life threatening to all age groups. The impact of epidemics could be minimized by prediction and improved prevention through timely vector control and deployment of appropriate drugs. Malaria Early Warning Systems are advocated as a means of improving the opportunity for preparedness and timely response. Rainfall is one of the major factors triggering epidemics in warm semi-arid and desert-fringe areas. Explosive epidemics often occur in these regions after excessive rains and, where these follow periods of drought and poor food security, can be especially severe. Consequently, rainfall monitoring forms one of the essential elements for the development of integrated Malaria Early Warning Systems for sub-Saharan Africa, as outlined by the World Health Organization. The Roll Back Malaria Technical Resource Network on Prevention and Control of Epidemics recommended that a simple indicator of changes in epidemic risk in regions of marginal transmission, consisting primarily of rainfall anomaly maps, could provide immediate benefit to early warning efforts. In response to these recommendations, the Famine Early Warning Systems Network produced maps that combine information about dekadal rainfall anomalies, and epidemic malaria risk, available via their Africa Data Dissemination Service. These maps were later made available in a format that is directly compatible with HealthMapper, the mapping and surveillance software developed by the WHO's Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response Department. A new monitoring interface has recently been developed at the International Research Institute for Climate Prediction (IRI that enables the user to gain a more contextual perspective of the current rainfall estimates by comparing them to

  13. Emergence of whooping cough: notes from three early epidemics in Persia.

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    Aslanabadi, Arash; Ghabili, Kamyar; Shad, Kaveh; Khalili, Majid; Sajadi, Mohammad M

    2015-12-01

    Whooping cough is a relatively new infectious disease afflicting human beings, compared with other infectious diseases, and is undergoing a resurgence despite decades of vaccination. The oldest known epidemic is thought to be the Paris outbreak of 1578. In this Historical Review, we describe three epidemics of whooping cough in Persia, which although arising roughly one century before the Paris outbreak, have not been examined in detail. A great amount of epidemiological detail was reported that not only distinguishes the various stages and complications of whooping cough, but also reveals unique immunological aspects of this disease. The first of these epidemics is the oldest recorded whooping cough epidemic. On the basis of epidemiological features, we propose that this whooping cough epidemic was the first to have taken place in Persia and might have been part of the first pandemic. This theory pushes back the date of first documented emergence of whooping cough by almost a century, which matches molecular data about its spread. Here, we discuss features of these early epidemics in relation to their initial emergence, potential origins, and spread to Europe.

  14. Growth patterns and scaling laws governing AIDS epidemic in Brazilian cities

    CERN Document Server

    Antonio, F J; Teixeira, J J V; Mendes, R S

    2014-01-01

    Brazil holds approximately 1/3 of population living infected with AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in Central and South Americas, and it was also the first developing country to implement a large-scale control and intervention program against AIDS epidemic. In this scenario, we investigate the temporal evolution and current status of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil. Specifically, we analyze records of annual absolute frequency of cases for more than 5000 cities for the first 33 years of the infection in Brazil. We found that (i) the annual absolute frequencies exhibit a logistic-type growth with an exponential regime in the first few years of the AIDS spreading; (ii) the actual reproduction number decaying as a power law; (iii) the distribution of the annual absolute frequencies among cities decays with a power law behavior; (iv) the annual absolute frequencies and the number of inhabitants have an allometric relationship; (v) the temporal evolution of the annual absolute frequencies have different profi...

  15. Effect of crop growth and canopy filtration on the dynamics of plant disease epidemics spread by aerially dispersed spores.

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    Ferrandino, F J

    2008-05-01

    Most mathematical models of plant disease epidemics ignore the growth and phenology of the host crop. Unfortunately, reports of disease development are often not accompanied by a simultaneous and commensurate evaluation of crop development. However, the time scale for increases in the leaf area of field crops is comparable to the time scale of epidemics. This simultaneous development of host and pathogen has many ramifications on the resulting plant disease epidemic. First, there is a simple dilution effect resulting from the introduction of new healthy leaf area with time. Often, measurements of disease levels are made pro rata (per unit of host leaf area or total root length or mass). Thus, host growth will reduce the apparent infection rate. A second, related effect, has to do with the so-called "correction factor," which accounts for inoculum falling on already infected tissue. This factor accounts for multiple infection and is given by the fraction of the host tissue that is susceptible to disease. As an epidemic develops, less and less tissue is open to infection and the initial exponential growth slows. Crop growth delays the impact of this limiting effect and, therefore, tends to increase the rate of disease progress. A third and often neglected effect arises when an increase in the density of susceptible host tissue results in a corresponding increase in the basic reproduction ratio, R(0), defined as the ratio of the total number of daughter lesions produced to the number of original mother lesions. This occurs when the transport efficiency of inoculum from infected to susceptible host is strongly dependent on the spatial density of plant tissue. Thus, crop growth may have a major impact on the development of plant disease epidemics occurring during the vegetative phase of crop growth. The effects that these crop growth-related factors have on plant disease epidemics spread by airborne spores are evaluated using mathematical models and their importance is

  16. A cost-effectiveness analysis of three components of a syndromic surveillance system for the early warning of epidemics in rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Yan; Sauerborn, Rainer; Xu, Biao; Shaofa, Nie; Yan, Weirong; Diwan, Vinod K.; Dong, Hengjin

    2015-01-01

    Background Syndromic surveillance systems (SSSs) collect non-specific syndromes in early stages of disease outbreaks. This makes an SSS a promising tool for the early detection of epidemics. An Integrated Surveillance System in rural China (ISSC project), which added an SSS to the existing Chinese surveillance system for the early warning of epidemics, was implemented from April 2012 to March 2014 in Jiangxi and Hubei Provinces. This study aims to measure the costs and effectiveness of the th...

  17. Learning from an early start but late end epidemics via an incidence rate restricted bivariate distribution and data analysis

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    Ramalingam Shanmugam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: An ideal expectation of public health administrators or field medical workers is to have a late start and quick ending of any epidemic. Instead, when an epidemic starts early but ends late, it is where much can be learned from the incidences. A case in point for discussion in this article is the pattern of 2009 H1N1 epidemic. Methods: With a parameter to portray an existing health environment as a deterrent for an epidemic like H1N1 to outbreak in any location at a week, a bivariate distribution is created and is used to analyze the data for a learning so that it helps to prevent a too long prevailing future epidemic. This new distribution is named Incidence Rate Restricted Bivariate Distribution (IRRBGD. Statistical properties of IRRBGD are derived and illustrated using 2009 H1N1 incidences in all five continental regions (Africa, Asia, Europe, Americas, and Oceanic across on earth. Results: The Asian continent, compared to other four continental regions, had most vulnerability for H1N1 incidences. The odds for no H1N1 to occur is lowest only in Oceanic among the four continental regions, namely Africa, Europe, Americas, and Oceanic. Since the beginning of the year 2009 with 52 weeks, the week number, Y in which the H1N1 appeared first and the number, X of weeks the H1N1 continued on in a region are consistently highly correlated in all five continental regions. Conclusions: From the data analyses of 2009 H1N1 incidences, no continental region is risk free with respect another round of H1N1 epidemic in future. The medical community and public healthcare administrators ought to identify the common and region specific unique deterrents of the epidemic like H1N1. The impact of such deterrents to H1N1 is captured in our model and analysis. By increasing the deterrent level, the outbreak of an epidemic like H1N1 could be delayed, according to our model and data information. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2181-2189

  18. Survival and growth of epidemically successful and nonsuccessful Salmonella enterica clones after freezing and dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Karoline; Aabo, Søren; Birk, Tina; Mordhorst, Hanne; Bjarnadóttir, Björg; Agersø, Yvonne

    2012-03-01

    The spread of epidemically successful nontyphoidal Salmonella clones has been suggested as the most important cause of salmonellosis in industrialized countries. Factors leading to the emergence of success clones are largely unknown, but their ability to survive and grow after physical stress may contribute. During epidemiological studies, a mathematical model was developed that allowed estimation of a factor (q) accounting for the relative ability of Salmonella serovars with different antimicrobial resistances to survive in the food chain and cause human disease. Based on this q-factor, 26 Salmonella isolates were characterized as successful or nonsuccessful. We studied the survival and growth of stationary- and exponential-phase cells of these isolates after freezing for up to 336 days in minced meat. We also investigated survival and growth after dehydration at 10°C and 82% relative humidity (RH) and 25°C and 49% RH for 112 days. Stationary-phase cells were reduced by less than 1 log unit during 1 year of freezing, and growth was initiated with an average lag phase of 1.7 h. Survival was lower in exponentialphase cells, but lag phases tended to be shorter. High humidity and low temperature were less harmful to Salmonella than were low humidity and high temperature. Tolerance to adverse conditions was highest for Salmonella Infantis and one Salmonella Typhimurium U292 isolate and lowest for Salmonella Derby and one Salmonella Typhimurium DT170 isolate. Dehydration, in contrast to freezing, was differently tolerated by the Salmonella strains in this study, but tolerance to freezing and dehydration does not appear to contribute to the emergence of successful Salmonella clones.

  19. Early Detection of Epidemic GII-4 Norovirus Strains in UK and Malawi: Role of Surveillance of Sporadic Acute Gastroenteritis in Anticipating Global Epidemics.

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    David J Allen

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are endemic in the human population, and are recognised as a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Although they are a highly diverse group of viruses, genogroup-II genotype-4 (GII-4 noroviruses are the most frequently identified strains worldwide. The predominance of GII-4 norovirus strains is driven by the periodic emergence of antigenic variants capable of evading herd protection. The global molecular epidemiology of emerging GII-4 strains is largely based on data from outbreak surveillance programmes, but the epidemiology of GII-4 strains among sporadic or community cases is far less well studied. To understand the distribution of GII-4 norovirus strains associated with gastroenteritis in the wider population, we characterised the GII-4 norovirus strains detected during studies of sporadic cases of infectious gastroenteritis collected in the UK and Malawi between 1993 and 2009. Our data shows that GII-4 norovirus strains that have emerged as strains of global epidemic importance have circulated in the community up to 18 years before their recognition as pandemic strains associated with increases in outbreaks. These data may suggest that more comprehensive surveillance programmes that incorporate strains associated with sporadic cases may provide a way for early detection of emerging strains with pandemic potential. This may be of particular relevance as vaccines become available.

  20. Early Detection of Epidemic GII-4 Norovirus Strains in UK and Malawi: Role of Surveillance of Sporadic Acute Gastroenteritis in Anticipating Global Epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David J; Trainor, Eamonn; Callaghan, Anna; O'Brien, Sarah J; Cunliffe, Nigel A; Iturriza-Gómara, Miren

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses are endemic in the human population, and are recognised as a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Although they are a highly diverse group of viruses, genogroup-II genotype-4 (GII-4) noroviruses are the most frequently identified strains worldwide. The predominance of GII-4 norovirus strains is driven by the periodic emergence of antigenic variants capable of evading herd protection. The global molecular epidemiology of emerging GII-4 strains is largely based on data from outbreak surveillance programmes, but the epidemiology of GII-4 strains among sporadic or community cases is far less well studied. To understand the distribution of GII-4 norovirus strains associated with gastroenteritis in the wider population, we characterised the GII-4 norovirus strains detected during studies of sporadic cases of infectious gastroenteritis collected in the UK and Malawi between 1993 and 2009. Our data shows that GII-4 norovirus strains that have emerged as strains of global epidemic importance have circulated in the community up to 18 years before their recognition as pandemic strains associated with increases in outbreaks. These data may suggest that more comprehensive surveillance programmes that incorporate strains associated with sporadic cases may provide a way for early detection of emerging strains with pandemic potential. This may be of particular relevance as vaccines become available.

  1. The amazing growth of the early church

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    Wim A. Dreyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The church grew rapidly during the first centuries. The question is: Why? Generations of scholars approached this question from different perspectives and with different methods. Historical research, analysis of early Christian texts and theological reflection were the most common methods used to shed light on the growth of the church. In this contribution five different models of growth were discussed, using the approach of A.M. Schor as a point of departure. These models of church growth were put under the headings of an apostolic mission model, values reproduction model, social reaction model, network model with an institutional model added.

  2. High GUD incidence in the early 20 century created a particularly permissive time window for the origin and initial spread of epidemic HIV strains.

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    João Dinis de Sousa

    Full Text Available The processes that permitted a few SIV strains to emerge epidemically as HIV groups remain elusive. Paradigmatic theories propose factors that may have facilitated adaptation to the human host (e.g., unsafe injections, none of which provide a coherent explanation for the timing, geographical origin, and scarcity of epidemic HIV strains. Our updated molecular clock analyses established relatively narrow time intervals (roughly 1880-1940 for major SIV transfers to humans. Factors that could favor HIV emergence in this time frame may have been genital ulcer disease (GUD, resulting in high HIV-1 transmissibility (4-43%, largely exceeding parenteral transmissibility; lack of male circumcision increasing male HIV infection risk; and gender-skewed city growth increasing sexual promiscuity. We surveyed colonial medical literature reporting incidences of GUD for the relevant regions, concentrating on cities, suffering less reporting biases than rural areas. Coinciding in time with the origin of the major HIV groups, colonial cities showed intense GUD outbreaks with incidences 1.5-2.5 orders of magnitude higher than in mid 20(th century. We surveyed ethnographic literature, and concluded that male circumcision frequencies were lower in early 20(th century than nowadays, with low rates correlating spatially with the emergence of HIV groups. We developed computer simulations to model the early spread of HIV-1 group M in Kinshasa before, during and after the estimated origin of the virus, using parameters derived from the colonial literature. These confirmed that the early 20(th century was particularly permissive for the emergence of HIV by heterosexual transmission. The strongest potential facilitating factor was high GUD levels. Remarkably, the direct effects of city population size and circumcision frequency seemed relatively small. Our results suggest that intense GUD in promiscuous urban communities was the main factor driving HIV emergence. Low

  3. Early growth trajectories affect sexual responsiveness.

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    Lee, Who-Seung; Metcalfe, Neil B; Réale, Denis; Peres-Neto, Pedro R

    2014-02-22

    The trajectory of an animal's growth in early development has been shown to have long-term effects on a range of life-history traits. Although it is known that individual differences in behaviour may also be related to certain life-history traits, the linkage between early growth or development and individual variation in behaviour has received little attention. We used brief temperature manipulations, independent of food availability, to stimulate compensatory growth in juvenile three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus. Here, we examine how these manipulated growth trajectories affected the sexual responsiveness of the male fish at the time of sexual maturation, explore associations between reproductive behaviour and investment and lifespan and test whether the perceived time stress (until the onset of the breeding season) influenced such trade-offs. We found a negative impact of growth rate on sexual responsiveness: fish induced (by temperature manipulation) to grow slowest prior to the breeding season were consistently quickest to respond to the presence of a gravid female. This speed of sexual responsiveness was also positively correlated with the rate of development of sexual ornaments and time taken to build a nest. However, after controlling for effects of growth rate, those males that had the greatest sexual responsiveness to females had the shortest lifespan. Moreover, the time available to compensate in size before the onset of the breeding season (time stress) affected the magnitude of these effects. Our results demonstrate that developmental perturbations in early life can influence mating behaviour, with long-term effects on longevity.

  4. Implementation of an Alert and Response System in Haiti during the Early Stage of the Response to the Cholera Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Olalla, Patricia; Gayer, Michelle; Magloire, Roc; Barrais, Robert; Valenciano, Marta; Aramburu, Carmen; Poncelet, Jean Luc; Gustavo Alonso, Juan Carlos; Van Alphen, Dana; Heuschen, Florence; Andraghetti, Roberta; Lee, Robert; Drury, Patrick; Aldighieri, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    The start of the cholera epidemic in Haiti quickly highlighted the necessity of the implementation of an Alert and Response (A&R) System to complement the existing national surveillance system. The national system had been able to detect and confirm the outbreak etiology but required external support to monitor the spread of cholera and coordinate response, because much of the information produced was insufficiently timely for real-time monitoring and directing of a rapid, targeted response. The A&R System was designed by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization in collaboration with the Haiti Ministry of Health, and it was based on a network of partners, including any institution, structure, or individual that could identify, verify, and respond to alerts. The defined objectives were to (1) save lives through early detection and treatment of cases and (2) control the spread through early intervention at the community level. The operational structure could be broken down into three principle categories: (1) alert (early warning), (2) verification and assessment of the information, and (3) efficient and timely response in coordination with partners to avoid duplication. Information generated by the A&R System was analyzed and interpreted, and the qualitative information was critical in qualifying the epidemic and defining vulnerable areas, particularly because the national surveillance system reported incomplete data for more than one department. The A&R System detected a number of alerts unrelated to cholera and facilitated rapid access to that information. The sensitivity of the system and its ability to react quickly was shown in May of 2011, when an abnormal increase in alerts coming from several communes in the Sud-Est Department in epidemiological weeks (EWs) 17 and 18 were noted and disseminated network-wide and response activities were implemented. The national cholera surveillance system did not register the increase until EWs 21 and

  5. Implementation of an alert and response system in Haiti during the early stage of the response to the cholera epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Olalla, Patricia; Gayer, Michelle; Magloire, Roc; Barrais, Robert; Valenciano, Marta; Aramburu, Carmen; Poncelet, Jean Luc; Gustavo Alonso, Juan Carlos; Van Alphen, Dana; Heuschen, Florence; Andraghetti, Roberta; Lee, Robert; Drury, Patrick; Aldighieri, Sylvain

    2013-10-01

    The start of the cholera epidemic in Haiti quickly highlighted the necessity of the implementation of an Alert and Response (A&R) System to complement the existing national surveillance system. The national system had been able to detect and confirm the outbreak etiology but required external support to monitor the spread of cholera and coordinate response, because much of the information produced was insufficiently timely for real-time monitoring and directing of a rapid, targeted response. The A&R System was designed by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization in collaboration with the Haiti Ministry of Health, and it was based on a network of partners, including any institution, structure, or individual that could identify, verify, and respond to alerts. The defined objectives were to (1) save lives through early detection and treatment of cases and (2) control the spread through early intervention at the community level. The operational structure could be broken down into three principle categories: (1) alert (early warning), (2) verification and assessment of the information, and (3) efficient and timely response in coordination with partners to avoid duplication. Information generated by the A&R System was analyzed and interpreted, and the qualitative information was critical in qualifying the epidemic and defining vulnerable areas, particularly because the national surveillance system reported incomplete data for more than one department. The A&R System detected a number of alerts unrelated to cholera and facilitated rapid access to that information. The sensitivity of the system and its ability to react quickly was shown in May of 2011, when an abnormal increase in alerts coming from several communes in the Sud-Est Department in epidemiological weeks (EWs) 17 and 18 were noted and disseminated network-wide and response activities were implemented. The national cholera surveillance system did not register the increase until EWs 21 and

  6. A case for critical ethnography: rethinking the early years of the AIDS epidemic in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassin, Didier

    2013-12-01

    The epidemic of AIDS in South Africa has been characterized not only by its rapid progression but also its impassioned controversies. Retrospectively examining a long-term anthropological project and discussing some reactions it elicited, the paper proposes a defense and illustration of a critical ethnography at three moments of the research. Ethnography is first discussed as fieldworks, proposing an alternative to the horizontal multi-sited approach via a vertical multi-layered method using various scales and locations, and thus connecting the disease endured by patients in townships and former homelands with the heated debates in scientific and political forums: this procedure substitutes a political economy of the disease for its cultural and behavioral interpretations. Ethnography is then discussed as writing, suggesting acknowledgment of the social intelligence of the agents as well as the need for a scientific distance: this principle allows the articulation of the objective historical condition of the individuals and their subjective experience of history, both revealed in the development of the epidemic. Ultimately ethnography is considered from the perspective of its afterlife, that is, the continuous process of its translation by readers and commentators, on the one hand, by the author trying to reach beyond the boundaries of the academic realm, on the other, the work of anthropology appearing as a living object open to public conversation and consequently a resource for knowledge and action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stability of the associations between early life risk indicators and adolescent overweight over the evolving obesity epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Graversen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pre- and perinatal factors and preschool body size may help identify children developing overweight, but these factors might have changed during the development of the obesity epidemic. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the associations between early life risk indicators and overweight at the age of 9 and 15 years at different stages of the obesity epidemic. METHODS: We used two population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohorts including 4111 children born in 1966 (NFBC1966 and 5414 children born in 1985-1986 (NFBC1986. In both cohorts, we used the same a priori defined prenatal factors, maternal body mass index (BMI, birth weight, infant weight (age 5 months and 1 year, and preschool BMI (age 2-5 years. We used internal references in early childhood to define percentiles of body size (90 and generalized linear models to study the association with overweight, according to the International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF definitions, at the ages of 9 and 15 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight at the age of 15 was 9% for children born in 1966 and 16% for children born in 1986. However, medians of infant weight and preschool BMI changed little between the cohorts, and we found similar associations between maternal BMI, infant weight, preschool BMI, and later overweight in the two cohorts. At 5 years, children above the 90th percentile had approximately a 12 times higher risk of being overweight at the age of 15 years compared to children below the 50th percentile in both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The associations between early body size and adolescent overweight showed remarkable stability, despite the increase in prevalence of overweight over the 20 years between the cohorts. Using consequently defined internal percentiles may be a valuable tool in clinical practice.

  8. On Branching Processes and the Early Stages of the Spread of an Epidemic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed E; Yassen M T

    1998-01-01

    Branching process (BP) is used to model the early stages of the spread of a sexually transmitted disease. The early stages of AIDS spread which is transmitted both homosexually and heterosexually are studied as a BP.

  9. Recombinant viruses initiated the early HIV-1 epidemic in Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter N Fonjungo

    Full Text Available We analyzed genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 124 HIV-1 and 19 HIV-2 strains in sera collected in 1986 from patients of the state hospital in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Phylogenetic analysis of the HIV-1 env gp41 region of 65 sequences characterized 37 (56.9% as CRF06_cpx strains, 25 (38.5% as CRF02_AG, 2 (3.1% as CRF09_cpx, and 1 (1.5% as subtype A. Similarly, phylogenetic analysis of the protease (PR gene region of 73 sequences identified 52 (71.2% as CRF06_cpx, 15 (20.5% as CRF02_AG, 5 (6.8% as subtype A, and 1 (1.4% was a unique strain that clustered along the B/D lineage but basal to the node connecting the two lineages. HIV-2 PR or integrase (INT groups A (n = 17 [89.5%] and B (n = 2 [10.5%] were found in both monotypic (n = 11 and heterotypic HIV-1/HIV-2 (n = 8 infections, with few HIV-2 group B infections. Based on limited available sampling, evidence suggests two recombinant viruses, CRF06_cpx and CRF02_AG, appear to have driven the beginning of the mid-1980s HIV-1 epidemic in Burkina Faso.

  10. FluDetWeb: an interactive web-based system for the early detection of the onset of influenza epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miralles María

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The early identification of influenza outbreaks has became a priority in public health practice. A large variety of statistical algorithms for the automated monitoring of influenza surveillance have been proposed, but most of them require not only a lot of computational effort but also operation of sometimes not-so-friendly software. Results In this paper, we introduce FluDetWeb, an implementation of a prospective influenza surveillance methodology based on a client-server architecture with a thin (web-based client application design. Users can introduce and edit their own data consisting of a series of weekly influenza incidence rates. The system returns the probability of being in an epidemic phase (via e-mail if desired. When the probability is greater than 0.5, it also returns the probability of an increase in the incidence rate during the following week. The system also provides two complementary graphs. This system has been implemented using statistical free-software (ℝ and WinBUGS, a web server environment for Java code (Tomcat and a software module created by us (Rdp responsible for managing internal tasks; the software package MySQL has been used to construct the database management system. The implementation is available on-line from: http://www.geeitema.org/meviepi/fludetweb/. Conclusion The ease of use of FluDetWeb and its on-line availability can make it a valuable tool for public health practitioners who want to obtain information about the probability that their system is in an epidemic phase. Moreover, the architecture described can also be useful for developers of systems based on computationally intensive methods.

  11. Survival and Growth of Epidemically Successful and Nonsuccessful Salmonella enterica Clones after Freezing and Dehydration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Karoline; Aabo, Søren; Birk, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella isolates were characterized as successful or nonsuccessful. We studied the survival and growth of stationary- and exponential-phase cells of these isolates after freezing for up to 336 days in minced meat. We also investigated survival and growth after dehydration at 10°C and 82% relative humidity...... contribute. During epidemiological studies, a mathematical model was developed that allowed estimation of a factor (q) accounting for the relative ability of Salmonella serovars with different antimicrobial resistances to survive in the food chain and cause human disease. Based on this q-factor, 26...... (RH) and 25°C and 49% RH for 112 days. Stationary-phase cells were reduced by less than 1 log unit during 1 year of freezing, and growth was initiated with an average lag phase of 1.7 h. Survival was lower in exponentialphase cells, but lag phases tended to be shorter. High humidity and low...

  12. Novel developmental analyses identify longitudinal patterns of early gut microbiota that affect infant growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A White

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that some obesity trajectories are set early in life, and that rapid weight gain in infancy is a risk factor for later development of obesity. Identifying modifiable factors associated with early rapid weight gain is a prerequisite for curtailing the growing worldwide obesity epidemic. Recently, much attention has been given to findings indicating that gut microbiota may play a role in obesity development. We aim at identifying how the development of early gut microbiota is associated with expected infant growth. We developed a novel procedure that allows for the identification of longitudinal gut microbiota patterns (corresponding to the gut ecosystem developing, which are associated with an outcome of interest, while appropriately controlling for the false discovery rate. Our method identified developmental pathways of Staphylococcus species and Escherichia coli that were associated with expected growth, and traditional methods indicated that the detection of Bacteroides species at day 30 was associated with growth. Our method should have wide future applicability for studying gut microbiota, and is particularly important for translational considerations, as it is critical to understand the timing of microbiome transitions prior to attempting to manipulate gut microbiota in early life.

  13. Evaluation of epidemic intelligence systems integrated in the early alerting and reporting project for the detection of A/H5N1 influenza events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Philippe; Vaillant, Laetitia; Mawudeku, Abla; Nelson, Noele P; Hartley, David M; Madoff, Lawrence C; Linge, Jens P; Collier, Nigel; Brownstein, John S; Yangarber, Roman; Astagneau, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Web-based expert epidemic intelligence systems is to detect health threats. The Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI) Early Alerting and Reporting (EAR) project was launched to assess the feasibility and opportunity for pooling epidemic intelligence data from seven expert systems. EAR participants completed a qualitative survey to document epidemic intelligence strategies and to assess perceptions regarding the systems performance. Timeliness and sensitivity were rated highly illustrating the value of the systems for epidemic intelligence. Weaknesses identified included representativeness, completeness and flexibility. These findings were corroborated by the quantitative analysis performed on signals potentially related to influenza A/H5N1 events occurring in March 2010. For the six systems for which this information was available, the detection rate ranged from 31% to 38%, and increased to 72% when considering the virtual combined system. The effective positive predictive values ranged from 3% to 24% and F1-scores ranged from 6% to 27%. System sensitivity ranged from 38% to 72%. An average difference of 23% was observed between the sensitivities calculated for human cases and epizootics, underlining the difficulties in developing an efficient algorithm for a single pathology. However, the sensitivity increased to 93% when the virtual combined system was considered, clearly illustrating complementarities between individual systems. The average delay between the detection of A/H5N1 events by the systems and their official reporting by WHO or OIE was 10.2 days (95% CI: 6.7-13.8). This work illustrates the diversity in implemented epidemic intelligence activities, differences in system's designs, and the potential added values and opportunities for synergy between systems, between users and between systems and users.

  14. Investigation of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission during low-wind conditions in the early phase of the UK 2001 epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Alexandersen, S.; Astrup, P.;

    2003-01-01

    animals. Such spread can be rapid and extensive, and it is known in certain circumstances to have transmitted disease over a distance of several hundred kilometres. During the 2001 FMD epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK), atmospheric dispersion models were applied in real time in order to assess...... techniques and presents the results obtained of detailed analyses performed during the early stages of the UK 2001 epidemic. This paper investigates the potential for disease spread in relation to two outbreaks (Burnside Farm, Heddon-on-the-Wall and Prestwick Hall Farm, Ponteland, Northumberland). A separate...... paper (Gloster et al., 2002) provides a more detailed analysis of the airborne disease transmission in the vicinity of Burnside Farm. The combined results are consistent with airborne transmission of disease to livestock in the Heddon-on-the-Wall area. Local topography may have played a significant role...

  15. Investigation of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission during low-wind conditions in the early phase of the UK 2001 epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Alexandersen, S.; Astrup, P.;

    2003-01-01

    animals. Such spread can be rapid and extensive, and it is known in certain circumstances to have transmitted disease over a distance of several hundred kilometres. During the 2001 FMD epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK), atmospheric dispersion models were applied in real time in order to assess...... techniques and presents the results obtained of detailed analyses performed during the early stages of the UK 2001 epidemic. This paper investigates the potential for disease spread in relation to two outbreaks (Burnside Farm, Heddon-on-the-Wall and Prestwick Hall Farm, Ponteland, Northumberland). A separate...... paper (Gloster et al., 2002) provides a more detailed analysis of the airborne disease transmission in the vicinity of Burnside Farm. The combined results are consistent with airborne transmission of disease to live stock in the Heddon-on-the Wall area. Local topography may have played a significant...

  16. Early growth and postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; Kajantie, Eero; Valsta, Liisa M

    2013-01-01

    Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that slow prenatal or postnatal growth is associated with an increased risk of CVD and other metabolic diseases. However, little is known whether early growth affects postprandial metabolism and, especially, the appetite regulatory hormone system. Therefore......, we investigated the impact of early growth on postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses to two high-protein and two high-fat content meals. Healthy, 65-75-year-old volunteers from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were recruited; twelve with a slow increase in BMI during the first year of life......, early growth may have a role in programming appetite regulatory hormone secretion in later life. Slow early growth is also associated with higher postprandial insulin and TAG responses but not with incretin levels....

  17. A generalized-growth model to characterize the early ascending phase of infectious disease outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viboud, Cecile; Simonsen, Lone; Chowell, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    the importance of sub-exponential growth for forecasting purposes.Results: We applied the generalized-growth model to 20 infectious disease outbreaks representing a range of transmission routes. We uncovered epidemic profiles ranging from very slow growth (p = 0.14 for the Ebola outbreak in Bomi, Liberia (2014...... African Ebola epidemic provided a unique opportunity to explore how growth profiles vary by geography; analysis of the largest district-level outbreaks revealed substantial growth variations (mean p = 0.59, range: 0.14–0.97). The districts of Margibi in Liberia and Bombali and Bo in Sierra Leone had near...

  18. A generalized-growth model to characterize the early ascending phase of infectious disease outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viboud, Cecile; Simonsen, Lone; Chowell, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    the importance of sub-exponential growth for forecasting purposes.Results: We applied the generalized-growth model to 20 infectious disease outbreaks representing a range of transmission routes. We uncovered epidemic profiles ranging from very slow growth (p = 0.14 for the Ebola outbreak in Bomi, Liberia (2014...... African Ebola epidemic provided a unique opportunity to explore how growth profiles vary by geography; analysis of the largest district-level outbreaks revealed substantial growth variations (mean p = 0.59, range: 0.14–0.97). The districts of Margibi in Liberia and Bombali and Bo in Sierra Leone had near...

  19. Establishing a web-based integrated surveillance system for early detection of infectious disease epidemic in rural China: a field experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wei-rong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A crucial goal of infectious disease surveillance is the early detection of epidemics, which is essential for disease control. In China, the current surveillance system is based on confirmed case reports. In rural China, it is not practical for health units to perform laboratory tests to confirm disease and people are more likely to get 'old' and emerging infectious diseases due to poor living conditions and closer contacts with wild animals and poultry. Syndromic surveillance, which collects non-specific syndromes before diagnosis, has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation. It will be especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. Methods/Design This is a field experimental study. The experimental tool is an innovative electronic surveillance system, combining syndromic surveillance with the existing case report surveillance in four selected counties in China. In the added syndromic surveillance, three types of data are collected including patients' major symptoms from health clinics, pharmaceutical sales from pharmacies and absenteeism information from primary school. In order to evaluate the early warning capability of the new added syndromic surveillance, the timelines and validity of the alert signals will be analyzed in comparison with the traditional case reporting system. The acceptability, feasibility and economic evaluation of the whole integrated surveillance system will be conducted in a before and after study design. Discussions Although syndromic surveillance system has mostly been established in developed areas, there are opportunities and advantages of developing it in rural China. The project will contribute to knowledge, experience and evidence on the establishment of an integrated surveillance system, which aims to provide early warning of disease epidemics in developing countries.

  20. The new epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jeanne V; Mellin, Grace C

    2014-03-01

    Editor's note: From its first issue in 1900 through to the present day, AJN has unparalleled archives detailing nurses' work and lives over the last century. These articles not only chronicle nursing's growth as a profession within the context of the events of the day, but they also reveal prevailing societal attitudes about women, health care, and human rights. Today's nursing school curricula rarely include nursing's history, but it's a history worth knowing. To this end, From the AJN Archives will be a frequent column, containing articles selected to fit today's topics and times.This month's article, from the November 1982 issue, is the first AJN article published on AIDS. It was early in the epidemic; only 608 cases of Kaposi's sarcoma and opportunistic infections had been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-a mere trickle in the flood that was to come. Reading it now, aware of all we've learned since, we have a sense of how much we were fumbling around in the dark in those early days, searching for a cause and a cure, often going in wrong directions. The closest we had come to the true nature of the syndrome was an understanding that "life-style factors seem to be involved and the agent appears to be infectious." To read the complete article from our archives, go to http://bit.ly/1iswhZe.

  1. Growth monitoring as an early detection tool: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherdel, P.; Dunkel, L.; Dommelen, P. van; Goulet, O.; Salaün, J.F.; Brauner, R.; Heude, B.; Chalumeau, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growth monitoring of apparently healthy children aims at early detection of serious underlying disorders. However, existing growth-monitoring practices are mainly based on suboptimal methods, which can result in delayed diagnosis of severe diseases and inappropriate referrals. We did a systematic re

  2. The early antitumor immune response is necessary for tumor growth

    OpenAIRE

    Parmiani, Giorgio; Maccalli, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Early events responsible of tumor growth in patients with a normal immune system are poorly understood. Here, we discuss, in the context of human melanoma, the Prehn hypothesis according to which a weak antitumor immune response may be required for tumor growth before weakly or non-immunogenic tumor cell subpopulations are selected by the immune system.

  3. Transcriptomic profile of leg muscle during early growth in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qian; Zhang, Genxi; Li, Tingting; Ling, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Xiangqian; Wang, Jinyu

    2017-01-01

    The early growth pattern, especially the age of peak growth, of broilers affects the time to market and slaughter weight, which in turn affect the profitability of the poultry industry. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating chicken growth and development have rarely been studied. This study aimed to identify candidate genes involved in chicken growth and investigated the potential regulatory mechanisms of early growth in chicken. RNA sequencing was applied to compare the transcriptomes of chicken muscle tissues at three developmental stages during early growth. In total, 978 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (fold change ≥ 2; false discovery rate growth, muscle development, and cellular activities (such as junction, migration, assembly, differentiation, and proliferation). Many of the DEGs are well known to be related to chicken growth, such as MYOD1, GH, IGF2BP2, IGFBP3, SMYD1, CEBPB, FGF2, and IGFBP5. KEGG pathway analysis identified that the DEGs were significantly enriched in five pathways (P growth and development: extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, tight junction, insulin signaling pathway, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. A total of 42 DEGs assigned to these pathways are potential candidate genes inducing the difference in growth among the three developmental stages, such as MYH10, FGF2, FGF16, FN1, CFL2, MAPK9, IRS1, PHKA1, PHKB, and PHKG1. Thus, our study identified a series of genes and several pathways that may participate in the regulation of early growth in chicken. These results should serve as an important resource revealing the molecular basis of chicken growth and development.

  4. Early intestinal growth and development in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilburn, M S; Loeffler, S

    2015-07-01

    While there are many accepted "facts" within the field of poultry science that are in truth still open for discussion, there is little debate with respect to the tremendous genetic progress that has been made with commercial broilers and turkeys (Havenstein et al., 2003, 2007). When one considers the changes in carcass development in poultry meat strains, these genetic "improvements" have not always been accompanied by correlated changes in other physiological systems and this can predispose some birds to developmental anomalies (i.e. ascites; Pavlidis et al., 2007; Wideman et al., 2013). Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in intestinal growth/health as poultry nutritionists have attempted to adopt new approaches to deal with the broader changes in the overall nutrition landscape. This landscape includes not only the aforementioned genetic changes but also a raft of governmental policies that have focused attention on the environment (phosphorus and nitrogen excretion), consumer pressure on the use of antibiotics, and renewable biofuels with its consequent effects on ingredient costs. Intestinal morphology has become a common research tool for assessing nutritional effects on the intestine but it is only one metric among many that can be used and histological results can often be interpreted in a variety of ways. This study will address the broader body of research on intestinal growth and development in commercial poultry and will attempt to integrate the topics of the intestinal: microbial interface and the role of the intestine as an immune tissue under the broad umbrella of intestinal physiology. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Pheasant sexual ornaments reflect nutritional conditions during early growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Thomas; Smith, Henrik G; Råberg, Lars; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    Differences in growth conditions during early life have been suggested to cause long-lasting effects on morphology and quality of adult birds. We experimentally investigated the effect of early growth conditions on the expression of sexual ornaments later in life in male ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). We also investigated the effects on immune function, as it could be a functional link between early nutrition and ornament expression. We manipulated the dietary protein intake during the first eight weeks post hatching. Males receiving fodder with 27% protein during the first three weeks of life grew larger and more colourful wattles when sexually mature than males receiving a low-protein diet (20.5% protein). Spur length was unaffected by diet treatment. Manipulation of food protein levels during weeks 4-8 after hatching had no effect on the development of ornaments. The different protein treatments had no long-term effect on either humoral or cell-mediated immune responses. There was, however, a positive relationship between spur length and cell-mediated immune responsiveness. Our study shows that expression of a sexual ornament in adult pheasants reflects nutritional conditions early in life. Because the expression of secondary sexual ornaments is affected by conditions during early growth, by selecting more ornamented males, females would choose mates that are superior at handling early nutritional stress. If the susceptibility to early nutritional stress also has a hereditary basis, females may benefit by obtaining 'good genes'.

  6. Early growth and development of later life metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Joo-Pin; Mantzoros, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Growth is effected via a complex interaction of genetic, nutritional, environmental and growth factors. Hormonal factors such as the growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system, the human placental lactogen, and insulin play an integral role in early growth. Genetic factors affecting the GH-IGF system and insulin secretion and actions, and epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation have been further implicated as contributory factors. These hormonal systems, on a background of genetic susceptibility, together with other factors including maternal nutrition, placental and environmental factors, regulate not only early growth but also development. These interactions may impact on later health consequences in adult life. Accumulating data in the last few decades on developmental programming and later life metabolic disorders has provided a novel perspective on the possible pathogenesis of metabolic dysregulation. Despite postulations put forward to elucidate the mechanism underlying the association between early growth and later life metabolic disorders, it remains unclear what the dominant factor(s) would be, how any underlying mechanisms interact, or whether these mechanisms are truly causal.

  7. Politics and pellagra: the epidemic of pellagra in the U.S. in the early twentieth century.

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    The epidemic of pellagra in the first half of this century at its peak produced at least 250,000 cases and caused 7,000 deaths a year for several decades in 15 southern states. It also filled hospital wards in other states, which had a similar incidence but refused to report their cases. Political influences interfered, not only with surveillance of the disease, but also in its study, recognition of its cause, and the institution of preventive measures when they became known. Politicians and ...

  8. Atmospheric Spread of Foot-and-mouth Disease During The Early Phase of The Uk Epidemic 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, J. H.; Mikkelsen, T.; Astrup, P.; Alexandersen, S.; Donaldson, A. I.

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease in cloven-hoofed domesticated and wild animals. The highly contagious nature of FMD is a reflection of the wide range of species which are susceptible, the enormous quantities of virus liberated by infected animals, the range of excretions and secretions which can be infectious, the stability of the virus in the environment, the multiplicity of routes of infection and the very small doses of virus that can initiate infection in susceptible hosts. One of the routes for the spread of the disease is the atmospheric dispersion of virus exhaled by infected animals. Such spread can be rapid and extensive, and it is known in certain circumstances to have occurred over a distance of several hundred kilometres. For the FMD epidemic in UK in 2001, atmospheric dispersion models were applied in real time in order to describe the atmospheric dispersion of virus for the larger outbreaks of the disease. The operational value of such modelling is first of all to identify risk zones, which is helpful to the emergency management. The paper addresses the modelling techniques and presents results related with the epidemic in UK in 2001.

  9. Longitudinal study of computerized cardiotocography in early fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, H.; Arabin, B.; Lees, C. C.; Oepkes, D.; Prefumo, F.; Thilaganathan, B.; Todros, T.; Visser, G. H. A.; Bilardo, C. M.; Derks, J. B.; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, J. J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Hecher, K.; Marlow, N.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, A. T.; Scheepers, H. C. J.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T. M.; Valcamonico, A.; Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Ganzevoort, W.

    Objectives: To explore whether, in early fetal growth restriction (FGR), the longitudinal pattern of fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) can be used to identify imminent fetal distress and whether abnormalities of FHR recordings are associated with 2-year infant outcome. Methods: The

  10. The Early Growth of the First Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Haardt, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    With detections of quasars powered by increasingly massive black holes at increasingly early times in cosmic history over the past decade, there has been correspondingly rapid progress made on the theory of early black hole formation and growth. Here, we review the emerging picture of how the first massive black holes formed from the primordial gas and then grew to supermassive scales. We discuss the initial conditions for the formation of the progenitors of these seed black holes, the factors dictating the initial masses with which they form, and their initial stages of growth via accretion, which may occur at super-Eddington rates. Finally, we briefly discuss how these results connect to large-scale simulations of the growth of supermassive black holes in the first billion years after the Big Bang.

  11. The Early Growth of the First Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Jarrett L

    2016-01-01

    With detections of quasars powered by increasingly massive black holes (BHs) at increasingly early times in cosmic history over the past decade, there has been correspondingly rapid progress made on the theory of early BH formation and growth. Here we review the emerging picture of how the first massive BHs formed from the primordial gas and then grew to supermassive scales. We discuss the initial conditions for the formation of the progenitors of these seed BHs, the factors dictating the initial masses with which they form, and their initial stages of growth via accretion, which may occur at super-Eddington rates. Finally, we briefly discuss how these results connect to large-scale simulations of the growth of supermassive BHs over the course of the first billion years following the Big Bang.

  12. Early rapid growth, early birth: Accelerated fetal growth and spontaneous late preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Goncalves, Luis; Hassan, Sonia; Gomez, Ricardo; Nien, Jyh Kae; Frongillo, Edward A.; Romero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The past two decades in the United States have seen a 24 % rise in spontaneous late preterm delivery (34 to 36 weeks) of unknown etiology. This study tested the hypothesis that fetal growth was identical prior to spontaneous preterm (n=221, median gestational age at birth 35.6 weeks) and term (n=3706) birth among pregnancies followed longitudinally in Santiago, Chile. The hypothesis was not supported: Preterm-delivered fetuses were significantly larger than their term-delivered peers by mid-second trimester in estimated fetal weight, head, limb and abdominal dimensions, and they followed different growth trajectories. Piecewise regression assessed time-specific differences in growth rates at 4-week intervals from 16 weeks. Estimated fetal weight and abdominal circumference growth rates faltered at 20 weeks among the preterm-delivered, only to match and/or exceed their term-delivered peers at 24–28 weeks. After an abrupt decline at 28 weeks attenuating growth rates in all dimensions, fetuses delivered preterm did so at greater population-specific sex and age-adjusted weight than their peers from uncomplicated pregnancies (p<0.01). Growth rates predicted birth timing: one standard score of estimated fetal weight increased the odds ratio for preterm birth from 2.8 prior to 23 weeks, to 3.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.82–7.11, p<0.05) between 23 and 27 weeks. After 27 weeks, increasing size was protective (OR: 0.56, 95% confidence interval, 0.38–0.82, p=0.003). These data document, for the first time, a distinctive fetal growth pattern across gestation preceding spontaneous late preterm birth, identify the importance of mid-gestation for alterations in fetal growth, and add perspective on human fetal biological variability. PMID:18988282

  13. Fibroblast growth factor signaling during early vertebrate development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Ralph T; Niehrs, Christof

    2005-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) have been implicated in diverse cellular processes including apoptosis, cell survival, chemotaxis, cell adhesion, migration, differentiation, and proliferation. This review presents our current understanding on the roles of FGF signaling, the pathways employed, and its regulation. We focus on FGF signaling during early embryonic processes in vertebrates, such as induction and patterning of the three germ layers as well as its function in the control of morphogenetic movements.

  14. A Twenty-First Century Cancer Epidemic Caused by Obesity: The Involvement of Insulin, Diabetes, and Insulin-Like Growth Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalyne L. Westley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the developed world. The progression from obesity to diabetes mellitus type 2, via metabolic syndrome, is recognised, and the significant associated increase in the risk of major human cancers acknowledged. We review the molecular basis of the involvement of morbidly high concentrations of endogenous or therapeutic insulin and of insulin-like growth factors in the progression from obesity to diabetes and finally to cancer. Epidemiological and biochemical studies establish the role of insulin and hyperinsulinaemia in cancer risk and progression. Insulin-like growth factors, IGF-1 and IGF-2, secreted by visceral or mammary adipose tissue have significant paracrine and endocrine effects. These effects can be exacerbated by increased steroid hormone production. Structural studies elucidate how each of the three ligands, insulin, IGF-1, and IGF-2, interacts differently with isoforms A and B of the insulin receptor and with type I IGF receptor and explain how these protagonists contribute to diabetes-associated cancer. The above should inform appropriate treatment of cancers that arise in obese individuals and in those with diabetes mellitus type 2. Novel drugs that target the insulin and insulin-like growth factor signal transduction pathways are in clinical trial and should be effective if appropriate biomarker-informed patient stratification is implemented.

  15. A Twenty-First Century Cancer Epidemic Caused by Obesity: The Involvement of Insulin, Diabetes, and Insulin-Like Growth Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westley, Rosalyne L.; May, Felicity E. B.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the developed world. The progression from obesity to diabetes mellitus type 2, via metabolic syndrome, is recognised, and the significant associated increase in the risk of major human cancers acknowledged. We review the molecular basis of the involvement of morbidly high concentrations of endogenous or therapeutic insulin and of insulin-like growth factors in the progression from obesity to diabetes and finally to cancer. Epidemiological and biochemical studies establish the role of insulin and hyperinsulinaemia in cancer risk and progression. Insulin-like growth factors, IGF-1 and IGF-2, secreted by visceral or mammary adipose tissue have significant paracrine and endocrine effects. These effects can be exacerbated by increased steroid hormone production. Structural studies elucidate how each of the three ligands, insulin, IGF-1, and IGF-2, interacts differently with isoforms A and B of the insulin receptor and with type I IGF receptor and explain how these protagonists contribute to diabetes-associated cancer. The above should inform appropriate treatment of cancers that arise in obese individuals and in those with diabetes mellitus type 2. Novel drugs that target the insulin and insulin-like growth factor signal transduction pathways are in clinical trial and should be effective if appropriate biomarker-informed patient stratification is implemented. PMID:23983688

  16. Near-criticality underlies the behavior of early tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Guillaume; Cluzel, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The controlling factors that underlie the growth of tumors have often been hard to identify because of the presence in this system of a large number of intracellular biochemical parameters. Here, we propose a simplifying framework to identify the key physical parameters that govern the early growth of tumors. We model growth by means of branching processes where cells of different types can divide and differentiate. First, using this process that has only one controlling parameter, we study a one cell type model and compute the probability for tumor survival and the time of tumor extinction. Second, we show that when cell death and cell division are perfectly balanced, stochastic effects dominate the growth dynamics and the system exhibits a near-critical behavior that resembles a second-order phase transition. We show, in this near-critical regime, that the time interval before tumor extinction is power-law distributed. Finally, we apply this branching formalism to infer, from experimental growth data, the number of different cell types present in the observed tumor.

  17. GROWTH AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN FETUSES OF WOMEN WITH TYPE-1 DIABETES .1. EARLY GROWTH-PATTERNS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULDER, EJH; VISSER, GHA

    1991-01-01

    Early embryonic and fetal growth were followed longitudinally in 23 women with type-1 diabetes to investigate whether there was any evidence of early growth delay and, if so, when it originated and when catch-up growth occurred. Weekly crown-rump length (CRL) measurements were taken between 7 and 14

  18. GROWTH AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN FETUSES OF WOMEN WITH TYPE-1 DIABETES .1. EARLY GROWTH-PATTERNS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULDER, EJH; VISSER, GHA

    1991-01-01

    Early embryonic and fetal growth were followed longitudinally in 23 women with type-1 diabetes to investigate whether there was any evidence of early growth delay and, if so, when it originated and when catch-up growth occurred. Weekly crown-rump length (CRL) measurements were taken between 7 and 14

  19. Modeling the environmental growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans and its impact on the white-nose syndrome epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Hannah T; Ingersoll, Tom; Barton, Hazel A

    2015-04-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) has had a devastating effect on North American bat populations. The causal agent of WNS is the fungal pathogen, Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), which has been shown to persist in caves after the eradication of host populations. As nonpathogenic Pseudogymnoascus spp. display saprophytic growth and are among the most commonly isolated fungi from caves, we examined whether Pd could grow in cave sediments and the contribution such growth could have to WNS disease progression. We inoculated a range of diverse cave sediments and demonstrated the growth of Pd in all sediments tested. These data indicate that environmental growth of Pd could lead to the accumulation of spores above the estimated infection threshold for WNS, allowing environment-to-bat infection. The obtained growth parameters were then used in a susceptible-infected-susceptible mathematic model to determine the possible contribution of environmental Pd growth to WNS disease progression in a colony of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus). This model suggests that the environmental growth of Pd would increase WNS infection rates, particularly in colonies experiencing longer hibernation periods or in hibernacula with high levels of organic detritus. The model also suggests that once introduced, environmental Pd growth would allow the persistence of this pathogen within infected hibernacula for decades, greatly compromising the success of bat reintroduction strategies. Together these data suggest that Pd is not reliant on its host for survival and is capable of environmental growth and amplification that could contribute to the rapid progression and long-term persistence of WNS in the hibernacula of threatened North American bats.

  20. Early neonatal morbidity and mortality in growth-discordant twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam Machado, Rita De Cássia; Brizot, Maria De Lourdes; Liao, Adolfo Wenjaw; Krebs, Vera Lucia Jornada; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate early neonatal morbidity and mortality in twin pregnancies with growth discordance. Retrospective study. Tertiary teaching hospital, Sao Paulo, Brazil. A total of 151 twin pregnancies managed and delivered at the Multiple Pregnancy Unit at Sao Paulo University Hospital between 1998 and 2004. METHODS; Comparison between twin pregnancies with weight discordance > or =20% and pregnancies concordant for fetal weight. Cases with fetal death, abnormalities, twin-to-twin transfusion and delivery before 26 weeks or in another hospital were excluded. Early neonatal morbidity (Apgar at 5 minutes pregnancies presented discordance > or =20% and 111 (73.5%) were concordant. In the discordant group, 75% of pregnancies had at least one growth restricted fetus (pregnancies, monochorionic cases (22.5%) presented with lower gestational age (34.3 vs. 36.2 weeks), lower birthweight (2,067 vs. 2,334 g) and a longer period of hospital stay (5.5 vs. 3.0) compared to dichorionic concordant twins. No differences between monochorionic and dichorionic subgroups were observed in discordant twins. Pregnancies in which at least one baby was born with a birthweight below the 10th centile showed that discordant pregnancies had a lower gestational age at delivery (35.2 vs. 36.8 weeks) and a longer period of hospital stay (9 vs. 4 weeks) compared to concordant cases. Neonatal mortality was similar in discordant (3.7%) and concordant (4.5%) twins. Early perinatal morbidity is increased in twin pregnancies with birthweight discordance > or =20% only when associated with fetal growth restriction and low birthweight.

  1. Early warning epidemic surveillance in the Pacific island nations: an evaluation of the Pacific syndromic surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Adam T; Kama, Mike; Samo, Marcus; Vaai, Saine; Matanaicake, Jane; Joshua, Cynthia; Kolbe, Anthony; Durrheim, David N; Paterson, Beverley J; Biaukula, Viema; Nilles, Eric J

    2016-07-01

    The Pacific Syndromic Surveillance System (PSSS), launched in 2010, provides a simple mechanism by which 121 sentinel surveillance sites in 21 Pacific island countries and areas perform routine indicator- and event-based surveillance for the early detection of infectious disease outbreaks. This evaluation aims to assess whether the PSSS is meeting its objectives, what progress has been made since a formative evaluation of the system was conducted in 2011, and provides recommendations to enhance the PSSS's performance in the future. Twenty-one informant interviews were conducted with national operators of the system and regional public health agencies that use information generated by it. Historic PSSS data were analysed to assess timeliness and completeness of reporting. The system is simple, acceptable and useful for public health decision-makers. The PSSS has greatly enhanced Pacific island countries' ability to undertake early warning surveillance and has contributed to efforts to meet national surveillance-related International Health Regulation (2005) capacity development obligations. Despite this, issues with timeliness and completeness of reporting, data quality and system stability persist. A balance between maintaining the system's simplicity and technical advances will need to be found to ensure its long-term sustainability, given the low-resource context for which it is designed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Strategies for halting the rise of multidrug resistant TB epidemics: assessing the effect of early case detection and isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espindola, Aquino L; Varughese, Marie; Laskowski, Marek; Shoukat, Affan; Heffernan, Jane M; Moghadas, Seyed M

    2017-03-01

    The increasing rates of multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) have posed the question of whether control programs under enhanced directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS-Plus) are sufficient or implemented optimally. Despite enhanced efforts on early case detection and improved treatment regimens, direct transmission of MDR-TB remains a major hurdle for global TB control. We developed an agent-based simulation model of TB dynamics to evaluate the effect of transmission reduction measures on the incidence of MDR-TB. We implemented a 15-day isolation period following the start of treatment in active TB cases. The model was parameterized with the latest estimates derived from the published literature. We found that if high rates (over 90%) of TB case identification are achieved within 4 weeks of developing active TB, then a 15-day patient isolation strategy with 50% effectiveness in interrupting disease transmission leads to 10% reduction in the incidence of MDR-TB over 10 years. If transmission is fully prevented, the rise of MDR-TB can be halted within 10 years, but the temporal reduction of MDR-TB incidence remains below 20% in this period. The impact of transmission reduction measures on the TB incidence depends critically on the rates and timelines of case identification. The high costs and adverse effects associated with MDR-TB treatment warrant increased efforts and investments on measures that can interrupt direct transmission through early case detection.

  3. Telmisartan inhibits human urological cancer cell growth through early apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATSUYAMA, MASAHIDE; FUNAO, KIYOAKI; KURATSUKURI, KATSUYUKI; TANAKA, TOMOAKI; KAWAHITO, YUTAKA; SANO, HAJIME; CHARGUI, JAMEL; TOURAINE, JEAN-LOUIS; YOSHIMURA, NORIO; YOSHIMURA, RIKIO

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are widely used as hypertensive therapeutic agents. In addition, studies have provided evidence that ARBs have the potential to inhibit the growth of several types of cancer cells. It was reported that telmisartan (a type of ARB) has peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ activation activity. We previously reported that the PPAR-γ ligand induces growth arrest in human urological cancer cells through apoptosis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of telmisartan and other ARBs on cell proliferation in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), bladder cancer (BC), prostate cancer (PC) and testicular cancer (TC) cell lines. The inhibitory effects of telmisartan and other ARBs (candesartan, valsartan, irbesartan and losartan) on the growth of the RCC, BC, PC and TC cell lines was investigated using an MTT assay. Flow cytometry and Hoechst staining were used to determine whether the ARBs induced apoptosis. Telmisartan caused marked growth inhibition in the urological cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Urological cancer cells treated with 100 μM telmisartan underwent early apoptosis and DNA fragmentation. However, the other ARBs had no effect on cell proliferation in any of the urological cancer cell lines. Telmisartan may mediate potent anti-proliferative effects in urological cancer cells through PPAR-γ. Thus, telmisartan is a potent target for the prevention and treatment of human urological cancer. PMID:22993542

  4. Factors influencing performance of internet-based biosurveillance systems used in epidemic intelligence for early detection of infectious diseases outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Barboza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Internet-based biosurveillance systems have been developed to detect health threats using information available on the Internet, but system performance has not been assessed relative to end-user needs and perspectives. METHOD AND FINDINGS: Infectious disease events from the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance (InVS weekly international epidemiological bulletin published in 2010 were used to construct the gold-standard official dataset. Data from six biosurveillance systems were used to detect raw signals (infectious disease events from informal Internet sources: Argus, BioCaster, GPHIN, HealthMap, MedISys and ProMED-mail. Crude detection rates (C-DR, crude sensitivity rates (C-Se and intrinsic sensitivity rates (I-Se were calculated from multivariable regressions to evaluate the systems' performance (events detected compared to the gold-standard 472 raw signals (Internet disease reports related to the 86 events included in the gold-standard data set were retrieved from the six systems. 84 events were detected before their publication in the gold-standard. The type of sources utilised by the systems varied significantly (p<0001. I-Se varied significantly from 43% to 71% (p=0001 whereas other indicators were similar (C-DR: p=020; C-Se, p=013. I-Se was significantly associated with individual systems, types of system, languages, regions of occurrence, and types of infectious disease. Conversely, no statistical difference of C-DR was observed after adjustment for other variables. CONCLUSION: Although differences could result from a biosurveillance system's conceptual design, findings suggest that the combined expertise amongst systems enhances early detection performance for detection of infectious diseases. While all systems showed similar early detection performance, systems including human moderation were found to have a 53% higher I-Se (p=00001 after adjustment for other variables. Overall, the use of moderation, sources

  5. High burden of non-influenza viruses in influenza-like illness in the early weeks of H1N1v epidemic in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Schnepf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza-like illness (ILI may be caused by a variety of pathogens. Clinical observations are of little help to recognise myxovirus infection and implement appropriate prevention measures. The limited use of molecular tools underestimates the role of other common pathogens. OBJECTIVES: During the early weeks of the 2009-2010 flu pandemic, a clinical and virological survey was conducted in adult and paediatric patients with ILI referred to two French University hospitals in Paris and Tours. Aims were to investigate the different pathogens involved in ILI and describe the associated symptoms. METHODS: H1N1v pandemic influenza diagnosis was performed with real time RT-PCR assay. Other viral aetiologies were investigated by the molecular multiplex assay RespiFinder19®. Clinical data were collected prospectively by physicians using a standard questionnaire. RESULTS: From week 35 to 44, endonasal swabs were collected in 413 patients. Overall, 68 samples (16.5% were positive for H1N1v. In 13 of them, other respiratory pathogens were also detected. Among H1N1v negative samples, 213 (61.9% were positive for various respiratory agents, 190 in single infections and 23 in mixed infections. The most prevalent viruses in H1N1v negative single infections were rhinovirus (62.6%, followed by parainfluenza viruses (24.2% and adenovirus (5.3%. 70.6% of H1N1v cases were identified in patients under 40 years and none after 65 years. There was no difference between clinical symptoms observed in patients infected with H1N1v or with other pathogens. CONCLUSION: Our results highlight the high frequency of non-influenza viruses involved in ILI during the pre-epidemic period of a flu alert and the lack of specific clinical signs associated with influenza infections. Rapid diagnostic screening of a large panel of respiratory pathogens may be critical to define and survey the epidemic situation and to provide critical information for patient management.

  6. Re-assess Vector Indices Threshold as an Early Warning Tool for Predicting Dengue Epidemic in a Dengue Non-endemic Country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong-Shue Chang

    Full Text Available Despite dengue dynamics being driven by complex interactions between human hosts, mosquito vectors and viruses that are influenced by climate factors, an operational model that will enable health authorities to anticipate the outbreak risk in a dengue non-endemic area has not been developed. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the temporal relationship between meteorological variables, entomological surveillance indices and confirmed dengue cases; and to establish the threshold for entomological surveillance indices including three mosquito larval indices [Breteau (BI, Container (CI and House indices (HI] and one adult index (AI as an early warning tool for dengue epidemic.Epidemiological, entomological and meteorological data were analyzed from 2005 to 2012 in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. The successive waves of dengue outbreaks with different magnitudes were recorded in Kaohsiung City, and involved a dominant serotype during each epidemic. The annual indigenous dengue cases usually started from May to June and reached a peak in October to November. Vector data from 2005-2012 showed that the peak of the adult mosquito population was followed by a peak in the corresponding dengue activity with a lag period of 1-2 months. Therefore, we focused the analysis on the data from May to December and the high risk district, where the inspection of the immature and mature mosquitoes was carried out on a weekly basis and about 97.9% dengue cases occurred. The two-stage model was utilized here to estimate the risk and time-lag effect of annual dengue outbreaks in Taiwan. First, Poisson regression was used to select the optimal subset of variables and time-lags for predicting the number of dengue cases, and the final results of the multivariate analysis were selected based on the smallest AIC value. Next, each vector index models with selected variables were subjected to multiple logistic regression models to examine the accuracy of predicting the

  7. Provenances and fertilizer on early growth cedar seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Carlos Navroski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the initial development of different provenances and the influence of base fertilizer and coverage on growth of Cedrela fissilis seedlings. Provenances of seeds were collected in Lapa, PR, Fernandes Pinheiro, PR and Itaara, RS. After germination, the seedlings were transplanted to plastic bags of 500 cm³, filled with commercial substrate. Total height (h, stem diameter (sd, and ratio h/sd seedlings were measured after 150 days of transplanting. Seedlings of Fernandes Pinheiro received basic fertilization after transplantation (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g dm-3  Osmocote® and cover (3 and 6 g L-1, respectively, of Peter’s® and urea. The provenance and doses of controlled-release fertilizer influenced early development of Cedrela fissilis seedlings. Itaara provenance showed better seedlings growth. Cedar seedlings showed good growth when incorporated into the substrate 5 g dm-3 Osmocote® and, in addition, applied in topdressing 3 g L-1 of Peter’s®. Urea topdressing is rarely recommended for cedar seedlings.

  8. Early diet, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth and later obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2013-01-01

    . However, some studies suggest that weight gain during the 6- to 12-month age period, when complementary feeding is introduced, is not associated with later obesity. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) values and body composition both play a role in the complex pattern between early diet and later obesity......, but our present knowledge about how these factors are influenced by diet during infancy is limited. Future studies should include longitudinal data on IGF-1 and body composition during infancy to improve our understanding of how diet in early life can play a role in prevention of later obesity.......There is increasing evidence that factors in early life are important for the risk of developing overweight and obesity later in childhood. Among the postnatal factors, breastfeeding and complementary feeding are especially interesting because the pattern of these two factors can be changed...

  9. Environmental Factors Influencing Epidemic Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Whitcombe, Elizabeth; Hasan, Nur; Haley, Bradd; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Alam, Munir; Sack, R. Bradley; Colwell, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks. PMID:23897993

  10. Early Growth of Improved Acacia mangium at Different Planting Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nirsatmanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrating tree improvement into silvicultural practices is essential in forest plantation. Concerning this fact, Acacia mangium spacing trial planted using genetically improved seed was established in West Java. This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of ages and planting density on early growth of improved seed A. mangium in the spacing trial. Improved seed from 2 seed orchards (SSO-5 and SSO-20 and a control of unimproved seed from seed stand (SS-7 were tested together in spacing 3 × 3 m and 2 × 2 m. Height, diameter, stem volume, and stand volume were observed at 3 ages. The results showed that improved seed consistently outperformed to unimproved seed. Ages were highly significant for all traits, but the significant difference varied among traits and seed sources for planting density and the interactions. High density performed better growth than low density at first year, and they were varied in subsequent ages depending on traits and seed sources. Improved seed from less intensity selection orchard was less tolerance to high density than that from high intensity selection orchard, but the tolerance was reversed in low density. Improved seed A. mangium from different level of genetic selection has responded differently in behavior to the changes of planting density.

  11. Biplot Analysis of Silicon Dioxide on Early Growth of Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabaghnia Naser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into nanotechnology has advanced in almost all fields of technology and the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2 in germination performance sunflower. Germination and seedling growth are the most important stage of plant development and are critical factors to crop production and are essential to achieve optimum performance. The effects of pre-germination hydration in solutions of nano-SiO2 (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1 and 1.2 mM for 8 h on germination characteristics of sunflower were investigated. The trait by treatment (TT biplot explained 93% of the total variation of the standardized data (77% and 16% for the first and second principal components, respectively. According to polygon-view of TT biplot, T2 (0.2 mM had the highest values for all of the measured traits except mean germination time and the time to 50% germination. The germination percentage was determined as the best trait and showed the high association with promptness index, energy of germination and germination rate traits. The results of the present study indicated that pre-sowing seed treatments with low concentration of nano-SiO2 had favorable effect sunflower seed germination and seedling early growth. Such a similar outcome could be applied in the future to outline other crops in response to nano-particles as well as to help define tolerance tools for recommendations in stressful conditions in the world.

  12. Early diet, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth and later obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelsen, Kim F; Larnkjaer, Anni; Molgaard, Christian

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that factors in early life are important for the risk of developing overweight and obesity later in childhood. Among the postnatal factors, breastfeeding and complementary feeding are especially interesting because the pattern of these two factors can be changed. Breastfeeding has been shown to reduce the risk of later obesity, although the effect is not substantial. Complementary feeding also seems to play a role. There is some evidence that a high protein intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity later in childhood, whereas a high fat intake during the complementary feeding period does not seem to be a risk factor for later obesity. Thus, the dietary pattern during this period is different from the pattern seen in older children and adults where a high fat intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity and a high protein intake in some studies seems to protect against obesity. A few studies have also suggested that early introduction of complementary foods (before age 4 months) is associated with an increased risk of later obesity. A high weight gain during early life, especially the first 6 months, is associated with a higher risk of developing obesity. However, some studies suggest that weight gain during the 6- to 12-month age period, when complementary feeding is introduced, is not associated with later obesity. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) values and body composition both play a role in the complex pattern between early diet and later obesity, but our present knowledge about how these factors are influenced by diet during infancy is limited. Future studies should include longitudinal data on IGF-1 and body composition during infancy to improve our understanding of how diet in early life can play a role in prevention of later obesity. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The public health challenge of early growth failure in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M F; Martorell, R

    2013-05-01

    Recent recognition of the early onset and high prevalence of wasting (30%) and stunting (20%) among infants 0-5 months in India draws attention to the need to understand the causes and develop prevention strategies. Such growth failure has dire consequences in the short (increased mortality) and long-term (loss of human capital and increased risk of chronic diseases). Food interventions before 6 months will increase morbidity/mortality through contamination in settings of poor sanitation and hygiene. Waiting to improve nutrition only after the initiation of complementary feeding at 6 months is a missed opportunity and may permanently alter life trajectory and potential. This underscores the importance of maternal nutrition. Iron and folic acid and protein energy supplementation during pregnancy are interventions that can improve maternal nutrition and birth outcomes. Maternal supplementation during lactation should be considered as a means to improve maternal and child outcomes, although the evidence needs strengthening. Support and counseling are also required to improve maternal diets and promote exclusive breastfeeding. Programs focused on improving maternal nutrition across the continuum of preconception, pregnancy and lactation are likely to have the greatest impact as mothers are central gatekeepers to the health and future of their children.

  14. Intercentrum versus pleurocentrum growth in early tetrapods: A paleohistological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danto, Marylène; Witzmann, Florian; Pierce, Stephanie E; Fröbisch, Nadia B

    2017-09-01

    A variety of vertebral centrum morphologies have evolved within early tetrapods which range from multipartite centra consisting of intercentra and pleurocentra in stem-tetrapods, temnospondyls, seymouriamorphs, and anthracosaurs up to monospondylous centra in lepospondyls. With the present study, we aim to determine the formation of both intercentrum and pleurocentrum and asked whether these can be homologized based on their bone histology. Both intercentra and pleurocentra ossified endochondrally and periosteal bone was subsequently deposited on the outer surface of the centra. Our observations indicate low histological variation between intercentrum and pleurocentrum in microstructural organization and growth which inhibits the determination of homologies. However, intercentrum and pleurocentrum development differs during ontogeny. As previously assumed, the intercentrum arises from ventrally located and initially paired ossification centers that fuse ventromedially to form the typical, crescentic, rhachitomous intercentrum. In contrast, presacral pleurocentra may be ancestrally represented by four ossification centers: a ventral and a dorsal pair. Subsequently, two divergent developmental patterns are observed: In stem-tetrapods and temnospondyls, the pleurocentrum evolves from the two dorsally located ossification centers which may occasionally fuse to form a dorsal crescent. In some dvinosaurian temnospondyls, the pleurocentrum may even ossify to full rings. In comparison, the pleurocentrum of stem-amniotes (anthracosaurs, chroniosuchids, seymouriamorphs, and lepospondyls) arises from the two ventrally located ossification centers whereby the ossification pattern is almost identical to that of temnospondyls but mirror-inverted. Thus, the ring-shaped pleurocentrum of Discosauriscus ossifies from ventral to dorsal. We also propose that the ossified portions of the intercentrum and pleurocentrum continued as cartilaginous rings or discs that surrounded the

  15. Understanding impacts of climatic extremes on diarrheal disease epidemics: Insights from mechanistic disease propagation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, A.; Akanda, A. S.; Colwell, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    An epidemic outbreak of diarrheal diseases (primarily cholera) in Haiti in 2010 is a reminder that our understanding on disease triggers, transmission and spreading mechanisms is incomplete. Cholera can occur in two forms - epidemic (defined as sudden outbreak in a historically disease free region) and endemic (recurrence and persistence of the disease for several consecutive years). Examples of countries with epidemic cholera include Pakistan (2008), Congo (2008), and most recently Haiti (2010). A significant difference between endemic and epidemic regions is the mortality rate, i.e., 1% or lower in an endemic regions versus 3-7% during recent epidemic outbreaks. A fundamentally transformational approach - a warning system with several months prediction lead time - is needed to prevent disease outbreak and minimize its impact on population. Lack of information on spatial and temporal variability of disease incidence as well as transmission in human population continues to be significant challenge in the development of early-warning systems for cholera. Using satellite data on regional hydroclimatic processes, water and sanitation infrastructure indices, and biological pathogen growth information, here we present a Simple, Mechanistic, Adaptive, Remote sensing based Regional Transmission or SMART model to (i) identify regions of potential cholera outbreaks and (ii) quantify mechanism of spread of the disease in previously disease free region. Our results indicate that epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for the growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. We discuss the above findings in light of

  16. Genetic correlates of early accelerated infant growth associated with juvenile-onset type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kharagjitsingh, A.V.; de Ridder, M.A.J.; Alizadeh, B.Z.; Veeze, H.J.; Bruining, G.J.; Roep, B.O.; Koeleman, Bobby P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We previously showed that accelerated growth predisposing to development of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) is restricted to the first year after birth. We assessed whether this phenomenon of increased early growth is associated with variants of two genes, insulin-like growth factor

  17. Genetic correlates of early accelerated infant growth associated with juvenile-onset type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kharagjitsingh, Av; de Ridder, Maj; Alizadeh, Bz; Veeze, Hj; Bruining, Gj; Roep, Bo; Koeleman, Bobby Pc

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We previously showed that accelerated growth predisposing to development of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) is restricted to the first year after birth. We assessed whether this phenomenon of increased early growth is associated with variants of two genes, insulin-like growth factor

  18. Growth hormone does not stimulate early healing in rat tendons

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Growth Hormone stimulates bone growth and fracture repair. It acts mainly by increasing the systemic levels of IGF-1. Local treatment with IGF-1 appears to stimulate tendon healing. We therefore hypothesized that systemic treatment with Growth Hormone would also stimulate tendon healing. Rat Achilles tendons were transected and left to heal. 4 groups were studied. Intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin A (Botox) were used to reduce loading in 2 groups. The animals were randomized to twic...

  19. Modeling Epidemic Network Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of a failure propagation model for transport networks when multiple failures occur resulting in an epidemic. We model the Susceptible Infected Disabled (SID) epidemic model and validate it by comparing it to analytical solutions. Furthermore, we evaluate...... the SID model’s behavior and impact on the network performance, as well as the severity of the infection spreading. The simulations are carried out in OPNET Modeler. The model provides an important input to epidemic connection recovery mechanisms, and can due to its flexibility and versatility be used...... to evaluate multiple epidemic scenarios in various network types....

  20. Early warning of influenza epidemic based on influenza sentinel surveillance%一种基于流感哨点监测的流感预警分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝振东; 蒲柳艳; 虞奇跃; 王忠发; 王虹玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explorer the method of early warning of influenza epidemic based on influenza sentinel surveillance. Methods The Influenza-like illness (ILI) proportion of total outpatients and the positive rate of Influenza viruses for every week of a year in sentinel hospital were calculated. The correlation between them were analyzed. The threshold of ILI proportion for Influenza epidemic early warning were calculated by using the positive rate in peak season when it passed 40% of the maximum seasonal level. Results Tle average ILI proportion of total outpatients in 2010 was 1.62% (95% CI: 1.43% - 1.82% ), and the average positive rate of influenza viruses was 26.77% (95% CI: 20. 06% -33.49 % ). The positive rate threshold of influenza viruses during peak season was 32. 31%, ILI proportion threshold of 1.73 % was calculated for Influenza epidemic early warning. Conclusion Influenza epidemic early warning by using ILI proportion is simple, feasible, sensitive and specific. It is suitable for influenza epidemic early warning in local medical agencies conducting ILI sentinel surveillance.%目的 探讨利用流行性感冒(流感)哨点监测网络数据开展流感流行的预警方法.方法 选择流感监测质量较稳定的年份,计算各周相应的流感样病例(ILI)占哨点监测医院门诊就诊病例总数的比例(ILI%)和流感病毒检出阳性率及两者的相关性,利用流感病毒检出阳性率超过流行季峰值的40%界定流行高峰,换算出相应的ILI%预警阈值开展流感疫情预警工作.结果 舟山市2010年全年门诊就诊的ILI%平均为1.62%(95%CI:1.43%~1.82%),流感病毒检出阳性率平均为26.77%(95%CI:20.06%~33.49%),流感高峰出现时的流感病毒检出阳性率界值为32.31%,换算成ILI%=1.73%作为流感疫情预警阈值.结论 利用ILI%作为流感疫情的预警指标简单易行、灵敏特异,适用于建立运行流感样病例监测点的基层机构开展流感预警工作.

  1. Detecting nonlinearity and chaos in epidemic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellner, S.; Gallant, A.R. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Statistics; Theiler, J. [Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Historical data on recurrent epidemics have been central to the debate about the prevalence of chaos in biological population dynamics. Schaffer and Kot who first recognized that the abundance and accuracy of disease incidence data opened the door to applying a range of methods for detecting chaos that had been devised in the early 1980`s. Using attractor reconstruction, estimates of dynamical invariants, and comparisons between data and simulation of SEIR models, the ``case for chaos in childhood epidemics`` was made through a series of influential papers beginning in the mid 1980`s. The proposition that the precise timing and magnitude of epidemic outbreaks are deterministic but chaotic is appealing, since it raises the hope of finding determinism and simplicity beneath the apparently stochastic and complicated surface of the data. The initial enthusiasm for methods of detecting chaos in data has been followed by critical re-evaluations of their limitations. Early hopes of a ``one size fits all`` algorithm to diagnose chaos vs. noise in any data set have given way to a recognition that a variety of methods must be used, and interpretation of results must take into account the limitations of each method and the imperfections of the data. Our goals here are to outline some newer methods for detecting nonlinearity and chaos that have a solid statistical basis and are suited to epidemic data, and to begin a re-evaluation of the claims for nonlinear dynamics and chaos in epidemics using these newer methods. We also identify features of epidemic data that create problems for the older, better known methods of detecting chaos. When we ask ``are epidemics nonlinear?``, we are not questioning the existence of global nonlinearities in epidemic dynamics, such as nonlinear transmission rates. Our question is whether the data`s deviations from an annual cyclic trend (which would reflect global nonlinearities) are described by a linear, noise-driven stochastic process.

  2. Early child growth: how do nutrition and infection interact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Kathryn G; Mayers, Daniel R

    2011-10-01

    It is well known that the relationship between child nutrition and infection is bidirectional, i.e. frequent illness can impair nutritional status and poor nutrition can increase the risk of infection. What is less clear is whether infection reduces the effectiveness of nutrition interventions or, vice versa, whether malnutrition lessens the impact of infection control strategies. The objective of this paper is to review the evidence regarding this interaction between nutrition and infection with respect to child growth in low-income populations. Even when there are no obvious symptoms, physiological conditions associated with infections can impair growth by suppressing appetite, impairing absorption of nutrients, increasing nutrient losses and diverting nutrients away from growth. However, there is little direct evidence that nutrition interventions are less effective when infection is common; more research is needed on this question. On the other hand, evidence from four intervention trials suggests that the adverse effects of certain infections (e.g. diarrhoea) on growth can be reduced or eliminated by improving nutrition. Interventions that combine improved nutrition with prevention and control of infections are likely to be most effective for enhancing child growth and development.

  3. Early Identification of Determinate Growth Habit in Lablab Bean (Lablab purpureus (L..) Sweet)

    OpenAIRE

    Sultana, Nasreen; Ozaki, Yukio; Okubo, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    Rapid and reliable information for early identification of determinate growth habit is highly desired in the high yielding determinate variety development program. This experiment was conducted to find out some effective morphological markers for the early identification of determinate growth habit of lablab bean. Both determinate and indeterminate plants were grown in 20℃ and 25℃ of phytotron in the summer and winter seasons of two consecutive years. The results of this experiment suggest th...

  4. Estimating the Broad-Sense Heritability of Early Growth of Cowpea

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Nicole W.; Xu, Shizhong; Ehlers, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Cowpea is an important tropical crop. It provides a large proportion of the food resource for the African human population and their livestock. The yield and quality of cowpea have been dramatically improved through traditional breeding strategies for the past few decades. However, reports of heritability estimates for early growth of cowpea are rare. We designed a simple experiment to estimate the broad-sense heritability of early growth. We randomly selected 15 cowpea varieties among a tota...

  5. Frequent Daytime Naps Predict Vocabulary Growth in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klára; Plunkett, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The facilitating role of sleep for language learning is well-attested in adults and to a lesser extent in infants and toddlers. However, the longitudinal relationship between sleep patterns and early vocabulary development is not well understood. Methods: This study investigates how measures of sleep are related to the development of…

  6. Frequent Daytime Naps Predict Vocabulary Growth in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klára; Plunkett, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The facilitating role of sleep for language learning is well-attested in adults and to a lesser extent in infants and toddlers. However, the longitudinal relationship between sleep patterns and early vocabulary development is not well understood. Methods: This study investigates how measures of sleep are related to the development of…

  7. MITOGENIC SIGNALS CONTROL TRANSLATION OF THE EARLY GROWTH-RESPONSE GENE-1 IN MYOGENIC CELLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MAASS, A; GROHE, C; OBERDORF, S; SUKHATME, VP; VETTER, H; NEYSES, L

    1994-01-01

    Muscle is a major site of expression of the early growth reponse gene-1 (Egr-1). To investigate its role in muscle proliferation and/or differentiation we studied the effect of a variety of growth factors on cultured mouse muscle So18 cells. Three groups of responses could be distinguished: 1. AII,

  8. Early Growth and Neurologic Outcomes of Infants with Probable Congenital Zika Virus Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jucelia Sousa Santos; Sousa, Patricia da Silva; Doriqui, Maria Juliana Rodvalho; Ribeiro, Marizelia Rodrigues Costa; Branco, Maria dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa; Pacheco, Maria de Jesus Torres; Vieira da Costa, Flavia Regina; Silva, Francelena de Sousa; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Pacheco, Marcos Antonio Barbosa; Lamy-Filho, Fernando; Lamy, Zeni Carvalho; Soares de Britto e Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra

    2016-01-01

    We report the early growth and neurologic findings of 48 infants in Brazil diagnosed with probable congenital Zika virus syndrome and followed to age 1–8 months. Most of these infants had microcephaly (86.7%) and craniofacial disproportion (95.8%). The clinical pattern included poor head growth with increasingly negative z-scores, pyramidal/extrapyramidal symptoms, and epilepsy. PMID:27767931

  9. Modeling Epidemic Network Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2013-01-01

    the SID model’s behavior and impact on the network performance, as well as the severity of the infection spreading. The simulations are carried out in OPNET Modeler. The model provides an important input to epidemic connection recovery mechanisms, and can due to its flexibility and versatility be used......This paper presents the implementation of a failure propagation model for transport networks when multiple failures occur resulting in an epidemic. We model the Susceptible Infected Disabled (SID) epidemic model and validate it by comparing it to analytical solutions. Furthermore, we evaluate...

  10. Spatio-temporal evolution of Beijing 2003 SARS epidemic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Studying spatio-temporal evolution of epidemics can uncover important aspects of interaction among people, infectious diseases, and the environment, providing useful insights and modeling support to facilitate public health response and possibly prevention measures. This paper presents an empirical spatio-temporal analysis of epidemiological data concerning 2321 SARS-infected patients in Beijing in 2003. We mapped the SARS morbidity data with the spatial data resolution at the level of street and township. Two smoothing methods, Bayesian adjustment and spatial smoothing, were applied to identify the spatial risks and spatial transmission trends. Furthermore, we explored various spatial patterns and spatio-temporal evolution of Beijing 2003 SARS epidemic using spatial statistics such as Moran’s I and LISA. Part of this study is targeted at evaluating the effectiveness of public health control measures implemented during the SARS epidemic. The main findings are as follows. (1) The diffusion speed of SARS in the northwest-southeast direction is weaker than that in northeast-southwest direction. (2) SARS’s spread risk is positively spatially associated and the strength of this spatial association has experienced changes from weak to strong and then back to weak during the lifetime of the Beijing SARS epidemic. (3) Two spatial clusters of disease cases are identified: one in the city center and the other in the eastern suburban area. These two clusters followed different evolutionary paths but interacted with each other as well. (4) Although the government missed the opportunity to contain the early outbreak of SARS in March 2003, the response strategies implemented after the mid of April were effective. These response measures not only controlled the growth of the disease cases, but also mitigated the spatial diffusion.

  11. The global spread of HIV-1 subtype B epidemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Magiorkinis (Gkikas); K. Angelis (Konstantinos); I. Mamais (Ioannis); Katzourakis, A. (Aris); A. Hatzakis (Angelos); J. Albert (Jan); Lawyer, G. (Glenn); O. Hamouda (Osamah); D. Struck (Daniel); J. Vercauteren (Jurgen); A. Wensing (Amj); I. Alexiev (Ivailo); B. Åsjö (Birgitta); C. Balotta (Claudia); Gomes, P. (Perpétua); R.J. Camacho (Ricardo Jorge); S. Coughlan (Suzie); A. Griskevicius (Algirdas); Z. Grossman (Zehava); Horban, A. (Anders); L.G. Kostrikis (Leondios); Lepej, S.J. (Snjezana J.); K. Liitsola (Kirsi); M. Linka (Marek); C. Nielsen; D. Otelea (Dan); R. Paredes (Roger); M. Poljak (Mario); E. Puchhammer-Stöckl (Elisabeth); J.C. Schmit; A. Sonnerborg (Anders); D. Stanekova (Danica); M. Stanojevic (Maja); Stylianou, D.C. (Dora C.); C.A. Boucher (Charles); Nikolopoulos, G. (Georgios); Vasylyeva, T. (Tetyana); Friedman, S.R. (Samuel R.); D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David); G. Angarano (Guiseppe); M.L. Chaix (Marie Laure); A. de Luca (Andrea); K. Korn (Klaus); Loveday, C. (Clive); V. Soriano (Virtudes); S. Yerly (Sabine); M. Zazzi; A.M. Vandamme (Anne Mieke); D. Paraskevis (Dimitrios)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was discovered in the early 1980s when the virus had already established a pandemic. For at least three decades the epidemic in the Western World has been dominated by subtype B infections, as part of a sub-epidemic that traveled from Africa

  12. The global spread of HIV-1 subtype B epidemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Angelis, Konstantinos; Mamais, Ioannis; Katzourakis, Aris; Hatzakis, Angelos; Albert, Jan; Lawyer, Glenn; Hamouda, Osamah; Struck, Daniel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Wensing, Annemarie; Alexiev, Ivailo; Åsjö, Birgitta; Balotta, Claudia; Gomes, Perpétua; Camacho, Ricardo J.; Coughlan, Suzie; Griskevicius, Algirdas; Grossman, Zehava; Horban, Anders; Kostrikis, Leondios G.; Lepej, Snjezana J.; Liitsola, Kirsi; Linka, Marek; Nielsen, Claus; Otelea, Dan; Paredes, Roger; Poljak, Mario; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elizabeth; Schmit, Jean Claude; Sönnerborg, Anders; Staneková, Danica; Stanojevic, Maja; Stylianou, Dora C.; Boucher, Charles A B; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Vasylyeva, Tetyana; Friedman, Samuel R.; van de Vijver, David; Angarano, Gioacchino; Chaix, Marie Laure; de Luca, Andrea; Korn, Klaus; Loveday, Clive; Soriano, Vincent; Yerly, Sabine; Zazzi, Mauricio; Vandamme, Anne Mieke; Paraskevis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was discovered in the early 1980s when the virus had already established a pandemic. For at least three decades the epidemic in the Western World has been dominated by subtype B infections, as part of a sub-epidemic that traveled from Africa through Haiti

  13. The global spread of HIV-1 subtype B epidemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Magiorkinis (Gkikas); K. Angelis (Konstantinos); I. Mamais (Ioannis); Katzourakis, A. (Aris); A. Hatzakis (Angelos); J. Albert (Jan); Lawyer, G. (Glenn); O. Hamouda (Osamah); D. Struck (Daniel); J. Vercauteren (Jurgen); A. Wensing (Amj); I. Alexiev (Ivailo); B. Åsjö (Birgitta); C. Balotta (Claudia); Gomes, P. (Perpétua); R.J. Camacho (Ricardo Jorge); S. Coughlan (Suzie); A. Griskevicius (Algis); Z. Grossman (Zehava); Horban, A. (Anders); L.G. Kostrikis (Leondios); Lepej, S.J. (Snjezana J.); K. Liitsola (Kirsi); M. Linka (Marek); C. Nielsen; D. Otelea (Dan); R. Paredes (Roger); M. Poljak (Mario); E. Puchhammer-Stöckl (Elisabeth); J.C. Schmit; A. Sonnerborg (Anders); D. Stanekova (Danica); M. Stanojevic (Maja); Stylianou, D.C. (Dora C.); C.A. Boucher (Charles); Nikolopoulos, G. (Georgios); Vasylyeva, T. (Tetyana); Friedman, S.R. (Samuel R.); D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David); G. Angarano (Guiseppe); M.L. Chaix (Marie Laure); A. de Luca (Andrea); K. Korn (Klaus); Loveday, C. (Clive); V. Soriano (Virtudes); S. Yerly (Sabine); M. Zazzi; A.M. Vandamme (Anne Mieke); D. Paraskevis (Dimitrios)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was discovered in the early 1980s when the virus had already established a pandemic. For at least three decades the epidemic in the Western World has been dominated by subtype B infections, as part of a sub-epidemic that traveled from Africa th

  14. The Interaction of Risk Network Structures and Virus Natural History in the Non-spreading of HIV Among People Who Inject Drugs in the Early Stages of the Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Kirk; Khan, Bilal; Habecker, Patrick; Hagan, Holly; Friedman, Samuel R; Saad, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    This article explores how social network dynamics may have reduced the spread of HIV-1 infection among people who inject drugs during the early years of the epidemic. Stochastic, discrete event, agent-based simulations are used to test whether a "firewall effect" can arise out of self-organizing processes at the actor level, and whether such an effect can account for stable HIV prevalence rates below population saturation. Repeated simulation experiments show that, in the presence of recurring, acute, and highly infectious outbreaks, micro-network structures combine with the HIV virus's natural history to reduce the spread of the disease. These results indicate that network factors likely played a significant role in the prevention of HIV infection within injection risk networks during periods of peak prevalence. They also suggest that social forces that disturb network connections may diminish the natural firewall effect and result in higher rates of HIV.

  15. Dynamics of beneficial epidemics

    CERN Document Server

    Berdahl, Andrew; De Bacco, Caterina; Dumas, Marion; Ferdinand, Vanessa; Grochow, Joshua A; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Kallus, Yoav; Kempes, Christopher P; Kolchinsky, Artemy; Larremore, Daniel B; Libby, Eric; Power, Eleanor A; Stern, Caitlin A; Tracey, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens can spread epidemically through populations. Beneficial contagions, such as viruses that enhance host survival or technological innovations that improve quality of life, also have the potential to spread epidemically. How do the dynamics of beneficial biological and social epidemics differ from those of detrimental epidemics? We investigate this question using three theoretical approaches as well as an empirical analysis of concept propagation. First, in evolutionary models, we show that a beneficial horizontally-transmissible element, such as viral DNA, spreads super-exponentially through a population, substantially more quickly than a beneficial mutation. Second, in an epidemiological social network approach, we show that infections that cause increased connectivity lead to faster-than-exponential fixation in the population. Third, in a sociological model with strategic rewiring, we find that preferences for increased global infection accelerate spread and produce super-exponential fixation rates,...

  16. Modularity promotes epidemic recurrence

    CERN Document Server

    Jesan, T; Sinha, Sitabhra

    2016-01-01

    The long-term evolution of epidemic processes depends crucially on the structure of contact networks. As empirical evidence indicates that human populations exhibit strong community organization, we investigate here how such mesoscopic configurations affect the likelihood of epidemic recurrence. Through numerical simulations on real social networks and theoretical arguments using spectral methods, we demonstrate that highly contagious diseases that would have otherwise died out rapidly can persist indefinitely for an optimal range of modularity in contact networks.

  17. Early growth in children with coeliac disease: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrs, Christian R; Magnus, Maria C; Stigum, Hein; Lundin, Knut E A; Størdal, Ketil

    2017-06-13

    We aimed to study growth during the first 2 years of life in children later diagnosed with coeliac disease compared with children without, in a time with changing epidemiology and improved diagnostics. A prospective population-based pregnancy cohort study. The nationwide Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. 58 675 children born between 2000 and 2009 with prospectively collected growth data. Coeliac disease was identified through combined data from questionnaires and the Norwegian Patient Register. The differences in height and weight at age 0, 3, 6, 8, 12, 15-18 and 24 months using internally standardised age and gender-specific z-scores. Linear regression and mixed models were used. During a median follow-up of 8.6 years (range 4.6-14.2), 440 children (0.8%) were diagnosed with coeliac disease at a mean age of 4.4 years (range 1.5-8.5). Children with coeliac disease had significantly lower z-scores for height from 12 months (-0.09 standard deviation scores (SDS), 95% CI -0.18 to -0.01) and weight from 15 to 18 months of life (-0.09 SDS, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.01) compared with cohort controls. The longitudinal analysis from 0 to 24 months yielded a significant reduction in height z-score per year (-0.07 SDS, 95% CI -0.13 to -0.01) but not for weight among children with coeliac disease. Excluding children diagnosed before age 2 years gave similar results. This study indicates that growth retardation in children later diagnosed with coeliac disease commonly starts at 12 months of age, and precedes clinical symptoms that usually bring the suspicion of diagnosis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Early retinal blood vessel growth in normal and growth restricted rat pups raised in oxygen and room air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, C A; Wade, J; Gillespie, T; Aspinall, P; McIntosh, N; Fleck, B W

    2011-11-01

    Premature infants are born with incompletely vascularised retinas and are at a risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Rate of prenatal and postnatal body growth is important in the pathogenesis of ROP. The aim of this study was to develop a physiology-based rat model in order to study the effect of growth restriction and oxygen on early retinal vascular development. Rat mothers were fed either a normal (18% casein) or low (9% casein) protein diet (to cause pup growth restriction) from the last week of gestation. After birth, mother and pups were placed in either room air or a specialised oxygen chamber that delivered a rapidly fluctuating hyperoxic oxygen profile. The oxygen profile was based on that from a premature infant who developed severe ROP. On day 14, retinas were dissected, flat-mounted and stained using biotinylated lectin. Images were captured by confocal microscopy. The avascular areas of the retinas were measured and compared. Growth restricted rat pups had significantly larger retinal avascular areas than 'normally grown' rat pups (Mann-Whitney U test, pair (Mann-Whitney U test, p=0.001). The authors have developed a novel model for ROP that involves inducing both intrauterine and postnatal growth restriction and also exposes neonatal rat pups to fluctuating oxygen. This physiology-based model can be used to study the effects of growth, nutrition and oxygen on early retinal vascular development.

  19. Compensatory placental growth after restricted maternal nutrition in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumey, L H

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the effects of undernutrition in pregnancy on fetal and placental growth among infants born in 1944-1946 in The Netherlands, including infants born during the war-induced Dutch famine of 1944-1945. There was an increase in placental weight, but not in birthweight, in infants whose mothers' nutrition was compromised around conception or in the first trimester of pregnancy. Therefore, the placental index was also increased. Compared to pre-famine controls, the relative increase after first trimester exposure to undernutrition was larger in the northern part of the country (5.2 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 1.4, 9.0) where nutritional deprivation was presumably moderate compared to the west (3.5 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.2, 7.2) where nutritional deprivation was severe. The increase in placental weight is interpreted as compensatory for the reduction in maternal caloric intake. Whereas this suggests that pregnancy undernutrition can stimulate compensatory placental growth, the latter was only seen after first trimester undernutrition, which does not affect infant size at birth. For these infants, therefore, birthweight is not an appropriate proxy measure of undernutrition in pregnancy. These factors need to be considered in future studies relating pregnancy nutrition to adult health outcomes.

  20. Early treatment with metformin induces resistance against tumor growth in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombini, Amanda B; Franco, Claudinéia Cs; Miranda, Rosiane A; de Oliveira, Júlio C; Barella, Luiz F; Prates, Kelly V; de Souza, Aline A; Pavanello, Audrei; Malta, Ananda; Almeida, Douglas L; Tófolo, Laize P; Rigo, Kesia P; Ribeiro, Tatiane As; Fabricio, Gabriel S; de Sant'Anna, Juliane R; Castro-Prado, Marialba Aa; de Souza, Helenir Medri; de Morais, Hely; Mathias, Paulo Cf

    2015-01-01

    It is known that antidiabetic drug metformin, which is used worldwide, has anti-cancer effects and can be used to prevent cancer growth. We tested the hypothesis that tumor cell growth can be inhibited by early treatment with metformin. For this purpose, adult rats chronically treated with metformin in adolescence or in adulthood were inoculated with Walker 256 carcinoma cells. Adult rats that were treated with metformin during adolescence presented inhibition of tumor growth, and animals that were treated during adult life did not demonstrate any changes in tumor growth. Although we do not have data to disclose a molecular mechanism to the preventive metformin effect, we present, for the first time, results showing that cancer growth in adult life is dependent on early life intervention, thus supporting a new therapeutic prevention for cancer.

  1. Perinatal Programming of Childhood Asthma: Early Fetal Size, Growth Trajectory during Infancy, and Childhood Asthma Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Turner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “fetal origins hypothesis” or concept of “developmental programming” suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  2. Signs of Early-stage Disk Growth Revealed with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Aso, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    We present ALMA 1.3 mm continuum, 12CO, C18O, and SO data for the Class 0 protostars Lupus 3 MMS, IRAS 15398‑3559, and IRAS 16253‑2429 at resolutions of ∼100 au. By measuring a rotational profile in C18O, a 100 au Keplerian disk around a 0.3 M⊙ protostar is observed in Lupus 3 MMS. No 100 au Keplerian disks are observed in IRAS 15398‑3559 and IRAS 16253‑2429. Nevertheless, embedded compact (<30 au) continuum components are detected. The C18O emission in IRAS 15398‑3559 shows signatures of infall with a constant angular momentum. IRAS 16253‑2429 exhibits signatures of infall and rotation, but its rotational profile is unresolved. By fitting the C18O data with our kinematic models, the protostellar masses and the disk radii are inferred to be 0.01 M⊙ and 20 au in IRAS 15398‑3559, and 0.03 M⊙ and 6 au in IRAS 16253‑2429. By comparing the specific angular momentum profiles from 10,000 au to 100 au in eight Class 0 and I protostars, we find that the evolution of envelope rotation can be described with conventional inside-out collapse models. In comparison with a sample of 18 protostars with known disk radii, our results reveal signs of disk growth, with the disk radius increasing as {{M}* }0.8+/- 0.14 or {t}1.09+/- 0.37 in the Class 0 stage, where M* is the protostellar mass and t is the age. The disk growth rate slows down in the Class I stage. In addition, we find a hint that the mass accretion rate declines as {t}-0.26+/- 0.04 from the Class 0 to the Class I stages.

  3. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Maternal and fetal risk factors affecting perinatal mortality in early and late fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Oya; Selçuk, Selçuk; Kumru, Pınar; Asoğlu, Mehmet Reşit; Mahmutoğlu, Didar; Boza, Barış; Türkyılmaz, Gürcan; Bütün, Zafer; Arısoy, Resul; Tandoğan, Bülent

    2015-12-01

    To determine the factors which affect the perinatal deaths in early and late fetal growth restriction (FGR) fetuses using threshold of estimated fetal weight (EFW) fetuses, defined as an EFW fetuses considered as growth restrictions were confirmed by birth weight. Fetuses with multiple pregnancy, congenital malformation, chromosomal abnormality, and premature rupture of membrane were excluded. Samples were grouped in early and late FGR. Early FGR fetuses was classified as gestational age at birth ≤ 34 weeks and late FGR was classified as gestational age at birth > 34 weeks. Factors which affect the perinatal deaths were analyzed descriptively in early and late FGR. The perinatal mortality was calculated by adding the number of stillbirths and neonatal deaths. The study included 86 early and 185 late FGR fetuses, 31 resulted in perinatal deaths, 28 perinatal deaths were in early FGR, and three perinatal deaths were in late FGR. Perinatal deaths occurred more commonly in early FGR fetuses with an EFW death in early FGR. All three perinatal deaths in late FGR occurred in fetuses with EFW death was found significantly higher in increased vascular impedance of UtAs whatever the umbilical artery Doppler. Only EFW death in late FGR in comparison with early FGR. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Effectiveness of Early Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccination Among 6-14-Month-Old Infants During an Epidemic in the Netherlands: An Observational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudenberg, Tom; van der Maas, Nicoline A T; Knol, Mirjam J; de Melker, Hester; van Binnendijk, Rob S; Hahné, Susan J M

    2017-04-15

    Routinely, the first measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine dose is given at 14 months of age in the Netherlands. However, during a measles epidemic in 2013-2014, MMR vaccination was also offered to 6-14-month-olds in municipalities with measles, their infant's saliva was tested for measles-specific antibodies. The vaccine effectiveness (VE) against laboratory-confirmed and self-reported measles was estimated using Cox regression, with VE calculated as 1 minus the hazard ratio. Three vaccinated and 10 unvaccinated laboratory-confirmed cases occurred over observation times of 106631 and 23769 days, respectively. The unadjusted VE against laboratory-confirmed measles was 94% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79%-98%). After adjustment for religion and sibling's vaccination status, the VE decreased to 71% (-72%-95%). For self-reported measles, the unadjusted and adjusted VE was 67% (40%-82%) and 43% (-12%-71%), respectively. Infants vaccinated between 6 and 14 months of age had a lower risk of measles than unvaccinated infants. However, part of the effect was caused by herd immunity, since vaccinated infants were more likely to be surrounded by other vaccinated individuals.

  6. Phenotypic and Genotypic Comparison of Epidemic and Non-Epidemic Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Individuals with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Duong

    Full Text Available Epidemic strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been found worldwide among the cystic fibrosis (CF patient population. Using pulse-field gel electrophoresis, the Prairie Epidemic Strain (PES has recently been found in one-third of patients attending the Calgary Adult CF Clinic in Canada. Using multi-locus sequence typing, PES isolates from unrelated patients were found to consistently have ST192. Though most patients acquired PES prior to enrolling in the clinic, some patients were observed to experience strain replacement upon transitioning to the clinic whereby local non-epidemic P. aeruginosa isolates were displaced by PES. Here we genotypically and phenotypically compared PES to other P. aeruginosa epidemic strains (OES found around the world as well as local non-epidemic CF P. aeruginosa isolates in order to characterize PES. Since some epidemic strains are associated with worse clinical outcomes, we assessed the pathogenic potential of PES to determine if these isolates are virulent, shared properties with OES, and if its phenotypic properties may offer a competitive advantage in displacing local non-epidemic isolates during strain replacement. As such, we conducted a comparative analysis using fourteen phenotypic traits, including virulence factor production, biofilm formation, planktonic growth, mucoidy, and antibiotic susceptibility to characterize PES, OES, and local non-epidemic isolates. We observed that PES and OES could be differentiated from local non-epidemic isolates based on biofilm growth with PES isolates being more mucoid. Pairwise comparisons indicated that PES produced significantly higher levels of proteases and formed better biofilms than OES but were more susceptible to antibiotic treatment. Amongst five patients experiencing strain replacement, we found that super-infecting PES produced lower levels of proteases and elastases but were more resistant to antibiotics compared to the displaced non-epidemic isolates. This

  7. Phenotypic and Genotypic Comparison of Epidemic and Non-Epidemic Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Individuals with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Jessica; Booth, Sean C; McCartney, Nathan K; Rabin, Harvey R; Parkins, Michael D; Storey, Douglas G

    2015-01-01

    Epidemic strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been found worldwide among the cystic fibrosis (CF) patient population. Using pulse-field gel electrophoresis, the Prairie Epidemic Strain (PES) has recently been found in one-third of patients attending the Calgary Adult CF Clinic in Canada. Using multi-locus sequence typing, PES isolates from unrelated patients were found to consistently have ST192. Though most patients acquired PES prior to enrolling in the clinic, some patients were observed to experience strain replacement upon transitioning to the clinic whereby local non-epidemic P. aeruginosa isolates were displaced by PES. Here we genotypically and phenotypically compared PES to other P. aeruginosa epidemic strains (OES) found around the world as well as local non-epidemic CF P. aeruginosa isolates in order to characterize PES. Since some epidemic strains are associated with worse clinical outcomes, we assessed the pathogenic potential of PES to determine if these isolates are virulent, shared properties with OES, and if its phenotypic properties may offer a competitive advantage in displacing local non-epidemic isolates during strain replacement. As such, we conducted a comparative analysis using fourteen phenotypic traits, including virulence factor production, biofilm formation, planktonic growth, mucoidy, and antibiotic susceptibility to characterize PES, OES, and local non-epidemic isolates. We observed that PES and OES could be differentiated from local non-epidemic isolates based on biofilm growth with PES isolates being more mucoid. Pairwise comparisons indicated that PES produced significantly higher levels of proteases and formed better biofilms than OES but were more susceptible to antibiotic treatment. Amongst five patients experiencing strain replacement, we found that super-infecting PES produced lower levels of proteases and elastases but were more resistant to antibiotics compared to the displaced non-epidemic isolates. This comparative

  8. Overview: early history of crop growth and photosynthesis modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2011-02-01

    As in industrial and engineering systems, there is a need to quantitatively study and analyze the many constituents of complex natural biological systems as well as agro-ecosystems via research-based mechanistic modeling. This objective is normally addressed by developing mathematically built descriptions of multilevel biological processes to provide biologists a means to integrate quantitatively experimental research findings that might lead to a better understanding of the whole systems and their interactions with surrounding environments. Aided with the power of computational capacities associated with computer technology then available, pioneering cropping systems simulations took place in the second half of the 20th century by several research groups across continents. This overview summarizes that initial pioneering effort made to simulate plant growth and photosynthesis of crop canopies, focusing on the discovery of gaps that exist in the current scientific knowledge. Examples are given for those gaps where experimental research was needed to improve the validity and application of the constructed models, so that their benefit to mankind was enhanced. Such research necessitates close collaboration among experimentalists and model builders while adopting a multidisciplinary/inter-institutional approach.

  9. Early Growth of Massive Black Holes in Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J M; Yan, C S; Hu, C

    2007-01-01

    Episodic activity of quasars is driving growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) via accretion of baryon gas. In this Letter, we develop a simple method to analyse the duty cycle of quasars up to redshift $z\\sim 6$ universe from luminosity functions (LFs). We find that the duty cycle below redshift $z\\sim 2$ follows the cosmic history of star formation rate (SFR) density. Beyond $z\\sim 2$, the evolutionary trends of the duty cycle are just opposite to that of the cosmic SFR density history, implying the role of feedback from black hole activity. With the duty cycle, we get the net lifetime of quasars ($z\\le 5$) about $\\sim 10^9$yrs. Based on the local SMBHs, the mean mass of SMBHs is obtained at any redshifts and their seeds are of $10^5\\sunm$ at the reionization epoch ($z_{\\rm re}$) of the universe through the conservation of the black hole number density in comoving frame. We find that primordial black holes ($\\sim 10^3\\sunm$) are able to grow up to the seeds via a moderate super-Eddington accretion of $\\...

  10. Catch-up growth in early treated patients with growth hormone deficiency. Dutch Growth Hormone Working Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Boersma, B.; Rikken, B.; Wit, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Catch-up growth of 26 children with growth hormone deficiency during four years of growth hormone treatment, which was started young (< 3 years), was compared with that of 16 children with coeliac disease on a gluten free diet. In children with growth hormone deficiency mean (SD) height SD score increased from -4.3 (1.8) to -1.9 (1.4) and in patients with coeliac disease from -1.8 (0.9) to -0.1 (0.8). Height SD score after four years correlated positively with injection frequency and height S...

  11. Growth ring analysis of fossil coniferous woods from early cretaceous of Araripe Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Etiene F; Guerra-Sommer, Margot

    2011-06-01

    Growth ring analysis on silicified coniferous woods from the Missão Velha Formation (Araripe Basin - Brazil) has yielded important information about periodicity of wood production during the Early Cretaceous in the equatorial belt. Despite warm temperatures, dendrological data indicate that the climate was characterized by cyclical alternation of dry and rainy periods influenced by cyclical precipitations, typical of tropical wet and dry or savanna climate. The abundance of false growth rings can be attributed to both occasional droughts and arthropod damage. The present climate data agree with palaeoclimatic models that inferred summer-wet biomes for the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous boundary in the southern equatorial belt.

  12. Configuring the autism epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Fie Lund Lindegaard; Seeberg, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Autism has been described as an epidemic, but this claim is contested and may point to an awareness epidemic, i.e. changes in the definition of what autism is and more attention being invested in diagnosis leading to a rise in registered cases. The sex ratio of children diagnosed with autism...... is skewed in favour of boys, and girls with autism tend to be diagnosed much later than boys. Building and further developing the notion of ‘configuration’ of epidemics, this article explores the configuration of autism in Denmark, with a particular focus on the health system and social support to families...... with children diagnosed with autism, seen from a parental perspective. The article points to diagnostic dynamics that contribute to explaining why girls with autism are not diagnosed as easily as boys. We unfold these dynamics through the analysis of a case of a Danish family with autism....

  13. The Epidemics of Corruption

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, P; Krüger, T; Martin, P; Blanchard, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    We study corruption as a generalized epidemic process on the graph of social relationships. The main difference to classical epidemic processes is the strong nonlinear dependence of the transmission probability on the local density of corruption and the mean field influence of the overall corruption in the society. Network clustering and the degree-degree correlation play an essential role in corruption dynamics. We discuss phase transitions, the influence of the graph structure and the implications for epidemic control. Structural and dynamical arguments are given why strongly hierarchically organized societies like systems with dictatorial tendency are more vulnerable to corruption than democracies. A similar type of modelling can be applied to other social contagion spreading processes like opinion formation, doping usage, social disorders or innovation dynamics.

  14. Epidemics: Lessons from the past and current patterns of response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul

    2008-09-01

    Hippocrates gave the term 'epidemic' its medical meaning. From antiquity to modern times, the meaning of the word epidemic has continued to evolve. Over the centuries, researchers have reached an understanding of the varying aspects of epidemics and have tried to combat them. The role played by travel, trade, and human exchanges in the propagation of epidemic infectious diseases has been understood. In 1948, the World Health Organization was created and given the task of advancing ways of combating epidemics. An early warning system to combat epidemics has been implemented by the WHO. The Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) is collaboration between existing institutions and networks that pool their human and technical resources to fight outbreaks. Avian influenza constitutes currently the most deadly epidemic threat, with fears that it could rapidly reach pandemic proportions and put several thousands of lives in jeopardy. Thanks to the WHO's support, most of the world's countries have mobilised and implemented an 'Action Plan for Pandemic Influenza'. As a result, most outbreaks of the H5N1 avian flu virus have so far been speedily contained. Cases of dengue virus introduction in countries possessing every circumstance required for its epidemic spread provide another example pertinent to the prevention of epidemics caused by vector-borne pathogens.

  15. Early life arsenic exposure, infant and child growth, and morbidity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anisur; Granberg, Caroline; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2017-09-14

    Epidemiological studies have suggested a negative association between early life arsenic exposure and fetal size at birth, and subsequently with child morbidity and growth. However, our understanding of the relationship between arsenic exposure and morbidity and growth is limited. This paper aims to systematically review original human studies with an analytical epidemiological study design that have assessed arsenic exposure in fetal life or early childhood and evaluated the association with one or several of the following outcomes: fetal growth, birth weight or other birth anthropometry, infant and child growth, infectious disease morbidity in infancy and early childhood. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, TOXLINE, Web of Science, SciFinder and Scopus databases filtered for human studies. Based on the predefined eligibility criteria, two authors independently evaluated the studies. A total of 707 studies with morbidity outcomes were identified, of which six studies were eligible and included in this review. For the growth outcomes, a total of 2959 studies were found and nine fulfilled the criteria and were included in the review. A majority of the papers (10/15) emanated from Bangladesh, three from the USA, one from Romania and one from Canada. All included studies on arsenic exposure and morbidity showed an increased risk of respiratory tract infections and diarrhea. The findings in the studies of arsenic exposure and fetal, infant, and child growth were heterogeneous. Arsenic exposure was not associated with fetal growth. There was limited evidence of negative associations between arsenic exposures and birth weight and growth during early childhood. More studies from arsenic-affected low- and middle-income countries are needed to support the generalizability of study findings.

  16. Discrete epidemic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Fred; Feng, Zhilan; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The mathematical theory of single outbreak epidemic models really began with the work of Kermack and Mackendrick about decades ago. This gave a simple answer to the long-standing question of why epidemics woould appear suddenly and then disappear just as suddenly without having infected an entire population. Therefore it seemed natural to expect that theoreticians would immediately proceed to expand this mathematical framework both because the need to handle recurrent single infectious disease outbreaks has always been a priority for public health officials and because theoreticians often try to push the limits of exiting theories. However, the expansion of the theory via the inclusion of refined epidemiological classifications or through the incorporation of categories that are essential for the evaluation of intervention strategies, in the context of ongoing epidemic outbreaks, did not materialize. It was the global threat posed by SARS in that caused theoreticians to expand the Kermack-McKendrick single-outbreak framework. Most recently, efforts to connect theoretical work to data have exploded as attempts to deal with the threat of emergent and re-emergent diseases including the most recent H1N1 influenza pandemic, have marched to the forefront of our global priorities. Since data are collected and/or reported over discrete units of time, developing single outbreak models that fit collected data naturally is relevant. In this note, we introduce a discrete-epidemic framework and highlight, through our analyses, the similarities between single-outbreak comparable classical continuous-time epidemic models and the discrete-time models introduced in this note. The emphasis is on comparisons driven by expressions for the final epidemic size.

  17. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the insulin gene with chicken early growth and fat deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, F F; Nie, Q H; Luo, C L; Zhang, D X; Lin, S M; Zhang, X Q

    2006-06-01

    Growth rate, body composition, and fat deposition are important traits in chickens. Insulin plays important roles in hepatic cells, muscle cells, and adipose tissue cells. The purpose of the present study was to analyze association of the insulin (INS) gene with chicken growth and body composition traits. Using a F2 design resource population constructed with the crossing of Chinese native Xinghua chickens and White Recessive Rock chickens, the association of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP; A+428G, C+1549T, T+3737C, and A+3971G) of INS gene with 13 growth and body composition traits was studied. The T+3737C genotypes were significantly associated with small intestine length (P = 0.0002), and the A+3971G genotypes were significantly associated with early growth (hatch weight and BW at 28 d of age) (P 0.05). The haplotypes based on the 4 SNP were also significantly associated with early growth (hatch weight and BW at 28 d of age; P < 0.0001) and breast angle (P < 0.0001) but not with small intestine length (P = 0.0505). These results suggested that variation of the insulin gene was significantly associated with chicken early growth but not with fat deposition. In addition, the data from the present study supported the inference that both the one-SNP-at-a-time and the haplotype-based approaches have their own advantages and disadvantages when association analysis of one SNP and haplotypes with chicken complex traits was conducted.

  18. Historical Epidemics Cartography Generated by Spatial Analysis: Mapping the Heterogeneity of Three Medieval "Plagues" in Dijon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pierre Galanaud; Anne Galanaud; Patrick Giraudoux

    .... We mapped "plague" deaths during three epidemics of the early 15th century, analyzed spatial distributions by applying the Kulldorff's method, and determined their relationships with the distribution...

  19. [The Justinian plague (part two). Influence of the epidemic on the rise of the Islamic Empire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Manfredi, Roberto; Fiorino, Sirio

    2012-09-01

    The Islamic Empire started its tumultuous and rapid expansion from the year 622 A.D. (the year of Mohammed's Egira). This rapid growth coincided with the epidemic spread of the bubonic plague in the Middle East. Although a first epidemic event had been documented in the year 570 A.D. (pre-Islamic phase), in the Arabic peninsula, classically according to M.W. Dols five severe episodes of plague sub-epidemics are considered in the middle-eastern geographic area: the first occurred in 627 and 628 A.D., the fifth in 716 A.D.. Anyway, we may state that at the onset of Islam the geographic region including Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Iraq, and Iran was involved by endemic plague. In their work, on the ground of a literature review, the Authors describe the characteristics of the epidemic phenomenon, and analyze the how the plague affected the interpretation of Prophet's Koran and Hadits. The passive attitude demonstrated by many Muslims during early Islam was not shared by all believers, since others moved towards a more soft approach, which included the behaviour of the so called moving aside , when the contagion was of concern. The epidemic plague significantly contributed to the weakening of the Eastern Roman Empire, and the rapid decline of the Persian Empire, while during the early expansion phases of Islam, it indirectly favoured the nomadic Arab tribes which, moving on desert or semi-desert territories, succeeded in escaping the contagion more easily. Subsequently, when the Arab population became sedentary, after occupying the conquered cities, this initial advantage was significantly reduced.

  20. Association Between Early Life Growth and Blood Pressure Trajectories in Black South African Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagura, Juliana; Adair, Linda S; Munthali, Richard J; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2016-11-01

    Early growth is associated with blood pressure measured on one occasion, but whether early life growth patterns are associated with longitudinal blood pressure trajectories is under-researched. Therefore, we sought to examine the association between early growth and blood pressure trajectories from childhood to adulthood. Blood pressure was measured on 7 occasions between ages 5 and 18 years in the Birth to Twenty cohort study, and conditional variables for growth in infancy and mid-childhood were computed from anthropometric measures (n=1937, 52% girls). We used a group-based trajectory modeling approach to identify distinct height-adjusted blood pressure trajectories and then tested their association with growth between birth and mid-childhood adjusting for several covariates. Three trajectory groups were identified for systolic and diastolic blood pressure: lower, middle, and upper in boys and girls, separately. In boys, predictors of the middle or upper systolic blood pressure trajectories versus the lower trajectory were in birth weight (odds ratio 0.75 [95% confidence interval 0.58-0.96] per SD) and relative weight gain in infancy (4.11 [1.25-13.51] per SD). In girls, greater relative weight gain and linear growth in both infancy and mid-childhood were consistently associated with an almost 2-fold higher likelihood of being in the upper versus lower systolic blood pressure trajectory. The associations for the diastolic blood pressure trajectories were inconsistent. These findings emphasize the importance of identifying children at risk of progression to high blood pressure. Accelerated growth in infancy and mid-childhood may be a key target for early life intervention in prevention of elevated blood pressure progression. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Early growth in preterm infants after hospital discharge in rural Kenya: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammy, Diana Mawia; Chege, Margaret Njambi; Oyieke, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Prematurity is the single most important cause of mortality during the neonatal period. The early growth of these infants has been shown to be a predictor of their later growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The objective of this study was to establish the determinants of early growth in preterm infants after hospital discharge at the Kitui District Hospital, Kenya. A short longitudinal study design was adopted to execute the study. During the period of April and June 2014, all the preterm infants who were discharged from the Kitui District Hospital Newborn Unit were enrolled in the study by obtaining written informed consent from their guardians. The anthropometric measurements of these infants were taken at discharge and repeated two weeks later at the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic and the Maternal Child health Clinic. A questionnaire guided interview was held with the guardians to establish infant and maternal characteristics which influenced the infants' early growth. A total of 112 participants were enrolled for the study with 106 (94.4%) of them being available for reassessment after two weeks. Majority (72.6%) had deficit in growth by failing to attain the recommended WHO average weight gain of 15g/kg/day. Most of the mothers (63.4%) were between the ages of 20-29 years with half of them being first time mothers. Many of them (66.1%) had only attained primary education and were married (66.1%) to self-employed husbands (56%). Most of the preterm infants at discharge were females who were born between 33 and 36 weeks gestation. Growth deficit was present in the majority and gestational age at birth was a major determinant of the early growth in these preterm infants.

  2. Tissue growth pressure drives early blood flow in the chicken yolk sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Raphaël; Mauroy, Benjamin; Cornelissen, Annemiek J M

    2017-08-01

    Understanding how molecular and physical cues orchestrate vascular morphogenesis is a challenge for developmental biology. Only little attention has been paid to the impact of mechanical stress caused by tissue growth on early blood distribution. Here we study the peripheral accumulation of blood in the chicken embryonic yolk sac, which precedes sinus vein formation. We report that blood accumulation starts before heart-induced blood circulation. We hypothesized that the driving force for the primitive blood flow is a growth-induced gradient of tissue pressure in the yolk sac mesoderm. Therefore, we studied embryos in which heart development was arrested after 2 days of incubation, and found that yolk sac growth and blood peripheral accumulation still occurred. This suggests that tissue growth is sufficient to initiate the flow and the formation of the sinus vein, whereas heart contractions are not required. We designed a simple mathematical model which makes explicit the growth-induced pressure gradient and the subsequent blood accumulation, and show that growth can indeed account for the observed blood accumulation. This study shows that tissue growth pressure can drive early blood flow, and suggests that the mechanical environment, beyond hemodynamics, can contribute to vascular morphogenesis. Developmental Dynamics 246:573-584, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. STATISTICAL GROWTH MODELING OF LONGITUDINAL DT-MRI FOR REGIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF EARLY BRAIN DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Neda; Prastawa, Marcel; Fletcher, P Thomas; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Gerig, Guido

    2012-01-01

    A population growth model that represents the growth trajectories of individual subjects is critical to study and understand neurodevelopment. This paper presents a framework for jointly estimating and modeling individual and population growth trajectories, and determining significant regional differences in growth pattern characteristics applied to longitudinal neuroimaging data. We use non-linear mixed effect modeling where temporal change is modeled by the Gompertz function. The Gompertz function uses intuitive parameters related to delay, rate of change, and expected asymptotic value; all descriptive measures which can answer clinical questions related to growth. Our proposed framework combines nonlinear modeling of individual trajectories, population analysis, and testing for regional differences. We apply this framework to the study of early maturation in white matter regions as measured with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Regional differences between anatomical regions of interest that are known to mature differently are analyzed and quantified. Experiments with image data from a large ongoing clinical study show that our framework provides descriptive, quantitative information on growth trajectories that can be directly interpreted by clinicians. To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal analysis of growth functions to explain the trajectory of early brain maturation as it is represented in DTI.

  4. Impacts of parasites in early life: Contrasting effects on juvenile growth for different family members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, T.; Daunt, F.; Kiploks, A.J.; Burthe, S.J.; Granroth-Wilding, H.M.V.; Takahashi, E.A.; Newell, M.; Wanless, S.; Cunningham, E.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control mi

  5. Integrating Frameworks from Early Childhood Intervention and School Psychology to Accelerate Growth for All Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerHeyden, Amanda M.; Snyder, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Knowing what behaviors adults can engage in to accelerate child growth toward desired outcomes is fundamental to achieving the promise of early education and intervention. Once adequate progress-monitoring measures are developed, patterns of child performance over time and in response to certain interventions can be quantified. The ability to…

  6. Determinants of Growth, Adiposity and Bone Mass in Early Life : The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Heppe (Denise)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Environmental influences during fetal life and early infancy have been suggested to influence body composition throughout the life-course. Especially poor fetal nutrition and fetal growth restriction have been designated important risk factors for gaining high fat mass or

  7. Infant movement opportunities are related to early growth - GECKO Drenthe cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, Anna; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background: Movement by an infant during the first year of life might influence its activity level and thereby influence growth in early childhood. Aim: To examine whether the time that an infant is able to move unrestrictedly and time spent in baby seats are related to weight and waist circumferenc

  8. The Groove of Growth: How Early Gains in Math Ability Influence Adolescent Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies, both small scale and of nationally-representative student samples, have reported substantial associations between school entry math ability and later elementary school achievement. However, questions remain regarding the persistence of the association between early growth in math ability and later math achievement due to the…

  9. Early dietary treated patients with phenylketonuria can achieve normal growth and body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, Julio C.; van Spronsen, FrancJan; Almeida, Manuela F.; Ramos, Elisabete; Guimardes, Joao T.; Borges, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the past, overtreatment may have resulted in growth impairment in patients with phenylketonuria. Objective: The paper aims to investigate height and body composition in early treated patients with phenylketonuria who were diagnosed between 1981 and 2008. Design: A cross-sectional stud

  10. Effects of Foliar Fertilizer and Mepiquat Penteborate on Early Planted Cotton Growth and Lint Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple growth regulators and foliar fertilizers are currently marketed for use in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with varying effectiveness in promoting yield improvement. This research addressed the effectiveness of these products in a cotton early planting production system with its higher yiel...

  11. Roles for transforming growth factor beta superfamily proteins in early folliculogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombly, Daniel J; Woodruff, Teresa K; Mayo, Kelly E

    2009-01-01

    Primordial follicle formation and the subsequent transition of follicles to the primary and secondary stages encompass the early events during folliculogenesis in mammals. These processes establish the ovarian follicle pool and prime follicles for entry into subsequent growth phases during the reproductive cycle. Perturbations during follicle formation can affect the size of the primordial follicle pool significantly, and alterations in follicle transition can cause follicles to arrest at immature stages or result in premature depletion of the follicle reserve. Determining the molecular events that regulate primordial follicle formation and early follicle growth may lead to the development of new fertility treatments. Over the last decade, many of the growth factors and signaling proteins that mediate the early stages of folliculogenesis have been identified using mouse genetic models, in vivo injection studies, and ex vivo organ culture approaches. These studies reveal important roles for the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of proteins in the ovary. This article reviews these roles for TGF-beta family proteins and focuses in particular on work from our laboratories on the functions of activin in early folliculogenesis.

  12. Non-genetic factors influencing early growth traits in the Elsenburg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    investigate non-genetic factors contributing to early growth traits. The fixed effects ... as age, sex, birth status (type of birth) and age of dam have been well ..... Mutton Sheep Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme for kind permission to use ...

  13. Determinants of Growth, Adiposity and Bone Mass in Early Life : The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Heppe (Denise)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Environmental influences during fetal life and early infancy have been suggested to influence body composition throughout the life-course. Especially poor fetal nutrition and fetal growth restriction have been designated important risk factors for gaining high fat mass

  14. Early metabolic defects in dexamethasone-exposed and undernourished intrauterine growth restricted rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Somm

    Full Text Available Poor fetal growth, also known as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, is a worldwide health concern. IUGR is commonly associated with both an increased risk in perinatal mortality and a higher prevalence of developing chronic metabolic diseases later in life. Obesity, type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome could result from noxious "metabolic programming." In order to better understand early alterations involved in metabolic programming, we modeled IUGR rat pups through either prenatal exposure to synthetic glucocorticoid (dams infused with dexamethasone 100 µg/kg/day, DEX or prenatal undernutrition (dams feeding restricted to 30% of ad libitum intake, UN. Physiological (glucose and insulin tolerance, morphometric (automated tissue image analysis and transcriptomic (quantitative PCR approaches were combined during early life of these IUGR pups with a special focus on their endocrine pancreas and adipose tissue development. In the absence of catch-up growth before weaning, DEX and UN IUGR pups both presented basal hyperglycaemia, decreased glucose tolerance, and pancreatic islet atrophy. Other early metabolic defects were model-specific: DEX pups presented decreased insulin sensitivity whereas UN pups exhibited lowered glucose-induced insulin secretion and more marked alterations in gene expression of pancreatic islet and adipose tissue development regulators. In conclusion, these results show that before any catch-up growth, IUGR rats present early physiologic, morphologic and transcriptomic defects, which can be considered as initial mechanistic basis of metabolic programming.

  15. Oxygen-sensitive regulation and neuroprotective effects of growth hormone-dependent growth factors during early postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Susan; Boie, Gudrun; Doerr, Helmuth-Guenther; Trollmann, Regina

    2017-04-01

    Perinatal hypoxia severely disrupts metabolic and somatotrophic development, as well as cerebral maturational programs. Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) represent the most important endogenous adaptive mechanisms to hypoxia, activating a broad spectrum of growth factors that contribute to cell survival and energy homeostasis. To analyze effects of systemic hypoxia and growth hormone (GH) therapy (rhGH) on HIF-dependent growth factors during early postnatal development, we compared protein (using ELISA) and mRNA (using quantitative RT PCR) levels of growth factors in plasma and brain between normoxic and hypoxic mice (8% O2, 6 h; postnatal day 7, P7) at P14. Exposure to hypoxia led to reduced body weight (P treatment increased cerebral IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, and erythropoietin mRNA levels, resulting in significantly reduced apoptotic cell death in the hypoxic, developing mouse brain. These data indicate that rhGH may functionally restore hypoxia-induced systemic dysregulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis and induce upregulation of neuroprotective, HIF-dependent growth factors in the hypoxic developing brain.

  16. The Obesity Epidemic

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-18

    Learn about obesity and the community initiatives taking place to prevent and reduce this epidemic.  Created: 7/18/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity.   Date Released: 7/18/2011.

  17. Germination and Early Growth of Brassica juncea in Copper Mine Tailings Amended with Technosol and Compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Mine tailings represent a serious threat to the environment and human health; thus their restoration has become a major concern. In this study, the interactions between Brassica juncea and different mine soil treatments were evaluated in order to understand their effect on germination and early growth. Three soil treatments containing 25% and 50% of technosol and 30% of compost were prepared. Germination and early growth were assessed in soil and pore water extracts from the treatments. Unlike the untreated mine soil, the three treatments allowed germination and growth, achieving levels comparable to those of seedlings from the same species developed in normal conditions. The seedlings grown in 50% of technosol and 30% of compost exhibited greater germination percentages, higher growth, and more efficient mechanisms against oxidative stress, ascribed to the organic matter and nutrients content of these treatments. Considering the unequivocal ability of B. juncea for phytoremediation, the results suggest that technosol and compost may be an auspicious solution to allow the germination and early growth of this species in mine tailings. PMID:25386602

  18. Potential Bacillus probiotics enhance bacterial numbers, water quality and growth during early development of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrat, Subuntith; Suksawat, Sunisa; Boonthai, Traimat; Vuthiphandchai, Verapong

    2012-10-12

    Epidemics of epizootics and occurrence of multiresistant antibiotics of pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture have put forward a development of effective probiotics for the sustainable culture. This study examined the effectiveness of forms of mixed Bacillus probiotics (probiotic A and probiotic B) and mode of probiotic administration on growth, bacterial numbers and water quality during rearing of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in two separated experiments: (1) larval stages and (2) postlarval (PL) stages. Forms of Bacillus probiotics and modes of probiotic administration did not affect growth and survival of larval to PL shrimp. The compositions of Bacillus species in probiotic A and probiotic B did not affect growth and survival of larvae. However, postlarvae treated with probiotic B exhibited higher (Pvannamei. This investigation showed that administration of mixed Bacillus probiotics significantly improved growth and survival of PL shrimp, increased beneficial bacteria in shrimp and culture water and enhanced water quality for the levels of pH, ammonia and nitrite of culture water.

  19. Effect of Different Ca and P Level on Early Growth of Fast-growth Lines of Wulong Goose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-wei; ZHANG Min-gai; LI Wen-li; LIU Guang-lei; JIA Xiao-hui; WU Xiao-ping; YANG Shu-ling

    2005-01-01

    Two hundred and eighty-eight Wulong geese of fast-growth lines were selected to be fattened respectively in netting bed, then divided into eight groups with three replications in each group. The diets contained different contents of Ca and P to determine the best level for the early growth of Wulong goose. The result suggested that, during the early period, the proportion of Ca and NPP (non-Phytate Phosnhorus) had significant influence on its growth (P<0.05), when the dietary level of Ca was 0.65% and NPP was 0.30% (the proportion of Ca and NPP was 2.17:1), the liveweight gain was higher,so were the eviscerated ratio and eviscerated weight with giblet ratio, feed/gain (F/G) and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity at four weeks were lower. The Wulong goose grew well at the proportion between 1.88:1 and 2.50: 1, and grew worst at 1.38:1.

  20. The relationship between early growth and survival of hatchling saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brien, Matthew L; Webb, Grahame J; McGuinness, Keith; Christian, Keith A

    2014-01-01

    Hatchling fitness in crocodilians is affected by "runtism" or failure to thrive syndrome (FTT) in captivity. In this study, 300 hatchling C. porosus, artificially incubated at 32°C for most of their embryonic development, were raised in semi-controlled conditions, with growth criteria derived for the early detection of FTT (within 24 days). Body mass, four days after hatching (BM4d), was correlated with egg size and was highly clutch specific, while snout-vent length (SVL4d) was much more variable within and between clutches. For the majority of hatchlings growth trajectories within the first 24 days continued to 90 days and could be used to predict FTT affliction up to 300 days, highlighting the importance of early growth. Growth and survival of hatchling C. porosus in captivity was not influenced by initial size (BM4d), with a slight tendency for smaller hatchlings to grow faster in the immediate post-hatching period. Strong clutch effects (12 clutches) on affliction with FTT were apparent, but could not be explained by measured clutch variables or other factors. Among individuals not afflicted by FTT (N = 245), mean growth was highly clutch specific, and the variation could be explained by an interaction between clutch and season. FTT affliction was 2.5 times higher among clutches (N = 7) that hatched later in the year when mean minimum air temperatures were lower, compared with those clutches (N = 5) that hatched early in the year. The results of this study highlight the importance of early growth in hatchling C. porosus, which has implications for the captive management of this species.

  1. The relationship between early growth and survival of hatchling saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus in captivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Brien

    Full Text Available Hatchling fitness in crocodilians is affected by "runtism" or failure to thrive syndrome (FTT in captivity. In this study, 300 hatchling C. porosus, artificially incubated at 32°C for most of their embryonic development, were raised in semi-controlled conditions, with growth criteria derived for the early detection of FTT (within 24 days. Body mass, four days after hatching (BM4d, was correlated with egg size and was highly clutch specific, while snout-vent length (SVL4d was much more variable within and between clutches. For the majority of hatchlings growth trajectories within the first 24 days continued to 90 days and could be used to predict FTT affliction up to 300 days, highlighting the importance of early growth. Growth and survival of hatchling C. porosus in captivity was not influenced by initial size (BM4d, with a slight tendency for smaller hatchlings to grow faster in the immediate post-hatching period. Strong clutch effects (12 clutches on affliction with FTT were apparent, but could not be explained by measured clutch variables or other factors. Among individuals not afflicted by FTT (N = 245, mean growth was highly clutch specific, and the variation could be explained by an interaction between clutch and season. FTT affliction was 2.5 times higher among clutches (N = 7 that hatched later in the year when mean minimum air temperatures were lower, compared with those clutches (N = 5 that hatched early in the year. The results of this study highlight the importance of early growth in hatchling C. porosus, which has implications for the captive management of this species.

  2. Impacts of parasites in early life: contrasting effects on juvenile growth for different family members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Reed

    Full Text Available Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control might predispose young to respond to infection in different ways. Here we show that parasites can have different consequences for offspring depending on their position in the family hierarchy. We experimentally treated European Shag (Phalacrocorax aristoteli nestlings with the broad-spectrum anti-parasite drug ivermectin and compared their growth rates with nestlings from control broods. Average growth rates measured over the period of linear growth (10 days to 30 days of age and survival did not differ for nestlings from treated and control broods. However, when considering individuals within broods, parasite treatment reversed the patterns of growth for individual family members: last-hatched nestlings grew significantly slower than their siblings in control nests but grew faster in treated nests. This was at the expense of their earlier-hatched brood-mates, who showed an overall growth rate reduction relative to last-hatched nestlings in treated nests. These results highlight the importance of exploring individual variation in the costs of infection and suggest that parasites could be a key factor modulating within-family dynamics, sibling competition and developmental trajectories from an early age.

  3. Impacts of parasites in early life: contrasting effects on juvenile growth for different family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Thomas E; Daunt, Francis; Kiploks, Adam J; Burthe, Sarah J; Granroth-Wilding, Hanna M V; Takahashi, Emi A; Newell, Mark; Wanless, Sarah; Cunningham, Emma J A

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control might predispose young to respond to infection in different ways. Here we show that parasites can have different consequences for offspring depending on their position in the family hierarchy. We experimentally treated European Shag (Phalacrocorax aristoteli) nestlings with the broad-spectrum anti-parasite drug ivermectin and compared their growth rates with nestlings from control broods. Average growth rates measured over the period of linear growth (10 days to 30 days of age) and survival did not differ for nestlings from treated and control broods. However, when considering individuals within broods, parasite treatment reversed the patterns of growth for individual family members: last-hatched nestlings grew significantly slower than their siblings in control nests but grew faster in treated nests. This was at the expense of their earlier-hatched brood-mates, who showed an overall growth rate reduction relative to last-hatched nestlings in treated nests. These results highlight the importance of exploring individual variation in the costs of infection and suggest that parasites could be a key factor modulating within-family dynamics, sibling competition and developmental trajectories from an early age.

  4. Film coating of seeds with Bacillus cereus RS87 spores for early plant growth enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetiyanon, Kanchalee; Wittaya-Areekul, Sakchai; Plianbangchang, Pinyupa

    2008-10-01

    The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus cereus RS87 was previously reported to promote plant growth in various crops in both greenhouse and field trials. To apply as a plant growth promoting agent with practical use, it is essential to ease the burden of routine preparation of a fresh suspension of strain RS87 in laboratory. The objectives of this study were to investigate the feasibility of film-coating seeds with B. cereus RS87 spores for early plant growth enhancement and to reveal the indoleacetic acid (IAA) production released from strain RS87. The experiment consisted of the following 5 treatments: nontreated seeds, water-soaked seeds, film-coated seeds, seeds soaked with vegetative cells of strain RS87, and film-coated seeds with strain RS87 spores. Three experiments were conducted separately to assess seed emergence, root length, and plant height. Results showed that both vegetative cells and spores of strain RS87 significantly promoted (P seed emergence, root length and plant height over the control treatments. The strain RS87 also produced IAA. In conclusion, the film coating of seeds with spores of B. cereus RS87 demonstrated early plant growth enhancement as well as seeds using their vegetative cells. IAA released from strain RS87 would be one of the mechanisms for plant growth enhancement.

  5. Widespread hepatitis B virus genotype G (HBV-G) infection during the early years of the HIV epidemic in the Netherlands among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Marion; Zorgdrager, Fokla; Bruisten, Sylvia M; Bakker, Margreet; Berkhout, Ben; van der Kuyl, Antoinette C

    2016-06-10

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) variants belong to different genotypes, A-J, whose worldwide distribution is linked with geography, probably because viral spread was associated with ancient human migrations. HBV genotype G (HBV-G) is an aberrant genotype with little sequence divergence, suggesting a recent origin. HBV-G is strongly associated with certain risk groups such as intravenous drug users (IDUs) and men who have sex with men (MSM), but hardly with geography. The origin and epidemiology of HBV-G remain unresolved, as is the disease association. To estimate the prevalence and possible time of introduction of HBV-G into the MSM community in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, we have retrospectively analysed 226 blood serum samples from HBsAg positive MSM enrolled in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies (ACS) on HIV infection and AIDS dating from 1984 to 1999 using genotype-specific PCR assays. Of the 226 HBsAg-positive samples, 149 were HBV DNA positive. Of those, 104 were positive for HBV genotype A (HBV-A) and five for HBV-G, and 40 showed a dual infection with both HBV-A and HBV-G. Being HIV-infected was significantly associated with a reduced HBV DNA viral load in blood, but not with the prevalence of HBV-G. Early virus already contained stop codons in the precore region and a 36 bp insertion in the core gene which are the characteristics of HBV-G. HBV-G was introduced before 1985 into the Amsterdam MSM community. Early isolates show very limited sequence variation, confirming a low evolutionary rate. HBV-G acquisition was independent of HIV infection, but being HIV-infected was significantly associated with a reduced HBV viral load in blood, indicating a beneficial effect of early HIV infection in controlling HBV replication.

  6. MicroRNA profiling in early hypertrophic growth of the left ventricle in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Peter K.; Cirera, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    Pressure overload induces hypertrophic growth of the heart and in the long term this condition can lead to cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Several miRNAs are upregulated in heart failure. However, it is not clear, which miRNAs (if any) are induced during the early hypertrophic growth phase...... was highly induced in animals with aortic banding. Out of 13 miRs that have previously been reported to be associated with late-stage pressure-overload-induced hypertrophy and heart failure only four (miR-23a, miR-27b, miR-125b and miR-195) were induced during early hypertrophic growth. These miRs were....... To investigate whether the upregulation of miRNAs is an integrated part of hypertrophic growth or an effect of cardiac disease we investigated miRNA expression in early hypertrophic development. Hypertrophy was induced by banding of the ascending aorta of male rats. After 14 days, the heart left ventricle weight...

  7. Growth and the energy budget of flat oyster (Ostrea edulis in early ontogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sitnik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Regularities of growth and dynamics of balance constituents of the energy budget of the flat oyster larvae in development are investigated. It is shown, that the linear growth in early ontogenesis is described by the exponential equation with high accuracy. Parameters of the functions connecting length, height and weight of larvae are defined. The quantitative characteristic of the energy balance elements of oysters larvae is given. It is shown, that during development from a veliger stage to a pediveliger the energy expenditures for growth, metabolism and nutriment assimilation increase more than 10 times. Net efficiency of larvae growth (coefficient К2 varies within 61.6–62.8 % during development, and the magnitude of a specific daily ration of oyster larvae equals 32–35 % of the energy equivalent of body weight.

  8. Early development and allometric growth in Nannacara anomala Regan, 1905 (Perciformes: Cichlidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Kupren

    Full Text Available Morphological development and allometric growth of laboratory reared Nannacara anomala were studied from hatching to the loss of larval characters and beginning of squamation (18 days post-hatching at 26°C. The mean total length (TL of larvae and juveniles increased from 3.74 mm at hatching to 9.60 mm at metamorphosis. Morphogenesis and differentiation were most intense during the first week of development. During this period (TL interval = 3.74 - 4.84 mm there was an evident priority to enhance the feeding and swimming capabilities by promoting accelerated growth in the head and tail regions. Following this period, there was a major decrease in growth coefficients, indicating a change in growth priorities. Observations on the early development of Nannacara anomala confirmed the basic uniformity development of a substrate brooding cichlid.

  9. Ezh2 Controls an Early Hematopoietic Program and Growth and Survival Signaling in Early T Cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Danis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Early T cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ETP-ALL is an aggressive subtype of ALL distinguished by stem-cell-associated and myeloid transcriptional programs. Inactivating alterations of Polycomb repressive complex 2 components are frequent in human ETP-ALL, but their functional role is largely undefined. We have studied the involvement of Ezh2 in a murine model of NRASQ61K-driven leukemia that recapitulates phenotypic and transcriptional features of ETP-ALL. Homozygous inactivation of Ezh2 cooperated with oncogenic NRASQ61K to accelerate leukemia onset. Inactivation of Ezh2 accentuated expression of genes highly expressed in human ETP-ALL and in normal murine early thymic progenitors. Moreover, we found that Ezh2 contributes to the silencing of stem-cell- and early-progenitor-cell-associated genes. Loss of Ezh2 also resulted in increased activation of STAT3 by tyrosine 705 phosphorylation. Our data mechanistically link Ezh2 inactivation to stem-cell-associated transcriptional programs and increased growth/survival signaling, features that convey an adverse prognosis in patients.

  10. Beyond birth-weight: early growth and adolescent blood pressure in a Peruvian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robie Sterling

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Longitudinal investigations into the origins of adult essential hypertension have found elevated blood pressure in children to accurately track into adulthood, however the direct causes of essential hypertension in adolescence and adulthood remains unclear.Methods. We revisited 152 Peruvian adolescents from a birth cohort tracked from 0 to 30 months of age, and evaluated growth via monthly anthropometric measurements between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and blood pressure measurements 11–14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of infantile and childhood growth trends on blood pressure and central obesity in early adolescence.Results. In regression models adjusted for interim changes in weight and height, each 0.1 SD increase in weight for length from 0 to 5 months of age, and 1 SD increase from 6 to 30 months of age, was associated with decreased adolescent systolic blood pressure by 1.3 mm Hg (95% CI −2.4 to −0.1 and 2.5 mm Hg (95% CI −4.9 to 0.0, and decreased waist circumference by 0.6 (95% CI −1.1 to 0.0 and 1.2 cm (95% CI −2.3 to −0.1, respectively. Growth in infancy and early childhood was not significantly associated with adolescent waist-to-hip ratio.Conclusions. Rapid compensatory growth in early life has been posited to increase the risk of long-term cardiovascular morbidities such that nutritional interventions may do more harm than good. However, we found increased weight growth during infancy and early childhood to be associated with decreased systolic blood pressure and central adiposity in adolescence.

  11. Beyond birth-weight: early growth and adolescent blood pressure in a Peruvian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Robie; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrera, Lilia; Sterling, Charles R; Bern, Caryn; Miranda, J Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Background. Longitudinal investigations into the origins of adult essential hypertension have found elevated blood pressure in children to accurately track into adulthood, however the direct causes of essential hypertension in adolescence and adulthood remains unclear. Methods. We revisited 152 Peruvian adolescents from a birth cohort tracked from 0 to 30 months of age, and evaluated growth via monthly anthropometric measurements between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and blood pressure measurements 11-14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of infantile and childhood growth trends on blood pressure and central obesity in early adolescence. Results. In regression models adjusted for interim changes in weight and height, each 0.1 SD increase in weight for length from 0 to 5 months of age, and 1 SD increase from 6 to 30 months of age, was associated with decreased adolescent systolic blood pressure by 1.3 mm Hg (95% CI -2.4 to -0.1) and 2.5 mm Hg (95% CI -4.9 to 0.0), and decreased waist circumference by 0.6 (95% CI -1.1 to 0.0) and 1.2 cm (95% CI -2.3 to -0.1), respectively. Growth in infancy and early childhood was not significantly associated with adolescent waist-to-hip ratio. Conclusions. Rapid compensatory growth in early life has been posited to increase the risk of long-term cardiovascular morbidities such that nutritional interventions may do more harm than good. However, we found increased weight growth during infancy and early childhood to be associated with decreased systolic blood pressure and central adiposity in adolescence.

  12. Resilience of epidemics on networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Dan; Zhang, Jiaquan; Wang, Huijuan; Li, Daqing

    2016-01-01

    Epidemic propagation on complex networks has been widely investigated, mostly with invariant parameters. However, the process of epidemic propagation is not always constant. Epidemics can be affected by various perturbations, and may bounce back to its original state, which is considered resilient. Here, we study the resilience of epidemics on networks, by introducing a different infection rate ${\\lambda_{2}}$ during SIS (susceptible-infected-susceptible) epidemic propagation to model perturbations (control state), whereas the infection rate is ${\\lambda_{1}}$ in the rest of time. Through simulations and theoretical analysis, we find that even for ${\\lambda_{2}<\\lambda_{c}}$, epidemics eventually could bounce back if control duration is below a threshold. This critical control time for epidemic resilience, i.e., ${cd_{max}}$ can be predicted by the diameter (${d}$) of the underlying network, with the quantitative relation ${cd_{max}\\sim d^{\\alpha}}$. Our findings can help to design a better mitigation stra...

  13. Seed priming improves early seedling vigor, growth and productivity of spring maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hafeez ur Rehman; Hassan Iqbal; Shahzad M A Basra; Irfan Afzal; Muhammad Farooq; Abdul Wakeel; WANG Ning

    2015-01-01

    Potential of seed priming treatments in improving the performance of early planted maize was evaluated against timely planting. Seeds of maize hybrid FH-810 were soaked in water (hydropriming), CaCl2 (2.2%, osmopriming), moringa leaf extracts (MLE 3.3%, osmopriming) and salicylic acid (SA, 50 mg L–1, hormonal priming) each for 18 h. Untreated and hydroprimed seeds were taken as control. Seeds primed with SA took less time in emergence and had high vigor in early planted maize. Amongst treatments, hormonal priming, reduced the electrical conductivity, increased the leaf relative and chlorophyl contents fol owed by osmopriming with CaCl2 at seedling stage. Likewise, plant height, grain rows and 1 000-grain weight, grain and biological yield and harvest index were also improved by seed priming;however hormonal priming and osmopriming with MLE were more effective in this regard. Improved yield performance by hormonal priming or osmopriming with MLE in early planting primarily owed to increased leaf area index, crop growth and net assimilation rates, and maintenance of green leaf area at maturity. In conclusion, osmopriming with MLE and hormonal priming with SA were the most economical treatments in improving productivity of early planted spring maize through stimulation of early seedling growth at low temperature.

  14. Effects of early feeding and exogenous putrescine on growth and small intestinal development in posthatch ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, P; Xu, J; Chen, W; Tangara, M; Qi, Z L; Peng, J

    2010-02-01

    1. Effects of early feeding with a diet containing added putrescine on duck intestinal development and growth performance were examined by a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with two different feeding times (6 and 48 h) and two levels of putrescine (0 and 025%). 2. A significant main effect of early feeding on increasing body weight (BW) was observed from hatch to 35 d, whereas dietary putrescine had no significant effect on BW. 3. In the first week posthatch, enhanced small intestinal weight and intestinal density (weight of intestinal tissue/unit length of intestine), increased villus length and reduced crypt depth were observed in the early feeding group, while no effect was observed when putrescine was added to the diet. 4. Maltase and sucrase activity and protein/DNA ratio in jejunum were increased by early feeding in the first week, while decreased by putrescine supplementation. 5. In conclusion, early feeding methods have great potential for small intestine development and thereafter enhanced the growth performance of ducks, but dietary putrescine used during this period should be used cautiously to avoid toxicity.

  15. Proximity Networks and Epidemics

    CERN Document Server

    Toroczkai, Z

    2007-01-01

    Disease spread in most biological populations requires the proximity of agents. In populations where the individuals have spatial mobility, the contact graph is generated by the "collision dynamics" of the agents, and thus the evolution of epidemics couples directly to the spatial dynamics of the population. We first briefly review the properties and the methodology of an agent-based simulation (EPISIMS) to model disease spread in realistic urban dynamic contact networks. Using the data generated by this simulation, we introduce the notion of dynamic proximity networks which takes into account the relevant time scales for disease spread: contact duration, infectivity period and rate of contact creation. This approach promises to be a good candidate for a unified treatment of epidemic types that are driven by agent collision dynamics. In particular, using a simple model, we show that it can can account for the observed qualitative differences between the degree distributions of contact graphs of diseases with ...

  16. How Clustering Affects Epidemics in Random Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Coupechoux, Emilie

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the analysis of social networks, we study a model of random networks that has both a given degree distribution and a tunable clustering coefficient. We consider two types of growth processes on these graphs: diffusion and symmetric threshold model. The diffusion process is inspired from epidemic models. It is characterized by an infection probability, each neighbor transmitting the epidemic independently. In the symmetric threshold process, the interactions are still local but the propagation rule is governed by a threshold (that might vary among the different nodes). An interesting example of symmetric threshold process is the contagion process, which is inspired by a simple coordination game played on the network. Both types of processes have been used to model spread of new ideas, technologies, viruses or worms and results have been obtained for random graphs with no clustering. In this paper, we are able to analyze the impact of clustering on the growth processes. While clustering inhibits th...

  17. Predictors of Early Growth in Academic Achievement: The Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M. McClelland

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Children’s behavioral self-regulation and executive function (EF; including attentional or cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control are strong predictors of academic achievement. The present study examined the psychometric properties of a measure of behavioral self-regulation called the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS by assessing construct validity, including relations to EF measures, and predictive validity to academic achievement growth between prekindergarten and kindergarten. In the fall and spring of prekindergarten and kindergarten, 208 children (51% enrolled in Head Start were assessed on the HTKS, measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory (WM, and inhibitory control, and measures of emergent literacy, mathematics, and vocabulary. For construct validity, the HTKS was significantly related to cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control in prekindergarten and kindergarten. For predictive validity in prekindergarten, a random effects model indicated that the HTKS significantly predicted growth in mathematics, whereas a cognitive flexibility task significantly predicted growth in mathematics and vocabulary. In kindergarten, the HTKS was the only measure to significantly predict growth in all academic outcomes. An alternative conservative analytical approach, a fixed effects analysis (FEA model, also indicated that growth in both the HTKS and measures of EF significantly predicted growth in mathematics over four time points between prekindergarten and kindergarten. Results demonstrate that the HTKS involves cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control, and is substantively implicated in early achievement, with the strongest relations found for growth in achievement during kindergarten and associations with emergent mathematics.

  18. Three Dimensional Simulation Method in Early Process of Division and Growth for Tumour Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Zhi-qiu; ZHAO Ting-ting

    2014-01-01

    The process of division, growth and death for tumour cell mass in the early is simulated. An integrated GUI is provided for users to set the value of each parameters, which are cell growth rates, cell mass division rates, cell mass death rates, simulate type, maximum running time, polarity and cell colour. It can display the growth process of each cell on result GUI. Also, it can display the values of each parameters for observing and analysing in current life cycle on result GUI, which are cell mass division times, cell mass death rate, cell mass division rate and cell mass growth rate. In the process of simulation, The cell growth rate is described by the approach to combine the exponential model with the linear model. In addition, a linked list data structure to store the tumour cells is used by the cellular automata for a reference to determine the position of each cell. It sets up two linked list to store the cells, one of them save the new small division cells and the other one save the big cell. That can make the painting process of cells on result GUI clearer and more organized. At last, the polarity of tumour growth is described for determining the growth direction of cells.

  19. Backward Bifurcation of a SIRS Epidemic Model with Logistic Growth and Treatment%具有 Logistic 增长和治疗的SIRS 传染病模型的后向分支

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅金波; 陈兰荪; 程荣福

    2015-01-01

    利用传染病动力学理论,建立一类具有 Logistic 增长和治疗的 SIRS 传染病模型,并假设模型中总人口增长满足 Logistic 方程,考虑治疗项为非线性的可微函数,以描述有限的医疗资源对延迟患者治疗的影响。综合运用微分方程稳定性理论中的 Routh-Hurwitz 判据、LaSalle不变集原理并构造适当的 Lyapunov 函数方法,获得了该模型的无病平衡点和地方病平衡点全局渐近稳定的代数判据及后项分支存在条件。结果表明,当延迟患者治疗的影响较严重时,该模型会出现后向分支现象,基本再生数已不再是疾病是否消亡的阀值,需要加强医疗资源建设,通过提供及时优质的医疗服务,才能有效控制或根除疾病。%Based on the epidemic dynamic theory,a SIRS epidemic model with logistic growth and treatment was established.On the basis of the growth of the total population satisfying Logistic equation and nolinear differentiable function being the treatment term,the model describes the effect of limited medical resources to delaying treatment of the sick.Based on the Routh-Hurwitz criterion, LaSalle invariant set principle and structured proper Lyapunov function method of stability theory in the differential equation,global asymptotic stable algebraic criterion of disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium and backward bifurcation conditions of the model were obtained.The research results show when the delayed effect is serious,backward bifurcation will take place and the basic reproduction number is not the threshold value of the eradicating of the disease. In order to eradicating the disease,medical resources construction should be strengthened,and prompt and superior medical service should be provided.

  20. EPIDEMIA DE PINTA-PRETA DA BATATA E COMPARAÇÃO DE MÉTODOS PARA DETERMINAR O INÍCIO DOS SINTOMAS DA DOENÇA NA CULTURA DE BATATA EM CAMPO POTATO EARLY BLIGHT EPIDEMICS AND COMPARISON OF METHODS TO DETERMINE ITS INITIAL SYMPTOMS IN A POTATO FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Orlando Campo Arana

    2007-12-01

    field experiments during 2000 to 2002 crop seasons under Viçosa, Minas Gerais state growing conditions. Through a disease severity gradient method, used four different dosages of fungicide chloratalonil were obtained four epidemic levels with severity range of D1 (maximum, plot without fungicide treatment, to D4 (minimum, plot with fully dosage fungicide commercial recommended, were obtained, which allowed for comparison of the epidemic effect on plant growth and tuber yield, and indicated the time for initiating of the first early blight (Alternaria solani lesions on potato foliage The disease was predicted by using the methods based either degree days (DD with base temperature of 7ºC and physiological days (PD having minimum, optimum and maximum temperature of 7, 21 and 30ºC, respectively, accumulated during the period between planting and the first symptom appearance. Plots with higher disease levels along the gradient had significantly loss tuber yield in all trials. The highest yield reduction of 49,6; 52,7 and 58,2% occurred in D1, plots without fungicide treatment, during the years 2000, 2001 and 2002, respectively. The epidemic prediction through accumulated DD or PD did not indicate the appropriate time to initiate the epidemic control. However, the PD method that predicted the first symptoms between 240 and 333 accumulated PDs was found to be more adequate. The data revealed that green leaf area and tuber yield reduction caused by the early blight is dependent upon the disease severity. Compared to the others, the PD method appears to be most suitable to determine when the disease will establish, and thus can be recommended to initiate the disease management at 250 accumulated PDs, under disease-favorable climatic conditions.

  1. Epidemics of mold poisoning past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggs, William J

    2009-01-01

    Molds are ubiquitous throughout the biosphere of planet earth and cause infectious, allergic, and toxic diseases. Toxic diseases arise from exposure to mycotoxins produced by molds. Throughout history, there have been a number of toxic epidemics associated with exposure to mycotoxins. Acute epidemics of ergotism are caused by consumption of grain infested by fungi of the genus Claviceps, which produce the bioactive amine ergotamine that mimics the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine. Acute aflatoxin outbreaks have occurred from ingestion of corn stored in damp conditions that potentiate growth of the molds of the species Aspergillus. Contemporary construction methods that use cellulose substrates such as fiber board and indoor moisture have caused an outbreak of contaminated buildings with Stachybotrys chartarum, with the extent of health effects still a subject of debate and ongoing research. This article reviews several of the more prominent epidemics and discusses the nature of the toxins. Two diseases that were leading causes of childhood mortality in England in the 1970s and vanished with changing dietary habits, putrid malignant fever, and slow nervous fever were most likely toxic mold epidemics.

  2. Impacts of parasites in early life: contrasting effects on juvenile growth for different family members

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control might predispose young to respond to infection in different ways. Here we show that parasites can have different consequences for offspring depending on their position in the family hierarchy. We exp...

  3. Roles for Transforming Growth Factor Beta Superfamily Proteins in Early Folliculogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Primordial follicle formation and the subsequent transition of follicles to the primary and secondary stages encompass the early events during folliculogenesis in mammals. These processes establish the ovarian follicle pool and prime follicles for entry into subsequent growth phases during the reproductive cycle. Perturbations during follicle formation can affect the size of the primordial follicle pool significantly, and alterations in follicle transition can cause follicles to arrest at imm...

  4. Atomic Aggregation Processes in the Early Stages of Pt/Pt(111) Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Guo-Ce; ZHU Xiao-Bin; WANG Wei

    2000-01-01

    The atomic aggregation processes in the early stages of Pt/Pt(111) growth are studied by using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that the average neighbor coordination number of the atoms in a cluster is a function of temperature, agreeing well with the experiment observations of scanning tunneling microscopy. The influence of diffusion barriers of various atomic processes on the morphology of islands is also studied. Different morphologies of the islands (dendritic, fractal, or compact islands) are found.

  5. In vitro zygotic embryo culture of Pinus peuce Gris.: Optimization of culture conditions affecting germination and early seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojičić Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports a protocol for the germination and early seedling growth of Pinus peuce Gris. using zygotic embryo culture. In order to overcome seed dormancy and optimize organogenesis, the effect of nutritional, plant growth regulatory and physical factors on in vitro germination and growth of isolated mature zygotic embryos of P. peuce were investigated.

  6. Profiling of Burkholderia cepacia secretome at mid-logarithmic and early-stationary phases of growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha Mariappan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burkholderia cepacia is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes serious respiratory infections in immunocompromised patients and individuals with cystic fibrosis. This bacterium is known to release extracellular proteins that may be involved in virulence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, B. cepacia grown to mid-logarithmic and early-stationary phases were investigated on their ability to invade and survive intracellularly in A549 lung epithelial cells in order to discern the fate of these bacteria in the pathogenesis of B. cepacia lung infections in in vitro condition. The early-stationary phase B. cepacia was demonstrated to be more invasive than mid-logarithmic phase. In addition, culture supernatants of B. cepacia obtained from these phases of growth were also demonstrated to cause different cytotoxic potency on the A549 human lung epithelial cells. Profiling of the supernatants using the gel-based proteomics approach identified 43 proteins that were commonly released in both the growth phases and 40 proteins newly-released at the early-stationary phase. The latter proteins may account for the higher cytotoxic activity of the early-stationary culture supernatant compared to that obtained at the mid-logarithmic phase. Among the newly-released proteins in the early-stationary phase supernatant were flagellar hook-associated domain protein (FliD, flagellar hook-associated protein (FlgK, TonB-dependent siderophore (Fiu, Elongation factor G (FusA, phosphoglycerate kinase (Pgk and sulfatase (AslA which are known for their virulence. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Differences in the ability of B. cepacia to invade and survive intracellularly inside the epithelial cells at different phases of growth may improve our understanding of the varied disease progressions associated with B. cepacia infections. In addition, the identified culture supernatant proteins may be used as targets for the development of new strategies to

  7. Influence of biostimulators on germination parameters and early growth of sunflower seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinov Zlatica J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine the influence of biostimulators, with or without the use of fungicides, on seed quality parameters and early growth of sunflower seedling. Testing was conducted at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad on cytoplasmic male sterile sunflower line HA-26-PR. The experiment included six treatments: Slavol S (25%, Slavol S (25% + fungicide (a.m. metalaxyl-M, Bioplant Flora (2%, Bioplant Flora (2% + fungicide (a.m. metalaxyl-M, Slavol S (25% + Bioplant Flora (2%, Slavol S (25% + Bioplant Flora (2% + fungicide (a. m. metalaxyl-M and control. Results of the research showed that treating the seed with biostimulators prior to sowing has a significant influence on seed germination parameters and early growth of sunflower seedling. The individual application of fertilizers, with or without the use of fungicide, gave a positive effect, while their combination led to a negative effect. The individual application of fertilizers, with or without combination with fungicide, may increase germination energy by 5%, germinability by 6%, but may also reduce the time of seed germination. Likewise, their use has a positive effect on early growth of sunflower seedling. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31025: Razvoj novih sorti i poboljšanja novih tehnologija proizvodnje uljanih biljnih vrsta za različite namene

  8. Early growth patterns are associated with intelligence quotient scores in children born small-for-gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Marcia H; Moss, William J

    2015-08-01

    To assess whether patterns of growth trajectory during infancy are associated with intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 4 years of age in children born small-for-gestational age (SGA). Children in the Collaborative Perinatal Project born SGA were eligible for analysis. The primary outcome was the Stanford-Binet IQ score at 4 years of age. Growth patterns were defined based on changes in weight-for-age z-scores from birth to 4 months and 4 to 12 months of age and consisted of steady, early catch-up, late catch-up, constant catch-up, early catch-down, late catch-down, constant catch-down, early catch-up & late catch-down, and early catch-down & late catch-up. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess associations between patterns of growth and IQ. We evaluated patterns of growth and IQ in 5640 children. Compared with children with steady growth, IQ scores were 2.9 [standard deviation (SD)=0.54], 1.5 (SD=0.63), and 2.2 (SD=0.9) higher in children with early catch-up, early catch-up and later catch-down, and constant catch-up growth patterns, respectively, and 4.4 (SD=1.4) and 3.9 (SD=1.5) lower in children with early catch-down & late catch-up, and early catch-down growth patterns, respectively. Patterns in weight gain before 4 months of age were associated with differences in IQ scores at 4 years of age, with children with early catch-up having slightly higher IQ scores than children with steady growth and children with early catch-down having slightly lower IQ scores. These findings have implications for early infant nutrition in children born SGA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Early Weight Gain, Linear Growth, and Mid-Childhood Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perng, Wei; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kramer, Michael S;

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension increased markedly among children and adolescents, highlighting the importance of identifying determinants of elevated blood pressure early in life. Low birth weight and rapid early childhood weight gain are associated with higher...... future blood pressure. However, few studies have examined the timing of postnatal weight gain in relation to later blood pressure, and little is known regarding the contribution of linear growth. We studied 957 participants in Project Viva, an ongoing US prebirth cohort. We examined the relations...... of gains in body mass index z-score and length/height z-score during 4 early life age intervals (birth to 6 months, 6 months to 1 year, 1 to 2 years, and 2 to 3 years) with blood pressure during mid-childhood (6-10 years) and evaluated whether these relations differed by birth size. After accounting...

  10. Seed priming improves early seedling vigor, growth and productivity of spring maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hafeez ur Rehman[1; Hassan lqbal[1; Shahzad M A Basra[1; Irfan Afzal[1; Muhammad Farooq[2; Abdul Wakeel[3; WANG Ning[4

    2015-01-01

    Potential of seed priming treatments in improving the performance of early planted maize was evaluated against timely planting. Seeds of maize hybrid FH-810 were soaked in water (hydropriming), CaCI2 (2.2%, osmopriming), moringa leaf extracts (MLE 3.3%, osmopriming) and salicylic acid (SA, 50 mg L-1, hormonal priming) each for 18 h. Untreated and hydroprimed seeds were taken as control. Seeds primed with SA took less time in emergence and had high vigor in eady planted maize. Amongst treatments, hormonal priming, reduced the electrical conductivity, increased the leaf relative and chlorophyll contents followed by osmopriming with CaCI2 at seedling stage. Likewise, plant height, grain rows and 1 000-grain weight, grain and biological yield and harvest index were also improved by seed pdming; however hormonal priming and osmopriming with MLE were more effective in this regard. Improved yield performance by hormonal priming or osmopriming with MLE in early planting primarily owed to increased leaf area index, crop growth and net assimilation rates, and maintenance of green leaf area at maturity. In conclusion, osmopriming with MLE and hormonal priming with SA were the most economical treatments in improving productivity of early planted spring maize through stimulation of early seedling growth at low temperature.

  11. Early Arabidopsis root hair growth stimulation by pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecenková, Tamara; Janda, Martin; Ortmannová, Jitka; Hajná, Vladimíra; Stehlíková, Zuzana; Žárský, Viktor

    2017-09-01

    Selected beneficial Pseudomonas spp. strains have the ability to influence root architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana by inhibiting primary root elongation and promoting lateral root and root hair formation. A crucial role for auxin in this long-term (1week), long-distance plant-microbe interaction has been demonstrated. Arabidopsis seedlings were cultivated in vitro on vertical plates and inoculated with pathogenic strains Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) and P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst), as well as Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Atu) and Escherichia coli (Eco). Root hair lengths were measured after 24 and 48h of direct exposure to each bacterial strain. Several Arabidopsis mutants with impaired responses to pathogens, impaired ethylene perception and defects in the exocyst vesicle tethering complex that is involved in secretion were also analysed. Arabidopsis seedling roots infected with Psm or Pst responded similarly to when infected with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria; root hair growth was stimulated and primary root growth was inhibited. Other plant- and soil-adapted bacteria induced similar root hair responses. The most compromised root hair growth stimulation response was found for the knockout mutants exo70A1 and ein2. The single immune pathways dependent on salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and PAD4 are not directly involved in root hair growth stimulation; however, in the mutual cross-talk with ethylene, they indirectly modify the extent of the stimulation of root hair growth. The Flg22 peptide does not initiate root hair stimulation as intact bacteria do, but pretreatment with Flg22 prior to Psm inoculation abolished root hair growth stimulation in an FLS2 receptor kinase-dependent manner. These early response phenomena are not associated with changes in auxin levels, as monitored with the pDR5::GUS auxin reporter. Early stimulation of root hair growth is an effect of an unidentified component of living plant pathogenic bacteria. The root

  12. QTLs Analysis of Cold Tolerance During Early Growth Period for Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiu-ying; HAN Long-zhi; XU Shi-ping; QIAO Yong-li; LIAO Yao-ping; CAO Gui-lan; MAO Xing-xue; ZHANG Yuan-yuan; WENG Ke-nan; AN Yong-ping; CHEN Zhao-ming; YE Jong-doo; CHEN Yue-han; KOH Hee-jong; XIAO Wan-sheng

    2004-01-01

    The quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for cold tolerance during early growth period were identified using a F2:3 population microsatellite markers. The cold tolerance at the seedling and tillering stages, and the growth ability of seedling under low temperature conditions were evaluated. All of the traits associated with cold tolerance at early growth stages appeared a continuous distribution near to normal in F3 lines, these were inherited as quantitative traits controlled by polygenes. Three QTLs on chromosomes 1, 5 and 9, which associated with cold tolerance at the seedling stage were detected. Among them, qCTS1accounted for 15.5% of observed phenotypic variation; Five QTLs on chromosomes 2, 3, 7, 9 and 11, associated with cold tolerance at the tillering stage were found, which explained lower percentage of observed phenotypic variation; Four QTLs on chromosomes 1,2, 11 and 12, which associated with the growth ability of seedling under low temperature conditions were found, among them,qGAS2 and qGAS12 explained 26.6 and 42.9% of observed phenotypic variation, respectively, which were major genes.

  13. Early growth dynamical implications for the steerability of stratospheric solar radiation management via sulfur aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benduhn, François; Schallock, Jennifer; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2016-09-01

    Aerosol growth dynamics may have implications for the steerability of stratospheric solar radiation management via sulfur particles. This paper derives a set of critical initial growth conditions that are analyzed as a function of two key parameters: the initial concentration of the injected sulfuric acid and its dilution rate with the surrounding air. Based upon this analysis, early aerosol growth dynamical regimes may be defined and classified in terms of their likelihood to serve as candidates for the controlled generation of a radiatively effective aerosol. Our results indicate that the regime that fulfills all critical conditions would require that airplane turbines be used to provide sufficient turbulence. The regime's parameter space is narrow and related to steep gradients, thus pointing to potential fine tuning requirements. More research, development, and testing would be required to refine our findings and determine their global-scale implications.

  14. Growth performance of early-weaned pigs is enhanced by feeding epidermal growth factor-expressing Lactococcus lactis fermentation product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Andrea; Huynh, Evanna; Fu, Molei; Zhu, Cuilan; Wey, Doug; de Lange, Cornelis; Li, Julang

    2014-03-10

    We have previously generated epidermal growth factor expressing Lactococcus lactis (EGF-LL) using bioengineering approach, and shown that feeding newly-weaned piglets EGF-LL improves digestive function. To address concerns over the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO), the objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of feeding the EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of the genetically modified EGF-LL, on growth performance and intestine development of newly-weaned piglets. One hundred and twenty newly-weaned piglets were fed ad libitum according to a 2-phase feeding program. Four pens were assigned to each of three treatments: (1) complete EGF-LL fermentation product (Ferm), (2) supernatant of EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of EGF-LL (Supern), or (3) blank M17GE media (Control). EGF-LL or its fermented supernatant was administrated to piglets in the first 3 weeks post-weaning; their growth performance was monitored throughout treatment, and for the following week. Daily body weight gain (254.8g vs. 200.5g) and Gain:Feed (0.541kg/kg vs. 0.454kg/kg) of pigs on the Supern group were significantly improved compared to that of Control, although no difference was observed between the Ferm and Control pigs. Intestinal sucrase activity was increased in Supern- compared to Control group (166.3±62.1 vs. 81.4±56.5nmol glucose released/mg protein; PGMO-free EGF-LL fermentation product is effective in increasing growth performance of early-weaned piglets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Temporal Dynamics of Connectivity and Epidemic Properties of Growing Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Fotouhi, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Traditional mathematical models of epidemic disease had for decades conventionally considered static structure for contacts. Recently, an upsurge of theoretical inquiry has strived towards rendering the models more realistic by incorporating the temporal aspects of networks of contacts, societal and online, that are of interest in the study of epidemics (and other similar diffusion processes). However, temporal dynamics have predominantly focused on link fluctuations and nodal activities, and less attention has been paid to the growth of the underlying network. Many real networks grow: online networks are evidently in constant growth, and societal networks can grow due to migration flux and reproduction. The effect of network growth on the epidemic properties of networks is hitherto unknown---mainly due to the predominant focus of the network growth literature on the so-called steady-state. This paper takes a step towards alleviating this gap. We analytically study the degree dynamics of a given arbitrary net...

  16. Addressing the "Epidemic" of Overweight Children by Using the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mick; Wallinga, Charlotte; Bales, Diane

    2009-01-01

    The Internet can be of great assistance to early childhood teachers in planning educational activities for the classroom and with families. This article explores how early childhood teachers can use resources online to address what has been called an "epidemic" of overweight children. Guidelines for using online resources are presented. (Contains…

  17. [Cholera++ epidemic in Kenya].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paugam, H

    1999-03-01

    A cholera epidemic in 1997 followed on the heels of the 1992 epidemic that claimed thousands of victims in Kenya. This time, it emerged in the Migori district near the Tanzanian border, when a woman who had married in Tanzania brought her five-month-old baby to visit her parents. The infant, who contracted serious diarrhea and vomiting, died before the mother could reach a dispensary. During the funeral, a perfect opportunity for the disease to spread, those attending observed the traditional ritual of touching the corpse, and then ate and drank with the next of kin. Many developed symptoms of cholera, and several died in the next few days, even before first aid could be administered. At the Public Health Laboratory in Nairobi, analyses confirmed the presence of the Ogawa strain of Vibrio cholerae. Given the global reputation of Médecins Sans Frontières [Doctors Without Borders] in the field of cholera, the head of public health for Homa Bay District issued a call for help in August 1997, asking the team to provide preventive solutions and assess the gravity of the situation. Despite intense logistical, technical and health initiatives, the epidemic spread like wildfire. Five months after the initial outbreak, in February 1998, two Canadian nurses working for MSF in Homa Bay hurriedly surveyed the situation in Nyanza Province, which has a population of three million. The author accompanied one of these nurses, Joceline Roy, a Quebecer in her forties, on a tour that lasted more than 15 hours. Roy worked conscientiously, with great precision and energy. This narrative conveys much more than the fatigue and hazards of travel in the developing world; it tells the story of an important, but little publicized, aspect of nursing.

  18. Net mineral requirements for growth of Saanen goat kids in early life are similar among genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, A N; Härter, C J; Souza, S F; Oliveira, D; Boaventura Neto, O; Biagioli, B; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A

    2017-02-01

    The current mineral requirements for growing goat kids are based on sheep and cattle studies without differentiating between the stages of development or gender. The aims of this study were to determine the net requirements for growth of Ca, P, Mg, Na and K of Saanen goat kids during the initial stages of growth and to analyse the effect of gender on the net requirements for growth of these macrominerals. Eighteen female, 19 intact male and 10 castrated male Saanen goat kids were studied. The kids were selected applying a completely randomized design and slaughtered when their body weight (BW) reached approximately 5, 10 and 15 kg to determine the mineral requirements for growth at these stages. The net mineral requirements for growth were similar among genders. The goat kids had slightly increased net requirements of Ca, P and Mg for growth with increasing BW from 5 to 15 kg. The net requirements for growth of Ca, P, Mg, Na and K ranged from 9.61 to 9.67 g/kg of BW gain, 7.14 to 7.56 g/kg of BW gain, 0.34 to 0.37 g/kg of BW gain, 1.26 to 1.13 g/kg of BW gain, 1.88 to 1.82 g/kg of BW gain as the animals grew from 5 to 15 kg respectively. In conclusion, when formulating diets for Saanen goat kids in early growth stage mineral levels do not need to adjusted based on gender. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Effects of glucocorticoid treatment given in early or late gestation on growth and development in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Sloboda, D M; Moss, T J M; Nitsos, I; Polglase, G R; Doherty, D A; Newnham, J P; Challis, J R G; Braun, T

    2013-04-01

    Antenatal corticosteroids are used to augment fetal lung maturity in human pregnancy. Dexamethasone (DEX) is also used to treat congenital adrenal hyperplasia of the fetus in early pregnancy. We previously reported effects of synthetic corticosteroids given to sheep in early or late gestation on pregnancy length and fetal cortisol levels and glucocorticoids alter plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) concentrations in late pregnancy and reduce fetal weight. The effects of administering DEX in early pregnancy on fetal organ weights and betamethasone (BET) given in late gestation on weights of fetal brain regions or organ development have not been reported. We hypothesized that BET or DEX administration at either stage of pregnancy would have deleterious effects on fetal development and associated hormones. In early pregnancy, DEX was administered as four injections at 12-hourly intervals over 48 h commencing at 40-42 days of gestation (dG). There was no consistent effect on fetal weight, or individual fetal organ weights, except in females at 7 months postnatal age. When BET was administered at 104, 111 and 118 dG, the previously reported reduction in total fetal weight was associated with significant reductions in weights of fetal brain, cerebellum, heart, kidney and liver. Fetal plasma insulin, leptin and triiodothyronine were also reduced at different times in fetal and postnatal life. We conclude that at the amounts given, the sheep fetus is sensitive to maternal administration of synthetic glucocorticoid in late gestation, with effects on growth and metabolic hormones that may persist into postnatal life.

  20. Extent of Spine Deformity Predicts Lung Growth and Function in Rabbit Model of Early Onset Scoliosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Casey Olson

    Full Text Available Early onset deformity of the spine and chest wall (initiated <8 years of age is associated with increased morbidity at adulthood relative to adolescent onset deformity of comparable severity. Presumably, inhibition of thoracic growth during late stage alveolarization leads to an irreversible loss of pulmonary growth and thoracic function; however the natural history of this disease from onset to adulthood has not been well characterized. In this study we establish a rabbit model of early onset scoliosis to establish the extent that thoracic deformity affects structural and functional respiratory development. Using a surgical right unilateral rib-tethering procedure, rib fusion with early onset scoliosis was induced in 10 young New Zealand white rabbits (3 weeks old. Progression of spine deformity, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, and lung mass was tracked through longitudinal breath-hold computed tomography imaging up to skeletal maturity (28 weeks old. Additionally at maturity forced vital capacity and regional specific volume were calculated as functional measurements and histo-morphometry performed with the radial alveolar count as a measure of acinar complexity. Data from tethered rib rabbits were compared to age matched healthy control rabbits (N = 8. Results show unilateral rib-tethering created a progressive spinal deformity ranging from 30° to 120° curvature, the severity of which was strongly associated with pulmonary growth and functional outcomes. At maturity rabbits with deformity greater than the median (55° had decreased body weight (89%, right (59% and left (86% lung mass, right (74% and left (69% radial alveolar count, right lung volume at total lung capacity (60%, and forced vital capacity (75%. Early treatment of spinal deformity in children may prevent pulmonary complications in adulthood and these results provide a basis for the prediction of pulmonary development from thoracic structure. This model may

  1. Physiological and morphological changes during early and later stages of fruit growth in Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Aparna; Vivian-Smith, Adam; Ljung, Karin; Offringa, Remko; Heuvelink, Ep

    2013-03-01

    Fruit-set involves a series of physiological and morphological changes that are well described for tomato and Arabidopsis, but largely unknown for sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum). The aim of this paper is to investigate whether mechanisms of fruit-set observed in Arabidopsis and tomato are also applicable to C. annuum. To do this, we accurately timed the physiological and morphological changes in a post-pollinated and un-pollinated ovary. A vascular connection between ovule and replum was observed in fertilized ovaries that undergo fruit development, and this connection was absent in unfertilized ovaries that abort. This indicates that vascular connection between ovule and replum is an early indicator for successful fruit development after pollination and fertilization. Evaluation of histological changes in the carpel of a fertilized and unfertilized ovary indicated that increase in cell number and cell diameter both contribute to early fruit growth. Cell division contributes more during early fruit growth while cell expansion contributes more at later stages of fruit growth in C. annuum. The simultaneous occurrence of a peak in auxin concentration and a strong increase in cell diameter in the carpel of seeded fruits suggest that indole-3-acetic acid stimulates a major increase in cell diameter at later stages of fruit growth. The series of physiological and morphological events observed during fruit-set in C. annuum are similar to what has been reported for tomato and Arabidopsis. This indicates that tomato and Arabidopsis are suitable model plants to understand details of fruit-set mechanisms in C. annuum.

  2. Understanding the epidemic of HIV in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth rate and probable asymptotic prevalence of HIV among women attending ... intrinsic growth rate of the epidemic in different provinces and the ..... A pharma meta-anal. Fran'rois W. Osman Eb. Objectives assess the antibiotic ... treatment assumptio. Outcome. Franyois. Anderson. A Nixon A. Roche Pr. Osman E.

  3. Plant species differ in early seedling growth and tissue nutrient responses to arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holste, Ellen K; Kobe, Richard K; Gehring, Catherine A

    2017-04-01

    Experiments with plant species that can host both arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) are important to separating the roles of fungal type and plant species and understanding the influence of the types of symbioses on plant growth and nutrient acquisition. We examined the effects of mycorrhizal fungal type on the growth and tissue nutrient content of two tree species (Eucalyptus grandis and Quercus costaricensis) grown under four nutrient treatments (combinations of low versus high nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) with different N:P ratios) in the greenhouse. Trees were inoculated with unidentified field mixtures of AMF or EMF species cultivated on root fragments of AMF- or EMF-specific bait plants. In E. grandis, inoculation with both AMF and EMF positively affected belowground plant dry weight and negatively affected aboveground dry weight, while only inoculation with AMF increased tissue nutrient content. Conversely, Q. costaricensis dry weight and nutrient content did not differ significantly among inoculation treatments, potentially due to its dependence on cotyledon reserves for growth. Mineral nutrition of both tree species differed with the ratio of N to P applied while growth did not. Our results demonstrate that both tree species' characteristics and the soil nutrient environment can affect how AMF and EMF interact with their host plants. This research highlights the importance of mycorrhizal fungal-tree-soil interactions during early seedling growth and suggests that differences between AMF and EMF associations may be crucial to understanding forest ecosystem functioning.

  4. Early growth and development impairments in patients with ganglioside GM3 synthase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Wang, A; Wang, D; Bright, A; Sency, V; Zhou, A; Xin, B

    2016-05-01

    Ganglioside GM3 synthase is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of gangliosides. GM3 synthase deficiency (GSD) causes a complete absence of GM3 and all downstream biosynthetic derivatives. The individuals affected by this disorder manifest severe irritability, intractable seizures and profound intellectual disability. However, we have found that most newborns seem symptom-free for a period of time after birth. In order to further understand the onset of the disease, we investigated the early growth and development of patients with this condition through this study. We compared 37 affected individuals with their normal siblings and revealed that all children with GSD had relatively normal intrauterine growth and development, as their weight, length and head circumference were similar to their normal siblings at birth. However, the disease progresses quickly after birth and causes significant constitutional impairments of growth and development by 6 months of age. Neither breastfeeding nor gastrostomy tube placement made significant difference on growth and development as all groups of patients showed the similar pattern. We conclude that GSD causes significant postnatal growth and developmental impairments and the amount of gangliosides in breast milk and general nutritional intervention do not seem to alter these outcomes.

  5. Phylodynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatorre, Edson; Bello, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba displayed a complex molecular epidemiologic profile with circulation of several subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF); but the evolutionary and population history of those viral variants remains unknown. HIV-1 pol sequences of the most prevalent Cuban lineages (subtypes B, C and G, CRF18_cpx, CRF19_cpx, and CRFs20/23/24_BG) isolated between 1999 and 2011 were analyzed. Maximum-likelihood analyses revealed multiple introductions of subtype B (n≥66), subtype C (n≥10), subtype G (n≥8) and CRF18_cpx (n≥2) viruses in Cuba. The bulk of HIV-1 infections in this country, however, was caused by dissemination of a few founder strains probably introduced from North America/Europe (clades B(CU-I) and B(CU-II)), east Africa (clade C(CU-I)) and central Africa (clades G(CU), CRF18(CU) and CRF19(CU)), or locally generated (clades CRFs20/23/24_BG). Bayesian-coalescent analyses show that the major HIV-1 founder strains were introduced into Cuba during 1985-1995; whereas the CRFs_BG strains emerged in the second half of the 1990s. Most HIV-1 Cuban clades appear to have experienced an initial period of fast exponential spread during the 1990s and early 2000s, followed by a more recent decline in growth rate. The median initial growth rate of HIV-1 Cuban clades ranged from 0.4 year⁻¹ to 1.6 year⁻¹. Thus, the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba has been a result of the successful introduction of a few viral strains that began to circulate at a rather late time of the AIDS pandemic, but then were rapidly disseminated through local transmission networks.

  6. Phylodynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Delatorre

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba displayed a complex molecular epidemiologic profile with circulation of several subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF; but the evolutionary and population history of those viral variants remains unknown. HIV-1 pol sequences of the most prevalent Cuban lineages (subtypes B, C and G, CRF18_cpx, CRF19_cpx, and CRFs20/23/24_BG isolated between 1999 and 2011 were analyzed. Maximum-likelihood analyses revealed multiple introductions of subtype B (n≥66, subtype C (n≥10, subtype G (n≥8 and CRF18_cpx (n≥2 viruses in Cuba. The bulk of HIV-1 infections in this country, however, was caused by dissemination of a few founder strains probably introduced from North America/Europe (clades B(CU-I and B(CU-II, east Africa (clade C(CU-I and central Africa (clades G(CU, CRF18(CU and CRF19(CU, or locally generated (clades CRFs20/23/24_BG. Bayesian-coalescent analyses show that the major HIV-1 founder strains were introduced into Cuba during 1985-1995; whereas the CRFs_BG strains emerged in the second half of the 1990s. Most HIV-1 Cuban clades appear to have experienced an initial period of fast exponential spread during the 1990s and early 2000s, followed by a more recent decline in growth rate. The median initial growth rate of HIV-1 Cuban clades ranged from 0.4 year⁻¹ to 1.6 year⁻¹. Thus, the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba has been a result of the successful introduction of a few viral strains that began to circulate at a rather late time of the AIDS pandemic, but then were rapidly disseminated through local transmission networks.

  7. The evolution of oceanic 87Sr/86Sr does not rule out early continental growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, N.; Coltice, N.; Rey, P. F.

    2010-12-01

    Many contrasted continental growth models have been proposed to date, in which the amount of continental material extracted from the mantle at 3.8 Ga ranges between 0% (e.g. Taylor and McLennan, 1985) and 100% (e.g. Armstrong, 1981). One of the arguments in favor of delayed continental growth models is the shift in the 87Sr/86Sr of marine carbonates from mantle composition at ~ 2.8 Ga (Shields and Veizer, 2002). When using oceanic 87Sr/86Sr as a proxy of continental growth, the flux of strontium from the continents to the oceans is assumed to depend only on continental area and both continental hypsometry and continental freeboard are assumed to be constant through time. However, Rey and Coltice (2008) suggested that Archean reliefs were lower than present-day ones and Flament et al. (2008) suggested that the emerged land area is not proportional to continental growth. Therefore, the suitability of 87Sr/86Sr as a proxy of continental growth must be re-assessed. In this contribution, we develop an integrated model, from the mantle to the surface, to investigate the effect of contrasted continental growth models on the evolution of sea level, of the area of emerged land, and of oceanic 87Sr/86Sr. We estimate the evolution of mantle temperature using the model of Labrosse and Jaupart (2007) that takes the effect of continental growth into account. The maximum continental elevation is calculated using the results of Rey and Coltice (2008), sea level and the area of emerged land are calculated as in Flament et al. (2008), and the oceanic 87Sr/86Sr is calculated in a geochemical box model. We calculate Archean sea levels ~ 800 m higher than present for delayed continental growth and ~ 1500 m higher for early continental growth. In contrast, we calculate similar Archean areas of emerged land, of less than 5% of the Earth’s surface, for both early and delayed continental growth models. Because the area of emerged land does not depend on continental growth models, the

  8. Effects of early vitamin D deficiency rickets on bone and dental health, growth and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerofsky, Melissa; Ryder, Mark; Bhatia, Suruchi; Stephensen, Charles B; King, Janet; Fung, Ellen B

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with adverse health outcomes, including impaired bone growth, gingival inflammation and increased risk for autoimmune disease, but the relationship between vitamin D deficiency rickets in childhood and long-term health has not been studied. In this study, we assessed the effect of early vitamin D deficiency on growth, bone density, dental health and immune function in later childhood to determine if children previously diagnosed with rickets were at greater risk of adverse health outcomes compared with healthy children. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, parathyroid hormone, bone mineral density, anthropometric measures, dietary habits, dental health, general health history, and markers of inflammation in 14 previously diagnosed rickets case children at Children's Hospital Oakland Research Center. We compared the findings in the rickets cases with 11 healthy children selected from the population of CHO staff families. Fourteen mothers of the rickets cases, five siblings of the rickets cases, and seven mothers of healthy children also participated. Children diagnosed with vitamin D deficiency rickets had a greater risk of fracture, greater prevalence of asthma, and more dental enamel defects compared with healthy children. Given the widespread actions of vitamin D, it is likely that early-life vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of disease later in childhood. Further assessment of the long-term health effects of early deficiency is necessary to make appropriate dietary recommendations for infants at risk of deficiency.

  9. Early vs. asymptotic growth responses of herbaceous plants to elevated CO[sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S.C.; Jasienski, M.; Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology)

    1999-07-01

    Although many studies have examined the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on plant growth,'' the dynamics of growth involve at least two parameters, namely, an early rate of exponential size increase and an asymptotic size reached late in plant ontogeny. The common practice of quantifying CO[sub 2] responses as a single response ratio thus obscures two qualitatively distinct kinds of effects. The present experiment examines effects of elevated CO[sub 2] on both early and asymptotic growth parameters in eight C[sub 3] herbaceous plant species (Abutilon theophrasti, Cassia obtusifolia, Plantago major, Rumex crispus, Taraxacum officinale, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium multiflorum, and Panicum dichotomoflorum). Plants were grown for 118--172 d in a factorial design of CO[sub 2] (350 and 700 [micro]L/L) and plant density (individually grown vs. high-density monocultures) under edaphic conditions approximating those of coastal areas in Massachusetts. For Abutilon theophrasti, intraspecific patterns of plant response were also assessed using eight genotypes randomly sampled from a natural population and propagated as inbred lines.

  10. Continental emergence in the Late Archean reconciles early and late continental growth models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, Nicolas; Coltice, Nicolas; Rey, Patrice

    2014-05-01

    The analysis of ancient sediments (Rare Earth Element composition of black shales, isotopic strontium composition of marine carbonates, isotopic oxygen composition of zircons) suggests that continental growth culminated around the Archean-Proterozoic transition. In stark contrast, the geochemical analysis of ancient basalts suggests that depletion of the mantle occurred in the Hadean and Eoarchean. This paradox may be solved if continents were extracted from the mantle early in Earth's history, but remained mostly below sea level throughout the Archean. We present a model to estimate the area of emerged land and associated isotopic strontium composition of the mantle and oceans as a function of the coupled evolution of mantle temperature, continental growth and distribution of surface elevations (hypsometry). For constant continental hypsometry and four distinct continental growth models, we show that sea level was between 500 and 2000 m higher in the Archean than at present, resulting in isotopic composition of the mantle and oceans, we show that a reduced area of emerged continental crust can explain why the geochemical fingerprint of continents extracted early in Earth's history was not recorded at the surface of the Earth until the late Archean.

  11. Calcium Addition Affects Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Sweet Sorghum under Saline Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to determine the interactive effects of supple- mental Ca amendment and salinity on germination of sweet sorghum seeds in saline solution culture medium, and investigate the effects of different combinations of Na/Ca ratio in saline soils on the early growth of sweet sorghum plants. [Method] A germi- nation test and a greenhouse pot experiment were conducted to assess the interac- tive effects of calcium addition to culture medium on the germination and seedling growth of sweet sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum Moench) in saline soils with a range of NaYCa ratios. In the germination test, seeds were treated with different combinations of five calcium levels [0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mmol/L Ca(NO3)2] and five salinity levels (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mmol/L NaCI). In the greenhouse experi- ment, seeds were sown in potting soils containing 3 salinity levels (2.3, 4.7 and 7.0 dS/m) and three Na:Ca ratios (10:0, 10:1, and 5:1). [Result] In the germination test, Ca addition at 5 mmol/L promoted germination by 5.5%, 9.9%, and 17.0% at the 3.4, 6.7 and 10.1 dS/m salinity levels. The higher Ca level (10 mmol/L) also in- creased germination by 9.1% and 7.8% at the 3.4 and 6.7 dS/m salinity levels. Then even higher Ca addition at 15 and 20 mmol/L appeared to promote germina- tion when culture media had high salinity (10.1 and 13.4 dS/m). In the greenhouse pot experiment, saline soil amended with supplemental Ca at the 2.3 and 4.7 dS/m salinity levels significantly promoted early seedling growth, with an increase of 6.8% to 28.2% in plant height and 14.3% to 67.9% in whole plant weight. From 28 to 42 d after seeding, the relative growth of seedling was increased by Ca addition, with a reduction of 49.5% to 66.0% in plant height and 4.8% to 61.9% in whole plant weight. From 42 to 56 d after seeding, however, the relative growth of seedling was significantly inhibited by Ca amendment. [Conclusion] Results of this study indicate that appropriate supplemental

  12. Historical Epidemics Cartography Generated by Spatial Analysis: Mapping the Heterogeneity of Three Medieval "Plagues" in Dijon: e0143866

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pierre Galanaud; Anne Galanaud; Patrick Giraudoux

    2015-01-01

    .... We mapped "plague" deaths during three epidemics of the early 15th century, analyzed spatial distributions by applying the Kulldorff's method, and determined their relationships with the distribution...

  13. The Not-so-Dark Ages: ecology for human growth in medieval and early twentieth century Portugal as inferred from skeletal growth profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Garcia, Susana

    2009-02-01

    This study attempts to address the issue of relative living standards in Portuguese medieval and early 20th century periods. Since the growth of children provides a good measure of environmental quality for the overall population, the skeletal growth profiles of medieval Leiria and early 20th century Lisbon were compared. Results show that growth in femur length of medieval children did not differ significantly from that of early 20th century children, but after puberty medieval adolescents seem to have recovered, as they have significantly longer femora as adults. This is suggestive of greater potential for catch-up growth in medieval adolescents. We suggest that this results from distinct child labor practices, which impact differentially on the growth of Leiria and Lisbon adolescents. Work for medieval children and adolescents were related to family activities, and care and attention were provided by family members. Conversely, in early 20th century Lisbon children were more often sent to factories at around 12 years of age as an extra source of family income, where they were exploited for their labor. Since medieval and early 20th century children were stunted at an early age, greater potential for catch-up growth in medieval adolescents results from exhausting work being added to modern adolescent's burdens of disease and poor diet, when they entered the labor market. Although early 20th century Lisbon did not differ in overall unfavorable living conditions from medieval Leiria, after puberty different child labor practices may have placed modern adolescents at greater risk of undernutrition and poor growth.

  14. Mixed-effects modelling of scale growth profiles predicts the occurrence of early and late fish migrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Marco-Rius

    Full Text Available Fish growth is commonly used as a proxy for fitness but this is only valid if individual growth variation can be interpreted in relation to conspecifics' performance. Unfortunately, assessing individual variation in growth rates is problematic under natural conditions because subjects typically need to be marked, repeated measurements of body size are difficult to obtain in the field, and recaptures may be limited to a few time events which will generally vary among individuals. The analysis of consecutive growth rings (circuli found on scales and other hard structures offers an alternative to mark and recapture for examining individual growth variation in fish and other aquatic vertebrates where growth rings can be visualized, but accounting for autocorrelations and seasonal growth stanzas has proved challenging. Here we show how mixed-effects modelling of scale growth increments (inter-circuli spacing can be used to reconstruct the growth trajectories of sea trout (Salmo trutta and correctly classify 89% of individuals into early or late seaward migrants (smolts. Early migrants grew faster than late migrants during their first year of life in freshwater in two natural populations, suggesting that migration into the sea was triggered by ontogenetic (intrinsic drivers, rather than by competition with conspecifics. Our study highlights the profound effects that early growth can have on age at migration of a paradigmatic fish migrant and illustrates how the analysis of inter-circuli spacing can be used to reconstruct the detailed growth of individuals when these cannot be marked or are only caught once.

  15. Drought and epidemic typhus, central Mexico, 1655-1918.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jordan N; Acuna-Soto, Rudofo; Stahle, David W

    2014-03-01

    Epidemic typhus is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia prowazekii and transmitted by body lice (Pediculus humanus corporis). This disease occurs where conditions are crowded and unsanitary. This disease accompanied war, famine, and poverty for centuries. Historical and proxy climate data indicate that drought was a major factor in the development of typhus epidemics in Mexico during 1655-1918. Evidence was found for 22 large typhus epidemics in central Mexico, and tree-ring chronologies were used to reconstruct moisture levels over central Mexico for the past 500 years. Below-average tree growth, reconstructed drought, and low crop yields occurred during 19 of these 22 typhus epidemics. Historical documents describe how drought created large numbers of environmental refugees that fled the famine-stricken countryside for food relief in towns. These refugees often ended up in improvised shelters in which crowding encouraged conditions necessary for spread of typhus.

  16. Interactions among symbionts operate across scales to influence parasite epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Fletcher W; Umbanhowar, James; Mitchell, Charles E

    2017-10-01

    Parasite epidemics may be influenced by interactions among symbionts, which can depend on past events at multiple spatial scales. Within host individuals, interactions can depend on the sequence in which symbionts infect a host, generating priority effects. Across host individuals, interactions can depend on parasite phenology. To test the roles of parasite interactions and phenology in epidemics, we embedded multiple cohorts of sentinel plants, grown from seeds with and without a vertically transmitted symbiont, into a wild host population, and tracked foliar infections caused by three common fungal parasites. Within hosts, parasite growth was influenced by coinfections, but coinfections were often prevented by priority effects among symbionts. Across hosts, parasite phenology altered host susceptibility to secondary infections, symbiont interactions and ultimately the magnitude of parasite epidemics. Together, these results indicate that parasite phenology can influence parasite epidemics by altering the sequence of infection and interactions among symbionts within host individuals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  17. Dynamics of epidemic diseases on a growing adaptive network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Güven; Barter, Edmund; Gross, Thilo

    2017-02-01

    The study of epidemics on static networks has revealed important effects on disease prevalence of network topological features such as the variance of the degree distribution, i.e. the distribution of the number of neighbors of nodes, and the maximum degree. Here, we analyze an adaptive network where the degree distribution is not independent of epidemics but is shaped through disease-induced dynamics and mortality in a complex interplay. We study the dynamics of a network that grows according to a preferential attachment rule, while nodes are simultaneously removed from the network due to disease-induced mortality. We investigate the prevalence of the disease using individual-based simulations and a heterogeneous node approximation. Our results suggest that in this system in the thermodynamic limit no epidemic thresholds exist, while the interplay between network growth and epidemic spreading leads to exponential networks for any finite rate of infectiousness when the disease persists.

  18. Drought and Epidemic Typhus, Central Mexico, 1655–1918

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna-Soto, Rudofo; Stahle, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemic typhus is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia prowazekii and transmitted by body lice (Pediculus humanus corporis). This disease occurs where conditions are crowded and unsanitary. This disease accompanied war, famine, and poverty for centuries. Historical and proxy climate data indicate that drought was a major factor in the development of typhus epidemics in Mexico during 1655–1918. Evidence was found for 22 large typhus epidemics in central Mexico, and tree-ring chronologies were used to reconstruct moisture levels over central Mexico for the past 500 years. Below-average tree growth, reconstructed drought, and low crop yields occurred during 19 of these 22 typhus epidemics. Historical documents describe how drought created large numbers of environmental refugees that fled the famine-stricken countryside for food relief in towns. These refugees often ended up in improvised shelters in which crowding encouraged conditions necessary for spread of typhus. PMID:24564928

  19. Do infants fed directly from the breast have improved appetite regulation and slower growth during early childhood compared with infants fed from a bottle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Jennifer O

    2011-08-01

    , higher food responsiveness and higher enjoyment of food in later childhood Conclusion While direct breastfeeding was not found to differentially affect growth trajectories from infancy to childhood compared to bottle-feeding, results suggest direct breastfeeding during early infancy is associated with greater appetite regulation later in childhood. A better understanding of such behavioral distinctions between direct breastfeeding and bottle-feeding may identify new pathways to reduce the pediatric obesity epidemic.

  20. Effect of the hydrostatic pressure on otolith growth of early juveniles of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, A T; Coimbra, A M; Damasceno-Oliveira, A

    2012-07-01

    Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus early juveniles were maintained for 2 weeks in a pressurized system under a controlled photoperiod, at constant salinity and temperature. Groups of fish were exposed to one of three absolute hydrostatic pressure (HP) regimes: (1) a constant normal atmospheric pressure (100 kPa), (2) a constant 40 m pressure (500 kPa) or (3) a semi-diurnal cyclic vertical migration (100-500 kPa). No significant differences were detected in otolith size and incremental periodicity among the three HP treatments, suggesting that HP does not affect otolith growth of early juveniles O. niloticus. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Early nutrition and its effect on growth, body composition, and later obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    with an increased risk of later obesity. However, there are only few intervention studies and the causality and the mechanisms are still being discussed. Recently, we summarized publications from the last years on this topic [1]. We have included 5 key papers on this topic that we found of special interest...... that residual confounding by socio-economic position is a possibility, but also that breastfeeding reduced the risk by 13% in the high-quality studies. We have included 4 studies on the aspects of breastfeeding and later obesity which we found of special interest.......Early nutrition is an important factor regulating both early and long-term growth and body composition, and therefore has important effects on the risk of later overweight and obesity. There is a lot of activity within this research area with a wealth of publications including observational studies...

  2. Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Tal; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2014-09-12

    Mass accretion by black holes (BHs) is typically capped at the Eddington rate, when radiation's push balances gravity's pull. However, even exponential growth at the Eddington-limited e-folding time t(E) ~ few × 0.01 billion years is too slow to grow stellar-mass BH seeds into the supermassive luminous quasars that are observed when the universe is 1 billion years old. We propose a dynamical mechanism that can trigger supra-exponential accretion in the early universe, when a BH seed is bound in a star cluster fed by the ubiquitous dense cold gas flows. The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly draining accretion disk. Supra-exponential growth can thus explain the puzzling emergence of supermassive BHs that power luminous quasars so soon after the Big Bang.

  3. Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Tal

    2014-01-01

    Mass accretion by black holes (BHs) is typically capped at the Eddington rate, when radiation's push balances gravity's pull. However, even exponential growth at the Eddington-limited e-folding time t_E ~ few x 0.01 Gyr, is too slow to grow stellar-mass BH seeds into the supermassive luminous quasars that are observed when the universe is 1 Gyr old. We propose a dynamical mechanism that can trigger supra-exponential accretion in the early universe, when a BH seed is trapped in a star cluster fed by the ubiquitous dense cold gas flows. The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly-draining accretion disk. Supra-exponential growth can thus explain the puzzling emergence of supermassive BHs that power luminous quasars so soon after the Big Bang.

  4. Early and rapid globalization as part of innovation and growth strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zijdemans, Erik; Azimi, Zohreh; Tanev, Stoyan

    for start-ups that globalize rapidly in an environment with a high degree of uncertainty (Sarasvathy, Kumar, York, & Bhagavatula, 2014). The ex-ante valuation of resources (Schmidt & Keil, 2012) is related to the ex-post characteristics of BG firms (Tanev, 2012) resulting in a Global Value Generator (GVG......This paper emphasizes the role of early and rapid globalization of technology start-ups as part of their innovation and growth strategies. It suggests a framework linking the ex-ante value of new technology firms and the ex-post characteristics of born global (BG) firms. We were inspired by Knight...... of technology start-ups as a specific growth strategy (Zijdemans & Tanev, 2014). Our research adopts a dynamic resource perspective according to which the distinction between ex-ante and ex-post value of resources (Schmidt & Keil, 2012) complements the effectual entrepreneurial approach, which is typical...

  5. Subcompartmentalization by cross-membranes during early growth of Streptomyces hyphae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagüe, Paula; Willemse, Joost; Koning, Roman I

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are a model system for bacterial multicellularity. Their mycelial life style involves the formation of long multinucleated hyphae during vegetative growth, with occasional cross-walls separating long compartments. Reproduction occurs by specialized aerial hyphae......, which differentiate into chains of uninucleoid spores. While the tubulin-like FtsZ protein is required for the formation of all peptidoglycan-based septa in Streptomyces, canonical divisome-dependent cell division only occurs during sporulation. Here we report extensive subcompartmentalization in young...... vegetative hyphae of Streptomyces coelicolor, whereby 1 μm compartments are formed by nucleic acid stain-impermeable barriers. These barriers possess the permeability properties of membranes and at least some of them are cross-membranes without detectable peptidoglycan. Z-ladders form during the early growth...

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF STRENGTH TRAINING OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SUBADOLESCENT AND EARLY ADOLESCENT CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Radulović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Today 's children are engaged by things which don't cause enough irritation for quality development of skelton-muscle system. There's a common opinion that strength training for subadolescent and early adolescent children is very harmful and useless. However; a lot of examinations show that a good invented progress of strength training is resulting increasing of muscle strength; ligament strength and insuring the bases of right growth and development of children: the quality strenght training enables a child to face better everyday' s efforts. It's also important fact of optimal psyzical preparation which is necessary for the further sport development.

  7. Effects of Different Rootstocks on the Growth and Fruit Quality of Greenhouse Cucumber in Early Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing; ZHANG Tianwei; ZHAO Jiayu; JIANG Xinmei

    2009-01-01

    Different pumpkin rootstocks were used to study the effects of different rootstocks on the growth and fruit quality of greenhouse cucumber in early spring. The results showed that the grafted cucumber could significantly improve the production, and different rootstock had a certain effect on the survival rate and fruit quality. Jinhuanghou and Fengyijiajiewang as rootstock had the highest survival rate, which were 79.0% and 70.7%, respectively. As rootstocks of greenhouse cucumber, Jinhuanghou, Lvzhoujuxing,Fengyi, Huofenghuang, and Dawei No.17 were better than others according to taste, and Heizinangua, Jinhuanghou, Fengyi,Huofenghuang, and Dawei No. 17 were better according to output.

  8. What Determines the Growth Ambition of Dutch Early-Stage Entrepreneurs?

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid Verheul; Linda van Mil

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of the ambition to grow among Dutch early-stage entrepreneurs (nascents and young business owners). We use Adult Population Survey data of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) for the Netherlands. Merging cross-sectional data of the years 2002 to 2007, we arrive at a sample of 409 nascents and 336 young business owners. Growth ambition is measured by asking the respondent which statement fits him or her best: (1) I want my company to be as large a...

  9. HIV-1 epidemic in Warao Amerindians from Venezuela: spatial phylodynamics and epidemiological patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Julian A; Bello, Gonzalo; Maes, Mailis; Sulbaran, Yoneira F; Garzaro, Domingo; Loureiro, Carmen L; Rangel, Hector R; de Waard, Jacobus H; Pujol, Flor H

    2013-07-17

    We previously reported HIV-1 infection in Warao Amerindians from Venezuela. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent and the dynamic of HIV-1 dissemination in eight Warao communities. HIV-1 infection was evaluated in 576 Warao Amerindians from the Orinoco Delta. Partial HIV-1 pol sequences were analyzed to reconstruct the spatiotemporal and demographic dynamics of the epidemic. HIV-1 antibodies were present in 9.55% of Warao Amerindians, ranging from 0 to 22%. A significantly higher prevalence was found in men (15.6%) compared with women (2.6%), reaching up to 35% in men from one community. All but one isolates were classified as subtype B. Warao's HIV-1 subtype-B epidemic resulted from a single viral introduction at around the early 2000s. After an initial phase of slow growth, the subtype B started to spread at a fast rate (0.8/year) following two major routes of migration within the communities. A dramatic high prevalence was documented in almost all the communities of Warao Amerindians from the Orinoco Delta tested for HIV-1 infection. This epidemic resulted from the dissemination of a single HIV-1 subtype B founder strain introduced about 10 years ago and its size is probably doubling every year, creating a situation that can be devastating for this vulnerable Amerindian group.

  10. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Early Childhood and Growth at School Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Khitam; Goren, Sophy; Cohen, Dani

    2015-12-01

    There are conflicting results regarding the role of H. pylori in children's growth. We examined differences in growth indices at school age according to H. pylori infection acquisition in preschool age. A prospective study was undertaken between 2004 and 2009, in which of healthy children (N = 139, ages 3-5 years at baseline) were tested for the presence of H. pylori antigen in their stool using enzyme-linked immunoassay and followed-up till age 6-9 years (median follow-up time 45 months). Height, weight, and hemoglobin levels were measured, and socioeconomic data were obtained. Z scores of height for age, weight for age, and body mass index for age at baseline and follow-up were calculated using the 2000 Center for Disease Control and Prevention growth reference curves. Growth velocity (cm/month) between preschool and school age was compared between H. pylori-infected and uninfected children using mixed models. Fifty-three percent of the children were H. pylori positive at baseline, and all except one child tested positive at follow-up. The adjusted mean Z score of height for age at follow-up was significantly lower among H. pylori-infected children than uninfected ones: 0.15 (95% confidence intervals (CIs) 0.02, 0.29) and 0.45 (95% CI 0.29, 0.60), respectively (p = .002). Growth velocity was slower in the former group -0.0264 cm/month (95% CI -0.047, -0.005) (p = .014), after adjusting for baseline height and age. H. pylori infection was not associated with body weight. Helicobacter pylori infection acquired in early childhood may have long-term adverse influence on linear growth at school age. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Lessons learned during active epidemiological surveillance of Ebola and Marburg viral hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaranga, Yokouide; Kone, Mamadou Lamine; Formenty, Pierre; Libama, Francois; Boumandouki, Paul; Woodfill, Celia J I; Sow, Idrissa; Duale, Sambe; Alemu, Wondimagegnehu; Yada, Adamou

    2010-03-01

    To review epidemiological surveillance approaches used during Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Africa in the past fifteen years. Overall, 26 hemorrhagic epidemic outbreaks have been registered in 12 countries; 18 caused by the Ebola virus and eight by the Marburg virus. About 2551 cases have been reported, among which 268 were health workers (9,3%). Based on articles and epidemic management reports, this review analyses surveillance approaches, route of introduction of the virus into the population (urban and rural), the collaboration between the human health sector and the wildlife sector and factors that have affected epidemic management. Several factors affecting the epidemiological surveillance during Ebola and Marburg viruses hemorrhagic epidemics have been observed. During epidemics in rural settings, outbreak investigations have shown multiple introductions of the virus into the human population through wildlife. In contrast, during epidemics in urban settings a single introduction of the virus in the community was responsible for the epidemic. Active surveillance is key to containing outbreaks of Ebola and Marburg viruses Collaboration with those in charge of the conservation of wildlife is essential for the early detection of viral hemorrhagic fever epidemics. Hemorrhagic fever epidemics caused by Ebola and Marburg viruses are occurring more and more frequently in Sub-Saharan Africa and only an adapted epidemiological surveillance system will allow for early detection and effective response.

  12. Maternal Dietary Patterns during Third Trimester in Association with Birthweight Characteristics and Early Infant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Poon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our analysis examined the impact of maternal dietary patterns and lifestyle factors on markers of fetal growth, specifically birthweight and size for gestational age (small- (SGA or large-for-gestational age (LGA. The Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a prospective cohort study, surveyed pregnant women during their 3rd trimester, of which a subgroup (n=893 completed a food frequency questionnaire. Maternal dietary patterns were evaluated by diet scores (Alternative Healthy Eating Index for Pregnancy and alternate Mediterranean diet and by carbohydrate quality (glycemic index and glycemic load. Poisson regression with robust standard errors was used to examine the relative risk of SGA and separately LGA, with dietary patterns and other lifestyle factors. Linear regression was used to determine the association of birthweight and early infant growth with better dietary patterns. Relative risk of SGA and LGA was not associated with dietary patterns. Birthweight and infant growth were not associated with maternal diet. Smoking, however, increased the risk of delivering an SGA infant (RR = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.58–5.39, while higher prepregnancy BMI increased the risk of delivering an LGA infant (RR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.03–1.09. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether deficiencies in more specific maternal dietary nutrients play a role in fetal growth.

  13. Early Onset Intrauterine Growth Restriction in a Mouse Model of Gestational Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busso, Dolores; Mascareño, Lilian; Salas, Francisca; Berkowitz, Loni; Santander, Nicolás; Quiroz, Alonso; Amigo, Ludwig; Valdés, Gloria; Rigotti, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility to develop atherosclerosis is increased by intrauterine growth restriction and prenatal exposure to maternal hypercholesterolemia. Here, we studied whether mouse gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis affected fetal development and growth at different stages of gestation. Female LDLR KO mice fed a proatherogenic, high cholesterol (HC) diet for 3 weeks before conception and during pregnancy exhibited a significant increase in non-HDL cholesterol and developed atherosclerosis. At embryonic days 12.5 (E12.5), E15.5, and E18.5, maternal gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis were associated to a 22–24% reduction in male and female fetal weight without alterations in fetal number/litter or morphology nor placental weight or structure. Feeding the HC diet exclusively at the periconceptional period did not alter fetal growth, suggesting that maternal hypercholesterolemia affected fetal weight only after implantation. Vitamin E supplementation (1,000 UI of α-tocopherol/kg) of HC-fed females did not change the mean weight of E18.5 fetuses but reduced the percentage of fetuses exhibiting body weights below the 10th percentile of weight (HC: 90% vs. HC/VitE: 68%). In conclusion, our results showed that maternal gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mice were associated to early onset fetal growth restriction and that dietary vitamin E supplementation had a beneficial impact on this condition. PMID:25295255

  14. Maternal Antibody Protected Chicks from Growth Retardation and Immunosuppression Induced by Early Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shu-hong; GUI Zhi-zhong; QU Li-xin

    2007-01-01

    To determine if the maternal antibody from breeders vaccinated with cell culture-adapted reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) could protect chicks from early REV infection, one-day-old chicks with or without anti-REV maternal antibodies were inoculated with REV, and then their growth rates and antibody tilers to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV), after vaccination with inactivated vaccines, were compared. This study indicated that REV infection could cause growth retardation and severely inhibit immune reactions to inactivated vaccines against NDV and Avian influenza virus (AIV, H9 and H5) in one-day-old broilers without maternal antibodies specific to REV. Maternal antibody from breeders vaccinated with an attenuated REV vaccine effectively protected REV-challenged birds from growth retardation and immunosuppression on antibody reactions to NDV and AIV vaccines. Four weeks after vaccination, the HI liters to NDV, AIV-H9, and AIV-H5 in maternal antibody positive and negative groups were 3.36±2.04 versus 1.58±1.69 (P<0.01), 6.27±3.87 versus 0.71±1.60(P<0.01), and 6.72 versus 0.54±1.44(p<0.01). Maternal antibodies from breeders vaccinated with REV vaccine could successfully protect chicks from REV infection and effectively prevent REV-induced growth retardation and immunosuppression in antibody responses to NDV and AIV.

  15. Atmospheric sulphuric acid and aerosol formation: implications from atmospheric measurements for nucleation and early growth mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-L. Sihto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the formation and early growth of atmospheric secondary aerosol particles building on atmospheric measurements. The measurements were part of the QUEST 2 campaign which took place in spring 2003 in Hyytiälä (Finland. During the campaign numerous aerosol particle formation events occurred of which 15 were accompanied by gaseous sulphuric acid measurements. Our detailed analysis of these 15 events is focussed on nucleation and early growth (to a diameter of 3 nm of fresh particles. It revealed that new particle formation seems to be a function of the gaseous sulphuric acid concentration to the power from one to two when the time delay between the sulphuric acid and particle number concentration is taken into account. From the time delay the growth rates of freshly nucleated particles from 1 nm to 3 nm were determined. The mean growth rate was 1.2 nm/h and it was clearly correlated with the gaseous sulphuric acid concentration. We tested two nucleation mechanisms – recently proposed cluster activation and kinetic type nucleation – as possible candidates to explain the observed dependences, and determined experimental nucleation coefficients. We found that some events are dominated by the activation mechanism and some by the kinetic mechanism. Inferred coefficients for the two nucleation mechanisms are the same order of magnitude as chemical reaction coefficients in the gas phase and they correlate with the product of gaseous sulphuric acid and ammonia concentrations. This indicates that besides gaseous sulphuric acid also ammonia has a role in nucleation.

  16. Effects of antenatal corticosteroid administration on mortality and long-term morbidity in early preterm, growth-restricted infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, AH; Wolf, H; Bruinse, HW; Smolders-De Haas, H; Van Ertbruggen, [No Value; Treffers, PE

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of antenatal corticosteroids on mortality, morbidity, and disability or handicap rate in early preterm, growth-restricted infants. Methods: This case-control study in two tertiary care centers included all live-born singleton infants with growth-restriction due to

  17. Germination and Early Growth Assessment of Tamarindus indica L in Sokoto State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Gwaram Bello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Germination and early growth assessment of Tamarindus indica L. were conducted to determine the suitable medium for germination and seedlings establishment of the species in Sokoto State, Nigeria. The viable seeds of the study species were treated with Conc. H2SO4 for 30 minutes and boiling water for one hour and by soaking in water at room temperature for 12 hours. The treated seeds were placed in Petri dishes containing filter paper for germination assessment. The results indicated 68–95% germination of T. indica seeds within 3–19 days. Conc. H2SO4 treatment gave the highest germination percentage of 95%. T. indica seeds were treated with Conc. H2SO4 for 30 minutes and sown into four (4 different potting mixtures for early growth assessment. Collar diameter, seedlings height, and leaf number were the parameters measured. Seedlings grown in the mixture of river sand and cow dung (2 : 1 had the highest seedlings height and leaf number, while the highest collar diameter was obtained from seedlings grown in the mixture of river sand and poultry droppings (2 : 1. However, growing T. indica in the mixture of river sand and cow dung (2 : 1 after 30 minutes pretreatment was recommended.

  18. Long-term consequences of nutrition and growth in early childhood and possible preventive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Maternal nutritional deficiencies and excesses during pregnancy, and faster infant weight gain in the first 2 years of life are associated with increased risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. The first 1,000 days of life (from conception until the child reaches age 2 years) represent a vulnerable period for programming of NCD risk, and are an important target for prevention of adult disease. This paper takes a developmental perspective to identify periconception, pregnancy, and infancy nutritional stressors, and to discuss mechanisms through which they influence later disease risk with the goal of informing age-specific interventions. Low- and middle-income countries need to address the dual burden of under- and overnutrition by implementing interventions to promote growth and enhance survival and intellectual development without increasing chronic disease risk. In the absence of good evidence from long-term follow-up of early life interventions, current recommendations for early life prevention of adult disease presume that interventions designed to optimize pregnancy outcomes and promote healthy infant growth and development will also reduce chronic disease risk. These include an emphasis on optimizing maternal nutrition prior to pregnancy, micronutrient adequacy in the preconception period and during pregnancy, promotion of breastfeeding and high-quality complementary foods, and prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence. © 2014 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Expression of Escherichia coli cspA during early exponential growth at 37 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandi, Anna; Pon, Cynthia L

    2012-01-25

    CspA is a small (7.4 kDa) nucleic acid binding protein of Escherichia coli whose expression is stimulated after cold-stress but whose level is also extraordinarily high during the early phase of growth of non-stressed cells. In this study the relationship existing between cspA transcription/translation on the one hand and the acquisition of critical mass for cell division and chromosome replication, on the other, in stationary phase cells subjected to a nutritional up-shift at 37 °C has been analyzed. Measurements of optical density and viable counts, pulse-chase, real-time PCR and immunodetection experiments, as well as cytofluorimetric and DNA duplication analyses show that synthesis of new CspA molecules at 37 °C is not only restricted to the lag phase ensuing the nutritional up-shift, but continues also during the first stages of logarithmic growth, when cells have already started dividing; although the early synthesized molecules are diluted by the following cell divisions and new synthesis occurs at an extremely low level, cspA mRNA and CspA continue to be present. A possible explanation for the apparent paradox that cspA is activated not only following cold stress, but also under non-stress and other stress conditions which entail a down-regulation of bulk gene expression and protein synthesis is presented.

  20. Assessing the effect of phosphorus application on early growth of maize at Sunderbazar, Lamjung, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Kumar Shrestha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an essential nutrient element for maize production. A pot experiment was conducted during May-June, 2015 to assess the effects of different rates of P on early growth of maize plant at Sundarbazar, Lamjung. Two maize varieties (Rato Makai and Poshilo Makai-1 were subjected to four P levels (0 kg ha-1, 13 kg ha-1, 18 kg ha-1, and 23 kg ha-1 in randomized complete block design with four replications. The effects of different P level on root elongation, root biomass, plant height, root shoot biomass ratio and total dry matter were investigated at 45 days after sowing. For all parameters, the maximum value was obtained when soil was added with 18 kg P ha-1 & the minimum value under the control of 0 kg P ha-1. Maize varieties differed significantly in terms of all the parameters under study, and Poshilo Makai-1 performed better than Rato Makai at all P levels. So, from this result, it can be concluded that Poshilo Makai-1 appeared to be P efficient over Rato Makai at early growth stage. However, it would be necessary to look at the response of crop up to maturity and at wider range of P to have the better insight of their relative performance.

  1. Connecting the obesity and the narcissism epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndromes are major threats to health in both developed and developing countries. This opinion article is a holistic attempt to understand the obesity epidemic, by connecting it to the widespread narcissism in society. The narcissism epidemic refers to an increased prevalence of status-striving individualism and a decreased sense of community, observed in Westerns populations and spreading worldwide. Based on social personality and evolutionary psychology approaches, I speculate that this rise of narcissism underlies a steep social hierarchy resulting in increase of social stress. This social stress markedly affects individuals who are sensitive to social hierarchy dominance due to their personality, yet are relegated at a lower social position. I speculate that over-eating is one major mechanism for coping with this stress, and discuss the possibility that visceral fat may constitute an adaptive behaviour to the lower social hierarchy position, which is perceived as unjust. Connecting the prevalence of obesity to the narcissism epidemic allows for a more thorough examination of factors, which contribute to obesity, which includes early difficult childhood experience, lower rank, and the overall competitive framework of the society. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Early Life-History Consequences of Growth-Hormone Transgenesis in Rainbow Trout Reared in Stream Ecosystem Mesocosms

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    There is persistent commercial interest in the use of growth modified fishes for shortening production cycles and increasing overall food production, but there is concern over the potential impact that transgenic fishes might have if ever released into nature. To explore the ecological consequences of transgenic fish, we performed two experiments in which the early growth and survival of growth-hormone transgenic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were assessed in naturalized stream mesocosm...

  3. Type I TARPs promote dendritic growth of early postnatal neocortical pyramidal cells in organotypic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Mohammad I K; Jack, Alexander; Klatt, Oliver; Lorkowski, Markus; Strasdeit, Tobias; Kott, Sabine; Sager, Charlotte; Hollmann, Michael; Wahle, Petra

    2014-04-01

    The ionotropic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate glutamate receptors (AMPARs) have been implicated in the establishment of dendritic architecture. The transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) regulate AMPAR function and trafficking into synaptic membranes. In the current study, we employ type I and type II TARPs to modulate expression levels and function of endogenous AMPARs and investigate in organotypic cultures (OTCs) of rat occipital cortex whether this influences neuronal differentiation. Our results show that in early development [5-10 days in vitro (DIV)] only the type I TARP γ-8 promotes pyramidal cell dendritic growth by increasing spontaneous calcium amplitude and GluA2/3 expression in soma and dendrites. Later in development (10-15 DIV), the type I TARPs γ-2, γ-3 and γ-8 promote dendritic growth, whereas γ-4 reduced dendritic growth. The type II TARPs failed to alter dendritic morphology. The TARP-induced dendritic growth was restricted to the apical dendrites of pyramidal cells and it did not affect interneurons. Moreover, we studied the effects of short hairpin RNA-induced knockdown of endogenous γ-8 and showed a reduction of dendritic complexity and amplitudes of spontaneous calcium transients. In addition, the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of γ-8 was required for dendritic growth. Single-cell calcium imaging showed that the γ-8 CT domain increases amplitude but not frequency of calcium transients, suggesting a regulatory mechanism involving the γ-8 CT domain in the postsynaptic compartment. Indeed, the effect of γ-8 overexpression was reversed by APV, indicating a contribution of NMDA receptors. Our results suggest that selected type I TARPs influence activity-dependent dendritogenesis of immature pyramidal neurons.

  4. Functional and Radiographic Outcomes Following Growth-Sparing Management of Early-Onset Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Charles E; Tran, Dong-Phuong; McClung, Anna

    2017-06-21

    In this study, we sought to evaluate radiographic, functional, and quality-of-life outcomes of patients who have completed growth-sparing management of early-onset scoliosis. This prospective study involved patients with early-onset scoliosis who underwent growth-sparing treatment and either "final" fusion or observation for ≥2 years since the last lengthening procedure. Demographics, radiographic parameters, pulmonary function test (PFT) values, and scores of patient-reported assessments (Early-Onset Scoliosis Questionnaire [EOSQ] and Scoliosis Research Society [SRS]-30) were obtained. At the most recent follow-up, patients performed 2 additional functional outcome tests: step-activity monitoring and a treadmill exercise-tolerance test. Twelve patients were evaluated as "graduates" of growth-sparing management of early-onset scoliosis (mean of 37 months since the most recent surgery). The major scoliosis curve measurement averaged 88° before treatment and 47° at the most recent follow-up. T1-S1 height increased from a mean of 22.3 cm to 34.7 cm and T1-T12 height, from 13.3 to 22.3 cm. At the most recent follow-up, the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) as a percentage of the predicted volume were 52.1% and 55.3%, respectively, and were essentially unchanged from the earliest PFT that patients could perform (FEV1 = 53.8% of predicted and FVC = 53.5% of predicted). There was no difference between graduates and controls with respect to activity time or total steps in step-activity monitoring, and in the exercise-tolerance test, graduates walked at the same speed but at a higher heart rate and at a significantly higher (p scoliosis appears to be spine elongation and maintenance of pulmonary function at a level that is no less than the percentage of normal at initial presentation. Functional testing and patient-reported outcomes at a mean of 3 years from the last surgery suggest that activity levels were generally equal

  5. Cyanobacteria facilitate parasite epidemics in Daphnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellenbach, C; Tardent, N; Pomati, F; Keller, B; Hairston, N G; Wolinska, J; Spaak, P

    2016-12-01

    The seasonal dominance of cyanobacteria in the phytoplankton community of lake ecosystems can have severe implications for higher trophic levels. For herbivorous zooplankton such as Daphnia, cyanobacteria have poor nutritional value and some species can produce toxins affecting zooplankton survival and reproduction. Here we present another, hitherto largely unexplored aspect of cyanobacteria, namely that they can increase Daphnia susceptibility to parasites. In a 12-yr monthly time-series analysis of the Daphnia community in Greifensee (Switzerland), we observed that cyanobacteria density correlated significantly with the epidemics of a common gut parasite of Daphnia, Caullerya mesnili, regardless of what cyanobacteria species was present or whether it was colonial or filamentous. The temperature from the previous month also affected the occurrence of Caullerya epidemics, either directly or indirectly by the promotion of cyanobacterial growth. A laboratory experiment confirmed that cyanobacteria increase the susceptibility of Daphnia to Caullerya, and suggested a possible involvement of cyanotoxins or other chemical traits of cyanobacteria in this process. These findings expand our understanding of the consequences of toxic cyanobacterial blooms for lake ecosystems and might be relevant for epidemics experienced by other aquatic species. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Socioeconomic differences in children's growth trajectories from infancy to early adulthood: evidence from four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Cathal; O'Leary, Neil; Fraga, Silvia; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; Barros, Henrique; Kartiosuo, Noora; Raitakari, Olli; Kivimäki, Mika; Vineis, Paolo; Layte, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Height is regarded as a marker of early-life illness, adversity, nutrition and psychosocial stress, but the extent to which differences in height are determined by early-life socioeconomic circumstances, particularly in contemporary populations, is unclear. This study examined socioeconomic differences in children's height trajectories from birth through to 21 years of age in four European countries. Data were from six prospective cohort studies-Generation XXI, Growing Up in Ireland (infant and child cohorts), Millennium Cohort Study, EPITeen and Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study-comprising a total of 49 492 children with growth measured repeatedly from 1980 to 2014. We modelled differences in children's growth trajectories over time by maternal educational level using hierarchical models with fixed and random components for each cohort study. Across most cohorts at practically all ages, children from lower educated mothers were shorter on average. The gradient in height was consistently observed at 3 years of age with the difference in expected height between maternal education groups ranging between -0.55 and -1.53 cm for boys and -0.42 to -1.50 cm for girls across the different studies and widening across childhood. The height deficit persists into adolescence and early adulthood. By age 21, boys from primary educated maternal backgrounds lag the tertiary educated by -0.67 cm (Portugal) and -2.15 cm (Finland). The comparable figures for girls were -2.49 cm (Portugal) and -2.93 cm (Finland). Significant differences in children's height by maternal education persist in modern child populations in Europe. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Excess production of phage lambda delayed early proteins under conditions supporting high Escherichia coli growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabig, M; Obuchowski, M; Wegrzyn, A; Szalewska-Pałasz, A; Thomas, M S; Wegrzyn, G

    1998-08-01

    Bacteriophage lambda is unable to lysogenize Escherichia coli hosts harbouring the rpoA341 mutation due to a drastic reduction in transcription from CII-activated lysogenic promoters (pE, pI and paQ). In addition, the level of early transcripts involved in the lytic pathway of lambda development is also decreased in this genetic background due to impaired N-dependent antitermination. Here, it is demonstrated that despite the reduced level of early lytic pL- and pR-derived transcripts, lytic growth of bacteriophage lambda is not affected in rich media. The level of the late lytic, pR-derived transcripts also remains unaffected by the rpoA341 mutation under these conditions. However, it was found that whilst there is no significant difference in the phage burst size in rpoA+ and rpoA341 hosts growing in rich media, phage lambda is not able to produce progeny in the rpoA341 mutant growing in minimal medium, in contrast to otherwise isogenic rpoA+ bacteria. Provision of an excess of the phage replication proteins O and P in trans or overproduction of the antitermination protein N restore the ability of phage lambda to produce progeny in the rpoA341 mutant under the latter conditions. These results suggest that in rich media phage lambda produces some early proteins in excess of that needed for its effective propagation and indicate that replication proteins may be limiting factors for phage lytic growth in poor media.

  8. High resolution AFM and single cell resonance Raman spectroscopy of Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms early in growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai eLebedev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AFM and confocal resonance Raman microscopy (CRRM of single-cells were used to study the transition of anode-grown Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms from lag phase (initial period of low current to exponential phase (subsequent period of rapidly increasing current. Results reveal that lag phase biofilms consist of lone cells and tightly packed single-cell thick clusters crisscrossed with extracellular linear structures that appear to be comprised of nodules approximately 20 nm in diameter aligned end to end. By early exponential phase cell clusters expand laterally and a second layer of closely packed cells begins to form on top of the first. Abundance of c-type cytochromes (c-Cyt is > 3-fold greater in 2-cell thick regions than in 1-cell thick regions. The results indicate that early biofilm growth involves two transformations. The first is from lone cells to 2-dimensionally associated cells during lag phase when current remains low. This is accompanied by formation of extracellular linear structures. The second is from 2- to 3-dimensionally associated cells during early exponential phase when current begins to increases rapidly. This is accompanied by a dramatic increase in c-Cyt abundance.

  9. Reproduction and Growth in a Murine Model of Early Life-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eniko Nagy

    Full Text Available Studies in transgenic murine models have provided insight into the complexity underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, a disease hypothesized to result from an injurious immune response against intestinal microbiota. We recently developed a mouse model of IBD that phenotypically and histologically resembles human childhood-onset ulcerative colitis (UC, using mice that are genetically modified to be deficient in the cytokines TNF and IL-10 ("T/I" mice. Here we report the effects of early life onset of colon inflammation on growth and reproductive performance of T/I mice. T/I dams with colitis often failed to get pregnant or had small litters with pups that failed to thrive. Production was optimized by breeding double homozygous mutant T/I males to females homozygous mutant for TNF deficiency and heterozygous for deficiency of IL-10 ("T/I-het" dams that were not susceptible to spontaneous colon inflammation. When born to healthy (T/I-het dams, T/I pups initially gained weight similarly to wild type (WT pups and to their non-colitis-susceptible T/I-het littermates. However, their growth curves diverged between 8 and 13 weeks, when most T/I mice had developed moderate to severe colitis. The observed growth failure in T/I mice occurred despite a significant increase in their food consumption and in the absence of protein loss in the stool. This was not due to TNF-induced anorexia or altered food consumption due to elevated leptin levels. Metabolic studies demonstrated increased consumption of oxygen and water and increased production of heat and CO2 in T/I mice compared to their T/I-het littermates, without differences in motor activity. Based on the clinical similarities of this early life onset model of IBD in T/I mice to human IBD, these results suggest that mechanisms previously hypothesized to explain growth failure in children with IBD require re-evaluation. The T/I mouse model may be useful for further investigation of such mechanisms and

  10. Early development and growth of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Rybnikár

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth rate of sterlet larvae and juveniles during 2008 and 2009 was studied under experimental and farming conditions in the Czech Republic. The embryos hatched when reaching a mean total length (TL of 9.0 mm. Larvae were fed by living food, with a gradual transition to dry diet. The exogenous feeding and the larval period of ontogeny started at DAH 9 (day after hatching reaching TL of 15–17 mm accompanied by melanin plug exclusion. Towards the end of larval period (DAH 39–43, TL 50–58 mm, the embryonic finfold disappeared and the formation of fin apparatus was nearly completed. During the larval and early juvenile development, daily increments of TL and weight (w ranged between 0.33–4.23 mm.d−1 and 0.0018–1.6400 g.d−1, respectively. The specific growth rate (SGR ranged from 25.65 to 2.73 %.d−1. Growth intensity and length parameters are similar to the Starry sturgeon, lower than those of the Siberian sturgeon and Russian sturgeon and significantly lower than at Beluga sturgeon. Sterlet’s Fulton weight condition factor (FWC was higher than in the Siberian and Starry sturgeon. The development was also observed on the basis of morphological changes. The larval development could be divided into six steps.

  11. The major Nod factor of Bradyrhizobium japonicum promotes early growth of soybean and corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souleimanov, A; Prithiviraj, B; Smith, D L

    2002-09-01

    Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of Nod factor Nod Bj-V (C18:1, MeFuc) of Badyrhizobium japonicum on the growth of soybean and corn. Three-day-old seedlings of soybean and corn were grown in hydroponic solutions containing four concentrations (0, 10(-7), 10(-9) or 10(-11) M) of Nod factor. After 7 d of treatment, Nod factor enhanced soybean and corn biomass. Nod factor elicited profound effects on root growth resulting in 34-44% longer roots in soybean. More detailed analyses of the roots, using a scanner based image analysis system, revealed that Nod factor increased the total length, projected area and surface area of the roots and decreased the diameter of soybean roots, while it increased the total length of corn roots. Stem injection of soybean plants with 10(-7) M Nod factor resulted in increased dry matter accumulation. These results suggest that Nod factor, besides mediating early stages of nodulation, has more general plant growth-promoting effects.

  12. Effect of lip closure on early maxillary growth in patients with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Pascal; Metzger, Marc; Frucht, Sibylle; Schupp, Wipke; Hempel, Mareike; Otten, Jörg-Elard

    2013-01-01

    Debate continues about the cause of midfacial growth disturbance in patients with facial clefts. To evaluate the functional effect of surgical closure of the lip before palatal closure according to the technique by Delaire on early maxillary growth in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate. Twenty-two patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate were studied using plaster casts obtained at the time of cheilorhinoplasty and 6 months later before palatal closure. The interrupted lateral muscles were anatomically repositioned using the surgical technique by Delaire. No patients had received preoperative orthodontic treatment or a passive palatal plate. Cast analyses were performed using a digital caliper. Landmark positioning was performed 3 times by 2 different examiners to define intraobserver and interobserver differences. The final maxilla dimensions were recorded as the distances between the mean landmark positions. Using the t test, dimensions obtained before palatal closure were compared with dimensions obtained before lip closure. The method allowed good reproducibility. Functional closure of the lip significantly narrowed the transverse anterior cleft areas by -2.36 mm (P < .05). Sagittal variables were increased by 1.68 mm on the nonaffected side and by 1.48 mm on the affected side (P < .05 for both). Functional closure according to the technique by Delaire narrows the transverse dimensions of the maxilla, while simultaneously preserving initial sagittal growth. 4.

  13. Stochastic epidemic models: a survey

    CERN Document Server

    Britton, Tom

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a survey paper on stochastic epidemic models. A simple stochastic epidemic model is defined and exact and asymptotic model properties (relying on a large community) are presented. The purpose of modelling is illustrated by studying effects of vaccination and also in terms of inference procedures for important parameters, such as the basic reproduction number and the critical vaccination coverage. Several generalizations towards realism, e.g. multitype and household epidemic models, are also presented, as is a model for endemic diseases.

  14. Epidemic dynamics on complex networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tao; FU Zhongqian; WANG Binghong

    2006-01-01

    Recently, motivated by the pioneer work in revealing the small-world effect and scale-free property of various real-life networks, many scientists devote themselves to studying complex networks. One of the ultimate goals is to understand how the topological structures affect the dynamics upon networks. In this paper, we give a brief review on the studies of epidemic dynamics on complex networks, including the description of classical epidemic models, the epidemic spread on small-world and scale-free networks, and network immunization. Finally, perspectives and some interesting problems are proposed.

  15. Epidemic Diffusion on Complex Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-Yan; LIU Zong-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Boyh diffusion and epidemic are well studied in the stochastic systems and complex networks,respetively.Here we combine these two fields and study epidemic diffusion in complex networks.Instead of studying the threshold of infection,which was focused on in previous works,we focus on the diffusion.behaviour.We find that the epidemic diffusion in a complex network is an anomalous superdiffusion with varyingg diffusion exponext γand that γ is influenced seriously by the network structure,such as the clustering coefficient and the degree distribution.Numerical simulations have confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  16. Allelopathic Effects of Johnsongrass on Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Basil, Black Cumin, Cummin, Fennel, Isabgol and Psyllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Asgharipoor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic effect of weeds frequently inhibited the germination and seedling growth of crops. Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepens is known to contain water-soluble substances that are allelopathic. To identify the allelopathic effect of Johnsongrass, the effect of different aqueous extracts (0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g L-1 obtained from roots and leaves of Johnsongrass on the seed germination and early seedling growth of some popular medicinal plants of Iran [basil (Ocimum basilicum, black cumin (Nigella sativa, cumin (Cuminum cyminum, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare, isabgol (Plantago ovate and psyllium (Plantago psyllium] were studied by bioassay. Both the root and leaf extracts of Johnsongrass in most cases inhibited the seed germination and early seedling growth of isabgol, psyllium, fennel and basil, while the seed germination and the early seedling growth of black cumin and cummin was simulated by both extracts at lower concentrations. However, this advantage was not found in higher concentrations, at which the extracts mostly had a negative effect on Nigella sativa and cumin. Leaf extracts was more effective to germination and early seedling growth than the root extract. The effectiveness of these extracts on the root growth was greater than that of the shoot growth of the test plants. The degree of sensitivity can be classified averaged across all extract concentrations in order of decreasing inhibition as follow: psyllium, isabgol, fennel, basil, black cumin and Cummin.

  17. COMPENSATORY GROWTH AND FAT PARAMETERS ON BROILER FASTED IN EARLY LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sugiharto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed withholding in the very early life ofbird on its compensatory growth capacity and fat parameters. A total of 60 mixed-sexes of one day oldRoss chicks were used in the experiment conducted with completely randomized design of 2 differentfeeding times after hatching, i.e.: T1: given access to feed and water ad libitum immediately afterhatching until 35d of age; and T2: withheld from feed (fasted but not from water for 48h after hatchingand then fed ad libitum until d35. The birds were weighed at the start of experiment and weeklythereafter, and DWG was then calculated. Feed intakes and FCR were also recorded weekly. At d36,abdominal fat was taken out from 2 birds per pen and was weighed. Breast meat (skinless from thesame birds was also sampled for total FA analysis. Final BW (d35 and total feed consumption of earlyfastedbirds were 1935.17±43.90 kg and 2745.55±47.48 kg and those of unfasted birds were2019.00±50.85 kg and 2910.84±128.10 kg, respectively. FCR of early-fasted and unfasted birds at d35were 1.42±0.03 and 1.45±0.07. The magnitude difference of DWG between early-fasted and unfastedbirds was 27% at d7, whereas at d35 the difference was only 4.5%. Abdominal fat percentage to live BWof early-fasted birds was 1.65±0.09% (male and 1.60±0.10% (female and that of unfasted birds was2.00±0.19% (male and 1.89±0.38% (female. Total FA contained in meat of early-fasted and unfastedbirds were 0.82±0.10 and 0.85±0.10 g/100gDM. Overall, BW and feed consumption of early-fastedbirds were significantly lower (P<0.05 than unfasted birds. DWG, FCR, abdominal fat and total FAcontained in meat were not significantly different (P>0.05 between early-fasted and unfasted birds. Inconclusion, holding birds without feed following hatch (under practical conditions may limit thecompensatory growth capacity of birds in the later age. Fasting applied in the very early life of broilerleads to

  18. Exposure to omega-3 fatty acids at early age accelerate bone growth and improve bone quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Netta; Simsa-Maziel, Stav; Shahar, Ron; Schwartz, Betty; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat

    2014-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) are essential nutritional components that must be obtained from foods. Increasing evidence validate that omega-3 FAs are beneficial for bone health, and several mechanisms have been suggested to mediate their effects on bone, including alterations in calcium absorption and urinary calcium loss, prostaglandin synthesis, lipid oxidation, osteoblast formation and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. However, to date, there is scant information regarding the effect of omega-3 FAs on the developing skeleton during the rapid growth phase. In this study we aim to evaluate the effect of exposure to high levels of omega-3 FAs on bone development and quality during prenatal and early postnatal period. For this purpose, we used the fat-1 transgenic mice that have the ability to convert omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the ATDC5 chondrogenic cell line as models. We show that exposure to high concentrations of omega-3 FAs at a young age accelerates bone growth through alterations of the growth plate, associated with increased chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. We further propose that those effects are mediated by the receptors G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and hepatic nuclear factor 4α, which are expressed by chondrocytes in culture. Additionally, using a combined study on the structural and mechanical bone parameters, we show that high omega-3 levels contribute to superior trabecular and cortical structure, as well as to stiffer bones and improved bone quality. Most interestingly, the fat-1 model allowed us to demonstrate the role of maternal high omega-3 concentration on bone growth during the gestation and postnatal period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI INCREASED EARLY GROWTH OF TROPICAL TREE SEEDLINGS IN ADVERSE SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maman Turjaman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The rate of reforestation  has increased throughout the countries in Southeast Asia region during the last 20 years.  At the same time, inconvenient situations such as forest destruction, forest exploitation, illegal logging, clear-cut forest areas, old agricultural lands, post-wildfire areas, conversion  of natural  forests into  plantations, resettlement areas, mine  lands,  and amended adverse soils have also been increasing  significantly. Mycorrhizas, hovewer,  play important role  to increase  plant  growth,  enrich  nutrient content  and enhance  survival rates of forest tree species in temperate  and sub-tropical  regions.  Unfortunately, a little information so far is available  regarding  the effect of mycorrhizas on growth  of tree species growing  in tropical  forests. In relevant,  several experiments  were carried  out to determine whether  ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungi and arbuscular  mycorrhizal (AM fungi can enhance mycorrhizal colonization, nutrient content, and plant growth of some tropical rain forest tree species in Indonesia under nursery  and field conditions.   The families of tropical  tree species used in the experiment were  Thymelaeaceae (Aquilaria crassna, Leguminosae  (Sesbania grandifolia, Guttiferae (Ploiarium alternifolium and Calophyllum hosei, Apocynaceae (Dyera polyphylla and Alstonia scholaris, and Dipterocarpaceae (Shorea belangeran. These families are important as they provide timber  and non-timber  forest products (NTFPs.   This paper discusses the role of mycorrhizal fungi in increasing  early  growth  of tropical  tree seedlings in adverse soil.

  20. HSPRO controls early Nicotiana attenuata seedling growth during interaction with the fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Stefan; Camehl, Iris; Gilardoni, Paola A; Oelmueller, Ralf; Baldwin, Ian T; Bonaventure, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    In a previous study aimed at identifying regulators of Nicotiana attenuata responses against chewing insects, a 26-nucleotide tag matching the HSPRO (ORTHOLOG OF SUGAR BEET Hs1(pro)(-)(1)) gene was found to be strongly induced after simulated herbivory (Gilardoni et al., 2010). Here we characterized the function of HSPRO during biotic interactions in transgenic N. attenuata plants silenced in its expression (ir-hspro). In wild-type plants, HSPRO expression was not only induced during simulated herbivory but also when leaves were inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 and roots with the growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica. Reduced HSPRO expression did not affect the regulation of direct defenses against Manduca sexta herbivory or P. syringae pv tomato DC3000 infection rates. However, reduced HSPRO expression positively influenced early seedling growth during interaction with P. indica; fungus-colonized ir-hspro seedlings increased their fresh biomass by 30% compared with the wild type. Grafting experiments demonstrated that reduced HSPRO expression in roots was sufficient to induce differential growth promotion in both roots and shoots. This effect was accompanied by changes in the expression of 417 genes in colonized roots, most of which were metabolic genes. The lack of major differences in the metabolic profiles of ir-hspro and wild-type colonized roots (as analyzed by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry) suggested that accelerated metabolic rates were involved. We conclude that HSPRO participates in a whole-plant change in growth physiology when seedlings interact with P. indica.

  1. Early developed section of the jaw as an index of prenatal growth conditions in adult roe deer Capreolus capreolus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høye, Toke Thomas; Forchhammer, Mads Cedergreen

    2006-01-01

    -maturing bones are poor predictors of resource limitations during early development, as later benign conditions may lead to compensatory growth. We analysed the temporal growth dynamics of different sections of the lower jaw of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and found that the medioanterior section of the lower...... post partum and, as such, potentially leaves a fingerprint of prenatal growth conditions that is evident even in adult individuals. This supports earlier findings in ungulates of a shift in skeletal growth spurts after weaning, and suggests that the choice of skeletal index for population and cohort......Increasing evidence suggests that conditions in early life have important consequences for ultimate body size and fitness. Skeletal parts are often used as retrospective indices of body size and growth constraints because of their resistance to seasonal variation in resource availability. Yet, slow...

  2. Do early growth dynamics explain recruitment success in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus off the Pacific coast of northern Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Masakane; Robert, Dominique; Kurita, Yutaka; Yoneda, Michio; Tominaga, Osamu; Tomiyama, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoh; Uehara, Shinji

    2010-07-01

    We examined the relative importance of growth-related processes operating during the larval and early juvenile stage in explaining variability in year class success of Japanese flounder off the Pacific coast of northern Japan. Early growth trajectory of larvae and juveniles sampled in 2005 (strong year class) and in 2006 (weak year class) was estimated from the analysis of the lapillar otolith. The larval pelagic stage was characterized by lower growth and developmental rates, as well as high selection for fast growth in the metamorphosis/settlement period, during the strong recruitment event of 2005 relative to 2006. Growth appeared higher in 2005 only after settlement despite high density in the nursery, which likely reflected superior productivity during that year combined with an increased probability of cannibalism from early settlers on late settlers. This implies that larval growth dynamics did not play an important role in determining recruitment strength in the two years considered. The decreasing distance from the nursery areas of pelagic larvae through ontogeny in 2005, combined with low age at settlement, suggest that larvae benefited from positive transport conditions during the dominant year class. To the contrary, unfavorable hydrographic conditions likely prevailed in 2006 as distance from the nurseries increased with ontogeny and settlement occurred later than in 2005 despite faster growth potential and developmental rate. We conclude that transport conditions to the nursery grounds, rather than larval growth potential, represented the most important determinant of year class success in the two years considered.

  3. Human mobility and epidemic invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizza, Vittoria

    2010-03-01

    The current H1N1 influenza pandemic is just the latest example of how human mobility helps drive infectious diseases. Travel has grown explosively in the last decades, contributing to an emerging complex pattern of traffic flows that unfolds at different scales, shaping the spread of epidemics. Restrictions on people's mobility are thus investigated to design possible containment measures. By considering a theoretical framework in terms of reaction-diffusion processes, it is possible to study the invasion dynamics of epidemics in a metapopulation system with heterogeneous mobility patterns. The system is found to exhibit a global invasion threshold that sets the critical mobility rate below which the epidemic is contained. The results provide a general framework for the understanding of the numerical evidence from detailed data-driven simulations that show the limited benefit provided by travel flows reduction in slowing down or containing an emerging epidemic.

  4. Epidemic cholera spreads like wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Manojit; Zinck, Richard D.; Bouma, Menno J.; Pascual, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is on the rise globally, especially epidemic cholera which is characterized by intermittent and unpredictable outbreaks that punctuate periods of regional disease fade-out. These epidemic dynamics remain however poorly understood. Here we examine records for epidemic cholera over both contemporary and historical timelines, from Africa (1990-2006) and former British India (1882-1939). We find that the frequency distribution of outbreak size is fat-tailed, scaling approximately as a power-law. This pattern which shows strong parallels with wildfires is incompatible with existing cholera models developed for endemic regions, as it implies a fundamental role for stochastic transmission and local depletion of susceptible hosts. Application of a recently developed forest-fire model indicates that epidemic cholera dynamics are located above a critical phase transition and propagate in similar ways to aggressive wildfires. These findings have implications for the effectiveness of control measures and the mechanisms that ultimately limit the size of outbreaks.

  5. [Epidemic parotiditis, a reportable disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boverhoff, J C; Baart, J A

    2013-01-01

    Three consecutive patients with an acute swelling of one of the cheeks, were diagnosed with epidemic parotiditis. The first phase of the diagnostic procedure for an acute cheek swelling is to eliminate the possibility of odontogenic causes. When odontogenic problems have been excluded, non-dentition-related causes may be considered. An acute, progressive swelling in the preauricular area can often be attributed to an inflammation of the parotid gland, but epidemic parotiditis should also be considered. Epidemic parotiditis, or mumps, is caused by the mumps virus. Contamination occurs aerogenically. In the Netherlands, mumps vaccine is an ingredient of the governmental combined mump-measles-rubella inoculation programme. However, in recent years several small-scale parotiditis epidemics have broken out, predominantly among young, inoculated adults. Oropharyngeal mucus and blood samples are needed to diagnose the disease. Each case of the disease should be reported to the community healthcare service.

  6. Understanding the Opioid Overdose Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can happen when someone takes more than prescribed, combines opioids with depressants (such as Xanax ® ) or alcohol, ... suffering with chronic pain.” Read More "Understanding Opioids" Articles Understanding The Opioid Overdose Epidemic / Beyond Opioids: Mind ...

  7. Deiodinase knockdown during early zebrafish development affects growth, development, energy metabolism, motility and phototransduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enise Bagci

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1 and type 2 (D2 increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3 decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray, biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO and knockdown of D3 (D3MO both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct

  8. Epidemic spreading in complex networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie ZHOU; Zong-hua LIU

    2008-01-01

    The study of epidemic spreading in complex networks is currently a hot topic and a large body of results have been achieved.In this paper,we briefly review our contributions to this field,which includes the underlying mechanism of rumor propagation,the epidemic spreading in community networks,the influence of varying topology,and the influence of mobility of agents.Also,some future directions are pointed out.

  9. Epidemic Network Failures in Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Katsikas, Dimitrios; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a failure propagation model for transport networks which are affected by epidemic failures. The network is controlled using the GMPLS protocol suite. The Susceptible Infected Disabled (SID) epidemic model is investigated and new signaling functionality of GMPLS to support epid...... epidemic failure resolution is proposed. The results provide important input to service recovery mechanisms under epidemic failures....

  10. Growth abnormalities in the population exposed in utero and early postnatally to polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueliang L. Guo; Chen-Chin Hsu [National Cheng Kung Univ. Medical College, Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China); Lambert, G.H. [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This article reviews the findings in children exposed to various levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds in utero and early postnatally. Yu-Cheng ({open_quotes}oil-disease{close_quotes}) mothers were Taiwanese women exposed to PCBs and their heat-degradation products form the ingestion of contaminated rice oil in 1979. Children of these mothers were born growth retarded, with dysmorphic physical findings, and delayed cognitive development compared with unexposed children. In this article, findings in Yu-Cheng children born between 1978 and 1985 are summarized and compared with two other well-documented cohorts of children prenatally exposed to different levels of PCBs. Results of the investigation in Yu-Cheng children will provide important information about the toxicities, health effects, and mechanisms of PCB/PCDF exposure and demonstrate that the developing human is more sensitive than the adult to the toxic effects of these chemicals. 53 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Effect of saline water irrigation on seed germination and early seedling growth of the halophyte quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panuccio, M.R.; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Saleem Akhtar, Saqib;

    2014-01-01

    been carried out to investigate the mechanisms used by quinoa, a facultative halophytic species, in order to cope with high salt levels at various stages of its develop- ment. Quinoa is regarded as one of the crops that might sustain food security in this century, grown primarily for its edible seeds...... of SW and different salts on seed germination, seedling emergence and the antioxidative pathway of quinoa. Seeds were germi- nated in Petri dishes and seedlings grown in pots with SW solutions (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) and NaCl, CaCl2, KCl and MgCl2 individually, at the concentrations in which...... parameters affected were root and shoot length, root morphology, fresh and dry weight, and water content. An efficient antioxidant mechanism was present in quinoa, activated by salts during germination and early seedling growth, as shown by the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Total antioxidant capacity...

  12. An association of adult personality with prenatal and early postnatal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Revsbech, Rasmus; Sørensen, Holger Jelling

    2014-01-01

    individuals participated in a follow-up at 20–34 years and was administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) which includes a lie-scale (indicating social acquiescence or self-insight). Associations between lie-scale scores and weight, length and head circumference respectively were analysed...... by multiple linear regression adjusting for single-mother status, parity, mother’s age, father’s age, parental social status, age at EPQ measurement, intelligence, and adult size. Results: Male infants with lower weight, length, and head-circumference at birth and the following three years grew up to have...... influence of prenatal and early postnatal development on personality growth and development. Keywords: Eysenck personality questionnaire, Lie-scale, Extraversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism, Birth weight, Birth length, Birth head-circumference...

  13. Ontogeny and growth of early life stages of captive-bred European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Munk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    -sustained aquaculture of this high-value and critically endangered species. Statement of relevance: European eel is a high-value species in aquaculture, however, production is presently hampered by reliance on wild caught fry. Captive production of glass eels will reopen markets in Europe and Asia, benefiting European...... of viable eggs and larvae of European eel, providing the basis for studies on early life stages of this species in captivity. In this study, we describe and illustrate morphological characteristics of eggs, embryos, and larvae from fertilization to termination of the yolk sac stage and provide a comparison...... with additional commercially important eel species. Furthermore, we model growth during the critical first phase in larval ontogeny, i.e. the yolk sac stage, and test for maternal effects. The eggs of A. anguilla typically have numerous oil droplets that coalesce into a single large oil droplet, while the zygote...

  14. Intravenous calcitriol therapy in an early stage prevents parathyroid gland growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masatomo; Tokumoto, Masanori; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Hirakata, Hideki; Iida, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    Background. Both the phenotypic alterations of parathyroid (PT) cells, e.g. down-regulation of the calcium-sensing receptor, and the increase of the PT cell number in nodular hyperplasia are the main causes of refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism. It is of great importance to prevent PT growth in an early stage. Methods. To examine a more effective method of calcitriol therapy for the prevention of PT hyperplasia, we randomized haemodialysis patients with mild hyperparathyroidism to receive either daily orally administered calcitriol (n = 33) or intravenous calcitriol (n = 27) over a 12-month study period. Calcitriol was modulated so as to keep the serum intact PTH level between 100 and 150 pg/ml. Results. Both groups showed similar reductions of the serum PTH level and similar increases in serum calcium. In both groups, there were no significant changes in the serum phosphate level. Long-term daily oral calcitriol therapy failed to prevent the increase of both maximum PT volume and total volume, as assessed by ultrasonography; however, intravenous calcitriol therapy successfully suppressed this progression. In the daily, oral group, both the bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and the N-telopeptide cross-linked of type I collagen (NTX) significantly decreased, which was probably due to the PTH suppression. However, these bone metabolism markers remained stable in the intravenous group. The total dosage of calcitriol during the study was comparable in both groups. Conclusions. These data indicate that intravenous calcitriol therapy in an early stage of secondary hyperparathyroidism is necessary to prevent PT growth and to keep a good condition of bone metabolism. PMID:18515308

  15. Growth ring analysis of fossil coniferous woods from early cretaceous of Araripe Basin (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etiene F. Pires

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth ring analysis on silicified coniferous woods from the Missão Velha Formation (Araripe Basin - Brazil has yielded important information about periodicity of wood production during the Early Cretaceous in the equatorial belt. Despite warm temperatures, dendrological data indicate that the climate was characterized by cyclical alternation of dry and rainy periods influenced by cyclical precipitations, typical of tropical wet and dry or savanna climate. The abundance of false growth rings can be attributed to both occasional droughts and arthropod damage. The present climate data agree with palaeoclimatic models that inferred summer-wet biomes for the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous boundary in the southern equatorial belt.A partir de análise de anéis de crescimento em lenhos de coníferas silicificadas provenientes da Formação Missão Velha(Bacia do Araripe - Brasil, obteve-se importantes informações a respeito da periodicidade de produção lenhosa duranteo início do Cretáceo, na região do equador. Apesar das estimativas de temperatura apresentarem-se elevadas, os dados dendrológicos indicam que o clima foi caracterizado pela alternância cíclica de períodos secos e chuvosos, influenciado por precipitações periódicas, típico das condições atuais de climatropical úmido e seco ou savana. A abundância de falsosanéis de crescimento pode ser atribuída tanto a secas ocasionais quanto a danos causados por artrópodes. Os dados paleoclimáticos aqui obtidos corroboram com modelos paleoclimáticos que inferem a ocorrência de um bioma de verões úmidos para o limite Neojurássico/Eocretáceo ao sul do equador.

  16. New developments in the treatment of early-onset spinal deformity: role of the Shilla growth guidance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morell SM

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sean M Morell,1 Richard E McCarthy2 1Department of Orthopaedics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 2Department of Orthopaedics, Arkansas Children’s Hospital, Little Rock, AR, USA Abstract: Early-onset scoliosis is a complex condition with multiple facets. The goal of treating any spinal deformity is to improve the condition of the patient with the least intervention necessary. A system that allows for continuation of natural spinal growth while correcting the deformity should be the goal of treating this complex condition. The SHILLA growth guidance system allows for continued growth of the pediatric spine while correcting and guiding the apex and guiding the future growth of the curvature. The system involves selective fusion across the apex of the curvature, and minimally invasive instrumentation is then used above and below the apex to allow for continued growth of the spine. A review of recent literature on the SHILLA growth guidance system shows promising results. Early animal models showed continued growth across unfused levels with minimal facet articular damage. Comparative studies to traditional growing rods showed significantly less total surgeries along with comparable correction and longitudinal growth. The SHILLA growth guidance system is a good option for this complex patient group. Results are comparable with other growing constructs with significantly less operative interventions. The SHILLA system allows for natural growth of the pediatric spine while correcting the scoliotic deformity in a minimally invasive method. The goal of this article is to present a comprehensive review of the SHILLA system surgical technique and the associated literature concerning this topic. Keywords: scoliosis, SHILLA, growing, early-onset, growth friendly

  17. The Early Growth and Development Study: a prospective adoption study from birth through middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Ganiban, Jody; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David

    2013-02-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children recruited in two cohorts (N = 561 triads). The primary study aims are to examine how family, peer, and contextual processes affect children's adjustment, and to examine their interplay (mediation, moderation) with genetic influences. Participants were recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the United States following the birth of a child. Assessments are ongoing, in 9-month intervals until the child reaches 3 years of age and in 1-year intervals thereafter through age 9. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: child temperament, social behavior, school performance, mental health, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, mental health, competence, stress, health, context, substance use, parenting, and marital relations; and pregnancy use of drugs and maternal stress during pregnancy. DNA and salivary cortisol samples have also been collected. Analyses have indicated evidence for genotype-environment interactions during early childhood. Study procedures, sample representativeness (including tests of potential confounds in the adoption design), and an overview of findings to date are summarized, and future plans are described.

  18. Temporal dynamics of connectivity and epidemic properties of growing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotouhi, Babak; Shirkoohi, Mehrdad Khani

    2016-01-01

    Traditional mathematical models of epidemic disease had for decades conventionally considered static structure for contacts. Recently, an upsurge of theoretical inquiry has strived towards rendering the models more realistic by incorporating the temporal aspects of networks of contacts, societal and online, that are of interest in the study of epidemics (and other similar diffusion processes). However, temporal dynamics have predominantly focused on link fluctuations and nodal activities, and less attention has been paid to the growth of the underlying network. Many real networks grow: Online networks are evidently in constant growth, and societal networks can grow due to migration flux and reproduction. The effect of network growth on the epidemic properties of networks is hitherto unknown, mainly due to the predominant focus of the network growth literature on the so-called steady state. This paper takes a step towards alleviating this gap. We analytically study the degree dynamics of a given arbitrary network that is subject to growth. We use the theoretical findings to predict the epidemic properties of the network as a function of time. We observe that the introduction of new individuals into the network can enhance or diminish its resilience against endemic outbreaks and investigate how this regime shift depends upon the connectivity of newcomers and on how they establish connections to existing nodes. Throughout, theoretical findings are corroborated with Monte Carlo simulations over synthetic and real networks. The results shed light on the effects of network growth on the future epidemic properties of networks and offers insights for devising a priori immunization strategies.

  19. Black hole growth in the early Universe is self-regulated and largely hidden from view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister, Ezequiel; Schawinski, Kevin; Volonteri, Marta; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Gawiser, Eric

    2011-06-15

    The formation of the first massive objects in the infant Universe remains impossible to observe directly and yet it sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of galaxies. Although some black holes with masses more than 10(9) times that of the Sun have been detected in luminous quasars less than one billion years after the Big Bang, these individual extreme objects have limited utility in constraining the channels of formation of the earliest black holes; this is because the initial conditions of black hole seed properties are quickly erased during the growth process. Here we report a measurement of the amount of black hole growth in galaxies at redshift z = 6-8 (0.95-0.7 billion years after the Big Bang), based on optimally stacked, archival X-ray observations. Our results imply that black holes grow in tandem with their host galaxies throughout cosmic history, starting from the earliest times. We find that most copiously accreting black holes at these epochs are buried in significant amounts of gas and dust that absorb most radiation except for the highest-energy X-rays. This suggests that black holes grew significantly more during these early bursts than was previously thought, but because of the obscuration of their ultraviolet emission they did not contribute to the re-ionization of the Universe.

  20. Microstructural mechanisms of cyclic deformation, fatigue crack initiation and early crack growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughrabi, Haël

    2015-03-28

    In this survey, the origin of fatigue crack initiation and damage evolution in different metallic materials is discussed with emphasis on the responsible microstructural mechanisms. After a historical introduction, the stages of cyclic deformation which precede the onset of fatigue damage are reviewed. Different types of cyclic slip irreversibilities in the bulk that eventually lead to the initiation of fatigue cracks are discussed. Examples of trans- and intercrystalline fatigue damage evolution in the low cycle, high cycle and ultrahigh cycle fatigue regimes in mono- and polycrystalline face-centred cubic and body-centred cubic metals and alloys and in different engineering materials are presented, and some microstructural models of fatigue crack initiation and early crack growth are discussed. The basic difficulties in defining the transition from the initiation to the growth of fatigue cracks are emphasized. In ultrahigh cycle fatigue at very low loading amplitudes, the initiation of fatigue cracks generally occupies a major fraction of fatigue life and is hence life controlling.

  1. Overweight among Four-Year-Old Children in Relation to Early Growth Characteristics and Socioeconomic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörgen Thorn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess early growth characteristics and socioeconomic factors of children in relation to body mass index (BMI and presence of overweight among four-year-old children. Methods. Two Child Health Centres (CHC participated in the study. They were selected to obtain two populations of children featuring divergent socio-economic characteristics. Growth data registered at the CHCs from birth to the 4-year check-up were recovered. Overweight was defined by the BMI cut-offs established by IOTF. BMI values expressed as BMI standard deviation score (BMISDS were used for analysis. Results. At the 4-year check-up, the BMISDS and the proportion of children with overweight (including the obese were significantly higher in the district with lower socio-economic status. High BMI at birth and low socio-economic status of the population in the CHC-district were shown to be independent determinants for overweight and BMISDS at four years of age. Conclusions. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms and how intervention programs should be designed in order to prevent the development of overweight and obesity in children.

  2. The Role of Early Growth Response 1 (EGR1) in Brain Plasticity and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclot, Florian; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    It is now clearly established that complex interactions between genes and environment are involved in multiple aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders, from determining an individual’s vulnerability to onset, to influencing its response to therapeutic intervention. In this perspective, it appears crucial to better understand how the organism reacts to environmental stimuli and provide a coordinated and adapted response. In the central nervous system, neuronal plasticity and neurotransmission are among the major processes integrating such complex interactions between genes and environmental stimuli. In particular, immediate early genes (IEGs) are critical components of these interactions as they provide the molecular framework for a rapid and dynamic response to neuronal activity while opening the possibility for a lasting and sustained adaptation through regulation of the expression of a wide range of genes. As a result, IEGs have been tightly associated with neuronal activity as well as a variety of higher order processes within the central nervous system such as learning, memory and sensitivity to reward. The immediate early gene and transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR1) has thus been revealed as a major mediator and regulator of synaptic plasticity and neuronal activity in both physiological and pathological conditions. In this review article, we will focus on the role of EGR1 in the central nervous system. First, we will summarize the different factors influencing its activity. Then, we will analyze the amount of data, including genome-wide, that has emerged in the recent years describing the wide variety of genes, pathways and biological functions regulated directly or indirectly by EGR1. We will thus be able to gain better insights into the mechanisms underlying EGR1’s functions in physiological neuronal activity. Finally, we will discuss and illustrate the role of EGR1 in pathological states with a particular interest in cognitive functions

  3. Selective regulation of nerve growth factor expression in developing cutaneous tissue by early sensory innervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vizard Tom N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the developing vertebrate peripheral nervous system, the survival of sympathetic neurons and the majority of sensory neurons depends on a supply of nerve growth factor (NGF from tissues they innervate. Although neurotrophic theory presupposes, and the available evidence suggests, that the level of NGF expression is completely independent of innervation, the possibility that innervation may regulate the timing or level of NGF expression has not been rigorously investigated in a sufficiently well-characterized developing system. Results To address this important question, we studied the influence of innervation on the regulation of NGF mRNA expression in the embryonic mouse maxillary process in vitro and in vivo. The maxillary process receives its innervation from predominantly NGF-dependent sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglion and is the most densely innervated cutaneous territory with the highest levels of NGF in the embryo. When early, uninnervated maxillary processes were cultured alone, the level of NGF mRNA rose more slowly than in maxillary processes cultured with attached trigeminal ganglia. In contrast to the positive influence of early innervation on NGF mRNA expression, the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF mRNA and neurotrophin-3 (NT3 mRNA rose to the same extent in early maxillary processes grown with and without trigeminal ganglia. The level of NGF mRNA, but not BDNF mRNA or NT3 mRNA, was also significantly lower in the maxillary processes of erbB3-/- mice, which have substantially fewer trigeminal neurons than wild-type mice. Conclusions This selective effect of initial innervation on target field NGF mRNA expression provokes a re-evaluation of a key assertion of neurotrophic theory that the level of NGF expression is independent of innervation.

  4. Vigorous root growth is a better indicator of early nutrient uptake than root hair traits in spring wheat grown under low fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaosheng; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    . Vigorous root growth, however, was a better indicator of early nutrient acquisition than RHL and RHD. Vigorous root growth and long and dense root hairs ensured efficient acquisition of macro- and micronutrients during early growth and a high root length to shoot dry matter ratio favored high macronutrient...

  5. Blossoms from black hole seeds: properties and early growth regulated by supernova feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habouzit, Mélanie; Volonteri, Marta; Dubois, Yohan

    2017-07-01

    Massive black holes (BHs) inhabit local galaxies, including the Milky Way and some dwarf galaxies. BH formation, occurring at early cosmic times, must account for the properties of BHs in today's galaxies, notably why some galaxies host a BH, and others do not. We investigate the formation, distribution and growth of BH 'seeds' by using the adaptive mesh refinement code ramses. We develop an implementation of BH formation in dense, low-metallicity environments, as advocated by models invoking the collapse of the first generation of stars, or of dense nuclear star clusters. The seed masses are computed one-by-one on-the-fly, based on the star formation rate and the stellar initial mass function. This self-consistent method to seed BHs allows us to study the distribution of BHs in a cosmological context and their evolution over cosmic time. We find that all high-mass galaxies tend to host a BH, whereas low-mass counterparts have a lower probability of hosting a BH. After the end of the epoch of BH formation, this probability is modulated by the growth of the galaxy. The simulated BHs connect to low-redshift observational samples, and span a similar range in accretion properties as Lyman-break analogs. The growth of BHs in low-mass galaxies is stunted by strong supernova (SN) feedback. The properties of BHs in dwarf galaxies thus remain a testbed for BH formation. Simulations with strong SN feedback, which is able to quench BH accretion in shallow potential wells, produce galaxies and BHs in better agreement with observational constraints.

  6. Effects of spacing on early growth rate and carbon sequestration in Pinus brut ia Ten. plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkan, N.; Aydin, A.C.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of initial spacing on early growth and carbon sequestration rates in Turkish red pine plantations up to 12 years old, established with improved seeds and deep soil cultivation. Area of study: The study was conducted on experimental sites established in two locations within the Turkish red pine natural distribution areas, namely Du acı and Nebiler close to Antalya city. Material and methods: Data were collected from the experimental sites established as a Nelder design (fan-shaped), with 72 rays and 18 arcs (circles), and trees were planted (almost square) at distances ranging from 1.15 to 4.77 m. Soil type of both sites is loamy, with soil clay content varying between 70-87% in Duacı and 51-70% in Nebiler. Soils are deep being more than one m in both sites, but rockier in Nebiler, providing better soil drainage in this site. Main results: The results showed that mean total height was greater at closer spacing than those of wider spacing until age eight. Growth retardation at wider spacing in early years may be related to water loss due to evaporation in hot summer days and weed suppression. Following the age eight, competition among trees appears to be the major factor reducing the growth and carbon fixation. Diameter at breast height and individual tree volume increased, while stand volume, mean annual volume increment and annual carbon storage per hectare considerably decreased for wider spacing. Our results suggest that in order to obtain higher yield and more carbon fixation, short rotation plantations should initially be established in closer spacing, followed by thinning in subsequent years as required by silvicultural concerns. In this context, spacing 3.0 × 1.0 m or 3.0 × 1.5 m (3.0 and 4.5 m2 growing area per tree, respectively) seems to be more plausible, providing farm machinery for maintenance and harvesting. We also found that mean annual volume increment per unit area can be

  7. Rice identification at the early stage of the rice growth season with single fine quad Radarsat-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Pengbin; Shen, Kejian; Pei, Zhiyuan

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether rice identification and acreage estimation accuracy at the early stage of the rice growth season using single fine quad Radarsat-2 images could meet the demand of rice monitoring. The Leizhou site (20°52'N, 110°05'E) is located in Guangdong Province in southern China and is dominated by rice paddies. There was a lack of optical data acquisitions during certain years. There are two rice growth seasons per year. Multitemporal Radarsat-2 products were acquired in the early rice growth season of 2014. First, multi-temporal backscattering coefficients and polarimetric parameters based on H/A/Alpha and Yamaguchi polarimetric decomposition theories were extracted and analyzed to distinguish between rice paddies and other typical land cover types, which could help select the optimal rice growth stage and image characteristics for early season classification. Second, an object-oriented technique was applied to time series backscattering coefficient images (HH, HV, VH, VV), H/A/Alpha images (Entropy, Anistropy and Alpha) and Yamaguchi images (volume, double-bounce, surface and helix). Based on the segmentation images, the supervised Bayes, KNN, SVM and Decision tree classifier were used to identify rice. The results indicated that in flat area, 1) Backscatter images and Yamaguchi images were better than H/A/Alpha images in the rice identification application, and 2) At the early rice growth season, the 0430-Yamaguchi image combined with the objectoriented decision tree algorithm were capable of delivering highly accurate maps of rice (0.9236), while the 0524- backscatter image combined with the object-oriented decision tree algorithm could acquire the highest classification accuracy (0.9278) at the end of the rice growth season. Jointing stage is considered to be appropriate for rice identification at the early season. The study demonstrated that it was possible to identify rice at the early season with single quad C

  8. The impact of early growth patterns and infant feeding on body composition at 3 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Christensen, Line Brinch; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Early excessive weight gain is positively associated with later obesity, and yet the effect of weight gain during specific periods and the impact of infant feeding practices are debated. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of weight gain in periods of early childhood......-free mass index (FFMI) at 3 years. Full breastfeeding for 6 months (compared to less than 1 month) eliminated the effect of early growth (P= 0·01). Full breastfeeding for 6 months (compared to less than 1 month) also eliminated the positive relation between BWZ and FMI (P= 0·009). No effect modification...... of infant feeding was found for FFMI. In conclusion, high birth weight and rapid growth from 0 to 5 months were associated with increased FMI and FFMI at 3 years. Longer duration of full breastfeeding reduced the effect of birth weight and early weight gain on fat mass....

  9. The impact of early growth patterns and infant feeding on body composition at 3 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Christensen, Line Brinch; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    on body composition at 3 years, and whether infant feeding modified the relationship between early growth and body composition at 3 years. We studied 233 children from the prospective cohort study, SKOT (in Danish: Småbørns Kost og Trivsel). Birth weight z-scores (BWZ) and change in weight-for-age z......Early excessive weight gain is positively associated with later obesity, and yet the effect of weight gain during specific periods and the impact of infant feeding practices are debated. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of weight gain in periods of early childhood...... of infant feeding was found for FFMI. In conclusion, high birth weight and rapid growth from 0 to 5 months were associated with increased FMI and FFMI at 3 years. Longer duration of full breastfeeding reduced the effect of birth weight and early weight gain on fat mass....

  10. Early BCG vaccine to low-birth-weight infants and the effects on growth in the first year of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Andersen, Andreas; Ravn, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have shown that early Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine reduces overall neonatal and infant mortality. However, no study has examined how BCG affects growth. We investigated the effect on infant growth of early BCG vaccine given to low-birth-weight (LBW) infants....... METHODS: Two-thousand three hundred forty-three LBW infants were randomly allocated 1:1 to "early BCG" (intervention group) or "late BCG" (current practice). Furthermore, a subgroup (N = 1717) were included in a two-by-two randomised trial in which they were additionally randomised 1:1 to vitamin...... but not among boys (interaction between "early BCG" and sex: weight p = 0.03 and MUAC p = 0.04). This beneficial effect among girls was particularly seen among the largest infants weighing 2.0 kg or more at inclusion. CONCLUSION: Though BCG vaccination is not recommended to be given to LBW infants at birth...

  11. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  12. [Early physical growth and disease analysis among children born delivered by HBsAg-positive mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X H; Wang, Q; Zheng, W; Li, X H; Jiang, Q Q; Zhou, C F; Qiu, L Q

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To estimate the early physical growth and disease in children born to HBsAg-positive mothers. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. Three areas as Xihu in Hangzhou, Lanxi in Jinhua, and Haiyan in Jiaxing in Zhejiang province were selected by cluster sampling. The growth outcomes of children born to HBsAg-positive mothers (exposure group) and matched 1∶1 women uninfected with HBV (control group) in 2014 were investigated and compared at birth, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months, respectively. There were totally 342 children in each group. Results: The incidences of low birth weight (LBW) for children born to exposure and control group were 1.8% (6/342), and 2.6% (9/342), respectively (P=0.433); and, rates of preterm birth were 2.3% (8/342), and 2.0% (7/342), respectively (P=0.794). The mean birth weight of children born to mothers without HBV infection (3.4±0.4) kg was dramatically higher than children in exposure group (3.3±0.4) kg (P=0.019). At 18 months, the average head circumference was significantly greater among children in control group (47.3±1.3) cm than children in exposure group (47.0±2.0) cm (P=0.038). Additional, mean birth weeks, height, weight, increases in height/weight/head circumference each month, weight/height/head circumference for age Z scores, proportion of growth retardation and low weight, disease prevalence were not observed statistically differences between two groups (P>0.05). All children born to HBsAg-positive mothers were received three-dose HBV vaccination. The rate of hepatitis B immunoglobulin for births born to HBsAg-positive was 98.8% (338/342). Mother to children transmission of HBV at 18 months was 1.0% (1/97). Conclusion: No significant differences in growth development and disease prevalence were found among children born to HBsAg-positive women and women without HBV infection.

  13. Epidemic processes in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Castellano, Claudio; Van Mieghem, Piet; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    In recent years the research community has accumulated overwhelming evidence for the emergence of complex and heterogeneous connectivity patterns in a wide range of biological and sociotechnical systems. The complex properties of real-world networks have a profound impact on the behavior of equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena occurring in various systems, and the study of epidemic spreading is central to our understanding of the unfolding of dynamical processes in complex networks. The theoretical analysis of epidemic spreading in heterogeneous networks requires the development of novel analytical frameworks, and it has produced results of conceptual and practical relevance. A coherent and comprehensive review of the vast research activity concerning epidemic processes is presented, detailing the successful theoretical approaches as well as making their limits and assumptions clear. Physicists, mathematicians, epidemiologists, computer, and social scientists share a common interest in studying epidemic spreading and rely on similar models for the description of the diffusion of pathogens, knowledge, and innovation. For this reason, while focusing on the main results and the paradigmatic models in infectious disease modeling, the major results concerning generalized social contagion processes are also presented. Finally, the research activity at the forefront in the study of epidemic spreading in coevolving, coupled, and time-varying networks is reported.

  14. An Examination of Growth in Vocabulary and Phonological Awareness in Early Childhood: An Individual Growth Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Christina Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present study used individual growth modeling to examine the role of specific forms (i.e., receptive, expressive, and definitional vocabulary and grammatical skill) and levels of oral vocabulary skill (i.e., 25th, 50th, or 75th percentile) in phonological awareness growth during the preschool and kindergarten years. Sixty-one,…

  15. Growth recovery and faltering through early adolescence in low- and middle-income countries: Determinants and implications for cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Andreas; Benny, Liza; Duc, Le Thuc; Galab, Sheikh; Reddy, Prudhvikar; Woldehanna, Tassew

    2017-04-01

    Child chronic undernutrition, as measured by stunting, is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries and is among the major threats to child development. While stunting and its implications for cognitive development have been considered irreversible beyond early childhood there is a lack of consensus in the literature on this, as there is some evidence of recovery from stunting and that this recovery may be associated with improvements in cognition. Less is known however, about the drivers of growth recovery and the aspects of recovery linked to cognitive development. In this paper we investigate the factors associated with growth recovery and faltering through age 12 years and the implications of the incidence, timing, and persistence of post-infancy recovery from stunting for cognitive development using longitudinal data from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. We find that the factors most systematically associated with accelerated growth both before and after early childhood and across countries include mother's height, household living standards and shocks, community wages, food prices, and garbage collection. Our results suggest that post-infancy recovery from stunting is more likely to be systematically associated with higher achievement scores across countries when it is persistent and that associations between growth trajectories and cognitive achievement in middle childhood do not persist through early adolescence across countries. Overall, our findings indicate that growth after early childhood is responsive to changes in the household and community environments and that growth promotion after early childhood may yield improvements in child cognitive development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Competing epidemics on complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Karrer, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Human diseases spread over networks of contacts between individuals and a substantial body of recent research has focused on the dynamics of the spreading process. Here we examine a model of two competing diseases spreading over the same network at the same time, where infection with either disease gives an individual subsequent immunity to both. Using a combination of analytic and numerical methods, we derive the phase diagram of the system and estimates of the expected final numbers of individuals infected with each disease. The system shows an unusual dynamical transition between dominance of one disease and dominance of the other as a function of their relative rates of growth. Close to this transition the final outcomes show strong dependence on stochastic fluctuations in the early stages of growth, dependence that decreases with increasing network size, but does so sufficiently slowly as still to be easily visible in systems with millions or billions of individuals. In most regions of the phase diagram ...

  17. Early nutrition, growth and cognitive development of infants from birth to 2 years in Malaysia: a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Gan, Wan Ying; Tan, Kit-Aun

    2016-01-01

    Background The first 2 years of life is a critical period of rapid growth and brain development. During this period, nutrition and environmental factors play important roles in growth and cognitive development of a child. This report describes the study protocol of early nutrition, growth and cognitive development of infants from birth to 2 years of age. Methods/Design This is a prospective cohort study of mothers and infants recruited from government health clinics in Seremban district in Ne...

  18. Transforming growth factor- 1 C-509T polymorphism, oxidant stress, and early-onset childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Muhammad T; Gauderman, W James; McConnell, Rob; Lin, Pi-Chu; Gilliland, Frank D

    2007-12-15

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 is involved in airway inflammation and remodeling, two key processes in asthma pathogenesis. Tobacco smoke and traffic emissions induce airway inflammation and modulate TGF-beta1 gene expression. We hypothesized that the effects of functional TGF-beta1 variants on asthma occurrence vary by these exposures. We tested these hypotheses among 3,023 children who participated in the Children's Health Study. Tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs4803457 C>T and C-509T (a functional promoter polymorphism) accounted for 94% of the haplotype diversity of the upstream region. Exposure to maternal smoking in utero was based on smoking by biological mother during pregnancy. Residential distance from nearest freeway was calculated based on residential address at study entry. Children with the -509TT genotype had a 1.8-fold increased risk of early persistent asthma (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-2.95). This association varied marginally significantly by in utero exposure to maternal smoking. Compared with children with the -509CC/CT genotype with no in utero exposure to maternal smoking, those with the -509TT genotype with such exposure had a 3.4-fold increased risk of early persistent asthma (95% CI, 1.46-7.80; interaction, P = 0.11). The association between TGF-beta1 C-509T and lifetime asthma varied by residential proximity to freeways (interaction P = 0.02). Children with the -509TT genotype living within 500 m of a freeway had over three-fold increased lifetime asthma risk (95% CI, 1.29-7.44) compared with children with CC/CT genotype living > 1500 m from a freeway. Children with the TGF-beta1 -509TT genotype are at increased risk of asthma when they are exposed to maternal smoking in utero or to traffic-related emissions.

  19. Family-based association study of early growth response gene 3 with child bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallitano, Amelia L; Tillman, Rebecca; Dinu, Valentin; Geller, Barbara

    2012-05-01

    The risk for relapse of child bipolar I disorder (BP-I) is highly correlated with environmental factors. Immediate early genes of the early growth response (EGR) gene family are activated at high levels in the brain in response to environmental events, including stress, and mediate numerous neurobiological processes that have been associated with mental illness risk. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in EGR genes are associated with the risk to develop child bipolar I disorder. To investigate whether EGR genes may influence susceptibility to child bipolar I disorder (BP-I), we used Family Based Association Tests to examine whether SNPs in each of the EGR genes were associated with illness in 49 families. Two SNPs in EGR3 displayed nominally significant associations with child BP-I (p=0.027 and p=0.028); though neither was statistically significant following correction for multiple comparisons. Haplotype association analysis indicated that these SNPs are in linkage disequilibrium (LD). None of the SNPs tested in EGR1, EGR2, or EGR4 was associated with child BP-I. This study was limited by small sample size, which resulted in it being underpowered to detect a significant association after correction for multiple comparisons. Our study revealed a preliminary finding suggesting that EGR3, a gene that translates environmental stimuli into long-term changes in the brain, warrants further investigation for association with risk for child BP-I disorder in a larger sample. Such studies may help reveal mechanisms by which environment can interact with genetic predisposition to influence this severe mental illness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Absence of epidemic thresholds in a growing adaptive network

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Güven

    2012-01-01

    The structure of social contact networks strongly influences the dynamics of epidemic diseases. In particular the scale-free structure of real-world social networks allows unlikely diseases with low infection rates to spread and become endemic. However, in particular for potentially fatal diseases, also the impact of the disease on the social structure cannot be neglected, leading to a complex interplay. Here, we consider the growth of a network by preferential attachment from which nodes are simultaneously removed due to an SIR epidemic. We show that increased infectiousness increases the prevalence of the disease and simultaneously causes a transition from scale-free to exponential topology. Although a transition to a degree distribution with finite variance takes place, the network still exhibits no epidemic threshold in the thermodynamic limit. We illustrate these results using agent-based simulations and analytically tractable approximation schemes.

  1. Epidemic spreading by objective traveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ming; Liu, Zonghua; Li, Baowen

    2009-07-01

    A fundamental feature of agent traveling in social networks is that traveling is usually not a random walk but with a specific destination and goes through the shortest path from starting to destination. A serious consequence of the objective traveling is that it may result in a fast epidemic spreading, such as SARS etc. In this letter we present a reaction-traveling model to study how the objective traveling influences the epidemic spreading. We consider a random scale-free meta-population network with sub-population at each node. Through a SIS model we theoretically prove that near the threshold of epidemic outbreak, the objective traveling can significantly enhance the final infected population and the infected fraction at a node is proportional to its betweenness for the traveling agents and approximately proportional to its degree for the non-traveling agents. Numerical simulations have confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  2. Surveillance and control of meningococcal meningitis epidemics in refugee populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P S; Toole, M J; Nieburg, P; Waldman, R J; Broome, C V

    1990-01-01

    Epidemics of communicable diseases pose a direct threat to refugee and internally displaced populations, and could lead to high mortality rates and a disruption of basic health care services. Several large refugee populations live in regions of high meningococcal disease endemicity and their camps are at risk for outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis. Surveillance in these camps allows early detection and control of impending outbreaks. Confirmation of meningococcal disease can be performed under field conditions using simple techniques, such as latex agglutination. Isolates should be obtained for serogroup confirmation and antibiotic sensitivity studies at reference laboratories. Serogroup information is used to determine the risk of widespread epidemic disease and the utility of available vaccines. During epidemics, treatment regimens should be standardized, preferably with an effective single-dose antibiotic. Mass vaccination campaigns should be initiated, the populations at high risk being targeted for vaccination as quickly as possible. When the risk of epidemic disease is deemed to be high, preemptive vaccination may be warranted. Daily surveillance using a simple case definition is essential during an epidemic to determine the effectiveness of control measures and to delineate high-risk groups for vaccination or chemoprophylaxis. Many of these recommendations can be applied also to other populations in developing countries.

  3. Promotion of human early embryonic development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro using autocrine/paracrine growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Chen, Yuan; Shu, Yimin; Cheng, Yuan; Qiao, Jie; Behr, Barry; Pera, Renee A Reijo; Hsueh, Aaron J W

    2012-01-01

    Studies using animal models demonstrated the importance of autocrine/paracrine factors secreted by preimplantation embryos and reproductive tracts for embryonic development and implantation. Although in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) is an established procedure, there is no evidence that present culture conditions are optimal for human early embryonic development. In this study, key polypeptide ligands known to be important for early embryonic development in animal models were tested for their ability to improve human early embryo development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro. We confirmed the expression of key ligand/receptor pairs in cleavage embryos derived from discarded human tri-pronuclear zygotes and in human endometrium. Combined treatment with key embryonic growth factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, colony-stimulating factor, epidermal growth factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, and artemin) in serum-free media promoted >2.5-fold the development of tri-pronuclear zygotes to blastocysts. For normally fertilized embryos, day 3 surplus embryos cultured individually with the key growth factors showed >3-fold increases in the development of 6-8 cell stage embryos to blastocysts and >7-fold increase in the proportion of high quality blastocysts based on Gardner's criteria. Growth factor treatment also led to a 2-fold promotion of blastocyst outgrowth in vitro when day 7 surplus hatching blastocysts were used. When failed-to-be-fertilized oocytes were used to perform somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using fibroblasts as donor karyoplasts, inclusion of growth factors increased the progression of reconstructed SCNT embryos to >4-cell stage embryos. Growth factor supplementation of serum-free cultures could promote optimal early embryonic development and implantation in IVF-ET and SCNT procedures. This approach is valuable for infertility

  4. Promotion of human early embryonic development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro using autocrine/paracrine growth factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Kawamura

    Full Text Available Studies using animal models demonstrated the importance of autocrine/paracrine factors secreted by preimplantation embryos and reproductive tracts for embryonic development and implantation. Although in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET is an established procedure, there is no evidence that present culture conditions are optimal for human early embryonic development. In this study, key polypeptide ligands known to be important for early embryonic development in animal models were tested for their ability to improve human early embryo development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro. We confirmed the expression of key ligand/receptor pairs in cleavage embryos derived from discarded human tri-pronuclear zygotes and in human endometrium. Combined treatment with key embryonic growth factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, colony-stimulating factor, epidermal growth factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, and artemin in serum-free media promoted >2.5-fold the development of tri-pronuclear zygotes to blastocysts. For normally fertilized embryos, day 3 surplus embryos cultured individually with the key growth factors showed >3-fold increases in the development of 6-8 cell stage embryos to blastocysts and >7-fold increase in the proportion of high quality blastocysts based on Gardner's criteria. Growth factor treatment also led to a 2-fold promotion of blastocyst outgrowth in vitro when day 7 surplus hatching blastocysts were used. When failed-to-be-fertilized oocytes were used to perform somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT using fibroblasts as donor karyoplasts, inclusion of growth factors increased the progression of reconstructed SCNT embryos to >4-cell stage embryos. Growth factor supplementation of serum-free cultures could promote optimal early embryonic development and implantation in IVF-ET and SCNT procedures. This approach is valuable for

  5. Seed quality characteristics of Pinus halepensis – seed germination strategy and early seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Tsitsoni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pinus halepensis is a Mediterranean tree species occupying areas of high tourist interest, where it forms aesthetic and recreational forests. However, intense human pressure, adverse climatic conditions and overgrazing degrade Aleppo pine forest ecosystems and render the natural regeneration of this species difficult. The ecological, landscape, recreational and soil conservation uses of P. halepensis along with its aesthetic value, make this species important for landscape planning and multi-purpose forestry. For these reasons, artificial regeneration may be required in order to render ecosystem restoration faster. Although P. halepensis is characterized by a high germination capacity and a constant temperature of 20 °C is considered optimal for germination, no research has dealt with the germination behaviour and early growth of seedlings under alternative temperature conditions similar to those dominating outdoors. Moreover, little research was conducted on seed quality characteristics of this species. Thus, in this study seed quality of P. halepensis was estimated by measuring purity, number of seeds per kg, weight of 1000 seeds, average seed weight, seed moisture content and percentage of empty seeds. Also, seed germination capacity, germination rate, percentage of infected and not germinated viable seeds, abnormal seedlings as well as the total seedling length were studied under laboratory (alternative temperature and chamber (constant temperature conditions with the same photoperiod. Results showed that the percentage of empty seeds and abnormal seedlings was extremely low and the total germination percentage was very high (87–90% in both environments. Germination capacity, germination rate and the total length of seedlings did not show any differences among the two growth environments.

  6. Impact of hydrocarbons from a diesel fuel on the germination and early growth of subantarctic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoustra, Gabriella K; King, Catherine K; Wasley, Jane; Robinson, Sharon A; Jolley, Dianne F

    2015-07-01

    Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) is a diesel fuel dominated by aliphatic hydrocarbons that is commonly used in Antarctic and subantarctic regions. The past and present use of SAB fuel at Australia's scientific research stations has resulted in multiple spills, contaminating soils in these pristine areas. Despite this, no soil quality guidelines or remediation targets have been developed for the region, primarily due to the lack of established indigenous test species and subsequent biological effects data. In this study, twelve plant species native to subantarctic regions were collected from Macquarie Island and evaluated to determine their suitably for use in laboratory-based toxicity testing, using germination success and seedling growth (shoot and root length) as endpoints. Two soil types (low and high organic carbon (OC)) were investigated to reflect the variable OC content found in soils on Macquarie Island. These soils were spiked with SAB fuel and aged for 14 days to generate a concentration series of SAB-contaminated soils. Exposure doses were quantified as the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH, nC9-nC18) on a soil dry mass basis. Seven species successfully germinated on control soils under laboratory conditions, and four of these species (Colobanthus muscoides Hook.f., Deschampsia chapmanii Petrie, Epilobium pendunculare A.Cunn. and Luzula crinita Hook.f.) showed a dose-dependent inhibition of germination when exposed to SAB-contaminated soils. Contaminated soils with low OC were generally more toxic to plants than high organic carbon soils. Increasing soil-TPH concentrations significantly inhibited shoot and root growth, and root length was identified as the most sensitive endpoint. Although the test species were tolerant to SAB-contaminated soils in germination assays, development of early life stages (up to 28 days) were generally more sensitive indicator of exposure effects, and may be more useful endpoints for future testing.

  7. FAST MAGNETIC FIELD AMPLIFICATION IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE: GROWTH OF COLLISIONLESS PLASMA INSTABILITIES IN TURBULENT MEDIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falceta-Gonçalves, D. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Kowal, G. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000, São Paulo, SP 03828-000 (Brazil)

    2015-07-20

    In this work we report on a numerical study of the cosmic magnetic field amplification due to collisionless plasma instabilities. The collisionless magnetohydrodynamic equations derived account for the pressure anisotropy that leads, in specific conditions, to the firehose and mirror instabilities. We study the time evolution of seed fields in turbulence under the influence of such instabilities. An approximate analytical time evolution of the magnetic field is provided. The numerical simulations and the analytical predictions are compared. We found that (i) amplification of the magnetic field was efficient in firehose-unstable turbulent regimes, but not in the mirror-unstable models; (ii) the growth rate of the magnetic energy density is much faster than the turbulent dynamo; and (iii) the efficient amplification occurs at small scales. The analytical prediction for the correlation between the growth timescales and pressure anisotropy is confirmed by the numerical simulations. These results reinforce the idea that pressure anisotropies—driven naturally in a turbulent collisionless medium, e.g., the intergalactic medium, could efficiently amplify the magnetic field in the early universe (post-recombination era), previous to the collapse of the first large-scale gravitational structures. This mechanism, though fast for the small-scale fields (∼kpc scales), is unable to provide relatively strong magnetic fields at large scales. Other mechanisms that were not accounted for here (e.g., collisional turbulence once instabilities are quenched, velocity shear, or gravitationally induced inflows of gas into galaxies and clusters) could operate afterward to build up large-scale coherent field structures in the long time evolution.

  8. Growth, development, and behavior in early childhood following prenatal cocaine exposure: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, D A; Augustyn, M; Knight, W G; Pell, T; Zuckerman, B

    2001-03-28

    Despite recent studies that failed to show catastrophic effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, popular attitudes and public policies still reflect the belief that cocaine is a uniquely dangerous teratogen. To critically review outcomes in early childhood after prenatal cocaine exposure in 5 domains: physical growth; cognition; language skills; motor skills; and behavior, attention, affect, and neurophysiology. Search of MEDLINE and Psychological Abstracts from 1984 to October 2000. Studies selected for detailed review (1) were published in a peer-reviewed English-language journal; (2) included a comparison group; (3) recruited samples prospectively in the perinatal period; (4) used masked assessment; and (5) did not include a substantial proportion of subjects exposed in utero to opiates, amphetamines, phencyclidine, or maternal human immunodeficiency virus infection. Thirty-six of 74 articles met criteria and were reviewed by 3 authors. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. After controlling for confounders, there was no consistent negative association between prenatal cocaine exposure and physical growth, developmental test scores, or receptive or expressive language. Less optimal motor scores have been found up to age 7 months but not thereafter, and may reflect heavy tobacco exposure. No independent cocaine effects have been shown on standardized parent and teacher reports of child behavior scored by accepted criteria. Experimental paradigms and novel statistical manipulations of standard instruments suggest an association between prenatal cocaine exposure and decreased attentiveness and emotional expressivity, as well as differences on neurophysiologic and attentional/affective findings. Among children aged 6 years or younger, there is no convincing evidence that prenatal cocaine exposure is associated with developmental toxic effects that are different in severity, scope, or kind from the sequelae of multiple other risk factors. Many findings once thought

  9. Effects of Surface Chemical Composition on the Early Growth Stages of α-Sexithienyl Films on Silicon Oxide Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinelli, Franco; Moulin, Jean-François; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Como, Enrico Da; Massi, Massimiliano; Murgia, Mauro; Muccini, Michele; Biscarini, Fabio; Wie, Jiang; Kingshott, Peter

    2006-01-01

    In organic field effect transistors, charge transport is confined to a narrow region next to the organic/dielectric interface. It is thus extremely important to determine the morphology and the molecular arrangement of the organic films at their early growth stages. On a substrate of technological i

  10. The Impact of Early Academic Growth on College Readiness: A Study of a Suburban Chicago School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, JoAnne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find some of the key factors determining college readiness. School districts are under increased pressure to provide all students with experiences and the preparation to ensure they are college-ready. This study investigates a few key, potential factors in the journey to college readiness: early academic growth,…

  11. The narcissism epidemic is dead : Long live the narcissism epidemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzel, Eunike; Brown, Anna; Hill, Patrick; Chung, J.M.H.; Robins, R.W.; Roberts, B.W.

    2017-01-01

    Are recent cohorts of college students more narcissistic than their predecessors? To address debates about the so-called “narcissism epidemic,” we used data from three cohorts of students (N1990s = 1,166; N2000s = 33,647; N2010s = 25,412) to test whether narcissism levels (overall and specific

  12. The narcissism epidemic is dead : Long live the narcissism epidemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzel, Eunike; Brown, Anna; Hill, Patrick; Chung, J.M.H.; Robins, R.W.; Roberts, B.W.

    2017-01-01

    Are recent cohorts of college students more narcissistic than their predecessors? To address debates about the so-called “narcissism epidemic,” we used data from three cohorts of students (N1990s = 1,166; N2000s = 33,647; N2010s = 25,412) to test whether narcissism levels (overall and specific facet

  13. The emerging epidemic of hypertension in Asian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chong Guk

    2014-12-01

    Hypertension has become a serious global public health burden because of its high incidence and concomitant risk of cardiovascular disease. Many studies have verified that risk factors, such as hypertension and obesity which are responsible for cardiovascular disease, start in early childhood. In Asian countries, the prevalence of hypertension in the pediatric age group has become more prevalent than ever before with the increasing obesity epidemic. To tackle the epidemic of cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of death and disability of non-communicable diseases in Asian countries, population-based measures aiming at reducing harmful environmental factors to blood pressure and body weight must be applied to individuals in their early childhood, as early as the fetal stage. This review focused on the prevalence of pediatric hypertension in Asian countries and outlined several considerations for accurate blood pressure (BP) measurement and evaluation, along with an overview of pathophysiology of fetal programming and obesity related with childhood hypertension.

  14. Immunization of mice with a recombinant adenovirus vaccine inhibits the early growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward O Ronan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection, immune responses are delayed compared to other respiratory infections, so that antigen-specific cells are not detected in the lungs earlier than day 14. Even after parenteral immunization with Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG or a subunit vaccine, the immune response after Mtb challenge is only slightly accelerated and the kinetics of pulmonary Mtb growth do not differ between naïve and immunized animals up to day 14. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mice were immunized intranasally with a recombinant adenovirus expressing mycobacterial antigen 85A (Ad85A, challenged by aerosol with Mtb and the kinetics of Mtb growth in the lungs measured. Intranasal immunization with Ad85A inhibits Mtb growth in the early phase of infection, up to day 8. Protection is sustained for at least 7 months and correlates with the presence of antigen-specific activated effector CD8 T cells in the lungs. Antigen 85A-specific T cells respond to antigen presenting cells from the lungs of mice immunized with Ad85A 23 weeks previously, demonstrating the persistence of antigen in the lungs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Intranasal immunization with Ad85A can inhibit early growth of Mtb because it establishes a lung antigen depot and maintains an activated lung-resident lymphocyte population. We propose that an optimal immunization strategy for tuberculosis should aim to induce both lung and systemic immunity, targeting the early and late phases of Mtb growth.

  15. High VEGF with Rapid Growth and Early Metastasis in a Mouse Osteosarcoma Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-You Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A murine model of osteosarcoma was developed to investigate the association between the expression of VEGF and the progression of osteosarcoma. Two human osteosarcoma cell lines with distinct VEGF expressions were introduced into proximal tibiae of immuno-deficient SCID mice, either by direct injection through the cortical bone or surgical exposing and drilling on the tibial metaphysis to seed tumor cells. Bone tumors were obvious on microCT within 4 weeks following osteosarcoma cell inoculation through surgical delivery. In contrast, direct injection without drilling often resulted in periosteal tumors. Although neoplasms were developed regardless of VEGF levels, orthotopic tumors derived from high VEGF-expressing cells were detected 2 weeks earlier on CT images than the ones from VEGF negative cells. At sacrifice, high VEGF tumors were distinctively larger in size and more frequently invaded the adjacent bone tissue. Multiple metastatic lesions were found in all the lung tissues at 8 weeks from high VEGF group, whereas only 1 of 7 VEGF negative tumors exhibited pulmonary metastasis. Overall, this model developed with the surgical tumor cell delivery results in histological and radiographic features more consistent with primary osteosarcoma. Interestingly, VEGF expression correlates with the early establishment, rapid tumor growth, and the development of pulmonary metastasis.

  16. [Effects of coat and sowing depth on seed germination and early seedling growth of Quercus wutaishanica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xing-Fui; Qiu, Zhi-Hu; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Kao-Wen; Zhou, Yun-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Under shade environment in glasshouse, the effects of seed coat and sowing depth (0, 2, 5, 10 or 15 cm) on seed germination and early seedling growth of Quercus wutaishanica were studied. Seed coat had obvious inhibiting effects on the germination of Q. wutaishanica seeds. The germination percentage of uncoated seeds increased significantly, averagely by 19.4% at different sowing depths. The germination index and vigor index were increased significantly and the germination was speeded in the peeling treatment. The germination percentages of uncoated and coated seeds were the highest at the sowing depth of 2 cm with 78.9% and 62.2%, respectively. The germination index and vigor index were the highest at the sowing depth of 2 cm, while the coefficient of rate of germination were the highest at the sowing depth of 5 cm. Leaf area per seedling and dry mass of seedlings increased significantly in the peeling treatment compared with those in the unpeeling treatment, but specific root length decreased significantly. The shoot height in the peeling and unpeeling treatments were the highest at the sowing depth of 5 cm with 13.8 and 14.2 cm, respectively. With the increasing of sowing depth, the basal stem diameter of seedlings increased, but tap-root length, number of lateral root and maximum of lateral root all decreased. Sowing depth had little influence on dry mass of seedlings.

  17. Increased Nerve Growth Factor Signaling in Sensory Neurons of Early Diabetic Rats Is Corrected by Electroacupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Lucia Nori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN, characterized by early hyperalgesia and increased nerve growth factor (NGF, evolves in late irreversible neuropathic symptoms with reduced NGF support to sensory neurons. Electroacupuncture (EA modulates NGF in the peripheral nervous system, being effective for the treatment of DPN symptoms. We hypothesize that NGF plays an important pathogenic role in DPN development, while EA could be useful in the therapy of DPN by modulating NGF expression/activity. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ injection. One week after STZ, EA was started and continued for three weeks. NGF system and hyperalgesia-related mediators were analyzed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG and in their spinal cord and skin innervation territories. Our results show that four weeks long diabetes increased NGF and NGF receptors and deregulated intracellular signaling mediators of DRG neurons hypersensitization; EA in diabetic rats decreased NGF and NGF receptors, normalized c-Jun N-terminal and p38 kinases activation, decreased transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 ion channel, and possibly activated the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (Nf-κB. In conclusion, NGF signaling deregulation might play an important role in the development of DPN. EA represents a supportive tool to control DPN development by modulating NGF signaling in diabetes-targeted neurons.

  18. Blossoms from black hole seeds: properties and early growth regulated by supernova feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Habouzit, Melanie; Dubois, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    Massive black holes (BHs) inhabit local galaxies, including the Milky Way and some dwarf galaxies. BH formation, occurring at early cosmic times, must account for the properties of BHs in today's galaxies, notably why some galaxies host a BH, and others do not. We investigate the formation, distribution and growth of BH `seeds' by using the adaptive mesh refinement code Ramses. We develop an implementation of BH formation in dense, low-metallicity environments, as advocated by models invoking the collapse of the first generation of stars, or of dense nuclear star clusters. The seed masses are computed one-by-one on-the-fly, based on the star formation rate and the stellar initial mass function. This self-consistent method to seed BHs allows us to study the distribution of BHs in a cosmological context and their evolution over cosmic time. We find that all high-mass galaxies tend to a host a BH, whereas low-mass counterparts have a lower probability of hosting a BH. After the end of the epoch of BH formation, ...

  19. Arecoline stimulated early growth response-1 production in human buccal fibroblasts: suppression by epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Ping; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Deng, Yi-Ting; Kuo, Mark Yen-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Early growth response-1 (Egr-1) protein plays an important role in many human fibrotic diseases. Areca nut chewing is the most important risk factor of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). Egr-1 protein expression in OSF was examined using antibody to Egr-1. Arecoline-induced Egr-1 expression and its signaling pathways were assessed by Western blot analyses in human buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs). Elevated Egr-1 staining was observed in epithelial cells, fibroblast, and inflammatory cells in 7 of 10 OSF cases. Arecoline, a main alkaloid found in the areca nut, stimulated Egr-1 synthesis in BMFs. Pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibitor SP600125, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor PD98059 significantly reduced arecoline-induced Egr-1 synthesis. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibited arecoline-induced Egr-1 synthesis and collagen gel contraction in a dose-responsive manner. Constitutive Egr-1 expression during areca nut chewing may play a role in the pathogenesis of OSF. EGCG could be a good candidate for prevention or treatment of OSF. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. HTLV-1 Tax upregulates early growth response protein 1 through nuclear factor-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingsong; Niu, Zhiguo; Han, Jingxian; Liu, Xihong; Lv, Zhuangwei; Li, Huanhuan; Yuan, Lixiang; Li, Xiangping; Sun, Shuming; Wang, Hui; Huang, Xinxiang

    2017-08-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a complex retrovirus that causes adult T cell leukemia (ATL) in susceptible individuals. The HTLV-1-encoded oncoprotein Tax induces persistent activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) is overexpressed in HTLV-1-infected T cell lines and ATL cells. Here, we showed that both Tax expression and HTLV-1 infection promoted EGR1 overexpression. Loss of the NF-κB binding site in the EGR1 promotor or inhibition of NF-κB activation reduced Tax-induced EGR1 upregulation. Tax mutants unable to activate NF-κB induced only slight EGR1 upregulation as compared with wild-type Tax, confirming NF-κB pathway involvement in EGR1 regulation. Tax also directly interacted with the EGR1 protein and increased endogenous EGR1 stability. Elevated EGR1 in turn promoted p65 nuclear translocation and increased NF-κB activation. These results demonstrate a positive feedback loop between EGR1 expression and NF-κB activation in HTLV-1-infected and Tax-expressing cells. Both NF-κB activation and Tax-induced EGR1 stability upregulated EGR1, which in turn enhanced constitutive NF-κB activation and facilitated ATL progression in HTLV-1-infected cells. These findings suggest EGR1 may be an effective anti-ATL therapeutic target.

  1. Genotypic Variation for Salinity Tolerance in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench Genotypes at Early Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigabu, Endalew

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench is the fifth most economically important crop among cereals in the world. Salinity is an abiotic factor which reduces productivity of sorghum. Exploiting genetic variability to identify salt tolerant genotype is one of the strategies used to overcome salinity. Pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the genetic variation of eleven sorghum genotypes for NaCl salinity response at germination and early seedling stages. The experimental treatments were five NaCl salinity levels (0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 dS m-1 and eleven sorghum genotypes (Gambella1107, Melkam, S-35, ESH-2, Gobye, 97MW6130, Meko, 76T1#23, ICSV-111, Abshir and Teshale. The experimental design was completely randomized design with three replicates.Data was analyzed using SAS (version 9.0 statistical software and means were separated by LSD. Germination rate, final germination percentage, seedling shoot length and seedling root length were measured. The ANOVA for treatments, genotypes and their interaction was found to be highly significant (p<0.001 with regard to all parameters. Genotypes Meko, Gambella1107, ICSV-111 and Melkam were found salt tolerant during germination and seedling growth stages. However, genotypes ESH-2 and Gobye were salt sensitive during both stages. The rest sorghum genotypes were intermediate in their salt tolerance. The study affirmed the presence of wide genotypic variation among the sorghum genotypes for NaCl salt tolerance.

  2. Stimulation of the human CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase gene by early growth response protein 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Johnson, Christa; Bakovic, Marica

    2008-10-01

    Change in phosphoethanolamine pool size in tumor tissues is an important indicator of tumor prognosis and drug therapy efficacy. Phosphoethanolamine is the substrate of the regulatory enzyme CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (ECT) in the de novo biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Metabolic labeling with [14C]ethanolamine revealed a reduced ECT activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, which led to an accumulation of phosphoethanolamine and a decrease in PE synthesis in comparison with MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells. The enhanced ECT activity in MCF-10A cells was due to significantly elevated CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase gene (PCYT2) expression, at the level of promoter activity, mRNA, and protein content. The early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) could account for most of the elevated ECT activity in MCF-10A cells relative to MCF-7 cells, as evidenced by promoter-luciferase reporter assays, gel-shift analyses, and by alterations in the EGR1 gene expression. In MCF-7 cells, EGR1 is present at lower levels and the basal PCYT2 promoter activity is maintained by proximal CAAT and GC regions and by elevated nuclear NFkappaB activity. Together, these data demonstrate that EGR1 is an important transcriptional stimulator of the human PCYT2 and that conditions that modify EGR1 also affect the function of ECT and consequently PE synthesis.

  3. Genetic evidence for the association between the early growth response 3 (EGR3 gene and schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    Full Text Available Recently, two genome scan meta-analysis studies have found strong evidence for the association of loci on chromosome 8p with schizophrenia. The early growth response 3 (EGR3 gene located in chromosome 8p21.3 was also found to be involved in the etiology of schizophrenia. However, subsequent studies failed to replicate this finding. To investigate the genetic role of EGR3 in Chinese patients, we genotyped four SNPs (average interval ∼2.3 kb in the chromosome region of EGR3 in 470 Chinese schizophrenia patients and 480 healthy control subjects. The SNP rs35201266 (located in intron 1 of EGR3 showed significant differences between cases and controls in both genotype frequency distribution (P = 0.016 and allele frequency distribution (P = 0.009. Analysis of the haplotype rs35201266-rs3750192 provided significant evidence for association with schizophrenia (P = 0.0012; a significant difference was found for the common haplotype AG (P = 0.0005. Furthermore, significant associations were also found in several other two-, and three-SNP tests of haplotype analyses. The meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant association between rs35201266 and schizophrenia (P = 0.0001. In summary, our study supports the association of EGR3 with schizophrenia in our Han Chinese sample, and further functional exploration of the EGR3 gene will contribute to the molecular basis for the complex network underlying schizophrenia pathogenesis.

  4. EFFECTS OF EARLY NUTRITION INTERVENTION ON IGF1, IGFBP3, INTESTINAL DEVELOPMENT, AND CATCH-UP GROWTH OF INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-shan Qiu; Ting-ting Huang; Hui-ying Deng; Zhen-yu Shen; Zhi-yong Ke; Kai-yong Mei; Feng Lai

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of early nutritional intervention on the serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1),insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), intestinal development, and catch-up growth of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rats by giving the IUGR new born rats different protein level diet.Methods IUGR rat model was built by starvation of pregnant female rats. Twenty-four IUGR pups and 8 normal pups were divided randomly into 4 groups: normal control group (C group); IUGR control group(S group), IUGR low-protein diet group (SL group), and IUGR high-protein diet group (SH group). Detected the serum IGF1, IGFBP3, body weight,body length, intestinal weight length, intestinal villi height (VH), crypt depth (CD), villi absorbing area (VSA), mucous thickness (MT), and disaccharidase at the 4th week.Results (1) The SH group showed the fastest catch-up growth, serum IGF1, IGFBP3, VH, and VSA were significantly higher than those of normal control group and IUGR control group. The intestinal weight and length, and the activities of lactase and saccharase of the SH group also reached the normal control group level. (2) The SL group kept on small size, the serum IGF1, IGFBP3, and most of intestinal histological indexes were all significantly lower than other groups. (3) IGF-1, IGFBP3 were positively correlated to intestinal VH, VSA, saccharase, body weight and length.Conclusions The serum IGF1 was a sensitive index to the catch-up growth. The early nutritional intervention of highprotein diet after birth is helpful for the catch-up growth of IUGR through promoting the intestinal development and the absorption of nutrition.

  5. Nepalese origin of cholera epidemic in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, R R; Keim, P S; Barrais, R; Piarroux, R

    2012-06-01

    Cholera appeared in Haiti in October 2010 for the first time in recorded history. The causative agent was quickly identified by the Haitian National Public Health Laboratory and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor. Since then, >500 000 government-acknowledged cholera cases and >7000 deaths have occurred, the largest cholera epidemic in the world, with the real death toll probably much higher. Questions of origin have been widely debated with some attributing the onset of the epidemic to climatic factors and others to human transmission. None of the evidence on origin supports climatic factors. Instead, recent epidemiological and molecular-genetic evidence point to the United Nations peacekeeping troops from Nepal as the source of cholera to Haiti, following their troop rotation in early October 2010. Such findings have important policy implications for shaping future international relief efforts. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  6. Modelling dengue epidemic spreading with human mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmak, D. H.; Dorso, C. O.; Otero, M.

    2016-04-01

    We explored the effect of human mobility on the spatio-temporal dynamics of Dengue with a stochastic model that takes into account the epidemiological dynamics of the infected mosquitoes and humans, with different mobility patterns of the human population. We observed that human mobility strongly affects the spread of infection by increasing the final size and by changing the morphology of the epidemic outbreaks. When the spreading of the disease is driven only by mosquito dispersal (flight), a main central focus expands diffusively. On the contrary, when human mobility is taken into account, multiple foci appear throughout the evolution of the outbreaks. These secondary foci generated throughout the outbreaks could be of little importance according to their mass or size compared with the largest main focus. However, the coalescence of these foci with the main one generates an effect, through which the latter develops a size greater than the one obtained in the case driven only by mosquito dispersal. This increase in growth rate due to human mobility and the coalescence of the foci are particularly relevant in temperate cities such as the city of Buenos Aires, since they give more possibilities to the outbreak to grow before the arrival of the low-temperature season. The findings of this work indicate that human mobility could be the main driving force in the dynamics of vector epidemics.

  7. Visual Mining of Epidemic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Clémençon, Stéphan; Rossi, Fabrice; Tran, Viet Chi; 10.1007/978-3-642-21498-1_35

    2012-01-01

    We show how an interactive graph visualization method based on maximal modularity clustering can be used to explore a large epidemic network. The visual representation is used to display statistical tests results that expose the relations between the propagation of HIV in a sexual contact network and the sexual orientation of the patients.

  8. Stochastic Processes in Epidemic Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lefèvre, Claude; Picard, Philippe

    1990-01-01

    This collection of papers gives a representative cross-selectional view of recent developments in the field. After a survey paper by C. Lefèvre, 17 other research papers look at stochastic modeling of epidemics, both from a theoretical and a statistical point of view. Some look more specifically at a particular disease such as AIDS, malaria, schistosomiasis and diabetes.

  9. Epidemic Spread in Human Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sahneh, Faryad Darabi

    2011-01-01

    One of the popular dynamics on complex networks is the epidemic spreading. An epidemic model describes how infections spread throughout a network. Among the compartmental models used to describe epidemics, the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) model has been widely used. In the SIS model, each node can be susceptible, become infected with a given infection rate, and become again susceptible with a given curing rate. In this paper, we add a new compartment to the classic SIS model to account for human response to epidemic spread. Each individual can be infected, susceptible, or alert. Susceptible individuals can become alert with an alerting rate if infected individuals exist in their neighborhood. An individual in the alert state is less probable to become infected than an individual in the susceptible state; due to a newly adopted cautious behavior. The problem is formulated as a continuous-time Markov process on a general static graph and then modeled into a set of ordinary differential equations using...

  10. Epidemic Synchronization in Robotic Swarms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Ngo, Trung Dung

    2009-01-01

    Clock synchronization in swarms of networked mobile robots is studied in a probabilistic, epidemic framework. In this setting communication and synchonization is considered to be a randomized process, taking place at unplanned instants of geographical rendezvous between robots. In combination wit...

  11. Hormonal induction of an immediate-early gene response in myogenic cell lines--a paradigm for heart growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, A; Grohé, C; Kubisch, C; Wollnik, B; Vetter, H; Neyses, L

    1995-05-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by growth of myocardial cells without proliferation. Many endo- paracrine stimuli such as angiotensin II, endothelin, alpha 1-adrenergic agonists, and insulin have been shown to be able to induce cardiac hypertrophy either in vivo or in vitro. We have used the myoblast model of differentiation and proliferation to determine nuclear signal transduction mechanisms in muscle and (by analogy) cardiac growth. The first nuclear event known to occur when a growth stimulus acts upon a cell is induction of a family of immediate-early genes. Our group focused on the role of one of these genes, the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1). We have shown that this gene is induced in isolated adult cardiac myocytes in the presence of endothelin. An anti-sense oligonucleotide complementary to the first six codons of the Egr-1 mRNA abolishes the stimulation of protein synthesis induced by endothelin. In the present study we further characterized paracrine growth stimuli in the myogenic cell line Sol8, which was used as a paradigm to further investigate mechanisms of paracrine growth induction. We demonstrated that a variety of candidate endo- paracrine stimuli for the induction of cardiac hypertrophy induced the Egr-1 messenger RNA in the myogenic cell line Sol8. Among these are endothelin, insulin, basic fibroblast growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF BB). We conclude: (1) In analogy to the myocardium, these growth factors act upon myoblasts. (2) This line appears to be a suitable model for the molecular characterization of Egr-1 target genes.

  12. The global spread of HIV-1 subtype B epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Angelis, Konstantinos; Mamais, Ioannis; Katzourakis, Aris; Hatzakis, Angelos; Albert, Jan; Lawyer, Glenn; Hamouda, Osamah; Struck, Daniel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Wensing, Annemarie; Alexiev, Ivailo; Åsjö, Birgitta; Balotta, Claudia; Gomes, Perpétua; Camacho, Ricardo J; Coughlan, Suzie; Griskevicius, Algirdas; Grossman, Zehava; Horban, Anders; Kostrikis, Leondios G; Lepej, Snjezana J; Liitsola, Kirsi; Linka, Marek; Nielsen, Claus; Otelea, Dan; Paredes, Roger; Poljak, Mario; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elizabeth; Schmit, Jean Claude; Sönnerborg, Anders; Staneková, Danica; Stanojevic, Maja; Stylianou, Dora C; Boucher, Charles A B; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Vasylyeva, Tetyana; Friedman, Samuel R; van de Vijver, David; Angarano, Gioacchino; Chaix, Marie-Laure; de Luca, Andrea; Korn, Klaus; Loveday, Clive; Soriano, Vincent; Yerly, Sabine; Zazzi, Mauricio; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Paraskevis, Dimitrios

    2016-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was discovered in the early 1980s when the virus had already established a pandemic. For at least three decades the epidemic in the Western World has been dominated by subtype B infections, as part of a sub-epidemic that traveled from Africa through Haiti to United States. However, the pattern of the subsequent spread still remains poorly understood. Here we analyze a large dataset of globally representative HIV-1 subtype B strains to map their spread around the world over the last 50years and describe significant spread patterns. We show that subtype B travelled from North America to Western Europe in different occasions, while Central/Eastern Europe remained isolated for the most part of the early epidemic. Looking with more detail in European countries we see that the United Kingdom, France and Switzerland exchanged viral isolates with non-European countries than with European ones. The observed pattern is likely to mirror geopolitical landmarks in the post-World War II era, namely the rise and the fall of the Iron Curtain and the European colonialism. In conclusion, HIV-1 spread through specific migration routes which are consistent with geopolitical factors that affected human activities during the last 50years, such as migration, tourism and trade. Our findings support the argument that epidemic control policies should be global and incorporate political and socioeconomic factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Skeletal muscle protease activities in the early growth and development of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Liudmila A; Kantserova, Nadezda P; Kaivarainen, Elena I; Krupnova, Marina Yu; Nemova, Nina N

    2017-09-01

    Growth-related dynamics of intracellular protease activities in four year classes of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. 1758) parr and smolts inhabiting salmon rivers of northwestern Russia (the White Sea basin) were studied. Cathepsin B, cathepsin D, proteasome, and calpain activities in the skeletal muscles of salmon were assessed to investigate their relative contribution to the total protein degradation as well as to young fish growth process. It was confirmed that calpain activity dominates in salmon muscles while proteasome plays a minor role, in contrast to terrestrial vertebrates. Calpain and proteasome activities were maximal at the early post-larval stage (in parrs 0+) and declined with age (parrs 1+ through 2+) dropping to the lowest level in salmon smolts. Annual growth increments and proteolytic activities of calpains and proteasome in the muscles of salmon juveniles changed with age in an orchestrated manner, while lysosomal cathepsin activities increased with age. Comparing protease activities and growth increments in salmon parr and smolts we suggested that the partial suppression of the protein degradation could be a mechanism stimulating efficient growth in smoltifying salmon. Growth and smoltification-related dynamics of protease activities was quite similar in salmon populations from studied spawning rivers, such as Varzuga and Indera; however, some habitat-related differences were observed. Growth increments and protease activities varied in salmon parr 0+ (but not on later ages) inhabiting either main rivers or small tributaries apparently due to habitat difference on the resources for fish growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of Insulinlike Growth Factor 1 in Fetal Development and in the Early Postnatal Life of Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Ann; Ley, David; Hansen-Pupp, Ingrid; Hallberg, Boubou; Ramenghi, Luca A; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Smith, Lois E H; Hård, Anna-Lena

    2016-09-01

    The neonatal period of very preterm infants is often characterized by a difficult adjustment to extrauterine life, with an inadequate nutrient supply and insufficient levels of growth factors, resulting in poor growth and a high morbidity rate. Long-term multisystem complications include cognitive, behavioral, and motor dysfunction as a result of brain damage as well as visual and hearing deficits and metabolic disorders that persist into adulthood. Insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a major regulator of fetal growth and development of most organs especially the central nervous system including the retina. Glucose metabolism in the developing brain is controlled by IGF-1 which also stimulates differentiation and prevents apoptosis. Serum concentrations of IGF-1 decrease to very low levels after very preterm birth and remain low for most of the perinatal development. Strong correlations have been found between low neonatal serum concentrations of IGF-1 and poor brain and retinal growth as well as poor general growth with multiorgan morbidities, such as intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that early supplementation with IGF-1 can improve growth in catabolic states and reduce brain injury after hypoxic/ischemic events. A multicenter phase II study is currently underway to determine whether intravenous replacement of human recombinant IGF-1 up to normal intrauterine serum concentrations can improve growth and development and reduce prematurity-associated morbidities.

  15. A note on fractional linear pure birth and pure death processes in epidemic models

    CERN Document Server

    Garra, Roberto; 10.1016/j.physa.2011.06.005

    2011-01-01

    In this note we highlight the role of fractional linear birth and linear death processes recently studied in \\citet{sakhno} and \\citet{pol}, in relation to epidemic models with empirical power law distribution of the events. Taking inspiration from a formal analogy between the equation of self consistency of the epidemic type aftershock sequences (ETAS) model, and the fractional differential equation describing the mean value of fractional linear growth processes, we show some interesting applications of fractional modelling to study \\textit{ab initio} epidemic processes without the assumption of any empirical distribution. We also show that, in the frame of fractional modelling, subcritical regimes can be linked to linear fractional death processes and supercritical regimes to linear fractional birth processes. Moreover we discuss a simple toy model to underline the possible application of these stochastic growth models to more general epidemic phenomena such as tumoral growth.

  16. Growth hormone (GH) treatment reverses early atherosclerotic changes in GH-deficient adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, M; Verhovec, R; Zizek, B; Prezelj, J; Poredos, P; Clayton, R N

    1999-02-01

    Hypopituitary patients have increased mortality from vascular disease, and in these patients, early markers of atherosclerosis [increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and reduced distensibility] are more prevalent. As GH replacement can reverse some risk factors of atherosclerosis, the present study examined the effect of GH treatment on morphological and functional changes in the carotid and brachial arteries of GH-deficient (GHD) adults. Eleven GHD hypopituitary men (24-49 yr old) were treated with recombinant human GH (0.018 U/kg BW x day) for 18 months. IMT of the common carotid artery (CCA) and the carotid bifurcation (CB), and flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) of the brachial artery were measured by B mode ultrasound before and at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months of treatment, and values were compared with those in 12 age-matched control men. Serum concentrations of lipids, lipoprotein(a), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were also measured. In GHD men before treatment the IMTs of the CCA [mean(SD), 0.67(0.05) mm] and CB [0.75(0.04) mm] were significantly greater (P < 0.001) than those in control men [0.52(0.07) and 0.65(0.07) mm, respectively]. GH treatment normalized the IMT of the CCA by 6 months [0.53(0.04) mm] and that of the CB by 3 months [0.68(0.05) mm]. The IMT of the carotid artery (CCA and CB) was negatively correlated with serum IGF-I (r = -0.53; P < 0.0001). There was a significant improvement in flow-mediated EDD of the brachial artery at 3 months, which was sustained at 6 and 18 months of GH treatment (P < 0.05). GH treatment increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol at 3 and 6 months, but did not reduce total or low density lipoprotein cholesterol and was without effect on lipoprotein(a). There was no correlation between plasma lipids and changes in IMT or EDD of the arteries examined. In conclusion, GH treatment of hypopituitary GHD men reverses early morphological and

  17. Association of myostatin on early calf mortality, growth, and carcass composition traits in crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L; Cundiff, L V

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a potential association of an inactive myostatin allele with early calf mortality, and evaluate its effect on growth and carcass traits in a crossbred population. Animals were obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British Breed) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford, Angus, Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Belgian Blue was the source of the inactive myostatin allele. Myostatin genotypes were determined for all animals including those that died before weaning. Early calf mortality was examined in the F2 subpopulation (n = 154), derived from the F1 sires mated to F1 cows from Belgian Blue sires, to evaluate animals with zero, one, or two copies of inactive myostatin allele. An overall 1:2:1 ratio (homozygous active myostatin allele:heterozygous:homozygous inactive myostatin allele) was observed in the population; however, a comparison between calves dying before weaning and those alive at slaughter showed an unequal distribution across genotypes (P Carcass composition traits analyzed were hot carcass weight, fat thickness, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, retail product yield and weight, fat yield and weight, bone yield and weight, and percentage of carcasses classified as Choice. Charolais lack the inactive myostatin allele segregating in Belgian Blue; thus, in the population sired by Charolais (n = 645), only animals with zero or one copy of the inactive myostatin allele were evaluated. Animals carrying one copy were heavier at birth and at weaning, and their carcasses were leaner and more muscled. In the population sired by Belgian Blue x British Breed (n = 725), animals with two copies of inactive myostatin allele were heavier at birth, leaner, and had a higher proportion of muscle mass than animals with zero or one copies

  18. Epidemics spreading in interconnected complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Institute of High Performance Computing, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Xiao, G., E-mail: egxxiao@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2012-09-03

    We study epidemic spreading in two interconnected complex networks. It is found that in our model the epidemic threshold of the interconnected network is always lower than that in any of the two component networks. Detailed theoretical analysis is proposed which allows quick and accurate calculations of epidemic threshold and average outbreak/epidemic size. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that, generally speaking, the epidemic size is not significantly affected by the inter-network correlation. In interdependent networks which can be viewed as a special case of interconnected networks, however, impacts of inter-network correlation on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size are more significant. -- Highlights: ► We study epidemic spreading in two interconnected complex networks. ► The epidemic threshold is lower than that in any of the two networks. And Interconnection correlation has impacts on threshold and average outbreak size. ► Detailed theoretical analysis is proposed which allows quick and accurate calculations of epidemic threshold and average outbreak/epidemic size. ► We demonstrated and proved that Interconnection correlation does not affect epidemic size significantly. ► In interdependent networks, impacts of inter-network correlation on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size are more significant.

  19. Observed Effects of Vegetation Growth on Temperature in the Early Summer over the Northeast China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaxiang Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vegetation on temperature is an emerging topic in the climate science community. Existing studies have mostly examined the effects of vegetation on daytime temperature (Tmax, whereas this study investigates the effects on nighttime temperature (Tmin. Ground measurements from 53 sites across northeastern China (NEC from 1982 to 2006 show that early summer (June Tmax and Tmin increased at mean rates of approximately 0.61 °C/10 year and 0.67 °C/10 year, respectively. Over the same period, the satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI decreased by approximately 0.10 (accounting for 18% of the climatological NDVI for 1982–1991. It is highlighted that a larger increase in Tmax (Tmin co-occurred spatially with a larger (smaller decrease in NDVI. Deriving from such spatial co-occurrences, we found that the spatial variability of changes in Tmax (i.e., ΔTmax is negatively correlated with the spatial variability of changes in NDVI (i.e., ΔNDVI, while the spatial variability of changes in Tmin (i.e., ΔTmin is positively correlated (r2 = 0.10; p < 0.05 with that of ΔNDVI. Similarly, we detected significant positive correlations between the spatial variability of ΔNDVI and the change in surface latent heat flux (r2 = 0.16; p < 0.01 and in surface air specific humidity (r2 = 0.28; p < 0.001. These findings on the spatial co-occurrences suggest that the vegetation growth intensifies the atmospheric water vapor through evapotranspiration, which enhances the atmospheric downward longwave radiation and strengthens the greenhouse warming effects at night. Thereby, the positive correlation between ΔNDVI and ΔTmin is better understood. These results indicate that vegetation growth may not only exert effects on daytime temperature but also exert warming effects on nighttime temperature by increasing atmospheric water vapor and thus intensifying the local greenhouse effect. This study presents new observation evidence of the

  20. Ammonia Volatilization from Urea-Application Influenced Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Dry Direct-Seeded Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor seed germination and early seedling growth associated with urea-induced soil ammonia volatilization are major constraints in the adoption of dry direct-seeded rice. To directly examine soil ammonia volatilization and its damage to seed germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seeded rice when urea is applied at seeding, two Petri-dish incubation experiments and a field experiment were conducted. Ammonia volatilization due to urea application significantly reduced seed germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seedling rice. NBPT significantly reduced ammonia volatilization following urea application. The application of ammonium sulfate, instead of urea at seeding, may mitigate poor crop establishment of dry direct-seeded rice. Root growth of dry direct-seeded rice was more seriously inhibited by soil ammonia volatilization than that of shoot. Results suggest that roots are more sensitive to soil ammonia toxicity than shoots in dry direct-seeded rice system when N is applied as urea at seeding.

  1. The relative importance of above- versus belowground competition for tree growth during early succession of a tropical moist forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breugel, Michiel van; van Breugel, Paulo; Jansen, Patrick A.

    2012-01-01

    fertility in Southern Mexico, using the premise that competition for light is size-asymmetric, unlike competition for nutrients. Plant growth is thus expected to be disproportionally impeded by larger neighbors. We studied how growth and survival of 3.5-5.5 m tall saplings of Cecropia peltata......Competition between neighboring plants plays a major role in the population dynamics of tree species in the early phases of humid tropical forest succession. We evaluated the relative importance of above-versus below-ground competition during the first years of old-field succession on soil with low...... in diameter and height growth of the target saplings. Most growth variables were strongly affected by the neighbors bigger than the focal trees with no significant additive effect of the smaller neighbors, indicating asymmetric competition. Smaller neighbors did have a small but significant additive effect...

  2. Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis and lacrimal excretory system obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, K J; Berger, S T

    1988-10-01

    Epiphora is a common symptom associated with the acute phase of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC). Reflex lacrimal secretion occurs secondary to conjunctival or corneal inflammation. Acquired obstruction of the lacrimal excretory system may account for persistence of tearing after resolution of the acute inflammatory phase of the viral infection. Three cases of lacrimal excretory system obstruction after EKC are reported. Multifocal obstruction of the canaliculi and nasolacrimal duct is characteristic. Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) was required to relieve obstruction in all cases. Probing and corticosteroid irrigation may avoid the need for silicone intubation or conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy in the management of canalicular obstruction. Persistent epiphora after EKC should raise clinical suspicion of acquired dacryostenosis. Early recognition may allow for optimal management.

  3. Loss of transcription factor early growth response gene 1 results in impaired endochondral bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reumann, Marie K; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Stephen B; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp

    2011-10-01

    Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1(-/-) mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1(-/-) mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1(-/-) callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Residual Influence of Early Season Crop Fertilization and Cropping System on Growth and Yield of Cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Makinde

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In assessing fertilizer effects to sustain an intensive cropping system, the residual effects of fertilizer applied to preceding maize on the growth and yield of cassava and the effects of intercropping with soybean were studied in field experiments at Ibadan, Nigeria. Approach: Maize, established in April was fertilized using either organic manure or inorganic fertilizer or a mixture of organic manure and inorganic fertilizers. Organic manure was an equal mixture of domestic waste collected from a composted refuse dumping site applied at l0 t ha-1. Inorganic fertilizer was 150kg N supplied as urea and 50 kg P ha-1 as Single Super phosphate fertilizer. The mixture of organic and inorganic fertilizer treatment was 5 tonnes organic manure and 75kg N+25 kg P ha-1. Cassava was established in June and soybean planted in July, after harvesting maize. Results: Organic fertilizer treatment gave the tallest plants of 53 cm. Plants from sole inorganic fertilizer and from a mixture of organic and inorganic fertilizers had comparable heights but were significantly lower than plants from sole organic fertilizer application. Organic fertilizer application gave the highest seed yield of 481 kg ha-1 that was significantly higher than 380 kg ha-1 observed from a mixture of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Stover yield followed the same trend as seed yield. Cassava plant height was increased with fertilization but was reduced with intercropping. Sole organic fertilization had the tallest plants. Plant leaf area was neither significantly affected by fertilizer type nor cropping system. Fresh root yield was significantly reduced by 16% with soybean intercropping. Sole organic fertilizer application gave the highest yields of 22 tons ha-1 in sole crop and 18 tons ha-1 in intercrop with soybean. Conclusion: Cultivating an early season maize crop, followed by a cassava-soybean intercrop is more

  5. Degree of host susceptibility in the initial disease outbreak influences subsequent epidemic spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severns, Paul M; Estep, Laura K; Sackett, Kathryn E; Mundt, Christopher C

    2014-12-01

    Disease epidemics typically begin as an outbreak of a relatively small, spatially explicit population of infected individuals (focus), in which disease prevalence increases and rapidly spreads into the uninfected, at-risk population. Studies of epidemic spread typically address factors influencing disease spread through the at-risk population, but the initial outbreak may strongly influence spread of the subsequent epidemic.We initiated wheat stripe rust Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici epidemics to assess the influence of the focus on final disease prevalence when the degree of disease susceptibility differed between the at-risk and focus populations.When the focus/at-risk plantings consisted of partially genetic resistant and susceptible cultivars, final disease prevalence was statistically indistinguishable from epidemics produced by the focus cultivar in monoculture. In these experimental epidemics, disease prevalence was not influenced by the transition into an at-risk population that differed in disease susceptibility. Instead, the focus appeared to exert a dominant influence on the subsequent epidemic.Final disease prevalence was not consistently attributable to either the focus or the at-risk population when focus/at-risk populations were planted in a factorial set-up with a mixture (~28% susceptible and 72% resistant) and susceptible individuals. In these experimental epidemics, spatial heterogeneity in disease susceptibility within the at-risk population appeared to counter the dominant influence of the focus.Cessation of spore production from the focus (through fungicide/glyphosate application) after 1.3 generations of stripe rust spread did not reduce final disease prevalence, indicating that the focus influence on disease spread is established early in the epidemic.Synthesis and applications. Our experiments indicated that outbreak conditions can be highly influential on epidemic spread, even when disease resistance in the at-risk population is

  6. α-fetoprotein, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 and early recurrence of hepatoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshiya Kamiyama; Masato Takahashi; Kazuaki Nakanishi; Hideki Yokoo; Hirofumi Kamachi; Nozomi Kobayashi; Michitaka Ozaki; Satoru Todo

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether α-fetoprotein (AFP) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1 correlate with early recurrence of hepatoma/hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: From 2000 to 2005, 114 consecutive patients with HCC underwent primary curative hepatectomy. The mean age was 60.7 (8.7) years and 94 patients were male. The median follow-up period was 71.2 mo (range: 43-100 mo). Immediately prior to commencing laparotomy, 5 mL bone marrow was aspirated from thesternum and collected in citrate-coated test tubes. The initial 2 mL of bone marrow aspirate was discarded in each case. AFP mRNA and VEGFR-1 mRNA in the bone marrow and peripheral blood (BM-and PH-AFP mRNA and BM-and PH-VEGFR-1 mRNA, respectively) were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. As normal controls, VEGFR-1 mRNA in the bone marrow and peripheral blood was also measured in 11 living liver donors. These data were evaluated for any correlation with early recurrence, comparing clinical and pathological outcomes. RESULTS: The cut-off value of the BM-AFP mRNA and PH-AFP mRNA level in patients with HCC was set at 1.92 × 10-7 and zero, respectively, based on data from the controls. A total of 34 (29.8%) and six (5.4%) patients were positive for BM-AFP mRNA and PH-AFP mRNA, respectively. The BM-VEGFR-1 mRNA levels in all HCC patients were higher than those in the normal controls, and this was the case also for PH-VEGFR-1mRNA. The 25-percentile values for the BM-and PH-VEGFR-1 mRNA in HCC patients were used as the cut-off values for assigning the patients into two groups based on these transcript levels. The High group for BM-VEGFR-1 mRNA contained 81 (71.1%) HCC cases and the Low group was assigned 33 (28.9%) patients. These numbers for PH-VEGFR-1mRNA were 78 (75.0%) and 26 (25.0%), respectively. HCC recurred in 80 patients; in the remnant liver in 48 cases, in the remnant liver and remote tissue in 20, and in the remote tissue alone in

  7. Increased growth in environmental technology - More capital in early stages; Oekad tillvaext inom miljoeteknik - Mer kapital i tidiga skeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubelius, Andreas; Axelsson, Helene; Fjaellstroem, Mikael; Agnvall, Dag; Olsson, Erik

    2011-07-01

    Swedish environmental technology companies has great growth potential. The transition to a renewable and energy-efficient energy systems and greater attention to the ecosystem, creates a growing international demand for products and services. The Energy Agency has received a government commission to develop proposals that contribute to stronger collaboration and increased communication between those involved in environmental engineering with the aim of increasing environmental technology companies access to capital in the early commercial stages, with particular focus on small and medium-sized players. The Energy Agency submits proposals for action that will lead to increased growth of Swedish environmental technology companies

  8. Obesity as malnutrition: the role of capitalism in the obesity global epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C K

    2012-01-01

    The global obesity epidemic remains poorly understood, partly because it has emerged alongside persisting under-nutrition in many populations. At an abstract level, obesity develops from exposure to the "obesogenic niche," comprising diverse factors predisposing to weight gain. This article first explores how susceptibility to the obesogenic niche is influenced by developmental and life-history experience. Human growth is sensitive to early-life ecological conditions, under the transducing effect of maternal phenotype. Such plasticity is associated with subsequent variability in body composition and metabolism, impacting susceptibility to the obesogenic niche, albeit with heterogeneity across populations. Both nutritional constraint and nutritional excess during early life are associated with variability in relevant molecular pathways. The article then considers the fundamental contribution of capitalist economics to population under-nutrition and over-nutrition. Historically, capitalism contributed to the under-nutrition of many populations through demand for cheap labor. As the limiting factor for economic growth switched to consumption, capitalism has increasingly driven consumer behavior inducing widespread over-nutrition. In populations undergoing nutritional transition, many individuals encounter both under- and over-nutrition within the life course, elevating both susceptibility and exposure to the obesogenic niche. The interactions between global economic forces and nutritional shifts are distributed across generations, and are strongly transduced by maternal effects. The structural connections between undernourished and overnourished worldwide and between under- and over-nutrition within individual life-courses highlight the central role of capitalist economics in the global obesity epidemic. Prevention policies targeting individual behavior have proved ineffective and economic policies are arguably the optimal target for intervention. Copyright © 2012

  9. Malaria hotspot areas in a highland Kenya site are consistent in epidemic and non-epidemic years and are associated with ecological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Kacey C

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria epidemics in highland areas of East Africa have caused considerable morbidity and mortality in the past two decades. Knowledge of "hotspot" areas of high malaria incidence would allow for focused preventive interventions in resource-poor areas, particularly if the hotspot areas can be discerned during non-epidemic periods and predicted by ecological factors. Methods To address this issue, spatial distribution of malaria incidence and the relationship of ecological factors to malaria incidence were assessed in the highland area of Kipsamoite, Kenya, from 2001–2004. Results Clustering of disease in a single geographic "hotspot" area occurred in epidemic and non-epidemic years, with a 2.6 to 3.2-fold increased risk of malaria inside the hotspot, as compared to outside the area (P Conclusion In this highland area, areas of high malaria risk are consistent in epidemic and non-epidemic years and are associated with specific ecological risk factors. Ongoing interventions in areas of ecological risk factors could be a cost-effective method of significantly reducing malaria incidence and blunting or preventing epidemics, even in the absence of malaria early warning systems. Further studies should be conducted to see if these findings hold true in varied highland settings.

  10. Large measles epidemic in the Netherlands, May 2013 to March 2014: changing epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudenberg, Tom; van Binnendijk, Rob S; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Wallinga, Jacco; de Melker, Hester E; Ruijs, Wilhelmina L M; Hahné, Susan J M

    2017-01-19

    Since the early 1990s, the Netherlands has experienced several large measles epidemics, in 1992-94, 1999-2000 and in 2013-14. These outbreaks mainly affected orthodox Protestants, a geographically clustered population with overall lower measles-mumps-rubella first dose (MMR-1) vaccination coverage (60%) than the rest of the country (> 95%). In the 2013-14 epidemic described here, which occurred between 27 May 2013 and 12 March 2014, 2,700 cases were reported. Several control measures were implemented including MMR vaccination for 6-14-month-olds and recommendations to reduce the risk in healthcare workers. The vast majority of reported cases were unvaccinated (94%, n = 2,539), mostly for religious reasons (84%, n = 2,135). The median age in the epidemic was 10 years, 4 years older than in the previous epidemic in 1999-2000. A likely explanation is that the inter-epidemic interval before the 2013-2014 epidemic was longer than the interval before the 1999-2000 epidemic. The size of the unvaccinated orthodox Protestant community is insufficient to allow endemic transmission of measles in the Netherlands. However, large epidemics are expected in the future, which is likely to interfere with measles elimination in the Netherlands and elsewhere. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  11. Large measles epidemic in the Netherlands, May 2013 to March 2014: changing epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudenberg, Tom; van Binnendijk, Rob S.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Wallinga, Jacco; de Melker, Hester E.; Ruijs, Wilhelmina L. M.; Hahné, Susan J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, the Netherlands has experienced several large measles epidemics, in 1992–94, 1999–2000 and in 2013–14. These outbreaks mainly affected orthodox Protestants, a geographically clustered population with overall lower measles-mumps-rubella first dose (MMR-1) vaccination coverage (60%) than the rest of the country (> 95%). In the 2013–14 epidemic described here, which occurred between 27 May 2013 and 12 March 2014, 2,700 cases were reported. Several control measures were implemented including MMR vaccination for 6–14-month-olds and recommendations to reduce the risk in healthcare workers. The vast majority of reported cases were unvaccinated (94%, n = 2,539), mostly for religious reasons (84%, n = 2,135). The median age in the epidemic was 10 years, 4 years older than in the previous epidemic in 1999–2000. A likely explanation is that the inter-epidemic interval before the 2013–2014 epidemic was longer than the interval before the 1999–2000 epidemic. The size of the unvaccinated orthodox Protestant community is insufficient to allow endemic transmission of measles in the Netherlands. However, large epidemics are expected in the future, which is likely to interfere with measles elimination in the Netherlands and elsewhere. PMID:28128092

  12. Performance of Jatropha curcas L. in Semi-arid Zone: Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Early Field Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif AHAMAD

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of information on basic agronomic properties of Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha cultivation on the marginal lands in the semi-arids. Evaluation of agronomic performance of identified elite strains of J. curcas in marginal lands would be of paramount importance for addressing gap areas in their agronomic properties and subsequently for harnessing their optimum economic potentials. The present study undertook the task of analysing the growth performance of a high oil bearing elite strain of J. curcas–DARL-2 in degraded land in semi-arid zone of Deccan Plateau, India. While undertaking the assessment of growth performance of elite strain DARL-2, two other native (wild strains (namely AHN-1 and AHN-2 of J. curcas were also considered so that a comparative evaluation could be carried out. The role of gypsum was also investigated on J. curcas in the nursery stage as well its carry over effects on growth performance of transplanted trees in the field. Two types of substrates, gypsum-treated soil (GS and untreated soil (SL were used for growing seedlings of all the three jatropha strains. Seedlings (120-days-old of DARL-2 exhibited greater plant height, collar diameter and number of branches but root length was greater in the local strains. In the second year of field transplantation, DARL-2 strain exhibited significantly (p<0.05 greater plant height and number of branches/plant. No carry over effects of gypsum treatment were observed in field transplanted plants as none of the growth parameters significantly varied among the substrate types.

  13. Genetic parameters for litter size, piglet growth and sow's early growth and body composition in the Chinese-European line Tai Zumu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banville, M; Riquet, J; Bahon, D; Sourdioux, M; Canario, L

    2015-08-01

    Genetics of piglet growth in association with sow's early growth and body composition were estimated in the Tai Zumu line. Piglet and sow's litter growth traits were calculated from individual weights collected at birth and at 3 weeks of age. Sow's litter traits included the number of piglets born alive (NBA), the mean piglet weight (MW) and the standard deviation of weights within the litter (SDW). Sow's early growth was measured by the age at 100 kg (A100), and body composition included backfat thickness (BF100). A main objective of this study was to estimate separately the direct genetic effect (d) and the maternal genetic effect (m) on piglet weight and daily weight gain during lactation. Variance components were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood methodology based on animal models. The heritability estimates were 0.19 for NBA, 0.15 and 0.26 for SDW and MW at 3 weeks and 0.42 and 0.70 for A100 and BF100. The NBA was almost independent from SDW. Conversely, the A100 and BF100 were correlated unfavourably with SDW (rg piglet weight at birth and daily weight gain accounted for 12% (h(²) (d) = 0.02) and 50% (h(²) (d) = 0.11) of the genetic variance, respectively. The association between d and m for piglet weight was not different from zero at birth (rg = 0.19, SE = 0.27), but a strong antagonism between d and m for daily weight gain from birth to 3 weeks was found (rg = -0.41, SE = 0.17). Substantial direct and maternal genetic effects influenced piglet growth until weaning in opposite way.

  14. Multiple routes transmitted epidemics on multiplex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dawei [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 145, Beijing 100876 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Computer Network, Shandong Computer Science Center, Jinan 250014 (China); Li, Lixiang [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 145, Beijing 100876 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Peng, Haipeng, E-mail: penghaipeng@bupt.edu.cn [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 145, Beijing 100876 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Luo, Qun; Yang, Yixian [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 145, Beijing 100876 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2014-02-01

    This letter investigates the multiple routes transmitted epidemic process on multiplex networks. We propose detailed theoretical analysis that allows us to accurately calculate the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. It is found that the epidemic can spread across the multiplex network even if all the network layers are well below their respective epidemic thresholds. Strong positive degree–degree correlation of nodes in multiplex network could lead to a much lower epidemic threshold and a relatively smaller outbreak size. However, the average similarity of neighbors from different layers of nodes has no obvious effect on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. -- Highlights: •We studies multiple routes transmitted epidemic process on multiplex networks. •SIR model and bond percolation theory are used to analyze the epidemic processes. •We derive equations to accurately calculate the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. •ASN has no effect on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. •Strong positive DDC leads to a lower epidemic threshold and a smaller outbreak size.

  15. Hepatocellular carcinoma and industrial epidemics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alain Braillon; Gérard Dubois

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, the burden of the non viral causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is usually underestimated. Clearly industrial goods, tobacco, alcohol and processed foods are the agents of new epidemics in modern times which far outscore the burden of infectious agents on morbidity and mortality. Smoking, a dose-related contributing factor for HCC, receives too little attention in clinical practice. In France, tobacco, hepatitis B and C virus and alcohol are the main risk factors for HCC mortality (33%, 31% and 26%, respectively). In developing countries, where tobacco consumption is dramatically increasing, this epidemic may soon surpass hepatitis B. Obesity and diabetes are the contributing factors too. The role of industrial processed foods in the increase of the prevalence of obesity and diabetes cannot be ignored.

  16. The Economics of Epidemic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitri, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Epidemic, infectious, diseases affect a large number of individuals across developing as well as developed countries. With reference to some very simple diffusion models, in this paper we consider how available economic resources could be optimally allocated by health authorities to mitigate, possibly eradicate, the disease. Optimality was defined as the minimization of the long run number of infected people. The main goal of the work has been to introduce a methodology for deciding if it would be best to concentrate resources to prevent contact between individuals and with an external source, or to develop a new treatment for curing the disease, or both. The analysis suggests that this depends on the cost functions, that is the available technology, for controlling the relevant parameters underlying the epidemics as well as on the available financial resources. In the case of the recent Ebola outbreak, the suggestions of the model have been consistent with the policies adopted.

  17. Early positive effects of tree species richness on herbivory in a large-scale forest biodiversity experiment influence tree growth

    OpenAIRE

    Schuldt, Andreas; Bruelheide, Helge; Härdtle, Werner; Assmann, Thorsten; Li, Ying; Ma, Keping; von Oheimb, Goddert; Zhang, Jiayong

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of herbivory for the structure and functioning of species-rich forests, little is known about how herbivory is affected by tree species richness, and more specifically by random vs. non-random species loss. We assessed herbivore damage and its effects on tree growth in the early stage of a large-scale forest biodiversity experiment in subtropical China that features random and non-random extinction scenarios of tree mixtures numbering between one and 24 species. In cont...

  18. Epidemic of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in Denmark, 2010 and 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldum, S A; Bangsborg, J M; Gahrn-Hansen, B;

    2012-01-01

    Denmark experienced two waves of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection during autumn and early winter in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Both affected the whole country. The proportion of positive results was almost the same for both, indicating that the two waves were probably of equal size. High macroli...... consumption during the epidemics did not seem to affect levels of macrolide resistance in M. pneumoniae, which remain low in Demark (1% to 3%)....

  19. Seed Priming Influence on Early Crop Growth, Phenological Development and Yield Performance of Linola (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hafeez ur Rehman; Muhammad Qaiser Nawaz; Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed Basra; Irfan Afzal; Azra Yasmeen; Fayyaz ul-Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Reduced early crop growth and limited branching are amongst yield limiting factors of linola. Field response of seed priming treatments viz. 50 mmol L-1 salicylic acid (SA), 2.2%CaCl2 and 3.3%moringa leaf extract (MLE) including untreated dry and hydropriming controls was evaluated on early crop growth and yield performance of linola. Osmopriming with CaCl2 reduced emergence time and produced the highest seedling fresh and dry weights including Chl. a contents. Osmopriming with CaCl2 reduced crop branching and lfowering and maturity times and had the maximum plant height, number of branches, tillers, pods and seeds per pod followed by MLE. Increase in seed weight, biological and seed yields was 9.30, 34.16 and 39.49%, harvest index (4.12%) and oil contents (13.39%) for CaCl2 osmopriming. Positive relationship between emergence and seedling vigor traits, 100-seed weight, seed yield with maturity time, 100-seed weight and seed yield were found. The study concludes that seed osmopriming with CaCl2 or MLE can play signiifcant role to improve early crop growth and seed yields of linola.

  20. Networked SIS Epidemics with Awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Paarporn, Keith; Weitz, Joshua S; Shamma, Jeff S

    2016-01-01

    We study an SIS epidemic process over a static contact network where the nodes have partial information about the epidemic state. They react by limiting their interactions with their neighbors when they believe the epidemic is currently prevalent. A node's awareness is weighted by the fraction of infected neighbors in their social network, and a global broadcast of the fraction of infected nodes in the entire network. The dynamics of the benchmark (no awareness) and awareness models are described by discrete-time Markov chains, from which mean-field approximations (MFA) are derived. The states of the MFA are interpreted as the nodes' probabilities of being infected. We show a sufficient condition for existence of a "metastable", or endemic, state of the awareness model coincides with that of the benchmark model. Furthermore, we use a coupling technique to give a full stochastic comparison analysis between the two chains, which serves as a probabilistic analogue to the MFA analysis. In particular, we show that...

  1. Understanding the Cholera Epidemic, Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrais, Robert; Faucher, Benoît; Haus, Rachel; Piarroux, Martine; Gaudart, Jean; Magloire, Roc; Raoult, Didier

    2011-01-01

    After onset of a cholera epidemic in Haiti in mid-October 2010, a team of researchers from France and Haiti implemented field investigations and built a database of daily cases to facilitate identification of communes most affected. Several models were used to identify spatiotemporal clusters, assess relative risk associated with the epidemic’s spread, and investigate causes of its rapid expansion in Artibonite Department. Spatiotemporal analyses highlighted 5 significant clusters (p<0.001): 1 near Mirebalais (October 16–19) next to a United Nations camp with deficient sanitation, 1 along the Artibonite River (October 20–28), and 3 caused by the centrifugal epidemic spread during November. The regression model indicated that cholera more severely affected communes in the coastal plain (risk ratio 4.91) along the Artibonite River downstream of Mirebalais (risk ratio 4.60). Our findings strongly suggest that contamination of the Artibonite and 1 of its tributaries downstream from a military camp triggered the epidemic. PMID:21762567

  2. Early growth patterns and cardiometabolic function at the age of 5 in a multiethnic birth cohort: the ABCD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrijkotte Tanja GM

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relation between fetal growth retardation and cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life has been demonstrated in many studies. However, debate exists around the potential independent role of postnatal growth acceleration. Furthermore, it is unknown whether a potential effect of growth acceleration on cardiovascular and metabolic function is confined to certain timeframes. The present study assesses the (predictive role of prenatal and postnatal growth on 5 components of cardiovascular and metabolic function in children aged 5. The potential association of timing of postnatal growth acceleration with these outcomes will be explored. Methods and design Prospective multiethnic community-based cohort study of 8266 pregnancies (Amsterdam Born Children and their Development, ABCD study. Up till now, anthropometry of 5104 children from the original cohort was followed during the first 5 years of life, with additional information about birth weight, pregnancy duration, and various potential confounding variables. At age 5, various components of cardiovascular and metabolic function are being measured. Outcome variables are body size, body composition and fat distribution, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function. Discussion This study will be one of the first population-based prospective cohort studies to address the association between measures of both prenatal and postnatal growth and various components of cardiovascular and metabolic function. Specific attention is paid to the timing of acceleration in growth and its potential association with the outcome variables. Importantly, the longitudinal design of this study gives us the opportunity to gain more insight into growth trajectories associated with adverse outcomes in later life. If identified as an independent risk factor, this provides further basis for the hypothesis that accelerated growth during

  3. Animal protein intakes during early life and adolescence differ in their relation to the growth hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor axis in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslowski, Gesa; Remer, Thomas; Assmann, Karen E; Krupp, Danika; Cheng, Guo; Garnett, Sarah P; Kroke, Anja; Wudy, Stefan A; Günther, Anke L B; Buyken, Anette E

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies provide evidence that insulin-like-growth-factor I (IGF-I) and its binding proteins (IGFBP) IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 are related to the risk of several common cancers. It remains to be clarified whether their concentrations can be programmed by protein intake from different sources during growth. This study addressed the hypothesis that animal protein intakes during infancy, mid-childhood, and adolescence differ in their relevance for the growth-hormone (GH)-IGF-I axis in young adulthood. Data from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study participants with at least 2 plausible 3-d weighed dietary records during adolescence (age: girls, 9-14 y; boys, 10-15 y; n = 213), around the adiposity rebound (age 4-6 y; n = 179) or early life (age 0.5-2 y; n = 130), and one blood sample in young adulthood were included in the study. Mean serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 were compared between tertiles of habitual animal protein intake using multivariable regression analysis. Habitually higher animal protein intakes in females during puberty were related to higher IGF-I (P-trend = 0.005) and IGFBP-3 (P-trend = 0.01) and lower IGFBP-2 (P-trend = 0.04), but not to IGFBP-1 in young adulthood. In turn, IGF-I concentrations in young adulthood were inversely related to animal protein intakes in early life among males only (P-trend = 0.03), but not to animal protein intake around adiposity rebound (P-trend > 0.5). Our data suggest that, among females, a habitually higher animal protein intake during puberty may precipitate an upregulation of the GH-IGF-I axis, which is still discernible in young adulthood. By contrast, among males, higher animal protein intakes in early life may exert a long-term programming of the GH-IGF-I axis.

  4. A canine distemper virus epidemic in Serengeti lions (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelke-Parker, M E; Munson, L; Packer, C; Kock, R; Cleaveland, S; Carpenter, M; O'Brien, S J; Pospischil, A; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Lutz, H; Mwamengele, G L; Mgasa, M N; Machange, G A; Summers, B A; Appel, M J

    1996-02-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is thought to have caused several fatal epidemics in canids within the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem of East Africa, affecting silver-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) and bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis) in 1978 (ref. 1), and African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in 1991 (refs 2, 3). The large, closely monitored Serengeti lion population was not affected in these epidemics. However, an epidemic caused by a morbillivirus closely related to CDV emerged abruptly in the lion population of the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, in early 1994, resulting in fatal neurological disease characterized by grand mal seizures and myoclonus; the lions that died had encephalitis and pneumonia. Here we report the identification of CDV from these lions, and the close phylogenetic relationship between CDV isolates from lions and domestic dogs. By August 1994, 85% of the Serengeti lion population had anti-CDV antibodies, and the epidemic spread north to lions in the Maasai Mara National reserve, Kenya, and uncounted hyaenas, bat-eared foxes, and leopards were also affected.

  5. Predicting epidemic evolution on contact networks from partial observations

    CERN Document Server

    Bindi, Jacopo; Dall'Asta, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The massive employment of computational models in network epidemiology calls for the development of improved inference methods for epidemic forecast. For simple compartment models, such as the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered model, Belief Propagation was proved to be a reliable and efficient method to identify the origin of an observed epidemics. Here we show that the same method can be applied to predict the future evolution of an epidemic outbreak from partial observations at the early stage of the dynamics. The results obtained using Belief Propagation are compared with Monte Carlo direct sampling in the case of SIR model on random (regular and power-law) graphs for different observation methods and on an example of real-world contact network. Belief Propagation gives in general a better prediction that direct sampling, although the quality of the prediction depends on the quantity under study (e.g. marginals of individual states, epidemic size, extinction-time distribution) and on the actual number of obse...

  6. Activity of toluene-degrading Pseudomonas putida in the early growth phase of a biofilm for waste gas treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.R.; Møller, S.; Molin, S.

    1997-01-01

    A biological trickling filter for treatment of toluene-containing waste gas was studied. The overall kinetics of the biofilm growth was followed in the early growth phase. A rapid initial colonization took place during the first three days. The biofilm thickness increased exponentially, whereas...... the increase of active biomass and polymers was linear. In order to investigate the toluene degradation, various toluene degraders from the multispecies biofilm were isolated, and a Pseudomonas putida was chosen as a representative of the toluene-degrading population. A specific rRNA oligonucleotide probe...... was used to follow the toluene-degrading P. putida in the multispecies biofilm in the filter by means of number and cellular rRNA content. P. putida appeared to detach from the biofilm during the first three days of growth, after which P. putida was found at a constant level of 10% of the active biomass...

  7. Early life-history consequences of growth-hormone transgenesis in rainbow trout reared in stream ecosystem mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossin, Glenn T; Sundström, L Fredrik; Vandersteen, Wendy E; Devlin, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    There is persistent commercial interest in the use of growth modified fishes for shortening production cycles and increasing overall food production, but there is concern over the potential impact that transgenic fishes might have if ever released into nature. To explore the ecological consequences of transgenic fish, we performed two experiments in which the early growth and survival of growth-hormone transgenic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were assessed in naturalized stream mesocosms that either contained predators or were predator-free. We paid special attention to the survival bottleneck that occurs during the early life-history of salmonids, and conducted experiments at two age classes (first-feeding fry and 60 days post-first-feeding) that lie on either side of the bottleneck. In the late summer, the first-feeding transgenic trout could not match the growth potential of their wild-type siblings when reared in a hydrodynamically complex and oligotrophic environment, irrespective of predation pressure. Furthermore, overall survival of transgenic fry was lower than in wild-type (transgenic = 30% without predators, 8% with predators; wild-type = 81% without predators, 31% with predators). In the experiment with 60-day old fry, we explored the effects of the transgene in different genetic backgrounds (wild versus domesticated). We found no difference in overwinter survival but significantly higher growth by transgenic trout, irrespective of genetic background. We conclude that the high mortality of GH-transgenic trout during first-feeding reflects an inability to sustain the basic metabolic requirements necessary for life in complex, stream environments. However, when older, GH-transgenic fish display a competitive advantage over wild-type fry, and show greater growth and equal survival as wild-type. These results demonstrate how developmental age and time of year can influence the response of genotypes to environmental conditions. We therefore urge

  8. Early Life Factors and Inter-Country Heterogeneity in BMI Growth Trajectories of European Children: The IDEFICS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Börnhorst

    Full Text Available Starting from birth, this explorative study aimed to investigate between-country differences in body mass index (BMI trajectories and whether early life factors explain these differences.The sample included 7,644 children from seven European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden participating in the multi-centre IDEFICS study. Information on early life factors and in total 53,409 repeated measurements of height and weight from 0 to <12 years of age were collected during the baseline (2007/2008 and follow-up examination (2009/2010 supplemented by records of routine child health visits. Country-specific BMI growth curves were estimated using fractional polynomial mixed effects models. Several covariates focussing on early life factors were added to the models to investigate their role in the between-countries differences.Large between-country differences were observed with Italian children showing significantly higher mean BMI values at all ages ≥ 3 years compared to the other countries. For instance, at age 11 years mean BMI values in Italian boys and girls were 22.3 [21.9;22.8; 99% confidence interval] and 22.0 [21.5;22.4], respectively, compared to a range of 18.4 [18.1;18.8] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in boys and 18.2 [17.8;18.6] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in girls in the other countries. After adjustment for early life factors, differences between country-specific BMI curves became smaller. Maternal BMI was the factor being most strongly associated with BMI growth (p<0.01 in all countries with associations increasing during childhood. Gestational weight gain (GWG was weakly associated with BMI at birth in all countries. In some countries, positive associations between BMI growth and children not being breastfed, mothers' smoking during pregnancy and low educational level of parents were found.Early life factors seem to explain only some of the inter-country variation in growth. Maternal BMI showed the strongest association

  9. Obesity and diabetes epidemics: cancer repercussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjartåker, Anette; Langseth, Hilde; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2008-01-01

    environment that promotes sedentary lifestyles and over-consumption of energy. The health consequences and economic costs of the overweight, obesity and type II diabetes epidemics are enormous. Avoiding overweight and obesity, as well as preventing type II diabetes mellitus, is an important purpose to prevent cancer and other diseases. Prevention of obesity and type II diabetes should begin early in life and be based on the life-long health eating and physical activity patterns. Substantial public investments in preventing overweight, obesity and type II diabetes mellitus are both appropriate and necessary in order to have a major impact on their adverse health effects including cancer.

  10. Cultural variation in early feeding pattern and maternal perceptions of infant growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijsden, Manon; Meijers, Claire M. C.; Jansen, Jessica E.; De Kroon, Marlou L. A.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2015-01-01

    The perception of healthy growth and weight may differ between cultures, which could influence feeding practises and consequently affect the development of overweight. The present study examined ethnic variation in maternal perceptions of growth and their influence on feeding practises among Turkish

  11. Early nutrition, growth and cognitive development of infants from birth to 2 years in Malaysia: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Gan, Wan Ying; Tan, Kit-Aun

    2016-09-29

    The first 2 years of life is a critical period of rapid growth and brain development. During this period, nutrition and environmental factors play important roles in growth and cognitive development of a child. This report describes the study protocol of early nutrition, growth and cognitive development of infants from birth to 2 years of age. This is a prospective cohort study of mothers and infants recruited from government health clinics in Seremban district in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Infants are followed-up at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. Pre-natal factors that include mother's pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, blood glucose and blood pressure during pregnancy, infant's gestational age, birth weight and head circumference at birth are obtained from patient card. Post-natal factors assessed at each follow-up are feeding practices, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements and cognitive development of infants. Iron status is assessed at 6 months, while infant temperament and home environment are assessed at 12 months. Maternal intelligence is assessed at 18 months. Early life nutritional programming is of current interest as many longitudinal studies are actively being conducted in developed countries to investigate this concept. The concept however is relatively new in developing countries such as Malaysia. This study will provide useful information on early nutrition and infant development in the first two years of life which can be further followed up to identify factors that track into childhood and contribute to growth and cognitive deviations.

  12. Detecting Associations between Early-Life DDT Exposures and Childhood Growth Patterns: A Novel Statistical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggeseth, Brianna; Harley, Kim; Warner, Marcella; Jewell, Nicholas; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that environmental exposures at key development periods such as in utero play a role in childhood growth and obesity. To investigate whether in utero exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE), is associated with childhood physical growth, we took a novel statistical approach to analyze data from the CHAMACOS cohort study. To model heterogeneity in the growth patterns, we used a finite mixture model in combination with a data transformation to characterize body mass index (BMI) with four groups and estimated the association between exposure and group membership. In boys, higher maternal concentrations of DDT and DDE during pregnancy are associated with a BMI growth pattern that is stable until about age five followed by increased growth through age nine. In contrast, higher maternal DDT exposure during pregnancy is associated with a flat, relatively stable growth pattern in girls. This study suggests that in utero exposure to DDT and DDE may be associated with childhood BMI growth patterns, not just BMI level, and both the magnitude of exposure and sex may impact the relationship.

  13. Growth of single proglottides during early adult development of Hymenolepis nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, H; Fairweather, I

    1989-08-01

    The growth of individual proglottides of Hymenolepis nana has been studied by measuring the width and length of the proglottides between days 3 and 8 post-infection in mice. Two sets of measurements were obtained. The first involved proglottides immediately posterior to the point of proglottis formation and proglottides at particular stages of development. For the second set, measurements were made of proglottides at certain positions in the worm, specifically the 20th, 100th and 200th proglottides, as counted from the posterior end of the worm. For proglottides at different stages in development, the width of a particular stage was greater in the later days of infection, while the length was almost constant. The length of newly-formed proglottides varied only slightly with time despite differences in the width and in the 3-fold increase in proglottis production that occurs between days 3 and 8 post-infection. The width of the 20th, 100th and 200th proglottides followed parallel growth curves that coincided with each other after an appropriate shift along the time axis. The more anterior the position of the proglottis, the greater was the width at the time of proglottis formation, and so its growth began later on the common growth curve. Growth in length of the 20th proglottis was at first faster than the 100th and 200th proglottides, but later slowed down to a level comparable with them, and the growth curves for the length of the three proglottides were very similar to each other. The rates of growth in the volume of the three proglottides were also estimated. The results are also discussed in relation to other approaches to the study of tapeworm growth and to factors that may be responsible for the growth patterns observed.

  14. Manipulation of the Growth Hormone-Insulin-Like Growth Factor (GH-IGF) Axis: A Treatment Strategy to Reverse the Effects of Early Life Developmental Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Clare M.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence from human clinical, epidemiological, and experimental animal models has clearly highlighted a link between the early life environment and an increased risk for a range of cardiometabolic disorders in later life. In particular, altered maternal nutrition, including both undernutrition and overnutrition, spanning exposure windows that cover the period from preconception through to early infancy, clearly highlight an increased risk for a range of disorders in offspring in later life. This process, preferentially termed “developmental programming” as part of the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) framework, leads to phenotypic outcomes in offspring that closely resemble those of individuals with untreated growth hormone (GH) deficiency, including increased adiposity and cardiovascular disorders. As such, the use of GH as a potential intervention strategy to mitigate the effects of developmental malprogramming has received some attention in the DOHaD field. In particular, experimental animal models have shown that early GH treatment in the setting of poor maternal nutrition can partially rescue the programmed phenotype, albeit in a sex-specific manner. Although the mechanisms remain poorly defined, they include changes to endothelial function, an altered inflammasome, changes in adipogenesis and cardiovascular function, neuroendocrine effects, and changes in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Similarly, GH treatment to adult offspring, where an adverse metabolic phenotype is already manifest, has shown efficacy in reversing some of the metabolic disorders arising from a poor early life environment. Components of the GH-insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-IGF binding protein (GH-IGF-IGFBP) system, including insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), have also shown promise in ameliorating programmed metabolic disorders, potentially acting via epigenetic processes including changes in miRNA profiles and altered DNA methylation. However

  15. Competing activation mechanisms in epidemics on networks

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    In stark contrast to previous common wisdom that epidemic activity and thresholds in heterogeneous networks are dominated by the elements with the largest number of connections (the hubs), recent research has pointed out the role of the most efficient spreaders, located at the innermost, dense core of the network, in sustaining epidemic processes. Here we show that the mechanism responsible of epidemic spreading depends on the dynamical pattern of the epidemic process. For epidemics with a transient state, activity is essentially boosted by the innermost core of the network. On the contrary, epidemics allowing a steady state present a dual scenario, where either the vertex with the largest connectivity independently sustains activity and propagates it to the rest of the system, or, alternatively, the innermost core of the network collectively turns into the active state, maintaining it on a global scale. Which one of these two mechanisms actually governs the dynamics depends on the network features. In uncorr...

  16. Early-Life Telomere Dynamics Differ between the Sexes and Predict Growth in the Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Parolini

    Full Text Available Telomeres are conserved DNA-protein structures at the termini of eukaryotic chromosomes which contribute to maintenance of genome integrity, and their shortening leads to cell senescence, with negative consequences for organismal functions. Because telomere erosion is influenced by extrinsic and endogenous factors, telomere dynamics may provide a mechanistic basis for evolutionary and physiological trade-offs. Yet, knowledge of fundamental aspects of telomere biology under natural selection regimes, including sex- and context-dependent variation in early-life, and the covariation between telomere dynamics and growth, is scant. In this study of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica we investigated the sex-dependent telomere erosion during nestling period, and the covariation between relative telomere length and body and plumage growth. Finally, we tested whether any covariation between growth traits and relative telomere length depends on the social environment, as influenced by sibling sex ratio. Relative telomere length declined on average over the period of nestling maximal growth rate (between 7 and 16 days of age and differently covaried with initial relative telomere length in either sex. The frequency distribution of changes in relative telomere length was bimodal, with most nestlings decreasing and some increasing relative telomere length, but none of the offspring traits predicted the a posteriori identified group to which individual nestlings belonged. Tail and wing length increased with relative telomere length, but more steeply in males than females, and this relationship held both at the within- and among-broods levels. Moreover, the increase in plumage phenotypic values was steeper when the sex ratio of an individual's siblings was female-biased. Our study provides evidence for telomere shortening during early life according to subtly different dynamics in either sex. Furthermore, it shows that the positive covariation between growth and

  17. AFSC/ABL: 1996 Brood year Steelhead growth and early life-history transitions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Heritabilities of growth, precocious maturation and smolting were measured in 75 families of juvenile steelhead or rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, progeny of...

  18. Dynamics of seed-borne rice endophytes on early plant growth stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardoim, Pablo R.; Hardoim, Cristiane C. P.; van Overbeek, Leonard S.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes are ubiquitous to virtually all terrestrial plants. With the increasing appreciation of studies that unravel the mutualistic interactions between plant and microbes, we increasingly value the beneficial functions of endophytes that improve plant growth and development. However,

  19. Dynamics of Seed-Borne Rice Endophytes on Early Plant Growth Stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardoim, P.R.; Hardoim, C.C.P.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes are ubiquitous to virtually all terrestrial plants. With the increasing appreciation of studies that unravel the mutualistic interactions between plant and microbes, we increasingly value the beneficial functions of endophytes that improve plant growth and development. However,

  20. Subcompartmentalization by cross-membranes during early growth of Streptomyces hyphae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagüe, Paula; Willemse, Joost; Koning, Roman I;

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are a model system for bacterial multicellularity. Their mycelial life style involves the formation of long multinucleated hyphae during vegetative growth, with occasional cross-walls separating long compartments. Reproduction occurs by specialized aerial hyphae...

  1. Spatio-Temporal Gene Expression Profiling during In Vivo Early Ovarian Folliculogenesis: Integrated Transcriptomic Study and Molecular Signature of Early Follicular Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Bonnet

    Full Text Available The successful achievement of early ovarian folliculogenesis is important for fertility and reproductive life span. This complex biological process requires the appropriate expression of numerous genes at each developmental stage, in each follicular compartment. Relatively little is known at present about the molecular mechanisms that drive this process, and most gene expression studies have been performed in rodents and without considering the different follicular compartments.We used RNA-seq technology to explore the sheep transcriptome during early ovarian follicular development in the two main compartments: oocytes and granulosa cells. We documented the differential expression of 3,015 genes during this phase and described the gene expression dynamic specific to these compartments. We showed that important steps occurred during primary/secondary transition in sheep. We also described the in vivo molecular course of a number of pathways. In oocytes, these pathways documented the chronology of the acquisition of meiotic competence, migration and cellular organization, while in granulosa cells they concerned adhesion, the formation of cytoplasmic projections and steroid synthesis. This study proposes the involvement in this process of several members of the integrin and BMP families. The expression of genes such as Kruppel-like factor 9 (KLF9 and BMP binding endothelial regulator (BMPER was highlighted for the first time during early follicular development, and their proteins were also predicted to be involved in gene regulation. Finally, we selected a data set of 24 biomarkers that enabled the discrimination of early follicular stages and thus offer a molecular signature of early follicular growth. This set of biomarkers includes known genes such as SPO11 meiotic protein covalently bound to DSB (SPO11, bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15 and WEE1 homolog 2 (S. pombe(WEE2 which play critical roles in follicular development but other biomarkers

  2. Dynamic optimization model for allocating medical resources in epidemic controlling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The model proposed in this paper addresses a dynamic optimization model for allocating medical resources in epidemic controlling.Design/methodology/approach: In this work, a three-level and dynamic linear programming model for allocating medical resources based on epidemic diffusion model is proposed. The epidemic diffusion model is used to construct the forecasting mechanism for dynamic demand of medical resources. Heuristic algorithm coupled with MTLAB mathematical programming solver is adopted to solve the model. A numerical example is presented for testing the model’s practical applicability.Findings: The main contribution of the present study is that a discrete time-space network model to study the medical resources allocation problem when an epidemic outbreak is formulated. It takes consideration of the time evolution and dynamic nature of the demand, which is different from most existing researches on medical resources allocation.Practical implications: In our model, the medicine logistics operation problem has been decomposed into several mutually correlated sub-problems, and then be solved systematically in the same decision scheme. Thus, the result will be much more suitable for real operations.Originality/value: In our model, the rationale that the medical resources allocated in early periods will take effect in subduing the spread of the epidemic spread and thus impact the demand in later periods has been for the first time incorporated. A win-win emergency rescue effect is achieved by the integrated and dynamic optimization model. The total rescue cost is controlled effectively, and meanwhile, inventory level in each urban health departments is restored and raised gradually.

  3. Climate-based models for understanding and forecasting dengue epidemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Descloux

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue dynamics are driven by complex interactions between human-hosts, mosquito-vectors and viruses that are influenced by environmental and climatic factors. The objectives of this study were to analyze and model the relationships between climate, Aedes aegypti vectors and dengue outbreaks in Noumea (New Caledonia, and to provide an early warning system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Epidemiological and meteorological data were analyzed from 1971 to 2010 in Noumea. Entomological surveillance indices were available from March 2000 to December 2009. During epidemic years, the distribution of dengue cases was highly seasonal. The epidemic peak (March-April lagged the warmest temperature by 1-2 months and was in phase with maximum precipitations, relative humidity and entomological indices. Significant inter-annual correlations were observed between the risk of outbreak and summertime temperature, precipitations or relative humidity but not ENSO. Climate-based multivariate non-linear models were developed to estimate the yearly risk of dengue outbreak in Noumea. The best explicative meteorological variables were the number of days with maximal temperature exceeding 32°C during January-February-March and the number of days with maximal relative humidity exceeding 95% during January. The best predictive variables were the maximal temperature in December and maximal relative humidity during October-November-December of the previous year. For a probability of dengue outbreak above 65% in leave-one-out cross validation, the explicative model predicted 94% of the epidemic years and 79% of the non epidemic years, and the predictive model 79% and 65%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The epidemic dynamics of dengue in Noumea were essentially driven by climate during the last forty years. Specific conditions based on maximal temperature and relative humidity thresholds were determinant in outbreaks occurrence. Their persistence was

  4. Transfected Early Growth Response Gene-1 DNA Enzyme Prevents Stenosis and Occlusion of Autogenous Vein Graft In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengwei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the inhibitory action of the early growth response gene-1 DNA enzyme (EDRz as a carrying agent by liposomes on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal hyperplasia. An autogenous vein graft model was established. EDRz was transfected to the graft vein. The vein graft samples were obtained on each time point after surgery. The expression of the EDRz transfected in the vein graft was detected using a fluorescent microscope. Early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1 mRNA was measured using reverse transcription-PCR and in situ hybridization. And the protein expression of Egr-1 was detected by using western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses. EDRz was located at the media of the vein graft from 2 to 24 h, 7 h after grafting. The Egr-1 protein was mainly located in the medial VSMCs, monocytes, and endothelium cells during the early phase of the vein graft. The degree of VSMC proliferation and thickness of intima were obviously relieved compared with the no-gene therapy group. EDRz can reduce Egr-1 expression in autogenous vein grafts, effectively restrain VSMC proliferation and intimal hyperplasia, and prevent vascular stenosis and occlusion after vein graft.

  5. Annual Growth of Contract Costs for Major Programs in Development and Early Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    production. 4 i.e., they failed the Spearman correlation test. Page 8 Figure 5: Portfolio Split...the acquisition reforms of the mid-1990s seen in Figure 1 was correlated with budgetary changes rather than a structural increase in growth in these...particular year). This correction function serves as a kind of negative feedback that keeps costs under control. Figure 1: Actual Growth of Contract

  6. Early Growth Assessment of Selected Exotic and Indigenous Tree Species in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Nigeria is greatly endowed with numerous tree species of which majority of them are native while few are exotic. Report shows that high percentage of man-made forests in the country is dominated with exotic species. This culminated from the assumption that exotic trees are fast growing. However, this study investigated the growth of indigenous trees in tandem with that of exotic species with a purpose to clarify the assumption about the growth and conservation of indig...

  7. Fractional Derivatives in Dengue Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooseh, Shakoor; Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Torres, Delfim F. M.

    2011-09-01

    We introduce the use of fractional calculus, i.e., the use of integrals and derivatives of non-integer (arbitrary) order, in epidemiology. The proposed approach is illustrated with an outbreak of dengue disease, which is motivated by the first dengue epidemic ever recorded in the Cape Verde islands off the coast of west Africa, in 2009. Numerical simulations show that in some cases the fractional models fit better the reality when compared with the standard differential models. The classical results are obtained as particular cases by considering the order of the derivatives to take an integer value.

  8. The cancer, a silent epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith María Beltrán Molina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with some very interesting aspects related to cancer the first cause of death in many countries with a high prevalence in Cuba so it is necessary to increase prevention and education to reduce risk factors and prevalence of malignancy. Taking into account the importance of cancer awareness as well as the social therapeutic and technological resources available to Cuba for its treatment it is propose with this work to exemplify the Cuban scientific treatment of cancer as a silent epidemic of the XXI century.

  9. SIS epidemic propagation on hypergraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Bodó, Ágnes; Simon, Péter L

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of epidemic propagation on networks is extended to hypergraphs in order to account for both the community structure and the nonlinear dependence of the infection pressure on the number of infected neighbours. The exact master equations of the propagation process are derived for an arbitrary hypergraph given by its incidence matrix. Based on these, moment closure approximation and mean-?eld models are introduced and compared to individual-based stochastic simulations. The simulation algorithm, developed for networks, is extended to hypergraphs. The e?ects of hypergraph structure and the model parameters are investigated via individual-based simulation results.

  10. Fractional derivatives in Dengue epidemics

    CERN Document Server

    Pooseh, Shakoor; Torres, Delfim F M

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the use of fractional calculus, i.e., the use of integrals and derivatives of non-integer (arbitrary) order, in epidemiology. The proposed approach is illustrated with an outbreak of dengue disease, which is motivated by the first dengue epidemic ever recorded in the Cape Verde islands off the coast of west Africa, in 2009. Numerical simulations show that in some cases the fractional models fit better the reality when compared with the standard differential models. The classical results are obtained as particular cases by considering the order of the derivatives to take an integer value.

  11. The Impact of Early Life Stress on Growth and Cardiovascular Risk: A Possible Example for Autonomic Imprinting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchhorn, Reiner; Meint, Sebastian; Willaschek, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress is imprinting regulatory properties with life-long consequences. We investigated heart rate variability in a group of small children with height below the third percentile, who experienced an episode of early life stress due to heart failure or intra uterine growth retardation. These children appear to develop autonomic dysfunction in later life. Compared to the healthy control group heart rate variability (HRV) is reduced on average in a group of 101 children with short stature. Low HRV correlates to groups of children born small for gestational age (SGA), children with cardiac growth failure and children with congenital syndromes, but not to those with constitutional growth delay (CGD), who had normal HRV. Reduced HRV indicated by lower RMSSD and High Frequency (HF)-Power is indicating reduced vagal activity as a sign of autonomic imbalance. It is not short stature itself, but rather the underlying diseases that are the cause for reduced HRV in children with height below the third percentile. These high risk children-allocated in the groups with an adverse autonomic imprinting in utero or infancy (SGA, congenital heart disease and congenital syndromes)-have the highest risk for 'stress diseases' such as cardiovascular disease in later life. The incidence of attention deficit disorder is remarkably high in our group of short children.

  12. Heterologous expression of chloroplast-localized geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase confers fast plant growth, early flowering and increased seed yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata, Sandeep Kumar; Jung, Jihye; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Choi, Jun Young; Jung, Ji-Yul; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jeong Sheop; Ryu, Stephen Beungtae

    2016-01-01

    Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GGPS) is a key enzyme for a structurally diverse class of isoprenoid biosynthetic metabolites including gibberellins, carotenoids, chlorophylls and rubber. We expressed a chloroplast-targeted GGPS isolated from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The resulting transgenic tobacco plants expressing heterologous GGPS showed remarkably enhanced growth (an increase in shoot and root biomass and height), early flowering, increased number of seed pods and greater seed yield compared with that of GUS-transgenic lines (control) or wild-type plants. The gibberellin levels in HaGGPS-transgenic plants were higher than those in control plants, indicating that the observed phenotype may result from increased gibberellin content. However, in HaGGPS-transformant tobacco plants, we did not observe the phenotypic defects such as reduced chlorophyll content and greater petiole and stalk length, which were previously reported for transgenic plants expressing gibberellin biosynthetic genes. Fast plant growth was also observed in HaGGPS-expressing Arabidopsis and dandelion plants. The results of this study suggest that GGPS expression in crop plants may yield desirable agronomic traits, including enhanced growth of shoots and roots, early flowering, greater numbers of seed pods and/or higher seed yield. This research has potential applications for fast production of plant biomass that provides commercially valuable biomaterials or bioenergy. © 2015 Korea Research Institute of Bioscience & Biotechnology. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists.

  13. The effect of growth-mimicking continuous strain on the early stages of skeletal development in micromass culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpers, Darinka D; Smit, Theo H; Mooney, David J

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic skeletogenesis involves proliferation, condensation and subsequent chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal precursor cells, and the strains and stresses inherent to these processes have been hypothesized to influence skeletal development. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of growth-mimicking strain on the process of early skeletal development in vitro. To this end, we applied continuous uniaxial strain to embryonic skeletal precursor cells in micromass culture. Strain was applied at different times of culture to specifically address the effect of mechanical loading on the sequential stages of cellular proliferation, condensation and differentiation. We found that growth-mimicking strain at all three times did not affect proliferation or chondrogenic differentiation under the tested conditions. However, the timing of the applied strain did play a role in the density of mesenchymal condensations. This finding suggests that a mechanically dynamic environment, and specifically strain, can influence skeletal patterning. The growth-mimicking micromass model presented here may be a useful tool for further studies into the role of mechanical loading in early skeletal development.

  14. Growth trajectories of early aggression, overactivity, and inattention: Relations to second-grade reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah A O; Carter, Alice S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Jones, Stephanie M; Wagmiller, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    The link between behavior problems and low academic achievement is well established, but few studies have examined longitudinal relations between early externalizing behaviors before school entry and low academic achievement following transition to formal schooling. Early inattention has been particularly overlooked, despite strong associations between inattention and reading difficulties later in development. Trajectories of infant and toddler aggression, overactivity, and inattention, developed from parent reports about 1- to 3-year-old children, were examined as predictors of direct assessments of 2nd-grade reading in an at-risk epidemiological study subsample (N = 359). Reports of inattentive and overactive behaviors at ages 1-3 years and changes in inattention through toddlerhood predicted reading achievement in 2nd grade. A parallel process model suggested that the effects of early inattention on reading appear to be most robust. Findings underscore the contribution of social-emotional development to school readiness and the importance of early identification of children with externalizing problems, as early interventions designed to reduce externalizing problems may improve later reading skills.

  15. Enacting Efficacy in Early Career: Narratives of Agency, Growth, and Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K Niehaus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: To explore how early career faculty in the field of higher education administration develop and enact their personal and professional identities. Background:\tParticipants sought to understand themselves, to understand their environments and the “rules” of the academic “game,” and to reconcile conflicts between their own values and identities and the expectations and culture of their environments. Methodology: In-depth case studies of seventeen early career scholars in the field. Contribution: The participants’ experiences underscore important implications for mentoring and socialization that takes into consideration the unique motivation and identity development of aspiring and new faculty members. Findings: Identifies the early career period as one where new faculty are working to develop a strong internal foundation upon which they can manage the many challenges of their personal and professional lives. Recommendations: The findings point to implications for practice, both in graduate education and in departments hiring new faculty members.

  16. Hypoxia and acidification have additive and synergistic negative effects on the growth, survival, and metamorphosis of early life stage bivalves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Gobler

    Full Text Available Low oxygen zones in coastal and open ocean ecosystems have expanded in recent decades, a trend that will accelerate with climatic warming. There is growing recognition that low oxygen regions of the ocean are also acidified, a condition that will intensify with rising levels of atmospheric CO2. Presently, however, the concurrent effects of low oxygen and acidification on marine organisms are largely unknown, as most prior studies of marine hypoxia have not considered pH levels. We experimentally assessed the consequences of hypoxic and acidified water for early life stage bivalves (bay scallops, Argopecten irradians, and hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria, marine organisms of significant economic and ecological value and sensitive to climate change. In larval scallops, experimental and naturally-occurring acidification (pH, total scale  = 7.4-7.6 reduced survivorship (by >50%, low oxygen (30-50 µM inhibited growth and metamorphosis (by >50%, and the two stressors combined produced additively negative outcomes. In early life stage clams, however, hypoxic waters led to 30% higher mortality, while acidified waters significantly reduced growth (by 60%. Later stage clams were resistant to hypoxia or acidification separately but experienced significantly (40% reduced growth rates when exposed to both conditions simultaneously. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the consequences of low oxygen and acidification for early life stage bivalves, and likely other marine organisms, are more severe than would be predicted by either individual stressor and thus must be considered together when assessing how ocean animals respond to these conditions both today and under future climate change scenarios.

  17. Height Growth and Percentage of Body Fat in Relation to Early Menarche in Girls from Merida, Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta Banik, Sudip; Mendez, Nina; Dickinson, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Early menarche (EM) (i.e., age at menarche [AAM] Yucatan, height, body mass index (BMI), and percentage of body fat (BF%) were recorded at a one-year interval among 258 postmenarcheal (EM = 94) girls. Anthropometric measurements were recorded of the age cohorts in 2008-09 when participants were 13-17 years of age (baseline), and in the one-year follow-up study (± 6 days) the girls were 14-18 years of age. The BF% was estimated through bioelectrical impedance analysis. Mean AAM was 10.59 years in EM girls and 12.54 years in not early menarche (NEM) girls. Height growth (cm/year) was greater in NEM girls. Mean values of BMI, BF%, and frequencies of stunting (low height-for-age) and excess weight (overweight + obesity) were higher in EM girls than in their NEM age peers.

  18. Front waves in the early RNA world: The Schlögl model and the logistic growth model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, T D

    2016-03-01

    Front wave solutions of nonlinear reaction-diffusion models describing the spatio-temporal growth of RNA populations in the early RNA world are discussed. A two-variable model for RNA enzymes and enzyme complex molecules as well as single-variable models obtained via adiabatic elimination of the complex molecules are considered. In both models, the focus is on enzyme diffusion in one spatial dimension, assuming that the diffusion of complex molecules can be neglected. It is shown that one of the single-variable models corresponds to a Schlögl model of front propagation. In general, for the single-variable models it is found that front speed corresponds to the minimal speed of traveling fronts. In contrast, the two-variable model exhibits even slower front propagation. Front propagation might be an important factor in competitive evolutionary processes in the early RNA world.

  19. Co-localization of neural cell adhesion molecule and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 in early embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterlund, Liselotte; Töhönen, Virpi; Hovatta, Outi; Kere, Juha

    2011-01-01

    During development there is a multitude of signaling events governing the assembly of the developing organism. Receptors for signaling molecules such as fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) enable the embryo to communicate with the surrounding environment and activate downstream pathways. The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) was first characterized as a cell adhesion molecule highly expressed in the nervous system, but recent studies have shown that it is also a signaling receptor. Using a novel single oocyte adaptation of the proximity ligation assay, we here show a close association between NCAM and FGFR2 in mouse oocytes and 2-cell embryos. Real-time PCR analyses revealed the presence of messenger RNA encoding key proteins in downstream signaling pathways in oocytes and early mouse embryos. In summary these findings show a co-localization of NCAM and FGFR2 in early vertebrate development with intracellular signaling pathways present to enable a cellular response.

  20. Epidemic suicide among Micronesian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, D H

    1983-01-01

    Suicide rates since 1960 in Micronesia (the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands) have undergone an epidemic-like increase. This phenomenon is focused narrowly within the 15--24-year male age-group. Extremely high rates and culturally patterned motives and methods are now characteristic of this group. Survey research throughout Micronesia suggests that the epidemic increase in adolescent male suicide is a cohort effect among the first post-war generation. Traditional adolescent socialization in pre-war Micronesia largely involved village-level subsistence activities organized around communal lineage-houses. This extra-familial level of socialization served as a cultural solution to the residential and psychological distance post-pubertal males maintained from their domestic families. With the post-war social change in Micronesia, the communal village-level of organization has largely disintegrated, causing adolescent socialization functions to be absorbed by the nuclear family. The resulting situations of intergenerational domestic discord appear the primary social triggers for adolescent suicide. At the same time, suicides have acquired subcultural significance among male youth, giving rise to fad-like and imitative acts. A 3-year research project is now being undertaken to conduct an ethnographic study of factors contributing to adolescent stress and suicide in one Micronesian community.

  1. On Resource Aware Algorithms in Epidemic Live Streaming

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Fabien

    2009-01-01

    Epidemic-style diffusion schemes have been previously proposed for achieving peer-to-peer live streaming. Their performance trade-offs have been deeply analyzed for homogeneous systems, where all peers have the same upload capacity. However, epidemic schemes designed for heterogeneous systems have not been completely understood yet. In this report we focus on the peer selection process and propose a generic model that encompasses a large class of algorithms. The process is modeled as a combination of two functions, an aware one and an agnostic one. By means of simulations, we analyze the awareness-agnostism trade-offs on the peer selection process and the impact of the source distribution policy in non-homogeneous networks. We highlight that the early diffusion of a given chunk is crucial for its overall diffusion performance, and a fairness trade-off arises between the performance of heterogeneous peers, as a function of the level of awareness.

  2. Early life of an inshore population of West Greenlandic cod Gadus morhua: spatial and temporal aspects of growth and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swalethorp, Rasmus; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Thompson, A. R.;

    2016-01-01

    between spawning and freshwater input may be essential for survival and recruitment, this ensuring low dispersal of eggs and younger stages and high dispersal of older, actively feeding stages. Therefore, cod in this area could be vulnerable to future climate change affecting the timing and magnitude...... survival may have been driven by relatively high temperature and/or low predation in the inner region. Early in the season, the distribution of eggs and young larvae was mostly restricted to the spawning area. Later in the season, larger larvae had become more evenly distributed in the fjord. This shift...... in distribution was observed after the seasonal pulse in freshwater outflow following the ice break-up in Kapisigdlit River. There was a positive correlation between the amount of food in a larval stomach and growth, and larval growth was greater in the outer fjord where prey availability was higher. The timing...

  3. Cultural aspects of early childhood growth and nutrition among the Amele of lowland Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, C L; Orr-ewing, A K; Heywood, P F

    1984-01-01

    Childhood malnutrition in Papua New Grinea has often been attributed to inadequate practices. Combining the methods of ethnography and nutrition, this study assesses the impact of beliefs and practices concerning breast feeding and supplementation on infant and toddler growth among the Amele of Lowland Madang Province. Results indicate a clear role for notions about lactation and the proper timing of appropriate foods in growth retardation of young children. Conceptualizing developmental stages emically instead of etically is a useful approach to gathering data for nutrition education programs.

  4. Marker-dependent associations among oxidative stress, growth and survival during early life in a wild mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Colin; Blount, Jonathan D.; Pilkington, Jill G.; Watt, Kathryn A.; Pemberton, Josephine M.; Reid, Jane M.

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is hypothesized to be a key physiological mechanism mediating life-history trade-offs, but evidence from wild populations experiencing natural environmental variation is limited. We tested the hypotheses that increased early life growth rate increases OS, and that increased OS reduces first-winter survival, in wild Soay sheep (Ovis aries) lambs. We measured growth rate and first-winter survival for four consecutive cohorts, and measured two markers of oxidative damage (malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PC)) and two markers of antioxidant (AOX) protection (total AOX capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD)) from blood samples. Faster lamb growth was weakly associated with increased MDA, but not associated with variation in the other three markers. Lambs with higher SOD activity were more likely to survive their first winter, as were male but not female lambs with lower PC concentrations. Survival did not vary with MDA or total TAC. Key predictions relating OS to growth and survival were therefore supported in some OS markers, but not others. This suggests that different markers capture different aspects of the complex relationships between individual oxidative state, physiology and fitness, and that overarching hypotheses relating OS to life-history variation cannot be supported or refuted by studying individual markers. PMID:27733545

  5. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) enhances sympathetic neurite growth in rat hearts at early developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Keiko; Lee, Jong-Kook; Takagishi, Yoshiko; Opthof, Tobias; Fu, Xianming; Kodama, Itsuo

    2010-12-01

    Molecular signaling of sympathetic innervation of myocardium is an unresolved issue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of neurotrophic factors on sympathetic neurite growth towards cardiomyocytes. Cardiomyocytes (CMs) and sympathetic neurons (SNs) were isolated from neonatal rat hearts and superior cervical ganglia, and were co-cultured, either in a random or localized way. Neurite growth from SNs toward CMs was assessed by immunohistochemistry for neurofilament M and α-actinin in response to neurotrophic factors-nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and a chemical repellent, semaphorin 3A. As a result, GDNF as well as NGF and BDNF stimulated neurite growth. GDNF enhanced neurite outgrowth even under the NGF-depleted culture condition, excluding an indirect effect of GDNF via NGF. Quantification of mRNA and protein by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry at different developmental stages revealed that GDNF is abundantly expressed in the hearts of embryos and neonates, but not in adult hearts. GDNF plays an important role in inducing cardiac sympathetic innervation at the early developmental stages. A possible role in (re)innervation of injured or transplanted or cultured and transplanted myocardium may deserve investigation.

  6. Marker-dependent associations among oxidative stress, growth and survival during early life in a wild mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Louise L; Selman, Colin; Blount, Jonathan D; Pilkington, Jill G; Watt, Kathryn A; Pemberton, Josephine M; Reid, Jane M; Nussey, Daniel H

    2016-10-12

    Oxidative stress (OS) is hypothesized to be a key physiological mechanism mediating life-history trade-offs, but evidence from wild populations experiencing natural environmental variation is limited. We tested the hypotheses that increased early life growth rate increases OS, and that increased OS reduces first-winter survival, in wild Soay sheep (Ovis aries) lambs. We measured growth rate and first-winter survival for four consecutive cohorts, and measured two markers of oxidative damage (malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PC)) and two markers of antioxidant (AOX) protection (total AOX capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD)) from blood samples. Faster lamb growth was weakly associated with increased MDA, but not associated with variation in the other three markers. Lambs with higher SOD activity were more likely to survive their first winter, as were male but not female lambs with lower PC concentrations. Survival did not vary with MDA or total TAC. Key predictions relating OS to growth and survival were therefore supported in some OS markers, but not others. This suggests that different markers capture different aspects of the complex relationships between individual oxidative state, physiology and fitness, and that overarching hypotheses relating OS to life-history variation cannot be supported or refuted by studying individual markers.

  7. Subcutaneous fat accumulation in early infancy is more strongly associated with motor development and delay than muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, H; Kawai, M; Niwa, F; Hasegawa, T; Iwanaga, K; Ohata, K; Tamaki, A; Heike, T

    2014-06-01

    Physical growth in neurologically healthy preterm infants affects motor development. This study investigated the separate relationships between muscle and fat in infancy and later motor development and physical growth. Muscle thickness and subcutaneous fat thickness of the anterior thigh were measured using ultrasound images obtained from neurologically healthy preterm infants at birth, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months' corrected age. We also obtained the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory and Alberta Infant Motor Scale scores at 18 months' corrected age to assess motor ability and motor delay. Thirty preterm infants completed the study protocol. There was a significant positive correlation between motor ability and increments in subcutaneous fat thickness during the first 3 and 6 months' corrected age (r = 0.48 and 0.40, p muscle thickness growth in any of the periods. A secondary, logistic regression analysis showed that increments in subcutaneous fat thickness during the first 3 months were a protective factor for motor delay. Subcutaneous fat accumulation in early infancy is more strongly associated with motor development and delay than muscle growth. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effect of the Nerve Growth Factor Mimetic GK-2 on Brain Structural and Functional State in the Early Postresuscitation Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sh. Avrushchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficacy of the nerve growth factor mimetic GK-2 used to improve the structural and functional state of the brain in the early postresuscitation period. Material and methods. Cardiac arrest was induced in mature male albino rats for 12 minutes, followed by resuscitation. The neurological state of the resuscitated animals was assessed by a scoring scale. On postresuscitation day 7, the density and composition of neuronal populations of Purkinje cells in the lateral cerebellar region and pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 sector were determined by a differential morphometric analysis. The results were statistically processed using the ANOVA method. Results. The use of GK-2 was found to accelerate neurological recovery in the resuscitated animals. On day 7 after 12-minute cardiac arrest, the resuscitated animals showed neuronal dystrophic changes and death in the neuronal populations highly susceptible to ischemia. It was shown that the systemic administration of the nerve growth factor mimetic GK-2 contributed to a reduction in the magnitude and depth of postresuscitation changes in the cerebellar Purkinje cells and prevented dystrophic changes in the pyramidal cells of the hippocampal CA1 sector. The findings suggest that GK-2 has a neuroprotective effect in the recovery period after total body ischemia. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate the efficiency of the systemic administration of the nerve growth factor mimetic GK-2 in improving the brain structural and functional state in the early postresuscitation period. This determines perspectives for the use of GK-2 to prevent and correct posthypoxic encephalopathies. Key words: the nerve growth factor mimetic GK-2, postresuscitation period, neuronal dystrophic changes and death, neurological status.

  9. Gestational and early postnatal exposure to simulated high altitude does not modify postnatal body mass growth trajectory in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzini, Carlos E; Champin, Graciela M; Bozzini, Clarisa; Alippi, Rosa M

    2014-09-01

    Postnatal hypoxia blunts body mass growth. It is also known that the quality of the fetal environment can influence the subsequent adult phenotype. The main purpose of the study was to determine whether gestational hypoxia and early postnatal hypoxia are able to blunt growth when the offspring is raised under normoxia. Hypobaric hypoxia was induced in simulated high altitude (SHA) chambers in which air was maintained at 380 mmHg (5450 m). Mature Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were divided in normoxic (NX) and hypoxic (HX) groups and, in the case of the HX group, maintained for 1 month at 5450 m. Mating was then allowed under NX or HX conditions. Offspring were NX-NX, NX-HX, HX-HX, or HX-NX: the first term indicates NX or HX during both gestation and the first 30 days of life; the second term indicates NX or HX during postnatal life between days 30 and 133. Body mass (g) was measured periodically and body mass growth rate (BMGR, g/d) was estimated between days 33 and 65 of postnatal life. Results can be summarized as follows: 1) BM was significantly higher in NX than in HX rats at weaning; 2) BMGR was not significantly different between NX-NX and HX-NX rats, and between HX-HX and NX-HX animals; and 3) BMGR was significantly higher in rats living under NX conditions than in those living under HX conditions during postnatal life. Data suggest that that hypobaric hypoxia during gestational and early postnatal development of rats does not alter the regulation of body mass growth in rats when compared to that seen under sea-level conditions.

  10. A qualitative view of the HIV epidemic in coastal Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Adam L; Wilson, Magdalena M; Prabhu, Vishaal; Soekoe, Nicola; Mata, Humberto; Grau, Lauretta E

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 approximately 37,000 people were living with HIV in Ecuador (prevalence 0.4%), representing a generalized epidemic where most new infections arise from sexual interactions in the general population. Studies that examine attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLWH), individual risk perception of acquiring HIV amongst Ecuadorians, and the ways in which levels of risk perception may affect risk behaviors are lacking. This qualitative study aimed to fill this gap in the literature by investigating these issues in the rural, coastal community of Manglaralto, Ecuador, which has among the highest incidence of HIV in Ecuador. We conducted interviews with 15 patients at Manglaralto Hospital. Analysis of interview transcripts revealed widespread negative attitudes towards PLWH, prevalent risk behaviors such as multiple sex partners and lack of condom use, and low individual risk-perception of contracting HIV. These findings underscore the need for increased efforts to prevent further growth of the HIV epidemic in Ecuador.

  11. [Human factors caused the third plague epidemic in Harbin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Dong-Ying; Li, Zhi-Ping

    2011-03-01

    The third plague epidemic in Harbin broke out in 1946 and ended in 1954. Different from the first two plague epidemics (imported), the third prevalence was both imported and idiopathic infectious disease which was caused by human factors. Japanese troops set forbidden zones to build a biological weapon center, which destroyed the natural environment and offered a good growth condition for Citellus Undulatus. In 1945, on the eve of surrender, the Japanese blew up the Unit 731 germ factory located in a bungalow district, which caused diffusion of infected plague fleas. Mice of the district were infected and a man-made plague focus was created. During the prevalence of the third plague, prevention departments at all levels took a series of actions and with people's efforts, the plague was effectively controlled.

  12. A critical point of male gonad development: neuroendocrine correlates of accelerated testicular growth in rats during early life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay N Dygalo

    Full Text Available Testis growth during early life is important for future male fertility and shows acceleration during the first months of life in humans. This acceleration coincides with the peak in gonadotropic hormones in the blood, while the role of hypothalamic factors remains vague. Using neonatal rats to assess this issue, we found that day 9 of life is likely critical for testis development in rats. Before this day, testicular growth was proportional to body weight gain, but after that the testes showed accelerated growth. Hypothalamic kisspeptin and its receptor mRNA levels begin to elevate 2 days later, at day 11. A significant increase in the mRNA levels for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH receptors in the hypothalamus between days 5 and 7 was followed by a 3-fold decrease in GnRH mRNA levels in this brain region during the next 2 days. Starting from day 9, hypothalamic GnRH mRNA levels increased significantly and positively correlated with accelerated testicular growth. Triptorelin, an agonist of GnRH, at a dose that had no effect on testicular growth during "proportional" period, increased testis weights during the period of accelerated growth. The insensitivity of testicular growth to GnRH during "proportional" period was supported by inability of a 2.5-fold siRNA knockdown of GnRH expression in the hypothalamus of the 7-day-old animals to produce any effect on their testis weights. GnRH receptor blockade with cetrorelix was also without effect on testis weights during "proportional" period but the same doses of this GnRH antagonist significantly inhibited "accelerated" testicular growth. GnRH receptor mRNA levels in the pituitary as well as plasma LH concentrations were higher during "accelerated" period of testicular growth than during "proportional" period. In general, our data defined two distinct periods in rat testicular development that are primarily characterized by different responses to GnRH signaling.

  13. A critical point of male gonad development: neuroendocrine correlates of accelerated testicular growth in rats during early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dygalo, Nikolay N; Shemenkova, Tatjana V; Kalinina, Tatjana S; Shishkina, Galina T

    2014-01-01

    Testis growth during early life is important for future male fertility and shows acceleration during the first months of life in humans. This acceleration coincides with the peak in gonadotropic hormones in the blood, while the role of hypothalamic factors remains vague. Using neonatal rats to assess this issue, we found that day 9 of life is likely critical for testis development in rats. Before this day, testicular growth was proportional to body weight gain, but after that the testes showed accelerated growth. Hypothalamic kisspeptin and its receptor mRNA levels begin to elevate 2 days later, at day 11. A significant increase in the mRNA levels for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors in the hypothalamus between days 5 and 7 was followed by a 3-fold decrease in GnRH mRNA levels in this brain region during the next 2 days. Starting from day 9, hypothalamic GnRH mRNA levels increased significantly and positively correlated with accelerated testicular growth. Triptorelin, an agonist of GnRH, at a dose that had no effect on testicular growth during "proportional" period, increased testis weights during the period of accelerated growth. The insensitivity of testicular growth to GnRH during "proportional" period was supported by inability of a 2.5-fold siRNA knockdown of GnRH expression in the hypothalamus of the 7-day-old animals to produce any effect on their testis weights. GnRH receptor blockade with cetrorelix was also without effect on testis weights during "proportional" period but the same doses of this GnRH antagonist significantly inhibited "accelerated" testicular growth. GnRH receptor mRNA levels in the pituitary as well as plasma LH concentrations were higher during "accelerated" period of testicular growth than during "proportional" period. In general, our data defined two distinct periods in rat testicular development that are primarily characterized by different responses to GnRH signaling.

  14. Early Brain Activity Relates to Subsequent Brain Growth in Premature Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, Manon J.; Palmu, Kirsi; Menache, Caroline; Borradori-Tolsa, Cristina; Lazeyras, Francois; Sizonenko, Stephane; Dubois, Jessica; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Hüppi, Petra S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental studies have shown that early brain activity is crucial for neuronal survival and the development of brain networks; however, it has been challenging to assess its role in the developing human brain. We employed serial quantitative magnetic resonance imaging to measure the rate o

  15. Does early childbearing and a sterilization-focused family planning programme in India fuel population growth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, Zoe; Padmadas, Sabu S.; Hutter, Inge; McEachran, Juliet; Brown, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent stagnation in the reduction of infant mortality in India can arguably be attributed to early child bearing practices and the lack of progress in lengthening birth intervals. Meanwhile, family planning efforts have been particularly successful in the southern states such as Andhra Pradesh, alt

  16. Pupae transplantation to boost early colony growth in the weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouagoussounon, Issa; Sinzogan, Antonio; Offenberg, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Oecophylla ants are currently used for biological control in fruit plantations in Australia, Asia and Africa and for protein production in Asia. To further improve the technology and implement it on a large scale, effective and fast production of live colonies is desirable. Early colony developme...

  17. Early Childhood Practicum Students' Professional Growth in the USA: Areas of Confidence and Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Su-Jeong; Weber, Elsa K.; Park, Soyeon

    2014-01-01

    This research examines specific areas of confidence and concern as expressed by 40 American undergraduate early childhood students on a practicum (supervised field-based internships); if their beliefs changed over the course of their practicum, and if prior teaching experience had an impact on their confidence levels. Areas of confidence and…

  18. Early Childhood Practicum Students' Professional Growth in the USA: Areas of Confidence and Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Su-Jeong; Weber, Elsa K.; Park, Soyeon

    2014-01-01

    This research examines specific areas of confidence and concern as expressed by 40 American undergraduate early childhood students on a practicum (supervised field-based internships); if their beliefs changed over the course of their practicum, and if prior teaching experience had an impact on their confidence levels. Areas of confidence and…

  19. Pupae transplantation to boost early colony growth in the weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouagoussounon, Issa; Sinzogan, Antonio; Offenberg, Joachim;

    2013-01-01

    Oecophylla ants are currently used for biological control in fruit plantations in Australia, Asia and Africa and for protein production in Asia. To further improve the technology and implement it on a large scale, effective and fast production of live colonies is desirable. Early colony developme...

  20. Early Childhood Practicum Students' Professional Growth in the USA: Areas of Confidence and Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Su-Jeong; Weber, Elsa K.; Park, Soyeon

    2014-01-01

    This research examines specific areas of confidence and concern as expressed by 40 American undergraduate early childhood students on a practicum (supervised field-based internships); if their beliefs changed over the course of their practicum, and if prior teaching experience had an impact on their confidence levels. Areas of confidence and…

  1. Early Craniofacial Morphology and Growth in Children With Nonsyndromic Robin Sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, N. V.; Kreiborg, S.; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2003-01-01

    markedly increased posterior maxillary width, increased width of the nasal cavity, short maxilla with reduced posterior height, short mandible, bimaxillary retrognathia, and severe reduction in size of the pharyngeal airway. The amount of facial growth was similar in the two groups; however, a tendency...

  2. Predictors of outcome at 2 years of age after early intrauterine growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrance, H. L.; Bloemen, M. C. T.; Mulder, E. J. H.; Nikkels, P. G. J.; Derks, J. B.; De Vries, L. S.; Visser, G. H. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the relative importance of antenatal and perinatal variables on short- and long-term outcome of preterm growth restricted fetuses with umbilical artery (UA) Doppler abnormalities. Methods This was a cohort study of 180 neonates with birth weight <10(th) percentile, gestational a

  3. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status and early growth of low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltil, HA; van Beusekom, CM; Schaafsma, A; Muskiet, FAJ; Okken, A

    1998-01-01

    We correlated arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status with anthropometric measures and growth rates in a group of low birth weight infants (less than or equal to 2500 g; gestational ages 30-41 weeks; n = 143). AA and DHA status were measured in erythrocytes (RBC) and plasma chole

  4. Effect of potassium humate on early growth of Gobustan wheat variety

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-16

    Jan 16, 2012 ... In order to study the effect of potassium humate on germination and seedling growth of Gobustan wheat variety ... acid reduces the amount of fertilizer consumption, and makes plant ... so clear and dramatic that in some cases increases the size of the ... Duncan's Multiple Rang test at 5% level. RESULTS ...

  5. Predictors of outcome at 2 years of age after early intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, H L; Bloemen, M C T; Mulder, E J H; Nikkels, P G J; Derks, J B; de Vries, L S; Visser, G H A

    2010-08-01

    To examine the relative importance of antenatal and perinatal variables on short- and long-term outcome of preterm growth restricted fetuses with umbilical artery (UA) Doppler abnormalities. This was a cohort study of 180 neonates with birth weight neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years was predicted by low birth weight (malnutrition and fetal acidosis affect long-term outcome.

  6. Predictors of outcome at 2 years of age after early intrauterine growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrance, H. L.; Bloemen, M. C. T.; Mulder, E. J. H.; Nikkels, P. G. J.; Derks, J. B.; De Vries, L. S.; Visser, G. H. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the relative importance of antenatal and perinatal variables on short- and long-term outcome of preterm growth restricted fetuses with umbilical artery (UA) Doppler abnormalities. Methods This was a cohort study of 180 neonates with birth weight <10(th) percentile, gestational a

  7. The effects of zinc status on early growth in infants with sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growth failure, maturational delay, and alterations in body composition occur in older children and adults with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). Poor nutritional status, specifically zinc deficiency, has been widely implicated, although infants with SCD have not been studied. We determined zinc status in ...

  8. Growth and development in internationally adopted children: extent and timing of recovery after early adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Jesús; Román, Maite; Camacho, Carlos

    2011-03-01

    Following initial adversity, internationally adopted children arrive with significant growth and developmental delays. Post-placement recovery has been widely documented, but little has been known about its extent and timing several years after placement and in children with diverse pre-adoptive experiences. A total of 289 children adopted from six countries into Spanish families were studied. Growth and psychological development were considered on arrival and after an average of over 3 years. Growth and developmental initial delays affected a substantial percentage of the children. Post-adoption recovery seemed quicker and more complete in weight and height than in head circumference and psychological development. Initial and later values were correlated, but growth-development relation on arrival subsequently lost significance. Most of the catch-up happened in the first three post-adoption years. Adoption offers an impressive opportunity for recovery after previous adversity, although continuity between past and present persists. The improvement is more marked in some areas than in others and more substantial in the first post-adoption years. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Breast-feeding modifies the association of PPARγ2 polymorphism pro12Ala with growth in early life: The generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.O. Mook-Kanamori (Dennis); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE-We examined whether the PPARyγ2 Ala12 allele influences growth in early life and whether this association is modified by breast-feeding. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a prospective cohort study from early fetal life onward.

  10. Identification of differentially expressed ovarian genes during primary and early secondary oocyte growth in coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliev Dimitar B

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed ovarian genes during primary and early secondary oocyte growth in coho salmon, a semelparous teleost that exhibits synchronous follicle development. Methods Reciprocal suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH libraries were generated from ovaries with perinucleolus (P or cortical alveolus (CA stage follicles and selected genes were assessed with quantitative PCR (qPCR. An assessment of changes in RNA composition during oocyte growth and its relationship to transcript levels was also conducted. Results SSH revealed several differentially expressed genes during early oogenesis, some which will not likely be utilized until 1–3 years later in salmon. Zona pellucida glycoprotein (zp genes, vitellogenin receptor (vldlr isoforms, cathepsin B (ctsba, cyclin E (ccne, a DnaJ transcript (dnaja2, and a ferritin subunit (fth3 were significantly elevated at the P stage, while a C-type lectin, retinol dehydrogenase (rdh1, and a coatomer protein subunit (cope were upregulated at the CA stage. Putative follicle cell transcripts such as anti-Müllerian hormone (amh, lipoprotein lipase (lpl, apolipoprotein E (apoe, gonadal soma-derived growth factor (gsdf and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (fshr also increased significantly at the CA stage. The analysis of RNA composition during oocyte growth showed that the total RNA yield and proportion of messenger RNA relative to non-polyadenylated RNAs declined as oogenesis progressed. This influenced apparent transcript levels depending on the type of RNA template used and normalization method. Conclusion In coho salmon, which exhibit a dramatic change in oocyte size and RNA composition during oogenesis, use of messenger RNA as template and normalization of qPCR data to a housekeeping gene, ef1a, yielded results that best reflected transcript abundance within the ovarian follicle. Synthesis of zp transcripts and proteins involved in

  11. Genetic markers of adult obesity risk are associated with greater early infancy weight gain and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy E Elks

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide studies have identified several common genetic variants that are robustly associated with adult obesity risk. Exploration of these genotype associations in children may provide insights into the timing of weight changes leading to adult obesity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC birth cohort were genotyped for ten genetic variants previously associated with adult BMI. Eight variants that showed individual associations with childhood BMI (in/near: FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, GNPDA2, KCTD15, NEGR1, BDNF, and ETV5 were used to derive an "obesity-risk-allele score" comprising the total number of risk alleles (range: 2-15 alleles in each child with complete genotype data (n = 7,146. Repeated measurements of weight, length/height, and body mass index from birth to age 11 years were expressed as standard deviation scores (SDS. Early infancy was defined as birth to age 6 weeks, and early infancy failure to thrive was defined as weight gain between below the 5th centile, adjusted for birth weight. The obesity-risk-allele score showed little association with birth weight (regression coefficient: 0.01 SDS per allele; 95% CI 0.00-0.02, but had an apparently much larger positive effect on early infancy weight gain (0.119 SDS/allele/year; 0.023-0.216 than on subsequent childhood weight gain (0.004 SDS/allele/year; 0.004-0.005. The obesity-risk-allele score was also positively associated with early infancy length gain (0.158 SDS/allele/year; 0.032-0.284 and with reduced risk of early infancy failure to thrive (odds ratio = 0.92 per allele; 0.86-0.98; p = 0.009. CONCLUSIONS: The use of robust genetic markers identified greater early infancy gains in weight and length as being on the pathway to adult obesity risk in a contemporary birth cohort.

  12. Modeling and simulation of epidemic spread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shatnawi, Maad; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Zaki, Nazar

    2013-01-01

    and control such epidemics. This paper presents an overview of the epidemic spread modeling and simulation, and summarizes the main technical challenges in this field. It further investigates the most relevant recent approaches carried out towards this perspective and provides a comparison and classification...

  13. Contact allergy epidemics and their controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, Torkil

    2007-01-01

    Contact dermatitis can be severe and lead to sick leave as well as significant healthcare expenses. The aim of this review is to present the published knowledge on 6 historical epidemics of contact allergy to apply this knowledge on the prevention and control of future contact allergy epidemics...

  14. Epidemics in interconnected small-world networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, M.; Li, D.; Qin, P.; Liu, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, F.

    2015-01-01

    Networks can be used to describe the interconnections among individuals, which play an important role in the spread of disease. Although the small-world effect has been found to have a significant impact on epidemics in single networks, the small-world effect on epidemics in interconnected networks

  15. Malaria Epidemic and Drug Resistance, Djibouti

    OpenAIRE

    Rogier, Christophe; Pradines, Bruno; Bogreau, H.; Koeck, Jean-Louis; Kamil, Mohamed-Ali; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected before, during, and after a 1999 malaria epidemic in Djibouti shows that, despite a high prevalence of resistance to chloroquine, the epidemic cannot be attributed to a sudden increase in drug resistance of local parasite populations.

  16. Early Stress History Alters Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 and Impairs Muscle Mitochondrial Function in Adult Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Banerjee, K K; Vaidya, V A; Kolthur-Seetharam, U

    2016-09-01

    Early-life adversity is associated with an enhanced risk for adult psychopathology. Psychiatric disorders such as depression exhibit comorbidity for metabolic dysfunction, including obesity and diabetes. However, it is poorly understood whether, besides altering anxiety and depression-like behaviour, early stress also evokes dysregulation of metabolic pathways and enhances vulnerability for metabolic disorders. We used the rodent model of the early stress of maternal separation (ES) to examine the effects of early stress on serum metabolites, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 signalling, and muscle mitochondrial content. Adult ES animals exhibited dyslipidaemia, decreased serum IGF1 levels, increased expression of liver IGF binding proteins, and a decline in the expression of specific metabolic genes in the liver and muscle, including Pck1, Lpl, Pdk4 and Hmox1. These changes occurred in the absence of alterations in body weight, food intake, glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance or insulin levels. ES animals also exhibited a decline in markers of muscle mitochondrial content, such as mitochondrial DNA levels and expression of TFAM (transcription factor A, mitochondrial). Furthermore, the expression of several genes involved in mitochondrial function, such as Ppargc1a, Nrf1, Tfam, Cat, Sesn3 and Ucp3, was reduced in skeletal muscle. Adult-onset chronic unpredictable stress resulted in overlapping and distinct consequences from ES, including increased circulating triglyceride levels, and a decline in the expression of specific metabolic genes in the liver and muscle, with no change in the expression of genes involved in muscle mitochondrial function. Taken together, our results indicate that a history of early adversity can evoke persistent changes in circulating IGF-1 and muscle mitochondrial function and content, which could serve to enhance predisposition for metabolic dysfunction in adulthood. © 2016 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  17. Early- versus Late-Onset Fetal Growth Restriction Differentially Affects the Development of the Fetal Sheep Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves de Alencar Rocha, Anna Karynna; Allison, Beth J; Yawno, Tamara; Polglase, Graeme R; Sutherland, Amy E; Malhotra, Atul; Jenkin, Graham; Castillo-Melendez, Margie; Miller, Suzanne L

    2017-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common complication of pregnancy, principally caused by suboptimal placental function, and is associated with high rates of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Clinical studies suggest that the time of onset of placental insufficiency is an important contributor towards the neurodevelopmental impairments that are evident in children who had FGR. It is however currently unknown how early-onset and late-onset FGR differentially affect brain development. The aim of this study was to examine neuropathology in early-onset and late-onset FGR fetal sheep and to determine whether they differentially alter brain development. We induced placental insufficiency and FGR via single umbilical artery ligation at either 88 days (early-onset) or 105 days (late-onset) of fetal sheep gestation (term is approx. 147 days), reflecting a period of rapid white matter brain development. Fetal blood samples were collected for the first 10 days after surgery, and all fetuses were sacrificed at 125 days' gestation for brain collection and subsequent histopathology. Our results show that early-onset FGR fetuses became progressively hypoxic over the first 10 days after onset of placental insufficiency, whereas late-onset FGR fetuses were significantly hypoxic compared to controls from day 1 after onset of placental insufficiency (SaO2 46.7 ± 7.4 vs. 65.7 ± 3.9%, respectively, p = 0.03). Compared to control brains, early-onset FGR brains showed widespread white matter injury, with a reduction in both CNPase-positive and MBP-positive density of staining in the periventricular white matter (PVWM), subcortical white matter, intragyral white matter (IGWM), subventricular zone (SVZ), and external capsule (p development that principally mediates altered brain development associated with FGR. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The association of fetal and early childhood growth with adult mental distress: evidence from the Johns Hopkins Collaborative Perinatal Study birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Andrew Alford

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Early childhood physical growth may have an impact on the development of adult mental distress. The primary objectives were to (1 assess the association of early growth in weight (adjusted for height with adult mental distress, and (2 determine if specific sub-types, or patterns, of early physical growth are associated with adult mental distress.Methods: Subjects were all Johns Hopkins Collaborative Perinatal Study cohort subjects with complete birth size information that successfully completed the Pathways to Adulthood follow-up in early adulthood. Variability in the timing of growth in weight adjusted for height from birth to age 7.5 years was taken into account using a nonhierarchical linear model. Two critical periods of growth were considered as tertiles of change in weight adjusted for height from birth to age seven and birth to age 1 year. Mental distress in adulthood (ages 29-32 was measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28.Results: Small for gestational age subjects were at increased risk of later mental distress, but not uniformly so. Those born with low weight and length for gestational age were a distinct subgroup of those born small for gestational age, and had unique patterns of risk for adult mental distress when early growth was considered.Conclusions: Acceleration and deceleration in weight for height change is associated with mental distress over multiple periods of early life and acts differentially between those periods. Furthermore, the association of early childhood growth with the likelihood of adult mental distress is dependent on prenatal growth.

  19. Integrating Remote Sensing and Disease Surveillance to Forecast Malaria Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Beyane, B.; DeVos, M.; Liu, Y.; Merkord, C. L.; Mihretie, A.

    2015-12-01

    Advance information about the timing and locations of malaria epidemics can facilitate the targeting of resources for prevention and emergency response. Early detection methods can detect incipient outbreaks by identifying deviations from expected seasonal patterns, whereas early warning approaches typically forecast future malaria risk based on lagged responses to meteorological factors. A critical limiting factor for implementing either of these approaches is the need for timely and consistent acquisition, processing and analysis of both environmental and epidemiological data. To address this need, we have developed EPIDEMIA - an integrated system for surveillance and forecasting of malaria epidemics. The EPIDEMIA system includes a public health interface for uploading and querying weekly surveillance reports as well as algorithms for automatically validating incoming data and updating the epidemiological surveillance database. The newly released EASTWeb 2.0 software application automatically downloads, processes, and summaries remotely-sensed environmental data from multiple earth science data archives. EASTWeb was implemented as a component of the EPIDEMIA system, which combines the environmental monitoring data and epidemiological surveillance data into a unified database that supports both early detection and early warning models. Dynamic linear models implemented with Kalman filtering were used to carry out forecasting and model updating. Preliminary forecasts have been disseminated to public health partners in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia and will be validated and refined as the EPIDEMIA system ingests new data. In addition to continued model development and testing, future work will involve updating the public health interface to provide a broader suite of outbreak alerts and data visualization tools that are useful to our public health partners. The EPIDEMIA system demonstrates a feasible approach to synthesizing the information from epidemiological

  20. Early Detection Based on Angiogenic Growth Factors in Nipple Aspirate Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    system, where it accumulates secreted factors and exfoliated mammary epithelial cells. Thus, examination ofNAF provides a "snapshot" of the micro...biological components from being captured in NAF samples. To date, classical cytologic assessment has been used to identify abnormalities in NAF-derived cells...as an indicator of early progression toward breast cancer. However, this approach has low specificity. Although the presence of cytologic atypia in

  1. Characterisation of the fibroblast growth factor dependent transcriptome in early development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Branney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: FGF signaling has multiple roles in regulating processes in animal development, including the specification and patterning of the mesoderm. In addition, FGF signaling supports self renewal of human embryonic stem cells and is required for differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells into a number of lineages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Given the importance of FGF signaling in regulating development and stem cell behaviour, we aimed to identify the transcriptional targets of FGF signalling during early development in the vertebrate model Xenopus laevis. We analysed the effects on gene expression in embryos in which FGF signaling was inhibited by dominant negative FGF receptors. 67 genes positively regulated by FGF signaling and 16 genes negatively regulated by FGF signaling were identified. FGF target genes are expressed in distinct waves during the late blastula to early gastrula phase. Many of these genes are expressed in the early mesoderm and dorsal ectoderm. A widespread requirement for FGF in regulating genes expressed in the Spemann organizer is revealed. The FGF targets MKP1 and DUSP5 are shown to be negative regulators of FGF signaling in early Xenopus tissues. FoxD3 and Lin28, which are involved in regulating pluripotency in ES cells are shown to be down regulated when FGF signaling is blocked. CONCLUSIONS: We have undertaken a detailed analysis of FGF target genes which has generated a robust, well validated data set. We have found a widespread role for FGF signaling in regulating the expression of genes mediating the function of the Spemann organizer. In addition, we have found that the FGF targets MKP1 and DUSP5 are likely to contribute to the complex feedback loops involved in modulating responses to FGF signaling. We also find a link between FGF signaling and the expression of known regulators of pluripotency.

  2. THE EFFECT OF WATER STRESS ON SOME TRAITS OF WINTER BARLEY CULTIVARS DURING EARLY STAGES OF PLANT GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiljana Goreta Ban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted research on the effects of exposing barley plants to short water stress deficiency through their early growth stage. The measurements and parallel analyses of relative water content (RWC, the mass of the whole plant, leaf mass, root percentage, total root length and length of root fractions with plants exposed to stress (water deficit and with plants which were not exposed to water deficit have been conducted. Ten varieties were included in this research. The overall average of relative water content (RWC measured in winter barley varieties was 97.5% under non-stressful conditions, and 66.1% under stressful conditions. An average difference between non-stressful and stressful conditions of plant mass was 61.2 mg, leaf mass 42.5 mg, RWC 31.4%, root mass 18.5 mg and total root length 129 cm. Relative losses under effect of water stress were lower at smaller (finer root fractions. Significant differences among the examined barley varieties cultivated under or without the water stress were found for plant mass, leaf mass, root mass, total root length and root fractions. Varieties with the lowest losses in leaf and plant mass are Titan, Arturio and Bingo. Also, the varieties Titan, Bingo and Rex had the lowest losses of root length and mass under water stress during the early growth stage.

  3. Magnetic treatment of irrigation water and snow pea and chickpea seeds enhances early growth and nutrient contents of seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Harsharn S; Maheshwari, Basant L

    2011-01-01

    The effects of magnetic treatment of irrigation water and snow pea (Pisum sativum L var. macrocarpon) and Kabuli chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) seeds on the emergence, early growth and nutrient contents of seedlings were investigated under glasshouse conditions. The treatments included (i) magnetic treatment of irrigation water (MTW), (ii) magnetic treatment of seeds (MTS), (iii) magnetic treatment of irrigation water and seeds (MTWS) and (iv) no magnetic treatment of irrigation water or seeds as control treatment. A magnetic treatment device with two permanent magnets (magnetic induction: 3.5-136 mT) was used for the above treatments. Seeds were sown in washed sand and seedlings were harvested at 20 days. The results showed that MTW led to a significant (P < 0.05) increase in emergence rate index (ERI; 42% for snow pea and 51% for chickpea), shoot dry weight (25% for snow pea and 20% for chickpea) and contents of N, K, Ca, Mg, S, Na, Zn, Fe and Mn in both seedling varieties compared to control seedlings. Likewise, there were significant increases in ERI (33% for snow peas and 37% for chickpea), shoot dry weight (11% for snow pea and 4% for chickpea) and some nutrients of snow pea and chickpea seedlings with MTS in comparison with the controls. The results of this study suggest that both MTW and MTS have the potential to improve the early seedling growth and nutrient contents of seedlings.

  4. Inferring epidemic contact structure from phylogenetic trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel E Leventhal

    Full Text Available Contact structure is believed to have a large impact on epidemic spreading and consequently using networks to model such contact structure continues to gain interest in epidemiology. However, detailed knowledge of the exact contact structure underlying real epidemics is limited. Here we address the question whether the structure of the contact network leaves a detectable genetic fingerprint in the pathogen population. To this end we compare phylogenies generated by disease outbreaks in simulated populations with different types of contact networks. We find that the shape of these phylogenies strongly depends on contact structure. In particular, measures of tree imbalance allow us to quantify to what extent the contact structure underlying an epidemic deviates from a null model contact network and illustrate this in the case of random mixing. Using a phylogeny from the Swiss HIV epidemic, we show that this epidemic has a significantly more unbalanced tree than would be expected from random mixing.

  5. Recent Structural Evolution of Early-Type Galaxies: Size Growth from z=1 to z=0

    CERN Document Server

    van der Wel, Arjen; Zirm, Andrew W; Franx, Marijn; Rettura, Alessandro; Illingworth, Garth D; Ford, Holland C

    2008-01-01

    Strong size and internal density evolution of early-type galaxies between z~2 and the present has been reported by several authors. Here we analyze samples of nearby and distant (z~1) galaxies with dynamically measured masses in order to confirm the previous, model-dependent results and constrain the uncertainties that may play a role. Velocity dispersion measurements are taken from the literature for 50 morphologically selected 0.8early-type galaxies with typical masses 2e11 Msol. Sizes are determined with ACS imaging. We compare the distant sample with a large sample of nearby (0.04early-type galaxies extracted from the SDSSfor which we determine sizes, masses, and densities in a consistent manner, using simulations to quantify systematic differences between the size measurements of nearby and distant galaxies. We find a highly significant structural difference between the nearby and distant samples, regardless of sample selection effects. The implied evolution ...

  6. Does early childbearing and a sterilization-focused family planning programme in India fuel population growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë Matthews

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent stagnation in the reduction of infant mortality in India can arguably be attributed to early child bearing practices and the lack of progress in lengthening birth intervals. Meanwhile, family planning efforts have been particularly successful in the southern states such as Andhra Pradesh, although family limitation is almost exclusively by means of sterilisation at increasingly younger ages. This paper examines the population impact of the unprecedented convergence of early childbearing trajectories in India and quantifies the potential implications stemming from the neglect of strategies that encourage delaying and spacing of births. The effects of adopting a 'later, longer and fewer' family planning strategy are compared with the continuation of fertility concentrated in the younger age groups. Results from the cohort component population projections suggest that a policy encouraging later marriage and birth spacing would achieve a future total population which is about 52 million less in 2050 than if the current early fertility trajectory is continued.

  7. Epidemic centrality and the underestimated epidemic impact on network peripheral nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Sikic, Mile; Antulov-Fantulin, Nino; Stefancic, Hrvoje

    2011-01-01

    Studies of disease spreading on complex networks have provided a deep insight into the conditions of onset, dynamics and prevention of epidemics in human populations and malicious software propagation in computer networks. Identifying nodes which, when initially infected, infect the largest part of the network and ranking them according to their epidemic impact is a priority for public health policies. In simulations of the disease spreading in SIR model on studied empirical complex networks, it is shown that the ranking depends on the dynamical regime of the disease spreading. A possible mechanism leading to this dynamical dependence is illustrated in an analytically tractable example. A measure called epidemic centrality, averaging the epidemic impact over all possible disease spreading regimes, is introduced as a basis of epidemic ranking. Contrary to standard notion, the epidemic centrality of nodes with high degree, k-cores value or betweenness, which are structurally central, is comparable to epidemic c...

  8. Early summer drought stress during the first growing year stimulates extra shoot growth in oak seedlings (Quercus petraea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arion eTurcsán

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available More severe summer droughts are predicted for mid-latitudes in Europe. To evaluate the impact on forest ecosystems and more specifically on forest regeneration, we studied the response to summer drought in oak seedlings (Quercus petraea. Acorns were collected from different mother trees in three stands in Belgium, sown in pots and grown in non-heated greenhouse conditions. We imposed severe drought on the seedlings in early summer by first watering the pots to saturation and then stopping any watering. Weight of the pots and stomatal conductance were regularly measured. Re-watering followed this drought period of five weeks. Height of the seedlings and apical bud development were observed. Stomatal resistance increased towards the end of the experiment in the drought-treated group and was restored after re-watering. The seedlings from the drought treatment displayed a higher probability to produce additional shoot growth after re-watering (p ≤ 0.05. A higher competition for resources (two plants per pot increased this chance. Although this chance was also higher for smaller seedlings, the actual length of the extra growth after re-watering was higher for larger seedlings (p ≤ 0.01. Both in the drought-treated and in the control group the autochthonous provenance growing on a xeric site produced less extra shoots compared to the two other provenances. Finally, stressed plants showed less developed apical buds compared to the control group after re-watering, suggesting a phenological effect on the growth cycle of oaks (p ≤ 0.0001. The higher chance for an extra shoot growth after the drought period can be considered as a compensation for the induced growth arrest during the drought period.

  9. Fast magnetic field amplification in the early Universe: growth of collisionless plasma instabilities in turbulent media

    CERN Document Server

    Falceta-Goncalves, D

    2015-01-01

    In this work we report a numerical study of the cosmic magnetic field amplification due to collisionless plasma instabilities. The collisionless magnetohydrodynamic equations derived account for the pressure anisotropy that leads, in specific conditions, to the firehose and mirror instabilities. We study the time evolution of seed fields in turbulence under the influence of such instabilities. An approximate analytical time evolution of magnetic field is provided. The numerical simulations and the analytical predictions are compared. We found that i) amplification of magnetic field was efficient in firehose unstable turbulent regimes, but not in the mirror unstable models, ii) the growth rate of the magnetic energy density is much faster than the turbulent dynamo, iii) the efficient amplification occurs at small scales. The analytical prediction for the correlation between the growth timescales with pressure anisotropy ratio is confirmed by the numerical simulations. These results reinforce the idea that pres...

  10. Early Craniofacial Morphology and Growth in Children With Nonsyndromic Robin Sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, N. V.; Kreiborg, S.; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Craniofacial morphology and growth comparisons in children with untreated nonsyndromic Robin Sequence (RS) and a control group with unilateral incomplete cleft lip (UICL) in which the lip was surgically closed at 2 months of age. Material: The 52 children (7 RS and 45 UICL) included...... in the study were drawn from a group representing all Danish cleft children born 1976 through 1981. The ages of the children were 2 and 22 months at the time of examination 1 and 2, respectively. Method: The method of investigation was three-projection cephalometry. Craniofacial morphology was analyzed...... markedly increased posterior maxillary width, increased width of the nasal cavity, short maxilla with reduced posterior height, short mandible, bimaxillary retrognathia, and severe reduction in size of the pharyngeal airway. The amount of facial growth was similar in the two groups; however, a tendency...

  11. An epidemic outbreak of cryptosporidiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Kåre; Højlyng, Niels; Ingholt, Liselotte

    1990-01-01

    In the first year of a prospective community study of childhood diarrhea conducted in a semiurban area in the capital of Guinea Bissau, Cryptosporidium sp. was found in 73 (6.0%) of 1216 episodes of diarrhea. The parasite was the second most prevalent intestinal parasite, and the only one...... significantly associated with diarrhea (OR = 2.79, P = 0.0006). The seasonal distribution was striking, with a peak prevalence in the beginning of the rainy season (May 17.6%) when an epidemic outbreak of diarrhea started. The prevalence was highest in children younger than 18 months, an age at which...... prevalences of other intestinal parasites were low. This reverse age pattern may possibly be explained by the small infective dose needed to create severe infections, by air-borne transmission and by the development of protective immunity....

  12. Cooperative epidemics on multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi-Tafreshi, N

    2015-01-01

    The spread of one disease, in some cases, can stimulate the spreading of another infectious disease. Here, we treat analytically a symmetric co-infection model for spreading of two diseases on a 2-layer multiplex network. We allow layer overlapping, but we assume that each layer is random and locally loop-less. Infection with one of the diseases increases the probability to get infected by the other. Using generating function method, we calculate exactly the fraction of individuals infected with both diseases (so-called co-infected clusters) in the stationary state, as well as the epidemic spreading thresholds and the phase diagram of the model. With increasing cooperation, we observe a tricritical point and the type of transition changes from continuous to hybrid. Finally we compare the co-infected clusters in the case of co-operating diseases with the so-called viable clusters in networks with dependencies.

  13. Identifying predictors of early growth response and adverse radiation effects of vestibular schwannomas to radiosurgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Larjani

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine whether pre-treatment growth rate of vestibular schwannomas (VS predict response to radiosurgery. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all VS patients treated with 12Gy prescription dose between September 2005 and June 2011 at our institution using the Leksell Model 4C Gamma Knife Unit was conducted. Patients who had a minimum of 12-months clinical and radiological assessment before and after radiosurgery were included in this study. Tumor growth rates were calculated using specific growth rate (SGR. Tumor volumes were measured on FIESTA-MRI scans using ITK-SNAP v2.2. RESULTS: Following radiosurgery, twenty-seven (42.9% patients showed a significant decrease in volume after one year, twenty-nine (46.0% stabilized, and seven (11.1% continued to grow. There was no correlation between VS pre-treatment SGRs with post-treatment SGRs (p = 0.34, and incidence of adverse radiation effects (ARE. The reduction in tumors' SGRs after radiosurgery was proportional to pre-treatment SGRs, although this correlation was not statistically significant (p = 0.19. Analysis of risk factors revealed a positive correlation between post-treatment SGRs and incidence of non-auditory complications, most of which were attributed to ARE (p = 0.047. CONCLUSION: Pre-treatment growth rate of VS does not predict tumor response to radiosurgery or incidence of ARE. VS with higher SGRs post-radiosurgery are more likely to experience ARE.

  14. Seed Germination and Early Growth Responses of Hyssop, Sweet Basil and Oregano to Temperature Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad MIJANI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this survey were to determine the effect of temperature on germination and seedling growth of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L., Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and Oregano (Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae family as well as comparing species regarding germination behavior and growth characteristics. Seeds were germinated on a temperature-gradient bar varying between 5 and 40 °C (with 5 °C intervals. Results indicated that the highest germination percentage of hyssop (92-98%, sweet basil (86-90% and oregano (74-77% occurred at 20-30 °C, 25-30 °C and 20-30 °C, respectively; therefore, moderate and warm temperatures are proper for germination of all species. In all species the maximum germination rate obtained at 30 °C. Among all species, Day 10 % of Sweet basil Germination had the lowest value, which indicates faster germination. The cardinal temperatures (base, optimum and ceiling or maximum were estimated by the segmented model. Base temperature (Tb was calculated for hyssop, sweet basil and oregano as 3.42, 5.70 and 5.46 °C, respectively. Optimal temperature (To calculated for all species was approximately 30°C, So warmer temperatures are much more proper for them. The species showed different maximum temperatures (Tm from 42.91 (Oregano to 48.05 °C (Hyssop. In Hyssop and Sweet basil optimum growth of seedlings were observed at 30°C while Oregano reached its best growth at 25°C. The difference between maximum and minimum temperatures of germination knowing as temperature range (TR index could show adaptation capability to broad sites for planting and domestication. Regarding this index Hyssop stood in the first place.

  15. Early-stage Widmanstaetten growth of the {gamma} phase in a duplex steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shek, C.H.; Dong, C.; Lai, J.K.L.; Wong, K.W.

    2000-01-01

    The present work studies the Widmanstaetten {gamma}-phase morphology and crystallographic orientation relationships with ferrite during its initial-stage growth in a duplex steel. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) analyses have been applied to determine the orientation relationship with high precision. When the secondary {gamma} phase and the {alpha} phase have special orientation relationships close to the K-S (Kurdjumov-Sachs) relation, the preferential growth involves {gamma} phase, protruding into {alpha} phase and this leads, finally, to the formation of Widmanstatten needles. The needles grow nearly along the invariant-line direction, but they do not satisfy exactly the K-S relation, and a slight angular deviation ({theta}{sub [110]{alpha}}) is always present. This deviation is explained by a compromise between the well-known invariant-line condition, which offers the easiest way for directional growth of the {gamma} phase, and a good atomic matching of the close-packed (1{ovr 11}){gamma} and (110){sub {alpha}} planes of both phases. A matching minimum at {theta}{sub [110]{alpha}} = 2.3 deg is obtained when only three pairs of the nearest-neighbor atoms are considered in an atomic misfit calculation.

  16. Familial epidemic of meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilović, V; Vrbanec-Megla, L; Payerl-Pal, M; Puntarić, D; Baklaić, Z

    1998-03-01

    Two closely related boys from the same house hold (Home 1), aged two and three, were affected with fulminant meningococcal sepsis known as Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome. Neisseria meningitidis serogorup B was isolated from their blood and cerebrospinal fluid. The two-year-old boy died one day after the onset of the disease. Epidemiological examination of contacts and pharyngeal swabs were performed in 14 persons from the household, all of them relatives of the affected children, as well as in a number of other contacts. Chemoprophylaxis with cotrimoxazole was simultaneously administered to all contacts. Family histories revealed that two contacts from the household where the patients did not live (Home 2) were inadvertently omitted. Subsequent examinations, following a report of another contagious disease (salmonelosis), revealed that these two persons were Neisseria meningitidis carriers, together with another one in the same household. The carriers most probably caused the infection of a third, five-year-old boy, the deceased boy's brother (Home 1) who also developed fulminant meningococcal sepsis. The failure to take the appropriate prophylaxis led to a prolonged carrier state in the carrier from the second household. Repeated pharyngeal swab sampling revealed two more carriers from both households that had previously been negative. Control of the epidemic was achieved after 5 weeks by repeated and controlled chemoprophylaxis with ciprofloxacin, and by repeated epidemiological examinations, disinfection, and daily health surveillance by the Sanitary Inspectorate. This extremely rare instance of a familial epidemic with three infected persons emphasizes the need for consistent chemoprophylaxis in meningococcal disease contacts.

  17. Rapid growth in early childhood associated with young adult overweight and obesity--evidence from a community based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutharsan, Ratneswary; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Williams, Gail; Najman, Jake M; Mamun, Abdullah A

    2015-08-08

    Rapid weight gain in early life may increase the risk of overweight and obesity in adulthood. We investigated the association between the rate of growth during early childhood and the development of overweight and obesity in young adults. We used a prospective cohort study of 2077 young adults who were born between 1981 and 1984 in Brisbane, Australia and had anthropometry measurements available at birth, 6 months, 5 years, 14 years and 21 years of age. The associations of rate of early growth with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and their categories at 21 years were studied using multivariate analysis. We found that rapid weight gain [> + 0.67 standard deviation score (SDS)] in the first 5 years of life was associated with young adults' overweight status (BMI: adjusted OR = 2.35, 95% CI, 1.82-3.03; WC: adjusted OR = 2.20, 95% CI, 1.65-2.95). We also observed that slow weight gain in the first 5 years of age (< -0.67 SDS) was inversely associated with overweight (BMI: OR = 0.62, 95% CI, 0.45-0.84). Such associations were not found with WHR. Rapid weight gain in the first 6 months of life increased the risk of overweight as defined by BMI (adjusted OR = 1.13, 95% CI, 0.86-1.49) and WC (adjusted OR = 1.24, 95% CI, 0.92-1.67), but these associations were not statistically significant. Rapid weight gain in the first 5 years of life in children increased their risk of a higher BMI and WC in young adulthood, in contrast slow weight gain was inversely associated with weight status at 21 years.

  18. A comparison of growth, photosynthetic capacity and water stress in Eucalyptus globulus coppice regrowth and seedlings during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Paul L; Mendham, Daniel S; White, Don A; Ogden, Gary N

    2009-05-01

    Eucalyptus globulus Labill., a globally significant plantation species, is grown commercially in a multiple rotation framework. Second and subsequent crops of E. globulus may be established either by allowing the cut stumps to resprout (commonly referred to as coppice) or by replanting a new crop of seedlings. Currently, long-term growth data comparing coppice and seedling productivity in second or later rotations in southern Australia is limited. The capacity to predict productivity using these tools is dependent on an understanding of the physiology of seedlings and coppice in response to light, water and nutrient supply. In this study, we compared the intrinsic (independent of the immediate environment) and native (dependent on the immediate environment) physiology of E. globulus coppice and second-generation seedlings during their early development in the field. Coppice not only grew more rapidly, but also used more water and drew on stored soil water to a depth of at least 4.5 m during the first 2 years of growth, whereas the seedlings only accessed the top 0.9 m of the soil profile. During the same period, there was no significant difference between coppice and seedlings in either their stomatal response to leaf-to-air vapour pressure difference (D) or intrinsic water-use efficiency; CO(2)- and light-saturated rates of photosynthesis were greater in seedlings than that in coppice as were the quantum yield of photosynthesis and total leaf chlorophyll content. Thus, at a leaf scale, seedlings are potentially more productive per unit leaf area than coppice during early development, but this is not realised under ambient conditions. The underlying cause of this inherent difference is discussed in the context of the allocation of resources to above- and below-ground organs during early development.

  19. The initial hospital response to an epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosillo, Nicola; Puro, Vincenzo; Di Caro, Antonino; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    The last decades have been characterized by the appearance of a substantial number of newly recognized or novel infectious agents and by the re-emergence of infectious diseases with a global impact. The objective of this article is to briefly describe the model of hospital response for early diagnosis and prompt management of patients with highly contagious infectious diseases. We reviewed the main components of hospital preparedness in response to clustering of highly contagious diseases. A model for the initial hospital response to an epidemic in our referral Institute is discussed. Prompt recognition and identification is the initial and indispensable step in facing any communicable diseases, regardless of whether it is a prevalent, a newly emerging one or deliberately released. The importance of developing and implementing nontraditional methods of public health surveillance and a system that allows a wide and immediate dissemination of information and exchange of views on risk assessment and risk management are highlighted. Case identification and laboratory capabilities and isolation procedures are the essential components for an initial hospital response. The recent bioterrorist events and the worldwide outbreaks of highly contagious infectious diseases have evidenced the need for institutional preparedness at each hospital and for identification of referral centers for patient isolation and of laboratories with adequate capabilities. Moreover, hospitals should develop a plan for coordinating all hospital components to respond to critical situations deriving from the admission of patients with highly contagious infectious diseases.

  20. Psychological and demographic correlates of early academic skill development among American Indian and Alaska Native youth: a growth modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Amy Kerivan; Coll, Cynthia García

    2007-05-01

    Research regarding the development of early academic skills among American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) students has been very limited to date. Using a nationally representative sample of AIAN, Hispanic, African American, and White children at school entry, the authors used latent growth models to estimate the associations among poverty, low parental education, living in a rural location, as well as child attitudes toward learning and internalizing/externalizing behaviors, with mathematical and reading cognitive skill development across the 1st 4 years of school. Results indicate that AIAN children entered kindergarten with scores on both mathematical and reading cognitive tests that were comparable to their peers from other ethnic groups of color. Importantly, all children who entered kindergarten with lower cognitive skill scores also acquired skills more slowly over the next 4 years. Having a positive approach to learning at the start of kindergarten was associated with cognitive skill levels at school entry nearly 1 standard deviation above the population average. Results are discussed with reference to the shared early educational profiles observed between AIAN and other children of color. These findings provide a much-needed update regarding early academic development among AIAN children. Copyright (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Transplantation in Different Seedling Age on Growth and Yield of Spring Maize in Shanxi Early Mature Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong ZHAO; Wei ZHANG; Yanlong HAN; Chunxia JIANG; Huatao LIU; Dongmei ZHANG; Mingjing HUANG; Xuefang HUANG; Enke LIU

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore a new mulch-free maize planting mode and the best seedling age for maize transplantation in Shanxi early mature area,a field experiment was carried out using completely randomized block design. Taking mulch based direct sowing as the control group,effects of transplantation in different seedling age on maize growing process,plant height,yield and composition factors of maize were analyzed.Results indicate that growing process of maize seedlings transplanted in different seedling age is slightly slower than the control group. Transplantation has the effect of reducing plant height. Although the yield of transplanted maize in different seedling age is lower than the control group. Besides,with the growth of seedling age of transplantation,the gap is widening. However,it is expected to realize mulch-free maize planting by transplantation in Shanxi early mature area. The yield of maize transplanted in two-leaf seedling age is not significantly different from the control group,and the yield is only 9% lower than the mulch-based direct sowing( CK). In conclusion,two-leaf period is the best seedling transplantation age for maize in Shanxi early mature area in this experiment condition.

  2. Heterogeneous edge weights promote epidemic diffusion in weighted evolving networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Song, Zhichao; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2016-08-01

    The impact that the heterogeneities of links’ weights have on epidemic diffusion in weighted networks has received much attention. Investigating how heterogeneous edge weights affect epidemic spread is helpful for disease control. In this paper, we study a Reed-Frost epidemic model in weighted evolving networks. Our results indicate that a higher heterogeneity of edge weights leads to higher epidemic prevalence and epidemic incidence at earlier stage of epidemic diffusion in weighted evolving networks. In addition, weighted evolving scale-free networks come with a higher epidemic prevalence and epidemic incidence than unweighted scale-free networks.

  3. S-methylmethionine is involved in the salinity tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana plants at germination and early growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Saori; Mitsuya, Shiro

    2012-01-01

    Methionine (Met) is biosynthesized by the activated methyl cycle and S-methylmethionine (SMM) cycle in one-carbon (C1) metabolism in plants. It is converted to S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) which serves as a precursor for many metabolites including glycinebetaine, methylated polyols, polyamines and ethylene which accumulate in plants in response to salinity. We have investigated how the Met biosynthetic pathway is regulated under saline conditions at the transcriptional level in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Within Met biosynthesis-related genes, the expression of homocysteine methyltransferase (HMT) and methionine methyltransferase (MMT) genes in SMM cycle had altered toward increasing Met production by the presence of NaCl. We have determined the salinity tolerance of an Arabidopsis mmt mutant with an insertional mutation in the single copy of the AtMMT gene. Although the mmt mutant showed comparable germination and shoot growth with wild type under normal conditions, NaCl treatment caused severe repression of germination rate and shoot growth in the mmt mutant compared with in the wild type. These results indicate that the utilization of SMM is important for the salinity tolerance of Arabidopsis plants at the germination and early growth stages.

  4. Effect of fetal undernutrition and postnatal overfeeding on rat adipose tissue and organ growth at early stages of postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Valverde, D; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, P; Gutierrez-Arzapalo, P Y; López de Pablo, A L; Carmen González, M; López-Giménez, R; Somoza, B; Arribas, S M

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine and perinatal life are critical periods for programming of cardiometabolic diseases. However, their relative role remains controversial. We aimed to assess, at weaning, sex-dependent alterations induced by fetal or postnatal nutritional interventions on key organs for metabolic and cardiovascular control. Fetal undernutrition was induced by dam food restriction (50 % from mid-gestation to delivery) returning to ad libitum throughout lactation (Maternal Undernutrition, MUN, 12 pups/litter). Postnatal overfeeding (POF) was induced by litter size reduction from normally fed dams (4 pups/litter). Compared to control, female and male MUN offspring exhibited: 1) low birth weight and accelerated growth, reaching similar weight and tibial length by weaning, 2) increased glycemia, liver and white fat weights; 3) increased ventricular weight and tendency to reduced kidney weight (males only). Female and male POF offspring showed: 1) accelerated growth; 2) increased glycemia, liver and white fat weights; 3) unchanged heart and kidney weights. In conclusion, postnatal accelerated growth, with or without fetal undernutrition, induces early alterations relevant for metabolic disease programming, while fetal undernutrition is required for heart abnormalities. The progression of cardiac alterations and their role on hypertension development needs to be evaluated. The similarities between sexes in pre-pubertal rats suggest a role of sex-hormones in female protection against programming.

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased early growth of two nontimber forest product species Dyera polyphylla and Aquilaria filaria under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turjaman, Maman; Tamai, Yutaka; Santoso, Erdy; Osaki, Mitsuru; Tawaraya, Keitaro

    2006-10-01

    Nontimber forest products (NTFPs) represent an important source of income to millions of people in tropical forest regions, but some NTFP species have decreased in number and become endangered due to overexploitation. There is increasing concern that the planting stocks of Dyera polyphylla and Aquilaria filaria are not sufficient to sustain the yield of NTFPs and promote forest conservation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, Glomus clarum and Gigaspora decipiens, on the early growth of two NTFP species, D. polyphylla and A. filaria, under greenhouse conditions. The seedlings of both species were inoculated with G. clarum or G. decipiens, or uninoculated (control) under greenhouse conditions. Percentage of AM colonization, plant growth, survival rate, and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations were measured after 180 days of growth. The percentage of AM colonization of D. polyphylla and A. filaria ranged from 87 to 93% and from 22 to 39%, respectively. Colonization by G. clarum and G. decipiens increased plant height, diameter, and shoot and root dry weights. Shoot N and P concentrations of the seedlings were increased by AM colonization by as much as 70-153% and 135-360%, respectively. Survival rates were higher in the AM-colonized seedlings at 180 days after transplantation than in the control seedlings. The results suggest that AM fungi can accelerate the establishment of the planting stocks of D. polyphylla and A. filaria, thereby promoting their conservation ecologically and sustaining the production of these NTFPs economically.

  6. Impact of the obesity epidemic on cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Pamela J; Stambolic, Vuk

    2015-01-01

    There is growing appreciation that the current obesity epidemic is associated with increases in cancer incidence at a population level and may lead to poor cancer outcomes; concurrent decreases in cancer mortality at a population level may represent a paradox, i.e., they may also reflect improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer that mask obesity effects. An association of obesity with cancer is biologically plausible because adipose tissue is biologically active, secreting estrogens, adipokines, and cytokines. In obesity, adipose tissue reprogramming may lead to insulin resistance, with or without diabetes, and it may contribute to cancer growth and progression locally or through systemic effects. Obesity-associated changes impact cancer in a complex fashion, potentially acting directly on cells through pathways, such as the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathways, or indirectly via changes in the tumor microenvironment. Approaches to obesity management are discussed, and the potential for pharmacologic interventions that target the obesity-cancer link is addressed.

  7. The impact of diet in early life on adipose tissue growth and development in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Birtwistle, Mark D.A.

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue is found in two main forms: white (WAT), which stores energy; and brown (BAT), which dissipates energy as heat by means of a unique mitochondrial protein, UCP1. In large mammals, BAT is rapidly replaced by WAT after birth, but it has recently been found that functional BAT is present in human adults, which raises the possibility that it could be manipulated to burn off excess fat. The main aim of this thesis was to investigate, using sheep as a model, the effect of early nutrit...

  8. Hopf Bifurcation of a Delayed Epidemic Model with Information Variable and Limited Medical Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caijuan Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider SIR epidemic model in which population growth is subject to logistic growth in absence of disease. We get the condition for Hopf bifurcation of a delayed epidemic model with information variable and limited medical resources. By analyzing the corresponding characteristic equations, the local stability of an endemic equilibrium and a disease-free equilibrium is discussed. If the basic reproduction ratio ℛ01, we obtain sufficient conditions under which the endemic equilibrium E* of system is locally asymptotically stable. And we also have discussed the stability and direction of Hopf bifurcations. Numerical simulations are carried out to explain the mathematical conclusions.

  9. Early Growth Assessment of Selected Exotic and Indigenous Tree Species in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Ossai Onefeli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Nigeria is greatly endowed with numerous tree species of which majority of them are native while few are exotic. Report shows that high percentage of man-made forests in the country is dominated with exotic species. This culminated from the assumption that exotic trees are fast growing. However, this study investigated the growth of indigenous trees in tandem with that of exotic species with a purpose to clarify the assumption about the growth and conservation of indigenous species in natural forests. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the nursery unit of the Department of Forest Resources Management, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Five (5 different one year old tree species seedlings were used for the study. Two of the species (Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea are exotic while the other three species (Khaya senegalensis, Khaya grandifolia and Afzelia africana are native to Nigeria. They were planted on the field in a completely random design and then replicated eight times. Data were collected every month on their height growth, collar diameter and leaf number. Data obtained were subsequently analyzed with ANOVA. Results and Conclusions: Results show that K. grandifolia (45.39 cm grew significantly better (p<0.05 in height than G. arborea (38.11 cm and T. grandis (22.36 cm, while A. africana (40.03 cm closely followed K. grandifolia. Based on the results, the selected indigenous species displayed promising potentials for conservation purpose. Hence, further research in this aspect is encouraged to confirm the findings.

  10. Population size and growth in Pakistan based on early reports of 1972 census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotki, K J; Parveen, K

    1976-01-01

    The 1972 census of Pakistan showed a population of 64.9 million, surprisingly high considering family planning campaigns, 2 wars with India, only minor gains in migration from Bangladesh, and the fact that other nearby countries have shown slowed population growth. This paper discusses many variables which may relate to the reliability of this figure. Census data in Pakistan has been traditionally difficult to obtain. For this reason growth rates rather than gross numbers are used for this analysis because these seem to move in relationship to total population and are more easily obtained. Before the 1961 census it was hopefully assumed that the growth rate was 1.4% per year. Between 1951 and 1961 however it was 2.2% and may have been as high as 2.8% or 3.2%. The 1972 census gives age distributions for only 23 of 61 districts but by comparing data for these 23 districts certain trends can be distinguished. Data for age group 0-5 years is often underreported so the actual population increase is picked up in the 5-9 and 10-15 age groups. In both 1961 and 1972 the 5-9 age group is very large. Either there is overreporting in this age group or these children were actually born when demographers were claiming success for the family planning program. There is a drop for those aged 15 in 1961, a similar but not so pronounced drop in 1971, another drop for those aged 40, and another drop for those aged 50. The reason for this ''zig-zag'' phenomena is not clear. The male-female ratios at older ages are more in line with the rest of the world in the 1972 census. This may be because older women were less forgotten than in the 1961 census. Charts and graphs detail the statistics. Ways of improving census data in the future are discussed.

  11. TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR 1 IN CHILDREN OF EARLY AGE WITH LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    OpenAIRE

    R. M. Kurabekova; O. P. Shevchenko; O. M. Tsiroulnikova; I. E. Tsiroulnikova; G.A. Olefirenko; S. V. Gautier

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) plays a key role in the development of the immune response, as well as in the process of liver regeneration. Measuring the level of TGF-β1 may have important clinical implications in liver transplantation, because cytokine concentration in the tissue and in blood plasma varies with different liver diseases. Aim. To analyze the dynamics of TGF-β1 levels in children-recipients with liver transplant from related donors, including from incompatible blood gro...

  12. Identifying Potential Norovirus Epidemics in China via Internet Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Jiang, Tao; Cai, Gaofeng; Jiang, Zhenggang; Chen, Yongdi; Wang, Zhengting; Gu, Hua; Chai, Chengliang

    2017-01-01

    Background Norovirus is a common virus that causes acute gastroenteritis worldwide, but a monitoring system for norovirus is unavailable in China. Objective We aimed to identify norovirus epidemics through Internet surveillance and construct an appropriate model to predict potential norovirus infections. Methods The norovirus-related data of a selected outbreak in Jiaxing Municipality, Zhejiang Province of China, in 2014 were collected from immediate epidemiological investigation, and the Internet search volume, as indicated by the Baidu Index, was acquired from the Baidu search engine. All correlated search keywords in relation to norovirus were captured, screened, and composited to establish the composite Baidu Index at different time lags by Spearman rank correlation. The optimal model was chosen and possibly predicted maps in Zhejiang Province were presented by ArcGIS software. Results The combination of two vital keywords at a time lag of 1 day was ultimately identified as optimal (ρ=.924, Ptimes during the outbreak. In addition to Jiaxing Municipality, Hangzhou Municipality might have had some potential epidemics in the study time from the predicted model. Conclusions Although there are limitations with early warning and unavoidable biases, Internet surveillance may be still useful for the monitoring of norovirus epidemics when a monitoring system is unavailable. PMID:28790023

  13. Drivers of Rift Valley fever epidemics in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancelot, Renaud; Béral, Marina; Rakotoharinome, Vincent Michel; Andriamandimby, Soa-Fy; Héraud, Jean-Michel; Coste, Caroline; Apolloni, Andrea; Squarzoni-Diaw, Cécile; de La Rocque, Stéphane; Wint, G. R. William; Cardinale, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne viral disease widespread in Africa. The primary cycle involves mosquitoes and wild and domestic ruminant hosts. Humans are usually contaminated after contact with infected ruminants. As many environmental, agricultural, epidemiological, and anthropogenic factors are implicated in RVF spread, the multidisciplinary One Health approach was needed to identify the drivers of RVF epidemics in Madagascar. We examined the environmental patterns associated with these epidemics, comparing human and ruminant serological data with environmental and cattle-trade data. In contrast to East Africa, environmental drivers did not trigger the epidemics: They only modulated local Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) transmission in ruminants. Instead, RVFV was introduced through ruminant trade and subsequent movement of cattle between trade hubs caused its long-distance spread within the country. Contact with cattle brought in from infected districts was associated with higher infection risk in slaughterhouse workers. The finding that anthropogenic rather than environmental factors are the main drivers of RVF infection in humans can be used to design better prevention and early detection in the case of RVF resurgence in the region. PMID:28096420

  14. Dynamic Forecasting of Zika Epidemics Using Google Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuan; Huang, Yong; Lin, Baihan; An, Xiaoping; Feng, Dan; Tong, Yigang

    2017-01-01

    We developed a dynamic forecasting model for Zika virus (ZIKV), based on real-time online search data from Google Trends (GTs). It was designed to provide Zika virus disease (ZVD) surveillance and detection for Health Departments, and predictive numbers of infection cases, which would allow them sufficient time to implement interventions. In this study, we found a strong correlation between Zika-related GTs and the cumulative numbers of reported cases (confirmed, suspected and total cases; p<0.001). Then, we used the correlation data from Zika-related online search in GTs and ZIKV epidemics between 12 February and 20 October 2016 to construct an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model (0, 1, 3) for the dynamic estimation of ZIKV outbreaks. The forecasting results indicated that the predicted data by ARIMA model, which used the online search data as the external regressor to enhance the forecasting model and assist the historical epidemic data in improving the quality of the predictions, are quite similar to the actual data during ZIKV epidemic early November 2016. Integer-valued autoregression provides a useful base predictive model for ZVD cases. This is enhanced by the incorporation of GTs data, confirming the prognostic utility of search query based surveillance. This accessible and flexible dynamic forecast model could be used in the monitoring of ZVD to provide advanced warning of future ZIKV outbreaks. PMID:28060809

  15. Slow-release and organic fertilizers on early growth of Rangpur lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lucas Magalhães Machado

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Slow-release and organic fertilizers are promising alternatives to conventional fertilizers, as both reduce losses by leaching, volatilization and problems of toxicity and/or salinity to plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different rates of the organic fertilizer Humato-Macota® compared with the slow-release fertilizer Osmocote® on the growth and nitrogen content in the dry matter of Rangpur lime. A field experiment was conducted in a factorial completely randomized design with an additional treatment (4 x 4 +1. The first factor consisted of four Humato­Macota® rates (0, 1, 2, and 3% applied to the substrate; the second factor consisted of the same Humato-Macota® concentrations, but applied as fortnightly foliar sprays; the additional treatment consisted of application of 5 kgm-3 Osmocote® 18-05-09. Means of all growth characteristics (plant height, total dry matter, root/shoot ratio and leaf area and the potential quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm were higher when plants were fertilized with the slow-release fertilizer. The organic fertilizer applied alone did not meet the N requirement of Rangpur lime.

  16. Black hole growth in the early Universe is self-regulated and largely hidden from view

    CERN Document Server

    Treister, Ezequiel; Volonteri, Marta; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Gawiser, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The formation of the first massive objects in the infant Universe remains impossible to observe directly and yet it sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of galaxies. While some black holes with masses > billion solar masses? have been detected in luminous quasars less than one billion years after the Big Bang, these individual extreme objects have limited utility in constraining the channels of formation of the earliest black holes. The initial conditions of black hole seed properties are quickly erased during the growth process. From deep, optimally stacked, archival X-ray observations, we measure the amount of black hole growth in z=6-8 galaxies (0.7-1 billion years after the Big Bang). Our results imply that black holes grow in tandem with their hosts throughout cosmic history, starting from the earliest times. We find that most copiously accreting black holes at these epochs are buried in significant amounts of gas and dust that absorb most radiation except for the highest energy X-rays. This sugge...

  17. The Epidemic Dynamics of Four Major Lineages of HIV-1 CRF01_AE Strains After Their Introduction into China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Haiyan; Li, Tingting; Wang, Yan; Sun, Binlian; Yang, Rongge

    2016-05-01

    The epidemic of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in China was driven by multiple lineages of HIV-1 viruses introduced in the 1990s and increasing; it is important to investigate their epidemic status in China. In this study, we download all available CRF01_AE sequences (n = 2,931) from China and their associated epidemiological information in the Los Alamos HIV database for our analysis to explore their epidemic status in China. The results showed there were 11 distinct clusters of CRF01_AE strains in China, and 4 major clusters that accounted for 80.0% (1,793/2,241) of Chinese CRF01_AE strains in total had led a real epidemic. Clusters 1 and 2 were epidemic among heterosexuals and injecting drug users in southern and southwestern China, while Clusters 3 and 4 were predominant among homosexuals in eastern and central China and northeastern China, respectively. HIV-1 CRF01_AE strains detected in heterosexuals had the most complex characteristic, underscoring its important role in the occurrence of multiple CRF01_AE lineages. Furthermore, epidemic history reconstruction analysis using the birth-death susceptible-infected-removed package revealed that the four clusters had gone through varying epidemic stages. Clusters 2 and 3 were near the peak of the local epidemic, while Clusters 1 and 4 were just in the very early stage of their epidemic. The epidemic status of CRF01_AE clusters in the future is mainly determined by the effect of prevention and control. Our study provides new insights into the understanding of the epidemic dynamics of CRF01_AE in China.

  18. Climate drives the meningitis epidemics onset in west Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Sultan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Every year West African countries within the Sahelo-Sudanian band are afflicted with major meningococcal meningitis (MCM disease outbreaks, which affect up to 200,000 people, mainly young children, in one of the world's poorest regions. The timing of the epidemic year, which starts in February and ends in late May, and the spatial distribution of disease cases throughout the "Meningitis Belt" strongly indicate a close linkage between the life cycle of the causative agent of MCM and climate variability. However, mechanisms responsible for the observed patterns are still not clearly identified. METHODS AND FINDINGS: By comparing the information on cases and deaths of MCM from World Health Organization weekly reports with atmospheric datasets, we quantified the relationship between the seasonal occurrence of MCM in Mali, a West African country, and large-scale atmospheric circulation. Regional atmospheric indexes based on surface wind speed show a clear link between population dynamics of the disease and climate: the onset of epidemics and the winter maximum defined by the atmospheric index share the same mean week (sixth week of the year; standard deviation, 2 wk and are highly correlated. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first that provides a clear, quantitative demonstration of the connections that exist between MCM epidemics and regional climate variability in Africa. Moreover, this statistically robust explanation of the MCM dynamics enables the development of an Early Warning Index for meningitis epidemic onset in West Africa. The development of such an index will undoubtedly help nationwide and international public health institutions and policy makers to better control MCM disease within the so-called westward-eastward pan-African Meningitis Belt.

  19. Supermassive blackhole growth and the supernovae history in high-z early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca-Volmerange, Brigitte

    2015-08-01

    A large variety of feedback models, supported by many galaxy surveys, tentatively relate AGN to star formation by stimulation or quenching. However any accretion process from variable AGNs has never been observed to be turned on or off by star formation. We propose to follow the supernovae explosions through the star formation laws of early-type galaxies with the help of the galaxy evolution model Pégase.3. Applied to the continuous Spectral Energy Distribution, including Herschel data of two z=3.8 radio galaxies (4C41.17 and TN J2007-1316), the comparison with Supermassive BlackHole masses from SDSS opens a new interpretation of the AGN-starburst relation without any need of feedback (Rocca-Volmerange et al, 2015, 2013)

  20. Epidemic assistance by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: role of the Epidemic Intelligence Service, 1946-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Stephen B; Stroup, Donna F; Sencer, David J

    2011-12-01

    Since 1946, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has responded to urgent requests from US states, federal agencies, and international organizations through epidemic-assistance investigations (Epi-Aids). The authors describe the first 60 years of Epi-Aids, breadth of problems addressed, evolution of methodologies, scope of activities, and impact of investigations on population health. They reviewed Epi-Aid reports and EIS Bulletins, contacted current and former Epidemic Intelligence Service staff, and systematically searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases. They abstracted information on dates, location, staff involved, health problems, methods, and impacts of investigations according to a preplanned protocol. They assessed the methods presented as well as the quality of reports. During 1946-2005, a total of 4,484 investigations of health events were initiated by 2,815 Epidemic Intelligence Service officers. In the early years, the majority were in response to infectious agents, although environmental problems emerged. Investigations in subsequent years focused on occupational conditions, birth defects, reproductive health, tobacco use, cancer, violence, legal debate, and terrorism. These Epi-Aids heralded expansion of the agency's mission and presented new methods in statistics and epidemiology. Recommendations from Epi-Aids led to policy implementation, evaluation, or modification. Epi-Aids provide the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with the agility to respond rapidly to public health crises.

  1. COURSE FEATURES EPIDEMIC PROCESS HIV INFECTION IN KHARKIV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaeva LG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the context of the transformation of the spheres of human living epidemic HIV-infection continues. According to the intensity of the epidemic process of HIV-infection, Ukraine takes one of the first places among the European countries. The epidemic process of the infection is concentrated mainly on the high-risk groups, and there is uneven prevalence. Besides in most cases this distribution can not be explained by the social and economic characteristics of certain territories. Kharkiv region belongs to the territory of Ukraine with the lowest prevalence level of HIV-infection. Though in terms of the social and economic crisis due to hostilities in the east of the country, which the region borders, the epidemic situation may significantly become worse. Work objective: to study the peculiarities of the course of the epidemic process of HIV-infection for the period from 1987 till 2015 in Kharkiv region that will improve the epidemiological surveillance of the infection and develop appropriate preventive measures in modern conditions. Material & methods. The studies were conducted in Kharkiv region, which is a big industrial and administrative center. The city of Kharkiv is located at the crossroads of drug trafficking from Asia and Russia. The reportings and analytics of the Kharkiv regional center for prevention and control of AIDS and the Ministry of Health of Ukraine for the period of 1987 – 2015 were used in the research. The analysis of incidence of HIV prevalence, structure of transmission routes and sex-age groups were carried out using descriptive and evaluative and analytical ways of epidemiological research method. Results & discussion. During 1987 – 2015 in Kharkiv region there were officially registered 7868 cases of HIV-infection what was equal to 4.0 % of the registered cases in Ukraine. Since 1996 a marked upward tendency of the incidence of HIV infection in Kharkiv region (growth rate – +7.0 %, and on the

  2. Early and rapid globalization as part of innovation and growth strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zijdemans, Erik; Azimi, Zohreh; Tanev, Stoyan

    of technology start-ups as a specific growth strategy (Zijdemans & Tanev, 2014). Our research adopts a dynamic resource perspective according to which the distinction between ex-ante and ex-post value of resources (Schmidt & Keil, 2012) complements the effectual entrepreneurial approach, which is typical...... for start-ups that globalize rapidly in an environment with a high degree of uncertainty (Sarasvathy, Kumar, York, & Bhagavatula, 2014). The ex-ante valuation of resources (Schmidt & Keil, 2012) is related to the ex-post characteristics of BG firms (Tanev, 2012) resulting in a Global Value Generator (GVG......) – a framework linking the ex-ante value drivers and ex-post characteristics of BG firms. Our aim is to use the GVG to help innovative start-ups in making strategic ex-ante decisions contributing to the development of competitive global business models, complementary global resources and differentiated value...

  3. Allelopathic potential of Chrozophora tinctoria on early growth of Barley and Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Aliloo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory bioassay was conducted to investigate the allelopathic effects of Chrozophora tinctoria on germination and seedling growth of barley and wheat. Aqueous leave extracts of C. tinctoria at 5, 10, 15 and 20 % concentrations were prepared and distilled water was used as a control. Results showed that germination percentage of two species decreased with increasing the extract concentrations; however, wheat germination was relatively resistant to allelochemicals than barley. In contrast to germination behavior, seedling traits showed different responses. The extracts improved seedling dry weights, particularly barley, whereas seedling lengths were inhibited. Roots of both species were more affected than shoots by extracts. The extracts reduced seed reserve mobilization significantly (p≤0.05. It was concluded that the used extract had inhibitory effects on seed germination of the crops; however, at seedling stages the effects were severely reduced.

  4. On the growth and regeneration of the exoskeleton in early jawless vertebrates (Osteostraci, Agnatha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanassieva, O B

    2016-01-01

    Based on the study of sculpture of the cephalic shield and histological structure of the exoskeleton in Reticulaspis menneri Afanassieva et Karatajute -Talimaa (Osteostraci, Agnatha) from the Lower Devonian of the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, it has been established that, in the ontogeny of the form under study, dentin generation of the exoskeleton may have developed repeatedly, depending on the requirements of the organism. It is established for the first time that, on the shield surface of osteostracans, dentin structures of various types (tubercles, ridges, networks) could be formed both primarily and in subsequent generations with the growth of the exoskeleton. Injury of the integument and, hence, changes in mechanical tension in covering tissues caused activation of the formation of subsequent generations (of dentin) in the areas involved in reparative regeneration of the shield.

  5. Early development, survival and growth rates of the giant clam Tridacna crocea (Bivalvia: Tridacnidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mies

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tridacnid clams are conspicuous inhabitants of Indo-Pacific coral reefs and are traded and cultivated for the aquarium and food industries. In the present study, daily growth rates of larvae of the giant clam Tridacna crocea were determined in the laboratory during the first week of life. Adults were induced to spawn via intra-gonadal serotonin injection through the byssal orifice. After spawning oocytes were collected, fertilized and kept in 3 L glass beakers and raceways treated with antibiotics to avoid culture contamination. Larvae were fed twice with the microalga Isochrysis galbana and zooxanthellae were also offered twice during the veliger stage (days 4 and 6. Larval length was measured using a digitizing tablet coupled to a microcomputer. Larval mortality was exponential during the first 48 hours of life declining significantly afterwards. Mean growth rate was 11.3 μm day-1, increasing after addition of symbionts to 18.0 μm day-1. Survival increased to ca. 75% after the addition of zooxanthellae. The results describe the growth curve for T. crocea larvae and suggest that the acquisition of symbionts by larvae may be useful for larval growth and survival even before larvae have attained metamorphosis.Bivalves tridacnídeos são habitantes conspícuos dos recifes da região do Indo-Pacífico e são cultivados e comercializados para os mercados alimentício e aquarista. No estudo apresentado foram determinadas as taxas de crescimento diário durante a primeira semana de vida da larva do bivalve ornamental Tridacna crocea. As matrizes foram induzidas à desova por meio de uma injeção intragonadal de serotonina realizada através do orifício bissal. Após desova, ovócitos foram coletados, fertilizados e mantidos em béqueres de vidro e tanques de fluxo contínuo tratados com antibióticos para evitar contaminação. Larvas foram alimentadas em duas ocasiões com a microalga Isochrysis galbana e zooxantelas foram oferecidas também por

  6. Microstructure-based approach for predicting crack initiation and early growth in metals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, James V.; Emery, John M.; Brewer, Luke N.; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Puskar, Joseph David; Bartel, Timothy James; Dingreville, Remi P. M.; Foulk, James W., III; Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Boyce, Brad Lee

    2009-09-01

    Fatigue cracking in metals has been and is an area of great importance to the science and technology of structural materials for quite some time. The earliest stages of fatigue crack nucleation and growth are dominated by the microstructure and yet few models are able to predict the fatigue behavior during these stages because of a lack of microstructural physics in the models. This program has developed several new simulation tools to increase the microstructural physics available for fatigue prediction. In addition, this program has extended and developed microscale experimental methods to allow the validation of new microstructural models for deformation in metals. We have applied these developments to fatigue experiments in metals where the microstructure has been intentionally varied.

  7. Dynamics of seed-borne rice endophytes on early plant growth stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo R Hardoim

    Full Text Available Bacterial endophytes are ubiquitous to virtually all terrestrial plants. With the increasing appreciation of studies that unravel the mutualistic interactions between plant and microbes, we increasingly value the beneficial functions of endophytes that improve plant growth and development. However, still little is known on the source of established endophytes as well as on how plants select specific microbial communities to establish associations. Here, we used cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches to assess the endophytic bacterrial community of surface-sterilized rice seeds, encompassing two consecutive rice generations. We isolated members of nine bacterial genera. In particular, organisms affiliated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Ochrobactrum spp. were isolated from both seed generations. PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE of seed-extracted DNA revealed that approximately 45% of the bacterial community from the first seed generation was found in the second generation as well. In addition, we set up a greenhouse experiment to investigate abiotic and biotic factors influencing the endophytic bacterial community structure. PCR-DGGE profiles performed with DNA extracted from different plant parts showed that soil type is a major effector of the bacterial endophytes. Rice plants cultivated in neutral-pH soil favoured the growth of seed-borne Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and Rhizobium radiobacter, whereas Enterobacter-like and Dyella ginsengisoli were dominant in plants cultivated in low-pH soil. The seed-borne Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the only conspicuous bacterial endophyte found in plants cultivated in both soils. Several members of the endophytic community originating from seeds were observed in the rhizosphere and surrounding soils. Their impact on the soil community is further discussed.

  8. Addressing Future Epidemics: Historical Human Rights Lessons from the AIDS Pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambar Mehta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Ebola epidemic in West Africa sparked many ethical and polarizing public health questions on how to adequately control transmission of the virus. These deliberations had and will continue to influence patients, healthcare workers, public perceptions of disease, and governmental responses. Such extensive and potential ramifications warranted an analysis of prior epidemics to sufficiently inform policy makers and prepare them and other authorities for future epidemics. We analyzed how the general public, medical institutions, federal government, and patients themselves responded during the early stages of the AIDS pandemic in two different countries and cultures, the United States and India. Discussion: Our analysis identified four key findings pertaining to the human rights of patients and healthcare workers and to the crucial roles of the government and medical community. The first demands that authoritative officials acknowledge the presence of high-risk behaviors and properly educate the public without stigmatizing groups of individuals. For this task, the medical community and federal government must form and display to the public a respectful and collaborative partnership towards battling the epidemic. These two synergistic endeavors will then allow appropriate officials to implement effective, yet civil, interventions for limiting transmission. Finally, the same officials must ensure that their interventions maintain the human rights of high-risk populations and of healthcare workers. Conclusions: Applying these findings to future epidemics of infectious diseases can aid policy makers in navigating complicated ethical and public health questions, and help prevent them from repeating past mistakes in handling epidemics.

  9. Influenza epidemics in Iceland over 9 decades: changes in timing and synchrony with the United States and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Daniel M; Krause, Tyra Grove; Mølbak, Kåre; Cliff, Andrew; Briem, Haraldur; Viboud, Cécile; Gottfredsson, Magnus

    2012-10-01

    Influenza epidemics exhibit a strongly seasonal pattern, with winter peaks that occur with similar timing across temperate areas of the Northern Hemisphere. This synchrony could be influenced by population movements, environmental factors, host immunity, and viral characteristics. The historical isolation of Iceland and subsequent increase in international contacts make it an ideal setting to study epidemic timing. The authors evaluated changes in the timing and regional synchrony of influenza epidemics using mortality and morbidity data from Iceland, North America, and Europe during the period from 1915 to 2007. Cross-correlations and wavelet analyses highlighted 2 major changes in influenza epidemic patterns in Iceland: first was a shift from nonseasonal epidemics prior to the 1930s to a regular winter-seasonal pattern, and second was a change in the early 1990s when a 1-month lag between Iceland and the United States and Europe was no longer detectable with monthly data. There was a moderate association between increased synchrony and the number of foreign visitors to Iceland, providing a plausible explanation for the second shift in epidemic timing. This suggests that transportation might have a minor effect on epidemic timing, but efforts to restrict air travel during influenza epidemics would likely have a limited impact, even for island populations.

  10. Utilisation of multiple queens and pupae transplantation to boost early colony growth of weaver ants Oecophylla smaragdina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Renkang; Nielsen, Mogens Gissel; Offenberg, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius) have been increasingly used as biocontrol agents of insect pests and as insect protein for human food and animals. For either of these purposes, mature ant colonies are essential. However, for a newly established colony to develop to a suitable mature...... size takes 3 years, which is too long. Multiple queens and non-nestmate pupae transplantation may be the way to boost early colony growth. An experiment on newly founded O. smaragdina colonies with 2, 3 and 4 founding queens together with transplantation of 0, 30 and 60 non-nestmate pupae from a mature...... donor colony was conducted in 2010 at Darwin, Australia. The survival rates of the imago workers from transplanted pupae ranged between 73 - 97%, suggesting that queens in incipient colonies accepted foreign pupae. Colony size was positively related to the number of founding queens. Compared...

  11. Detection of isoform-specific fibroblast growth factor receptors by whole-mount in situ hybridization in early chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishita, Junko; Ohta, Sho; Bleyl, Steven B; Schoenwolf, Gary C

    2011-06-01

    We have developed "b" and "c" isoform-specific chicken fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor 1-3 probes for in situ hybridization. We rigorously demonstrate the specificity of these probes by using both dot blot hybridization and whole-mount in situ hybridization during neurulation and early postneurulation stages, and we compare expression patterns of each of the three isoform-specific probes to one another and to generic probes to each of the three (non-isoform-specific) FGF receptors. We show that the expression pattern of each receptor is represented by the collective expression of each of its two isoforms, with the expression of each FGF receptor being most similar to that of its "c" isoform at two of the three stages studied, and that tissue and stage differences exist in the patterns of expression of the six isoforms. We demonstrate the usefulness of these probes for defining the differential tissue expression of FGF receptor 1-3 isoforms.

  12. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Activate Tristetraprolin Expression through Induction of Early Growth Response Protein 1 (EGR1 in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Sobolewski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP promotes rapid decay of mRNAs bearing 3' UTR AU-rich elements (ARE. In many cancer types, loss of TTP expression is observed allowing for stabilization of ARE-mRNAs and their pathologic overexpression. Here we demonstrate that histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors (Trichostatin A, SAHA and sodium butyrate promote TTP expression in colorectal cancer cells (HCA-7, HCT-116, Moser and SW480 cells and cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa. We found that HDAC inhibitors-induced TTP expression, promote the decay of COX-2 mRNA, and inhibit cancer cell proliferation. HDAC inhibitors were found to promote TTP transcription through activation of the transcription factor Early Growth Response protein 1 (EGR1. Altogether, our findings indicate that loss of TTP in tumors occurs through silencing of EGR1 and suggests a therapeutic approach to rescue TTP expression in colorectal cancer.

  13. Descriptive epidemiology of typhoid fever during an epidemic in Harare, Zimbabwe, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonsky, Jonathan A; Martínez-Pino, Isabel; Nackers, Fabienne; Chonzi, Prosper; Manangazira, Portia; Van Herp, Michel; Maes, Peter; Porten, Klaudia; Luquero, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    Typhoid fever remains a significant public health problem in developing countries. In October 2011, a typhoid fever epidemic was declared in Harare, Zimbabwe - the fourth enteric infection epidemic since 2008. To orient control activities, we described the epidemiology and spatiotemporal clustering of the epidemic in Dzivaresekwa and Kuwadzana, the two most affected suburbs of Harare. A typhoid fever case-patient register was analysed to describe the epidemic. To explore clustering, we constructed a dataset comprising GPS coordinates of case-patient residences and randomly sampled residential locations (spatial controls). The scale and significance of clustering was explored with Ripley K functions. Cluster locations were determined by a random labelling technique and confirmed using Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. We analysed data from 2570 confirmed and suspected case-patients, and found significant spatiotemporal clustering of typhoid fever in two non-overlapping areas, which appeared to be linked to environmental sources. Peak relative risk was more than six times greater than in areas lying outside the cluster ranges. Clusters were identified in similar geographical ranges by both random labelling and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. The spatial scale at which typhoid fever clustered was highly localised, with significant clustering at distances up to 4.5 km and peak levels at approximately 3.5 km. The epicentre of infection transmission shifted from one cluster to the other during the course of the epidemic. This study demonstrated highly localised clustering of typhoid fever during an epidemic in an urban African setting, and highlights the importance of spatiotemporal analysis for making timely decisions about targetting prevention and control activities and reinforcing treatment during epidemics. This approach should be integrated into existing surveillance systems to facilitate early detection of epidemics and identify their spatial range.

  14. Trends in early growth indices in the first 24 months of life in Uruguay over the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Isabel; Campoy, Cristina; Uauy, Ricardo; Miranda, Teresa; Cerruti, Florencia

    2014-12-01

    Early growth is an important indicator of health and wellbeing of children and a good predictor of adult health. The objective of this study was to examine trends and determinants of overweight and stunting among infants aged 0 to 23 month(s) over the past decade (1999-2011) in Uruguay. Data were used from four large representative samples of 11,056 infants aged 0-23 month(s), who attended public and private health services in 1999, 2003, 2007, and 2011, using a similar methodology. Linear regression analysis was used for assessing trends in early growth indices and binary logistic regression to estimate the probability of being stunted and overweight. Although prevalence of overweight fell from 12.5% (1999) to 9.5% (2011) and stunting from 13.6% to 10.9% respectively, both rates remained higher than expected. Low birth- weight (LBW) was the main predictor of stunting [OR 6.5 (5.6-7.6)] and macrosomia of overweight [6.7 (5.3-8.3)]. We did not observe changes in LBW (7.8-8.8%) or macrosomia (5.9-6.7%) over the last decade. Boys showed increased chance of being overweight [OR 1.2 (1.04-1.3)]. Being stunted doubles the chances of being overweight [OR 2.5 (2.2-3.0)]. Overweight [OR 7.1 (6.1-8.3)], LBW [OR 13.2 (11.0-15.9)], and non-breastfed infants [OR 1.9 (1.7-2.1)] showed rapid weight gain. Uruguay has taken positive steps to decline the prevalence of stunting and overweight but both remain excessively high.

  15. Effect of multi-nutrient complex fertilizers on growth and tuber yield of very early potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Wadas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the effect of multi-nutrient complex fertilizers (HydroComplex, Nitrophoska Blue Special and Viking 13 from the nitrophoska group, and Polimag S from the amophoska group and single-nutrient fertilizers on the growth and tuber yield of very early potato cultivars (‘Aster’, ‘Fresco’, ‘Gloria’. The field experiment was carried out on podzolic soil in mid-eastern Poland during 2005–2007. The study showed a greater beneficial effect of HydroComplex and Nitrophoska Blue Special on the growth of very early potato cultivars than that of Viking 13 and Polimag S. The application of HydroComplex and Nitrophoska Blue Special resulted in greater above-ground plant biomass and assimilation leaf area compared with single-nutrient fertilizers; the leaf area index (LAI was higher by 0.28 and 0.32, respectively. The differences were smaller and not statistically confirmed with the use of Polimag S and Viking 13. When the multi-nutrient complex fertilizers were applied, leaf weight ratio (LWR, leaf area ratio (LAR and specific leaf area (SLA were similar to the single-nutrient fertilizers. Of the multi-nutrient complex fertilizers, only Nitrophoska Blue Special resulted in higher tuber yield, on average by 2.40 t × ha-1, compared with the single-nutrient fertilizers. The studied cultivars showed a similar response to applied fertilizers. LAI for ‘Gloria’ was higher than for ‘Aster’ and ‘Fresco’, with smaller LAR found in ‘Gloria’. LWR for ‘Fresco’ was smaller than for ‘Aster’ and ‘Gloria’, with higher SLA found in ‘Fresco’. The tuber yield of ‘Aster” (24.04 t × ha-1 was higher on average by 3 t × ha-1 than for ‘Fresco’ and ‘Gloria’.

  16. Muscle spindle composition and distribution in human young masseter and biceps brachii muscles reveal early growth and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterlund, Catharina; Liu, Jing-Xia; Thornell, Lars-Eric; Eriksson, Per-Olof

    2011-04-01

    Significant changes in extrafusal fiber type composition take place in the human masseter muscle from young age, 3-7 years, to adulthood, in parallel with jaw-face skeleton growth, changes of dentitions and improvement of jaw functions. As motor and sensory control systems of muscles are interlinked, also the intrafusal fiber population, that is, muscle spindles, should undergo age-related changes in fiber type appearance. To test this hypothesis, we examined muscle spindles in the young masseter muscle and compared the result with previous data on adult masseter spindles. Also muscle spindles in the young biceps brachii muscle were examined. The result showed that muscle spindle composition and distribution were alike in young and adult masseter. As for the adult masseter, young masseter contained exceptionally large muscle spindles, and with the highest spindle density and most complex spindles found in the deep masseter portion. Hence, contrary to our hypothesis, masseter spindles do not undergo major morphological changes between young age and adulthood. Also in the biceps, young spindles were alike adult spindles. Taken together, the results showed that human masseter and biceps muscle spindles are morphologically mature already at young age. We conclude that muscle spindles in the human young masseter and biceps precede the extrafusal fiber population in growth and maturation. This in turn suggests early reflex control and proprioceptive demands in learning and maturation of jaw motor skills. Similarly, well-developed muscle spindles in young biceps reflect early need of reflex control in learning and performing arm motor behavior. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Early Growth and Efficient Accretion of Massive Black Holes at High Redshift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    Black-hole masses of the highest redshift quasars (4 ~ 4 quasars are very massive (>~ 10^9 solar masses). It is argued that the mass estimates of the high-z quasars are not subject to larger uncertainties than those for nearby quasars. Specifically, the large masses are not overestimates and the ......Black-hole masses of the highest redshift quasars (4 ~ 4 quasars are very massive (>~ 10^9 solar masses). It is argued that the mass estimates of the high-z quasars are not subject to larger uncertainties than those for nearby quasars. Specifically, the large masses are not overestimates...... and the lack of similarly large black-hole masses in the nearby Universe does not rule out their existence at high-z. However, AGN host galaxies do not typically appear fully formed or evolved at these early epochs. This supports scenarios in which black holes build up mass very fast in a radiatively...... inefficient (or obscured) phase relative to the stars in their galaxies. Additionally, upper envelopes of black-hole mass of approximately 10^{10} solar masses and bolometric luminosity of ~ 10^{48} erg/s are observed at all redshifts....

  18. Epidemiological characteristics of 420 influenza A (H1N1) cases confirmed in the early stage of the epidemic in mainland China%中国大陆2009年早期确诊的420例甲型H1N1流感病例流行病学特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚品; 钱全; 方立群; 杨红; 魏茂提; 高燕; 杨华; 张勇; 曹务春

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the epidemical characteristics of A (H1N1) influenza identified in the early stage (from May 11 to June 22, 2009) of the epidemic, in mainland China. Methods Epidemical characteristics of 420 confirmed A (H1N1) influenza cases reported from May 11 to June 22, 2009 were analyzed descriptively, including the distribution of age, sex, source of infection, main symptoms and incubation period. Results A total of 77.8% early cases in mainland China were imported from other countries. Three countries including America, Canada and Australia were attributed to 90% of the imported cases. Most of the cases were from 6 months to 73 years old, with 94% of them under 50 years. Most of the symptoms would include fever (81%), cough (40%) and sore throat (35%). The mean incubation period of second-generation cases was 4.3 (4.2±1.5) days. Conclusion Imported cases dominated the total cases in the early stage of the epidemic had similar gender distribution of those from exporting countries. Fever, cough and sore throat were the three main symptoms manifested in influenza cases. 2.5±1.9(1-11)days was found in imported cases between the day of off-board and the onset of symptoms. The incubation period was 4.3±1.7 (1-8) days among the secondary cases.%目的 了解中国大陆2009年早期(5月11日至6月22日)确诊的甲型H1N1流感病例的流行病学特征.方法 应用描述性流行病学方法对中国大陆2009年早期确诊的420例甲型H1N1流感病例的年龄、性别、来源、主要症状、潜伏期等流行病学特征进行分析.结果 中国大陆早期诊断的甲型H1N1流感病例中输入性病例占总病例数的77.8%,主要由美国、加拿大、澳大利亚三个国家输入,占中国大陆总输入性病例的90%;所有患者中男性占53%,平均年龄22岁(22.2岁±14.9岁);早期确诊的甲型H1N1病例以发热(81%)、咳嗽(40%)、咽痛(35%)等症状为主;输入性病例从入境到发病平均2.5 d±1.9 d(1~11 d

  19. Effect of chronic caffeine intake on myocardial function during early growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temples, T E; Geoffray, D J; Nakamoto, T; Hartman, A D; Miller, H I

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effects of chronic caffeine ingestion on the myocardium during fetal and neonatal growth and development. The isolated perfused working heart preparation was used to evaluate cardiac function. During gestation and lactation, one group of dams consumed a caffeine supplemented diet (10 mg/kg/day). Their offspring were sacrificed and the hearts analyzed 50 days after birth. We found that the intake of caffeine by the dams resulted in significant increases in the offspring's coronary flow, peak systolic pressure, and myocardial work. A second group of dams ingested a diet containing caffeine (10 mg/kg/day) during lactation only. Their pups continued to consume the caffeine diet until 50 days. Pup hearts exhibited significant reductions in cardiac output, stroke volume, pressure development, myocardial work, and external efficiency when compared to controls. Caffeine did not affect body or heart weight or adipose size or number in these experiments. Thus, continued caffeine consumption following birth may alter cardiac performance of the offspring.

  20. Phytotoxicity of hexachlorocyclohexane: Effect on germination and early growth of different plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvelo Pereira, R; Monterroso, C; Macías, F

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to select candidate plant species for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). For this purpose, an experiment was carried out under controlled conditions of germination and growth, with nine plant species of economic and/or agricultural interest, in a soil contaminated with a heterogeneous mixture (at eight different levels of contamination) of the main HCH isomers (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-HCH). The results revealed differences in the plant responses to the control soil and the soils containing HCH. Germination was not as strongly affected as other parameters such as the rate of germination and seedling vigour. In general, all of the species displayed signs of stress in response to the presence of HCH, although to different degrees. Some of the species used in the experiment (Hordeum vulgare L., Brassica sp., Phaseoulus vulgaris L.) were capable of mitigating the negative effects of HCH, and displayed a certain degree of resistance, as their biomass production was not greatly affected by the contaminant. These (tolerant) plants therefore appear to be ideal for phytoremediation purposes.

  1. Effect of Prior Heat Stress on the Early Growth of Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Olarewaju OKUNLOLA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to determine the effects of heat stress on some growth parameters like shoot height, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight as well as the accumulation of chlorophylls in Carica papaya. Seedlings of C. papaya were exposed to prior heat stress at 40 °C. A group of plants was placed in a Gallenkamp oven for four hours; another group of plants was placed in the oven for eight hours while the third group of plants was placed in a dark cupboard for the period of eight hours. Sampling was carried out at weekly intervals starting from seven days after treatment. Plants were randomly picked from each of the three treatments. Three replicates were used for each parameter. The results obtained from the study showed that there was an increment in the shoot height, leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight from the beginning to the end of the experimental period. However, the accumulation of chlorophylls did not follow a particular pattern. The analysis of variance carried out on the data obtained showed that heat stress had a significant effect on the petiole length, shoot height, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight. Heat stress, however, did not produce a significant effect on the accumulation of chlorophylls a and b and total chlorophyll.

  2. Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation on Renal Phenotype and Epigenotype in Early Weanling Intrauterine Growth Retarded Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaori He

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The objective of this study was to examine the responses of p53 promoter methylation involved in kidney structure and function of early weaning intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR rats to dietary folic acid supplementation. Method: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed isocaloric diets containing either 21% protein diet (normal feed or 10% protein diet throughout pregnancy and normal feed during lactation. After weaning, Offspring were then fed onto normal feed and normal feed supplemented with 5 mg folic acid/kg feed for a month, this produced 4 dietary groups (maternal diet/ weanling diet: Con, Folic, IUGR and IUGR+Folic. Renal function, renal structure, p53 promoter methylation and protein expression of offspring rats were measured at postnatal 2 months and 3 months. Results: Glomerular volume, blood urea nitrogen, 24 hours urine protein were significantly elevated in IUGR rats compared with Con rats but were decreased by dietary folic acid supplementation. p53 protein expression in IUGR rats were significantly higher than that in Con rats, and p53 promoter methylation status in IUGR rats was reduced significantly compared with Con rats. However, the changes in p53 gene expression and DNA methylation status of IUGR rats were reversed by dietary folic acid supplementation. Conclusions: Our study showed for the first time that folic acid supplementation during early period of life could reverse the abnormality in renal p53 methylation status and protein expression, glomerular volume and renal function of IUGR rats offspring.

  3. Early Growth Response gene 1 (Egr-1) regulates HSV-1 ICP4 and ICP22 gene expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gautam R Bedadala; Rajeswara C Pinnoji; Shao-Chung V Hsia

    2007-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms mediating herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) gene silencing during latent infection are not clear. Five copies of early growth response gene 1 (Egr-1) binding elements were identified in the intron of HSV-1 ICP22 (infected cell protein No. 22) gene, leading to the hypothesis that Egr-1 binds to the viral genome and regulates the viral gene expression. Transient co-transfection assays indicated that Egr-1 negatively regulated the transcription of both full-length and intron-removed ICP22 promoters. The same assays also revealed that Egr-1 repressed ICP4 (infected cell protein No. 4) promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner but showed less inhibition when the intron was removed.Histone deacetylation was not involved in this regulation since histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A did not exhibit any effect on Egr-1-mediated repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that Egr-1 reduced the binding of Sp1 to the promoters and that the co-repressor Nab2 (NGFI-A/EGR1-binding protein) was recruited to the proximity of ICP4 in the presence of Egr-1. These results suggested that the multi functional transcription factor Egr-1 can repress HSV-1 immediate-early gene expression through the recruitment of co-repressor Nab2 and reduction of Sp1 occupancy,and thus may play a critical role in HSV-1 gene silencing during latency.

  4. Epidemic spreading on weighted complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ye [Institute of Information Economy, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China); Alibaba Research Center of Complexity Science, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China); Liu, Chuang, E-mail: liuchuang@hznu.edu.cn [Institute of Information Economy, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China); Alibaba Research Center of Complexity Science, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China); Zhang, Chu-Xu [Institute of Information Economy, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China); Alibaba Research Center of Complexity Science, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China); Zhang, Zi-Ke, E-mail: zhangzike@gmail.com [Institute of Information Economy, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China); Alibaba Research Center of Complexity Science, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China)

    2014-01-31

    Nowadays, the emergence of online services provides various multi-relation information to support the comprehensive understanding of the epidemic spreading process. In this Letter, we consider the edge weights to represent such multi-role relations. In addition, we perform detailed analysis of two representative metrics, outbreak threshold and epidemic prevalence, on SIS and SIR models. Both theoretical and simulation results find good agreements with each other. Furthermore, experiments show that, on fully mixed networks, the weight distribution on edges would not affect the epidemic results once the average weight of whole network is fixed. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of epidemic spreading on multi-relation and weighted networks.

  5. Fibroid Tumors in Women: A Hidden Epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Fibroid Tumors in Women: A Hidden Epidemic? Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... fibroids@rics.bwh.harvard.edu , or visit our Web site: www.fibroids.net . You may also write ...

  6. Generation interval contraction and epidemic data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kenah, Eben; Robins, James M

    2008-01-01

    The generation interval is the time between the infection time of an infected person and the infection time of his or her infector. Probability density functions for generation intervals have been an important input for epidemic models and epidemic data analysis. In this paper, we specify a general stochastic SIR epidemic model and prove that the mean generation interval decreases when susceptible persons are at risk of infectious contact from multiple sources. The intuition behind this is that when a susceptible person has multiple potential infectors, there is a ``race'' to infect him or her in which only the first infectious contact leads to infection. In an epidemic, the mean generation interval contracts as the prevalence of infection increases. We call this global competition among potential infectors. When there is rapid transmission within clusters of contacts, generation interval contraction can be caused by a high local prevalence of infection even when the global prevalence is low. We call this loc...

  7. Some discrete SI and SIS epidemic models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-quan; LOU Jie; LOU Mei-zhi

    2008-01-01

    The probability is introduced to formulate the death of individuals, the recovery of the infected individuals and incidence of epidemic disease. Based on the assumption that the number of individuals in a population is a constant, discrete-time SI and SIS epidemic models with vital dynamics are established respectively corresponding to the case that the infectives can recover from the disease or not. For these two models, the results obtained in this paper show that there is the same dynamical behavior as their corresponding continuous ones, and the threshold determining its dynamical behavior is found. Below the threshold the epidemic disease dies out eventually, above the threshold the epidemic disease becomes an endemic eventually, and the number of the infectives approaches a positive constant.

  8. On spatially explicit models of cholera epidemics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bertuzzo, E; Casagrandi, R; Gatto, M; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I; Rinaldo, A

    2010-01-01

    We generalize a recently proposed model for cholera epidemics that accounts for local communities of susceptibles and infectives in a spatially explicit arrangement of nodes linked by networks having...

  9. Reporting epidemics: newspapers, information dissemination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pan African Medical Journal ... When an outbreak occurs, the affected population needs timely information in order to make informed decisions on how best to deal with ... Key words: Ebola, Uganda, epidemic, case, reporting, media, Uganda ...

  10. Contrasting Strategies of Alfalfa Stem Elongation in Response to Fall Dormancy in Early Growth Stage: The Tradeoff between Internode Length and Internode Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongli; Sun, Qizhong

    2015-01-01

    Fall dormancy (FD) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can be described using 11 FD ratings, is widely used as an important indicator of stress resistance, productive performance and spring growth. However, the contrasting growth strategies in internode length and internode number in alfalfa cultivars with different FD rating are poorly understood. Here, a growth chamber study was conducted to investigate the effect of FD on plant height, aboveground biomass, internode length, and internode number in alfalfa individuals in the early growth stages. In order to simulate the alfalfa growth environment in the early stage, 11 alfalfa cultivars with FD ratings from one to 11 were chosen and seeded at the greenhouse, and then were transplanted into an artificial growth chamber. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. Plant height, above-ground biomass, internode length, and internode number were measured in early growth stage in all individuals. Our findings showed that plant height and the aboveground biomass of alfalfa did not significantly differ among 11 different FD rated cultivars. Also, internode length and internode number positively affected plant height and the aboveground biomass of alfalfa individuals and the average internode length significantly increased with increasing FD rating. However, internode number tended to sharply decline when the FD rating increased. Moreover, there were no correlations, slightly negative correlations, and strongly negative correlations between internode length and internode number in alfalfa individuals among the three scales, including within-FD ratings, within-FD categories and inter-FD ratings, respectively. Therefore, our results highlighted that contrasting growth strategies in stem elongation were adopted by alfalfa with different FD ratings in the early growth stage. Alfalfa cultivars with a high FD rating have longer internodes, whereas more dormant alfalfa

  11. Vegetable and synthetic tannins induce hormesis/toxicity in sea urchin early development and in algal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nicola, Elena [Italian National Cancer Institute, G. Pascale Foundation, via M. Semmola, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Meric, Suereyya [Department of Civil Engineering, Salerno University, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Gallo, Marialuisa [Campania Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPAC), I-80143 Naples (Italy); Iaccarino, Mario [Italian National Cancer Institute, G. Pascale Foundation, via M. Semmola, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Della Rocca, Claudio [Department of Civil Engineering, Salerno University, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Lofrano, Giusy [Department of Civil Engineering, Salerno University, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Russo, Teresa [Campania Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPAC), I-80143 Naples (Italy); Pagano, Giovanni [Italian National Cancer Institute, G. Pascale Foundation, via M. Semmola, I-80131 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: gbpagano@tin.it

    2007-03-15

    Mimosa tannin and phenol-based synthetic tannin (syntan) were tested for toxicity to sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus and Sphaerechinus granularis) early development and to marine algal growth (Dunaliella tertiolecta). Sea urchin embryogenesis was affected by vegetable tannin and syntan water extracts (VTWE and STWE) at levels {>=}1 mg/L. Developmental defects were significantly decreased at VTWE and STWE levels of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L when control cultures displayed suboptimal quality, i.e. <70% 'viable' (normal or retarded) larvae. Fertilization success of sea urchin sperm was increased up to 0.3 mg/L STWE or VTWE, then was inhibited by increasing tannin levels (1-30 mg/L). Offspring abnormalities, following sperm exposure to VTWE or STWE, showed the same shift from hormesis to toxicity. Cell growth bioassays in D. tertiolecta exposed to VTWE or STWE (0.1-30 mg/L) showed non-linear concentration-related toxicity. Novel criteria are suggested in defining control quality that should reveal hormetic effects. - Vegetable tannin and synthetic tannins were moderately toxic or displayed hormetic effects in sea urchins and in algae. Re-defining control quality is needed for evaluating hormetic effects.

  12. Shape changes and growth trajectories in the early stages of three species of the genus Diplodus (Perciformes, Sparidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, A; Bertelletti, M; Costa, C; Ferlin, L; Cataudella, S

    2001-10-01

    The larvae of three species of the genus Diplodus (Diplodus vulgaris, D. sargus, and D. puntazzo) colonize shallow waters along the Mediterranean coasts and, after a short period spent in the water column, they settle. For all three species this habitat transition is characterized by important shape changes mostly related to swimming capacity and feeding behavior. In this study, geometric morphometrics are used to characterize shape changes during the early juvenile life of specimens collected in a single locality in order to compare growth curves and allometric relationships. Size-related shape changes proved to be similar for all three species and are consistent with the ecological transition. A nonparametric smoothing technique (Loess) was used to fit the scatter of shape on size. The graphical representation (of most size-related shape variability) of this fitting technique shows how major shape changes are rapid for small sizes and slow down success