Sample records for early diagenetic sediments

  1. Early diagenetic processes in sediments of the Angola Basin, eastern South Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruysers, Peter A.


    In this thesis early diagenetic processes in Angola Basin sediments are studied. The sediments discussed were recovered during the 1989 Angola Basin Cruise with the RIV Tyro. Pore water samples of box cores 8, 12, 17, 19,28, and 42 and of piston cores 17, 19, and 28 are presented. In addition, the

  2. Controls on Cyclic Formation of Quaternary Early Diagenetic Dolomite (United States)

    McCormack, J.; Bontognali, T. R. R.; Immenhauser, A.; Kwiecien, O.


    The origin of sedimentary dolomite and the factors that control its formation within the geological record remain speculative. In most models, dolomite formation is linked to evaporative conditions, high water temperature, increasing Mg/Ca ratio, increasing alkalinity, and high amounts of biomass. Here we challenge these archetypal views, by documenting a case example of Quaternary dolomite which formed in Lake Van at constantly low temperature (stress, resulting from reventilation of the water-sediment interface. Independently from the validity of this hypothesis, our results call for a reevaluation of the paleoenvironmental conditions often invoked for early diagenetic dolomite-rich intervals within sedimentary sequences and for caution when interpreting time series of subrecent lacustrine carbonates.

  3. Cyclic, Early Diagenetic Dolomite Formation in Alkaline Lake Van (United States)

    McCormack, J.; Bontognali, T. R. R.; Immenhauser, A.; Kwiecien, O.


    rapid Northern Hemisphere temperature oscillation (i.e. Greenland Interstadials). Lake Vańs dolomite record thus provides compelling arguments suggesting that early diagenetic dolomite formation within an alkaline environment can be highly sensitive to hydrological changes even on centennial timescales.

  4. Composition, diagenetic transformation and alkalinity potential of oil shale ash sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motlep, Riho; Sild, Terje; Puura, Erik; Kirsimaee, Kalle


    Oil shale is a primary fuel in the Estonian energy sector. After combustion 45-48% of the oil shale is left over as ash, producing about 5-7 Mt of ash, which is deposited on ash plateaus annually almost without any reuse. This study focuses on oil shale ash plateau sediment mineralogy, its hydration and diagenetic transformations, a study that has not been addressed. Oil shale ash wastes are considered as the biggest pollution sources in Estonia and thus determining the composition and properties of oil shale ash sediment are important to assess its environmental implications and also its possible reusability. A study of fresh ash and drillcore samples from ash plateau sediment was conducted by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The oil shale is highly calcareous, and the ash that remains after combustion is derived from the decomposition of carbonate minerals. It is rich in lime and anhydrite that are unstable phases under hydrous conditions. These processes and the diagenetic alteration of other phases determine the composition of the plateau sediment. Dominant phases in the ash are hydration and associated transformation products: calcite, ettringite, portlandite and hydrocalumite. The prevailing mineral phases (portlandite, ettringite) cause highly alkaline leachates, pH 12-13. Neutralization of these leachates under natural conditions, by rainwater leaching/neutralization and slow transformation (e.g. carbonation) of the aforementioned unstable phases into more stable forms, takes, at best, hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years.

  5. Composition, diagenetic transformation and alkalinity potential of oil shale ash sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motlep, Riho, E-mail: [Department of Geology, University of Tartu, Ravila 14A, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Sild, Terje, E-mail: [Estonian Land Board, Mustamaee tee 51, 10621 Tallinn (Estonia); Puura, Erik, E-mail: [Institute of Technology, University of Tartu, Nooruse 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Kirsimaee, Kalle, E-mail: [Department of Geology, University of Tartu, Ravila 14A, 50411 Tartu (Estonia)


    Oil shale is a primary fuel in the Estonian energy sector. After combustion 45-48% of the oil shale is left over as ash, producing about 5-7 Mt of ash, which is deposited on ash plateaus annually almost without any reuse. This study focuses on oil shale ash plateau sediment mineralogy, its hydration and diagenetic transformations, a study that has not been addressed. Oil shale ash wastes are considered as the biggest pollution sources in Estonia and thus determining the composition and properties of oil shale ash sediment are important to assess its environmental implications and also its possible reusability. A study of fresh ash and drillcore samples from ash plateau sediment was conducted by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The oil shale is highly calcareous, and the ash that remains after combustion is derived from the decomposition of carbonate minerals. It is rich in lime and anhydrite that are unstable phases under hydrous conditions. These processes and the diagenetic alteration of other phases determine the composition of the plateau sediment. Dominant phases in the ash are hydration and associated transformation products: calcite, ettringite, portlandite and hydrocalumite. The prevailing mineral phases (portlandite, ettringite) cause highly alkaline leachates, pH 12-13. Neutralization of these leachates under natural conditions, by rainwater leaching/neutralization and slow transformation (e.g. carbonation) of the aforementioned unstable phases into more stable forms, takes, at best, hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years.

  6. Characterization of diagenetic siderites formed in recent and ancient ferruginous sediments of Lake Towuti, Indonesia. (United States)

    Vuillemin, Aurele; Kallmeyer, Jens; Wagner, Dirk; Kemnitz, Helga; Wirth, Richard; Luecke, Andreas; Mayr, Christoph


    Authigenic minerals in lacustrine settings can be formed in the water column and within the sediment, abiotically and/or triggered by biological activity. Such minerals have been used as paleosalinity and paleoproductivity proxies, reflecting trophic state, and/or early diagenetic conditions. They have also been considered as potential biosignatures of past and present microbial activity. Here we present a study from Lake Towuti, a deep tectonic basin in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Its geographic position makes it a prime location to record paleoclimatic changes in the tropical Western Pacific warm pool in its sedimentary sequence. The ultramafic rocks and surrounding lateritic soils in the catchment area supply considerable amounts of iron and other metals to the lake. These elements further restrain primary productivity along with the development of specific microbial metabolic pathways involved in early diagenesis. Lake Towuti is stratified with anoxic conditions below 130 m, allowing metal reduction processes to take place in the hypolimnion. The extreme scarcity of sulphate and nitrate/nitrite make Lake Towuti's bottom waters a modern analogue for the Archaean Ocean. It was therefore chosen as a drilling target by the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP). In May to July 2015, the Towuti Drilling Project recovered a total >1000 m of sediment core from three drilling sites, including a 114 m long core drilled with a contamination tracer dedicated to geomicrobiological studies. Heavy mineral fractions were extracted from core catcher samples and siderite crystals (FeCO3) were selected from different depths. Characterization of their habitus was achieved via SEM and TEM imaging. Preliminary results show that siderites grow from amorphous into nanocrystalline phases and form twinned aggregates developing into mosaic monocrystals with depth. Gradual filling of vugs and microporosity were observed along with inclusions of magnetite nanocrystals. Work in

  7. Rare earth elements in Japan Sea sediments and diagenetic behavior of Ce/Ce∗: results from ODP Leg 127 (United States)

    Murray, R.; Buchholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.; Brumsack, Hans-Juergen; Gerlach, David C.; Russ III, G. Price


    The relative effects of paleoceanographic and paleogeographic variations, sediment lithology, and diagenetic processes on the recorded rare earth element (REE) chemistry of Japan Sea sediments are evaluated by investigating REE total abundances and relative fractionations in 59 samples from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 127.

  8. Geochemistry of trace metals in a fresh water sediment: Field results and diagenetic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavan, R.W.; Cappellen, P. van; Zwolsman, J.J.G.; Berg, G.A. van den; Slomp, C.P.


    Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined in pore water and sediment of a coastal fresh water lake (Haringvliet Lake, The Netherlands). Elevated sediment trace metal concentrations reflect anthropogenic inputs from the Rhine and Meuse Rivers. Pore water and sediment analyses, together with thermodynamic calculations, indicate a shift in trace metal speciation from oxide-bound to sulfide-bound over the upper 20 cm of the sediment. Concentrations of reducible Fe and Mn decline with increasing depth, but do not reach zero values at 20 cm depth. The reducible phases are relatively more important for the binding of Co, Ni, and Zn than for Pb and Cd. Pore waters exhibit supersaturation with respect to Zn, Pb, Co, and Cd monosulfides, while significant fractions of Ni and Co are bound to pyrite. A multi-component, diagenetic model developed for organic matter degradation was expanded to include Zn and Ni dynamics. Pore water transport of trace metals is primarily diffusive, with a lesser contribution of bioirrigation. Reactions affecting trace metal mobility near the sediment-water interface, especially sulfide oxidation and sorption to newly formed oxides, strongly influence the modeled estimates of the diffusive effluxes to the overlying water. Model results imply less efficient sediment retention of Ni than Zn. Sensitivity analyses show that increased bioturbation and sulfate availability, which are expected upon restoration of estuarine conditions in the lake, should increase the sulfide bound fractions of Zn and Ni in the sediments

  9. 234Th/238U disequilibrium in near-shore sediment: particle reworking and diagenetic time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aller, R.C.; Cochran, J.K.


    The distribution of 234 Th (tsub(1.2)=24.1 days) in excess of its parent 238 U in the upper layers of near-shore sediment makes possible the evaluation of short-term sediment reworking and diagenetic rates. 234 Th has a maximum residence time in Long Island Sound water of 1.4 days. Seasonal measurement of 234 Th/ 238 U disequilibrium in sediment at a single station in central Long Island Sound demonstrates rapid particle reworking and high 234 Thsub(XS)(>1 dpm/g) in the upper 4 cm of sediment with slower, irregular reworking and low 234 Thsub(XS) to at least 12 cm. The rate of rapid particle reworking varies seasonally and is highest in the fall. The rapidly mixed zone is characterized by steep gradients in sediment chemistry implying fast reactions spanned by 234 Th decay time scales. 238 U is depleted in the upper mixed zone and shows addition in reducing sediment at depth. (Auth.)

  10. Diagenetic Chlorite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari; Friis, Henrik; Hansen, Jens Peter Vind


    hydrocarbon seal, and our study demonstrates the influence of early diagenetic quartz on the formation of the chlorite seal. Early opal and microquartz are precipitated close to shale contacts and prevent the interaction between abundant detrital glaucony and pore-fluid and thus the formation of grain...

  11. Diagenetic history of late Oligocene-early Miocene carbonates in East Sabah, Malaysia (United States)

    Zainal Abidin, N. S.; Raymond, R. R.; Bashah, N. S. I.


    Limestones are particularly susceptible to drastic early diagenesis modifications, mainly cementation and dissolution. During the early Miocene, a major tectonic deformation has caused a widespread of uplift in Sabah. This has resulted change in depositional environment from deep to shallow marine, which favours the deposition of Gomantong Limestone. This study aims to investigate the diagenetic history of Gomantong Limestone in East Sabah. Thorough understanding of the diagenetic processes may provide data to unravel the tectonic activities which affected the reservoir quality of the carbonates. Combining the data from comprehensive petrographic analysis, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of 30 samples, two main cements type were identified. These are microcrystalline cement and Mg-calcite cement of granular and blocky mosaics which are dominantly seen in all samples. The sequence of diagenesis events are determined as (1) micritization; (2) grain scale compaction; (3) cementation (pore-filling); (4) mechanical compaction and cementation infilling fractures and (5) chemical compaction. These diagenetic events are interpreted as reflection of changes in diagenetic environment from shallow marine to deep burial. The massive cementation in the Gomantong Limestone has resulted into a poor reservoir quality.

  12. Paleoenvironmental implications of early diagenetic siderites of the Paraíba do Sul Deltaic Complex, eastern Brazil (United States)

    Rodrigues, Amanda Goulart; De Ros, Luiz Fernando; Neumann, Reiner; Borghi, Leonardo


    Abundant early diagenetic siderites occur as spherulites and rhombohedral microcrystalline and macrocrystalline crystals in the cores of the 2-MU-1-RJ well, drilled in the Paraíba do Sul Deltaic Complex, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). The host sediments of the siderites are siliciclastic, hybrid, and carbonate deposits. Intense pedogenetic processes affected the siliciclastic sediments immediately after deposition, comprising clay illuviation, plants bioturbation, feldspar dissolution, and iron oxide/hydroxide precipitation. Siderite and pyrite are the main diagenetic constituents. The other diagenetic products are kaolinite, smectite, argillaceous and carbonate pseudomatrix, quartz overgrowths, diagenetic titanium minerals, jarosite, and iron oxides/hydroxides. Early diagenetic siderites were separated into four groups based on their elemental and stable isotopic composition, as well as on their paragenetic relationships with the other constituents and with the host sediments. Spherulitic to macrocrystalline siderites from group 1 are almost pure (average: 94.7 mol% FeCO3; 1.2 mol% MgCO3; 2.3 mol% CaCO3; 1.8 mol% MnCO3) and precipitated from meteoric porewaters in continental siliciclastic rocks under suboxic conditions (δ18Ovpdb values range in - 10.28 to - 5.57‰ and the δ13Cvpdb values in - 12.68 to - 4.33‰). Microcrystalline rhombohedral siderites from group 2 have zonation due to substantial Ca and Mg substitution (core average: 78.5 mol% FeCO3; 4.2 mol% MgCO3; 15.7 mol% CaCO3; 1.6 mol% MnCO3; edge average: 74.0 mol% FeCO3; 9.2 mol% MgCO3; 15.6 mol% CaCO3; 1.1 mol% MnCO3), and δ13Cvpdb and δ18Ovpdb values of + 0.17‰ and - 1.96‰, precipitated from marine porewaters in packstones/wackestones under methanogenic conditions. The group 3 is represented by irregular spherulitic siderites with moderate Ca and Mg substitutions (average: 80.2 mol% FeCO3; 7.9 mol% MgCO3; 11.3 mol% CaCO3; 0.6 mol% MnCO3), with δ18Ovpdb values ranging from - 5.96 to - 7.61‰ and

  13. Cement Distribution and Diagenetic Pathway of the Miocene Sediments on Kardiva Platform, Maldives. (United States)

    Laya, J. C.; Prince, K.; Betzler, C.; Eberli, G. P.; Blättler, C. L.; Swart, P. K.; Reolid, J.; Alvarez Zarikian, C. A.; Reijmer, J.


    The Maldives archipelago is an ideal example for understanding the dynamics of isolated carbonate platforms. While previous sedimentological studies have focused on oceanographic and climatic controls on deposition, there have been limited studies on the diagenetic evolution of the Maldives archipelago. This project seeks to establish a relationship between the facies, cement distribution, and diagenetic evolution of the Kardiva Platform and associated diagenetic fluids. Samples from cores of IODP Expedition 359 at Sites U1645, U1469, and U1470 were analyzed for stable isotope geochemistry and detailed petrography including SEM, confocal and CL microscopy to investigate variations in facies, cements, porosity and diagenetic products. The facies analyzed consist mainly of planktonic and benthic foraminifers, red coralline algae, echinoderm, coral and skeletal fragments. The main facies include foraminifera grain/packstone, red algae rich grain/packstone, algal floatstone and coral floatstone. Those facies present a cyclic and general shallowing upwards trend. These facies are interpreted as shallow platform deposits on proximal areas to the margin associated with the oligophotic zone. Cement volume varies between 5% and 48%, and they have been classified as isopachous, bladed to fibrous (dog tooth), drusy and equant. Equant and drusy show recognizable growth bands with CL and confocal. Evidence of intense dissolution is shown by extensive moldic porosity within phreatic and limited vadose zones. In addition, dolomite appears as a replacement phase associated with red-algae-rich horizons and as cement on pore walls and voids. These deposits experienced a variety of diagenetic processes driven by the evolution of diagenetic fluid chemistry and by the nature of the skeletal components. Those processes can be tied to external controls such as climate (monsoonal effects), sea-level and currents.

  14. Hg concentrations from Late Triassic and Early Jurassic sedimentary rocks: first order similarities and second order depositional and diagenetic controls (United States)

    Yager, J. A.; West, A. J.; Bergquist, B. A.; Thibodeau, A. M.; Corsetti, F. A.; Berelson, W.; Bottjer, D. J.; Rosas, S.


    Mercury concentrations in sediments have recently gained prominence as a potential tool for identifying large igneous province (LIP) volcanism in sedimentary records. LIP volcanism coincides with several mass extinctions during the Phanerozoic, but it is often difficult to directly tie LIP activity with the record of extinction in marine successions. Here, we build on mercury concentration data reported by Thibodeau et al. (Nature Communications, 7:11147, 2016) from the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic of New York Canyon, Nevada, USA. Increases in Hg concentrations in that record were attributed to Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) activity in association with the end-Triassic mass extinction. We expand the measured section from New York Canyon and report new mercury concentrations from Levanto, Peru, where dated ash beds provide a discrete chronology, as well as St. Audrie's Bay, UK, a well-studied succession. We correlate these records using carbon isotopes and ammonites and find similarities in the onset of elevated Hg concentrations and Hg/TOC in association with changes in C isotopes. We also find second order patterns that differ between sections and may have depositional and diagenetic controls. We will discuss these changes within a sedimentological framework to further understand the controls on Hg concentrations in sedimentary records and their implications for past volcanism.

  15. Using Clumped Isotopes to Understand Early Diagenetic Processes in Carbonate Microbialites of Mid-Cretaceous Codó Formation, NE Brazil (United States)

    Bahniuk, A. M.; Vasconcelos, C.; McKenzie, J. A.; Franca, A. B.; Matsuda, N.; Eiler, J.


    Recent studies of the sedimentological, stratigraphic and geochemical aspects of carbonate microbialites have been carried out to characterize the paleoenvironmental and hydrological conditions of deposition for the Aptian Codó Formation (Parnaíba Basin) and the time-equivalent Santana Formation (Araripe Basin). This environmental interpretation is of interest because these sediments record the early stages of the opening of the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean, as well as being potentially important reservoir rock. Specifically, clumped isotope thermometry has been applied to evaluate the growth temperatures of carbonate components in selected samples from both outcrop and drill core. Preliminary results of clumped isotope measurements provide paleotemperatures derived for dense stromatolitic fabrics drilled from outcrop samples of the Codó Formation which vary between 29 and 33°C. In contrast, the micritic matrix of the drill core samples of the Codó Formation indicates a temperature range from 30 to 48°C. The lower values for the outcrop samples may represent a primary or early diagenetic temperature signal preserved in the rock. Moreover, the micritic matrix from the Santana Formation drill core samples indicates paleotemperatures ranging from 40 to 68°C, which are slightly higher than those for all measured samples of the Codó Formation. We propose that the higher paleotemperatures for all drill core samples denote a diagenetic effect that occurred with sediment lithification processes during burial; that is, isotopic reequilibration at depth is reflected in the higher measured paleotemperatures. Increased paleotemperatures are probably present in some carbonate fabrics of the outcrop samples of the Codo Formation, which also underwent lithification, but this signal was missed by our inability to micro-sample primary or early diagenetic stromatolitic fabrics. Assuming that the outcrop samples of the Codó Formation preserve an original stable isotope signal

  16. Diagenetic fractionation of carbon isotopes in particulate and dissolved organic matter in sediments from Skan Bay, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alperin, M.J.; Reeburgh, W.S.


    Isotope fractionation during organic matter diagenesis was investigated by measuring detailed depth distributions of stable carbon isotope ratios in sediment particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reservoirs. The δ 13 C value of the POC shifted systematically from -19 per-thousand at the surface to -21 per-thousand at 10 cm. Significant trends were also apparent in the δ 13 C-DOC profile. Proceeding down-core, DOC became isotopically heavier between 0 and 5 cm and isotopically lighter at greater depths. Two mechanisms could account for the observed down-core shift in δ 13 C-POC: (a) temporal changes in the isotope ratios of deposited organic matter and (b) isotope fractionation associated with diagenesis. The δ 15 C-DOC depth distribution is sensitive to which mechanism controls the isotopic composition of the POC reservoir. A diagenetic model that couples POC and DOC reservoirs was used to discriminate between temporal changes and diagenetic alteration of the POC isotopic composition. The model indicated that observed trends in δ 13 C-POC and δ 13 C-DOC depth distributions are consistent with isotopic fractionation of POC during diagenesis

  17. Rock magnetic and geochemical record in a sediment core from the eastern Arabian Sea: Diagenetic and environmental implications during the late quaternary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P; Kessarkar, P; Patil, S.K.; Ahmad, S.M.

    . The sediments are dominated by fine-grained magnetite, but intervals of 1.2-3.8 kaBP and 10-13.5 kaBP were subjected to diagenetic changes, resulting in the dissolution of fine-grained magnetites and enrichment of redox-sensitive trace elements (Cu, Ni, Zn, V...

  18. The Role of Relative Sea Level Changes in Diagenetic Processes and Stacking Pattern of Kangan Formation Sediments in one of the Persian Gulf Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    حسن اشراقی


    Full Text Available The Lower to Middle Triassic aged Kangan Formation is one of the most significant carbonate gas reservoirs in Iranian territory. In this study, thin sections data were used to recognize microfacies, sedimentary environments and the interaction between diagenetic processes and facies stacking pattern in a sequence stratigraphic framework. Petrographic studies leaded to recognition of eight microfacies related to three facies belts including tidal flat, lagoon and shoal. Moreover, the observed microfacies patterns indicate a ramp carbonate platform as depositional environment for this carbonate succession. The main diagenetic processes of Kangan Formation include micritization, isopachous and fibrous cements (primary marine diagenesis, dissolution and moldic porosity (meteoric diagenesis, compaction and stylolitization (secondary diagenesis. Based on facies changes, two third-order sequences were specified, each of which could be divided into two systems tracts including transgressive systems tract (TST and highstand systems tract (HST. In addition, sequence boundaries were identified with bedded, massive and nodular anhydrite. These facies, that are indicative of maximum sea level fall, were deposited in hypersaline lagoons. There is a close association between diagenetic processes and relative sea level changes of Kangan Formation, so that diagenetic processes of studied succession have been controlled by sediments stacking patterns during transgression and regression of sea level. During the transgression, the main diagenetic processes in shoal facies are marine cementation and dolomitization in lagoon and tidal flat facies. However, during the sea level fall, these processes include dissolution in shoal facies and dolomitization, anhydrite nodule formation and cementation in lagoon and tidal flat settings.

  19. Diagenetic remobilization of rare earth elements in a sediment core from the central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Banakar, V.K.

    Rare earth elements (REE) distribution in a 36 cm long sediment box core from the Central Indian Basin is studied. REE concentration is generally higher in the upper oxic zone than in intermediate suboxic zone suggesting REE diffusion upwards...

  20. Clues to early diagenetic sulfurization processes from mild chemical cleavage of labile sulfur-rich geomacromolecules (United States)

    Adam, P.; Schneckenburger, P.; Schaeffer, P.; Albrecht, P.


    Macromolecular fractions, isolated from the solvent extract of sulfur-rich Recent (Siders Pond, USA; Lake Cadagno, Switzerland; Walvis Bay, Namibia) and immature sediments (Gibellina, Messinian of Sicily; Vena del Gesso, Messinian of Italy), were investigated by chemical degradation using sodium ethanethiolate/methyliodide. This mild reagent which cleaves polysulfide bonds to yield methylsulfides has the advantage over other methods of leaving intact other functionalities (like double bonds) and preserving sulfur atoms at their incorporation site. The method is, therefore, well-suited to the molecular level investigation of sulfur-rich macromolecules from Recent sediments containing highly functionalized polysulfide-bound subunits. In Recent anoxic sulfur-rich sediments, the release of various methylthioethers clearly demonstrates that intermolecular sulfurization of organic matter does occur at the earliest stages of diagenesis. Steroids and phytane derivatives are the major sulfurized lipids, a feature also observed in more mature sulfur-rich sediments. Several phytene derivatives, such as cis and trans 1-methylthiophyt-2-enes, as well as methylthiosteroids, including 5α- and 5β-3-(methylthio)-cholest-2-enes, were identified by comparison with synthesized standards. Steroid methylthioenolethers are released from polysulfide-bound steroid enethiols present in the macromolecular fractions. The latter, which correspond to thioketones, can be considered as intermediates in the reductive sulfurization pathway leading from steroid ketones to polysulfide-bound saturated steroid skeletons and are characterized for the first time in the present study. Thus, it could be shown that the major part of the polysulfide-bound lipids occurring in Recent sediments is apparently the result of sulfurization processes affecting carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones). The unsaturated methylthioethers obtained from Recent sediments were not present in more mature evaporitic samples, which

  1. Constraining biogenic silica dissolution in marine sediments: a comparison between diagenetic models and experimental dissolution rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, K.; Rabouille, C.; Gallinari, M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; DeMaster, D.J.; Ragueneau, O.


    The processes controlling preservation and recycling of particulate biogenic silica in sediments must be understood in order to calculate oceanic silica mass balances. The new contribution of this work is the coupled use of advanced models including reprecipitation and different phases of biogenic

  2. ) Sediment petrographic characterisation and diagenetic pathways of the Miocene Agbada sandstone, Niger delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaegbobi, I. M; Gaupp, R.; Fischer, C.


    Combined petrophysical and petrographic investigations of he Agbada sandstone interbeds has been undertaken in order to determine the controlling factors on the reservoir quality of he paralic sandstone facies. Well logs, petrophysical data and a set of core samples from two wells located in the eastern onshore of he Niger delta spanning a depth interval of 3200 to 330m, formed the basic material for the present study. Four sandstone and siltstone facies units ranging form coastal bar sands through transgressive sands to marine claystones were identified based on petrophysical log signatures. Thin section analysis of a selected set of sandstone samples revealed essentially a unimodal, homogeneous grain size distribution of the detrital mineral components. Quantitative assessment of the mineralogical composition using point count method (300 points) revealed the predominance of dring. etrital quartz (85%) over feldspar minerals (9%) and lithic fragments (6%). A database generated from the point counting of the sandstones provided a broad perspective to the relative variations of the intergranular porosities (28%), cementation and matrix. These are remarkable indicators for low compaction. Authigenic kaoline and illite were identified. The partial leaching of detrital feldspars are responsible for the low percentages of intragranular volume (secondary porosity). The main controlling factor on the high porosity can be traced to either low compactional effects (overpressure?) or total leaching of unknown early cements. We suggest that the excellent reservoir properties of the Agbada sandstones are due to under compaction, caused by continuous long-term over pressuring

  3. Early diagenetic dolomitization and dedolomitization of Late Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous platform carbonates: A case study from the Jura Mountains (NW Switzerland, E France) (United States)

    Rameil, Niels


    Early diagenetic dolomitization is a common feature in cyclic shallow-water carbonates throughout the geologic record. After their generation, dolomites may be subject to dedolomitization (re-calcification of dolomites), e.g. by contact with meteoric water during emersion. These patterns of dolomitization and subsequent dedolomitization frequently play a key role in unravelling the development and history of a carbonate platform. On the basis of excellent outcrops, detailed logging and sampling and integrating sedimentological work, high-resolution sequence stratigraphic interpretations, and isotope analyses (O, C), conceptual models on early diagenetic dolomitization and dedolomitization and their underlying mechanisms were developed for the Upper Jurassic / Lower Cretaceous Jura platform in north-western Switzerland and eastern France. Three different types of early diagenetic dolomites and two types of dedolomites were observed. Each is defined by a distinct petrographic/isotopic signature and a distinct spatial distribution pattern. Different types of dolomites are interpreted to have been formed by different mechanisms, such as shallow seepage reflux, evaporation on tidal flats, and microbially mediated selective dolomitization of burrows. Depending on the type of dolomite, sea water with normal marine to slightly enhanced salinities is proposed as dolomitizing fluid. Based on the data obtained, the main volume of dolomite was precipitated by a reflux mechanism that was switched on and off by high-frequency sea-level changes. It appears, however, that more than one dolomitization mechanism was active (pene)contemporaneously or several processes alternated in time. During early diagenesis, percolating meteoric waters obviously played an important role in the dedolomitization of carbonate rocks that underlie exposure surfaces. Cyclostratigraphic interpretation of the sedimentary succession allows for estimates on the timing of early diagenetic (de

  4. Mineralogy, early marine diagenesis, and the chemistry of shallow-water carbonate sediments (United States)

    Higgins, J. A.; Blättler, C. L.; Lundstrom, E. A.; Santiago-Ramos, D. P.; Akhtar, A. A.; Crüger Ahm, A.-S.; Bialik, O.; Holmden, C.; Bradbury, H.; Murray, S. T.; Swart, P. K.


    Shallow-water carbonate sediments constitute the bulk of sedimentary carbonates in the geologic record and are widely used archives of Earth's chemical and climatic history. One of the main limitations in interpreting the geochemistry of ancient carbonate sediments is the potential for post-depositional diagenetic alteration. In this study, we use paired measurements of calcium (44Ca/40Ca or δ44Ca) and magnesium (26Mg/24Mg or δ26Mg) isotope ratios in sedimentary carbonates and associated pore-fluids as a tool to understand the mineralogical and diagenetic history of Neogene shallow-water carbonate sediments from the Bahamas and southwest Australia. We find that the Ca and Mg isotopic composition of bulk carbonate sediments at these sites exhibits systematic stratigraphic variability that is related to both mineralogy and early marine diagenesis. The observed variability in bulk sediment Ca isotopes is best explained by changes in the extent and style of early marine diagenesis from one where the composition of the diagenetic carbonate mineral is determined by the chemistry of the fluid (fluid-buffered) to one where the composition of the diagenetic carbonate mineral is determined by the chemistry of the precursor sediment (sediment-buffered). Our results indicate that this process, together with variations in carbonate mineralogy (aragonite, calcite, and dolomite), plays a fundamental and underappreciated role in determining the regional and global stratigraphic expressions of geochemical tracers (δ13C, δ18O, major, minor, and trace elements) in shallow-water carbonate sediments in the geologic record. Our results also provide evidence that a large shallow-water carbonate sink that is enriched in 44Ca can explain the mismatch between the δ44/40Ca value of rivers and deep-sea carbonate sediments and call into question the hypothesis that the δ44/40Ca value of seawater depends on the mineralogy of primary carbonate precipitations (e.g. 'aragonite seas' and

  5. Compositional controls on early diagenetic pathways in fine-grained sedimentary rocks: Implications for predicting unconventional reservoir attributes of mudstones (United States)

    Keller, Margaret A.; Macquaker, Joe H.S.; Taylor, Kevin G.; Polya, David


    Diagenesis significantly impacts mudstone lithofacies. Processes operating to control diagenetic pathways in mudstones are poorly known compared to analogous processes occurring in other sedimentary rocks. Selected organic-carbon-rich mudstones, from the Kimmeridge Clay and Monterey Formations, have been investigated to determine how varying starting compositions influence diagenesis.The sampled Kimmeridge Clay Formation mudstones are organized into thin homogenous beds, composed mainly of siliciclastic detritus, with some constituents derived from water-column production (e.g., coccoliths, S-depleted type-II kerogen, as much as 52.6% total organic carbon [TOC]) and others from diagenesis (e.g., pyrite, carbonate, and kaolinite). The sampled Monterey Formation mudstones are organized into thin beds that exhibit pelleted wavy lamination, and are predominantly composed of production-derived components including diatoms, coccoliths, and foraminifera, in addition to type-IIS kerogen (as much as 16.5% TOC), and apatite and silica cements.During early burial of the studied Kimmeridge Clay Formation mudstones, the availability of detrital Fe(III) and reactive clay minerals caused carbonate- and silicate-buffering reactions to operate effectively and the pore waters to be Fe(II) rich. These conditions led to pyrite, iron-poor carbonates, and kaolinite cements precipitating, preserved organic carbon being S-depleted, and sweet hydrocarbons being generated. In contrast, during the diagenesis of the sampled Monterey Formation mudstones, sulfide oxidation, coupled with opal dissolution and the reduced availability of both Fe(III) and reactive siliciclastic detritus, meant that the pore waters were poorly buffered and locally acidic. These conditions resulted in local carbonate dissolution, apatite and silica cements precipitation, natural kerogen sulfurization, and sour hydrocarbons generation.Differences in mud composition at deposition significantly influence subsequent

  6. Differential early diagenetic low-Mg calcite cementation and rhythmic hardground development in Campanian-Maastrichtian chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molenaar, Nicolaas; J.J.P., Zijlstra


    and differences in the degree of early diagenesis. Cemented layers and hardgrounds are the result of differential early marine calcite cementation. In these limestones early calcite cementation cannot be explained by the supply of cementing materials from saturated seawater, An alternative model for early marine......The Campanian-Maastrichtian limestones in the south of the Netherlands are well-sorted fine-grained mudstones and silt- to fine sand-sized bioclastic grainstones. These limestones show a distinct lithological cyclicity manifested by fining-upward grain-size cycles with calcite-cemented layers...... calcite cementation is proposed, in which early calcite cementation occurred within the sediment at some distance below the seafloor as a result of organic matter degradation and internal redistribution of bioclastic carbonate. Bacterial organic matter degradation caused dissolution of relatively unstable...

  7. Early diagenetic high-magnesium calcite and dolomite indicate that coal balls formed in marine or brackish water: Stratigraphic and paleoclimatic implications (United States)

    Raymond, Anne


    Coal balls are carbonate and pyrite permineralizations of peat that contain three-dimensional plant fossils preserved at the cellular level. Coal balls, which occur in Pennsylvanian and earliest Permian equatorial coals, provide a detailed record of terrestrial ecology and tropical climate during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age; yet their depositional environment remains controversial. The exquisite preservation of some coal-ball fossils, e.g. pollen with pollen tubes and leaves with mesophyll, indicates rapid formation. The presence of abundant, cement-filled, void spaces within and between the plant debris in most coal balls indicates that they formed in uncompacted peat, near the surface of the mire. Botanical, taphonomic and isotopic evidence point to a freshwater origin for coal balls. The nearest living relatives of coal ball plants (modern lycopsids, sphenopsids, marratialean ferns and conifers) grow in fresh water. Coal-ball peat contains a high percentage of aerial debris, similar to modern freshwater peat. The stable oxygen isotopes of coal-ball carbonate (δ18O = 16 to 3 per mil) suggest a freshwater origin. However, the widespread occurrence of marine invertebrates and early diagenetic framboidal pyrite in coal balls suggests that many formed in close proximity to marine water. Indeed, carbonate petrology points to a marine or brackish water origin for the first-formed carbonate cements in coal balls. Petrographic and geochemical (microprobe) analysis of coal-ball carbonates in Pennsylvanian coals from the midcontinent of North America (Western Interior Basin, West Pangaea) and the Ruhr and Donets Basins (East Pangaea) indicate that the first formed carbonate is either radaxial, nonstochiometric dolomite or high magnesium calcite (9 - 17 mol % MgCO3, indicating precipitation in marine or brackish water. Although both primary dolomite and high magnesium calcite can form in lacustrine settings, the lakes in which these minerals form occur in carbonate terranes

  8. Diagenetic replacement of Micas by Carbonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oele, E.


    In the Ordovician sandstones of the Cantabrian Mountains a replacement of the micas by carbonate minerals could be observed. The absence of metamorphic minerals suggests a diagenetic replacement. This is supported by the finding of the same type of replacement in some undisturbed Pliocene sediments

  9. Development of early diagenetic silica and quartz morphologies — Examples from the Siri Canyon, Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weibel, Rikke; Friis, Henrik; Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari


    in the following way: 1. Opal rims; characteristic of the initial phase of the silica diagenesis in most sandstone units in the Siri Canyon. Thick opal rims characterise the sandstone parts adjacent to the mudstone units in the Stine segment of the Siri Field. 2. Microquartz (quartz crystals with a size of 1–5 μm......); seen as coatings on the opal rims, both ordered and random. 3. Cavity overgrowth; found as quartz outgrowths in circular and angular cavities formed by dissolution of early authigenic phases. Angular cavities in the microquartz coatings origin from dissolution of clinoptilolite, possibly with a source...

  10. Identification of novel sulfur-containing steroids in sediments and petroleum: probable incorporation of sulfur into δ 5,7-sterols during early diagenesis (United States)

    Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan; de Leeuw, Jan W.; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Geenevasen, Jan A. J.


    A novel sulfur-containing sterane, 4α,7α-epithio-5β-cholestane, has been identified in a sediment extract from the Miocene Northern Apennines marl (Italy) after its isolation by column chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography. The compound has been characterised by GC-MS and mild Nickel boride desulfurisation and one and two-dimensional 1H NMR techniques. C 27-C 29 homologs have been detected in sediment extracts of three different formations and in one petroleum sample. These sulfur-containing steroids are probably formed by an intramolecular reaction of inorganic sulfides with early diagenetic products of Δ 5,7-sterols.

  11. Signatures and significance of aeolian, fluvial, bacterial and diagenetic magnetic mineral fractions in Late Quaternary marine sediments off Gambia, NW Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Just, A.; Dekkers, M.J.; Dobeneck, T. von; Hoesel, A. van; Bickert, T.

    Two gravity cores retrieved off NW Africa at the border of arid and subtropical environments (GeoB 13602–1 and GeoB 13601–4) were analyzed to extract records of Late Quaternary climate change and sediment export. We apply end-member (EM) unmixing to 350 acquisition curves of isothermal remanent

  12. Diagenetic Quartz Morphologies and Zeolite formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari; Hansen, Rikke Weibel; Friis, Henrik

    the Siri Canyon wells.  Volcanic lithoclasts are strongly altered and associated with diagenetic opal/ microquartz coatings and zeolite.  Zeolite crystals formed simultaneously with opal and prior to microquartz but dissolved with increased burial depth.  The dissolution of zeolite followed two steps...... in samples where no volcanic ash is demonstrated; it seems that a rapid supply of dissolved silica from dissolution of siliceous fossils was the main reason for the early co-precipitation of opal and zeolite. There are two important sources for Si: 1) Biogenic opal from diatoms or radiolarians, which...... are abundant in some of associated shales; and 2) volcanic ash. The dissolution of biogenic silica may result in a rapid release of silica thereby promoting the formation of diagenetic opal/microquartz, but there may be a limited release of Al. A limited release of Al may result in precipitation of Si...

  13. Early diagenetic processes and sulphur speciation in pore waters and sediments of the hypersaline Tyro and Bannock basins, eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneke, E.


    Anoxic hypersaline basins have been found in two different tectonic environments in the eastern Mediterranean. Within the Tyro area (the western Strabo Trench) there are three pull apart basins: the Tyro Basin, presently filled with anoxic hypersaline bottomwater, and the Poseidon and Kretheus

  14. Benthic hypoxia and early diagenesis in the Black Sea shelf sediments (United States)

    Plante, Audrey; Roevros, Nathalie; Capet, Arthur; Grégoire, Marilaure; Fagel, Nathalie; Chou, Lei


    Marine waters of semi-enclosed seas are affected by a major environmental issue which is oxygen depletion in bottom waters. Deoxygenation is one of the most widespread man-induced consequences which can be catastrophic for living species. Between 1970 and 1990, the benthic compartment of the Black Sea underwent modifications due to the occurrence and increase of hypoxia. Indeed, these changes might cause a deterioration of the structure and functioning of the ecosystems. Nowadays, some regions, such as the north-western shelf, are still affected seasonally by this phenomenon. Within the framework of the BENTHOX project, a biogeochemical study focusing on the early diagenesis is conducted in the Black Sea. It aims (1) to obtain a better understanding of the impact of benthic hypoxia on the diagenetic pathways, (2) to contribute to a new dataset of biogeochemical measurements in the sediments including porewaters. During a cruise (Emblas II - May 2016), on board the RV Mare Nigrum, sediment cores were taken at 4 stations on the Ukrainian shelf. Porewaters were extracted on board the ship using Rhizon technique under N2 atmosphere and will be analyzed for dissolved nutrients and major ions. In addition, sediments were sliced and will be determined for major solid phases and trace element contents. A multi-proxies (biological, sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical) approach will be used to identify the hypoxic events and to reconstruct the history of bottom hypoxia. The results obtained will be presented and discussed with emphasis on the first outcomes and the major biogeochemical processes involved in the early diagenesis.

  15. Sediment Sources, Depositional Environment, and Diagenetic Alteration of the Marcellus Shale, Appalachian Basin, USA: Nd, Sr, Li and U Isotopic Constraints (United States)

    Phan, T. T.; Capo, R. C.; Gardiner, J. B.; Stewart, B. W.


    The organic-rich Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale in the Appalachian Basin, eastern USA, is a major target of natural gas exploration. Constraints on local and regional sediment sources, depositional environments, and post-depositional processes are essential for understanding the evolution of the basin. In this study, multiple proxies, including trace metals, rare earth elements (REE), the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotope systems, and U and Li isotopes were applied to bulk rocks and authigenic fractions of the Marcellus Shale and adjacent limestone/sandstone units from two locations separated by 400 km. The range of ɛNd values (-7.8 to -6.4 at 390 Ma) is consistent with a clastic sedimentary component derived from a well-mixed source of fluvial and eolian material of the Grenville orogenic belt. The Sm-Nd isotope system and bulk REE distributions appear to have been minimally affected by post-depositional processes, while the Rb-Sr isotope system shows evidence of limited post-depositional redistribution. While REE are primarily associated with silicate minerals (80-95%), REE patterns of sequentially extracted fractions reflect post-depositional alteration at the intergranular scale. Although the chemical index of alteration (CIA = 54 to 60) suggests the sediment source was not heavily weathered, Li isotope data are consistent with progressively increasing weathering of the source region during Marcellus Shale deposition. δ238U values in bulk shale and reduced phases (oxidizable fraction) are higher than those of modern seawater and upper crust. The isotopically heavy U accumulated in these authigenic phases can be explained by the precipitation of insoluble U in anoxic/euxinic bottom water. Unlike carbonate cement within the shale, the similarity between δ238U values and REE patterns of the limestone units and those of modern seawater indicates that the limestone formed under open ocean (oxic) conditions.

  16. Identifying early Earth microfossils in unsilicified sediments (United States)

    Javaux, Emmanuelle J.; Asael, Dan; Bekker, Andrey; Debaille, Vinciane; Derenne, Sylvie; Hofmann, Axel; Mattielli, Nadine; Poulton, Simon


    The search for life on the early Earth or beyond Earth requires the definition of biosignatures, or "indices of life". These traditionally include fossil molecules, isotopic fractionations, biosedimentary structures and morphological fossils interpreted as remnants of life preserved in rocks. This research focuses on traces of life preserved in unsilicified siliciclastic sediments. Indeed, these deposits preserve well sedimentary structures indicative of past aqueous environments and organic matter, including the original organic walls of microscopic organisms. They also do not form in hydrothermal conditions which may be source of abiotic organics. At our knowledge, the only reported occurrence of microfossils preserved in unsilicified Archean sediments is a population of large organic-walled vesicles discovered in shales and siltstones of the 3.2 Ga Moodies Group, South Africa. (Javaux et al, Nature 2010). These have been interpreted as microfossils based on petrographic and geochemical evidence for their endogenicity and syngeneity, their carbonaceous composition, cellular morphology and ultrastructure, occurrence in populations, taphonomic features of soft wall deformation, and the geological context plausible for life, as well as lack of abiotic explanation falsifying a biological origin. Demonstrating that carbonaceous objects from Archaean rocks are truly old and truly biological is the subject of considerable debate. Abiotic processes are known to produce organics and isotopic signatures similar to life. Spheroidal pseudofossils may form as self-assembling vesicles from abiotic CM, e.g. in prebiotic chemistry experiments (Shoztak et al, 2001), from meteoritic lipids (Deamer et al, 2006), or hydrothermal fluids (Akashi et al, 1996); by artifact of maceration; by migration of abiotic or biotic CM along microfractures (VanZuilen et al, 2007) or along mineral casts (Brasier et al, 2005), or around silica spheres formed in silica-saturated water (Jones and

  17. Percolation of diagenetic fluids in the Archaean basement of the Franceville basin (United States)

    Mouélé, Idalina Moubiya; Dudoignon, Patrick; Albani, Abderrazak El; Cuney, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Gauthier-Lafaye, François


    -rich formations; a low-salinity fluid likely of meteoric origin migrating through the granitic basement; mineralizing fluids resulting from the mixing of fluids 1 and 3; high-temperature fluids resulting from the natural nuclear reactor environment (Mathieu et al., 2000). The present paper attempts to characterize the succession of alteration events that have affected the top of the basement below the Palaeoproterozoic sediment unconformity. Are these alterations related to early post-magmatic to hydrothermal events, to palaeoweathering, or to late infiltration of diagenetic brines from the overlying basin? Our study, carried out on drill core samples from Kiéné, is supported by petrographic investigation, new fluid inclusion data and U-Pb geochronology on monazite.

  18. Chemistry of diagenetic features analyzed by ChemCam at Pahrump Hills, Gale crater, Mars (United States)

    Nachon, Marion; Mangold, Nicolas; Forni, Olivier; Kah, Linda C.; Cousin, Agnes; Wiens, Roger C.; Anderson, Ryan; Blaney, Diana L.; Blank, Jen G.; Calef, Fred J.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Fabre, Cecile; Fisk, Martin R.; Gasnault, Olivier; Grotzinger, John P.; Kronyak, Rachel; Lanza, Nina L.; Lasue, Jeremie; Le Deit, Laetitia; Le Mouelic, Stephane; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Oehler, D. Z.; Payre, Valerie; Rapin, William; Schroder, Susanne; Stack, Katherine M.; Sumner, Dawn


    The Curiosity rover's campaign at Pahrump Hills provides the first analyses of lower Mount Sharp strata. Here we report ChemCam elemental composition of a diverse assemblage of post-depositional features embedded in, or cross-cutting, the host rock. ChemCam results demonstrate their compositional diversity, especially compared to the surrounding host rock: (i) Dendritic aggregates and relief enhanced features, characterized by a magnesium enhancement and sulfur detection, and interpreted as Mg-sulfates; (ii) A localized observation that displays iron enrichment associated with sulfur, interpreted as Fe-sulfate; (iii) Dark raised ridges with varying Mg- and Ca-enriched compositions compared to host rock; (iv) Several dark-toned veins with calcium enhancement associated with fluorine detection, interpreted as fluorite veins. (v) Light-toned veins with enhanced calcium associated with sulfur detection, and interpreted as Ca-sulfates. The diversity of the Pahrump Hills diagenetic assemblage suggests a complex post-depositional history for fine-grained sediments for which the origin has been interpreted as fluvial and lacustrine. Assessment of the spatial and relative temporal distribution of these features shows that the Mg-sulfate features are predominant in the lower part of the section, suggesting local modification of the sediments by early diagenetic fluids. In contrast, light-toned Ca-sulfate veins occur in the whole section and cross-cut all other features. A relatively late stage shift in geochemical conditions could explain this observation. The Pahrump Hills diagenetic features have no equivalent compared to targets analyzed in other locations at Gale crater. Only the light-toned Ca-sulfate veins are present elsewhere, along Curiosity's path, suggesting they formed through a common late-stage process that occurred at over a broad area.

  19. Diagenetic silica enrichment and late-stage groundwater activity in Gale crater, Mars (United States)

    Frydenvang, Jens; Gasda, Patrick J.; Hurowitz, Joel A.; Grotzinger, John P.; Wiens, Roger C.; Newsom, Horton E.; Edgett, Ken S.; Watkins, Jessica; Bridges, John C.; Maurice, Sylvestre; Fisk, Martin R.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Rapin, William; Stein, Nathan; Clegg, Sam M.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Bedford, C.; Edwards, P.; Mangold, Nicolas; Cousin, Agnes; Anderson, Ryan; Payre, Valerie; Vaniman, David; Blake, David; Lanza, Nina L.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Van Beek, Jason; Sautter, Violaine; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Rice, Melissa; Milliken, Ralf; Gellert, Ralf; Thompson, Lucy; Clark, Ben C.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Fraeman, Abigail A.; Kinch, Kjartan M; Madsen, Morten B.; Mitofranov, Igor; Jun, Insoo; Calef, Fred J.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.


    Diagenetic silica enrichment in fracture-associated halos that crosscut lacustrine and unconformably overlying aeolian sedimentary bedrock is observed on the lower north slope of Aeolis Mons in Gale crater, Mars. The diagenetic silica enrichment is colocated with detrital silica enrichment observed in the lacustrine bedrock yet extends into a considerably younger, unconformably draping aeolian sandstone, implying that diagenetic silica enrichment postdates the detrital silica enrichment. A causal connection between the detrital and diagenetic silica enrichment implies that water was present in the subsurface of Gale crater long after deposition of the lacustrine sediments and that it mobilized detrital amorphous silica and precipitated it along fractures in the overlying bedrock. Although absolute timing is uncertain, the observed diagenesis likely represents some of the most recent groundwater activity in Gale crater and suggests that the timescale of potential habitability extended considerably beyond the time that the lacustrine sediments of Aeolis Mons were deposited.

  20. The early quaternary sediments above the Gorleben salt dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.


    About 1500 borehole samples from the 90 m thick pre-Elsterian Pleistocene sediments above the Gorleben salt dome were studied to establish the palynostratigraphy of the main part of the still poorly known 'Cromerian Complex'. With the exception of two isolated sink holes above the gypsum cap rock, which developed during the early Bavelian, the investigated pre-Elsterian Pleistocene sediments were deposited in a very shallow lake, similar to the present-day Steinhuder Meer (NW Germany). Therefore, subrosion (subsurface erosion of salt) and sedimentation kept pace with each other during this time interval. Small discordances - similar to those in the Holocene sediments of the Steinhuder Meer - are frequent, but do not hamper the close correlation (to within 1 cm) between the different boreholes. (orig.) [de

  1. The early quaternary sediments above the Gorleben salt dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.


    About 1500 borehole samples from the 90 m thick pre-Elsterian Pleistocene sediments above the Gorleben salt dome were studied to establish the palynostratigraphy of the main part of the still poorly known 'Cromerian Complex'. With the exception of two isolated sink holes above the gypsum cap rock, which developed during the early Bavelian, the investigated pre-Elsterian Pleistocene sediments were deposited in a very shallow lake, similar to the present-day Steinhuder Meer (NW Germany). Therefore, subrosion (subsurface erosion of salt) and sedimentation kept pace with each other during this time interval. Small discordances - similar to those in the Holocene sediments of the Steinhuder Meer - are frequent, but do not hamper the close correlation (to within 1 cm) between the different boreholes. (orig./PW) [de

  2. Early pleistocene sediments at Great Blakenham, Suffolk, England (United States)

    Gibbard, P. L.; Allen, P.; Field, M. H.; Hallam, D. F.

    Detailed investigation of a fine sediment sequence, the College Farm Silty Clay Member, that overlies the Creeting Sands (Early Pleistocene) in Suffolk, is presented. The sedimentary sequence is thought to represent a freshwater pool accumulation in a small coastal embayment. Palaeobotanical investigation of the sediment indicates that it accumulated during the late temperate substage of a temperate (interglacial) event. The occurrence of Tsuga pollen, associated with abundant remains of the water fern Azolla tegeliensis indicate that the deposits are of Early Pleistocene age and are correlated with a later part of the Antian-Bramertonian Stage. Correlation with Tiglian TO substage in The Netherlands' sequence is most likely. The sediments' normal palaeomagnetic polarity reinforces the biostratigraphical correlation.

  3. Diagenetic Iron Cycling in Ancient Alkaline Saline Lacustrine Sedimentary Rocks: A Case Study on the Jurassic Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Colorado Plateau, USA (United States)

    Potter-McIntyre, S. L.; Chan, M. A.; McPherson, B. J. O. L.


    The upper part of the Brushy Basin Member in the Four Corners region of the U.S. was deposited in an ephemeral alkaline saline lake system with copious input of volcanic ash. The variegated shale formation provides a setting for the study of early diagenetic iron cycling that records the action of alkaline saline fluid chemistries reacting with volcaniclastic sediments in the presence of microbes. A bull's-eye pattern of authigenic minerals with increasing alteration towards the basinal center similar to modern alkaline saline lakes provides evidence for an extreme paleoenvironmental interpretation. The purpose of this research is to document specific factors, such as reactive sediments, microbial influences, and grain size that affect concretion formation and iron cycling in an ancient extreme environment. Three broad diagenetic facies are interpreted by color and associated bioturbation features: red, green and intermediate. Diagenetic facies reflect meter-scale paleotopography: red facies represent shallow water to subaerial, oxidizing conditions; green facies reflect saturated conditions and reducing pore water chemistry shortly after deposition, and intermediate facies represent a combination of the previous two conditions. Evidence of biotic influence is abundant and trace fossils exhibit patterns associated with the diagenetic facies. Red diagenetic facies typically contain burrows and root traces and green diagenetic facies exhibit restricted biotic diversity typically limited to algal molds (vugs). Microbial fossils are well-preserved and are in close proximity to specific iron mineral textures suggesting biotic influence on the crystal morphology. Three categories of concretions are characterized based on mineralogy: carbonate, iron (oxyhydr)oxide and phosphate concretions. Concretion mineralogy and size vary within an outcrop and even within a stratigraphic horizon such that more than one main category is typically present in an outcrop. Variation in

  4. Diagenetic and other highly mineralized waters in the Polish Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, Andrzej; Chowaniec, Jozef


    Highly mineralized waters of different chemical types and origin occur in the flysch formations and their bedrocks in the western part of the Polish Carpathians. The marine sedimentation water of the flysch formations is not preserved, as the most mineralized and the heaviest isotopic values of flysch waters are characterized by δ 18 O and δ 2 H values in the ranges of 5-7 per mille and -(20-30) per mille , respectively. Their origin is related to the dehydration of clay minerals during burial diagenesis, with molecules of marine water completely removed by molecules of released bound water. They are relatively enriched in Na + in respect to the marine water, supposedly due to the release of Na + during the illitization of smectites and preferable incorporation of other cations from the primary brine into newly formed minerals. In some parts of younger formations, i.e. in the Badenian sediments, brines occur with isotopic composition close to SMOW and Cl - contents greatly exceeding the typical marine value of about 19.6 g/L, supposedly due to ultrafiltration. Most probably, the marine water of the flysch formations was similarly enriched chemically in its initial burial stages. Final Cl - contents in diagenetic waters depend on different Cl - contents in the primary brines and on relationships between diagenetic and further ultrafiltration processes. In some areas, diagenetic waters migrate to the surface along fault zones and mix with young local meteoric waters becoming diluted, with the isotope composition scattering along typical mixing lines. In areas with independent CO 2 flow from great depths, they form chloride CO 2 -rich waters. Common CO 2 -rich waters are formed in areas without near-surface occurrences of diagenetic waters. They change from the HCO 3 -Ca type for modern waters to HCO 3 -Mg-Ca, HCO 3 -Na-Ca and other types with elevated TDS, Mg 2+ and/or Na - contents for old waters reaching even those of glacial age. Bedrocks of the flysch are

  5. Diagenetic and other highly mineralized waters in the Polish Carpathians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, Andrzej, E-mail: [Polish Geological Institute, Carpathian Branch, PL-31560 Krakow, ul. Skrzatow 1 (Poland); Chowaniec, Jozef [Polish Geological Institute, Carpathian Branch, PL-31560 Krakow, ul. Skrzatow 1 (Poland)


    Highly mineralized waters of different chemical types and origin occur in the flysch formations and their bedrocks in the western part of the Polish Carpathians. The marine sedimentation water of the flysch formations is not preserved, as the most mineralized and the heaviest isotopic values of flysch waters are characterized by {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 2}H values in the ranges of 5-7 per mille and -(20-30) per mille , respectively. Their origin is related to the dehydration of clay minerals during burial diagenesis, with molecules of marine water completely removed by molecules of released bound water. They are relatively enriched in Na{sup +} in respect to the marine water, supposedly due to the release of Na{sup +} during the illitization of smectites and preferable incorporation of other cations from the primary brine into newly formed minerals. In some parts of younger formations, i.e. in the Badenian sediments, brines occur with isotopic composition close to SMOW and Cl{sup -} contents greatly exceeding the typical marine value of about 19.6 g/L, supposedly due to ultrafiltration. Most probably, the marine water of the flysch formations was similarly enriched chemically in its initial burial stages. Final Cl{sup -} contents in diagenetic waters depend on different Cl{sup -} contents in the primary brines and on relationships between diagenetic and further ultrafiltration processes. In some areas, diagenetic waters migrate to the surface along fault zones and mix with young local meteoric waters becoming diluted, with the isotope composition scattering along typical mixing lines. In areas with independent CO{sub 2} flow from great depths, they form chloride CO{sub 2}-rich waters. Common CO{sub 2}-rich waters are formed in areas without near-surface occurrences of diagenetic waters. They change from the HCO{sub 3}-Ca type for modern waters to HCO{sub 3}-Mg-Ca, HCO{sub 3}-Na-Ca and other types with elevated TDS, Mg{sup 2+} and/or Na{sup -} contents for

  6. Insights into the diagenetic environment of fossil marine vertebrates of the Pisco Formation (late Miocene, Peru) from mineralogical and Sr-isotope data (United States)

    Gioncada, A.; Petrini, R.; Bosio, G.; Gariboldi, K.; Collareta, A.; Malinverno, E.; Bonaccorsi, E.; Di Celma, C.; Pasero, M.; Urbina, M.; Bianucci, G.


    The late Miocene Pisco Formation of Peru is an outstanding example of richness and high-quality preservation of fossil marine vertebrates. In order to reconstruct the fossilization path, we present new textural, mineralogical and Sr-isotope data of diagenetic minerals formed in correspondence of fossil specimens such as marine vertebrates and mollusks. These fossil specimens were found at Cerro los Quesos, in the Ica Desert, within the diatomaceous strata of the Pisco Formation. Dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite and Mn minerals are the main phases found, while the calcium carbonate originally forming the mollusk valves is replaced by gypsum. An early formation of dolomite and of Mn minerals, triggered by the modifications of the geochemical environment due to organic matter degradation, is suggested by the textural relationships and is confirmed by the Sr isotopic ratio of dolomite, which agrees with that of seawater at the time of sedimentation. Instead, gypsum Sr isotopic ratios indicate a pre-Miocene seawater-derived brine circulating within the sedimentary sequence as a source for Sr. Oxidation of diagenetic sulfide causing a lowering of the pH of porewater is proposed as an explanation for Ca-carbonate dissolution. The diagenetic chemical environment was, nevertheless, favorable to bone preservation.

  7. Mineralogy of Sediments on a Cold and Icy Early Mars (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Horgan, B. H. N.; Smith, R.; Scudder, N.; Rutledge, A. M.; Bamber, E.; Morris, R. V.


    The water-related minerals discovered in ancient martian terrains suggest liquid water was abundant on the surface and/or near subsurface during Mars' early history. The debate remains, however, whether these minerals are indicative of a warm and wet or cold and icy climate. To characterize mineral assemblages of cold and icy mafic terrains, we analyzed pro- and supraglacial rocks and sediments from the Collier and Diller glacial valleys in Three Sisters, Oregon. We identified primary and secondary phases using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopies with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM, TEM, EDS), and visible/short-wave-infrared (VSWIR) and thermal-infrared (TIR) spectroscopies. Samples from both glacial valleys are dominated by primary igneous minerals (i.e., plagioclase and pyroxene). Sediments in the Collier glacial valley contain minor to trace amounts of phyllosilicates and zeolites, but these phases are likely detrital and sourced from hydrothermally altered units on North Sister. We find that the authigenic phases in cold and icy mafic terrains are poorly crystalline and/or amorphous. TEM-EDS analyses of the materials, including iron oxides, devitrified volcanic glass, and Fe-Si-Al (e.g., proto-clay) phases. A variety of primary and secondary amorphous materials (e.g., volcanic glass, leached glass, allophane) have been suggested from orbital IR data from Mars, and the CheMin XRD on the Curiosity rover has identified X-ray amorphous materials in all rocks and soils measured to date. The compositions of the Gale Crater amorphous components cannot be explained by primary volcanic glass alone and likely include secondary silicates, iron oxides, and sulfates. We suggest that the prevalence of amorphous materials on the martian surface and the variety of amorphous components may be a signature of a cold and icy climate on Early Mars.

  8. Types of soft-sediment deformation structures in a lacustrine Ploužnice member (Stephanian, Gzhelian, Pennsylvanian, Bohemian Massif), their timing, and possible trigger mechanism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stárková, M.; Martínek, K.; Mikuláš, Radek; Rosenau, N.


    Roč. 104, č. 5 (2015), s. 1277-1298 ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : soft-sediment deformation structures * bioturbation * early diagenetic carbonate * lacustrine facies * Bohemian Massif * Stephanian C * Krkonoše Piedmont Basin Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.133, year: 2015

  9. Iron and Sulfur Species and Sulfur Isotopic Compositions of Authigenic Pyrite in Gas Hydrate-Bearing Sediments from Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia Margin (ODP Leg 204): A Proposal of Conceptual Models to Indicate the Non-Steady State Depositional and Diagenetic Processes (United States)

    Liu, C.; Jiang, S. Y.; Su, X.


    Two accretionary sediment sequences from Sites 1245 and 1252 recovered during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 204 at Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia Margin were investigated to explore the non-steady state depositional and diagenetic history. Five iron species and three sulfur species were chemically extracted, and their concentrations and the sulfur isotopic compositions of pyrite were determined. After the mineral recognitions of these species and detailed comparative analyses, the aerobic history of bottom seawater has been determined. The formation of pyrite is thought to be controlled by the limited production of hydrogen sulfide relative to the supply of reactive iron. Also, the intrusion of oxygen by bioturbation would oxidize the reduced sulfur species and further suppress pyritization. To explain the geochemical relationship between pyrite and siderite and the sulfur isotope characteristics of pyrite, we propose seven conceptual models based on the variations in depositional rate and methane flux, and the models succeed in explaining the geochemical results and are validated by the observed non-steady state events. These models may contribute to the reconstruction of the non-steady state processes in other research areas in the future.

  10. K/Ar dating of diagenetic illites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizusaki, A.M.P.; Anjos, S.M.C. dos; Costa, M.G.F. da; Silva, O.B. da; Kawashita, K.


    Ascertaining the potassium/argon (K/Ar) age of diagenetic illites yields important information for hydrocarbon exploration since the growth of this mineral in the pores of sandstone reservoir and oil migration are interlinked events in the diagenetic evolution of rocks. Illite growth ceases as soon as hydrocarbons completely fill in rock pores, displacing interstitial water. By providing an estimate of the period when the illite formed, K/Ar dating can indirectly tells us when hydrocarbons entered the reservoir. Samples of oil-saturated sandstones collected from Carboniferous reservoirs of the Solimoes Basin reveal a diagenetic evolution consisting predominantly of quartz, calcite, and illite overgrowths. In the present study, illite was mechanically separated by repeating a series of ultrasonic baths and ultrasonic probes followed by high-speed centrifuging. Resultant fractions were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry to measure the illite content of each sample. The separated illite material was found to be composed of illite and ordered mixed layer illite-smectite with 80% illite layers. Separated fractions were dated radiometrically by the K/Ar method. Preliminary results indicate an average age of some 200 m.y., which marks the end of the diagenetic development of the illites of this area. (author)

  11. Distal alluvial fan sediments in early Proterozoic red beds of the Wilgerivier formation, Waterberg Group, South Africa (United States)

    Van Der Neut, M.; Eriksson, P. G.; Callaghan, C. C.

    The 1900 - 1700 M.a. Waterberg Group belongs to a series of southern African cratonic cover sequences of roughly equivalent age. Red beds of the Wilgerivier Formation comprise sandstones, interbedded with subordinate conglomerates and minor mudrocks. These immature sedimentary rocks exhibit lenticular bedding, radial palaeocurrent patterns and features indicative of both streamflow and gravity-flow deposition. A distal wet alluvial fan palaeoenvironmental setting is envisaged, with fan-deltas forming where alluvial lobes prograded into a lacustrine basin. Intrastratal, diagenetic alteration of ferromagnesian detrital grains and ferruginous grain coatings led to the red colouration of the Wilgerivier sediments.

  12. Geochemical characteristics and early diagenesis of recent carbonate mound sediments in the Gulf of Cadiz (United States)

    Hamaekers, Helen; Foubert, Anneleen; Wienberg, Claudia; Hebbeln, Dierk; Swennen, Rudy


    Cold-water coral carbonate mounds occur in patches along the continental margin of the North Atlantic Ocean, from northern Norway down to Mauretania. Recent research has been focused on carbonate mounds in the Gulf of Cadiz, especially along the Moroccan margin. The Pen Duick, the Renard and the Vernadsky carbonate mound provinces in the Gulf of Cádiz are only some of the mound provinces which have been the subject of several recent research projects (Foubert et al., 2008; Wienberg et al., 2009). No living scleractinians could be found on top of those carbonate mounds. During cruise 64PE284 of RV Pelagia, gravity cores have been taken through carbonate mounds in the Carbonate Mound Provinces (CMP) SE of Yuma mud volcano and N of Meknes mud volcano. These cores have been analysed by several methods such as Magnetic Susceptibility (MS), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Inductive Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) to determine the geochemical characteristics of carbonate mounds, which can be used to quantify the effects of early diagenetic processes which may have altered the palaeo-environmental characteristics of the carbonate mounds. Dating has been done with 14C and U/Th methods pointing to mound growth phases being restricted to glacial periods. XRF and ICP-OES measurements give both qualitative and quantitative data of the chemical composition of the core. The main elements that have been analysed are Ca, Si, Fe, Sr, Al, K, Mg, Ti. According to the trend they follow, they can be devided in two groups, representative for the two encountered fraction types. These two fraction types (biogenic carbonate-rich fraction and terrigenous silicate-rich fraction) can be coupled to interglacial/glacial palaeo-environmental conditions. XRD measurements give an overview of the mineralogical composition of the cores. Thin sections, analysed by cathodeluminescence and classical optical petrography, and micro-CT scans are used to

  13. The influence of climate on early and burial diagenesis of Triassic and Jurassic sandstones from the Norwegian – Danish Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weibel, Rikke; Olivarius, Mette; Kjøller, Claus


    Climate changes preserved in sandstones are documented by comparing the sediment composition and early diagenetic changes in sandstones deposited during arid to semi-arid conditions, the Skagerrak Formation, with sandstones of the Gassum Formation deposited in a humid well-vegetated environment...

  14. Geochemistry of Early Frasnian (Late Devonian) pyrite-ammonoid level in the Kostomłoty Basin, Poland, and a new proxy parameter for assessing the relative amount of syngenetic and diagenetic pyrite (United States)

    Pisarzowska, Agnieszka; Berner, Zsolt A.; Racki, Grzegorz


    Pyrite geochemistry (isotope and trace element composition, degree of pyritization, S/Corg ratio) was used in context of selected lithogeochemical parameters (major and trace elements, including sulphur, organic carbon, and δ13C of carbonate carbon) to constrain fluctuations in depositional conditions during the Early to Middle Frasnian carbon isotopic perturbation (punctata Event) in the Kostomłoty Basin, Poland. Based on the ratio between the sum of oxyanionic elements and transition metals in pyrite, a new proxy parameter (index of syngenetic pyrite, ISYP) is proposed for assessing the relative amount of syngenetic pyrite in a sample. The distribution of the ISYP along the Kostomłoty - Małe Górki section (upper Szydłówek to the basal Kostomłoty beds) is in concert with conclusions inferred from paleoecologic data and other geochemical parameters (degree of pyritization, S/Corg, δ34Spyrite). According to these, the lower segment of the Szydłówek Beds was deposited in a normally oxygenated environment, but undergoing increasing primary productivity in surface water, as indicated by an increase in δ13Ccarb and in Cu/Zr ratio in bulk rock, which triggered the periodic deposition of sediments slightly enriched in organic matter, notably within the pyrite-ammonoid level (= Goniatite Level). Fluctuating, but in general high S/Corg ratios, DOPR values and ISYP values suggest that during this time - against the background of a generally dysoxic environment - shorter or longer lasting episodes of more restricted (anoxic and possibly even euxinic) bottom water conditions developed. Low sedimentation rates enabled a continuous and practically unlimited supply of sulphate during bacterial sulphate reduction (BSR), which in turn led to a strong depletion of pyrite sulphur in 34S in this interval (constantly around -29‰). In contrast, below and above the Goniatite Level, higher δ34S values (up to + 3‰), are compatible with closed system conditions and higher

  15. Skeletal carbonate on the continental shelf: SEM evidence of early diagenetic alteration of the 1% of shells that persist for millennia in the mixed layer and thus enter the permanent record (United States)

    Kidwell, S. M.; Tomasovych, A.; Alexander, C. R., Jr.


    An extensive program of dating aragonitic bivalve shells from the mixed-layer of the southern California shelf using AMS-calibrated amino-acid racemization has revealed strongly right-skewed shell-age frequency distributions: the median age of shells (2-7 mm) is quite young, generally <100 y, but the distribution includes a long tail of old shells 2550 to 11,900 y (Tomasovych et al. 2014 Geology). Modeling indicates that shells experience a high initial disintegration rate λ1 ( decadal half-lives) but shift abruptly, within the first 500 y, to a 100-fold lower disintegration rate λ2 ( millennial half-lives) at sequestration rate τ (burial and/or diagenetic stabilization). Although this drop permits the accrual of a long tail of very old shells, <1% of shells survive the first phase. In the fossil record, proxy geochemical and ecological data are extracted from such survivors, and so understanding the mechanisms of shell persistence in the mixed layer is critical to confident paleoenvironmental inference. We have hypothesized that permanent diagenetic stabilization within the mixed layer, which Pb-210 shows is 4-17 cm thick on this shelf, may be necessary to ensure that shells do not revert to λ1 after temporary sequestration in pockets of favorable porewater. Our new SEM of shells of known, AMS-calibrated post-mortem age shows that macroscopic (10x) variation in shell color and luster is related to (1) loss of inter-crystallite organic matrix, probably by microbial maceration (chalky phase; within a few years post-mortem), (2) development of a surficial skim-coat of large, complexly interdigitating "jigsaw" crystallites, consistent with Ostwald ripening (shells re-acquire luster; patches develop within 10s y and coalesce over 100s to k y), and (3) development of a consistently fine-grained, apparently penetrative fabric, suggesting replacement of the original microstructure by a novel authigenic phase (gray stain; shells ≥ 5 ka). Electron back

  16. Biogenic methane potential of marine sediments. Application of chemical thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arning, E.T.; Schulz, H.M. [Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ, Potsdam (Germany); Berk, W. van [Technical Univ. of Clausthal (Germany). Dept. of Hydrogeology


    Accumulations of biogenic methane-dominated gas are widespread and occur in a variety of depositional settings and rock types. However, the potential of biogenic methane remains underexplored. This is mainly due to the fact that quantitative assessments applying numerical modeling techniques for exploration purposes are generally lacking to date. Biogenic methane formation starts in relatively shallow marine sediments below the sulfate reduction zone. When sulfate is exhausted, methanogenesis via the CO{sub 2} reduction pathway is often the dominant biogenic methane formation process in marine sediments (Claypool and Kaplan, 1974). The process can be simplified by the reaction: 2CH{sub 2}O + Ca{sup 2+} + H{sub 2}O {yields} CH{sub 4} + CaCO{sub 3} + 2H{sup +}. The products of early diagenetic reactions initiate coupled equilibrium reactions that induce a new state of chemical equilibrium among minerals, pore water and gas. The driving force of the complex biogeochemical reactions in sedimentary environments during early diagenesis is the irreversible redox-conversion of organic matter. Early diagenetic formation of biogenic methane shortly after deposition ('early diagenesis') was retraced using PHREEQC computer code that is applied to calculate homogenous and heterogeneous mass-action equations in combination with one-dimensional diffusion driven transport (Parkhurst and Appelo, 1999). Our modeling approach incorporates interdependent diagenetic reactions evolving into a diffusive multi-component and multiphase system by means of thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of species distribution (Arning et al., 2011, 2012, 2013). Reaction kinetics of organic carbon conversion is integrated into the set of equilibrium reactions by defining type and amount of converted organic matter in a certain time step. It is the aim (1) to calculate quantitatively thermodynamic equilibrium conditions (composition of pore water, mineral phase and gas phase assemblage) in

  17. Distribution, provenance and early diagenesis of major and trace metals in sediment cores from the Mandovi estuary, western India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Prajith, A.; Rao, V.P.; Chakraborty, P.

    Major elements and trace metals were analyzed in four sediment cores recovered along a transect in the Mandovi estuary for their distribution, provenance and early diagenesis. The sediments were clayey silts in cores from the upper/lower estuary...

  18. Early diagenesis of phosphorus in continental margin sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, C.P.


    Most of the organic material in the oceans that reaches the sea floor is deposited on continental margins and not in the deep sea. This organic matter is the principal carrier of phosphorus (P) to sediments. A part of the organic material is buried definitely. The other part decomposes,

  19. Unravelling the depositional origins and diagenetic alteration of carbonate breccias (United States)

    Madden, Robert H. C.; Wilson, Moyra E. J.; Mihaljević, Morana; Pandolfi, John M.; Welsh, Kevin


    Carbonate breccias dissociated from their platform top counterparts are little studied despite their potential to reveal the nature of past shallow-water carbonate systems and the sequential alteration of such systems. A petrographic and stable isotopic study allowed evaluation of the sedimentological and diagenetic variability of the Cenozoic Batu Gading Limestone breccia of Borneo. Sixteen lithofacies representing six facies groups have been identified mainly from the breccia clasts on the basis of shared textural and compositional features. Clasts of the breccia are representative of shallow carbonate platform top and associated flank to basinal deposits. Dominant inputs are from rocky (karstic) shorelines or localised seagrass environments, coral patch reef and larger foraminiferal-rich deposits. Early, pre-brecciation alteration (including micritisation, rare dissolution of bioclasts, minor syntaxial overgrowth cementation, pervasive neomorphism and calcitisation of bioclasts and matrix) was mainly associated with marine fluids in a near surface to shallow burial environment. The final stages of pre-brecciation diagenesis include mechanical compaction and cementation of open porosity in a shallow to moderate depth burial environment. Post-brecciation diagenesis took place at increasingly moderate to deep burial depths under the influence of dominantly marine burial fluids. Extensive compaction, circum-clast dissolution seams and stylolites have resulted in a tightly fitted breccia fabric, with some development of fractures and calcite cements. A degree of facies-specific controls are evident for the pre-brecciation diagenesis. Pervasive mineralogical stabilisation and cementation have, however, led to a broad similarity of diagenetic features in the breccia clasts thereby effectively preserving depositional features of near-original platform top and margin environments. There is little intra-clast alteration overprint associated with subsequent clast reworking

  20. Diagenetic and post-diagenetic fabrics in the Kamarposht fluorite mine (east of Mazandaran province: Explainaton and genetic interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Nabiloo


    processes (Fontbote and Gorzawski 1990; Sangster, 1996; Leach et al., 2005. Change and conversion of diagenetic mineralization fabrics to epigenetic ones which is associated with developing and increasing the intensity of fluorite-barite-galena mineralization, is attributed to the function of hydrothermal solutions/basianl brines generated due to the main Cimerian orogeny (Rajabi et al., 2013. The increasing dissolution of host rock along with its dolomitization and silicification were probably the main processes responsible for epigenetic mineralization in the Kamarposht mine. Finally, the present study shows that the Kamarposht mine is a fluorite-rich MVT deposit with poly-genetic origin. References Alirezaee, S., 1989. Contribution to stratigraphy and mode of generation of F-Pb-Ba deposits in Triassic of eastern Alborz. M.Sc. Thesis, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran, 87 pp. (in Persian with English abstract. Fontbote, L. and Gorzawski, H., 1990. Genesis of the Mississippi Valley-Type Zn-Pb Deposit of San Vicente, Central Peru: Geologic and Isotopic (Sr, O, C, S, Pb Evidence. Economic Geology, 85(7: 1402-1437 Force, E.R., Eidel, J.J. and Maynard, J.B., 1991. Sedimentary and diagenetic mineral deposits: A basin analysis approach to exploration. Society of Economic Geologist Publication, Reviews in Economic Geology 5 , USA, 217 pp. Gorjizad, H., 1996. Study on geology, mineralogy, facies analysis and genesis of Pachi Miana fluorite deposit. M.Sc. Thesis, Tarbiat Modaress University, Tehran, Iran, 156 pp. (in Persian with English abstract Haeri-Ardakani, O., Al-Asem, I., Coniglio,M. and Samson, I., 2013. Diagenetic evolution and associated mineralization in Middle Devonian carbonates, southwestern Ontario, Canada. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, 61(1: 41–58. Leach, D., Sangster, D., Kelley, K., Large, R., Garven, G., Allen, C., Gutzmer, J. and Walters, S., 2005. Sediment- hosted lead-zinc deposits: a global perspective. In: J. Hedenquist, J. Thompson, R. Goldfarb

  1. What do we really know about early diagenesis of non-marine carbonates? (United States)

    De Boever, Eva; Brasier, Alexander T.; Foubert, Anneleen; Kele, Sándor


    Non-marine carbonate rocks including cave, spring, stream, calcrete and lacustrine-palustrine sediments, are susceptible to early diagenetic processes. These can profoundly alter the carbonate fabric and affect paleoclimatic proxies. This review integrates recent insights into diagenesis of non-marine carbonates and in particular the variety of early diagenetic processes, and presents a conceptual framework to address them. With ability to study at smaller and smaller scales, down to nanometers, one can now observe diagenesis taking place the moment initial precipitates have formed, and continuing thereafter. Diagenesis may affect whole rocks, but it typically starts in nano- and micro-environments. The potential for diagenetic alteration depends on the reactivity of the initial precipitate, commonly being metastable phases like vaterite, Ca-oxalates, hydrous Mg-carbonates and aragonite with regard to the ambient fluid. Furthermore, organic compounds commonly play a crucial role in hosting these early transformations. Processes like neomorphism (inversion and recrystallization), cementation and replacement generally result in an overall coarsening of the fabric and homogenization of the wide range of complex, primary microtextures. If early diagenetic modifications are completed in a short time span compared to the (annual to millennial) time scale of interest, then recorded paleoenvironmental signals and trends could still acceptably reflect original, depositional conditions. However, even compact, non-marine carbonate deposits may behave locally and temporarily as open systems to crystal-fluid exchange and overprinting of one or more geochemical proxies is not unexpected. Looking to the future, relatively few studies have examined the behaviour of promising geochemical records, such as clumped isotope thermometry and (non-conventional) stable isotopes, in well-constrained diagenetic settings. Ongoing and future in-vitro and in-situ experimental approaches will

  2. Palynological Zonation of Oligocene to Early Miocene Sediments of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 31, 2017 ... Keywords: Lithozones; Niger delta Basin; Palynomorphs; Oligocene to Early Miocene; Depobelt. The Niger Delta is ... province on the West African continental margin. It lies mainly in the ... Nigeria depends largely on the oil and gas derived from it. ... generation, accumulation and retention of hydrocarbons.

  3. Chesapeake Bay Sediment Flux Model (United States)


    1988; Van der Molen , -88- 1991; Yoshida, 1981.) The model developed below is based on both of these approaches. It incorporates the diagenetic...288: pp. 289-333. Van der Molen , D.T. (1991): A simple, dynamic model for the simulation of the release of phosphorus from sediments in shallow...1974; Berner, 1980; van Cappellen and Berner, 1988). These relate the diagenetic production of phosphate to the resulting pore water concentration

  4. Spatial prediction of the variability of early pleistocene subsurface sediments in the Netherlands part 2: geochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, D.J.; Weijers, J.P.; Dijkshoorn, L.; Veldkamp, A.


    We started a geochemical mapping campaign in the Early Pleistocene fluviatile Kedichem Formation in the Netherlands in order to meet the demand for more information about subsurface sediment compositions. Geochemical data were collected during a sampling campaign, and about 600 samples from the

  5. Spatial prediction of the variability of Early Pleistocene subsurface sediments in the Netherlands - Part 2 : Geochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, D.J.; Weijers, J.P.; Dijkshoorn, L.; Veldkamp, A.


    We started a geochemical mapping campaign in the Early Pleistocene fluviatile Kedichem Formation in the Netherlands in order to meet the demand for more information about subsurface sediment compositions. Geochemical data were collected during a sampling campaign, and about 600 samples from the

  6. Early steroid sulfurisation in surface sediments of a permanebtly stratified lake (Ace Lake, Antarctica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Robertson, L.; Volkman, J.K.


    Surface sediments (0 25 cm) from Ace Lake (eastern Antarctica), a saline euxinic lake, were analyzed to study the early incorporation of reduced inorganic sulfur species into organic matter. The apolar fractions were shown to consist predominantly of dimeric (poly)sulfide linked C27-C29 steroids.

  7. From ooze to sedimentary rock, the first diagenetic processes affecting the chalk of eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Boussaha, Myriam; Nielsen, Lars

    processes operating in the chalk sediments at widely different scales into a single diagenetic model: At Stevns the chalk is affected by an extensive polygonal fault system which is expressed in onshore and offshore seismic profiles. Smaller scale contractional features like deformation bands (hairline...... strongly affect reservoir properties of the chalk both by establishing compartments and vertical connections. A better understanding of these reservoir modifications will be critical for improving the predictive capability of models describing the behaviour of drinking water and hydrocarbons hosted...

  8. Sedimentation (United States)

    Cliff R. Hupp; Michael R. Schening


    Sedimentation is arguably the most important water-quality concern in the United States. Sediment trapping is cited frequently as a major function of riverine-forested wetlands, yet little is known about sedimcntation rates at the landscape scale in relation to site parameters, including woody vegetation type, elevation, velocity, and hydraulic connection to the river...

  9. Diagenetic Evolution and Reservoir Quality of Sandstones in the North Alpine Foreland Basin: A Microscale Approach. (United States)

    Gross, Doris; Grundtner, Marie-Louise; Misch, David; Riedl, Martin; Sachsenhofer, Reinhard F; Scheucher, Lorenz


    Siliciclastic reservoir rocks of the North Alpine Foreland Basin were studied focusing on investigations of pore fillings. Conventional oil and gas production requires certain thresholds of porosity and permeability. These parameters are controlled by the size and shape of grains and diagenetic processes like compaction, dissolution, and precipitation of mineral phases. In an attempt to estimate the impact of these factors, conventional microscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy, and wavelength dispersive element mapping were applied. Rock types were established accordingly, considering Poro/Perm data. Reservoir properties in shallow marine Cenomanian sandstones are mainly controlled by the degree of diagenetic calcite precipitation, Turonian rocks are characterized by reduced permeability, even for weakly cemented layers, due to higher matrix content as a result of lower depositional energy. Eocene subarkoses tend to be coarse-grained with minor matrix content as a result of their fluvio-deltaic and coastal deposition. Reservoir quality is therefore controlled by diagenetic clay and minor calcite cementation.Although Eocene rocks are often matrix free, occasionally a clay mineral matrix may be present and influence cementation of pores during early diagenesis. Oligo-/Miocene deep marine rocks exhibit excellent quality in cases when early cement is dissolved and not replaced by secondary calcite, mainly bound to the gas-water contact within hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  10. Diagenetic and Paleoceanographic variations in sedimentary Mn, Ba, and CaCO3, with emphasis on the eastern Mediterranean sapropel S1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitz, Anja


    The original geochemical signal in marine Corg-rich or formerly Corg-rich sediments is usually highly overprinted by a sequence of diagenetic processes depending on the amount of metabolizable organic carbon and the environmental conditions determining the redox potential. In general, biogenic

  11. The Effect of Cirata Reservoir Sediment on Early Developmental Stage of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Pujihastuti


    Full Text Available Sedimentation at Cirata reservoir may directly and indirectly influence fish particularly fish which have an adhesive characteristic at its early developmental stage such as common carp (Cyprinus carpio. Sample of sediment was collected from Cirata reservoir using Eikmand dredge at a depth of 80 m. The sample was subsequently centrifuged at 5500 rpm for 10 min. The supernatant obtained was then used for toxicity test on common carp at early developmental stage. In this test, four treatments were applied based on the concentration of sediment supernatant, namely: 0, 8.33, 16.60 and 24.90 %. The results showed that a higher sediment supernatant concentration resulted in lower egg yolk absorption rate, lower relative growth rate in length, lower egg yolk efficiency and higher egg and larval abnormality.  Higher sediment supernatant concentration also resulted in lower hatching percentage of common carp larva. The damage of eggs and larval morphologies in treatments with sediment supernatant was likely caused by the presence Pb and organic matters which act in synergy. Keywords :  sediment, Cirata, embryo, common carp   ABSTRAK Sedimentasi di Waduk Cirata secara langsung dan tidak langsung akan berpengaruh terhadap kehidupan ikan khususnya tahap awal perkembangan ikan yang bersifat adhesiveseperti ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio.  Sampel sedimen waduk Cirata diambil dengan Eikmand dredge pada kedalaman 80 m.  Hasil ekstrak di sentrifugasi dengan kecepatan 5500 rpm selama 10 menit untuk diambil air pori sedimennya.  Air pori digunakan sebagai bahan uji toksisitas terhadap perkembangan awal ikan mas dengan perlakuan 0; 8,33; 16,60 dan 24,90 %. Hasil uji toksisitas diperoleh bahwa semakin tinggi konsentrasi air pori dari sediment maka semakin rendah laju penyerapan kuning telur Laju pertumbuhan relatif panjang embrio pada berbagai konsentrasi juga diperoleh bahwa semakin tinggi konsentrasi air sedimen maka semakin rendah laju pertumbuhan relatif

  12. Authigenic carbonates in sediments from the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botz, R.; Brooks, J.M.


    The carbon isotopic composition of diagenetic dolomite and calcite in some sediments of the Gulf of Mexico varies between 'normal-marine' (δ 13 C ca. 0per mille) and - 14.6per mille which suggests that biogenic CO 2 contributed to the carbonate formations. The δ 18 O values of dolomite and coexisting calcite are very similar but variable down-core. Dolomite and calcite precipitated early from pore water where SO 4 2- was not reduced. However, during (and after?) SO 4 2- reduction dolomite and calcite still formed and there are at least two generations of carbonate minerals present. (orig.)

  13. Early steroid sulfurization in surface sediments of a permanently stratified lake (Ace Lake, Antarctica) (United States)

    Kok, Marika D.; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Robertson, Lisette; Volkman, John K.; Sinninghe Damstéé, Jaap S.


    Surface sediments (0-25 cm) from Ace Lake (eastern Antarctica), a saline euxinic lake, were analyzed to study the early incorporation of reduced inorganic sulfur species into organic matter. The apolar fractions were shown to consist predominantly of dimeric (poly)sulfide linked C 27-C 29 steroids. These steroid moieties were identified by GC-MS analysis of the apolar fractions after cleavage of polysulfide linkages using MeLi and MeI and after desulfurisation. The polar fractions contained the oligomeric analogues. The S-bound steroids are most likely formed by sulfur incorporation into steroidal ketones formed from Δ 5 sterols by biohydrogenation by anaerobic bacteria. The concentrations of these sulfurised steroids increased with depth in the sediment. The sulfurisation reaction is completed in 1000-3000 years. Despite a wide range of functionalised lipids present in these sediments that are potentially available for sulfurisation, there is a very strong preference for the incorporation of sulfur into steroidal compounds. A predominance of sulfurised C 27 steroids contrasted with the distribution of free sterols, which showed a strong predominance of C 29 sterols. This indicates that the incorporation of sulfur is biased towards C 27 sterols. The results demonstrate that intermolecular sulfurisation of organic matter can occur in surface sediments at low temperatures and in the absence of light.

  14. Cryogenic brines as diagenetic fluids: Reconstructing the diagenetic history of the Victoria Land Basin using clumped isotopes (United States)

    Staudigel, Philip T.; Murray, Sean; Dunham, Daniel P.; Frank, Tracy D.; Fielding, Christopher R.; Swart, Peter K.


    The isotopic analyses (δ13C, δ18O, and Δ47) of carbonate phases recovered from a core in McMurdo Sound by ANtarctic geologic DRILLing (ANDRILL-2A) indicate that the majority of secondary carbonate mineral formation occurred at cooler temperatures than the modern burial temperature, and in the presence of fluids with δ18Owater values ranging between -11 and -6‰ VSMOW. These fluids are interpreted as being derived from a cryogenic brine formed during the freezing of seawater. The Δ47 values were converted to temperature using an in-house calibration presented in this paper. Measurements of the Δ47 values in the cements indicate increasingly warmer crystallization temperatures with depth and, while roughly parallel to the observed geothermal gradient, consistently translate to temperatures that are cooler than the current burial temperature. The difference in temperature suggests that cements formed when they were ∼260 ± 100 m shallower than at the present day. This depth range corresponds to a period of minimal sediment accumulation from 3 to 11 Myr; it is therefore interpreted that the majority of cements formed during this time. This behavior is also predicted by time-integrated modeling of cementation at this site. If this cementation had occurred in the presence of these fluids, then the cryogenic brines have been a longstanding feature in the Victoria Land Basin. Brines such as those found at this site have been described in numerous modern high-latitude settings, and analogous fluids could have played a role in the diagenetic history of other ice-proximal sediments and basins during glacial intervals throughout geologic history. The agreement between the calculated δ18Owater value and the measured values in the pore fluids shows how the Δ47 proxy can be used to identify the origin of negative δ18O values in carbonate rocks and that extremely negative values do not necessarily need to be a result of the influence of meteoric fluids or reaction at

  15. An early Brunhes (age for the Lower Paleolithic tool-bearing Kozarnika cave sediments, Bulgaria (United States)

    Muttoni, Giovanni; Sirakov, Nikolas; Guadelli, Jean-Luc; Kent, Dennis V.; Scardia, Giancarlo; Monesi, Edoardo; Zerboni, Andrea; Ferrara, Enzo


    We present a new sedimentological profile and a magnetostratigraphy of the tool-bearing Kozarnika cave sediments from Bulgaria. Modal analysis of cave infilling sedimentary texture indicates that the tool-bearing layers contain a sizable fraction of sediment interpreted as loess. We also find evidence for a relatively thick and well defined normal magnetic polarity in the upper-middle part of the section interpreted as a record of the Brunhes Chron, followed down-section by reverse polarity directions interpreted as a record of the Matuyama Chron. The lowermost levels with Lower Paleolithic tools (Layers 13a-c) lie in the early Brunhes at a nominal maximum age of ∼0.75 Ma, while the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary (0.78 Ma) falls in Layer 13 Lower immediately below. This finding represents a conspicuous revision of previous age estimates for the same tool-bearing layers.

  16. Testing lagoonal sediments with early life stages of the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana): An approach to assess sediment toxicity in the Venice Lagoon. (United States)

    Picone, Marco; Bergamin, Martina; Delaney, Eugenia; Ghirardini, Annamaria Volpi; Kusk, Kresten Ole


    The early-life stages of development of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa from egg to copepodite I is proposed as an endpoint for assessing sediment toxicity by exposing newly released eggs directly onto the sediment-water interface. A preliminary study of 5 sediment samples collected in the lagoon of Venice highlighted that the larval development rate (LDR) and the early-life stages (ELS) mortality endpoints with A. tonsa are more sensitive than the standard amphipod mortality test; moreover LDR resulted in a more reliable endpoint than ELS mortality, due to the interference of the sediment with the recovery of unhatched eggs and dead larvae. The LDR data collected in a definitive study of 48 sediment samples from the Venice Lagoon has been analysed together with the preliminary data to evaluate the statistical performances of the bioassay (among replicate variance and minimum significant difference between samples and control) and to investigate the possible correlation with sediment chemistry and physical properties. The results showed that statistical performances of the LDR test with A. tonsa correspond with the outcomes of other tests applied to the sediment-water interface (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryotoxicity test), sediments (Neanthes arenaceodentata survival and growth test) and porewater (S. purpuratus); the LDR endpoint did, however, show a slightly higher variance as compared with other tests used in the Lagoon of Venice, such as 10-d amphipod lethality test and larval development with sea urchin and bivalves embryos. Sediment toxicity data highlighted the high sensitivity and the clear ability of the larval development to discriminate among sediments characterized by different levels of contamination. The data of the definitive study evidenced that inhibition of the larval development was not affected by grain-size and the organic carbon content of the sediment; in contrast, a strong correlation between inhibition of the larval development

  17. Diagenetic differences of the Zhenzhuchong Member of Ziliujing Formation in the Jiulongshan–Jiange area, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingcai Hou


    Full Text Available The rocks of the Zhenzhuchong Member of the Ziliujing Formation, Jiulongshan–Jiange area in the Sichuan Basin, were analyzed by petrography, XRD, and SEM techniques to investigate their diagenetic history and properties, such as authigenic mineral types, evolution of mixed-layer illite–smectite minerals, the clay assembly, and the fraction of mixed-layer clay minerals. The results revealed that the Zhenzhuchong Member has experienced several important episodes of diagenetic alteration since the deposition, including compaction (pressure-solution, cementation, metasomatism, dissolution, fracturing, and infilling of caves and cracks. It was also observed that diagenetic properties of the Jiulongshan area were significantly different from those of the Jiange area. The rock samples from the Jiulongshan area were characterized by the composition of siliceous and calcareous cements, varying amounts of detrital grains, clay matrix and kaolinite replaced by calcites, a certain amount of rarely dissolved early-stage kaolinite, dickite, and infillings by late-stage calcite. On the other hand, for the rock samples from the Jiange area, the dissolution is a common phenomenon with features of abundant aluminosilicates-dissolution pores or components, but the replacement phenomenon has rarely been seen. These rock samples were characterized by the presence of clay mineral cements, quartz, and dolomite infillings. It indicated that there was a great difference of diagenesis between the two areas in the types, phase, and temperature of diagenetic fluids. Revealing the difference would provide theoretical and practical implications for the exploration of high quality oil and gas reservoirs.

  18. Diagenetic alteration in low-Mg calcite from macrofossils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz; Korte, Christoph


    microscopy) and chemical (trace element abundances, isotopic ratios) screening techniques used to assess the alteration degree of low-Mg calcite macrofossils and summarize the findings on diagenetic trends observed for elemental and isotopic systems in such materials. For a robust evaluation...... of the preservation state of biogenic calcite, it is advisable to combine a set of complementary techniques. Absolute limiting values of element and isotope ratios for discarding diagenetically altered materials cannot be universally applied, but should rather be evaluated on a case to case basis. The evaluation can...

  19. Coastal hypoxia and sediment biogeochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Middelburg


    Full Text Available The intensity, duration and frequency of coastal hypoxia (oxygen concentration <63 μM are increasing due to human alteration of coastal ecosystems and changes in oceanographic conditions due to global warming. Here we provide a concise review of the consequences of coastal hypoxia for sediment biogeochemistry. Changes in bottom-water oxygen levels have consequences for early diagenetic pathways (more anaerobic at expense of aerobic pathways, the efficiency of re-oxidation of reduced metabolites and the nature, direction and magnitude of sediment-water exchange fluxes. Hypoxia may also lead to more organic matter accumulation and burial and the organic matter eventually buried is also of higher quality, i.e. less degraded. Bottom-water oxygen levels also affect the organisms involved in organic matter processing with the contribution of metazoans decreasing as oxygen levels drop. Hypoxia has a significant effect on benthic animals with the consequences that ecosystem functions related to macrofauna such as bio-irrigation and bioturbation are significantly affected by hypoxia as well. Since many microbes and microbial-mediated biogeochemical processes depend on animal-induced transport processes (e.g. re-oxidation of particulate reduced sulphur and denitrification, there are indirect hypoxia effects on biogeochemistry via the benthos. Severe long-lasting hypoxia and anoxia may result in the accumulation of reduced compounds in sediments and elimination of macrobenthic communities with the consequences that biogeochemical properties during trajectories of decreasing and increasing oxygen may be different (hysteresis with consequences for coastal ecosystem dynamics.

  20. Early Permian intrusions in the Paleozoic sediments of the Eastern North Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Andresen, Katrine Juul; Rasmussen, Jens Andreas

    in the Northern Permian Basin which in the eastern North Sea is separated from the Southern Permian Basin by the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. The Permian basins were initiated during thermal subsidence following a late Carboniferous- early Permian rifting phase associated with extensive igneous activity recorded across...... the entire North Sea Basin. The easternmost intrusions and extrusions have been associated to the “Skagerrak-Centered Large Igneous Province” that has an early Permian age of c. 297 Ma. Compared to the Southern Permian Basin which historically has been intensely investigated because of the known presence...... of hydrocarbons within the Paleozoic sediments, the Northern Permian Basin has gained much less interest outside the hydrocarbon producing Mesozoic graben systems. This is mainly due to an apparent lack of potential source rocks. A major E-W striking northward dipping fault system characterizes the study area...

  1. Using provenance of terrigenous sediment to reconstruct the Agulhas Leakage during the Early and Late Pleistocene (United States)

    Pearson, B.; Franzese, A. M.


    The Agulhas Current, the strongest western boundary current in the southern hemisphere, is uniquely characterized by its strong retroflection. The current carries water southward from the Indian Ocean toward the cape of South Africa, before turning back on itself. At this point of retroflection, some of the current's flow escapes into the southern Atlantic Ocean. This transfer of water from the Indian Ocean to Atlantic Ocean makes up the Agulhas Leakage. The Leakage occurs in a series of eddies and rings located in the Cape Basin south of the African continent. Scientific literature demonstrates that relatively buoyant leakage water has been a determining factor varying strength of the Atlantic Meridional Ocean Current (AMOC), during glacial-interglacial cycles. It has been demonstrated that radiogenic isotope, major, and trace element concentrations serve as a proxy for terrigenous sediment provenance in the Agulhas region. Current understanding is that terrigenous sediment provenance is older during warmer periods of deposition. This corresponds to more input from southeastern African end members, and thus a stronger Agulhas Current, during warming periods in the paleoclimate record. Conversely, younger terrigenous sediment deposited during colder periods, such as the Last Glacial Maximum, suggests a weaker Agulhas Current, and less Agulhas Leakage. In 2016, on the International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 361, sediment cores were drilled at 6 sites in the Greater Agulhas region. A major goal of the expedition was to expand knowledge of the relation between changes in the Agulhas System and changes in paleoclimate, southern African climate, and AMOC. We analyzed sediment from Expedition 361 Site U1479 (35°03.53'S; 17°24.06'E; 2615 mbsl) located where the Agulhas Leakage occurs. We measured Argon, strontium isotope ratios, ɛNd, trace and major element concentrations on the <2 micron clay fraction. Preliminary results foretell promising findings. For

  2. Early Cretaceous marine sediments of the Lower Saxony Basin. The Gildehaus Sandstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellepiane, S.; Weiel, D. [Wintershall Holding GmbH, Barnstorf (Germany); Gerwert, D.; Mutterlose, J. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Geophysik


    During the Early Cretaceous (Berriasian - Aptian) the Lower Saxony Basin (LSB) formed the southernmost extension of the North Sea Basin. Sedimentation patterns of the LSB were controlled by divergent dextral shear movement causing differential subsidence related to early rifting in the North Sea. Up to 2000m of fine grained mudstones accumulated in the basin centre, while marginal marine, coarser grained siliciclastics were deposited along the western and southern margins of the LSB. The western marginal facies, outcropping along the Dutch-German border, is characterised by shallow marine sandstones of Valanginian - Hauterivian age. These units, which are separated by clay rich intervals, include the Bentheim Sdst., the Dichotomites Sdst., the Grenz Sdst., the Noricum Sdst. and the Gildehaus Sdst. These sandstones form a series of overall backstepping units, controlled by a main transgressive trend. Economically important are the Bentheim Sdst. and the Gildehaus Sdst., with a long oil producing history. The Bentheim Sdst. (early Valanginian) has been interpreted as an overall retrograding unit related to an incised valley infill with material mainly coming from the South. Tidal processes dominated the deposition of the Bentheim Sdst. The origin and genesis of the Gildehaus Sdst. (mid Hauterivian) is, however, less well understood. Here we present data from two wells drilled to the Gildehaus Sdst. (Emlichheim oil field) which provide evidence for a two fold subdivision of the unit. A well sorted massive quartz sandstone is followed by an interval composed of reworked coarse clastics of massflow origin. Micropalaeontological evidence suggests a fully marine, hemi-pelagic origin of the mud dominated matrix throughout the Gildehaus Sdst. These findings indicate a depositional environment quite different from that of the Bentheim Sdst. Short termed pulses of substantial input of clastic material from two different sources in the West to Southwest punctuated the overall

  3. Mineralogy of Nicobar Fan turbidites (IODP Leg 362): Himalayan provenance and diagenetic control. (United States)

    Limonta, M.; Garzanti, E.; Ando, S.; Carter, A.; Milliken, K. L.; Pickering, K. T.


    In this study we use quantitative petrographic and heavy-mineral data on silt-sized and sand-sized sediments from the Nicobar Fan turbiditic depositional system to unravel their provenance and discriminate between pre-depositional and post-depositional processes controlling sediment mineralogy. Eighteen samples from the two drill sites U1480 e U1481, collected down to a depth of 1400 m during International Ocean Discovery Expedition 362, were selected for analysis. A complete section of the sedimentary section overlying oceanic basaltic basement was recovered at the U1480 drill site, whereas the U1481 drill site, located 35 km to the southeast, focused on the deeper interval of the sedimentary section overlying oceanic basement. Here we illustrate the compositional trends observed throughout the recovered succession, and compare heavy-mineral suites characterizing sediments drilled at the two U1480 and U1481 sites to check for potential differences in sediment provenance over a relatively short distance in trench settings. Diagenetic control with increasing burial depth was also specifically investigated. In Pleistocene sediments at depths of a few tens of meters only, rich heavy-mineral assemblages include mainly hornblende, epidote, and garnet, associated with apatite, clinopyroxene, tourmaline, sillimanite, kyanite, zircon, titanite, and rare staurolite and rutile, testifying to long-distance provenance from the Himalayan range via the Ganga-Brahmaputra fluvio-deltaic-turbiditic system. Heavy-mineral concentration shows a progressive decrease with burial depth, pointing to selective diagenetic dissolution of less durable detrital minerals. Clinopyroxene becomes rare below 400 m depth and was not recorded below 500 m depth, where amphibole decreases notably in relative abundance. More durable heavy minerals, including zircon, tourmaline, apatite, garnet and epidote, consequently tend to be relatively enriched with increasing age and burial depth. Petrographic and

  4. Gold and trace element zonation in pyrite using a laser imaging technique: Implications for the timing of gold in orogenic and carlin-style sediment-hosted deposits (United States)

    Large, R.R.; Danyushevsky, L.; Hollit, C.; Maslennikov, V.; Meffre, S.; Gilbert, S.; Bull, S.; Scott, R.; Emsbo, P.; Thomas, H.; Singh, B.; Foster, J.


    Laser ablation ICP-MS imaging of gold and other trace elements in pyrite from four different sediment- hosted gold-arsenic deposits has revealed two distinct episodes of gold enrichment in each deposit: an early synsedimentary stage where invisible gold is concentrated in arsenian diagenetic pyrite along with other trace elements, in particular, As, Ni, Pb, Zn, Ag, Mo, Te, V, and Se; and a later hydrothermal stage where gold forms as either free gold grains in cracks in overgrowth metamorphic and/or hydrothermal pyrite or as narrow gold- arsenic rims on the outermost parts of the overgrowth hydrothermal pyrite. Compared to the diagenetic pyrites, the hydrothermal pyrites are commonly depleted in Ni, V, Zn, Pb, and Ag with cyclic zones of Co, Ni, and As concentration. The outermost hydrothermal pyrite rims are either As-Au rich, as in moderate- to high- grade deposits such as Carlin and Bendigo, or Co-Ni rich and As-Au poor as in moderate- to low-grade deposits such as Sukhoi Log and Spanish Mountain. The early enrichment of gold in arsenic-bearing syngenetic to diagenetic pyrite, within black shale facies of sedimentary basins, is proposed as a critical requirement for the later development of Carlin-style and orogenic gold deposits in sedimentary environments. The best grade sediment-hosted deposits appear to have the gold climax event, toward the final stages of deformation-related hydrothermal pyrite growth and fluid flow. ?? 2009 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc.

  5. Recognition of primary and diagenetic magnetizations to determine the magnetic polarity record and timing of deposition of the moat-fill rocks of the Oligocene Creede Caldera, Colorado (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Robert, Andrew P.; Verosub, Kenneth L.


    Sedimentary and volcaniclastic rocks of the Oligocene Creede Formation fill the moat of the Creede caldera, which formed at about 26.9 Ma during the eruption of the Snowshoe Mountain Tuff. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic studies of two cores (418 and 703 m long) that penetrated the lower half of the Creede Formation, in addition to paleomagnetic and isotopic dating studies of stratigraphically bracketing volcanic units, provide information on the age and the time span of sedimentation of the caldera fill. Normal polarity magnetization are found in Snowshoe Mountain Tuff beneath the moat sediments; in detrital-magnetite-bearing graded tuffs near the bottom of the moat fill; in an ash-fall deposit about 200 m stratigraphically about the top of core 2; and in postcaldera lava flows of the Fisher Dacite that overlie the Creede Formation. Normal polarity also characterizes detrital-magnetite-bearing tuff and sandstone unites within the caldera moat rocks that did not undergo severe sulfidic alteration. The combination of initially low magnitude of remanent magnetization and the destructive effects of subsequent diagenetic sulfidization on detrital iron oxides results in a poor paleomagnetic record for the fine-grained sedimentary rocks of the Creede Formation. these fine-grained rocks have either normal or revered polarity magnetizations that are carried by magnetite and/or maghemite. Many more apparent reversals are found that can be accommodated by any geomagnetic polarity time scale over the interval spanned by the ages of the bracketing extrusive rocks. Moreover, opposite polarity magnetization are found in specimens separated by only a few centimeters, without intervening hiatuses, and by specimens in several tuff beds, each of which represents a single depositional event. These polarity changes cannot, therefore, be attributed to detrital remanent magnetization. Many polarity changes are apparently related to chemical remanent magnetizations carried by

  6. Early Tertiary Exhumation, Erosion, and Sedimentation in the Central Andes, NW Argentina (United States)

    Carrapa, B.; Decelles, P. G.; Gerhels, G.; Mortimer, E.; Strecker, M. R.


    Timing of deformation and resulting sedimentation patterns in the Altiplano-Puna Plateau-Eastern Cordillera of the southern Central Andes are the subject of ongoing controversial debate. In the Bolivian Altiplano, sedimentation into a foreland basin system commenced during the Paleocene. Farther south in the Puna and Eastern Cordillera of NW Argentina, a lack of data has precluded a similar interpretation. Early Tertiary non-marine sedimentary rocks are preserved within the present day Puna Plateau and Eastern Cordillera of NW Argentina. The Salar de Pastos Grandes basin in the Puna Plateau contains more than 2 km of Eocene alluvial and fluvial strata in the Geste Formation, deposited in close proximity to orogenic source terrains. Sandstone and conglomerate petrographic data document Ordovician quartzites and minor phyllites and schists as the main source rocks. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages from both the Geste Formation and from underlying Ordovician quartzite cluster in the 900-1200 Ma (Grenville) and late Precambrian-Cambrian (Panafrican) ranges. Sparse late Eocene (~37-34 Ma) grains are also present; their large size, euhedral shape, and decreasing mean ages upsection suggest that these grains are volcanogenic (i.e. ash fall contamination), derived from an inferred magmatic arc to the west. The Eocene ages corroborate mammalian paleontological dates, defining the approximate begin of deposition of the Geste Formation. Alternatively, these young zircons could be of plutonic origin; however, no Eocene plutons are present in the surrounding source rocks and this interpretation is not likely. From W to E, fluvial rocks of the Quebrada de los Colorados Formation show similar sedimentological features as those observed for the Geste Formation, suggesting a genetic link between the two. Detrital zircon U-Pb data show mainly Panafrican ages, with sparse ages in the 860-935 Ma range and a few mid-Proterozoic ages. More importantly, a significant number of late Eocene

  7. Reactive transport and mass balance modeling of the Stimson sedimentary formation and altered fracture zones constrain diagenetic conditions at Gale crater, Mars (United States)

    Hausrath, E. M.; Ming, D. W.; Peretyazhko, T. S.; Rampe, E. B.


    On a planet as cold and dry as present-day Mars, evidence of multiple aqueous episodes offers an intriguing view into very different past environments. Fluvial, lacustrine, and eolian depositional environments are being investigated by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity in Gale crater, Mars. Geochemical and mineralogical observations of these sedimentary rocks suggest diagenetic processes affected the sediments. Here, we analyze diagenesis of the Stimson formation eolian parent material, which caused loss of olivine and formation of magnetite. Additional, later alteration in fracture zones resulted in preferential dissolution of pyroxene and precipitation of secondary amorphous silica and Ca sulfate. The ability to compare the unaltered parent material with the reacted material allows constraints to be placed on the characteristics of the altering solutions. In this work we use a combination of a mass balance approach calculating the fraction of a mobile element lost or gained, τ, with fundamental geochemical kinetics and thermodynamics in the reactive transport code CrunchFlow to examine the characteristics of multiple stages of aqueous alteration at Gale crater, Mars. Our model results indicate that early diagenesis of the Stimson sedimentary formation is consistent with leaching of an eolian deposit by a near-neutral solution, and that formation of the altered fracture zones is consistent with a very acidic, high sulfate solution containing Ca, P and Si. These results indicate a range of past aqueous conditions occurring at Gale crater, Mars, with important implications for past martian climate and environments.

  8. Speciation of iodine (I-127 and I-129) in lake sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englund, E.; Aldahan, A.; Hou, Xiaolin


    Fallout of anthropogenic 129I at northern Europe has been occurring since the early 1950. Nevertheless, it is still unclear where and how this radioactive iodine is incorporated in the surface environment. In order to elucidate part of this problem, we here present an investigation of the occurre......Fallout of anthropogenic 129I at northern Europe has been occurring since the early 1950. Nevertheless, it is still unclear where and how this radioactive iodine is incorporated in the surface environment. In order to elucidate part of this problem, we here present an investigation...... the sediment. Organic bound iodine was the dominant form over other fractions, while iodine bound to metal oxides was negligible. The leachable part constituted 5–6% of the iodine. Diagenetic influence seems to exert a limited effect on distribution of iodine in the examined sediment section....

  9. Temporal and spatial variations in the diagenetic fabrics and stable isotopes of Pleistocene corals from the Ironshore Formation of Grand Cayman, British West Indies (United States)

    Li, Rong; Jones, Brian


    On Grand Cayman, the unconformity bounded Units A to F in the Ironshore Formation represent repeated cycles of deposition and subaerial exposure that were associated with the dramatic oscillations in sea levels that characterized the Middle to Late Pleistocene. Montastrea annularis and Acropora palmata, the dominant corals found in Units A to F in the Rogers Wreck Point area and offshore George Town area, reflect these changes with their complex mosaics of marine (aragonite cements, bioerosion, internal sediments) and meteoric (calcitization of coral skeleton, dissolution) diagenetic features. The distribution of the diagenetic fabrics throughout this sequence, however, is not predictable. The randomness in the degree of skeletal calcitization is shown by the lack of systematic variation in calcitization from Units A to F, and the fact that the degree of skeletal calcification in M. annularis is higher than that in A. palmata in the Rogers Wreck Point area but less than in A. palmata in the George Town cores. The stable isotope compositions (δ13C, δ18O) of the corals from Units A to F plot along the same trend line with their positions on that trend reflecting the amount of meteoric diagenesis they have undergone. The variable styles and degrees of diagenesis evident in the corals from the Ironshore Formation reflect (1) the variable impact of intrinsic (e.g., skeletal architecture, porosity of coral) and extrinsic (e.g., sea level, climate) factors during each phase of diagenesis, and (2) temporal effects associated with the diagenetic overprinting that took place during each successive phase of diagenesis. This means that the diagenetic fabrics are not stratigraphically ordered and that it is impossible to correlate specific diagenetic phases with specific sea level lowstands or highstands.

  10. Depositional and diagenetic processes of Qa Khanna playa, North Jordan basaltic plateau, Jordan (United States)

    Howari, F. M.; Banat, K. M.; Abu-Salha, Y. A.


    The present study explored mineral occurrences and sediment characteristics of playas from northern Jordan and explained depositional and diagenetic processes as reflected from bulk chemistry and sedimentary structures. Mudcracks of different sizes and shape patterns, laminations, intersediment vesicles, and bioturbation pipes are the main sedimentary structures. Plagioclase, olivine, orthopyroxene, nepheline and other opaque minerals are all of detrital origin, and are derived from the basaltic bedrocks surrounding the studied playa. Evaporites are very rare; they are represented only by trace amounts of gypsum. The identified clay minerals in the clay fraction of the studied sediments, arranged according to their decreasing abundances are palygorskite, illite, kaolinite, smectite and chlorite. The elemental abundances were tied to clay, CaCO 3 and nearby igneous rocks. The type of clay minerals, the high pH values of the studied sediments, and the considerable incorporation of Mg and K in palygorskite and illite respectively, may strongly reflect a high evaporative and alkaline environment under arid to semi-arid conditions in an ephemeral lake of the Qa Khanna. Concentrations and distributions of both major and trace elements are essentially controlled by the clay mineralogy and the calcium carbonate content; Ca is mainly incorporated in the CaCO 3, which is either generated authigenically or by aeolian deposition. Fe and K are incorporated and fixed by illite under an evaporative and alkaline environment. Mg is incorporated in palygorskite while Mn is adsorbed on various clay minerals. Sr substitutes for Ca in the aeolian CaCO 3 and its presence in the studied sediments is independent of the prevailing conditions during the playa evolution. Rb substitutes for K in illite under the prevailing chemical conditions in the studied playa.

  11. Strontium isotopic stratigraphy utilizing authigenic dolomites in hemipelagic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.A. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA)); Kastner, M. (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (USA)); Elderfield, H. (Univ. of Cambridge (England))


    Authigenic dolomites commonly occur in organic-rich, continental margin marine sediments. These dolomites play a key role in the age dating of stratigraphic sections. The dolomites often are the only lithology amenable to paleomagnetic stratigraphy; they preserve siliceous microfossils against diagenetic; recrystallization, and provide useful strontium isotopic stratigraphic ages. Several potential sources of error frequently are unique to the use of authigenic dolomites in the strontium isotope methods. (1) The dolomites occur as cements of the host lithology, hence, they are not a pure phase. Potentially important contaminants during analysis include gypsum clay minerals, feldspars, and iron and manganese oxides. Strontium may occur as a structural substituent ion in these minerals or as a surface-adsorbed ion. Various leaching techniques have been tested to isolate dolomitic strontium. Purer dolomites and strontium-enriched dolomites often can be selected to ease these problems. (2) The dolomites form after the deposition of the host sediment, therefore, they record the diagenetic age not the depositional age. The stable isotopic composition of the dolomites can aid in selection of early formed samples. (3) The dolomites record pore-water strontium isotope compositions, not seawater isotopic compositions. This problem is also minimized by choosing dolomites formed near the sediment-water interface. (4) The dolomites formed near the sediment-water interface originated as rotodolomites and undergo subsequent burial diagenesis, creating a potential for later strontium isotope exchange. This problem is minimized by selecting fresh samples from the interior of nearly impermeable beds and nodules. Results from the Miocene Monterey Formation of California and from the Eocene through Pliocene Pisco basin of Peru show that authigenic dolomites can provide useful strontium isotopic age estimates.

  12. Micromorphological investigation on ring road sediments of the Early Bronze Age site Tell Chuera, Syria (United States)

    Fritzsch, Dagmar; Thiemeyer, Heinrich


    Tell Chuera is an Early Bronze Age settlement mount in NE-Syria close to the Turkish border. With a diameter of almost 1 km and a height of 18 m it is one of the biggest tells in the region between the rivers Balikh and Khabur. In 1958 the structures of the city wall was known first by Orthmann (1990). This city wall was built of air-dried mud bricks. The age of the founding of this construction is not yet clear. The earliest pottery from the place is dated around 2500 BC to 2350 BC. Inside the fortification a road was detected, which was first excavated by Novak (1995). We took sediment monoliths in 2004 from a new trench, which shows the same situation of the road. A geomagnetic prospection, that included the whole site, suggests that the road was part of the planned extension of the lower town and serves as a circular road (Meyer, in prep.). The micromorphological investigation focussed on the question, how the road was used. Did animals have had access to the town? The thin sections show different indications of the anthropogenic influence. In all samples pseudomorphs after straw are visible. In many parts ash, charred wood fragments, bone fragments, melted material and fragments of basalt and flint were observable, too. These materials are typical for sediments in streets (cf. Goldberg & Macphail, 2006). In some parts of the thin sections faecal spherulites and dung remains with faecal spherulites give an idea that ruminants used the road as well as men. Trampling structures support this assumption. Moreover, leaching of calcite, its redeposition in mottles, pseudomycels and concretions, hydromorphic stains and the translocation of silt indicate postdepositional pedogenic processes. Literature Goldberg, P., & Macphail, R. I. (2006). Practical and theoretical geoarchaeology: UK Blackwell Publishing. Meyer, J.-W. (in prep.). Überlegungen zur Siedlungsstruktur - eine erste Analyse der Ergebnisse der geomagnetischen Prospektion. In J.-W. Meyer (Ed.), Ausgrabungen

  13. The Lower Devonian of Ouled Abbou (Morocco. Sedimentary organization; diagenetic modes and impact on porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razouani, A.


    Full Text Available The region of Ouled Abbou is characterized by the intercalation of carbonated beds in Silurian-Devonian pelite-sandstones. The series is organized into a succesion of three deposition sequences: SD1, SD2, SD3 of Silurian-Lochkovian, Praguian and Emsian age, respectively, developed in a monoclynal platform-type ramp. The hydrodynamics, in relation to variations in sea level, controlled the formation and distribution of the carbonated facies (bioclastic deposits, slope deposits, etc.. In the carbonate beds, diagenetic analysis reveals the sequence of development of the diagenetic transformations: It is essentially the result of multiple phases of cementing and recrystallization, mainly affecting the granular facies that define the diagenetic history leading to an almost complete lithification, hence their low potential as a possible reservoir. Early dolomitisation appears at the summit of sequences SD2 and SD3, leading to the formation of a crystalline rock (dolomicrosparite followed by a remplacement-recristallisation of calcareous mud. These transformations are later affected by compaction, cracking and tectonic phases of late dolomitisation.La región de Ouled Abbou se caracteriza por la intercalación de niveles carbonatados en pelitas silurico-devónicas. Esta serie está estructurada en una secuencia de tres niveles de depósitos: SD1, SD2, SD3, que son respectivamente de edad siluro-lochkoviense, praguiense y emsiense, desarrollados en una plataforma mixta de typo rampa monoclinal. La hidrodinámica, en relación con las variaciones del nivel del mar, controló la formación y distribución de las facies carbonatadas (depósitos bioclásticos, de pendiente, etc.. El análisis de los niveles carbonatados ha permitido establecer la secuencia de desarrollo de las tranformaciones diagenéticas. Éstas son esencialmente el resultado de múltiples fases de cementación y recristalización, que afectan principalmente a las facies granulares. La

  14. High resolution magnetostratigraphy and raio-isotope dating of early Pleistocene lake sediments from southern Armenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirscher, U.; Bruch, A.A.; Gabrielyan, I.; Scharrer, S.; Kuiper, K.F.; Bachtadse, V.


    The Pleistocene geology of Armenia is dominated by widespread occurrence of sediments recording recurring rapid and drastic changes of the environmental conditions during at least the last 2 million years. These sediments, predominantly diatomites, contain a huge variety of various fossil remains,

  15. Lithostratigraphy and microfacies analyses of the Lateglacial and early Holocene sediment record from Lake Haemelsee (Germany) (United States)

    Haliuc, Aritina; Brauer, Achim; Dulski, Peter; Engels, Stefan; Lane, Christine


    Annually laminated sediments are unique continental archives holding essential paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic information providing the opportunity (i) to evaluate the climate variability at inter-annual to decadal scale and (ii) to construct independent and reliable chronologies. Lake Haemelsee in northern Germany (19.5 m a.s.l) is a key site for tracing high-resolution climatic and environmental evolution in W Europe because of its partly varved sediments. Here, we apply lithostratigraphical, geochemical and micro-facies analyses for the bottom sediments (~1700 to 1300 cm sediment depth) in order to investigate the driving mechanisms, timing and amplitude of Lateglacial abrupt climate changes to the onset of the Holocene warming. Detailed investigation includes micro-facies analyses on petrographic thin sections combined with high-resolution µ-XRF element scanning on both fresh sediment core halves (200 µm resolution) and impregnated sediment blocks (50µm resolution). Based on these analyses, the sediment composite profile (378 cm) has been divided in ten lithozones, each exhibiting different sedimentation modes in response to regional and local climatic and environmental changes. Micro-facies analyses revealed that sediments consist of organic matter, siderite, calcite, clay/silt and sand. The basal sediments consist of glacio-fluvial material. Fine laminations are best preserved in lithozone 5 (1522-1573 cm), where minima in element proxies for detrital sediments (Ti, K, Si) and maxima in Fe and Mn indicate the prevalence of anoxic meromictic conditions. Three different varve facies types were distinguished: i) the clastic-organic varves are specific for the intervals 1571-1573 cm and 1536-1541 cm; ii) calcite/siderite-organic varves appear between 1568-1571 and 1541-1545 cm; iii) the siderite-organic varves are characteristic for the middle of the lithozone 5 spanning from 1545-1568 cm. These changes in varve facies reflect the complex answer of

  16. Integrated stratigraphy and 40Ar/39Ar chronology of early Middle Miocene sediments from DSDP Leg 42A, Site 372 (Western Mediterranean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Aziz, H.; di Stefano, A.; Foresi, L. M.; Hilgen, Frederik J.; Iaccarino, S. M.; Kuiper, K. F.; Lirer, F.; Salvatorini, G.; Turco, E.


    An integrated magneto-biostratigraphic framework is presented for Middle Miocene sediments of DSDP Site 372 located in the Western Mediterranean. Detailed biostratigraphic analysis shows a nearly complete sequence of early Middle Miocene calcareous plankton bioevents in the Mediterranean, including

  17. Punctuated Sediment Discharge during Early Pliocene Birth of the Colorado River: Evidence from Regional Stratigraphy, Sedimentology, and Paleontology (United States)

    Dorsey, Rebecca J.; O'Connell, Brennan; McDougall, Kristin; Homan, Mindy B.


    The Colorado River in the southwestern U.S. provides an excellent natural laboratory for studying the origins of a continent-scale river system, because deposits that formed prior to and during river initiation are well exposed in the lower river valley and nearby basinal sink. This paper presents a synthesis of regional stratigraphy, sedimentology, and micropaleontology from the southern Bouse Formation and similar-age deposits in the western Salton Trough, which we use to interpret processes that controlled the birth and early evolution of the Colorado River. The southern Bouse Formation is divided into three laterally persistent members: basal carbonate, siliciclastic, and upper bioclastic members. Basal carbonate accumulated in a tide-dominated marine embayment during a rise of relative sea level between 6.3 and 5.4 Ma, prior to arrival of the Colorado River. The transition to green claystone records initial rapid influx of river water and its distal clay wash load into the subtidal marine embayment at 5.4-5.3 Ma. This was followed by rapid southward progradation of the Colorado River delta, establishment of the earliest through-flowing river, and deposition of river-derived turbidites in the western Salton Trough (Wind Caves paleocanyon) between 5.3 and 5.1 Ma. Early delta progradation was followed by regional shut-down of river sand output between 5.1 and 4.8 Ma that resulted in deposition of marine clay in the Salton Trough, retreat of the delta, and re-flooding of the lower river valley by shallow marine water that deposited the Bouse upper bioclastic member. Resumption of sediment discharge at 4.8 Ma drove massive progradation of fluvial-deltaic deposits back down the river valley into the northern Gulf and Salton Trough. These results provide evidence for a discontinuous, start-stop-start history of sand output during initiation of the Colorado River that is not predicted by existing models for this system. The underlying controls on punctuated sediment

  18. Diagenetic effect on permeabilities of geothermal sandstone reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weibel, Rikke; Olivarius, Mette; Kristensen, Lars

    The Danish subsurface contains abundant sedimentary deposits, which can be utilized for geothermal heating. The Upper Triassic – Lower Jurassic continental-marine sandstones of the Gassum Formation has been utilised as a geothermal reservoir for the Thisted Geothermal Plant since 1984 extracting...... and permeability is caused by increased diagenetic changes of the sandstones due to increased burial depth and temperatures. Therefore, the highest water temperatures typically correspond with the lowest porosities and permeabilities. Especially the permeability is crucial for the performance of the geothermal......-line fractures. Continuous thin chlorite coatings results in less porosity- and permeability-reduction with burial than the general reduction with burial, unless carbonate cemented. Therefore, localities of sandstones characterized by these continuous chlorite coatings may represent fine geothermal reservoirs...

  19. Partial diagenetic overprint of late jurassic belemnites from New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz; Campbell, Hamish J.; Frei, Robert


    δ7Li values become more positive with progressive alteration. The direction and magnitude of the trends in the geochemical record indicate that one main phase of alteration that occurred in the Late Cretaceous caused most of the diagenetic signature in the calcite. Despite relatively deep burial......The preservation potential and trends of alteration of many isotopic systems (e.g. Li, Mg, Ca) that are measured in fossil carbonates are little explored, yet extensive paleoenvironmental interpretations have been made on the basis of these records. Here we present a geochemical dataset for a Late...... Jurassic (~153 Ma) belemnite (Belemnopsis sp.) from New Zealand that has been partially overprinted by alteration. We report the physical pathways and settings of alteration, the resulting elemental and isotopic trends including δ7Li values and Li/Ca ratios, and assess whether remnants of the primary shell...

  20. Microfacies and Diagenetic Fabric of the Lockhart Limestone, Kotal Pass Section, Northeast of Kohat, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Waseem Khan


    Full Text Available The present study is intended to describe the carbonate microfacies of the Paleocene Lockhart Limestone in area northeast of the Kohat City. The analyzed limestone in the area is 65m thick and predominantly medium to thick bedded, nodular to brecciated and richly fossiliferous. Thin interbeds of marl are observed in the main lithological unit. The lower contact of the Lockhart Limestone is faulted with the Samana Suk Formation of the Jurassic age while conformably overlain by the Patala Formation of Paleocene to Eocene age. The major lithological unit is comprised of predominant assemblage of larger benthic and smaller planktonic foraminifers with accretion of ostracods, dasycladacean algae, echinoderms, gastropods and corals. On the basis of field and laboratory observations, two distinct types of microfacies have been identified as i Dasyclad-Miliolid Foram Wacke-Packstone microfacies of the inner shelf, sub tidal lagoon, ii Larger Foram Packstone microfacies of the middle shelf. The Limestone represents a carbonate cyclic sequence marked by three, transgressive, deepening up cycles representing a gradual sea level rise compensated by vertical accumulation of microfacies. The commencement of each cycle is clearly marked by the input of land-derived siliciclastic sediments and near shore restricted marine faunal/floral assemblage in the inner shelf microfacies gradually thinning up section where the microfacies become deeper offshore. The diagenetic modifications are observed in the shape of compactional framework, dolomitization, aragonite to calcite alteration and spar filled fractures in the main lithological unit of the Lockhart Limestone.

  1. Reactive transport modeling of nitrogen in Seine River sediments (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Z.; Laverman, A.; Raimonet, M.; Rezanezhad, F.; Van Cappellen, P.


    Biogeochemical processes in sediments have a major impact on the fate and transport of nitrogen (N) in river systems. Organic matter decomposition in bottom sediments releases inorganic N species back to the stream water, while denitrification, anammox and burial of organic matter remove bioavailable N from the aquatic environment. To simulate N cycling in river sediments, a multi-component reactive transport model has been developed in MATLAB®. The model includes 3 pools of particulate organic N, plus pore water nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide and ammonium. Special attention is given to the production and consumption of nitrite, a N species often neglected in early diagenetic models. Although nitrite is usually considered to be short-lived, elevated nitrite concentrations have been observed in freshwater streams, raising concerns about possible toxic effects. We applied the model to sediment data sets collected at two locations in the Seine River, one upstream, the other downstream, of the largest wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of the Paris conurbation. The model is able to reproduce the key features of the observed pore water depth profiles of the different nitrogen species. The modeling results show that the presence of oxygen in the overlying water plays a major role in controlling the exchanges of nitrite between the sediments and the stream water. In August 2012, sediments upstream of the WWTP switch from being a sink to a source of nitrite as the overlying water becomes anoxic. Downstream sediments remain a nitrite sink in oxic and anoxic conditions. Anoxic bottom waters at the upstream location promote denitrification, which produces nitrite, while at the downstream site, anammox and DNRA are important removal processes of nitrite.

  2. Seasonal variation of early diagenesis and greenhouse gas production in coastal sediments of Cadiz Bay: Influence of anthropogenic activities (United States)

    Burgos, Macarena; Ortega, Teodora; Bohórquez, Julio; Corzo, Alfonso; Rabouille, Christophe; Forja, Jesús M.


    Greenhouse gas production in coastal sediments is closely associated with the early diagenesis processes of organic matter and nutrients. Discharges from anthropogenic activities, particularly agriculture, fish farming and waste-water treatment plants supply large amounts of organic matter and inorganic nutrients that affect mineralization processes. Three coastal systems of Cadiz Bay (SW Spain) (Guadalete River, Rio San Pedro Creek and Sancti Petri Channel) were chosen to determine the seasonal variation of organic matter mineralization. Two sampling stations were selected in each system; one in the outer part, close to the bay, and another more inland, close to a discharge point of effluent related to anthropogenic activities. Seasonal variation revealed that metabolic reactions were driven by the annual change of temperature in the outer station of the systems. In contrast, these reactions depended on the amount of organic matter reaching the sediments in the outermost part of the systems, which was higher during winter. Oxygen is consumed in the first 0.5 cm indicating that suboxic and anoxic processes, such as denitrification, sulfate reduction and methanogenesis are important in these sediments. Sulfate reduction seems to account for most of the mineralization of organic matter at the marine stations, while methanogenesis is the main pathway at the sole freshwater station of this study, located inside the estuary of the Guadalete River, because of the lack of sulfate as electron acceptor. Results point to denitrification being the principal process of N2O formation. Diffusive fluxes varied between 2.6 and 160 mmol m-2 d-1 for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC); 0.9 and 164.3 mmol m-2 d-1 for TA; 0.8 and 17.4 μmol m-2 d-1 for N2O; and 0.1 μmol and 13.1 mmol m-2 d-1 for CH4, indicating that these sediments act as a source of greenhouse gases to the water column.

  3. Petroleum system elements within the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleogene sediments of Nigeria's inland basins: An integrated sequence stratigraphic approach (United States)

    Dim, Chidozie Izuchukwu Princeton; Onuoha, K. Mosto; Okeugo, Chukwudike Gabriel; Ozumba, Bertram Maduka


    Sequence stratigraphic studies have been carried out using subsurface well and 2D seismic data in the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleogene sediments of Anambra and proximal onshore section of Niger Delta Basin in the Southeastern Nigeria. The aim was to establish the stratigraphic framework for better understanding of the reservoir, source and seal rock presence and distribution in the basin. Thirteen stratigraphic bounding surfaces (consisting of six maximum flooding surfaces - MFSs and seven sequence boundaries - SBs) were recognized and calibrated using a newly modified chronostratigraphic chart. Stratigraphic surfaces were matched with corresponding foraminiferal and palynological biozones, aiding correlation across wells in this study. Well log sequence stratigraphic correlation reveals that stratal packages within the basin are segmented into six depositional sequences occurring from Late Cretaceous to Early Paleogene age. Generated gross depositional environment maps at various MFSs show that sediment packages deposited within shelfal to deep marine settings, reflect continuous rise and fall of sea levels within a regressive cycle. Each of these sequences consist of three system tracts (lowstand system tract - LST, transgressive system tract - TST and highstand system tract - HST) that are associated with mainly progradational and retrogradational sediment stacking patterns. Well correlation reveals that the sand and shale units of the LSTs, HSTs and TSTs, that constitute the reservoir and source/seal packages respectively are laterally continuous and thicken basinwards, due to structural influences. Result from interpretation of seismic section reveals the presence of hanging wall, footwall, horst block and collapsed crest structures. These structural features generally aid migration and offer entrapment mechanism for hydrocarbon accumulation. The combination of these reservoirs, sources, seals and trap elements form a good petroleum system that is viable

  4. Metal cycling during sediment early diagenesis in a water reservoir affected by acid mine drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Ester; Ayora, Carlos; Canovas, C. R.


    The discharge of acid mine drainage (AMD) into a reservoir may seriously affect the water quality. To investigate the metal transfer between the water and the sediment, three cores were collected from the Sancho Reservoir (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) during different seasons: turnover event......; oxic, stratified period; anoxic and under shallow perennially oxic conditions. The cores were sliced in an oxygen-free atmosphere, after which pore water was extracted by centrifugation and analyzed. A sequential extraction was then applied to the sediments to extract the water-soluble, monosulfide......, low crystallinity Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide, crystalline Fe(III)-oxide, organic, pyrite and residual phases. The results showed that, despite the acidic chemistry of the water column (pH

  5. Diagenetic history of the Surma Group sandstones (Miocene) in the Surma Basin, Bangladesh (United States)

    Rahman, M. Julleh Jalalur; McCann, Tom


    This study examines the various diagenetic controls of the Miocene Surma Group sandstones encountered in petroleum exploration wells from the Surma Basin, which is situated in the northeastern part of the Bengal Basin, Bangladesh. The principal diagenetic minerals/cements in the Surma Group sandstones are Fe-carbonates (with Fe-calcite dominating), quartz overgrowths and authigenic clays (predominantly chlorite, illite-smectite and minor kaolin). The isotopic composition of the carbonate cement revealed a narrow range of δ 18O values (-10.3‰ to -12.4‰) and a wide range of δ 13C value (+1.4‰ to -23.1‰). The δ 13C VPDB and δ 18O VPDB values of the carbonate cements reveal that carbon was most likely derived from the thermal maturation of organic matter during burial, as well as from the dissolution of isolated carbonate clasts and precipitated from mixed marine-meteoric pore waters. The relationship between the intergranular volume (IGV) versus cement volume indicates that compaction played a more significant role than cementation in destroying the primary porosity. However, cementation also played a major role in drastically reducing porosity and permeability in sandstones with poikilotopic, pore-filling blocky cements formed in early to intermediate and deep burial areas. In addition to Fe-carbonate cements, various clay minerals including illite-smectite and chlorite occur as pore-filling and pore-lining authigenic phases. Significant secondary porosity has been generated at depths from 2500 m to 4728 m. The best reservoir rocks found at depths of 2500-3300 m are well sorted, relatively coarse grained; more loosely packed and better rounded sandstones having good porosities (20-30%) and high permeabilities (12-6000 mD). These good quality reservoir rocks are, however, not uniformly distributed and can be considered to be compartmentalized as a result of interbedding with sandstone layers of low to moderate porosities, low permeabilities owing to poor

  6. Influence of Chemical, Physical, Biological and Geochemical Processes of Early Diagenesis and Material Exchange Across the Sediment/Seawater Interface in Margin Sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kastner, Miriam


    .... To this end, we provided high resolution characterizations of sediment microfabric, physical properties, chemistry, mineralogy, and organic matter content as well as theoretical work on smectite interlayer hydration...

  7. Lake sediments record prehistoric lead pollution related to early copper production in North America. (United States)

    Pompeani, David P; Abbott, Mark B; Steinman, Byron A; Bain, Daniel J


    The mining and use of copper by prehistoric people on Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula is one of the oldest examples of metalworking. We analyzed the concentration of lead, titanium, magnesium, iron, and organic matter in sediment cores recovered from three lakes located near mine pits to investigate the timing, location, and magnitude of ancient copper mining pollution. Lead concentrations were normalized to lithogenic metals and organic matter to account for processes that can influence natural (or background) lead delivery. Nearly simultaneous lead enrichments occurred at Lake Manganese and Copper Falls Lake ∼8000 and 7000 years before present (yr BP), indicating that copper extraction occurred concurrently in at least two locations on the peninsula. The poor temporal coherence among the lead enrichments from ∼6300 to 5000 yr BP at each lake suggests that the focus of copper mining and annealing shifted through time. In sediment younger than ∼5000 yr BP, lead concentrations remain at background levels at all three lakes, excluding historic lead increases starting ∼150 yr BP. Our work demonstrates that lead emissions associated with both the historic and Old Copper Complex tradition are detectable and can be used to determine the temporal and geographic pattern of metal pollution.

  8. Testing lagoonal sediments with early life stages of the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana): An approach to assess sediment toxicity in the Venice Lagoon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picone, Marco; Bergamin, Martina; Delaney, Eugenia


    between samples and control) and to investigate the possible correlation with sediment chemistry and physical properties. The results showed that statistical performances of the LDR test with A. tonsa correspond with the outcomes of other tests applied to the sediment-water interface (Strongylocentrotus...

  9. Molecular evidence for lignin degradation in sulfate-reducing mangrove sediments (Amazônia, Brazil) (United States)

    Dittmar, Thorsten; Lara, Rubén José


    - Molecular lignin analyses have become a powerful quantitative approach for estimating flux and fate of vascular plant organic matter in coastal and marine environments. The use of a specific molecular biomarker requires detailed knowledge of its decomposition rates relative to the associated organic matter and its structural diagenetic changes. To gain insight into the poorly known processes of anaerobic lignin diagenesis, molecular analyses were performed in the sulfate-reducing sediment of a north Brazilian mangrove. Organic matter in samples representing different diagenetic stages (i.e., fresh litter, a sediment core, and percolating water) was characterized by alkaline CuO oxidation for lignin composition, element (C, N), and stable carbon isotope analyses. On the basis of these results and on a balance model, long-term in situ decomposition rates of lignin in sulfate-reducing sediments were estimated for the first time. The half-life ( T1/2) of lignin derived from mangrove leaf litter (mainly Rhizophora mangle) was ˜150 yr in the upper 1.5 m of the sediment. Associated organic carbon from leaf tissue was depleted to ˜75% within weeks, followed by a slow mineralization in the sediment ( T1/2 ≈ 300 yr). Unlike the known pathways of lignin diagenesis, even highly degraded lignin did not show any alterations of the propyl or methoxyl side chains, as evident from stable acid to aldehyde ratios and the proportion of methoxylated phenols (vanillyl and syringyl phenols). Aromatic ring cleavage is probably the principal mechanism for lignin decay in the studied environment. Cinnamyl phenols were highly abundant in mangrove leaves and were rapidly depleted during early diagenesis. Thus, the cinnamyl to vanillyl ratio could be used as a tracer for early diagenesis even under the sulfate-reducing conditions. Syringyl phenols were removed from dissolved organic matter in interstitial water, probably by sorption onto the sediment. Suspended organic matter in a

  10. Tracking Lateglacial and early Holocene environmental change: a palaeolimnological study of sediment at Preluca Tiganului, NW Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Feurdean


    Full Text Available Palaeoecological, palaeohydrological, and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Late Glacial and the early Holocene have been performed from sediment accumulated in a small former crater lake, in the GutâI Mountains, NW Romania. Pollen, lithology, mineral magnetic, and loss-on-ignition analyses in conjunction to radiocarbon dating have been use for this purpose. The data indicates that during the Late Glacial period, vegetation dynamics were likely driven by climatic fluctuations. The climate events during the Late Glacial are well mirrored in local vegetation assemblage development, and past lake level fluctuations. These climatic events recorded in south-eastern Europe, are well correlated with the climate events from the North Western Europe and Greenland ice core stratigraphy.

  11. Punctuated sediment discharge during early Pliocene birth of the Colorado River: Evidence from regional stratigraphy, sedimentology, and paleontology (United States)

    Dorsey, Rebecca J.; O’Connell, Brennan; McDougall-Reid, Kristin; Homan, Mindy B.


    The Colorado River in the southwestern U.S. provides an excellent natural laboratory for studying the origins of a continent-scale river system, because deposits that formed prior to and during river initiation are well exposed in the lower river valley and nearby basinal sink. This paper presents a synthesis of regional stratigraphy, sedimentology, and micropaleontology from the southern Bouse Formation and similar-age deposits in the western Salton Trough, which we use to interpret processes that controlled the birth and early evolution of the Colorado River. The southern Bouse Formation is divided into three laterally persistent members: basal carbonate, siliciclastic, and upper bioclastic members. Basal carbonate accumulated in a tide-dominated marine embayment during a rise of relative sea level between ~ 6.3 and 5.4 Ma, prior to arrival of the Colorado River. The transition to green claystone records initial rapid influx of river water and its distal clay wash load into the subtidal marine embayment at ~ 5.4–5.3 Ma. This was followed by rapid southward progradation of the Colorado River delta, establishment of the earliest through-flowing river, and deposition of river-derived turbidites in the western Salton Trough (Wind Caves paleocanyon) between ~ 5.3 and 5.1 Ma. Early delta progradation was followed by regional shut-down of river sand output between ~ 5.1 and 4.8 Ma that resulted in deposition of marine clay in the Salton Trough, retreat of the delta, and re-flooding of the lower river valley by shallow marine water that deposited the Bouse upper bioclastic member. Resumption of sediment discharge at ~ 4.8 Ma drove massive progradation of fluvial-deltaic deposits back down the river valley into the northern Gulf and Salton Trough.These results provide evidence for a discontinuous, start-stop-start history of sand output during initiation of the Colorado River that is not predicted by existing models for this system. The underlying controls on

  12. (S, C, O, Sr) isotopic constraints on the diagenetic evolution of the COX clay formations at the Bure URL site, Paris Basin) (United States)

    Lerouge, C.; Gaucher, E. C.; Tournassat, C.; Agrinier, P.; Widory, D.; Guerrot, C.; Buschaert, S.


    The Underground Research Laboratory of Bure, located in the Eastern part of the Paris Basin, was selected by ANDRA (French Agency for Nuclear Management) in order to study the feasibility of a nuclear waste disposal in the Callovian-Oxfordian thick clayey formation at 400 meters depth. Since 1994's, numerous investigations have been initiated to understand and predict the behaviour of the clay formation in time and in space, by constraining its stability, the chemical evolution of the porewaters, and solution transfers between the clayey formation and its adjacent limestone sequences during geological times (ANDRA, 2005). In that way, this study presents combined new mineralogical and isotopic data of the diagenetic mineral sequence to constrain the porewater chemistry of the rock at different stages of the sedimentary then burial history of the clayey formation. The petrological study of Callovian-Oxfordian claystones provided evidence of the following diagenetic mineral sequence: 1) Framboïdal pyrite ± micritic calcite in replacement of carbonate bioclasts and in bioturbations, 2) Iron-rich euhedral carbonates (ankerite, sideroplesite), Glauconite, 3) Sparry dolomite, celestite in residual porosity, 4) Chalcedony 5) quartz/calcite. Pyrite in bioturbations shows a wide range of δ34S (-38 to +74 permil/CDT), providing evidence of bacterial sulphate reduction processes. The lowest negative values (-38 to -22 permil) indicate precipitation of pyrite in a marine environment with a permanent recharge in sulphate, whereas the higher pyrite δ34S values (-14 up to +74 permil) show that pyrite precipitated in a system that closed for sulphate. Consequently the variations of pyrite δ34S in bioturbations along the lithostratigraphic profil indicate a change of sedimentation conditions from a deep marine environment to an environment with alternative recharge of marine sulphates; that is consistent with the transgression/regression cycle observed in the middle sequence

  13. The volcaniclastic sediments containing diagenetic zeolites: a first finding in Northern Bohemia, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Jiří Karel; Cílek, Václav

    24-A, - (2001), s. 35-36 ISSN 0210-6558. [Reunión Annual de la Sociedad Espaňola de Mineralogía /21./. 20.09.2001-22.09.2001, Málaga] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : zeolites * tuffs * NW Bohemia Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  14. Possible detrital, diagenetic and hydrothermal sources for Holocene sediments of the Andaman backarc basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kurian, S.; Nath, B.N.; Ramaswamy, V.; Naman, D.; Rao, T.G.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Selvaraj, K.; Chen, C.T.A.

    discriminants such as Eu anomaly and Y/Ho ratio also suggest the role of hydrothermal activity. In addition, the association of Mo with Pb, Zn and Cu in the HCl-insoluble residue suggests the presence of sulfidic material probably of hydrothermal origin....

  15. Potential diagenetic and detrital sources for calcareous sediments from the Carlsberg Ridge, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Borole, D.V.; Shejwalkar, A.S.; Kalangutkar, N.G.; Fernandes, N.O.; Dias, C.C.

    ., Cruise report of RSS Charles Darwin (CD-149) (18 July–6 August 2003), Southampton Oceanography Centre, UK, p. 3. 11. Anon, Cruise report of ORV Sagar Kanya (SK-207) (13 July–19 August 2004), National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, p. 27...

  16. Fluid expulsion sites on the Cascadia accretionary prism: mapping diagenetic deposits with processed GLORIA imagery (United States)

    Carson, Bobb; Seke, Erol; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Holmes, Mark L.


    Point-discharge fluid expulsion on accretionary prisms is commonly indicated by diagenetic deposition of calcium carbonate cements and gas hydrates in near-surface (topographic and lithologic information. We have processed GLORIA imagery from the Oregon continental margin to remove topographic effects. A synthetic side scan image was created initially from Sea Beam bathymetric data and then was subtracted iteratively from the original GLORIA data until topographic features disappeared. The residual image contains high-amplitude backscattering that we attribute to diagenetic deposits associated with fluid discharge, based on submersible mapping, Ocean Drilling Program drilling, and collected samples. Diagenetic deposits are concentrated (1) near an out-of-sequence thrust fault on the second ridge landward of the base of the continental slope, (2) along zones characterized by deep-seated strikeslip faults that cut transversely across the margin, and (3) in undeformed Cascadia Basin deposits which overlie incipient thrust faults seaward of the toe of the prism. There is no evidence of diagenetic deposition associated with the frontal thrust that rises from the dècollement. If the dècollement is an important aquifer, apparently the fluids are passed either to the strike-slip faults which intersect the dècollement or to the incipient faults in Cascadia Basin for expulsion. Diagenetic deposits seaward of the prism toe probably consist dominantly of gas hydrates.

  17. An example of Lower Proterozoic sediments: the Francevillian in Gabon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhomme, M.G.; Gauthier-Lafaye, F.; Weber, F.


    New mineralogical and isotopic data have been obtained on diagenetic fine fractions of the Francevillian sediments. Together with the Rb-Sr age of a syenitic intrusive and already published isotopic ages determined by means of uranium ore and uranium fission products, they allow us to present a more complete geological history of the Francevillian. The main steps are: deposition of the FA Formation before 2140 Ma deposition of the FB-FE Formations between 2140 and 2050 Ma, siliceous diagenesis followed by nuclear reactions between 2050 and 1930 Ma, carbonate diagenesis at nearly 1870 Ma, end of cooling at 1700 Ma and dolerite intrusion at ca. 970 Ma. The Francevillian sediments are, to date, the oldest true sediments known; they are diagenetic, Lower Proterozoic sediments. (Auth.)

  18. Extending the analytical window for water-soluble organic matter in sediments by aqueous Soxhlet extraction (United States)

    Schmidt, Frauke; Koch, Boris P.; Witt, Matthias; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in marine sediments is a complex mixture of thousands of individual constituents that participate in biogeochemical reactions and serve as substrates for benthic microbes. Knowledge of the molecular composition of DOM is a prerequisite for a comprehensive understanding of the biogeochemical processes in sediments. In this study, interstitial water DOM was extracted with Rhizon samplers from a sediment core from the Black Sea and compared to the corresponding water-extractable organic matter fraction (Soxhlet extraction, which mobilizes labile particulate organic matter and DOM. After solid phase extraction (SPE) of DOM, samples were analyzed for the molecular composition by Fourier Transform Ion-Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) with electrospray ionization in negative ion mode. The average SPE extraction yield of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in interstitial water was 63%, whereas less than 30% of the DOC in Soxhlet-extracted organic matter was recovered. Nevertheless, Soxhlet extraction yielded up to 4.35% of the total sedimentary organic carbon, which is more than 30-times the organic carbon content of the interstitial water. While interstitial water DOM consisted primarily of carbon-, hydrogen- and oxygen-bearing compounds, Soxhlet extracts yielded more complex FT-ICR mass spectra with more peaks and higher abundances of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing compounds. The molecular composition of both sample types was affected by the geochemical conditions in the sediment; elevated concentrations of HS- promoted the early diagenetic sulfurization of organic matter. The Soxhlet extracts from shallow sediment contained specific three- and four-nitrogen-bearing molecular formulas that were also detected in bacterial cell extracts and presumably represent proteinaceous molecules. These compounds decreased with increasing sediment depth while one- and two-nitrogen-bearing molecules increased, resulting in a higher

  19. Suspected Offshore Chalcolithic/Early Bronze Age Tsunamigenic Sediments: Jisr al Zarka, Israel (United States)

    Tiulienieva, N.; Braun, Y.; Katz, T.; Goodman-Tchernov, B. N.; Suchkov, I.


    Offshore tsunami deposits are a potentially important sedimentological archive for past tsunamis. They have been identified offshore of Israel using granulometric, geoarchaeological, and micropaleontological indicators. Recent advances in tsunami sedimentological research have put forth a series of new proxies that may be useful tools for tsunami deposit identification. The well-studied offshore deposits of Israel provide a unique opportunity to test some of these proxies because they present good distinction between tsunami and non-tsunami deposits and they can be associated with a rich historical record and archaeological artifacts. In this study, a 219 cm long sediment core, retrieved from a 15.3 m water depth, situated in about 5 km to the north from well studied shallow shelf, offshore Caesarea. Based on the previously used criteria three layers in the new core were identified as tsunami-generated. Two of these correlated to previously described tsunami events in Caesarea; 749 AD and 1500 BC. The third layer gave the time frame from 5.6 to 6 ka BP, making this event the oldest identified in the Eastern Mediterranean to date. Identified unusual layers were attributed to tsunami-generated sedimentary sequences, based on both visually recognizable indicators and the results of laboratory analyses. FT-IR, XRD, and XRF analysis were also applied. The results of this study allow to make following conclusions: (1) visual tsunami indicators in the studied core are similar to those in Caesarea, but lack archaeological debris; (2) while distinct deviation of granulometric coefficients (mean, median, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis) correlated to tsunami layers, the additional proxies of deposition rate and mollusk assemblage excluded one deviated layer from tsunamigenic-designation; (3) the results of XRF, FT-IR, XRD showed that they are not useful as independent methods at this study site.

  20. Diagenetic Microcrystalline Opal Varieties from the Monterey Formation, CA: HRTEM Study of Structures and Phase Transformation Mechanisms (United States)

    Cady, Sherry L.; Wenk, H.-R.; DeVincenzi, Don (Technical Monitor)


    Microcrystalline opal varieties form as intermediary precipitates during the diagenetic transformation of biogenically precipitated non-crystalline opal (opal-A) to microquartz. With regard to the Monterey Formation of California, X-ray powder diffraction studies have shown that a decrease in the primary d-spacing of opal-CT toward that of cristobalite occurs with increasing diagenesis. The initial timing of opal-CT/quartz formation and the value of the primary opal-CT d-spacing, are influenced by the sediment. lithology. Transmission electron microscopy methods (CTEM/HRTEM) were used to investigate the structure of the diagenetic phases and establish transformation mechanisms between the varieties of microcrystalline opals in charts and porcelanites from the Monterey Formation. HRTEM images revealed that the most common fibrous varieties of microcrystalline opals contain varying amounts of structural disorder. Finite lamellar units of cristobalite-and tridymite-type. layer sequences were found to be randomly stacked in a direction perpendicular to the fiber axis. Disordered and ordered fibers were found to have coprecipitated within the same radial fiber bundles that formed within the matrix of the Most siliceous samples. HRTEM images, which reveal that the fibers within radial and lepispheric fiber bundles branch non-crystallographically, support an earlier proposal that microspheres in chert grow via a spherulitic growth mechanism. A less common variety of opal-CT was found to be characterized by non-parallel (low-angle) stacking sequences that often contain twinned lamellae. Tabular-shaped crystals of orthorhombic tridymite (PO-2) were also identified in the porcelanite samples. A shift in the primary d-spacing of opal-CT has been interpreted as an indication of solid-state ordering g toward a predominantly cristobalite structure, (opal-C). Domains of opal-C were identified as topotactically-oriented overgrowths on discrete Sections of opal-CT fibers and as

  1. The chemistry and mineralogy of haloed burrows in pelagic sediment at DOMES Site A: The equatorial North Pacific (United States)

    Piper, D.Z.; Rude, P.D.; Monteith, S.


    The chemical and mineralogical composition of burrowed sediment, recovered in 66 box cores at latitude 9??25???N and longitude 151??15???W in the equatorial Pacific, demonstrates the important role of infauna in determining the geochemistry of pelagic sediment. Haloed burrows, approximately 3 cm across, were present in many of the cores. Within early Tertiary sediment that was covered by less than 5 cm of surface Quaternary sediment in several cores, the burrows in cross-section consist of three units: (1) a dark yellowish-brown central zone of Quaternary sediment surrounded, by (2) a pale yellowish-orange zone (the halo) of Tertiary sediment, which is surrounded by (3) a metal-oxide precipitate; the enclosing Tertiary sediment is dusky brown. Several elements - Mn, Ni, Cu, Co, Zn, Sb and Ce - have been leached from the light-colored halo, whereas Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta, Th, U, the rare earth elements exclusive of Ce, and the major oxides have not been leached. The metal-oxide zone, 1-5 mm thick, contains as much as 16% MnO2, as the mineral todorokite. The composition of the todorokite, exclusive of the admixed Tertiary sediment, resembles the composition of the metal deficit of the halo and also the composition of surface ferromanganese nodules that have been interpreted as having a predominantly diagenetic origin. Thus bioturbation contributes not only to the redistribution of metals within pelagic sediment, but also to the accretion of ferromanganese nodules on the sea floor. ?? 1987.

  2. Recent Compositional Trends within the Murray Formation, Gale Crater, Mars, as seen by APXS: Implications for Sedimentary, Diagenetic and Alteration History. (United States)

    Thompson, L. M.; Yen, A.; Spray, J. G.; Johnson, J. R.; Fraeman, A. A.; Berger, J. A.; Gellert, R.; Boyd, N.; Desouza, E.; O'Connell-Cooper, C.; VanBommel, S.


    The >230 m thick Murray Formation is the lower-most unit of the Mount Sharp Group, and interpreted as primarily lacustrine. Representative mudstone, siltstone and fine sandstone targets, encountered above -4330 m elevation, trend to lower Si, Al, Ti, Cr and Ca, and higher Fe, Mn, Zn, P and Mg than the Murray below. Less common, distinctive, coarser grained sandstone lenses tend to exhibit slightly different compositions to the more typical Murray but, overall, show similar elemental trends with elevation, albeit exaggerated. This suggests that the variations observed with elevation in Al, Ti, Cr, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and P within both the coarser sandstones and finer grained Murray are the result of diagenetic and/or alteration processes rather than provenance or physical sedimentary processes such as sorting. This is supported by the chemistry of obvious diagenetic, dark grey nodules, and other potential diagenetic/alteration features within this section, which show variations in the same element concentrations (i.e., P, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca and S), distinct from diagenetic features lower down in the stratigraphy, indicating mobility of these elements within this section and changing fluid chemistry. Trends in FeO/MnO generally mimic the presence of ferric absorption features observed in visible/near infrared passive spectra from the ChemCam instrument and from CRISM orbital data, which may be consistent with changes in redox conditions as we climb up section towards Vera Rubin Ridge (Hematite Ridge). Layer-parallel CaSO4 is also common, and not observed below -4330 m. This may represent syndepositional evaporite layers, or late bedding/laminae parallel veins emplaced after lithification, in conjunction with cross-cutting veins. The overall differences in composition between the sandstone targets and finer grained Murray are attributed to distinct provenances and/or sorting during transport. We will discuss the implications of the trends and composition of the Murray above

  3. Fluid flow evolution in petroleum reservoirs with a complex diagenetic history: An example from Veracruz, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferket, H.; Swennen, R.; Ortuno-Arzate, S.; Roure, F.


    This paper discusses the fluid flow evolution in the Veracruz petroleum province of eastern Mexico based on results of an integrated diagenetic, sedimentological and structural analysis. The area progressively changed from passive foreland towards an active fold-and-thrust belt into a passive belt

  4. Heavy sediment influx during early Holocene: Inference from clay mineral studies in a core from the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, N.P.C.; Rao, K.M.

    is attributed to heavy sediment influx du r- ing Mid Termination (MT) (12,500 ? 10,000 years BP), due to i n creased precipitation and run - off resulting from high inte n sity monsoonal regime. C LAY minerals are a powerful source for the interpret a... to address to the prov e nance of the sediments in a sediment core from the western Bengal Fan. In this paper, we report clay mi n eralogy and provide an explanation for the heavy sed i ment deposition du r ing the Holocene. A sediment core of 650...

  5. Toxicity of smelter slag-contaminated sediments from Upper Lake Roosevelt and associated metals to early life stage White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836) (United States)

    Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.


    The toxicity of five smelter slag-contaminated sediments from the upper Columbia River and metals associated with those slags (cadmium, copper, zinc) was evaluated in 96-h exposures of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836) at 8 and 30 days post-hatch. Leachates prepared from slag-contaminated sediments were evaluated for toxicity. Leachates yielded a maximum aqueous copper concentration of 11.8 μg L−1 observed in sediment collected at Dead Man's Eddy (DME), the sampling site nearest the smelter. All leachates were nonlethal to sturgeon that were 8 day post-hatch (dph), but leachates from three of the five sediments were toxic to fish that were 30 dph, suggesting that the latter life stage is highly vulnerable to metals exposure. Fish maintained consistent and prolonged contact with sediments and did not avoid contaminated sediments when provided a choice between contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. White Sturgeon also failed to avoid aqueous copper (1.5–20 μg L−1). In water-only 96-h exposures of 35 dph sturgeon with the three metals, similar toxicity was observed during exposure to water spiked with copper alone and in combination with cadmium and zinc. Cadmium ranging from 3.2 to 41 μg L−1 or zinc ranging from 21 to 275 μg L−1 was not lethal, but induced adverse behavioral changes including a loss of equilibrium. These results suggest that metals associated with smelter slags may pose an increased exposure risk to early life stage sturgeon if fish occupy areas contaminated by slags.

  6. Early warning indicators for river nutrient and sediment loads in tropical seagrass beds: a benchmark from a near-pristine archipelago in Indonesia. (United States)

    van Katwijk, M M; van der Welle, M E W; Lucassen, E C H E T; Vonk, J A; Christianen, M J A; Kiswara, W; al Hakim, I Inayat; Arifin, A; Bouma, T J; Roelofs, J G M; Lamers, L P M


    In remote, tropical areas human influences increase, potentially threatening pristine seagrass systems. We aim (i) to provide a bench-mark for a near-pristine seagrass system in an archipelago in East Kalimantan, by quantifying a large spectrum of abiotic and biotic properties in seagrass meadows and (ii) to identify early warning indicators for river sediment and nutrient loading, by comparing the seagrass meadow properties over a gradient with varying river influence. Abiotic properties of water column, pore water and sediment were less suitable indicators for increased sediment and nutrient loading than seagrass properties. Seagrass meadows strongly responded to higher sediment and nutrient loads and proximity to the coast by decreasing seagrass cover, standing stock, number of seagrass species, changing species composition and shifts in tissue contents. Our study confirms that nutrient loads are more important than water nutrient concentrations. We identify seagrass system variables that are suitable indicators for sediment and nutrient loading, also in rapid survey scenarios with once-only measurements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Greigite formed in early Pleistocene lacustrine sediments from the Heqing Basin, southwest China, and its paleoenvironmental implications (United States)

    Qiang, Xiaoke; Xu, Xinwen; Zhao, Hui; Fu, Chaofeng


    The ferrimagnetic iron sulfide greigite (Fe3S4) occurs widely in sulfidic lacustrine and marine sedimentary environments. Knowledge of its formation and persistence is important for both magnetostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental studies. Although the formation mechanism of greigite has been widely demonstrated, the sedimentary environments associated with greigite formation in lakes, especially on relatively long timescales, are poorly understood. A long and continuous sequence of Pleistocene lacustrine sediments was recovered in the Heqing drill core from southwestern China, which provides an outstanding record of continental climate and environment. Integrated magnetic, geochemical, and paleoclimatic analysis of the lacustrine sequence provides an opportunity to improve our understanding of the environmental controls on greigite formation. Rock magnetic and scanning electron microscope analyses of selected samples from the core reveal that greigite is present in the lower part of the core (part 1, 665.8-372.5 m). Greigite occurs throughout this interval and is the dominant magnetic mineral, irrespective of the climatic state. The magnetic susceptibility (χ) record, which is mainly controlled by the concentration of greigite, matches well with variations in the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) index and total organic carbon (TOC) content, with no significant time lag. This indicates that the greigite formed during early diagenesis. In greigite-bearing intervals, with the χ increase, Bc value increase and tends to be stable at about 50 mT. Therefore, we suggest that χ values could estimate the variation of greigite concentration approximately in the Heqing core. Greigite favored more abundant in terrigenous-rich and organic-poor layers associated with weak summer monsoon which are characterized by high χ values, high Fe content, high Rb/Sr ratio and low TOC content. Greigite enhancement can be explained by variations in terrigenous inputs. Our studies demonstrate

  8. Preparation of Authigenic Pyrite from Methane-bearing Sediments for In Situ Sulfur Isotope Analysis Using SIMS. (United States)

    Lin, Zhiyong; Sun, Xiaoming; Peckmann, Jörn; Lu, Yang; Strauss, Harald; Xu, Li; Lu, Hongfeng; Teichert, Barbara M A


    Different sulfur isotope compositions of authigenic pyrite typically result from the sulfate-driven anaerobic oxidation of methane (SO4-AOM) and organiclastic sulfate reduction (OSR) in marine sediments. However, unravelling the complex pyritization sequence is a challenge because of the coexistence of different sequentially formed pyrite phases. This manuscript describes a sample preparation procedure that enables the use of secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) to obtain in situ δ 34 S values of various pyrite generations. This allows researchers to constrain how SO4-AOM affects pyritization in methane-bearing sediments. SIMS analysis revealed an extreme range in δ 34 S values, spanning from -41.6 to +114.8‰, which is much wider than the range of δ 34 S values obtained by the traditional bulk sulfur isotope analysis of the same samples. Pyrite in the shallow sediment mainly consists of 34 S-depleted framboids, suggesting early diagenetic formation by OSR. Deeper in the sediment, more pyrite occurs as overgrowths and euhedral crystals, which display much higher SIMS δ 34 S values than the framboids. Such 34 S-enriched pyrite is related to enhanced SO4-AOM at the sulfate-methane transition zone, postdating OSR. High-resolution in situ SIMS sulfur isotope analyses allow for the reconstruction of the pyritization processes, which cannot be resolved by bulk sulfur isotope analysis.

  9. The influence of oxygen exposure time on the composition of macromolecular organic matter as revealed by surface sediments on the Murray Ridge (Arabian Sea) (United States)

    Nierop, Klaas G. J.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Veld, Harry; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.


    The Arabian Sea represents a prime example of an open ocean extended oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) with low oxygen concentrations (down to less than 2 μM) between 200 and 1000 m water depth. The OMZ impinges on the ocean floor, affecting organic matter (OM) mineralization. We investigated impact of oxygen depletion on the composition of macromolecular OM (MOM) along a transect through the OMZ on the slopes of the Murray Ridge. This sub-marine high in the northern Arabian Sea, with the top at approximately 500 m below sea surface (mbss), intersects the OMZ. We analyzed sediments deposited in the core of OMZ (suboxic conditions), directly below the OMZ (dysoxic conditions) and well below the OMZ (fully oxic conditions). The upper 18 cm of sediments from three stations recovered at different depths were studied. MOM was investigated by Rock Eval and flash pyrolysis techniques. The MOM was of a predominant marine origin and inferred from their pyrolysis products, most biomolecules (tetra-alkylpyrrole pigments, polysaccharides, proteins and their transformation products, and polyphenols including phlorotannins), showed a progressive relative degradation with increasing exposure to oxygen. Alkylbenzenes and, in particular, aliphatic macromolecules increased relatively. The observed differences in MOM composition between sediment deposited under various bottom water oxygen conditions (i.e. in terms of concentration and exposure time) was much larger than within sediment cores, implying that early diagenetic alteration of organic matter depends largely on bottom water oxygenation rather than subsequent anaerobic degradation within the sediments, even at longer time scales.

  10. Contributions of a Strengthened Early Holocene Monsoon and Sediment Loading to Present-Day Subsidence of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (United States)

    Karpytchev, M.; Ballu, V.; Krien, Y.; Becker, M.; Goodbred, S.; Spada, G.; Calmant, S.; Shum, C. K.; Khan, Z.


    The contribution of subsidence to relative sea level rise in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta (GBD) is largely unknown and may considerably enhance exposure of the Bengal Basin populations to sea level rise and storm surges. This paper focuses on estimating the present-day subsidence induced by Holocene sediment in the Bengal Basin and by oceanic loading due to eustatic sea level rise over the past 18 kyr. Using a viscoelastic Earth model and sediment deposition history based on in situ measurements, results suggest that massive sediment influx initiated in the early Holocene under a strengthened South Asian monsoon may have contributed significantly to the present-day subsidence of the GBD. We estimate that the Holocene loading generates up to 1.6 mm/yr of the present-day subsidence along the GBD coast, depending on the rheological model of the Earth. This rate is close to the twentieth century global mean sea level rise (1.1-1.7 mm/yr). Thus, past climate change, by way of enhanced sedimentation, is impacting vulnerability of the GBD populations.

  11. Mineralogical and geochemical characters of surface sediments from the central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.

    are enriched in trace metal (e.g. Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Co) inhomogeneously. Ni, Cu and Co are well correlated with Mn in terrigenous, siliceous and pelagic clay sediments. However, metal enrichment processes differ. The enrichment process is diagenetic in siliceous...

  12. Quantification of sediment-water interactions in a polluted tropical river through biogeochemical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trinh, A.D.; Meysman, F.; Rochelle-Newall, E.; Bonnet, M.P.


    Diagenetic modeling presents an interesting and robust way to understand sediment-water column processes. Here we present the application of such a model to the Day River in Northern Vietnam, a system that is subject to high levels of domestic wastewater inputs from the Hanoi metropolitan area.

  13. Geochemistry of deep-sea sediment cores from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mudholkar, A.V.; Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.

    , thought to be of diagenetic origin. Metals are suppliEd. by upward migration from a suboxic to anoxic zone at an intermediate depth of 12-35 cm below the sediment-water interface in all the cores. Buried maxima in transition metal concentration at depth...

  14. La Sedimentation Argileuse dans le Bassin Côtier du Togo, Reflet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the marine sedimentation within the Togo coastal basin, the impact of input continental origin was very important despite their various nature and the sedimentary or diagenetic modifications demanded by active or passive receptive depositional environment. Sedimentary clays in the basin reflect climatic, tectonic ...

  15. Depositional and diagenetic variability within the Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone: Implications for carbon dioxide sequestration (United States)

    Bowen, B.B.; Ochoa, R.I.; Wilkens, N.D.; Brophy, J.; Lovell, T.R.; Fischietto, N.; Medina, C.R.; Rupp, J.A.


    The Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone is the major target reservoir for ongoing geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations throughout the midwest United States. The potential CO2 reservoir capacity, reactivity, and ultimate fate of injected CO2 depend on textural and compositional properties determined by depositional and diagenetic histories that vary vertically and laterally across the formation. Effective and efficient prediction and use of the available pore space requires detailed knowledge of the depositional and diagenetic textures and mineralogy, how these variables control the petrophysical character of the reservoir, and how they vary spatially. Here, we summarize the reservoir characteristics of the Mount Simon Sandstone based on examination of geophysical logs, cores, cuttings, and analysis of more than 150 thin sections. These samples represent different parts of the formation and depth ranges of more than 9000 ft (>2743 m) across the Illinois Basin and surrounding areas. This work demonstrates that overall reservoir quality and, specifically, porosity do not exhibit a simple relationship with depth, but vary both laterally and with depth because of changes in the primary depositional facies, framework composition (i.e., feldspar concentration), and diverse diagenetic modifications. Diagenetic processes that have been significant in modifying the reservoir include formation of iron oxide grain coatings, chemical compaction, feldspar precipitation and dissolution, multiple generations of quartz overgrowth cementation, clay mineral precipitation, and iron oxide cementation. These variables provide important inputs for calculating CO2 capacity potential, modeling reactivity, and are also an important baseline for comparisons after CO2 injection. Copyright ??2011. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  16. Lake sediment multi-taxon DNA from North Greenland records early post-glacial appearance of vascular plants and accurately tracks environmental changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, L. S.; Gussarova, C.; Boessenkool, S.


    temperatures. Lake sediments contain DNA paleorecords of the surrounding ecosystems and can be used to retrieve a variety of organismal groups from a single sample. In this study, we analyzed vascular plant, bryophyte, algal (in particular diatom) and copepod DNA retrieved from a sediment core spanning...... phases, and distinct temporal changes in plant presence were recovered. The plant DNA was mostly in agreement with expected vegetation history, but very early occurrences of vascular plants, including the woody Empetrum nigrum, document terrestrial vegetation very shortly after glacial retreat. Our study...... core. Our DNA record was stratigraphically coherent, with no indication of leaching between layers, and our cross-taxon comparisons were in accordance with previously inferred local ecosystem changes. Authentic ancient plant DNA was retrieved from nearly all layers, both from the marine and the limnic...

  17. Early Paleogene variations in the calcite compensation depth: new constraints using old borehole sediments from across Ninetyeast Ridge, central Indian Ocean (United States)

    Slotnick, B. S.; Lauretano, V.; Backman, J.; Dickens, G. R.; Sluijs, A.; Lourens, L.


    Major variations in global carbon cycling occurred between 62 and 48 Ma, and these very likely related to changes in the total carbon inventory of the ocean-atmosphere system. Based on carbon cycle theory, variations in the mass of the ocean carbon should be reflected in contemporaneous global ocean carbonate accumulation on the seafloor and, thereby, the depth of the calcite compensation depth (CCD). To better constrain the cause and magnitude of these changes, the community needs early Paleogene carbon isotope and carbonate accumulation records from widely separated deep-sea sediment sections, especially including the Indian Ocean. Several CCD reconstructions for this time interval have been generated using scientific drill sites in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans; however, corresponding information from the Indian Ocean has been extremely limited. To assess the depth of the CCD and the potential for renewed scientific drilling of Paleogene sequences in the Indian Ocean, we examine lithologic, nannofossil, carbon isotope, and carbonate content records for late Paleocene - early Eocene sediments recovered at three sites spanning Ninetyeast Ridge: Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Sites 213 (deep, east), 214 (shallow, central), and 215 (deep, west). The disturbed, discontinuous sediment sections are not ideal, because they were recovered in single holes using rotary coring methods, but remain the best Paleogene sediments available from the central Indian Ocean. The δ13C records at Sites 213 and 215 are similar to those generated at several locations in the Atlantic and Pacific, including the prominent high in δ13C across the Paleocene carbon isotope maximum (PCIM) at Site 215, and the prominent low in δ13C across the early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) at both Site 213 and Site 215. The Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and the K/X event are found at Site 213 but not at Site 215, presumably because of coring gaps. Carbonate content at both Sites 213 and

  18. Origin and diagenetic evolution of gypsum and microbialitic carbonates in the Late Sag of the Namibe Basin (SW Angola) (United States)

    Laurent, Gindre-Chanu; Edoardo, Perri; Ian, Sharp R.; Peacock, D. C. P.; Roger, Swart; Ragnar, Poulsen; Hercinda, Ferreira; Vladimir, Machado


    Ephemeral evaporitic conditions developed within the uppermost part of the transgressive Late Sag sequence in the Namibe Basin (SW Angola), leading to the formation of extensive centimetre- to metre-thick sulphate-bearing deposits and correlative microbialitic carbonates rich in pseudomorphs after evaporite crystals. The onshore pre-salt beds examined in this study are located up to 25 m underneath the major mid-Aptian evaporitic succession, which is typified at the outcrop by gypsiferous Bambata Formation and in the subsurface by the halite-dominated Loeme Formation. Carbonate-evaporite cycles mostly occur at the top of metre-thick regressive parasequences, which progressively onlap and overstep landward the former faulted (rift) topography, or fill major pre-salt palaeo-valleys. The sulphate beds are made up of alabastrine gypsum associated with embedded botryoidal nodules, dissolution-related gypsum breccia, and are cross-cut by thin satin-spar gypsum veins. Nodular and fine-grained fabrics are interpreted as being diagenetic gypsum deposits resulting from the dissolution and recrystallisation of former depositional subaqueous sulphates, whereas gypsum veins and breccia result from telogenetic processes. The carbonates display a broader diversity of facies, characterised by rapid lateral variations along strike. Thin dolomitic and calcitic bacterial-mediated filamentous microbialitic boundstones enclose a broad variety of evaporite pseudomorphs and can pass laterally over a few metres into sulphate beds. Dissolution-related depositional breccias are also common and indicate early dissolution of former evaporite layers embedded within the microbialites. Sulphate and carbonate units are interpreted as being concomitantly deposited along a tide-dominated coastal supra- to intertidal- sabkha and constitute high-frequency hypersaline precursor events, prior to the accumulation of the giant saline mid-Aptian Bambata and Loeme Formations. Petrographic and geochemical

  19. Early diagenetic processes affecting nutrients in the pore waters of Central Indian Ocean cores

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Mudholkar, A.V.

    and unoxidized organic carbon are observed in the Arabian Sea core, while nitrification with intermediate low nitrate and high organic carbon are found in the mottled zones of the pelagic cores. Mobilization of iron-host oxyhydroxides and peaked profiles...

  20. The effects of early diagenetic bacterial sulphate reduction upon the petrology and chemistry of coal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Veld, H.; Fermont, W.J.J.; Leeuw, J.W. de


    In the present study the correlation of the occurrence of sulphur with physical (optical) and chemical characteristics of coal will be discussed to test possible relationships between sulphur and %Rm.

  1. Influence of macrobenthos on chemical diagenesis of marine sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aller, R.C.


    Diagenetic reactions involving the decomposition of organic matter and the dissolution, mobilization, and reprecipitation of metals sensitive to oxidation-reduction reactions, are most intense and rapid in the upper 1 m and especially the upper 10 cm of marine sediment. It is in this upper zone where most benthic organisms live and interact with sediments and where exchange rates of dissolved and particulate material between sediment and overlying water are largely determined. In Long Island Sound, U.S.A., both spatial and temporal trends in sediment chemistry and the flux of material out of the bottom demonstrate the control of diagenesis by bottom fauna. /sup 234/Th//sup 238/U disequilibrium studies demonstrate that particle reworking rates near the sediment-water interface vary both temporally and spatially in the Sound. The most rapid reworking occurs in protobranch-inhabited bottom areas as do the highest /sup 234/Th inventories. Excess /sup 234/Th profiles in the sediment allow determination of the rates of selected diagenetic reactions, such as Mn/sup + +/ production, near the sediment surface. Both the /sup 234/Th disequilibrium and flux measurements indicate that intra-estuarine redistribution of metals continually takes place.

  2. An early approach for the evaluation of repair processes in fish after exposure to sediment contaminated by an oil spill. (United States)

    Salamanca, Maria J; Jimenez-Tenorio, Natalia; Reguera, Diana F; Morales-Caselles, Carmen; Delvalls, T Angel


    A chronic bioassay was carried out under laboratory conditions using juvenile Solea senegalensis to determine the toxicity of contaminants from an oil spill(Prestige). Also, the repair processes in fish affected by contaminants due to oil exposure were evaluated. Over 30 days individuals were exposed to clean sediment (control) and to sediment contaminated by a mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other substances. The physicochemical parameters of the tanks (salinity, temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen) were controlled during the exposure period. Clean sediment from the Bay of Cadiz (Spain) was used as negative control and was mixed with fuel oil to prepare the dilution (0.5% w:w dry-weight). After the exposure period, fish were labeled and transferred to "clean tanks" (tanks without sediment) in order to study the recovery and the repair processes in the exposed organisms. A biomarker of exposure (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity - EROD activity) and a biomarker of effect (histopathology) were analyzed during the exposure and recovery period. After 10, 20 and 30 days of exposure, individuals showed significant induction (P tank", enabled a first evaluation of the repair process of the induced damages due to the fuel oil exposure. After the recovery phase, control individuals showed a more significant decrease (P repair processes probably need longer recovery periods to observe significant improvement of the affected organs. This will be further investigated in the future.

  3. The early warning system of landslides and sediment runoffs using meteorological condition including rainfall-soil moisture index (Invited) (United States)

    Kubota, T.; Silva, I. C.; Hasnawir, H.


    The research including observation of rain, soil moisture content and sediment discharge is conducted on a torrent in northern Kyushu whose geology consists of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks (mainly schist) and whose vegetation consists of mainly Japanese cypress and cedar. Soil depth is approximately 50cm in average and permeability k is 0.1~0.01 order. With data obtained by the observation for more than 4 years, standard rainfalls of warning and evacuation against the sudden sediment runoffs are analyzed. Then, the result was compared with the ones in Nuevo Leon Mexico (geology of schist, slate, k=0.01~0.001 order) and in southern Sulawesi Island Indonesia (volcanic geology, k=0.001~0.0001 order). Hitherto, various methods were proposed to analyze the warning critical standard for landslide disaster or large sediment discharge. In this study, we employed Hirano's element slope runoff theory, the Self Organized Criticality Assumption (SOC), and the Elementary Catastrophe Theory (ETC) to analyze the data, although the soil moisture fluctuation, meteorological condition such as upper air wind and dew point depression, the rainfall-soil moisture index provided by Japan Meteorological Agency was considered. The last one is a cutting edge technology based on the tank model calculation of soil moisture content combined with short term rainfall prediction which is a product of numerical simulation using radar image advection analysis compensated with surface rain data and with orographic rain effect. In Hirano's theory, we can describe the critical rain Rc and rain intensity Ric as following equation. Q/A/M/ cosθ = Ri ∫(r*cosθ)dt = Ri*R (1) ∴ Ric*Rc = C (2) Here, Q: sediment runoff or debris flow discharge, A: watershed area, M: function concerning with sediment deposit features on the upstream torrents or slopes (porosity, torrent bed slope gradient, sediment accumulation length and depth, cohesion), t: time, θ: torrent bed or hillside slope gradient, r: instant

  4. Formation of Mg-aluminosilicates During Early Diagenesis of Carbonate Sediments in the Volcanic Crater Lake of Dziani Dzaha (Mayotte - Indian Ocean) (United States)

    Milesi, V. P.; Jezequel, D.; Debure, M.; Marty, N.; Guyot, F. J.; Claret, F.; Virgone, A.; Gaucher, E.; Ader, M.


    Authigenic clays are increasingly reported in ancient carbonate rocks, but their origin remains poorly understood, strongly limiting paleoenvironmental interpretations. To tackle this issue, the carbonate sediments of the volcanic crater lake Dziani Dzaha are studied and reactive transport modeling is performed to assess the processes originating carbonate sediments associated with Mg-rich silicates during early diagenesis. The Dziani Dzaha is characterized by CO2-rich gases bubbling in three different locations, a high primary productivity leading to organic carbon contents of up to 30wt.% in the sediment, an alkalinity of 0.26 molal in the water column and pH values of 9 to 9.5. Characterization of bulk samples and clay fraction (fueled by inputs of CO2-rich volcanic gases, which generates high pH, promoting the formation of saponite, aragonite and hydromagnesite, which precipitates at first before being destabilized at depth due to organic matter mineralization. The observed carbon cycle, influenced by volcanic gases, may thus play a key role in the development of carbonate rocks associated with Mg-silicates.

  5. Toxicity of sediment-associated substituted phenylamine antioxidants on the early life stages of Pimephales promelas and a characterization of effects on freshwater organisms. (United States)

    Prosser, Ryan S; Parrott, Joanne L; Galicia, Melissa; Shires, Kallie; Sullivan, Cheryl; Toito, John; Bartlett, Adrienne J; Milani, Danielle; Gillis, Patty L; Balakrishnan, Vimal K


    Substituted phenylamine antioxidants (SPAs) are high production volume chemicals that are incorporated into a variety of commercial products (e.g., polymers, dyes, lubricants). There are few data on chronic toxicity of SPAs to fish and no data on the toxicity of SPAs to the early life stages of fish. The physicochemical properties of SPAs would suggest that if they were to enter an aquatic ecosystem they would partition into sediment. Therefore, the present study focused on investigating the chronic effect of sediment-associated SPAs to the early life stages of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Eggs and larvae were exposed to sediment spiked with diphenylamine (DPA), N-phenyl-1-napthylamine (PNA), N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DPPDA), or 4,4'-methylene-bis[N-sec-butylaniline] (MBA). The most sensitive endpoint for DPA, PNA, and DPPDA was total survival with 21-d median lethal concentrations (LC50s) based on concentration in overlying water of 1920, 74, and 35 μg/L, respectively. The most sensitive endpoint for MBA was growth with a 21-d median effective concentration (EC50) of 71 μg/L. The same endpoints were the most sensitive in terms of concentrations of DPA, PNA, DPPDA, and MBA in sediment (101, 54, 111, and 76 μg/g dry wt, respectively). Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were constructed for each SPA based on acute and chronic toxicity data generated in the present study and found in the literature. Overall, P. promelas was in the midrange of chronic sensitivity, with the most sensitive species being Tubifex tubifex. The SSDs indicate that DPA based on concentration in water is the least toxic to aquatic biota of the 4 SPAs investigated. The constructed SSDs indicate that a concentration in water and sediment of 1 μg/L and 1 μg/g dry weight, respectively, would be protective of >95% of the aquatic species tested. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2730-2738. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  6. Quantification of diagenetic overprint processes deduced from fossil carbonate shells and laboratory-based hydrothermal alteration experiments (United States)

    Griesshaber, Erika; Casella, Laura; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Dietzel, Martin; Immenhauser, Adrian; Schmahl, Wolfgang


    Benthic and nektonic marine biogenic carbonate archives represent the foundation of numerous studies aiming at reconstructions of past climate dynamics and environmental change. However, living organisms are not in thermodynamic equilibrium and create local chemical environments where physiologic processes such as biomineralization takes place. After the death of the organism the former physiologic disequilibrium conditions are not sustained any more and all biological tissues are altered by equilibration according to the surrounding environment: diagenesis. With increasing diagenetic alteration, the biogenic structure and fingerprint fades away and is replaced by inorganic features. Thus, recrystallization of organism-specific microstructure is a clear indicator for diagenetic overprint. Microstructural data, which mirror recrystallization, are of great value for interpreting geochemical proxies for paleo-environment reconstruction. Despite more than a century of research dealing with carbonate diagenesis, many of the controlling processes and factors are only understood in a qualitative manner. One of the main issues is that diagenetically altered carbonates are usually present as the product of a complex preceding diagenetic pathway with an unknown number of intermediate steps. In this contribution we present and discuss laboratory based alteration experiments with the aim to investigate time-series data sets in a controlled manner. We conducted hydrothermal alteration experiments with modern Arctica islandica (bivalvia) and Notosaria nigricans (brachiopoda) in order to mimic diagenetic overprint. We explore first the potential of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) measurements together with statistical data evaluation as a tool to quantify diagenetic alteration of carbonate skeletons. Subsequently, we compare microstructural patterns obtained from experimentally altered shell material with those of fossil specimens that have undergone variable degrees of

  7. Origin of stratiform sediment-hosted manganese carbonate ore deposits: Examples from Molango, Mexico, and TaoJiang, China (United States)

    Okita, P.M.; Shanks, Wayne C.


    space, suggest they were formed similarly by MnO2 precipitation at the margins of dysaerobic to anoxic marine basins. Mn-carbonate formed predominantly by early-diagenetic reduction of Mn-oxides via oxidation of organic matter in near-surface sediments. In addition to MnCO3 precipitation, organic matter oxidation reactions resulted in oxidation of FeS to Fe-oxides such as magnetite, maghemite and hematite. The latter process explains anomalously low pyrite content and abundant Fe-oxide minerals in ore zones dominated by rhodochrosite. ?? 1992.

  8. Diagenetic pathways in deposits of cool- and cold-water carbonate factories (United States)

    Frank, T. D.; James, N. P.


    This investigation integrates sedimentological, petrographic, and geochemical observations from modern and ancient heterozoan carbonate deposits that formed at temperate to polar latitudes with the aim of evaluating diagenetic pathways characteristic of these systems. These factories operate under conditions distinct from those of photozoan counterparts. Lower temperatures, higher trophic resources, lower carbonate saturation states, and strong seasonality govern not only the nature of carbonate communities, but also how deposits translate into the rock record. In these settings, carbonate production is entirely biogenic, assemblages are of low diversity, and there are no significant calcareous phototrophs. Aragonitic taxa may be present in living communities, but allochems rapidly disappear via dissolution. Carbonate producers are not capable of building rigid frameworks, so their deposits accumulate as sands and gravels and are prone to winnowing and reworking. Low production rates lead to long seafloor residence times (1000s of years) for grains, which undergo physical reworking, dissolution, and repeated infestation by endolithic borers. Microborings remain empty, increasing grain susceptibility to disintegration. Intergranular cementation on the seafloor is rare and restricted to hardgrounds. Periods of subaerial exposure do not leave traces of meteoric alteration. Results show that the deposits of heterozoan carbonate factories tend enter the geologic record as taphonomic remnants, namely reworked, unconsolidated sands and gravels with low diagenetic potential. During burial, physical and chemical compaction produce limestones with tightly packed, grain-supported fabrics, often with grains in sutured contact. Significant cementation is associated with the deep burial realm. Results reveal a dramatically different diagenetic pathway than is typical for deposits of tropical photozoan factories, in which significant recrystallization and lithification occur on

  9. Early invasion population structure of quagga mussel and associated benthic invertebrate community composition on soft sediment in a large reservoir (United States)

    Wittmann, Marion E.; Chandra, Sudeep; Caires, Andrea; Denton, Marianne; Rosen, Michael R.; Wong, Wai Hing; Teitjen, Todd; Turner, Kent; Roefer, Peggy; Holdren, G. Chris


    In 2007 an invasive dreissenid mussel species, Dreissena bugensis (quagga mussel), was discovered in Lake Mead reservoir (AZ–NV). Within 2 years, adult populations have spread throughout the lake and are not only colonizing hard substrates, but also establishing in soft sediments at depths ranging from 1 to >100 m. Dreissena bugensis size class and population density distribution differs between basins; cluster analysis revealed 5 adult cohorts within Boulder Basin and Overton Arm but low densities and low cohort survival in the Las Vegas Basin. Regression analysis suggests depth and temperature are not primary controllers of D. bugensis density in Lake Mead, indicating other factors such as sediment type, food availability or other resource competition may be important. Monthly veliger tows showed at least 2 major spawning events per year, with continuous presence of veligers in the water column. Adult mussels have been found in spawn or post-spawn condition in soft sediments in shallow to deep waters (>80 m) indicating the potential for reproduction at multiple depths. Comparisons to a 1986 benthic survey suggest there have been shifts in nondreissenid macroinvertebrate composition; however, it is unclear if this is due to D. bugensis presence. Current distribution of nondreissenid macroinvertebrates is heterogeneous in all 3 basins, and their biodiversity decreased when D. bugensis density was 2500/m2 or greater.

  10. Major, trace, and rare earth elements in the sediments of the Central Indian Ocean Basin: Their source and distribution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Jauhari, P.

    The distribution maps of elements show that highest concentrations of Mn, Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, and biogenic opal in the surface sediment occurs between 10 degrees S and 16 degrees S latitude, where diagenetic ferromanganese nodules rich in Mn, Cu, Ni...

  11. Characterization of parent and alkylated PAHs in surface sediments from Ría de Arousa (Galicia, NW Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Pérez-Fernández


    Two main conclusions can be drawn, first that a gradient can be observed as sediments get cleaner from the river Ulla mouth to the outer zone of the ría and second that most samples showed a mixed or pyrolitic source and only some locations show a less pyrolitic origin, with some diagenetic contributions.

  12. Multiple-stage diagenetic alteration and fluid history of Ordovician carbonate-hosted barite mineralization, Southern Quebec Appalachians (United States)

    Paradis, Suzanne; Lavoie, Denis


    Lower Ordovician bioclastic limestone of the Upton Group, southern Quebec Appalachians, hosts stratabound Ba-Zn-Pb mineralization. The Upton Group, a mixed platform carbonate-siliciclastic-volcanic succession, is exposed as windows within the tectonically overlying Cambrian siliciclastics of the Granby Nappe. Mineralization consists mostly of barite and minor amounts of sulfides (sphalerite, pyrite, galena, and chalcopyrite), in addition to calcite, quartz and bitumen cements. It is hosted by a bioclastic limestone which is interbedded with and capped by a black calcareous shale, and underlain by a mudstone-siltstone-volcanic succession and a lower poorly fossiliferous limestone. The lower limestone recorded early extensive dolomitization followed by meteoric alteration (dedolomitization, sulphate dissolution, vadose cements, soil pisoids, etc.), and burial diagenesis (recrystallization, fracturation, and cementation). The vadose gravitational calcite cements yield δ 18O PDB values of -8.4 to -11.0‰ andδ 13C PDB values of +2.4 to +2.8‰. The thin soil profiles with pisoids have a δ 18O PDB value of -8.2‰ and a δ 13C PDB value of +2.0‰. These data suggest an evaporative 18O-enrichment of near-surface trapped soil moisture (vadose water) in a rock-dominated diagenetic system. The recrystallized limestone hasδ 18O PDB values of -11.4 to -15.5‰ and near Early Ordovician marine δ 13C PDB values of -0.2 to +2.5‰. These data suggest a final stabilization of the limestone from high temperature fluids in a rock-dominated diagenetic system. The mineralized bioclastic limestone shows rare evidence of early submarine cementation which is overprinted by significant post-depositional recrystallization and hydrothermal alteration. The latter resulted in the generation of secondary porosity and precipitation of a subhedral barite cement, a bladed barite cement, and fracture-filling barite. Fracture- and void-filling calcite, sulfides, quartz and bitumen

  13. Detrital Zircon Geo- and Thermochronologic Constraints on Late Mississippian-Early Pennsylvanian Sediment Transport and Tectonics, Southwestern Kansas and Northwestern Arkansas (United States)

    Bidgoli, T. S.; Wang, W.; Moeller, A.; Stockli, D. F.; Watney, L.


    The Late Mississippian to Early Pennsylvanian is a critical time interval across the globe, with major changes in tectonics, climate, and eustacy. Transcontinental sediment transport in North America, from the Appalachians to Great Canyon, has been proposed to initiate at this time (Gehrels et al., 2011). In the midcontinent, clastic influx to the Hugoton Embayment and Arkoma Shelf, during widespread carbonate platform deposition, may record evidence for this model, but the limited number of provenance studies has hindered interpretations. To test this model and further constrain sediment dispersal and source-to-sink systems in the midcontinent, we evaluate the provenance of upper Mississippian to middle Pennsylvanian siliciclastic intervals, in two areas, using sandstone component analysis and detrital zircon U-Pb and (U-Th)/He double dating. (1) For the Hugoton Embayment in southwestern Kansas, we focus on sandstones deposited in two valley-filling intervals, the Chester and Morrow. A total of 1100 zircon U-Pb ages have been acquired from samples from 10 boreholes, 6 from Chester and 4 from Morrow. Preliminary analysis suggests that the Chester is characterized by two major zircon U-Pb age clusters of 900-1295 Ma (Grenville) and 390-475 Ma, consistent with sediment delivery from the Appalachian orogen. Morrow strata record a change in provenance, with the presence of two additional age groups, 1300-1500 Ma (24.5%) and 1600-1800 Ma (17.9%), that correspond well with the age of basement rocks in the Granite-Rhyolite and Yavapai-Maztzal provinces, respectively. We ascribe changes in the zircon age spectra and introduction of these grains to the development of local uplifts, like the Nemaha Ridge, in the early Pennsylvanian. Double dating of zircons from these peaks may reveal additional information about these basement sources and the timing of denudation of these uplifts. (2) For the Arkoma shelf, we are analyzing 11 samples, collected from outcrops in northwestern

  14. Diagenetic variation at the lamina scale in lacustrine organic-rich shales: Implications for hydrocarbon migration and accumulation (United States)

    Liang, Chao; Cao, Yingchang; Liu, Keyu; Jiang, Zaixing; Wu, Jing; Hao, Fang


    Lacustrine carbonate-rich shales are well developed within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic strata of the Bohai Bay Basin (BBB) of eastern China and across southeast Asia. Developing an understanding of the diagenesis of these shales is essential to research on mass balance, diagenetic fluid transport and exchange, and organic-inorganic interactions in black shales. This study investigates the origin and distribution of authigenic minerals and their diagenetic characteristics, processes, and pathways at the scale of lacustrine laminae within the Es4s-Es3x shale sequence of the BBB. The research presented in this study is based on thin sections, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and SEM-catholuminescence (CL) observations of well core samples combined with the use of X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and carbon and oxygen isotope analyses performed using a laser microprobe mass spectrometer. The dominant lithofacies within the Es4s-Es3x sequence are a laminated calcareous shale (LCS-1) and a laminated clay shale (LCS-2). The results of this study show that calcite recrystallization1 is the overarching diagenetic process affecting the LCS-1, related to acid generation from organic matter (OM) thermal evolution. This evolutionary transition is the key factor driving the diagenesis of this lithofacies, while the transformation of clay minerals is the main diagenetic attribute of the LCS-2. Diagenetic differences occur within different laminae and at variable locations within the same lamina level, controlled by variations in mineral composition and the properties of laminae interfaces. The diagenetic fluid migration scale is vertical and responses (dissolution and replacement) are limited to individual laminae, between zero and 100 μm in width. In contrast, the dominant migration pathway for diagenetic fluid is lateral, along the abrupt interfaces between laminae boundaries, which leads to the vertical

  15. Remote detection of fluid-related diagenetic mineralogical variations in the Wingate Sandstone at different spatial and spectral resolutions (United States)

    Okyay, Unal; Khan, Shuhab D.


    Well-exposed eolian units of the Jurassic system on the Colorado Plateau including the Wingate Sandstone, show prominent color variations throughout southeastern Utah due to diagenetic changes that include precipitation and/or removal of iron oxide, clay, and carbonate cement. Spatially variable characteristic diagenetic changes suggest fluid-rock interactions through the sandstone. Distinctive spectral signatures of diagenetic minerals can be used to map diagenetic mineral variability and possibly fluid-flow pathways. The main objective of this work was to identify characteristic diagenetic minerals, and map their spatial variability from regional to outcrop scale in Wingate Sandstone exposures of Lisbon Valley, Utah. Laboratory reflectance spectroscopy analysis of the samples facilitated identification of diagnostic spectral characteristics of the common diagenetic minerals and their relative abundances between altered and unaltered Wingate Sandstone. Comparison of reflectance spectroscopy with satellite, airborne, and ground-based imaging spectroscopy data provided a method for mapping and evaluating spatial variations of diagenetic minerals. The Feature-oriented Principal Component Selection method was used on Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data so as to map common mineral groups throughout the broader Wingate Sandstone exposure in the area. The Minimum Noise Fraction and Spectral Angle Mapper methods were applied on airborne HyMap and ground-based hyperspectral imaging data to identify and map mineralogical changes. The satellite and airborne data showed that out of 25.55 km2 total exposure of Wingate Sandstone in Lisbon Valley, unaltered sandstone cover 12.55 km2, and altered sandstone cover 8.90 km2 in the northwest flank and 5.09 km2 in the southern flank of the anticline. The ground-based hyperspectral data demonstrated the ability to identify and map mineral assemblages with two-dimensional lateral continuity on near

  16. Formation and preservation of greigite (Fe3S4) in a thick sediment layer from the central South Yellow Sea (United States)

    Liu, Jianxing; Mei, Xi; Shi, Xuefa; Liu, Qingsong; Liu, Yanguang; Ge, Shulan


    Sediments from continental shelves are sensitive to changes in both oceanic and terrestrial conditions, and, therefore, magnetic minerals in such sediments are affected strongly by depositional and diagenetic processes. Here, we investigated systematically an N-S transect of three sediment cores from the central South Yellow Sea (SYS) muddy area. Magnetic data indicate the presence of a horizontally distributed thick greigite-bearing layer. From an age model based on published magnetostratigraphy, accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating ages, sedimentary characteristics and foraminiferal analysis, this layer was deposited within marine isotope stages (MIS) 17-13, following an enhanced sulphidic period over MIS 21-19 when the YS Warm Current and the associated YS Cold Water Mass were strong and where underlying sediments have higher total organic carbon, total sulphur and trace element molybdenum contents. Trace element cadmium enrichment in the greigite-bearing layers is documented for the first time, which indicates that weakly sulphidic (i.e. with trace levels of free H2S) conditions existed before greigite formed in a sulphidic environment during early diagenesis. It also indicates that subsequent conditions free of oxygen and H2S after greigite formation are more favourable for its preservation. We propose that organic matter supply was controlled over an extended period by moderate primary productivity. The combined effects of palaeoclimate and local tectonic subsidence were crucial for the formation and preservation of the identified greigite. In brief, our study improves understanding of the formation and preservation mechanisms of greigite in continental shelf sediments and reveals mid-Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental changes in the SYS.

  17. High resolution chronology of late Cretaceous-early Tertiary events determined from 21,000 yr orbital-climatic cycles in marine sediments (United States)

    Herbert, Timothy D.; Dhondt, Steven


    A number of South Atlantic sites cored by the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) recovered late Cretaceous and early Tertiary sediments with alternating light-dark, high-low carbonate content. The sedimentary oscillations were turned into time series by digitizing color photographs of core segments at a resolution of about 5 points/cm. Spectral analysis of these records indicates prominent periodicity at 25 to 35 cm in the Cretaceous intervals, and about 15 cm in the early Tertiary sediments. The absolute period of the cycles that is determined from paleomagnetic calibration at two sites is 20,000 to 25,000 yr, and almost certainly corresponds to the period of the earth's precessional cycle. These sequences therefore contain an internal chronometer to measure events across the K/T extinction boundary at this scale of resolution. The orbital metronome was used to address several related questions: the position of the K/T boundary within magnetic chron 29R, the fluxes of biogenic and detrital material to the deep sea immediately before and after the K/T event, the duration of the Sr anomaly, and the level of background climatic variability in the latest Cretaceous time. The carbonate/color cycles that were analyzed contain primary records of ocean carbonate productivity and chemistry, as evidenced by bioturbational mixing of adjacent beds and the weak lithification of the rhythmic sequences. It was concluded that sedimentary sequences that contain orbital cyclicity are capable of providing resolution of dramatic events in earth history with much greater precision than obtainable through radiometric methods. The data show no evidence for a gradual climatic deterioration prior to the K/T extinction event, and argue for a geologically rapid revolution at this horizon.

  18. Study of the type of gamma radioactivity in platform carbonaceous rocks: analyses and environmental, diagenetic and geodynamical interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raddadi, Mohamed-Chaker


    In well-logging, values of gamma-activity are measured by scintillometry. A conventional paradigm is to link high γ-activity to Potassium (K) and Thorium (Th) isotopes present in clays and to Uranium isotopes present either in detrital sediments (typically in zircon or monazite minerals) or to sediments rich in organic matter. In shallow-water carbonates platforms, high γ-activities are interpreted in the same way. However, in a first γ-scintillometer survey of the Gorges du Nan section (sub-alpine Vercors massif), we found inconsistencies between lithologies and their expected γ-responses: the highest radioactive beds do not correspond to high argillaceous or detrital limestones and marls, but to some low content argillaceous or 'pure' limestones beds. The aim of this study was to identify the radioactive isotopes associated to different types of carbonates, their localisation, their abundance and their respective contribution to the total gamma response in order to propose a new method for the interpretation of gamma-ray logs in shallow-water carbonates. This study was focused on two intervals: - The first one corresponds to the Ba3 depositional sequence (Upper Barremian) which is composed essentially of limestones. This sequence was studied in the Vercors and Chartreuse sub-alpine massifs near Grenoble and in the Swiss Jura near Neuchatel; - The second one corresponds to the 'Lower Oritolina marls' interval. This interval was studied in the Vercors and Chartreuse sub-alpine massifs near Grenoble, in Spain (Organya basin) and in central Tunisia near Kairouan. We carried out detailed sedimentological, diagenetic and isotopic studies of all these sections. Oxygen and carbon stable isotopes analyses allowed us to establish some large scale correlations between sections in the French Alps, in the Pyrenees and in central Tunisia. The good correlation between Oxygen and Carbon stable isotopes curves of the Lower Orbitolina marls in all the

  19. Geochemical gradients within modern and fossil shells of Concholepas concholepas from northern Chile: an insight into U-Th systematics and diagenetic/authigenic isotopic imprints in mollusk shells (United States)

    Labonne, Maylis; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude


    Seriate geochemical measurements through shells of one modern, one Holocene, and two Sangamonian Concholepas concholepas, from marine terraces of Northern Chile, were performed to document diagenetic vs. authigenic geochemical signatures, and to better interpret U-series ages on such material. Subsamples were recovered by drilling from the outer calcitic layer to the inner aragonitic layer of each of the studied shells. Unfortunately, this sampling procedure induces artifacts, notably the convertion of up to ˜20% of calcite into aragonite, and of up to ˜6% of aragonite into calcite, as well as in the epimerization of a few percent of isoleucine into D-alloisoleucine/ L-isoleucine. Negligible sampling artifacts were noticed for stable isotope and total amino acid contents. Diagenetic effects on the geochemical properties of the shells are particularly pronounced in the inner aragonitic layer and more discrete in the outer calcitic layer. The time-dependent decay of the organic matrix of the shell is illustrated by a one order of magnitude lower total amino acid content in the Sangamonian specimens by comparison with the modern shell. Conversely, the Sangamonian shells U contents increase by a similar factor and 13C- 18O enrichments as high as 2 to 3‰ seem also to occur through the same time interval possibly due to partial replacement of aragonite by gypsum. The decay of the organic matrix of the aragonitic layer of the shell is thought to play a major role with respect to U-uptake processes and stable isotope shifts. Nevertheless, asymptotic 230Th-ages (˜100 ka) in the inner U-rich layers of the Sangamonian shells, and 234U/ 238U ratios compatible with a marine origin for U, suggest U-uptake within a short diagenetic interval, when marine waters were still bathing the embedding sediment. Thus, U-series ages on fossil mollusks from such a hyper-arid environment should not differ much from the age of the corresponding marine unit deposition. However, the

  20. Sediment impacts on marine sponges. (United States)

    Bell, James J; McGrath, Emily; Biggerstaff, Andrew; Bates, Tracey; Bennett, Holly; Marlow, Joseph; Shaffer, Megan


    Changes in sediment input to marine systems can influence benthic environments in many ways. Sponges are important components of benthic ecosystems world-wide and as sessile suspension feeders are likely to be impacted by changes in sediment levels. Despite this, little is known about how sponges respond to changes in settled and suspended sediment. Here we review the known impacts of sedimentation on sponges and their adaptive capabilities, whilst highlighting gaps in our understanding of sediment impacts on sponges. Although the literature clearly shows that sponges are influenced by sediment in a variety of ways, most studies confer that sponges are able to tolerate, and in some cases thrive, in sedimented environments. Critical gaps exist in our understanding of the physiological responses of sponges to sediment, adaptive mechanisms, tolerance limits, and the particularly the effect of sediment on early life history stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Microbial production of isotopically light iron(II) in a modern chemically precipitated sediment and implications for isotopic variations in ancient rocks (United States)

    Tangalos, G.E.; Beard, B.L.; Johnson, C.M.; Alpers, Charles N.; Shelobolina, E.S.; Xu, H.; Konishi, H.; Roden, E.E.


    The inventories and Fe isotope composition of aqueous Fe(II) and solid-phase Fe compounds were quantified in neutral-pH, chemically precipitated sediments downstream of the Iron Mountain acid mine drainage site in northern California, USA. The sediments contain high concentrations of amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxides [Fe(III)am] that allow dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) to predominate over Fe–S interactions in Fe redox transformation, as indicated by the very low abundance of Cr(II)-extractable reduced inorganic sulfur compared with dilute HCl-extractable Fe. δ56Fe values for bulk HCl- and HF-extractable Fe were ≈ 0. These near-zero bulk δ56Fe values, together with the very low abundance of dissolved Fe in the overlying water column, suggest that the pyrite Fe source had near-zero δ56Fe values, and that complete oxidation of Fe(II) took place prior to deposition of the Fe(III) oxide-rich sediment. Sediment core analyses and incubation experiments demonstrated the production of millimolar quantities of isotopically light (δ56Fe ≈ -1.5 to -0.5‰) aqueous Fe(II) coupled to partial reduction of Fe(III)am by DIR. Trends in the Fe isotope composition of solid-associated Fe(II) and residual Fe(III)am are consistent with experiments with synthetic Fe(III) oxides, and collectively suggest an equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation between aqueous Fe(II) and Fe(III)am of approximately -2‰. These Fe(III) oxide-rich sediments provide a model for early diagenetic processes that are likely to have taken place in Archean and Paleoproterozoic marine sediments that served as precursors for banded iron formations. Our results suggest pathways whereby DIR could have led to the formation of large quantities of low-δ56Fe minerals during BIF genesis.

  2. Rare earth element geochemistry of oceanic ferromanganese nodules and associated sediments (United States)

    Elderfield, H.; Hawkesworth, C. J.; Greaves, M. J.; Calvert, S. E.


    Analyses have been made of REE contents of a well-characterized suite of deep-sea (> 4000 m.) principally todorokite-bearing ferromanganese nodules and associated sediments from the Pacific Ocean. REE in nodules and their sediments are closely related: nodules with the largest positive Ce anomalies are found on sediments with the smallest negative Ce anomalies; in contrast, nodules with the highest contents of other rare earths (3 + REE) are found on sediments with the lowest 3 + REE contents and vice versa. 143Nd /144Nd ratios in the nodules (˜0.51244) point to an original seawater source but an identical ratio for sediments in combination with the REE patterns suggests that diagenetic reactions may transfer elements into the nodules. Analysis of biogenic phases shows that the direct contribution of plankton and carbonate and siliceous skeletal materials to REE contents of nodules and sediments is negligible. Inter-element relationships and leaching tests suggest that REE contents are controlled by a P-rich phase with a REE pattern similar to that for biogenous apatite and an Fe-rich phase with a pattern the mirror image of that for sea water. It is proposed that 3 + REE concentrations are controlled by the surface chemistry of these phases during diagenetic reactions which vary with sediment accumulation rate. Processes which favour the enrichment of transition metals in equatorial Pacific nodules favour the depletion of 3 + REE in nodules and enrichment of 3 + REE in associated sediments. In contrast, Ce appears to be added both to nodules and sediments directly from seawater and is not involved in diagenetic reactions.

  3. Assessment of diagenetic alteration of dinosaur eggshells through petrography and geochemical analysis (United States)

    Enriquez, M. V.; Eagle, R.; Eiler, J. M.; Tripati, A. K.; Ramirez, P. C.; Loyd, S. J.; Chiappe, L.; Montanari, S.; Norell, M.; Tuetken, T.


    Carbonate clumped isotope analysis of fossil eggshells has the potential to constrain both the physiology of extinct animals and, potentially, paleoenvironmental conditions, especially when coupled with isotopic measurements of co-occurring soil carbonates. Eggshell samples from both modern vertebrates and Cretaceous Hadrosaurid, Oviraptorid, Titanosaur, Hypselosaurus, Faveoolithus, dinosaur fossils have been collected from Auca Mahuevo, Argentina and Rousett, France, amongst other locations, for geochemical analysis to determine if isotopic signatures could be used to indicate warm- or cold-bloodedness. In some locations soil carbonates were also analyzed to constrain environmental temperatures. In order to test the validity of the geochemical results, an extensive study was undertaken to establish degree of diagenetic alteration. Petrographic and cathodoluminescence characterization of the eggshells were used to assess diagenetic alteration. An empirical 1-5 point scale was used to assign each sample an alteration level, and the observations were then compared with the geochemical results. Specimens displayed a wide range of alteration states. Some of which were well preserved and others highly altered. Another group seemed to be structural intact and only under cathodoluminescence was alteration clearly observed. In the majority of samples, alteration level was found to be predictably related to geochemical results. From specimens with little evidence for diagenesis, carbonate clumped isotope signatures support high (37-40°C) body temperature for Titanosaurid dinosaurs, but potentially lower body temperatures for other taxa. If these data do, in fact, represent original eggshell growth temperatures, these results support variability in body temperature amongst Cretaceous dinosaurs and potentially are consistent with variations between adult body temperature and size — a characteristic of 'gigantothermy'.

  4. Predicting the diagenetic evolution of argillite repositories: application of flow-through reaction cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warr, L.; Clatter, N.; Liewig, N.


    In order to successfully predict the diagenetic evolution of argillite repositories we need to know i) which reactions occur under a defined set of conditions, ii) how these reactions modify the material properties of the argillite seal, and iii) how fast these chemical reactions take place. Based on the application of thermodynamics, and the construction of activity diagrams for low temperature mineral phases (e.g. Velde 1992), fair predictions of mineral stability can be made under a given set of physical and chemical conditions. Such predictions are strengthened by examining natural mineral reactions preserved in the geological record, in combination with results obtained from controlled laboratory experiments. Changes in the material behavior can also be reasonably assessed, as the basic physical and chemical properties of argillaceous rocks of varying mineralogy are well documented in the petrophysical and engineering literature (e.g. Bell, 1999). Probably the most difficult task, however, is to assess the rates of the chemical reactions involved. This difficulty reflects our poor knowledge of the reaction kinetics for these low-temperature, fine-grained mineral materials, and apparent differences between rates estimated from natural and experimental systems. A new approach to monitoring the reaction kinetics of fine-grained minerals in percolating solution has been developed using flow-through reaction (wet-cell) chambers. These devices can be routinely mounted onto the X-ray diffractometer for in-situ measurements of the sample. With the aid of a cap to maintain constant volume, the device can be subjected to diagenetic or hydrothermal conditions (<150 C). First results are here presented for the alteration of Callovo-Oxfordian shales in a reactive simple young fluid (strongly alkaline, pH ca. 13) at 90 C, designed to simulate the alteration of concrete at the repository site. (authors)

  5. Refining the Early Devonian time scale using Milankovitch cyclicity in Lochkovian–Pragian sediments (Prague Synform, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    da Silva, A.C.; Hladil, Jindřich; Chadimová, Leona; Slavík, Ladislav; Hilgen, F. J.; Bábek, O.; Dekkers, M. J.


    Roč. 455, 1 December (2016), s. 125-139 ISSN 0012-821X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-18183S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : orbital time scale * spectral analysis * Devonian * magnetic susceptibility * gamma ray spectrometry * limestone * Early Devonian * Lochkovian * Pragian * Emsian * Barrandian * peri-Gondwanan basins Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 4.409, year: 2016

  6. Sulfides of Bottom Sediments in the Northeastern Part of the Black Sea (United States)

    Rozanov, A. G.


    A study of bottom sediments conducted on the 100th cruise of R/V Professor Shtokman in the northeastern part of the Black Sea along the section from the Kerch Strait to the deep-sea depression allowed estimation of Holocene sulfide sedimentation and consideration of the accompanying diagenetic processes, which involve reactions with C, N, and P. The behavior of dissolved forms of Mn and Fe is considered from the viewpoint of their different solubility and formation of sulfides. The redox system of the Black Sea sediments can significantly be expanded at the expense of the migration methane and hydrogen, which accompanies its anaerobic oxidation.

  7. Bacterial cell wall preservation during organic matter diagenesis in sediments off Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomstein, Bente Aagaard; Niggemann, Jutta; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    BACTERIAL CELL WALL PRESERVATION DURING ORGANIC MATTER DIAGENESIS IN SEDIMENTS OFF PERU The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids, total hydrolysable amino sugars and amino acid enantiomers (D- and L-forms) were investigated in surface sediments at 20 stations in the Peru margin: 9......°45 S - 13º32 S. The objective of this study was to assess the preservation of bacterial cell walls during diagenesis of organic matter. Bacterial cell walls were traced by analysis of biomarkers uniquely produced by bacteria (D-amino acids and muramic acid). The diagenetic status of the sediments......:00 Presentation is given by student: No...

  8. A model for microbial phosphorus cycling in bioturbated marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Andrew W.; Boyle, R. A.; Lenton, Timothy M.


    A diagenetic model is used to simulate the diagenesis and burial of particulate organic carbon (Corg) and phosphorus (P) in marine sediments underlying anoxic versus oxic bottom waters. The latter are physically mixed by animals moving through the surface sediment (bioturbation) and ventilated...... P pump) allows preferential mineralization of the bulk Porg pool relative to Corg during both aerobic and anaerobic respiration and is consistent with the database. Results with this model show that P burial is strongly enhanced in sediments hosting fauna. Animals mix highly labile Porg away from....... The results also help to explain Corg:Porg ratios in the geological record and the persistence of Porg in ancient marine sediments. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd....

  9. Diagenetic modification of Knox evaporative-dolomite geochemistry by middle Ordovician paleoaquifer/burial fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanez, I.P.; Read, J.F.


    Early Ordovician upper Knox cyclic carbonates (100,000-year periods) were deposited on a ramp in a semiarid setting. Inner ramp facies are completely dolomitized, whereas only cycle caps on the outer ramp are dolomite. Laminite caps on leading edges of prograding flats were dolomitized by evaporative, storm-recharged marine waters that precipitated CoCO/sub 3/ and minor amounts of CaSO/sub 4/. Subtidal facies beneath interiors of supratidal flats (up to 200 km wide)were dolomitized by shallow subsurface brines as the flats prograded. Inner ramp areas existed as supretidal flats for as long as 100,000 years, hence only there are sequences completely dolomitized. Tidal-flat dolomites consist of euhedral to subhedral fabric preservation mosaics (crystals 5-50, and up to 300 in replaced pelletal layers). Dolomitized subtidal sediments are composed of 20-200 dolomite crystals. Most of the early dolomites are fabric retentive initially, becoming more fabric destructive with increasing exposure to dolomitizing fluids. Fe values are up to 2000 ppm, and Mn values are up to 500 ppm. delta/sup 18/O values show strong geographic control, with samples depleted (up to - 7 per thousand) relative to pristine evaporative dolomites derived from concentrated Ordovician seawater. Burial dolomites are enriched in Fe (up to 14,000 ppm) and depleted in delta/sup 18/O, suggesting precipitation from basinal brines at elevated temperatures. Geochemical data suggest that evaporative dolomites have undergone modification by isotopically lighter fluids. Alteration most likely occurred within a Middle Ordovician meteoric aquifer system or less likely by later Paleozoic basinal brines. Regional geologic data for Knox Group carbonates throughout the eastern US are vital in constraining dolomitization models.

  10. Reservoir quality in the A2C-Stringer interval of the late Neoproterozoic Ara-Group of the South Oman Salt Basin. Diagenetic relationships in space and time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, S. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). LuFG Reservoir Petrology; Reuning, L.; Kukla, P.A. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Geological Inst.; Abe, S.; Li, Shiyan; Urai, J.L. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Structural Geology, Tectonics and Geomechanics; Farqani, S.; Lopes Cardozo, G.; Rawahi, Z. [Petroleum Development Oman (Oman)


    The Ediacaran-Early Cambrian Ara Group of the South Oman Salt Basin consists of six carbonate to evaporite (rock salt, gypsum) sequences. These Ara Group carbonates are termed A0C to A6C from the bottom towards the top of the basin. Differential loading of locally 5 km thick Cambrian to Ordovician clastics onto the mobile rock salt of the Ara Group caused growth of isolated salt diapirs, which resulted in strong fragmentation and faulting of the carbonate intervals into several isolated so-called 'stringers'. These carbonate stringers represent a unique intra-salt petroleum system, which has been successfully explored in recent years. However, some of the stringers failed to produce at significant rates due to the complex diagenetic history from the shallow to the deep burial realm. The goal of this study is twofold. Firstly, to unravel the complex diagenesis and its relative timing and link them to the burial history of the salt basin. Secondly, to detect spatial distribution patterns of diagenetic phases and their effect on reservoir properties. Mineralogy, rock fabrics, paragenetic relationships and geochemistry of {proportional_to} 400 samples from several petroleum wells from the late Neoproterozoic A2C interval were analyzed and combined with pre-existing data. The spatial distribution of diagenetic phases and petrophysical characteristics will be displayed in field-scale distribution maps. These maps comprise crucial information for better prediction of reservoir quality in the analyzed fields, planning of new exploration wells and better volumetric calculations. An integration of the paragenetic sequence derived from thin-section analysis with results from finite element and discrete element models further helps to constrain the effect of salt tectonics on fracture formation and fluid evolution within the stringers.

  11. Animal-sediment interactions: the effect of ingestion and excretion by worms on mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Needham


    Full Text Available By controlled experiments that simulate marine depositional environments, it is shown that accelerated weathering and clay mineral authigenesis occur during the combined process of ingestion, digestion and excretion of fine-grained sediment by two species of annelid worms. Previously characterized synthetic mud was created using finely ground, low-grade metamorphic slate (temperature approximately 300°C containing highly crystalline chlorite and muscovite. This was added to experiment and control tanks along with clean, wind-blown sand. Faecal casts were collected at regular intervals from the experimental tanks and, less frequently, from the control tanks. Over a period of many months the synthetic mud (slate proved to be unchanged in the control tanks, but was significantly different in faecal casts from the experimental tanks that contained the worms Arenicola marina and Lumbricus terrestris. Chlorite was preferentially destroyed during digestion in the gut of A. marina. Both chlorite and muscovite underwent XRD peak broadening with a skew developing towards higher lattice spacing, characteristic of smectite formation. A neoformed Fe-Mg-rich clay mineral (possibly berthierine and as-yet undefined clay minerals with very high d-spacing were detected in both A. marina and L. terrestris cast samples. We postulate that a combination of the low pH and bacteria-rich microenvironment in the guts of annelid worms may radically accelerate mineral dissolution and clay mineral precipitation processes during digestion. These results show that macrobiotic activity significantly accelerates weathering and mineral degradation as well as mineral authigenesis. The combined processes of sediment ingestion and digestion thus lead to early diagenetic growth of clay minerals in clastic sediments.

  12. Ages of tuff beds at East African early hominid sites and sediments in the Gulf of Aden (United States)

    Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Meyer, C.E.; Roth, P.H.; Brown, F.H.


    The early hominids of East Africa were dated by determining the ages of tuff beds at the sites. Despite much research using palaeomagnetic and K/Ar-dating techniques, some of those ages are still controversial 1,2. To obtain independent age estimates for these tephra layers, we have examined cores from DSDP Sites 231 and 232 in the Gulf of Aden (Fig. 1a) which consist mainly of calcareous nannofossil ooze, but also contain rare tephra horizons3 dated by interpolation from the established nannofossil stratigraphy (Fig. 1b). Chemical analysis confirms that the identity and sequence of these horizons is the same as that at the East African sites. We conclude that the age of the Tulu Bor Tuff is <3.4 Myr and hence that the Hadar hominid specimens are also

  13. Seasonal variations in production and consumption rates of dissolved organic carbon in an organic-rich coastal sediment (United States)

    Alperin, M. J.; Albert, D. B.; Martens, C. S.


    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in anoxic marine sediments are controlled by at least three processes: (1) production of nonvolatile dissolved compounds, such as peptides and amino acids, soluble saccharides and fatty acids, via hydrolysis of particulate organic carbon (POC). (2) conversion of these compounds to volatile fatty acids and alcohols by fermentative bacteria. (3) consumption of volatile fatty acids and alcohols by terminal bacteria, such as sulfate reducers and methanogens. We monitored seasonal changes in concentration profiles of total DOC, nonacid-volatile (NAV) DOC and acid-volatile (AV) DOC in anoxic sediment from Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina, USA, in order to investigate the factors that control seasonal variations in rates of hydrolysis, fermentation, and terminal metabolism. During the winter months, DOC concentrations increased continuously from 0.2 mM in the bottomwater to ~4 mM at a depth of 36 cm in the sediment column. During the summer, a large DOC maximum developed between 5 and 20 cm, with peak concentrations approaching 10 mM. The mid-depth summertime maximum was driven by increases in both NAV- and AV-DOC concentrations. Net NAV-DOC reaction rates were estimated by a diagenetic model applied to NAV-DOC concentration profiles. Depth-integrated production rates of NAV-DOC increased from February through July, suggesting that net rates of POC hydrolysis during this period are controlled by temperature. Net consumption of NAV-DOC during the late summer and early fall suggests reduced gross NAV-DOC production rates, presumably due to a decline in the availability of labile POC. A distinct subsurface peak in AV-DOC concentration developed during the late spring, when the sulfate depletion depth shoaled from 25 to 10 cm. We hypothesize that the AV-DOC maximum results from a decline in consumption by sulfate-reducing bacteria (due to sulfate limitation) and a lag in the development of an active population of methanogenic

  14. Orbital- to Sub-Orbital-Scale Cyclicity in Seismic Reflections and Sediment Character in Early to Middle Pleistocene Mudstone, Santa Barbara Basin, California (United States)

    Peterson, C. D.; Behl, R. J.; Nicholson, C.; Lisiecki, L. E.; Sorlien, C. C.


    High-resolution seismic reflection records and well logs from the Santa Barbara Channel suggest that large parts of the Pleistocene succession records climate variability on orbital to sub-orbital scales with remarkable sensitivity, much like the well-studied sediments of the last glacial cycle (ODP Site 893). Spectral analysis of seismic reflection data and gamma ray logs from stratigraphically similar Pleistocene sections finds similar cyclic character and shifts through the section. This correlation suggests that acoustic impedance and physical properties of sediment are linked by basin-scale, likely climatically-driven, oscillations in lithologic composition and fabric during deposition, and that seismic profiling can provide a method for remote identification and correlation of orbital- and sub-orbital-scale sedimentary cyclicity. Where it crops out along the northern shelf of the central Santa Barbara Channel, the early to middle Pleistocene succession (~1.8-1.2 Ma) is a bathyal hemipelagic mudstone with remarkably rhythmic planar bedding, finely laminated fabric, and well-preserved foraminifera, none of which have been significantly altered, or obscured by post-depositional diagenesis or tectonic deformation. Unlike the coarser, turbiditic successions in the central Ventura and Los Angeles basins, this sequence has the potential to record Quaternary global climate change at high resolution. Seismic reflection data (towed chirp) collected on the R/V Melville 2008 Cruise (MV08) penetrate 10's of meters below seafloor into a ~1 km-long sequence of south-dipping seismic reflectors. Sampling parallel to the seafloor permits acquisition of consistent signal amplitude for similar reflectors without spreading loss. Based on established age ranges for this section, sedimentation rates may range from 0.4 to 1.4 meters/kyr, therefore suggesting that the most powerful cycles are orbital- to sub-orbital-scale. Discrete sets of cycles with high power show an abrupt shift

  15. Revised Late Oligocene to Early Miocene magnetic stratigraphy recorded by drift sediments at Sites U1405 and U1406, IODP Expedition 342 (Newfoundland, NW Atlantic) (United States)

    van Peer, Tim; Xuan, Chuang; Wilson, Paul; Liebrand, Diederik; Lippert, Peter


    The nannofossil oozes drilled at IODP Expedition 342 (Paleogene Newfoundland Sediment Drifts) Sites U1405 and U1406 provide an exceptional sedimentary archive of the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene due to high sedimentation rates (2-6 cm/kyr at U1406 and up to 20 cm/kyr at U1405) and their ideal location below the Deep Western Boundary Current. These drift sediment sequences provide a unique opportunity to study the Oligocene-Miocene Transition (OMT) and Mi1-event (a transient 1‰ positive oxygen isotope excursion) at an unprecedented resolution from a Northern Hemisphere perspective. The exact timing of the OMT and its rate of change require a reliable and high-resolution magnetic stratigraphic age control, as Chron C6Cn with its three subchrons roughly spans the Mi1 event and the reversal C6Cn.2n/C6Cn.2r defines the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. Natural Remanent Magnetisation (NRM) was measured on 140 m of u-channel samples at U1405 and 190 m at U1406. The u-channel sample based magnetostratigraphy is in good agreement with that based on the shipboard data and reveal distinctive well-defined patterns of normal and reversed polarities, which can be correlated to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale between C6Bn.2n and C9n (ca. 22.2 to 27 Ma) at U1406 and between C6Bn.2n and C6Cr (ca. 22.2 to 23.5 Ma) at U1405. Furthermore, putative cryptochrons in Chron C6Br and C7Ar, previously reported at Site U1334 (IODP Expedition 320), are observed in the u-channel magnetic stratigraphy for Sites U1405 and U1406. Anhysteretic Remanent Magnetisation (ARM) intensity variations are combined with X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) generated elemental measurements to refine the shipboard splice of both U1405 and U1406. Latest Oligocene to earliest Miocene splice refinements are complicated by the presence of large-scale stratigraphic gaps (up to 25 m at U1405) unrelated to drilling disturbances. The depth and estimated age of these stratigraphic gaps vary from hole to hole, and do not appear

  16. Geochemistry of recent aragonite-rich sediments in Mediterranean karstic marine lakes: Trace elements as pollution and palaeoredox proxies and indicators of authigenic mineral formation. (United States)

    Sondi, Ivan; Mikac, Nevenka; Vdović, Neda; Ivanić, Maja; Furdek, Martina; Škapin, Srečo D


    This study investigates the geochemical characteristics of recent shallow-water aragonite-rich sediments from the karstic marine lakes located in the pristine environment on the island of Mljet (Adriatic Sea). Different trace elements were used as authigenic mineral formation, palaeoredox and pollution indicators. The distribution and the historical record of trace elements deposition mostly depended on the sedimentological processes associated with the formation of aragonite, early diagenetic processes governed by the prevailing physico-chemical conditions and on the recent anthropogenic activity. This study demonstrated that Sr could be used as a proxy indicating authigenic formation of aragonite in a marine carbonate sedimentological environment. Distribution of the redox sensitive elements Mo, Tl, U and Cd was used to identify changes in redox conditions in the investigated lake system and to determine the geochemical cycle of these elements through environmental changes over the last 100 years. The significant enrichment of these elements and the presence of early formed nanostructured authigenic framboidal pyrite in laminated deeper parts of sediment in Malo Jezero, indicate sporadic events of oxygen-depleted euxinic conditions in the recent past. Concentrations of trace elements were in the range characteristic for non-contaminated marine carbonates. However, the increase in the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, Sn, Bi in the upper-most sediment strata of Veliko Jezero indicates a low level of trace element pollution, resulting from anthropogenic inputs over the last 40 years. The presence of butyltin compounds (BuTs) in the surface sediment of Veliko Jezero additionally indicates the anthropogenic influence in the recent past. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thallium isotope variations in seawater and hydrogenetic, diagenetic, and hydrothermal ferromanganese deposits (United States)

    Rehkamper, M.; Frank, M.; Hein, J.R.; Porcelli, D.; Halliday, A.; Ingri, J.; Liebetrau, V.


    Results are presented for the first in-depth investigation of TI isotope variations in marine materials. The TI isotopic measurements were conducted by multiple collector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for a comprehensive suite of hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts, diagenetic Fe-Mn nodules, hydrothermal manganese deposits and seawater samples. The natural variability of TI isotope compositions in these samples exceeds the analytical reproducibility (?? 0.05???) by more than a factor of 40. Hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts have ??205TI of + 10 to + 14, whereas seawater is characterized by values as low as -8 (??205TI represents the deviation of the 205TI/203TI ratio of a sample from the NIST SRM 997 TI isotope standard in parts per 104). This ~ 2??? difference in isotope composition is thought to result from the isotope fractionation that accompanies the adsorption of TI onto ferromanganese particles. An equilibrium fractionation factor of ?? ~ 1.0021 is calculated for this process. Ferromanganese nodules and hydrothermal manganese deposits have variable TI isotope compositions that range between the values obtained for seawater and hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts. The variability in ??205TI in diagenetic nodules appears to be caused by the adsorption of TI from pore fluids, which act as a closed-system reservoir with a TI isotope composition that is inferred to be similar to seawater. Nodules with ??205TI values similar to seawater are found if the scavenging of TI is nearly quantitative. Hydrothermal manganese deposits display a positive correlation between ??205TI and Mn/Fe. This trend is thought to be due to the derivation of TI from distinct hydrothermal sources. Deposits with low Mn/Fe ratios and low ??205TI are produced by the adsorption of TI from fluids that are sampled close to hydrothermal sources. Such fluids have low Mn/Fe ratios and relatively high temperatures, such that only minor isotope fractionation occurs during adsorption. Hydrothermal

  18. Structural-Diagenetic Controls on Fracture Opening in Tight Gas Sandstone Reservoirs, Alberta Foothills (United States)

    Ukar, Estibalitz; Eichhubl, Peter; Fall, Andras; Hooker, John


    In tight gas reservoirs, understanding the characteristics, orientation and distribution of natural open fractures, and how these relate to the structural and stratigraphic setting are important for exploration and production. Outcrops provide the opportunity to sample fracture characteristics that would otherwise be unknown due to the limitations of sampling by cores and well logs. However, fractures in exhumed outcrops may not be representative of fractures in the reservoir because of differences in burial and exhumation history. Appropriate outcrop analogs of producing reservoirs with comparable geologic history, structural setting, fracture networks, and diagenetic attributes are desirable but rare. The Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Nikanassin Formation from the Alberta Foothills produces gas at commercial rates where it contains a network of open fractures. Fractures from outcrops have the same diagenetic attributes as those observed in cores fractures relative to fold cores, hinges and limbs, 2) compare the distribution and attributes of fractures in outcrop vs. core samples, 3) estimate the timing of fracture formation relative to the evolution of the fold-and-thrust belt, and 4) estimate the degradation of fracture porosity due to postkinematic cementation. Cathodoluminescence images of cemented fractures in both outcrop and core samples reveal several generations of quartz and ankerite cement that is synkinematic and postkinematic relative to fracture opening. Crack-seal textures in synkinematic quartz are ubiquitous, and well-developed cement bridges abundant. Fracture porosity may be preserved in fractures wider than ~100 microns. 1-D scanlines in outcrop and core samples indicate fractures are most abundant within small parasitic folds within larger, tight, mesoscopic folds. Fracture intensity is lower away from parasitic folds; intensity progressively decreases from the faulted cores of mesoscopic folds to their forelimbs, with lowest intensities within

  19. Organic matter degradation in Chilean sediments - following nature's own degradation experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langerhuus, Alice Thoft; Niggemann, Jutta; Lomstein, Bente Aagaard

    ORGANIC MATTER DEGRADATION IN CHILEAN SEDIMENTS – FOLLOWING NATURE’S OWN DEGRADATION EXPERIMENT Degradation of sedimentary organic matter was studied at two stations from the shelf of the Chilean upwelling region. Sediment cores were taken at 1200 m and 800 m water depth and were 4.5 m and 7.5 m...... in length, respectively. The objective of this study was to assess the degradability of the organic matter from the sediment surface to the deep sediments. This was done by analysing amino acids (both L- and D-isomers) and amino sugars in the sediment cores, covering a timescale of 15.000 years. Diagenetic...... indicators (percentage of carbon and nitrogen present as amino acid carbon and nitrogen, the ratio between a protein precursor and its non-protein degradation product and the percentage of D-amino acids) revealed ongoing degradation in these sediments, indicating that microorganisms were still active in 15...

  20. Seismic geomorphology and origin of diagenetic geobodies in the Upper Cretaceous Chalk of the North Sea Basin (Danish Central Graben)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, F. W. H.; van Buchem, F.S.P.; Holst, J.H.


    that the geobodies are of an open-system diagenetic origin caused by ascending basin fluids guided by faults and stratigraphic heterogeneities. Increased amounts of porosity-occluding cementation, contact cement and/or high-density/-velocity minerals caused an impedance contrast that can be mapped in seismic data...... failure, followed by local mechanical compaction of high-porous chalks, paired with 2) ascension of basinal diagenetic fluids along fault systems that locally triggered cementation of calcite and dolomite within the chalk, causing increased contact cements and/or reducing porosity. The migration pathway...... of the fluids is marked by the SCRs, which are the outlines of high-density bodies of chalk nested in highly porous chalks. This study thus provides new insights into the 3D relationship between fault systems, fluid migration and diagenesis in chalks, and has important applications for basin modeling...

  1. Clinoptilolite compositions in diagenetically-altered tuffs at a potential nuclear waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxton, D.E.


    The compositions of Yucca Mountain clinoptilolites and their host tuffs are highly variable. Clinoptilolites and heulandites in fractures near the repository and in a thin, altered zone at the top of the Topopah Spring basal vitrophyre have consistent calcium-rich compositions. Below this level, clinoptilolites in thick zones of diagenetic alteration on the east side of Yucca Mountain have calcic-potassic compositions and become more calcium rich with depth. Clinoptilolites in stratigraphically equivalent tuffs to the west have sodic-potassic compositions and become more sodic with depth. Clinoptilolite properties important for repository performance assessment include thermal expansion/contraction behavior, hydration/dehydration behavior, and ion-exchange properties. These properties can be significantly affected by clinoptilolite compositions. The compositional variations for clinoptilolites found by this study suggest that the properties will vary vertically and laterally at Yucca Mountain. Used in conjunction with experimental data, the clinoptilolite compositions presented here can be used to model the behavior of clinoptilolites in the repository environment and along transport pathways

  2. Giant calcite concretions in aeolian dune sandstones; sedimentological and architectural controls on diagenetic heterogeneity, mid-Cretaceous Iberian Desert System, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arribas, M.E.; Rodríguez-López, J.P.; Meléndez, N.; Soria, A.R.; de Boer, P.L.


    Aeoliandunesandstones of the Iberian erg system (Cretaceous, Spain) host giantcalciteconcretions that constitute heterogeneities of diagenetic origin within a potential aeolian reservoir. The giantcalciteconcretions developed in large-scale aeoliandune foresets, at the transition between aeoliandune

  3. Characterization of Paleoredox Changes In Nw-pacific Deep-sea Sediments Using Environmental Magnetic In Combination With Geochemical-mineralogic Data (United States)

    Urbat, M.; Pletsch, T.

    The understanding of environmental and oceanic controls on deep-sea sediments in the NW Pacific Ocean (ODP Site 1149A, Nadezhda Basin) benefits from the inte- gration of environmental magnetic methodology with geochemical-mineralogic XRD (x-ray defraction) and XRF (x-ray fluorescence) data. Crucially, the inherently grad- ual diagenetic processes related to paleo-redox changes in the sediment column may be more sensitively monitored using the integration of non-magnetic and magnetic data, because they do reflect various aspects of the entire postdepositional alteration. The studied 32 m long quaternary interval at Hole ODP 1149A provides an expanded record of eolian dust supply from the Asian continent, siliceous plankton accumulation and varying contributions of both discrete ash layers and disperse ash to a truly deep- sea environment (Plank et al. 2000). Recurrent diagenetic intervals appear to be related to changes in the Ocean water circulation (Kuriosho current) and concomitant produc- tivity variations as a function of glacial-interglacial paleoclimatic changes. Diagenetic intervals correspond to paleo-redox boundaries, where suboxic conditions promoted the destruction of the primary magnetic signal (iron oxides) and the precipitation of rhodochrosite (MnCO3). We used simple normative calculations on the basis of of Al and Cr contents to discriminate between the major groups of components (terrigenous, volcanogenic, biogenic, diagenetic) in combination with our magnetic results. These results form the grounds for the discrimation and independent interpretation of the genetically various sediment components in the paleoceanograhic context.

  4. Trace metal concentrations in tropical mangrove sediments, NE Brazil. (United States)

    Miola, Brígida; Morais, Jáder Onofre de; Pinheiro, Lidriana de Souza


    Sediment cores were taken from the mangroves of the Coreaú River estuary off the northeast coast of Brazil. They were analyzed for grain size, CaCO3, organic matter, and trace metal (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Al, and Fe) contents. Mud texture was the predominant texture. Levels of trace metals in surface sediments indicated strong influence of anthropogenic processes, and diagenetic processes controlled the trace metal enrichment of core sediments of this estuary. The positive relationships between trace metals and Al and Fe indicate that Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations are associated mainly with Al and Fe oxy-hydroxides and have natural sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Post-depositional redistribution of trace metals in reservoir sediments of a mining/smelting-impacted watershed (the Lot River, SW France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audry, Stephane; Grosbois, Cecile; Bril, Hubert; Schaefer, Joerg; Kierczak, Jakub; Blanc, Gerard


    Mining/smelting wastes and reservoir sediment cores from the Lot River watershed were studied using mineralogical (XRD, SEM-EDS, EMPA) and geochemical (redox dynamics, selective extractions) approaches to characterize the main carrier phases of trace metals. These two approaches permitted determining the role of post-depositional redistribution processes in sediments and their effects on the fate and mobility of trace metals. The mining/smelting wastes showed heterogeneous mineral compositions with highly variable contents of trace metals. The main trace metal-bearing phases include spinels affected by secondary processes, silicates and sulfates. The results indicate a clear change in the chemical partitioning of trace metals between the reservoir sediments upstream and downstream of the mining/smelting activities, with the downstream sediments showing a 2-fold to 5-fold greater contribution of the oxidizable fraction. This increase was ascribed to stronger post-depositional redistribution of trace metals related to intense early diagenetic processes, including dissolution of trace metal-bearing phases and precipitation of authigenic sulfide phases through organic matter (OM) mineralization. This redistribution is due to high inputs (derived from mining/smelting waste weathering) at the water-sediment interface of (i) dissolved SO 4 promoting more efficient OM mineralization, and (ii) highly reactive trace metal-bearing particles. As a result, the main trace metal-bearing phases in the downstream sediments are represented by Zn- and Fe-sulfides, with minor occurrence of detrital zincian spinels, sulfates and Fe-oxyhydroxides. Sequestration of trace metals in sulfides at depth in reservoir sediments does not represent long term sequestration owing to possible resuspension of anoxic sediments by natural (floods) and/or anthropogenic (dredging, dam flush) events that might promote trace metal mobilization through sulfide oxidation. It is estimated that, during a major

  6. Biogeochemistry of southern Australian continental slope sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veeh, H.H.; Crispe, A.J.; Heggie, D.T.


    Sediment cores from the middle to lower slope of the southern continental margin of Australia between the Great Australian Bight and western Tasmania are compared in terms of marine and terrigenous input signals during the Holocene. The mass accumulation rates of carbonate, organic carbon, biogenic Ba. and Al are corrected for lateral sediment input (focusing), using the inventory of excess 230 Th in the sediment normalised to its known production rate in the water column above each site. The biogenic signal is generally higher in the eastern part of the southern margin probably due to enhanced productivity associated with seasonal upwelling off southeastern South Australia and the proximity of the Subtropical Front, which passes just south of Tasmania. The input of Al, representing the terrigenous signal, is also higher in this region reflecting the close proximity of river runoff from the mountainous catchment of southeastern Australia. The distribution pattern of Mn and authigenic U, together with pore-water profiles of Mn ++ , indicate diagenetic reactions driven by the oxidation of buried organic carbon in an oxic to suboxic environment. Whereas Mn is reduced at depth and diffuses upwards to become immobilised in a Mn-rich surface layer. U is derived from seawater and diffuses downward into the sediment, driven by reduction and precipitation at a depth below the reduction zone of Mn. The estimated removal rate of U from seawater by this process is within the range of U removal measured in hemipelagic sediments from other areas, and supports the proposition that hemipelagic sediments are a major sink of U in the global ocean. Unlike Mn, the depth profile of sedimentary Fe appears to be little affected by diagenesis, suggesting that little of the total Fe inventory in the sediment is remobilised and redistributed as soluble Fe. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  7. Plutonium behavior during the early diagenesis of marine sediments: applications to two marine environments labelled by radionuclides released from reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouzy, A.


    The plutonium released into the English Channel and the Irish Sea by nuclear fuel reprocessing plants is mainly associated to sediments. Nevertheless, this association is partially reversible. This work combines a field study, carried out on the Cumbrian mud patch and the Esk estuary (Eastern Irish Sea), and laboratory experiments performed on carbonaceous coarse-grained sediments collected in the Central Channel. It presents new data on the plutonium solid partition in sediments and suggests realistic scenarios for describing its release from sediments to the water column. The role of reactive sulphides acting as temporary sink phases is shown in anoxic sediments; those sulphides are liable to release dissolved plutonium upon their oxidation. The plutonium is also bound to carbonates within the carbonaceous matrix and as carbonate surface complexes. Conceptual schemes of the behaviour of the plutonium in marine sediments are proposed; they highlight the strong remobilization potential of plutonium from marine sediments to the interstitial water. Its plutonium content can be injected into the overlying water column. (author)

  8. Sediments, fauna, and the dispersal of radionuclides at the N.E. Atlantic dumpsite for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutgers van der Loeff, M.M.; Lavaleye, M.S.S.


    The seafloor at the NEA dumpsite for low-level radioactive waste has been investigated by geochemical and biological techniques. Evidence of local turbidities and slumping is recorded in the sediment, probably related to the steep local topography. Slumping events could be triggered by dumping operations. The CaCO 3 content is the principle variable that accounts for most of the variation in the elemental composition and cation exchange capacity of the sediment. Diagenetic modeling is used to explain the interrelationships between: (1) mineralization of organic material and (2) redox transitions, (3) cation exchange, and (4) carbonate dissolution and recrystallization. These diagenetic processes are discussed in terms of their effects on the redistribution and transport of trace elements and radionuclides within the sediment and between sediment and overlying water. Composition, density, biomass, vertical and horizontal distribution has been studied of benthic meio- as well as macrofauna of the NEA-dumpsite. The processes that have been shown to influence the fate of radionuclides that are released from the waste packages are: transport from bottom water to sediment; transport within the sediment; and transformation of radionuclides within the sediment. 194 refs.; 58 figs.; 40 tabs

  9. Calcium Isotope Systematics of Diagenetically Altered Carbonates: Example from the Proterozoic Carbonates of Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa (United States)

    Farkas, J.; Jacobsen, S.; Frauenstein, F.; Veizer, J.


    We analyzed mass-dependent (δ44/40Ca) and radiogenic (ɛCa) calcium isotope variations of diagenetically altered carbonates collected from the Duitschland Formation (~2.45 Ga) of the Transvaal Supergroup in a vicinity of the younger Bushveld Igneous Complex (Frauenstein, 2005, PhD Thesis, Ruhr Univ. Bochum). Textural, trace element and isotope data measured on these samples provide convincing evidence for extensive post-depositional alteration and diagenetic resetting. Samples selected for the Ca isotope study have Mn/Sr ratios from 0.8 to 33, 87Sr/86Sr from 0.704 to 0.719 and their δ18O and δ18C scatter from -20 to -2.8‰ and from 9.7 to -1.1‰, respectively. The δ44/40Ca (NIST) of carbonates range from 0.3 to 1.3‰ and their ɛCa indicate no radiogenic 40Ca excesses larger than the analytical uncertainty of ~1.5 ɛ-unit, confirming that the δ44/40Ca variation is exclusively due to mass-dependent fractionation. There is a difference between δ44/40Ca of limestones and dolostones, the former range from ~0.3 to 1.2‰ and the latter cluster tightly around 1.1. Using Mn/Sr as an index for diagenetic alteration (Brand and Veizer, 1980, J. Sed. Petrol., 50, 1219-1236) the δ44/40Ca of limestones becomes progressively heavier with an increasing degree of alteration (δ44/40Ca vs. Mn/Sr, r = .84, p element data. Finally, we propose that in a suite of coeval marine limestones, samples with the lowest δ44/40Ca, Mn/Sr and 87Sr/86Sr should, in most cases, represent the least altered components.

  10. Diagenetic processes in the plant-soil system and their implications for palaeo-reconstruction (United States)

    Dungait, J.; Jia, G.; McClymont, E. L.; Bingham, E.; Väliranta, M.; Korhola, A.; Evershed, R. P.


    Plant-derived organic matter in soils and peats comprises mixtures of biomolecular components that can act as 'biomarkers' for their vegetative provenance. Different plant communities are adapted to specific environmental conditions, so this approach can be used to investigate a variety of questions about land-use and climate change over a range of timescales. For example, the abundance and distribution of long-chain aliphatic compounds, that are relatively hydrophobic and resistant to microbial decomposition, are widely used as evidence of colonisation by different groups of plants in either natural or managed contemporary environments [1]. Natural abundance or artificial 13C-labelling of plants is used to provide additional evidence for plant inputs, and to determine rates of turnover of soil C pools using compound-specific stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry [2]. However, the application of molecular approaches to palaeovegetation reconstruction is still relatively rare. Biomarkers for different vegetation types are particularly important when diagenetic processes result in the loss of plant macrofossils. Lipid biomarkers are the most commonly used [3], and their δ13C values can be used to determine shifts in palaeoclimate using changes in the contribution of C3 and C4 plant-derived compounds [4]. Carbohydrates are the major components of plant biomass, but their potential as biomarkers is usually disregarded due to their perceived rapid decomposition. However, recently, we showed that carbohydrate compositional parameters of modern bog-forming plants showed strong correspondence with fossil plant abundances in a peat core from Kontolanrahka Bog, Finland [5]. Subsequent application of the carbohydrate proxy to similar cores from Bissendorfer Moor, Germany, and Butterburn Flow, UK, has shown its potential to explore plant inputs in anaerobic terrestrial environments. [1] Dungait JAJ, Docherty G, Straker V, Evershed RP, 2010a. Phytochem 71:415. [2] Dungait JAJ

  11. Early diagenesis in the sediments of the Congo deep-sea fan dominated by massive terrigenous deposits: Part III - Sulfate- and methane- based microbial processes (United States)

    Pastor, L.; Toffin, L.; Decker, C.; Olu, K.; Cathalot, C.; Lesongeur, F.; Caprais, J.-C.; Bessette, S.; Brandily, C.; Taillefert, M.; Rabouille, C.


    Geochemical profiles (SO42-, H2S, CH4, δ13CH4) and phylogenetic diversity of Archaea and Bacteria from two oceanographic cruises dedicated to the lobes sediments of the Congo deep-sea fan are presented in this paper. In this area, organic-rich turbidites reach 5000 m and allow the establishment of patchy cold-seep-like habitats including microbial mats, reduced sediments, and vesicomyid bivalves assemblages. These bivalves live in endosymbiosis with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and use sulfides to perform chemosynthesis. In these habitats, unlike classical abyssal sediments, anoxic processes are dominant. Total oxygen uptake fluxes and methane fluxes measured with benthic chambers are in the same range as those of active cold-seep environments, and oxygen is mainly used for reoxidation of reduced compounds, especially in bacterial mats and reduced sediments. High concentrations of methane and sulfate co-exist in the upper 20 cm of sediments, and evidence indicates that sulfate-reducing microorganisms and methanogens co-occur in the shallow layers of these sediments. Simultaneously, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with sulfate as the electron acceptor is evidenced by the presence of ANMEs (ANaerobic MEthanotroph). Dissolved sulfide produced through the reduction of sulfate is reoxidized through several pathways depending on the habitat. These pathways include vesicomyid bivalves uptake (adults or juveniles in the bacterial mats habitats), reoxidation by oxygen or iron phases within the reduced sediment, or reoxidation by microbial mats. Sulfide uptake rates by vesicomyids measured in sulfide-rich sea water (90±18 mmol S m-2 d-1) were similar to sulfide production rates obtained by modelling the sulfate profile with different bioirrigation constants, highlighting the major control of vesicomyids on sulfur cycle in their habitats.

  12. Diagenetic history of the Swan Hills Simonette Oil Reservoir (Givetian-Frasnian), deep basin of west-central Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, J.P.; Mountjoy, E.W. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences


    The geology and diagenetic history of the Swan Hills Simonette oil field of west-central Alberta basin was described. Present-day burial depth is 3900 m; formation temperature is 93 degrees C. Highest porosites (20 per cent) occur in dolostones of the lagoon, ref, and fore-reef depositional environments but limestones still retain porosities up to five per cent. Hydrocarbons are present in saddle dolomite fluid inclusions. Oxygen isotopes for replacement dolomites and late calcite suggest that the carbonate-precipitating fluids were derived from the Precambrian basement or Paleozoic clastics sourced from the basement. Faults may have acted as vertical conduits for fluid migration.

  13. Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2......, 4 and 5, respectively. It is not the intention of the book to give a broad review of the literature on this very wide topic. The book tries to pick up information which is of engineering importance. An obstacle to the study of sedimentation is the scale effect in model tests. Whenever small...

  14. Identification of novel sulphur-containing steroids in sediments and petroleum; Probable incorporation of sulfur into Delta(5,7)-sterols during early diagenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Duin, A.C.T. van; Geenevasen, J.A.J.


    A novel sulfur-containing sterane, 4,7-epithio-5-cholestane, has been identified in a sediment extract from the Miocene Northern Apennines marl (Italy) after its isolation by column chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography. The compound has been characterised by GC-MS and mild Nickel

  15. Fossils in Late Cretaceous to early Palaeocene flint nodules embedded in pleistocene glaciofluvial sediments near Fukov (Děčín District, Northern Bohemia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, R.; Kaše, J.; Kvaček, J.; Zágoršek, K.; Kočí, T.; Žítt, Jiří


    Roč. 68, 3/4 (2012), s. 119-131 ISSN 0036-5343 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Erratic boulders * Flint * Glaciofluvial sediments * Late Cretaceous * Northern Bohemia * Palaeocene * Pleistocene glaciation * Taphocoenosis Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  16. Uranium geochemistry in estuarine sediments: Controls on removal and release processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.E.; Cochran, J.K.


    Porewater uranium profiles from Long Island Sound (LIS) and Amazon shelf sediments and LIS sediment incubation experiments indicate that both removal and release processes control U geochemistry in estuarine sediments. Release of U from sediments occurs in association with Fe reduction. A correlation between U and Fe (and Mn) observed in sediment incubation experiments suggests that there is release of U from Fe-Mn-oxides as they are reduced, consistent with data from the Amazon shelf. In both sediment porewater profiles (LIS and Amazon) and sediment incubation experiments (LIS), there is removal of U from porewater under conditions of sulfate reduction. Sediment incubation experiments indicate that the removal rate is first-order with respect to U concentration, and the rate constant is linearly correlated to sulfate reduction rates. The link between U removal and sulfate reduction (a measure of diagenetic microbial activity) is consistent with a microbial mediation of U reduction. The diffusion flux of U into LIS sediments is estimated from porewater profiles. The inclusion of this estuarine removal term in the oceanic U balance increases the importance of the sediment sink. 62 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  17. High sedimentation rates in the Early Triassic after latest Permian mass extinction: Carbonate production is main factor in non-Arctic regions (United States)

    Horacek, Micha; Brandner, Rainer


    A substantial change in sedimentation rates towards higher values has been documented from the Late Permian to the Lower Triassic. Although it is assumed and also has been shown that the deposition of siliciclastic material increased in the Lower Triassic due to stronger erosion because of loss of land cover and increased chemical and physical weathering with extreme climate warming, the main sediment production occurred by marine carbonate production. Still, carbonate production might have been significantly influenced by weathering and erosion in the hinterland, as the transport of dust by storms into the ocean water probably was a main nutrient source for microbial carbonate producers, because "normal" nutrient supply by ocean circulation, i. e. upwelling was strongly reduced due to the elevated temperatures resulting in water-column stratification . Sediment accumulation was also clearly influenced by the paleo-geographic and latitudinal position, with lower carbonate production and sedimentation rates in moderate latitudes. The existence of a "boundary clay" and microbial carbonate mounds and layers in the immediate aftermath of the latest Permian mass extinction points towards a development from a short-timed acid ocean water - resulting in a carbonate production gap and the deposition of the boundary clay towards the deposition of the microbial mounds and layers due to the microbial production of micro-environments with higher alkalinity allowing the production of carbonate. After the return of the ocean water to normal alkalinity planktic production of carbonate resulted in a very high sedimentation rate, especially taking into account the absence of carbonate producing eukaryotic algae and animals.

  18. The stable isotope composition of nitrogen and carbon and elemental contents in modern and fossil seabird guano from Northern Chile - Marine sources and diagenetic effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Lucassen

    Full Text Available Seabird excrements (guano have been preserved in the arid climate of Northern Chile since at least the Pliocene. The deposits of marine organic material in coastal areas potentially open a window into the present and past composition of the coastal ocean and its food web. We use the stable isotope composition of nitrogen and carbon as well as element contents to compare the principal prey of the birds, the Peruvian anchovy, with the composition of modern guano. We also investigate the impact of diagenetic changes on the isotopic composition and elemental contents of the pure ornithogenic sediments, starting with modern stratified deposits and extending to fossil guano. Where possible, 14C systematics is used for age information. The nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of the marine prey (Peruvian anchovy of the birds is complex as it shows strong systematic variations with latitude. The detailed study of a modern profile that represents a few years of guano deposition up to present reveals systematic changes in nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition towards heavier values that increase with age, i.e. depth. Only the uppermost, youngest layers of modern guano show compositional affinity to the prey of the birds. In the profile, the simultaneous loss of nitrogen and carbon occurs by degassing, and non-volatile elements like phosphorous and calcium are passively enriched in the residual guano. Fossil guano deposits are very low in nitrogen and low in carbon contents, and show very heavy nitrogen isotopic compositions. One result of the study is that the use of guano for tracing nitrogen and carbon isotopic and elemental composition in the marine food web of the birds is restricted to fresh material. Despite systematic changes during diagenesis, there is little promise to retrieve reliable values of marine nitrogen and carbon signatures from older guano. However, the changes in isotopic composition from primary marine nitrogen isotopic

  19. The role of crystal structure and fabrics in early diagenesis: examples from continental and marine settings (United States)

    Frisia, Silvia; Borsato, Andrea; Bajo, Petra; Hellstrom, John


    Palaeoclimate research based on geological archives relies on the assumption that the system has remained closed to phase transformation and re-mobilization of chemical species, the extent of which depends on the crystallization pathways. Early diagenesis, in fact, encompasses processes that occur soon after deposition, from a few hours to centuries. In the last decade, speleothems-based palaeoclimate research has gained momentum. Speleothems (cave secondary mineral deposits) have provided geochemical records of climate, pollution, volcanism, land use and vegetation changes at seasonal to millennial scale for the past million year. Critically, the accuracy of their records relies on the absence of diagenetic modifications. Yet, contrary to late diagenetic dissolution and re-precipitation, early diagenesis is difficult to detect in stalagmites and flowstones. A striking example is a Holocene stalagmite from Corchia cave, whose fabrics appear compact and of primary origin. Nevertheless, U-Th dating by mass spectrometry of 5 out of 47 samples shows offset from neighboring samples of up to 40%. Careful petrographic observations reveal that elongated columnar fabric contains microstructural defects, expressed by irregular crystal boundaries, which allow for the percolation of diagenetic fluids and U loss. Speleothem allow for the precise dating of diagenetic processes. Aggradation of micrite into microsparite may occur in less than a hundred year. Similar aggrading neomorphism of micrite has been documented for subglacial carbonates, where aggradation occurred at secular scale. Aggradation can be fingerprinted by the stable isotope ratio values, commonly more positive than in the columnar fabrics. In speleothems, aragonite may be transformed into calcite in less than 100 years. The phase transformation may partially preserve the original fabric, and appears to commence from calcite nucleated on organic compounds at twin boundaries, taking advantage of crystal defects as

  20. Rare earth, major and trace element composition of Leg 127 sediments (United States)

    Murray, R.W.; Buchholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.; Brumsack, Hans-Juergen; Gerlach, David C.; Russ III, G. Price


    The relative effects of paleoceanographic and paleogeographic variations, sediment lithology, and diagenetic processes on the final preserved chemistry of Japan Sea sediments are evaluated by investigating the rare earth element (REE), major element, and trace element concentrations in 59 squeeze-cake whole-round and 27 physical-property sample residues from Sites 794, 795, and 797, cored during ODP Leg 127. The most important variation in sedimentary chemical composition is the increase in SiO2 concentration through the Pliocene diatomaceous sequences, which dilutes most other major and trace element components by various degrees. This biogenic input is largest at Site 794 (Yamato Basin), moderately developed at Site 797 (Yamato Basin), and of only minor importance at Site 795 (Japan Basin), potentially reflecting basinal contrasts in productivity with the Yamato Basin recording greater biogenic input than the Japan Basin and with the easternmost sequence of Site 794 lying beneath the most productive waters. There are few systematic changes in solid-phase chemistry resulting from the opal-A/opal-CT or opal-CT/quartz silica phase transformations. Most major and trace element concentrations are controlled by the aluminosilicate fraction of the sediment, although the effects of diagenetic silica phases and manganese carbonates are of localized importance. REE total abundances (IREE) in the Japan Sea are strongly dependent upon the paleoceanographic position of a given site with respect to terrigenous and biogenic sources. REE concentrations at Site 794 overall correspond well to aluminosilicate chemical indices and are strongly diluted by SiO2 within the upper Miocene-Pliocene diatomaceous sequence. Eu/Eu* values at Site 794 reach a maximum through the diatomaceous interval as well, most likely suggesting an association of Eu/Eu* with the siliceous component, or reflecting slight incorporation of a detrital feldspar phase. XREE at Site 795 also is affiliated strongly

  1. Effect of cement dosage and early curing towards Kuala Perlis dredged marine sediments: a ɛv - σv and SEM-EDX approach (United States)

    Syakeera Nordin, Nurul; Chan, Chee-Ming


    Cement is the primary material used in solidifying the soft soils. This material was applied in solidifying Kuala Perlis dredged marine sediments (DMS). These unwanted sediments are classified as high plasticity silt, MH with 3.36 LL of wc/LL value. At dosage 10 and 20 % of cemented-DMS and 3 days curing time, compression curve results shows the settlement criteria were enhanced than the natural DMS. Unfortunately, the settlement criteria are not complies with the permissible settlement limit and applicable pressure. The formation of cementing compounds appears in the SEM micrograph for 10 and 20 % of cemented-DMS. EDX analysis shows the Ca:Si ratio were increased for cemented-DMS due to the formation of C-S-H gel.

  2. Early diagenesis in the sediments of the Congo deep-sea fan dominated by massive terrigenous deposits: Part II - Iron-sulfur coupling (United States)

    Taillefert, Martial; Beckler, Jordon S.; Cathalot, Cécile; Michalopoulos, Panagiotis; Corvaisier, Rudolph; Kiriazis, Nicole; Caprais, Jean-Claude; Pastor, Lucie; Rabouille, Christophe


    Deep-sea fans are well known depot centers for organic carbon that should promote sulfate reduction. At the same time, the high rates of deposition of unconsolidated metal oxides from terrigenous origin may also promote metal-reducing microbial activity. To investigate the eventual coupling between the iron and sulfur cycles in these environments, shallow sediment cores (Congo River deep-sea fan ( 5000 m) were profiled using a combination of geochemical methods. Interestingly, metal reduction dominated suboxic carbon remineralization processes in most of these sediments, while dissolved sulfide was absent. In some 'hotspot' patches, however, sulfate reduction produced large sulfide concentrations which supported chemosynthetic-based benthic megafauna. These environments were characterized by sharp geochemical boundaries compared to the iron-rich background environment, suggesting that FeS precipitation efficiently titrated iron and sulfide from the pore waters. A companion study demonstrated that methanogenesis was active in the deep sediment layers of these patchy ecosystems, suggesting that sulfate reduction was promoted by alternative anaerobic processes. These highly reduced habitats could be fueled by discrete, excess inputs of highly labile natural organic matter from Congo River turbidites or by exhumation of buried sulfide during channel flank erosion and slumping. Sulfidic conditions may be maintained by the mineralization of decomposition products from local benthic macrofauna or bacterial symbionts or by the production of more crystalline Fe(III) oxide phases that are less thermodynamically favorable than sulfate reduction in these bioturbated sediments. Overall, the iron and sulfur biogeochemical cycling in this environment is unique and much more similar to a coastal ecosystem than a deep-sea environment.

  3. Effects of effects of suspended sediment on early-life stage survival of Yaqui chub, an endangered USA–Mexico borderlands cyprinid (United States)

    Barkalow, Stephani L. Clark; Bonar, Scott A.


    High levels of total suspended sediment (TSS) can have negative consequences on fishes, such as altering food supply, lowering food acquisition, clogging gills, and disrupting reproduction. While effects of TSS on salmonids and estuarine fish are well studied, less is known about possible negative impacts of suspended sediment on desert fishes. Several imperiled desert fishes inhabit streams and springs near the U.S.–Mexico border and are potentially threatened by increased sediment loads from borderlands activity such as livestock grazing, road building, illegal traffic, and law enforcement patrols. One such species is the Yaqui Chub Gila purpurea, a federally listed endangered cyprinid. We exposed Yaqui Chub embryos and fry (mean TL = 12.6 mm; SE = 0.42) to a range of TSS levels commonly found in one of the only streams they inhabit, Black Draw, which crosses the Arizona–Mexico border. We tested effects of 0; 300; 500; 1,000; 5,000; and 10,000 mg/L TSS loads on fry and embryos over a 5-d period in three replicate containers for each treatment. Fifty percent hatch rate (i.e., median lethal concentration, LC50) was 3,977 mg/L for embryos. The LC50 for fry (concentration at which half died) was 8,372 mg/L after 12 h of exposure; however, after 5-d exposure, LC50 leveled at 1,197 mg/L. The TL of fry did not change significantly in any treatment over the 5-d period. Suspended sediment in Black Draw reached concentrations lethal to Yaqui Chub embryo and fry during four floods in 2012. Although some desert fishes have evolved in rivers and streams subject to elevated TSS and are tolerant to high TSS concentrations, other fish species are less tolerant and may be impacted by land practices which increase erosion into stream systems. Management of critically endangered desert fishes should include considerations of the effects of increased suspended sediment.

  4. Geological evolution of clay sediments: the petroleum exploration vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, F.


    The radioactive waste isolation capacity assessment for a clay sediment host rock is link: (1) to the understanding of their present state properties and 3-D repartition (from basin evolution, including sedimentary and diagenetic process); and (2) to the prediction of their future evolution during the next million years. For petroleum exploration, basin modelling aims at reconstructing the accumulation of hydrocarbons at basin scale, and at geological timescale, taking into account the effects of kinematics displacements, sedimentation, erosion, compaction, temperatures history, overpressures and fluids flows (water and hydrocarbons). Furthermore, explorationists wish to address overpressure reconstruction in order to estimate the risks of drilling. Clay sediments are of interest for petroleum exploration because source rocks and seal are generally composed of them. Nevertheless, in spite of their occurrence in nature their evolution at geological timescale is not well understood. And, most of the knowledge has been achieved by those working in the realms of soils mechanics and civil engineering until the present geological investigations for long term radioactive waste repositories. Application of this knowledge to clay sediment is considered to be valid within the first hundreds of meters at the top of the sedimentary pile, according to a repository depth. This paper is dedicated to the sedimentary rocks behaviour at geological timescale. This behaviour is characterised by: (1) the deposition of the sediment; (2) the loading path at geological timescale; (3) the constitutive law which includes the consolidation process and the rupture criteria; and (4) the parameters evolution related to consolidation. (author)

  5. Modeling biogeochemical processes in sediments from the Rhône River prodelta area (NW Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pastor


    Full Text Available In situ oxygen microprofiles, sediment organic carbon content, and pore-water concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, iron, manganese, and sulfides obtained in sediments from the Rhône River prodelta and its adjacent continental shelf were used to constrain a numerical diagenetic model. Results showed that (1 the organic matter from the Rhône River is composed of a fraction of fresh material associated to high first-order degradation rate constants (11–33 yr−1; (2 the burial efficiency (burial/input ratio in the Rhône prodelta (within 3 km of the river outlet can be up to 80 %, and decreases to ~20 % on the adjacent continental shelf 10–15 km further offshore; (3 there is a large contribution of anoxic processes to total mineralization in sediments near the river mouth, certainly due to large inputs of fresh organic material combined with high sedimentation rates; (4 diagenetic by-products originally produced during anoxic organic matter mineralization are almost entirely precipitated (>97 % and buried in the sediment, which leads to (5 a low contribution of the re-oxidation of reduced products to total oxygen consumption. Consequently, total carbon mineralization rates as based on oxygen consumption rates and using Redfield stoichiometry can be largely underestimated in such River-dominated Ocean Margins (RiOMar environments.

  6. Organic matter diagenesis within the water column and surface sediments of the northern Sargasso Sea revealed by lipid biomarkers (United States)

    Conte, M. H.; Pedrosa Pàmies, R.; Weber, J.


    The intensity of particle cycling processes within the mesopelagic and bathypelagic ocean controls the length scale of organic material (OM) remineralization and diagenetic transformations of OM composition through the water column and into the sediments. To elucidate the OM cycling in the oligotrophic North Atlantic gyre, we analyzed lipid biomarkers in the suspended particles (30-4400 m depth, 100 mab), the particle flux (500 m, 1500 m and 3200 m depth), and in the underlying surficial sediments (0-0.5 cm, 4500-4600 m depth) collected at the Oceanic Flux Program (OFP) time series site located 75km SE of Bermuda. Changes in lipid biomarker concentration and composition with depth highlight the rapid remineralization of OM within the upper mesopelagic layer and continuing diagenetic transformations of OM throughout the water column and within surficial sediments. Despite observed similarities in biomarker composition in suspended and sinking particles, results show there are also consistent differences in relative contributions of phytoplankton-, bacterial- and zooplankton-derived sources that are maintained throughout the water column. For example, sinking particles are more depleted in labile biomarkers (e.g. polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)) and more enriched in bacteria-derived biomarkers (e.g. hopanoids and odd/branched fatty acids) and indicators of fecal-derived OM (e.g. saturated fatty acids, FA 18:1w9 and cholesterol) than in the suspended pool. Strong seasonality in deep (3200 m) fluxes of phytoplankton-derived biomarkers reflect the seasonal input of bloom-derived material to underlying sediments. The rapid diagenetic alteration of this bloom-derived input is evidenced by depletion of PUFAs and enrichment of microbial biomarkers (e.g. odd/branched fatty acids) in surficial sediments over a two month period.

  7. Diagenetic evolution and stable isotopes of Lower Permian platform marginal carbonates (Trogkofel Limestone, Carnic Alps, Austria) (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Maria; Krainer, Karl; Sanders, Diethard Gerald; Spötl, Christoph


    The Trogkofel massif in the Carnic Alps, Austria/Italy, consists of a succession up to 400 m thick of limestones deposited along a platform margin (Trogkofel Limestone; Artinskian). The top of the Trogkofel Limestone is erosively overlain by the Tarvis Breccia. Up-section, the Trogkofel Limestone consists of well-bedded shallow-water bioclastic limestones with intercalated mud mounds, overlain by thick-bedded to unbedded limestones (bioclastic grainstones, packstones, rudstones) and cementstone mounds rich in phylloid algae, Tubiphytes, bryozoans and Archaeolithoporella. In the cementstone mounds, bioclasts are coated by thick fringes and botryoids of fibrous calcite, and of calcite spar that probably represents calcitized aragonite. Primary and intrinsic pores are filled by microbialite, and/or by mudstone to bioclastic wackestone. Shallow-water bioclastic grainstones are cemented by isopachous fringes of fibrous calcite, or by sparry calcite. Throughout the succession, evidence for meteoric-vadose dissolution is present. The Trogkofel Limestone is riddled by palaeokarstic dykes and caverns filled by (a) isopachous cement fringes up to a few decimetres thick, and/or (b) by red, geopetally-laminated lime mudstone to bio-lithoclastic wackestone; geopetal laminasets locally display convolute bedding. Small dissolution cavities are filled by grey internal sediment, or by crystal silt. Brecciated internal sediments overlain by unbrecciated, geopetally-laminated infillings record deformation during or after deposition of the Trogkofel Limestone. Polyphase fractures cemented by calcite may cross-cut both internal sediments and host rock. In the Trogkofel Limestone, local dolomitization is common. Replacement dolomites show a wide range of shapes and fabrics, including: (a) fine-crystalline anhedral xenotopic fabric, (b) coarse-crystalline subhedral to euhedral, hypidiotopic to idiotopic fabric of turbid or optically zoned crystals, and (c) saddle dolomite as replacement

  8. Remobilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic matter in seawater during sediment resuspension experiments from a polluted coastal environment: Insights from Toulon Bay (France). (United States)

    Guigue, Catherine; Tedetti, Marc; Dang, Duc Huy; Mullot, Jean-Ulrich; Garnier, Cédric; Goutx, Madeleine


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organic matter contents were measured in seawater during resuspension experiments using sediments collected from Toulon Bay (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, France). The studied sediments were very highly contaminated in PAHs, especially in 4-ring compounds emitted from combustion processes. The sediments used for resuspension experiments were collected at 0-2 cm (diagenetically new organic matter, OM) and 30-32 cm depths (diagenetically transformed OM). They were both mostly composed of fine particles (seawater up to 10-, 1.3-, 4.4- and 5.7-fold, respectively. The remobilization in seawater was higher for 4-6 ring PAHs, especially benzo(g,h,i)perylene, whose concentration exceeded the threshold values of the European Water Framework Directive. This noted the potential harmful effects of sediment resuspension on marine biota. From these sediment resuspension experiments, we determined OC-normalized partition coefficients of PAHs between sediment and water (K oc ) and found that during such events, the transfer of PAHs from sediment particles to seawater was lower than that predicted from octanol-water partition coefficients (K ow ) (i.e., measured K oc  > K oc predicted from K ow ). The results confirmed the sequestration role of sedimentary OC quality and grain size on PAHs; the OM diagenetic state seemed to impact the partition process but in a relatively minor way. Furthermore, differences were observed between 2-4 ring and 5-6 ring PAHs, with the latter displaying a relatively higher mobility towards seawater. These differences may be explained by the distribution of these two PAH pools within different OM moieties, such as humic substances and black carbon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A study of arsenic and chromium contamination in freshwater sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim; Abdul Khalik Wood; Alias Mohd Yusof; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Md Suhaimi Elias; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman


    Arsenic (As) is generally known for its toxicity while chromium (Cr) at the appropriate amount is an essential element to man and becomes quite toxic in excessive amount. Anthropogenic activities such as industrialization, agricultural and urbanization have led to the contamination of toxic elements into aquatic that finally end up in the sediment system. Environmental process like diagenetic process causes the toxic metals to migrate from the bedrock materials into the sediment surface and lastly into the water column. This process has been recognized to be the factor of arsenic contamination in well water in several countries such as Bangladesh, Taiwan, USA and Canada. A number of samples of freshwater sediments from identified rivers and lakes at Johor Bharu area had been analyzed to determine the concentration level of As and Cr using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. Certified Reference Material (CRM) namely BCSS-1 and IAEA Soil-7 were applied to provide good quality assurance control. The results obtained show that the concentrations of As in the rivers and lakes are 10-33 mg/g and 18-62 mg/g, respectively. The concentrations of Cr in the rivers range between 25 mg/g to125 mg/g, while in the lake sediments the concentrations range between 173 mg/g to 301 mg/g. The lakes sediments have higher As and Cr contents than the river sediment. The results of the As and Cr concentrations were then compared to the background value proposed by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), USA and interim freshwater sediment quality guidelines value established by Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines for The Protection of Aquatic Life. (Author)

  10. Chemistry and texture of the rocks at Rocknest, Gale Crater: Evidence for sedimentary origin and diagenetic alteration (United States)

    Blaney, Diana L.; Wiens, R.C.; Maurice, S.; Clegg, S.M.; Anderson, Ryan; Kah, L.C.; Le Mouélic, S.; Ollila, A.; Bridges, N.; Tokar, R.; Berger, G.; Bridges, J.C.; Cousin, A.; Clark, B.; Dyar, M.D.; King, P.L.; Lanza, N.; Mangold, N.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Newsom, H.; Schroder, S.; Rowland, S.; Johnson, J.; Edgar, L.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Schmidt, M.; Goetz, W.; Stack, K.; Sumner, D.; Fisk, M.; Madsen, M.B.


    A suite of eight rocks analyzed by the Curiosity Rover while it was stopped at the Rocknest sand ripple shows the greatest chemical divergence of any potentially sedimentary rocks analyzed in the early part of the mission. Relative to average Martian soil and to the stratigraphically lower units encountered as part of the Yellowknife Bay formation, these rocks are significantly depleted in MgO, with a mean of 1.3 wt %, and high in Fe, averaging over 20 wt % FeOT, with values between 15 and 26 wt % FeOT. The variable iron and low magnesium and rock texture make it unlikely that these are igneous rocks. Rock surface textures range from rough to smooth, can be pitted or grooved, and show various degrees of wind erosion. Some rocks display poorly defined layering while others seem to show possible fractures. Narrow vertical voids are present in Rocknest 3, one of the rocks showing the strongest layering. Rocks in the vicinity of Rocknest may have undergone some diagenesis similar to other rocks in the Yellowknife Bay Formation as indicated by the presence of soluble calcium phases. The most reasonable scenario is that fine-grained sediments, potentially a mixture of feldspar-rich rocks from Bradbury Rise and normal Martian soil, were lithified together by an iron-rich cement.

  11. Biomarkers of Canadian High Arctic Litoral Sediments for Assessment of Organic Matter Sources and Degradation (United States)

    Pautler, B. G.; Austin, J.; Otto, A.; Stewart, K.; Lamoureux, S. F.; Simpson, M. J.


    Carbon stocks in the High Arctic are particularly sensitive to global climate change, and investigation of variations in organic matter (OM) composition is beneficial for the understanding of the alteration of organic carbon under anticipated future elevated temperatures. Molecular-level characterization of solvent extractable compounds and CuO oxidation products of litoral sedimentary OM at the Cape Bounty Arctic Watershed Observatory in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago was conducted to determine the OM sources and decomposition patterns. The solvent extracts contained a series of aliphatic lipids, steroids and one triterpenoid primarily of higher plant origin and new biomarkers, iso- and anteiso-alkanes originating from cerastium arcticum (Arctic mouse-ear chickweed, a native angiosperm) were discovered. Carbon preference index (CPI) values for the n-alkanes, n-alkanols and n-alkanoic acids suggests that the OM biomarkers result from fresh material input in early stage of degradation. The CuO oxidation products were comprised of benzyls, lignin phenols and short-chain diacids and hydroxyacids. High abundance of terrestrial OM biomarkers observed at sites close to the river inlet suggests fluvial inputs as an important pathway to deliver OM into the lake. The lignin phenol vegetation index (LPVI) also suggests that the OM origin is mostly from non-woody angiosperms. A relatively high degree of lignin alteration in the litoral sediments is evident from the abundant ratio of acids and aldehydes of the vanillyl and syringyl monomers. This suggests that the lignin contents have been diagenetically altered as the result of a long residence time in this ecosystem. The molecular-level characterization of litoral sedimentary OM in Canadian High Arctic region provides insight into current OM composition,potential responses to future disturbances and the biogeochemical cycling of carbon in the Arctic.

  12. A Novel Early Warning System Based on a Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell for In Situ and Real Time Hexavalent Chromium Detection in Industrial Wastewater. (United States)

    Zhao, Shuai; Liu, Pu; Niu, Yongyan; Chen, Zhengjun; Khan, Aman; Zhang, Pengyun; Li, Xiangkai


    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a well-known toxic heavy metal in industrial wastewater, but in situ and real time monitoring cannot be achieved by current methods used during industrial wastewater treatment processes. In this study, a Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell (SMFC) was used as a biosensor for in situ real-time monitoring of Cr(VI), which was the organic substrate is oxidized in the anode and Cr(VI) is reduced at the cathode simultaneously. The pH 6.4 and temperature 25 °C were optimal conditions for the operation. Under the optimal conditions, linearity (R² = 0.9935) of the generated voltage was observed in the Cr(VI) concentration range from 0.2 to 0.7 mg/L. The system showed high specificity for Cr(VI), as other co-existing ions such as Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , and Pb 2+ did not interfere with Cr(VI) detection. In addition, when the sediment MFC-based biosensor was applied for measuring Cr(VI) in actual wastewater samples, a low deviation (real time in situ detection of Cr(VI) in industrial wastewaters.

  13. Polyphosphates as a source of enhanced P fluxes in marine sediments overlain by anoxic waters: Evidence from 31P NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingall Ellery


    Full Text Available Sedimentary phosphorus (P composition was investigated in Effingham Inlet, a fjord located on the west coast of Vancouver Island in Barkley Sound. Solid-state 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy was applied to demineralized sediment samples from sites overlain by oxic and anoxic bottom waters. The two sites were similar in terms of key diagenetic parameters, including the mass accumulation rate, integrated sulfate reduction rate, and bulk sediment organic carbon content. In contrast, P benthic fluxes were much higher at the anoxic site. 31P NMR results show that P esters and phosphonates are the major organic P species present at the surface and at depth in sediments at both sites. Polyphosphates were only found in the surface sediment of the site overlain by oxic waters. The varying stability of polyphosphates in microorganisms under different redox conditions may, in part, explain their distribution as well as differences in P flux between the two sites.

  14. Reactive Fe(II) layers in deep-sea sediments (United States)

    König, Iris; Haeckel, Matthias; Drodt, Matthias; Suess, Erwin; Trautwein, Alfred X.


    The percentage of the structural Fe(II) in clay minerals that is readily oxidized to Fe(III) upon contact with atmospheric oxygen was determined across the downcore tan-green color change in Peru Basin sediments. This latent fraction of reactive Fe(II) was only found in the green strata, where it proved to be large enough to constitute a deep reaction layer with respect to the pore water O 2 and NO 3-. Large variations were detected in the proportion of the reactive Fe(II) concentration to the organic matter content along core profiles. Hence, the commonly observed tan-green color change in marine sediments marks the top of a reactive Fe(II) layer, which may represent the major barrier to the movement of oxidation fronts in pelagic subsurface sediments. This is also demonstrated by numerical model simulations. The findings imply that geochemical barriers to pore water oxidation fronts form diagenetically in the sea floor wherever the stage of iron reduction is reached, provided that the sediments contain a significant amount of structural iron in clay minerals.

  15. Insights into the Early to Late Oligocene Izu-Bonin Mariana Arc Magmatic History from Volcanic Minerals and Glass within Volcaniclastic Sediments of IODP Site U1438 and DSDP Site 296 (United States)

    Samajpati, E.; Hickey-Vargas, R.


    The Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR) is a remnant of the early Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) island arc, separated by arc rifting and seafloor spreading. We examine and compare volcanic materials from two sites where the transition from IBM arc building to rifting is well sampled: DSDP Site 296 on the northern KPR crest, and recent IODP Site U1438 in the adjacent Amami-Sankaku basin to the west. The purpose of the study is to understand the origin and depositional regime of volcaniclastic sediments during the arc rifting stage. Site 1438 sedimentary Unit II and the upper part of Unit III (300 and 453 mbsf) correlate in time with sedimentary Units 1G and 2 of DSDP Site 296 (160 and 300 mbsf). The upper part of Site U1438 Unit III and Site 296 Unit 2 consist of early to late Oligocene coarse volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks. These are overlain by late Oligocene nannofossil chalks with volcanic sand and ash-rich layers at Site 296 Unit 1G, and tuffaceous silt, sand, siltstone and sandstone at Site 1438 Unit II. The chemical composition of volcanic glass shards, pyroxenes with melt inclusions and amphiboles separated from volcaniclastic sediments were analyzed by EPMA and LA-ICPMS. Glasses are found at Site 296 only, range from medium-K basalt to rhyolite and have trace element patterns typical of arc volcanics. Clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene are found as detrital grains in sediments from both sites. Mg-numbers range from 58 to 94. Interestingly, the alumina content of pyroxene grain populations from both sites increase and then decrease with decreasing Mg-number. This probably reflects control of Al contents in magma and pyroxene by suppressed plagioclase saturation, which apparently was a consistent feature of KPR volcanoes. Melt-inclusions within the pyroxenes are typically small (30-50 microns) and have similar chemical compositions within one grain. The melt inclusions range from basalt to rhyolite with moderate alkali content. Amphibole is more prevalent in late Oligocene

  16. Diagenetic alteration process of chlorite in Tyr Member sandstone, Siri Canyon, Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari; Friis, Henrik; Hansen, Jens Peter Vind

    only in traceable amounts in the samples which are dominated by microquartz cement. There seem to be two chlorite phases: The first phase occurs as rosettes in a grain coating growth pattern. It is partially intergrown with microquartz or forms a dense mixture of small chlorite rosettes and scattered...... microquartz. Pore-lining chlorite is partially post-compactional and grows into fractures in glauconite grains. Pore lining chlorite is formed prior to macroquartz and post-compactional calcite; whereas early calcite cemented samples did not evolve chlorite. The general impression is, however, that chlorite...

  17. A Paleomagnetic and Diagenetic Study of the Woodford Shale, Oklahoma, U.S.A.: The Timing of Hydrothermal Alteration (United States)

    Roberts, J.; Elmore, R. D.


    An oriented Woodford Shale core from the Ardmore Basin near the Ouachita thrust zone (Core B) was sampled to identify diagenetic events and interpret their origin, and to test if a magnetization was present that can be used to date the altering event(s). The shale is extensively altered, exhibiting a complex paragenesis with multiple fractures and brecciated intervals. Multiple hydrothermal minerals, including biotite, magnesite, norsethite, witherite, gorceixite, potassium feldspar, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and saddle dolomite, are present in and around fractures and in the matrix. Vitrinite and bitumen reflectance measurements indicate VRo values of 1.82% ( 230°C). Two other Woodford Shale cores (A and C) from the Anadarko Basin also contain hydrothermal minerals. Vitrinite and bitumen reflectance data reveal trends between thermal maturity and the level of hydrothermal alteration, with Core A (0.80% VRo ( 125°C) displaying the lowest alteration, and Core C ( 1.5% VRo ( 210°C) displaying intermediate alteration compared to core B. Paleomagnetic analysis of Core B reveals the presence of a characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) with south-southeasterly declinations and shallow inclinations that is unblocked by 450°C and is interpreted to reside in magnetite. This ChRM is interpreted to be either a chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) or a thermochemical remanent magnetization (TCRM) acquired during the Late Permian based on the pole position. The presence of specimens with the CRM/TCRM in altered rock and high thermal maturities suggests that this CRM/TCRM originated from alteration by hydrothermal fluids. These results suggest that the Woodford Shale evolved into an open diagenetic system. In addition to causing heightened thermal maturities, these hydrothermal fluids both increased porosity through dissolution and decreased porosity through precipitation of minerals. The Late Permian timing agrees with the dating of hydrothermal alteration found

  18. A combined PIXE-PIGE approach for the assessment of the diagenetic state of cremated bones submitted to AMS radiocarbon dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quarta, Gianluca, E-mail: [CEDAD-Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Calcagnile, Lucio; D' Elia, Marisa; Maruccio, Lucio; Gaballo, Valentina; Caramia, Annalisa [CEDAD-Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy)


    Bone samples from a Bronze age necropolis in Northern Italy, exposed to different combustion temperatures, were submitted to XRD (X-ray Diffraction), PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and PIGE (Particle Induced Gamma Ray Emission) analyses in order to obtain information about their diagenetic state. Structural carbonate was then extracted by acid hydrolysis and used for {sup 14}C-AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) dating. These analytical techniques permitted the study of the effects of the combustion temperature on the crystallinity of the bone apatite and on its elemental chemical composition in terms of major, minor and trace elements. The results indicate that combustion at temperatures above {approx}700 Degree-Sign C induces changes in the bone crystalline structure, reducing the diagenetic uptake of elements from the burial environment.

  19. A combined PIXE-PIGE approach for the assessment of the diagenetic state of cremated bones submitted to AMS radiocarbon dating (United States)

    Quarta, Gianluca; Calcagnile, Lucio; D'Elia, Marisa; Maruccio, Lucio; Gaballo, Valentina; Caramia, Annalisa


    Bone samples from a Bronze age necropolis in Northern Italy, exposed to different combustion temperatures, were submitted to XRD (X-ray Diffraction), PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and PIGE (Particle Induced Gamma Ray Emission) analyses in order to obtain information about their diagenetic state. Structural carbonate was then extracted by acid hydrolysis and used for 14C-AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) dating. These analytical techniques permitted the study of the effects of the combustion temperature on the crystallinity of the bone apatite and on its elemental chemical composition in terms of major, minor and trace elements. The results indicate that combustion at temperatures above ∼700 °C induces changes in the bone crystalline structure, reducing the diagenetic uptake of elements from the burial environment.

  20. A preliminary assessment of the relationship between the mineralogy and diagenetic history of four argillaceous rocks and their thermomechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, O.C.; Mulligan, P.J.; Reeves, D.K.


    A primary purpose of this study was to develop reproducible, quantitative methods to determine the bulk mineral composition and diagenetic history of argillaceous rocks and to attempt, in a preliminary way, to explain the thermomechanical behavior of several formations that were being measured by others. This report presents the results of several methods of analysis [specific-gravity determinations, water contents, chemical analyses by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis, quantitative mineralogical analyses by x-ray diffraction (QXRD), preferred orientation analyses by x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of fractured samples] that were used to study selected samples from the Conasauga Group, the Rhinestreet Shale, the Pierre Shale, and the Green River Formation to determine their mineralogical character and the effects of diagenesis on these materials. The results were then related to thermochemical test data that were obtained on samples from the same cores. Specific-gravity determinations on ''as-received'' samples ranged from 2.00 for the Green River Formation to 2.75 for the Rhinestreet Shale. Exposure to the atmosphere resulted in a small net gain (+0.5) in specific gravity for the Conasauga Group samples and a net loss (-0.11) for the Pierre Shale samples. Water contents, determined by heating to 105/degree/C for 1 h, averaged 0.8% by weight for the Conasauga Shale, Rhinestreet Shale, and Green River Formation samples. The water content determined for the Pierre Shale samples was 12.1 wt %

  1. Compositional changes of surface sediments and variability of manganese nodules in the Peru Basin (United States)

    Marchig, Vesna; von Stackelberg, Ulrich; Hufnagel, Heinz; Durn, Goran

    Two types of manganese nodules were observed in the Peru Basin: large botryoidal nodules in basins and small ellipsoidal nodules on slope positions. The sediment in areas with large botryoidal nodules contains a thinner and weaker oxidation zone than the sediment under small ellipsoidal nodules, indicating that diagenetic processes in the sediment, which supply manganese nodules with metals for their growth, are stronger in sediments on which large botryoidal nodules grow. Organic matter, which activates remobilization of metals, occurs mostly in the form of refractory lipidic compounds in the inner capsule of radiolaria. This material needs bacterial degradation to act as a reducing agent. Easily oxidizable organic components could not be found in the sediments. Other changes in sediment composition do not have a link to manganese nodule growth. Biogenous components (radiolarians, organogenic barite and apatite) increase towards the equatorial high-productivity zone. Authigenous clay minerals (nontronite as well as montmorillonite with high Fe +3 incorporation on positions of ochtaedral Al) increase with distance from the continent. The assessment of environmental impacts will have to take into account the regional differences in sediment composition and the small-scale variability of manganese nodules.

  2. Diagenesis in tephra-rich sediments from the Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc: Pore fluid constraints (United States)

    Murray, Natalie A.; McManus, James; Palmer, Martin R.; Haley, Brian; Manners, Hayley


    We present sediment pore fluid and sediment solid phase results obtained during IODP Expedition 340 from seven sites located within the Grenada Basin of the southern Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc region. These sites are generally characterized as being low in organic carbon content and rich in calcium carbonate and volcanogenic material. In addition to the typical reactions related to organic matter diagenesis, pore fluid chemistry indicates that the diagenetic reactions fall within two broad categories; (1) reactions related to chemical exchange with volcanogenic material and (2) reactions related to carbonate dissolution, precipitation, or recrystallization. For locations dominated by reaction with volcanogenic material, these sites exhibit increases in dissolved Ca with coeval decreases in Mg. We interpret this behavior as being driven by sediment-water exchange reactions from the alteration of volcanic material that is dispersed throughout the sediment package, which likely result in formation of Mg-rich secondary authigenic clays. In contrast to this behavior, sediment sequences that exhibit decreases in Ca, Mg, Mn, and Sr with depth suggest that carbonate precipitation is an active diagenetic process affecting solute distributions. The distributions of pore fluid 87Sr/86Sr reflect these competitive diagenetic reactions between volcanic material and carbonate, which are inferred by the major cation distributions. From one site where we have solid phase 87Sr/86Sr (site U1396), the carbonate fraction is found to be generally consistent with the contemporaneous seawater isotope values. However, the 87Sr/86Sr of the non-carbonate fraction ranges from 0.7074 to 0.7052, and these values likely represent a mixture of local arc volcanic sources and trans-Atlantic eolian sources. Even at this site where there is clear evidence for diagenesis of volcanogenic material, carbonate diagenesis appears to buffer pore fluid 87Sr/86Sr from the larger changes that might be

  3. Cadmium Diagenesis in Polluted Sediments of a Tropical Estuary of SE Brazil (United States)

    Patchineelam, S. R.; Metzger, E.; Jézéquel, D.; Sarazin, G.; Smoak, J. M.


    Sepetiba bay is a shallow semi enclosed water body located about 70km on the west side of the city of Rio de Janeiro with an area of 450km² separated from the Atlantic Ocean by a sand spit. Fishing, shrimp and tourism are important economic activities. During 35 years a Zinc/Cadmium smelter has polluted the bay. The objective of this investigation is to demonstrate how diagenetic processes are responsible for the cadmium remobilization out or fixation into the sediment column.. Two contrasting sites were selected to compare the diagenetic process. P1 located near to the smelter and P2 is about 20km away from the smelter next to a domestic effluents discharge into the bay. Peeper samplers with 25 cells with a resolution of 2,5cm were introduced into the sediment at both sites. After a period of 3 weeks equilibrium, the pore waters were separated from each cell and analyzed within 24 hours for alkalinity, H2S, NH3 and soluble phosphate by conventional methods An ICP-AES spectrometer was used to analyze Na, Mg, Li, Ba, Sr, Si, Fe and Mn. The total and labile Cd in pore waters were determined by differential-pulse stripping voltammetry. The solute profiles have revealed that the sediments at both sites were anoxic. The slopes of the ferrous and sulfide profile constituents permitted characterization the area at P1 as ferrous dominant with oxic conditions in the overlying water and P2 as a sulfidic rich environment with suboxic conditions in the water column. At P1 total dissolved Cd in the overlying water was about 450pM and labile fraction varied from 85 to 177pM. Just below the sediment water interface 695pM of total dissolved Cd was observed. Probably diagenetic processes are responsible for release of cadmium at the sediment interface. Below this maxima Cd concentrations decreased to 30pM. At P2 a concentration o of 150pM of total dissolved Cd was detected in the overlying water and samples in the pore waters at the sediment interface had an average concentration

  4. Early Silurian (Llandoverian) Leask Point and Charlton Bay bioherms, Manitoulin Island, Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielczarek, W.; Copper, P.


    About 300 bioherms are known in the Llandoverian Manitoulin Formation of eastern Manitoulin Island. In the South Bay area, the large Leask Piont bioherm and Charlton Bay patch-reef complex lack a distinct skeletal growth framework. Bioherms consist of mudstone and wackestone, with isolated lenses of bafflestone, boundstone, floatstone. Fossils are scarce, but crinozoans and bryozoans comprise about 90% of the bioclasts. Other fauna include stromatoporoids, corals, brachiopods, gastropods, trilobites, and probable algae (algae are difficult to identify and may have played a significant role). Faunal ratios remained relatively constant during mound growth. Soft substrates with sedimentation rates of a few millimeters per year are suggested by bedding type and morphologic dominance of lamellar and tabular corals and stromatoporoids. An increased sedimentation rate, resulting from shoaling, is indicated by more overturned, broadly conical corals in the upper parts of the mounds. Shoaling may be responsible for cessation of mound growth. Lithoclasts are more common in the upper parts of the mounds. They formed when semiconsolidated muds were disturbed and redeposited during storms. Megarippled interreef surface areas, largely devoid of coral growth, indicate mud instability at Charlton Bay. Lack of suitable stable substrates may have hampered coral development. Dolomitization was postdepositional. The diagenetic sequence occurred in three stages: 1)selective pyritization and silicification, formation of an early muddy dolomite replacing the mud fraction of the dolostone, lithification and formation of rare calcite cement and neomorphic syntaxial rims; 2)clear, coarse dolomite replacing pore-filling calcite cement, syntaxial rims, and unaltered macrofossils, stylolitization, grain-to-grain dissolution; and 3)a late dolomite found mainly as fine rhombs in stylolites, solution seams, and intraskeletal pore space.

  5. Detrital illite crystals identified from crystallite thickness measurements in siliciclastic sediments (United States)

    Aldega, L.; Eberl, D.D.


    Illite crystals in siliciclastic sediments are heterogeneous assemblages of detrital material coming from various source rocks and, at paleotemperatures >70 ??C, of superimposed diagenetic modification in the parent sediment. We distinguished the relative proportions of 2M1 detrital illite and possible diagenetic 1Md + 1M illite by a combined analysis of crystal-size distribution and illite polytype quantification. We found that the proportions of 1Md + 1M and 2M1 illite could be determined from crystallite thickness measurements (BWA method, using the MudMaster program) by unmixing measured crystallite thickness distributions using theoretical and calculated log-normal and/or asymptotic distributions. The end-member components that we used to unmix the measured distributions were three asymptotic-shaped distributions (assumed to be the diagenetic component of the mixture, the 1Md + 1M polytypes) calculated using the Galoper program (Phase A was simulated using 500 crystals per cycle of nucleation and growth, Phase B = 333/cycle, and Phase C = 250/ cycle), and one theoretical log-normal distribution (Phase D, assumed to approximate the detrital 2M1 component of the mixture). In addition, quantitative polytype analysis was carried out using the RockJock software for comparison. The two techniques gave comparable results (r2 = 0.93), which indicates that the unmixing method permits one to calculate the proportion of illite polytypes and, therefore, the proportion of 2M1 detrital illite, from crystallite thickness measurements. The overall illite crystallite thicknesses in the samples were found to be a function of the relative proportions of thick 2M1 and thin 1Md + 1M illite. The percentage of illite layers in I-S mixed layers correlates with the mean crystallite thickness of the 1Md + 1M polytypes, indicating that these polytypes, rather than the 2M1 polytype, participate in I-S mixed layering.

  6. Paleoclimatic and diagenetic history of the Late Quaternary sediments in a core from the southeastern Arabian Sea: Geochemical and magnetic signals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P; Kessarkar, P; Thamban, M.; Patil, S.K.

    the last 35 kaBP. The delta sup(18)O values of Globigerinoides ruber are heaviest during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and appear unaffected by low-saline waters transported from the Bay of Bengal by the strong northeast monsoon and West Indian coastal...

  7. Temporal variation in organic carbon stable isotope compositions of lacustrine sediments from sub-arid northern Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzuka, A.N.N.; Nyandwi, N.


    The stable isotope compositions for four sediment cores recovered from three shallow lakes located in the Ngorongoro crater (Lake Magat) and head of the Olduvai Gorge (Lakes Ndutu and Messak) are used to document climatic changes in sub-arid northern Tanzania during the late Pleistocene-Holocene period. The two lakes, which are located on the head of the Olduvai Gorge about 1 km apart and 100 km from the Ngorongoro Crater, were probably once one lake during periods of high precipitation. All four cores were collected using a flow-through type of corer, and sub-sampled every 10 cm with each sample representing a homogenate of 1 cm. Two cores (40 cm and 500 cm long) were collected from Lake Magat, and AMS 14 C age on total organic matter (OM) for a nearby core collected about 1 m apart indicate that the sedimentation rate at these sites is approximately 17 cm/ka. Assuming that these sites have a constant rate of sedimentation, the analysed long core represents sediments that were deposited during the late Pleistocene-Holocene period. The δ 13 C for 40 cm long core shows a downcore increase, with δ-values ranging from -21 per mille to -12.5 per mille. A similar downcore increase in 13 C values is observable for the 500 cm long core. Apart from this general tend, this core also shows three peaks of low δ-values centred at 200 cm, 380 cm and 490 cm. A general downcore increase in the 13 C for the two cores from the Ngorongoro crater suggests changes in the relative proportion of C 3 and C 4 , probably indicating changes in precipitation and lake levels in the area. High precipitation and lake levels being associated with deposition of OM depleted in 13 C. Although, diagenetic changes might have contributed to the observed trend, but a change of up to 7 per mille cannot solely be attributed to diagenetic changes. High content of organic carbon and nitrogen in sections enriched in 13 C excludes the possibility of diagenetic effects. Although record from Lake Ndutu is

  8. Age-dependent mixing of deep-sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.R.; Maggaard, L.; Pope, R.H.; DeMaster, D.J.


    Rates of bioturbation measured in deep-sea sediments commonly are tracer dependent; in particular, shorter lived radiotracers (such as 234 Th) often yield markedly higher diffusive mixing coefficients than their longer-lived counterparts (e.g., 210 Pb). At a single station in the 1,240-m deep Santa Catalina Basin, the authors document a strong negative correlation between bioturbation rate and tracer half-life. Sediment profiles of 234 Th (half-life = 24 days) yield an average mixing coefficient (60 cm 2 y -1 ) two orders of magnitude greater than that for 210 Pb (half-life = 22 y, mean mixing coefficient = 0.4 cm 2 y -1 ). A similar negative relationship between mixing rate and tracer time scale is observed at thirteen other deep-sea sites in which multiple radiotracers have been used to assess diffusive mixing rates. This relationship holds across a variety of radiotracer types and time scales. The authors hypothesize that this negative relationship results from age-dependent mixing, a process in which recently sedimented, food-rich particles are ingested and mixed at higher rates by deposit feeders than are older, food-poor particles. Results from an age-dependent mixing model demonstrate that this process indeed can yield the bioturbation-rate vs. tracer-time-scale correlations observed in deep-sea sediments. Field data on mixing rates of recently sedimented particles, as well as the radiotracer activity of deep-sea deposit feeders, provide strong support for the age-dependent mixing model. The presence of age-dependent mixing in deep-sea sediments may have major implications for diagenetic modeling, requiring a match between the characteristic time scales of mixing tracers and modeled reactants. 102 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Material Exchange and Migration between Pore Fluids and Sandstones during Diagenetic Processes in Rift Basins: A Case Study Based on Analysis of Diagenetic Products in Dongying Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Meng


    Full Text Available The exchange and migration of basin materials that are carried by pore fluids are the essence of diagenesis, which can alter physical properties of clastic rocks as well as control formation and distribution of favorable reservoirs of petroliferous basins. Diagenetic products and pore fluids, resulting from migration and exchange of basin materials, can be used to deduce those processes. In this study, 300 core samples from 46 wells were collected for preparation of casting thin sections, SEM, BSE, EDS, inclusion analysis, and isotope analysis in Dongying Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, East China. Combined with geochemical characteristics of pore fluids and geological background of the study area, the source and exchange mechanisms of materials in the pore fluids of rift basins were discussed. It was revealed that the material exchange of pore fluids could be divided into five stages. The first stage was the evaporation concentration stage during which mainly Ca2+, Mg2+, and CO32- precipitated as high-Mg calcites. Then came the shale compaction stage, when mainly Ca2+ and CO32- from shale compaction water precipitated as calcites. The third stage was the carboxylic acid dissolution stage featured by predominant dissolution of plagioclases, during which Ca2+ and Na+ entered pore fluids, and Si and Al also entered pore fluids and then migrated as clathrates, ultimately precipitating as kaolinites. The fourth stage was the organic CO2 stage, mainly characterized by the kaolinization of K-feldspar as well as dissolution of metamorphic lithic fragments and carbon cements. During this stage, K+, Fe2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, HCO3-, and CO32- entered pore fluids. The fifth stage was the alkaline fluid stage, during which the cementation of ferro-carbonates and ankerites as well as illitization or chloritization of kaolinites prevailed, leading to the precipitation of K+, Fe2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and CO32- from pore fluids.

  10. Chemistry of marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, T.F.


    Some topics considered are as follows: characterization of sediments in the vicinity of offshore petroleum production; thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis; composition of polluted bottom sediments in Great Lakes harbors; distribution of heavy metals in sediment fractions; recent deposition of lead off the coast of southern California; release of trace constituents from sediments resuspended during dredging operations; and migration of chemical constituents in sediment-seawater interfaces

  11. Pyrolytic indices of diagenetic transformation of lignin as biogeochemical proxies for soil organic matter quality and C storage potential (United States)

    Jiménez-González, Marco A.; Almendros, Gonzalo; Álvarez, Ana M.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Vila, Francisco J.


    The environmental factors involved in soil organic carbon sequestration remain unclear. The functional relationships between the macromolecular structure of the soil organic matter (SOM) and its resilience has been a constant in classical biogeochemical models. Other more recent hypotheses have postulated that preservation by soil minerals may play a chief role in the accumulation of stable SOM forms. However, additional experimental data are required to demonstrate a cause-to-effect relationship between preservation and stabilization. Some authors might consider that models neglecting the role of macromolecular structure are swapping cause and effect i.e., that SOM structurally flexible, weakly condensed and having 'open' structures is the one with high potential to interact with the soil mineral matrix, leading to stable microaggregates. In this study up to 35 topsoil samples (0-5 cm) were collected from different Spanish soils with contrasted values of organic C (the dependent variable), geological substrate and vegetation type. A wide array of uni- and multivariate chemometric models were applied to independent variables consisting of total abundances of the major aromatic compounds, i.e., alkylbenzenes and methoxyphenols released from whole soil samples using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). These two families of compounds were selected since they are classically considered to inform on the degree of microbial reworking of lignins, which is an important precursor of the aromatic moiety of the SOM. A series of pyrolytic surrogate indices (aiming to express SOM diagenetic transformation in relation to the original biogenic molecular composition) were especially successful in forecasting SOC, viz: a) ratio between alkylbenzenes and methoxyphenols, b) ratio between short-chain (C0-C4) and long-chain (>C4) alkylbenzenes, c) ratio between methoxyphenols and short-chain alkylbenzenes, and d) ratios between methoxyphenols with different side

  12. High-resolution C and O stable isotope geochemistry of the early Aptian OAE1a at Cau (Prebetic Zone, Spain): Preliminary results from sediment core. (United States)

    Alejandro Ruiz-Ortiz, Pedro; Aguado, Roque; Castro, José Manuel; Gallego, David; de Gea, Ginés Alfonso; Jarvis, Ian; Molina, José Miguel; Nieto, Luis Miguel; Pancost, Richard; Quijano, María Luisa; Reolid, Matías; Rodriguez, Rafael; Skelton, Peter; Weisser, Helmut


    The occurrence of time intervals of enhanced deposition of organic matter (OM) during the Cretaceous, defined as Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAE), reflect abrupt changes in global carbon cycling. The Aptian OAE1a (120 Ma), represents an excellent example, recorded in all the main ocean basins, associated to massive burial of organic matter in marine sediments [1]. Much research has been done on the OAE1a from different sections in the world over the last decades, including the definition of the C-isotope stratigraphy of the event [2]. Notwithstanding, higher-resolution studies across the entire event will be crucial to shed light into the precise timing and rates of the different environmental and biotic changes that occurred. The Cau section is located in the easternmost part of the Prebetic Zone (Betic Cordillera), which represents the platform deposits of the Southern Iberian palaeomargin. The Lower Aptian of the Cau section is represented by a hemipelagic unit (Almadich Formation, ca. 200 m thick), deposited in a highly subsiding sector of a tilted block, located in the distal parts of the Prebetic Platform. Previous studies of the Lower Aptian of the Cau section have focused on the stratigraphy, bioevents, C-isotope stratigraphy, and organic and elemental geochemistry [3], [4], and in the reconstruction of pCO2 from organic geochemistry proxies [5]. All these studies reveal that the Cau section represents an excellent site to investigate the OAE 1a, based on its unusual high thickness and stratigraphic continuity, the quality and preservation of fossils and the geochemical signatures. Here we present the first results of a high-resolution carbonate C-isotope study based on the the analysis of three new research cores drilled at Cau in autumn 2015 [6]. These new data represent an important advance in the knowledge of the C-isotope record of the OAE 1a, presenting a more continuous record at a higher resolution than previous studies. This leads to the refining of the

  13. Depositional Architecture of Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician Siliciclastic Barik Formation; Al Huqf Area, Oman (United States)

    Abbasi, Iftikhar Ahmed


    Early Paleozoic siliciclastics sediments of the Haima Supergroup are subdivided into a number of formations and members based on lithological characteristics of various rock sequences. One of the distinct sandstone sequence, the Barik Formation (Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician) of the Andam Group is a major deep gas reservoir in central Oman. The sandstone bodies are prospective reservoir rocks while thick shale and clay interbeds act as effective seal. Part of the Barik Formation (lower and middle part) is exposed in isolated outcrops in Al Huqf area as interbedded multistoried sandstone, and green and red shale. The sandstone bodies are up to 2 meters thick and can be traced laterally for 300 m to over 1 km. Most of sandstone bodies show both lateral and vertical stacking. Two types of sandstone lithofacies are identified on the basis of field characteristics; a plane-bedded sandstone lithofacies capping thick red and green color shale beds, and a cross-bedded sandstone lithofacies overlying the plane-bedded sandstone defining coarsening upward sequences. The plane-bedded sandstone at places contains Cruziana ichnofacies and bivalve fragments indicating deposition by shoreface processes. Thick cross-bedded sandstone is interpreted to be deposited by the fluvial dominated deltaic processes. Load-casts, climbing ripples and flaser-bedding in siltstone and red shale indicate influence of tidal processes at times during the deposition of the formation. This paper summarizes results of a study carried out in Al Huqf area outcrops to analyze the characteristics of the sandstone-body geometry, internal architecture, provenance and diagenetic changes in the lower and middle part of the formation. The study shows build-up of a delta complex and its progradation over a broad, low-angle shelf where fluvial processes operate beside shoreface processes in a vegetation free setting. Keywords: Andam Group, Barik Formation, Ordovician sandstone, Al Huqf, Central Oman,

  14. Chemical composition of sediments from White Sea, Russian Arctic (United States)

    Gamza, Olga; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Novigatsky, Aleksandr


    The White Sea, the only Russian inland sea, is located on the north of outlying districts of the European part of Russia, belongs to Arctic Ocean. Area of water of sea occupies about 90 tousend square kilometers. The sea can be divided into some general parts: neck, funnel, basin and 4 Bays: Dvina Bay, Kandalaksha Bay, Mezen Bay and Onega Bay. The purpose of this work was geochemical mapping of the surface sediments of this area. The main tasks were: compilation data base of element composition of the surface sediments, geochemical mapping of each element, research of the anormal concentration of elements on the surface. To detect the content of chemical elements several methods were used: atomic absorption spectrometry (P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology); neutron activation analysis (Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry), total and organic carbon analysis, photometric method to detection Si, Al, P (P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology). Bulk composition is one of the fundamental characteristics of sediments and bottom deposites of modern basins. Coarse-grained sediments with portion of pelitic component 80%). Character of elements distribution correlates with facial distribution of sediments from White Sea. According to litologic description, bottom surface of Dvina Bay is practically everywhere covered by layer of fine-grained sand. In the border area between Dvina Bay and White Sea basin on terraced subwater slope aleurite politic silts are abundant. They tend to exhange down the slope to clay silts. In Onega Bay fractions of non-deposition are observed. They are characterized by wide spread of thin blanket poorgraded sediments, which are likely to be relic. Relief of Kandalakscha Bay bottom is presented as alternation of abyssal fosses (near 300 m) with silles and elevations (roof owning to diagenetic contraction. Authors thank academic Lisitsyn for encourage, Andrey Apletalin for valuable help, and everybody, who helped in field

  15. Sources and diagenet..

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inter-site differences in 13C and 151V could be related to the sources of OM. In the Msasani Bay the material is derived from seagrasses while in the Dar es salaam harbour and Msimbazi micro-bay, large proportion is derived from the continent. Other parameters ofOC, nitrogen and C/N ratios for these three sites show ...

  16. Pore Fluid Evolution Influenced by Volcanic Activities and Related Diagenetic Processes in a Rift Basin: Evidence from the Paleogene Medium-Deep Reservoirs of Huanghekou Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongheng Sun


    Full Text Available Volcanic activities exert a significant influence on pore fluid property and related diagenetic processes that substantially controlled reservoirs quality. Analysis of Paleogene medium-deep sandstones on the Huanghekou Sag provides insight into relating the diagenetic processes to pore fluid property evolution influenced by volcanic activities. Three distinct types of pore fluids were identified on the basis of an integrated and systematic analysis including core and thin section observation, XRD, SEM, CL, and trace element. Alkaline aqueous medium environment occurred in E2s1+2 where volcanic activities have insignificant influence on pore fluids, evidenced by typical alkaline diagenetic events such as K-feldspar albitization, quartz dissolution, feldspar dissolution, and carbonate cementation. During the deposition of E3d3, influx of terrestrial freshwater and alteration of ferromagnesian-rich pore water result in the formation of mixing aqueous medium environment through volcanic eruption dormancy causing zeolite dissolution, clay mineral transformation, and K-feldspar albitization. Ferromagnesian-rich aqueous medium environment developed resulting from the intensive hydrolysis of the unstable ferromagnesian minerals formed due to intense volcanic activities during E3d1+2 and corresponding predominant diagenetic processes were characterized by the precipitation and dissolution of low-silica zeolites. Therefore, the differential properties of pore fluids caused various diagenetic processes controlling reservoir quality.

  17. The effect of oxygen tension in the sediment on the behaviour of waste radionuclides at the NEA Atlantic dumpsite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutgers van der Loeff, M.M.; Waijers, D.A.


    Predictions of the transport and fate of waste radionuclides at the NEA Atlantic dumpsite require a knowledge of the behaviour of these nuclides within the sediment. Since redox conditions are known to influence the mobility of many elements in deep-sea sediments, we have investigated the speciation of some trace elements in relation to the dissolved oxygen concentration in sediments from the dumpsite. Dissolved oxygen in these sediments penetrates mostly between 50 and 100 cm, although at topographic highs and on hillsides oxygen penetrates more than 2 m into the sediment because of the special hydrodynamic and sedimentological conditions there. Remobilization at lowered redox potentials below the depth where oxygen reaches zero causes an upward diffusive transport of Mn and the manganese-associated trace metals Co and Ni. Whether this diagenetic mobilization influences other elements such as rare earth elements and actinides as well, remains to be investigated. Under normal sedimentological condition this mobilization can not be expected to return radioactivity to the water column through an oxidized sediment layer of 50 cm. However, burial of radioactivity to depths beyond the reach of deep burrowing organisms can be significantly delayed. Kd values (solid/dissolved partition coefficients) of redox sensitive elements vary over orders of magnitude and are inappropriate to model the behaviour of these elements in sediments with redox gradients

  18. Polygenetic Karsted Hardground Omission Surfaces in Lower Silurian Neritic Limestones: a Signature of Early Paleozoic Calcite Seas (United States)

    James, Noel P.; Desrochers, André; Kyser, Kurt T.


    Exquisitely preserved and well-exposed rocky paleoshoreline omission surfaces in Lower Silurian Chicotte Formation limestones on Anticosti Island, Quebec, are interpreted to be the product of combined marine and meteoric diagenesis. The different omission features include; 1) planar erosional bedding tops, 2) scalloped erosional surfaces, 3) knobs, ridges, and swales at bedding contacts, and 4) paleoscarps. An interpretation is proposed that relates specific omission surface styles to different diagenetic-depositional processes that took place in separate terrestrial-peritidal-shallow neritic zones. Such processes were linked to fluctuations in relative sea level with specific zones of diagenesis such as; 1) karst corrosion, 2) peritidal erosion, 3) subtidal seawater flushing and cementation, and 4) shallow subtidal deposition. Most surfaces are interpreted to have been the result of initial extensive shallow-water synsedimentary lithification that were, as sea level fell, altered by exposure and subaerial corrosion, only to be buried by sediments as sea level rose again. This succession was repeated several times resulting in a suite of recurring polyphase omission surfaces through many meters of stratigraphic section. Synsedimentary cloudy marine cements are well preserved and are thus interpreted to have been calcitic originally. Aragonite components are rare and thought to have to have been dissolved just below the Silurian seafloor. Large molluscs that survived such seafloor removal were nonetheless leached and the resultant megamoulds were filled with synsedimentary calcite cement. These Silurian inner neritic-strandline omission surfaces are temporally unique. They are part of a suite of marine omission surfaces that are mostly found in early Paleozoic neritic carbonate sedimentary rocks. These karsted hardgrounds formed during a calcite-sea time of elevated marine carbonate saturation and extensive marine cement precipitation. The contemporaneous greenhouse

  19. Release of Methane from Bering Sea Sediments During the Last Glacial Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mea Cook; Lloyd Keigwin


    Several lines of evidence suggest that during times of elevated methane flux the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) was positioned near the sediment-water interface. We studied two cores (from 700 m and 1457 m water depth) from the Umnak Plateau region. Anomalously low d13C and high d18O in benthic and planktonic foraminifera in these cores are the consequence of diagenetic overgrowths of authigenic carbonates. There are multiple layers of authigenic-carbonate-rich sediment in these cores, and the stable isotope compositions of the carbonates are consistent with those formed during anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The carbonate-rich layers are associated with biomarkers produced by methane-oxidizing archaea, archaeol and glyceryl dibiphytanyl glyceryl tetraether (GDGT). The d13C of the archaeol and certain GDGTs are isotopically depleted. These carbonate- and AOM-biomarker-rich layers were emplaced in the SMTZ during episodes when there was a high flux of methane or methane-rich fluids upward in the sediment column. The sediment methane in the Umnak Plateau region appears to have been very dynamic during the glacial period, and interacted with the ocean-atmosphere system at millennial time scales. The upper-most carbonate-rich layers are in radiocarbon-dated sediment deposited during interstitials 2 and 3, 28-20 ka, and may be associated with the climate warming during this time.

  20. Hydrogen and acetate cycling in two sulfate-reducing sediments: Buzzards Bay and Town Cove, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, P.C. (SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (USA) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (USA)); Michelson, A.R.; Scranton, M.I. (SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (USA)); Banta, G.T.; Hobbie, J.E. (Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods, Hole, MA (USA)); Howarth, R.W. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))


    Molecular hydrogen and acetate are believed to be key intermediates in the anaerobic remineralization of organic carbon. The authors have made measurements of the cycling of both these compounds in two marine sediments: the bioturbated sediments of Buzzards Bay, Mass., and the much more reducing sediments of Town Cove, Orleans, Mass. Hydrogen concentrations are similar in these environments (from less than 5 to 30 nM), and are within the range previously reported for coastal sediments. However, apparent hydrogen production rates differ by a factor of 60 between these two sediments and at both sites show strong correlation with measured rates of sulfate reduction. Acetate concentrations generally increased with depth in both environments; this increase was greater in Buzzards Bay (22.5 to 71.5 {mu}M) than in Town Cove (26 to 44 {mu}M). Acetate oxidation rates calculated from measured concentrations and {sup 14}C-acetate consumption rate constants suggest that the measured acetate was not all available to sulfate-reducing bacteria. Using the measured sulfate reduction rates, they estimate that between 2% and 100% of the measured acetate pool is biologically available, and that the bioavailable pool decreases with depth. A diagenetic model of the total acetate concentration suggests that consumption may be first order with respect to only a fraction of the total pool.

  1. Manganese and iron geochemistry in sediments underlying the redox-stratified Fayetteville Green Lake (United States)

    Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Havig, Jeff R.; Singer, David M.; McCormick, Michael L.; Kump, Lee R.


    Manganese and iron are redox-sensitive elements that yield clues about biogeochemistry and redox conditions both in modern environments and in the geologic past. Here, we investigated Mn and Fe-bearing minerals preserved in basin sediments underlying Fayetteville Green Lake, a redox-stratified lake that serves as a geochemical analogue for Paleoproterozoic oceans. Synchrotron-source microprobe techniques (μXRF, μXANES, and μXRD) and bulk geochemical analyses were used to examine the microscale distribution and speciation of Mn, Fe, and S as a function of depth in the top 48 cm of anoxic lake sediments. Manganese was primarily associated with calcite grains as a manganese-rich carbonate that precipitated in the chemocline of the water column and settled through the euxinic basin to collect in lake sediments. Iron was preserved in framboidal iron sulfides that precipitated in euxinic bottom waters and underwent transformation to pyrite and marcasite in the sediments. Previous studies attribute the formation of manganese-rich carbonates to the diagenetic alteration of manganese oxides deposited in basins underlying oxygenated water. Our study challenges this paradigm by providing evidence that Mn-bearing carbonates form in the water column and accumulate in sediments below anoxic waters. Consequently, manganoan carbonates preserved in the rock record do not necessarily denote the presence of oxygenated bottom waters in ocean basins.

  2. Phosphorites from the Oman Margin, ODP Leg 117

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Lamboy, M.

    and lowest sedimentation rates. Bioturbation probably favoured the production of different initial substrates which subsequently phosphatized. Light-brown nodules are formed by a rapid, early diagenetic process. The abundant nodule formation in the Late...

  3. OU3 sediment dating and sedimentation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, R.B.; Wolaver, H.A.; Burger, V.M.


    Environmental Technologies at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFS) investigated the sediment history of Standley Lake, Great Western Reservoir, and Mower Reservoir using 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu global fall-out as dating indicators. These Colorado Front Range reservoirs have been the subject of study by various city, state and national agencies due to suspected Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant impacts. We performed sediment dating as part of the RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for Operable Unit 3. A sediment chronology profile assists scientist in determining the year of sedimentation for a particular peak concentration of contaminants. Radioisotope sediment dating for the three reservoirs indicated sedimentation rates of 0.7 to 0.8 in./yr. for Standley Lake (SL), 0.9 in./yr. for Great Western Reservoir (GWR), and 0.3 in./yr. in Mower Reservoir (MR). RFS sediment dating for Operable Unit 3 compared favorably with the Hardy, Livingston, Burke, and Volchok Standley Lake study. This report describes the cesium/plutonium sediment dating method, estimates sedimentation rates for Operable Unit 3 reservoirs, and compares these results to previous investigations

  4. Identification and determination of the contribution of iron-steel manufacturing industry to sediment-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a large shallow lake of eastern China. (United States)

    Zhang, Liu; Bai, Ya-Shu; Wang, Ji-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Chuan; Chen, Tian-Hu; Yin, Da-Qiang


    Seventeen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were determined in surface sediments collected from the Chaohu Lake (a large shallow lake in eastern China) and its tributaries. Both diagnostic ratios and a receptor model (positive matrix factorization, PMF) were applied to identify and determine the contribution of a local iron-steel manufacturing plant located in the Nanfei River (NFR) to the Chaohu Lake basin. The results show that sites located in the downstream of the steel plant contained concentrations of 17 PAH (Σ 17 PAH) approximately two orders of magnitudes higher than those from other sites. Five factors were identified by the PMF model, including industrial waste, wood/biomass burning, diagenetic origin, domestic coal combustion, and industrial combustion. Our findings suggest that sediments in the downstream of the plant and in the western part of the Chaohu Lake were predominantly affected by industrial coal combustion. A mixture of pyrolytic origins impacted urban sediments in the upstream of the plant, whereas diagenetic origins along with coal and biomass burning were suggested to influence the eastern part and rural tributaries of the lake. To assess the potential ecological risk and toxicity caused by the iron-steel plant, sediment toxicity was evaluated by the PMF model, sediment quality guideline, and toxic equivalent factors. All of the three approaches suggested PAH accumulation in the NFR sediments could produce significant adverse ecological effects and half of the sediment toxicity in the NFR may be attributed to the emissions from the iron-steel plant. Some rural locations also exhibited PAH concentrations above probable effects, most likely contributed by wood/biomass burning.

  5. The contribution of bank and surface sediments to fluvial sediment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contribution of bank and surface sediments to fluvial sediment transport of the Pra River. ... the relative contribution of surface and bank sediments to the fluvial sediment transport. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  6. Sediment trace metal profiles in lakes of Killarney Park, Canada from regional to continental influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belzile, Nelson; Chen Yuwei; Gunn, John M.; Dixit, Sushil S.


    The lakes in Killarney Provincial Park (KPP) located 40-60 km southwest of Sudbury, Ontario are beginning to recover after decades of being severely affected by acidification and atmospheric pollutants. Detailed profiles of acid-recoverable trace elements (As. Cd, Cu, Co. Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were obtained after aqua regia digestion and ICP-OES analysis of sediment cores taken from six Park lakes. Results permitted the identification of two types of profiles. The first type applies to elements such as Fe, Mn, As and Co for which historical deposition and recent recovery are strongly masked by diagenetic remobilization. The second type of profile applies to elements such as Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn on which the history of industrialisation in North America and mining activities in Sudbury can be superimposed. Based on sediment data of trace elements less affected by diagenetic remobilization (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), chemical recovery indices can be estimated from depth profiles. Indices of maximum (C p ) and surface (C s ) contamination were calculated by dividing the concentration of a given metal by the pre-industrial level. The ratio of the two indices provided a simple estimation of the chemical recovery of lakes that does not consider the influence of the watershed or the lake pH. Profiles of metals in sediment of KPP complement the water quality monitoring data and tend to indicate that this area is in transition from dominant influence of regional pollution sources to becoming controlled by continental atmospheric deposition. - Lakes in Killarney Park are in transition from being impacted by regional pollution to being controlled by continental atmospheric deposition

  7. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  8. Center for Contaminated Sediments (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Center for Contaminated Sediments serves as a clearinghouse for technology and expertise concerned with contaminated sediments. The...

  9. Geochemistry of sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    Considering the potential of elemental data in marine sediments as diagnostic tools of various geological and oceanographic processes, sediment geochemical data from the Indian Ocean region has been reviewed in this article. Emphasis is laid...

  10. Indicators: Sediment Enzymes (United States)

    Sediment enzymes are proteins that are produced by microorganisms living in the sediment or soil. They are indicators of key ecosystem processes and can help determine which nutrients are affecting the biological community of a waterbody.

  11. Electrodialytic remediation of sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Sediments of harbors and freshwaters are regularly dredged for various reasons: maintenance of navigational depths, recovery of recreational locations, and even environmental recovery. In the past, sediments dredged from harbors have been dumped at sea, however, environmental regulations now, in ...

  12. Plutonium behavior during the early diagenesis of marine sediments: applications to two marine environments labelled by radionuclides released from reprocessing plants; Etude du comportement du plutonium au cours de la diagenese precoce des sediments marins: applications a deux environnements marins marques par les rejets issus d'usines de retraitement de combustibles uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouzy, A


    The plutonium released into the English Channel and the Irish Sea by nuclear fuel reprocessing plants is mainly associated to sediments. Nevertheless, this association is partially reversible. This work combines a field study, carried out on the Cumbrian mud patch and the Esk estuary (Eastern Irish Sea), and laboratory experiments performed on carbonaceous coarse-grained sediments collected in the Central Channel. It presents new data on the plutonium solid partition in sediments and suggests realistic scenarios for describing its release from sediments to the water column. The role of reactive sulphides acting as temporary sink phases is shown in anoxic sediments; those sulphides are liable to release dissolved plutonium upon their oxidation. The plutonium is also bound to carbonates within the carbonaceous matrix and as carbonate surface complexes. Conceptual schemes of the behaviour of the plutonium in marine sediments are proposed; they highlight the strong remobilization potential of plutonium from marine sediments to the interstitial water. Its plutonium content can be injected into the overlying water column. (author)

  13. Plutonium behavior during the early diagenesis of marine sediments: applications to two marine environments labelled by radionuclides released from reprocessing plants; Etude du comportement du plutonium au cours de la diagenese precoce des sediments marins: applications a deux environnements marins marques par les rejets issus d'usines de retraitement de combustibles uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouzy, A


    The plutonium released into the English Channel and the Irish Sea by nuclear fuel reprocessing plants is mainly associated to sediments. Nevertheless, this association is partially reversible. This work combines a field study, carried out on the Cumbrian mud patch and the Esk estuary (Eastern Irish Sea), and laboratory experiments performed on carbonaceous coarse-grained sediments collected in the Central Channel. It presents new data on the plutonium solid partition in sediments and suggests realistic scenarios for describing its release from sediments to the water column. The role of reactive sulphides acting as temporary sink phases is shown in anoxic sediments; those sulphides are liable to release dissolved plutonium upon their oxidation. The plutonium is also bound to carbonates within the carbonaceous matrix and as carbonate surface complexes. Conceptual schemes of the behaviour of the plutonium in marine sediments are proposed; they highlight the strong remobilization potential of plutonium from marine sediments to the interstitial water. Its plutonium content can be injected into the overlying water column. (author)

  14. Mixture design and treatment methods for recycling contaminated sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Kwok, June S.H.; Tsang, Daniel C.W.; Poon, Chi-Sun


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Contaminated sediment can be recycled as fill material for site formation. • Thermal pretreatment of sediment permits non-load-bearing block application. • CO 2 curing enhances strength and reduces carbon footprint. • Inclusion of granular wastes reinforces the solidified sediment matrix. • Sediment blocks are useful resources for construction use. - Abstract: Conventional marine disposal of contaminated sediment presents significant financial and environmental burden. This study aimed to recycle the contaminated sediment by assessing the roles and integration of binder formulation, sediment pretreatment, curing method, and waste inclusion in stabilization/solidification. The results demonstrated that the 28-d compressive strength of sediment blocks produced with coal fly ash and lime partially replacing cement at a binder-to-sediment ratio of 3:7 could be used as fill materials for construction. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that hydration products (calcium hydroxide) were difficult to form at high sediment content. Thermal pretreatment of sediment removed 90% of indigenous organic matter, significantly increased the compressive strength, and enabled reuse as non-load-bearing masonry units. Besides, 2-h CO 2 curing accelerated early-stage carbonation inside the porous structure, sequestered 5.6% of CO 2 (by weight) in the sediment blocks, and acquired strength comparable to 7-d curing. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated substantial weight loss corresponding to decomposition of poorly and well crystalline calcium carbonate. Moreover, partial replacement of contaminated sediment by various granular waste materials notably augmented the strength of sediment blocks. The metal leachability of sediment blocks was minimal and acceptable for reuse. These results suggest that contaminated sediment should be viewed as useful resources

  15. Mixture design and treatment methods for recycling contaminated sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei; Kwok, June S.H.; Tsang, Daniel C.W., E-mail:; Poon, Chi-Sun


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Contaminated sediment can be recycled as fill material for site formation. • Thermal pretreatment of sediment permits non-load-bearing block application. • CO{sub 2} curing enhances strength and reduces carbon footprint. • Inclusion of granular wastes reinforces the solidified sediment matrix. • Sediment blocks are useful resources for construction use. - Abstract: Conventional marine disposal of contaminated sediment presents significant financial and environmental burden. This study aimed to recycle the contaminated sediment by assessing the roles and integration of binder formulation, sediment pretreatment, curing method, and waste inclusion in stabilization/solidification. The results demonstrated that the 28-d compressive strength of sediment blocks produced with coal fly ash and lime partially replacing cement at a binder-to-sediment ratio of 3:7 could be used as fill materials for construction. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that hydration products (calcium hydroxide) were difficult to form at high sediment content. Thermal pretreatment of sediment removed 90% of indigenous organic matter, significantly increased the compressive strength, and enabled reuse as non-load-bearing masonry units. Besides, 2-h CO{sub 2} curing accelerated early-stage carbonation inside the porous structure, sequestered 5.6% of CO{sub 2} (by weight) in the sediment blocks, and acquired strength comparable to 7-d curing. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated substantial weight loss corresponding to decomposition of poorly and well crystalline calcium carbonate. Moreover, partial replacement of contaminated sediment by various granular waste materials notably augmented the strength of sediment blocks. The metal leachability of sediment blocks was minimal and acceptable for reuse. These results suggest that contaminated sediment should be viewed as useful resources.

  16. Origin and geochemical behavior of uranium in marine sediments. Utilization of the 234U/238U ratio in marine geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organo, Catherine


    The first part of this thesis presents the current situation of knowledge of uranium in marine environment. The second part describes the methods of analysis as well as the material support of the study, i.e., the sediments and marine deposits investigated. The third part is dedicated to the study of uranium mobility in marine sediments characterized by detrital terrigenous composition (pelagic clays). This approach allowed quantifying the entering and leaving flux of uranium after the sediment settling and, to discuss, on this basis, the consequences on the uranium oceanic balance. In the third part the origin and behavior of uranium in zones of high surface productivity is studied. The uranium enrichments observed in the hemi-pelagic sediments of the EUMELI (J.G.O.F.S.-France) programme will constitute a material of study adequate for measuring the variations in the 234 U/2 38U ratio in solid phase, in response to the oxido-reducing characteristics of the sediment. Thus establishing the origin of the trapped uranium has been possible. Also, the nature of the sedimentary phases related to uranium in bio-genetic sediments in the Austral Ocean was determined. Thus a relationship between the variations in the 234 U/ 238 and the diagenetic transformations was possible to establish. Finally in the fifth part a study of the behavior of uranium in a polymetallic shell characteristic for deposits of hydrogenized origin

  17. The Eocene Rusayl Formation, Oman, carbonaceous rocks in calcareous shelf sediments: Environment of deposition, alteration and hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G.; Wehner, H.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 510163, D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Botz, R. [University Kiel, Geological-Paleontological Department, Olshausenstrasse 40-60, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Berner, Z.; Stueben, D. [Technical University Karlsruhe, Institute for Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Fritz-Haber-Weg 2, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Al-Sayigh, A. [Sultan Qaboos University, Geological Dept. PO Box 36, Al-Khod (Oman)


    incursions make up a greater deal of the sedimentary record than mangrove swamps. Terra rossa paleosols mark the end of accumulation of organic material (OM) and herald supratidal conditions at the passage of Rusayl Formation into the overlying Seeb Formation. In the subtidal-supratidal cycles of lithofacies unit VIII the terra rossa horizons are thining upwards and become gradually substituted for by deep-water middle ramp sediments of lithofacies unit IX. Framboidal pyrite, (ferroan) dolomite with very little siderite are indicative of an early diagenetic alteration stage I under rather moderate temperatures of formation. During a subsequent stage II, an increase in the temperature of alteration was partly induced by burial and a high heat flow from the underlying Semail Ophiolite. Type-III kerogen originating from higher plants and, in addition, some marine biota gave rise to the generation of small amounts of soluble organic matter during this stage of diagenesis. The average reflectance of humic particles marks the beginning of the oil window and the production index reveals the existence of free hydrocarbons. Further uplift of the Eocene strata and oxidation during stage IIII caused veins of satin spar to form from organic sulfur and pyrite in the carbonaceous material. Lowering of the pH value of the pore fluid led to the precipitation of jarosite and a set of hydrated aluminum sulfates dependant upon the cations present in the wall rocks. AMD minerals (= acid mine drainage) are not very widespread in this carbonaceous series intercalated among calcareous rocks owing to the buffering effect of carbonate minerals. These carbonate-hosted carbonaceous rocks are below an economic level as far as the mining of coal is concerned, but deserves particular attention as source rocks for hydrocarbons in the Middle East, provided a higher stage of maturity is reached. (author)

  18. Fine Sediment Effects on Brook Trout Eggs in Laboratory Streams (United States)

    David G. Argent; Patricia A. Flebbe


    This study was designed to determine effects of different fine sediments (0.43-0.85 mm in diameter) on survival of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) eggs during early developmental stages under laboratory conditions. Intragravel permeability and dissolved oxygen declined with increasing fine sediment amounts. Survival at each developmental stage...

  19. A test of the stability of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn profiles over two decades in lake sediments near the Flin Flon Smelter, Manitoba, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percival, J.B.; Outridge, P.M., E-mail:


    Lake sediments are valuable archives of atmospheric metal deposition, but the stability of some element profiles may possibly be affected by diagenetic changes over time. In this extensive case study, the stability of sedimentary Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn profiles was assessed in dated sediment cores that were collected in 2004 from four smelter-affected lakes near Flin Flon, Manitoba, which had previously been cored in 1985. Metal profiles determined in 1985 were in most cases clearly reproduced in the corresponding sediment layers in 2004, although small-scale spatial heterogeneity in metal distribution complicated the temporal comparisons. Pre-smelter (i.e. pre-1930) increases in metal profiles were likely the result of long-range atmospheric metal pollution, coupled with particle mixing at the 1930s sediment surface. However, the close agreement between key inflection points in the metal profiles sampled two decades apart suggests that metals in most of the lakes, and Hg and Zn in the most contaminated lake (Meridian), were stable once the sediments were buried below the surface mixed layer. Cadmium, Cu and Pb profiles in Meridian Lake did not agree as well between studies, showing evidence of upward remobilization over time. Profiles of redox-indicator elements (Fe, Mn, Mo and U) suggested that the rate of Mn oxyhydroxide recycling within sediment was more rapid in Meridian Lake, which may have caused the Cd, Cu and Pb redistribution. - Highlights: • Sedimentary Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn profiles in four lakes were mostly unchanged over 19 years. • In one lake, Cd, Cu and Pb profiles were offset relative to the originals. • The offset could indicate diagenetic upcore dispersal of these metals.

  20. A manual to identify sources of fluvial sediment (United States)

    Gellis, Allen C.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Schubauer-Berigan, Joseph


    Sediment is an important pollutant of concern that can degrade and alter aquatic habitat. A sediment budget is an accounting of the sources, storage, and export of sediment over a defined spatial and temporal scale. This manual focuses on field approaches to estimate a sediment budget. We also highlight the sediment fingerprinting approach to attribute sediment to different watershed sources. Determining the sources and sinks of sediment is important in developing strategies to reduce sediment loads to water bodies impaired by sediment. Therefore, this manual can be used when developing a sediment TMDL requiring identification of sediment sources.The manual takes the user through the seven necessary steps to construct a sediment budget:Decision-making for watershed scale and time period of interestFamiliarization with the watershed by conducting a literature review, compiling background information and maps relevant to study questions, conducting a reconnaissance of the watershedDeveloping partnerships with landowners and jurisdictionsCharacterization of watershed geomorphic settingDevelopment of a sediment budget designData collectionInterpretation and construction of the sediment budgetGenerating products (maps, reports, and presentations) to communicate findings.Sediment budget construction begins with examining the question(s) being asked and whether a sediment budget is necessary to answer these question(s). If undertaking a sediment budget analysis is a viable option, the next step is to define the spatial scale of the watershed and the time scale needed to answer the question(s). Of course, we understand that monetary constraints play a big role in any decision.Early in the sediment budget development process, we suggest getting to know your watershed by conducting a reconnaissance and meeting with local stakeholders. The reconnaissance aids in understanding the geomorphic setting of the watershed and potential sources of sediment. Identifying the potential

  1. Tracking the Transformation and Preservation of Organic Biomarkers in a Varved Sediment-Core Series (United States)

    Tolu, J.; Bigler, C.; Bindler, R.


    An important premise for reconstructing environmental changes using sediment records is to understand which environmental information reaches the lake bottom and how diagenetic processes may affect the proxies, such as terrestrial and aquatic organic biomarkers. We can tackle this question using a unique series of varved sediment cores collected from the lake Nylandssjön (northern Sweden). In addition to limnological and sediment trap sampling since 2001, we have a collection of freeze cores taken in late winter and stored since 1979, which allows us to track individual varve years (e.g., 1978) over time (~30 years). A previous study using this collection showed that 23 % of C and 35 % of N were lost during the first 25 years with a C:N ratio increase of ≈21, suggesting important implications for diagenetic effects on organic biomarkers. To assess the preservation/transformation of organic biomarkers, we developed a new Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry method that allows the rapid determination of biomarkers from the common OM classes (e.g., plant waxes, microbial lipids, lignins) using sub-mg sample sizes and thus applicable to high-resolution sampling of the varved sediment (Tolu et al., under review). Our results show that the different biomarkers exhibit a broad spectrum of reactivities over ~30 years -% change determined by ([Peak area at t] - [Peak area at t=0])/ [peak area at t=0] x 100-. For example: 67-80 % of the algal chlorophyll-derived product 'phytene' is lost depending which single varve year is followed over time (e.g., 1979). Only 12-32 % of "pristene", the degraded form of algal chlorophyll, is lost. The guaiacyl and syringyl lignin units are affected by a smaller loss, i.e. 5-15 %, and the S/G ratio, indicative of angiosperm/gymnosperm plant input remains stable, which is contrary to previous work on non-varved lake sediments. Considering all biomarkers, the degradation/production plateaued after ~15 years, which indicates that

  2. Impacts of flocculation on the distribution and diagenesis of iron in boreal estuarine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jilbert


    Full Text Available Iron (Fe plays a key role in sedimentary diagenetic processes in coastal systems, participating in various redox reactions and influencing the burial of organic carbon. Large amounts of Fe enter the marine environment from boreal river catchments associated with dissolved organic matter (DOM and as colloidal Fe oxyhydroxides, principally ferrihydrite. However, the fate of this Fe pool in estuarine sediments has not been extensively studied. Here we show that flocculation processes along a salinity gradient in an estuary of the northern Baltic Sea efficiently transfer Fe and OM from the dissolved phase into particulate material that accumulates in the sediments. Flocculation of Fe and OM is partially decoupled. This is likely due to the presence of discrete colloidal ferrihydrite in the freshwater Fe pool, which responds differently from DOM to estuarine mixing. Further decoupling of Fe from OM occurs during sedimentation. While we observe a clear decline with distance offshore in the proportion of terrestrial material in the sedimentary particulate organic matter (POM pool, the distribution of flocculated Fe in sediments is modulated by focusing effects. Labile Fe phases are most abundant at a deep site in the inner basin of the estuary, consistent with input from flocculation and subsequent focusing. The majority of the labile Fe pool is present as Fe (II, including both acid-volatile sulfur (AVS-bound Fe and unsulfidized phases. The ubiquitous presence of unsulfidized Fe (II throughout the sediment column suggests Fe (II-OM complexes derived from reduction of flocculated Fe (III-OM, while other Fe (II phases are likely derived from the reduction of flocculated ferrihydrite. Depth-integrated rates of Fe (II accumulation (AVS-Fe + unsulfidized Fe (II + pyrite for the period 1970–2015 are greater in the inner basin of the estuary with respect to a site further offshore, confirming higher rates of Fe reduction in near-shore areas

  3. Impacts of flocculation on the distribution and diagenesis of iron in boreal estuarine sediments (United States)

    Jilbert, Tom; Asmala, Eero; Schröder, Christian; Tiihonen, Rosa; Myllykangas, Jukka-Pekka; Virtasalo, Joonas J.; Kotilainen, Aarno; Peltola, Pasi; Ekholm, Päivi; Hietanen, Susanna


    Iron (Fe) plays a key role in sedimentary diagenetic processes in coastal systems, participating in various redox reactions and influencing the burial of organic carbon. Large amounts of Fe enter the marine environment from boreal river catchments associated with dissolved organic matter (DOM) and as colloidal Fe oxyhydroxides, principally ferrihydrite. However, the fate of this Fe pool in estuarine sediments has not been extensively studied. Here we show that flocculation processes along a salinity gradient in an estuary of the northern Baltic Sea efficiently transfer Fe and OM from the dissolved phase into particulate material that accumulates in the sediments. Flocculation of Fe and OM is partially decoupled. This is likely due to the presence of discrete colloidal ferrihydrite in the freshwater Fe pool, which responds differently from DOM to estuarine mixing. Further decoupling of Fe from OM occurs during sedimentation. While we observe a clear decline with distance offshore in the proportion of terrestrial material in the sedimentary particulate organic matter (POM) pool, the distribution of flocculated Fe in sediments is modulated by focusing effects. Labile Fe phases are most abundant at a deep site in the inner basin of the estuary, consistent with input from flocculation and subsequent focusing. The majority of the labile Fe pool is present as Fe (II), including both acid-volatile sulfur (AVS)-bound Fe and unsulfidized phases. The ubiquitous presence of unsulfidized Fe (II) throughout the sediment column suggests Fe (II)-OM complexes derived from reduction of flocculated Fe (III)-OM, while other Fe (II) phases are likely derived from the reduction of flocculated ferrihydrite. Depth-integrated rates of Fe (II) accumulation (AVS-Fe + unsulfidized Fe (II) + pyrite) for the period 1970-2015 are greater in the inner basin of the estuary with respect to a site further offshore, confirming higher rates of Fe reduction in near-shore areas. Mössbauer 57Fe

  4. Experimental studies of the mechanisms and the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the uranium reduction by sedimentary organic materials from ligneous origin under diagenetic or hydrothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S.


    This research thesis reports experimental studies of fixation and reduction of the uranyl cation by sedimentary organic materials from ligneous origin in order to understand the mechanisms and quantitative aspects of these processes in diagenetic or hydrothermal conditions. Two fixation mechanisms have been identified. Reduction appears to be governed by the oxidation of hydroxyl functions and the dehydrogenation of aliphatic hydro-carbonated entities. A kinetic study of this reduction process is reported, as well as a simulation of these processes by simple organic compounds (alcohols, aliphatic hydrocarbons). The assessment of thermodynamic parameters of the reduction process is discussed, and the obtained thermodynamic data show that almost the totality of uranium present in natural waters precipitates under the form of uraninite in presence of lignite. The extension of the obtained results to all sedimentary organic materials is finally discussed [fr

  5. Diagenetic changes in Concholepas concholepas shells (Gastropoda, Muricidae) in the hyper-arid conditions of Northern Chile - implications for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions (United States)

    Guzmán, N.; Dauphin, Y.; Cuif, J. P.; Denis, A.; Ortlieb, L.


    Variations in the chemical composition of fossil biogenic carbonates, and in particular of mollusc shells, have been used in a range of palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. It is of primary importance, therefore, to detect and understand the diagenetic processes that may modify the original chemical signature. This microstructural and biogeochemical study focuses on modern and fossil (Holocene and Pleistocene) shells of a littoral gastropod of Northern Chile, and on the characterization of mineral component transformations at the nanometric scale and concomitant intracrystalline organic compound modifications. The inner aragonite layer of the shell exhibits more complex deteriorations than the calcite layer. This preliminary study confirms that physical and chemical alterations of various components of mollusc shell biocrystals are complex and might manifest in different ways even within a single individual. The single criterion of determining the mineralogical composition to verify the conservation state of shell samples is insufficient.

  6. Diagenetic changes in Concholepas concholepas shells (Gastropoda, Muricidae in the hyper-arid conditions of Northern Chile – implications for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ortlieb


    Full Text Available Variations in the chemical composition of fossil biogenic carbonates, and in particular of mollusc shells, have been used in a range of palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. It is of primary importance, therefore, to detect and understand the diagenetic processes that may modify the original chemical signature. This microstructural and biogeochemical study focuses on modern and fossil (Holocene and Pleistocene shells of a littoral gastropod of Northern Chile, and on the characterization of mineral component transformations at the nanometric scale and concomitant intracrystalline organic compound modifications. The inner aragonite layer of the shell exhibits more complex deteriorations than the calcite layer. This preliminary study confirms that physical and chemical alterations of various components of mollusc shell biocrystals are complex and might manifest in different ways even within a single individual. The single criterion of determining the mineralogical composition to verify the conservation state of shell samples is insufficient.

  7. Rare earth, major, and trace element composition of Monterey and DSDP chert and associated host sediment: Assessing the influence of chemical fractionation during diagenesis (United States)

    Murray, R.W.; Buchholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.; Gerlach, David C.; Russ III, G. Price; Jones, David L.


    Chert and associated host sediments from Monterey Formation and Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) sequences were analyzed in order to assess chemical behavior during diagenesis of biogenic sediments. The primary compositional contrast between chert and host sediment is a greater absolute SiO2 concentration in chert, often with final SiO2 ≥ 98 wt%. This contrast in SiO2 (and SiAl">SiAl) potentially reflects precursor sediment heterogeneity, diagenetic chemical fractionation, or both. SiO2 concentrations and SiAl">SiAl ratios in chert are far greater than in modern siliceous oozes, however and often exceed values in acid-cleaned diatom tests. Compositional contrasts between chert and host sediment are also orders-of-magnitude greater than between multiple samples of the host sediment. Calculations based on the initial composition of adjacent host, observed porosity reductions from host to chert and a postulated influx of pure SiO2, construct a chert composition which is essentially identical to observed SiO2 values in chert. Thus, precursor heterogeneity does not seem to be the dominant factor influencing the current chert composition for the key elements of interest. In order to assess the extent of chemical fractionation during diagenesis, we approximate the precursor composition by analyzing host sediments adjacent to the chert.The SiO2 concentration contrast seems caused by biogenic SiO2 dissolution and transport from the local adjacent host sediment and subsequent SiO2reprecipitation in the chert. Along with SiO2, other elements are often added (with respect to Al) to Monterey and DSDP chert during silicification, although absolute concentrations decrease. The two Monterey quartz chert nodules investigated, in contrast to the opal-CT and quartz chert lenses, formed primarily by extreme removal of carbonate and phosphate, thereby increasing relative SiO2 concentrations. DSDP chert formed by both carbonate/phosphate dissolution and SiO2 addition from

  8. Potential risks of metal toxicity in contaminated sediments of Deule river in Northern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourino-Cabana, Beatriz; Lesven, Ludovic; Charriau, Adeline; Billon, Gabriel; Ouddane, Baghdad; Boughriet, Abdel


    Research highlights: → A historical environmental pollution is evidenced with reference to background levels. → Sedimentary trace metals partitioning is examined under undisturbed conditions. → Anoxia and diagenetic processes induce geochemical and mineralogical variabilities. → Do metals present in particles and pore waters exhibit a potential toxicity risk? → Behaviour of binding fractions contributes to trace metals scavenging. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the potential sediment cumulative damage and toxicity due to metal contamination in a polluted zone of Deule river (in northern France) from nearby two smelters. Metal-enrichment factors and geoaccumulation indices measured with sediment depth revealed that - compared to background levels either in local reference soils or in world rivers sediments/suspended particulate matter - Cd contributed to the highest pollution levels, followed by Zn, Pb and to a much lesser extent Cu and Ni. A comparison of the vertical distribution of AVS (acid volatile sulfides), SEM (simultaneously extracted metals), TMC (total metal concentrations), TOC (total organic carbon) and interstitial water-metal concentrations in the sediment allowed us to highlight the extent of toxicity caused by Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu and to raise the possibility of their association with certain geochemical phases. To assess the actual environmental impacts of these metals in Deule river, numerical sediment quality guidelines were further used in the present work. Sedimentary Pb, Zn, and Cd contents largely exceeded PEC (probable effect concentration) values reported as consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for freshwater ecosystems. As for risks of toxicity from pore waters, metal concentrations reached their maxima at the surficial layers of the sediment (1-3 cm) and IWCTU (Interstitial Water Criteria Toxicity Unit) observed for Pb and to a lesser extent Cd, violated the corresponding water quality data recommended

  9. Role of Sediment Size and Biostratinomy on the Development of Biofilms in Recent Avian Vertebrate Remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Peterson


    Full Text Available Microscopic soft tissues have been identified in fossil vertebrate remains collected from various lithologies. However, the diagenetic mechanisms to preserve such tissues have remained elusive. While previous studies have described infiltration of biofilms in Haversian and Volkmann's canals, biostratinomic alteration (e.g., trampling, and iron derived from hemoglobin as playing roles in the preservation processes, the influence of sediment texture has not previously been investigated. This study uses a Kolmogorov Smirnov Goodness-of-Fit test to explore the influence of biostratinomic variability and burial media against the infiltration of biofilms in bone samples. Controlled columns of sediment with bone samples were used to simulate burial and subsequent groundwater flow. Sediments used in this study include clay-, silt-, and sand-sized particles modeled after various fluvial facies commonly associated with fossil vertebrates. Extant limb bone samples obtained from Gallus gallus domesticus (Domestic Chicken buried in clay-rich sediment exhibit heavy biofilm infiltration, while bones buried in sands and silts exhibit moderate levels. Crushed bones exhibit significantly lower biofilm infiltration than whole bone samples. Strong interactions between biostratinomic alteration and sediment size are also identified with respect to biofilm development. Sediments modeling crevasse splay deposits exhibit considerable variability; whole-bone crevasse splay samples exhibit higher frequencies of high-level biofilm infiltration, and crushed-bone samples in modeled crevasse splay deposits display relatively high frequencies of low-level biofilm infiltration. These results suggest that sediment size, depositional setting, and biostratinomic condition play key roles in biofilm infiltration in vertebrate remains, and may influence soft tissue preservation in fossil vertebrates.

  10. Role of sediment size and biostratinomy on the development of biofilms in recent avian vertebrate remains (United States)

    Peterson, Joseph E.; Lenczewski, Melissa E.; Clawson, Steven R.; Warnock, Jonathan P.


    Microscopic soft tissues have been identified in fossil vertebrate remains collected from various lithologies. However, the diagenetic mechanisms to preserve such tissues have remained elusive. While previous studies have described infiltration of biofilms in Haversian and Volkmann’s canals, biostratinomic alteration (e.g., trampling), and iron derived from hemoglobin as playing roles in the preservation processes, the influence of sediment texture has not previously been investigated. This study uses a Kolmogorov Smirnov Goodness-of-Fit test to explore the influence of biostratinomic variability and burial media against the infiltration of biofilms in bone samples. Controlled columns of sediment with bone samples were used to simulate burial and subsequent groundwater flow. Sediments used in this study include clay-, silt-, and sand-sized particles modeled after various fluvial facies commonly associated with fossil vertebrates. Extant limb bone samples obtained from Gallus gallus domesticus (Domestic Chicken) buried in clay-rich sediment exhibit heavy biofilm infiltration, while bones buried in sands and silts exhibit moderate levels. Crushed bones exhibit significantly lower biofilm infiltration than whole bone samples. Strong interactions between biostratinomic alteration and sediment size are also identified with respect to biofilm development. Sediments modeling crevasse splay deposits exhibit considerable variability; whole-bone crevasse splay samples exhibit higher frequencies of high-level biofilm infiltration, and crushed-bone samples in modeled crevasse splay deposits display relatively high frequencies of low-level biofilm infiltration. These results suggest that sediment size, depositional setting, and biostratinomic condition play key roles in biofilm infiltration in vertebrate remains, and may influence soft tissue preservation in fossil vertebrates.

  11. Tectonic/climatic control on sediment provenance in the Cape Roberts Project core record (southern Victoria Land, Antarctica): A pulsing late Oligocene/early Miocene signal from south revealed by detrital thermochronology (United States)

    Olivetti, V.; Balestrieri, M. L.; Rossetti, F.; Talarico, F. M.


    , three peaks are detected reflecting different bedrock provenance areas. Two peaks older than 40 Ma (P2 and P3) are compatible with thermochronological data from TAM bedrock that underwent a stepwise denudation in Cretaceous times. A Peak younger than 40 Ma (P1) has been detected occasionally, recording the signal of a source area exhumed during late Oligocene /early Miocene with a constant denudation rate of 0.4 mm/yr (constant lag-time up-section), but absent in the onshore portion of the proximal TAM. Indeed, when compared with AFT data from ANDRILL cores, the relatively young P1 ages, suggest that part of sediments in the Cape Robert Rift basin have a provenance from source regions probably located far away in the south (i.e. Skelton-Byrd glaciers region) where bedrock experienced compatible thermal histories. This provenance would imply glacial systems with main flow patterns from south to the north, therefore orthogonal to the orientation of present-day drainage. We thus infer that the post-Eocene glacial and erosional history of the TAM front was significantly controlled by the N-S-trending transtensional regime that affected the western Ross Sea margin during transition from orthogonal to oblique rifting in the region. The appearance and disappearance of P1 along the drill-cored stratigraphic succession seems to be linked to the oscillation in the extent of the ice sheet.

  12. Diagenetic versus detrital origin of the magnetic susceptibility variations in some carbonate Frasnian-Famennian boundary sections from Northern Africa and Western Europe: implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions (United States)

    Riquier, Laurent; Averbuch, Olivier; Devleeschouwer, Xavier; Tribovillard, Nicolas


    To provide a new insight into the diagenetic versus detrital origin of the magnetic susceptibility variations in ancient carbonate sequences, a study was conducted within four Frasnian-Famennian platform carbonate sections from Germany, France and Morocco. The study includes along-section magnetic susceptibility and carbonate content measurements complemented by analyses of magnetic hysteresis parameters, inorganic geochemistry and clay mineralogy. Our results show that the magnetic susceptibility evolution is dominantly controlled by the variations in the concentration of low-coercivity ferromagnetic magnetite grains and, to a lesser extent, of paramagnetic clays. In more detail, hysteresis ratios suggest the coexistence of two magnetite populations with significantly different grain size: (1) a dominantly coarse-grained detrital fraction including a mixture of multi-domain and single-domain particles (2) an authigenic fine-grained fraction composed of a mixture of single-domain and superparamagnetic particles. Despite a diagenetic imprint on the clay assemblages, no relationship is established between magnetic susceptibility and illite crystallinity, therefore discarding a noticeable distortion of primary within-section magnetic susceptibility evolution. The overall inherited character of the magnetic susceptibility fluctuations is corroborated by a significant correlation of magnetic susceptibility with terrigenous proxies (Zr, Th). The poorer correlation of magnetic susceptibility with the Fe content is consistent with the existence of a very fine-grained authigenic magnetite component that possibly induces a global magnetic susceptibility increase at the section scale, but no distortion of the within-section evolution. The magnetic susceptibility curves presented here provide a general record of climate-driven detrital influx and carbonate productivity through Frasnian-Lower Famennian times.

  13. Comparison of the diagenetic and reservoir quality evolution between the anticline crest and flank of an Upper Jurassic carbonate gas reservoir, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (United States)

    Morad, Daniel; Nader, Fadi H.; Gasparrini, Marta; Morad, Sadoon; Rossi, Carlos; Marchionda, Elisabetta; Al Darmaki, Fatima; Martines, Marco; Hellevang, Helge


    This petrographic, stable isotopic and fluid inclusion microthermometric study of the Upper Jurassic limestones of an onshore field, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE) compares diagenesis in flanks and crest of the anticline. The results revealed that the diagenetic and related reservoir quality evolution occurred during three phases, including: (i) eogenesis to mesogenesis 1, during which reservoir quality across the field was either deteriorated or preserved by calcite cementation presumably derived from marine or evolved marine pore waters. Improvement of reservoir quality was due to the formation of micropores by micritization of allochems and creation of moldic/intragranular pores by dissolution of peloids and skeletal fragments. (ii) Obduction of Oman ophiolites and formation of the anticline of the studied field was accompanied by cementation by saddle dolomite and blocky calcite. High homogenization temperatures (125-175 °C) and high salinity (19-26 wt% NaCl eq) of the fluid inclusions, negative δ18OVPDB values (-7.7 to -2.9‰), saddle shape of dolomite, and the presence of exotic cements (i.e. fluorite and sphalerite) suggest that these carbonates were formed by flux of hot basinal brines, probably related to this tectonic compression event. (iii) Mesogenesis 2 during subsidence subsequent to the obduction event, which resulted in extensive stylolitization and cementation by calcite. This calcite cement occluded most of the remaining moldic and inter-/intragranular pores of the flank limestones (water zone) whereas porosity was preserved in the crest. This study contributes to: (1) our understanding of differences in the impact of diagenesis on reservoir quality evolution in flanks and crests of anticlines, i.e. impact of hydrocarbon emplacement on diagenesis, and (2) relating various diagenetic processes to burial history and tectonic events of foreland basins in the Arabian Gulf area and elsewhere.

  14. Origin and timing of Dauphiné twins in quartz cement in fractured sandstones from diagenetic environments: Insight from fluid inclusions (United States)

    Fall, András; Ukar, Estibalitz; Laubach, Stephen E.


    Electron backscattered diffraction techniques (EBSD) show that Dauphiné twins in quartz are widespread in many tectonometamorphic environments. Our study documents that under diagenetic temperatures (fluid inclusions. Fracture wall-parallel and wall-normal inclusion trails contain coexisting aqueous and hydrocarbon gas inclusions, so homogenization temperatures of aqueous inclusions record true trapping temperatures. Inclusions in alignments normal to fracture walls are large and irregularly shaped compared to those aligned parallel to walls, but both show similar liquid-to-vapor ratios. Stacking transmitted light images with scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) and EBSD images demonstrates that Dauphiné twin boundaries are localized along wall-normal inclusion trails. Trapping temperatures for wall-normal inclusion trails are usually higher than those aligned parallel to the fracture wall. Wall-normal fluid inclusion assemblage temperatures typically match the highest temperatures of wall-parallel assemblages trapped during sequential widening, but not necessarily the most recent. In context of burial histories for these samples, this temperature pattern implies that wall-normal assemblages form at discrete times during or after crack-seal fracture widening. Localization in isolated, potentially high-stress quartz deposits in fractures is compatible with a mechanical origin for these Dauphiné twins. Punctuated temperature values and discrepant sizes and shapes of inclusions in wall-normal trails implies that twinning is a by-product of the formation of the wall-normal inclusion assemblages. The association of Dauphiné twins and fluid inclusion assemblages from which temperature and possibly timing can be inferred provides a way to research timing as well as magnitude of paleostress in some diagenetic settings.

  15. Origin and Timing of Dauphiné Twins Using Fluid Inclusions in Quartz-Cement Fractures in Sandstones from Diagenetic Environments (United States)

    Fall, A.; Ukar, E.; Laubach, S.


    Dauphiné twins in quartz are widespread in many tectonometamorphic environments. Under diagenetic temperatures (fluid inclusion trails. The association of Dauphiné twins and fluid inclusion trails from which temperature and possibly timing can be inferred provides a way to research mechanism and timing of twinning, and potentially the magnitude of paleostrain and stress in some diagenetic settings. Using examples from East Texas and Colorado cores, we show that twins are associated with crack-seal microstructure and fluid inclusions. Fracture wall-parallel and wall-normal inclusion trails contain coexisting aqueous and hydrocarbon gas inclusions, so homogenization temperatures of aqueous inclusions, ranging from 130°C to 159°C in the East Texas Basin, and from 162°C to 176°C in the Piceance Basin, record true trapping temperatures. Inclusions in wall-normal trails are large and irregularly shaped compared to those in wall-parallel trails, but both show similar liquid-to-vapor ratios. Trapping temperatures for wall-normal inclusion trails are usually higher than those in the wall-parallel trails. Wall-normal fluid inclusion assemblage temperatures typically match the highest temperatures of wall-parallel assemblages trapped during sequential widening, but not necessarily the most recent. In context of burial histories for these samples, this temperature pattern implies that wall-normal assemblages form at discrete times during or after crack-seal fracture widening. Stacking transmitted light images with scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) images demonstrates that the twin boundaries are localized along wall-normal inclusion trails. Localization in isolated, potentially high-stress quartz deposits in fractures is compatible with a mechanical origin for these Dauphiné twins. Punctuated temperature values and discrepant sizes and shapes of inclusions in wall-normal trails imply that twinning is

  16. Natural flows of H2-rich fluids in the ophiolites of Oman and the Philippines: Tectonic control of migration pathways and associated diagenetic processes (United States)

    Deville, E. P.; Prinzhofer, A.; Vacquand, C.; Chavagnac, V.; Monnin, C.; Ceuleneer, G.; Arcilla, C. A.


    We compare the geological environments of sites of emission of natural hydrogen in the Oman ophiolite and the Zambales ophiolite (Luzon, Philippines). The genesis of natural H2 results from the interaction between ultrabasic rocks and aqueous solutions circulating in deep fracture networks, by oxidation of metals (Fe2+, Mn2+) and reduction of water, probably under high temperature conditions. This process generates very reducing conditions capable of destabilizing other molecules (notably reduction of deep CO2 being transformed into CH4 by Fisher-Tropsch type reactions). Nitrogen is also commonly associated to the H2-rich fluids. H2 flows are associated with the expulsion of hyperalkaline waters rich in ions OH- and Ca2+ and characterized by high pH (between 11 and 12). Most alkaline springs are found in the vicinity of major faults and/or lithological discontinuities like the basal thrust plane of the ophiolites and the peridotite-gabbro contact (Moho). Within the fracture networks, gas and water separate probably at shallow depth, i.e. close to the top of the upper aquifer level. Locally high flows of gas migrate vertically through fracture pathways and they are able to inflame spontaneously on the surface. Aqueous fluids tends to migrate laterally in the fracture network toward the creeks where most of the hyperalkaline springs are found. This water circulation induces a chain of diagenetic reactions starting in the fracture systems and continuing at the surface where it leads to the precipitation of calcite, aragonite, brucite and more rarely portlandite. This chain of diagenetic reactions is associated with the capture of the atmospheric CO2 during the precipitation of carbonates.

  17. Refining the Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic record of carbon cycling and seawater chemistry using quantitative geochemical models of redox dynamics and carbonate diagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Anne-Sofie Crüger

    based records. Despite the prevalence of diagenesis in sedimentary rocks there are currently few robust geochemical tools capable of providing quantitative information on the extent of alteration from the primary signal. In order to fill this gap, Chapter 3 presents a numerical model of marine carbonate...... through diagenesis and provide more robust estimates for past seawater chemistry. Ancient carbonate rocks with extreme negative carbon isotopes are found worldwide bracketing the Marinoan glaciation (∼635 Ma). There is no scientific consensus as to whether these excursions originate from a primary...... perturbation in the carbon cycle or from diagenetic alterations. Chapter 4 merges new measurements of calcium, magnesium, and strontium isotopes in these sediments with the diagenetic model developed in Chapter 3 to offer new insights into the potential origin of these extreme isotope anomalies....

  18. Sediment geology and halokinetic processes in the Upper Jurassic of Konrad mine, Bleckenstedter Mulde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottomann, A.


    The Konrad mine is the only North German mine that is located in the Upper Jurassic. Lithologically, the sediment rock of the mine is not the same as in the rest of the Jurassic of Niedersachsen. The rock strata of the Bleckenstein trough are a special kind of facies. The report attempts to describe the effects of halokinetic movements on facies distribution. It describes the sedimentary and diagenetic, history of the whole Oxfordian and parts of the Kimmeridgian in the mine field on the basis of selected underground roadways. This necessitates a sufficient number of test points and sampled material. Sampling and mapping were carried out in the mine between January and July 1989. (orig.). 43 figs., 3 tabs [de

  19. Fatty acids and Pb-210 geochronology of a sediment core from Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Henrichs, S.M.; Anderson, R.


    Four sections of a Pb-210 dated core of 62 cm length from Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, were analyzed for fatty acids. A comparison of fatty acids extracted by Soxhlet extraction (unbound fatty acids) with fatty acids extracted by subsequent saponification extraction of the same sample (bound fatty acids) showed that the former did not undergo diagenetic loss any faster than the latter. However, compositional differences between bound and unbound fatty acids were apparent in the top section of 1 to 2 cm and were less apparent in the 54 to 58 cm section. At least 14% of the bound fatty acids are esterified to non-solvent extractable material. The net conversion of fatty acids to other compounds is 32 μg/g dry weight sediment over the first 30 yr after deposition. (author)

  20. Organic matter accumulation and degradation in subsurface coastal sediments: a model-based comparison of rapid sedimentation and aquifer transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Holstein


    Full Text Available The redox succession in shallow marine sediments generally exhibits a predictable pattern. Pore water profiles from a back barrier tidal flat in the German Wadden Sea depart from the expected redox zoning. Instead, a sulfate minimum zone associated with a sulfate-methane-sulfate double interface and a distinct ammonium peak at 1.5 m below sea floor (mbsf is displayed. Such evidence for significant degradation of organic matter (OM in subsurface layers is challenging our understanding of tidal flat biogeochemistry as little is known about processes that relocate reactive OM into layers far distant from the sediment-water interface. The objectives of our model study were to identify possible mechanisms for the rapid transport of organic matter to subsurface layers that cause the reversed redox succession and to constrain several important biogeochemical control parameters. We compared two scenarios for OM transfer: rapid sedimentation and burial of OM as well as lateral advection of suspended POM. Using a diagenetic model, uncertain process parameters, in particular those connected to OM degradation and (vertical or lateral transport, are systematically calibrated using field data.

    We found that both scenarios, advection and sedimentation, had solutions consistent with the observed pore water profiles. For this specific site, however, advective transport of particulate material had to be rejected since the reconstructed boundary conditions were rather improbable. In the alternative deposition set-up, model simulations suggested the deposition of the source OM about 60 yrs before cores were taken. A mean sedimentation rate of approximately 2 cm yr−1 indicates substantial changes in near coast tidal flat morphology, since sea level rise is at a much lower pace. High sedimentation rates most probably reflect the progradation of flats within the study area. These or similar morphodynamic features also occur in other coastal areas

  1. The nature of Ordovician limestone-marl alternations in the Oslo-Asker District (Norway): witnesses of primary glacio-eustasy or diagenetic rhythms? (United States)

    Amberg, Chloé E. A.; Collart, Tim; Salenbien, Wout; Egger, Lisa M.; Munnecke, Axel; Nielsen, Arne T.; Monnet, Claude; Hammer, Øyvind; Vandenbroucke, Thijs R. A.


    Ordovician limestone-marl alternations in the Oslo-Asker District have been interpreted as signaling glacio-eustatic lowstands, which would support a prolonged “Early Palaeozoic Icehouse”. However, these rhythmites could alternatively reflect differential diagenesis, without sedimentary trigger. Here, we test both hypotheses through one Darriwilian and three Katian sections. Our methodology consists of a bed-by-bed analysis of palynological (chitinozoan) and geochemical (XRF) data, to evaluate whether the limestone/marl couplets reflect an original cyclic signal. The results reveal similar palynomorph assemblages in limestones and marls. Exceptions, which could be interpreted as reflecting palaeoclimatological fluctuations, exist at the species level: Ancyrochitina bornholmensis seems to be more abundant in the marl samples from the lower Frognerkilen Formation on Nakkholmen Island. However, these rare cases where chitinozoans differ between limestone/marl facies are deemed insufficient for the identification of original cyclicity. The geochemical data show a near-perfect correlation between insoluble elements in the limestone and the marls, which indicates a similar composition of the potential precursor sediment, also in the Frognerkilen Formation. This is consistent with the palynological data. Although an original cyclic pattern could still be recorded by other, uninvestigated parameters, our palaeontological and geochemical data combined do not support the presence of such a signal.

  2. Sediment supply to beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels


    Many beaches have been built by an onshore supply of sand from the shoreface, and future long-term coastal evolution critically depends on cross-shore sediment exchange between the upper and the lower shorefaces. Even so, cross-shore sediment supply remains poorly known in quantitative terms...... and this reduces confidence in predictions of long-term shoreline change. In this paper, field measurements of suspended sediment load and cross-shore transport on the lower shoreface are used to derive a model for sediment supply from the lower to the upper shoreface at large spatial and temporal scales. Data...

  3. Sediment Core Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation and expertise for physical and geoacoustic characterization of marine sediments.DESCRIPTION: The multisensor core logger measures...

  4. The dirt on sediments (United States)

    Smith, Loren M.; Euliss, Ned H. "Chip"


    In the wetland science field, sediment deposition is often thought of as being beneficial especially when one thinks of coastal estuarine systems. For example, sediments deposited from streams and rivers are necessary to naturally build and maintain tidal marshes. These sediments come from eroded upland soils in the interior of the continent. When these sediments are diverted from natural coastal deposition areas, such as occurs from river channelization, we lose marshes through subsidence as is happening throughout coastal Louisiana. However, the value of eroded soils is all a matter of hydrogeomorphic perspective.

  5. Early diagenesis in the Congo deep-sea fan sediments dominated by massive terrigenous deposits: Part I - Oxygen consumption and organic carbon mineralization using a micro-electrode approach (United States)

    Pozzato, Lara; Cathalot, Cécile; Berrached, Chabha; Toussaint, Flora; Stetten, Elsa; Caprais, Jean-Claude; Pastor, Lucie; Olu, Karine; Rabouille, Christophe


    Organic matter (OM) transfer from the continent to the ocean occurs across margins which constitute a major area of OM recycling and burial. The lobe complex of the Congo deep-sea fan is connected to the river mouth by a canyon and alimented by recurrent turbidity currents, containing a large proportion of labile terrigenous OM and producing high sedimentation rates. These inputs support the development of ecosystems harboring rich assemblages of vesicomyid bivalves and bacterial mats, called Habitats. Here, we present O2 microprofiles and diffusive oxygen uptake rates (DOUs) obtained during the CONGOLOBE project at six sites of this active lobe complex by in situ and on-board methods based on micro-electrode profiling. The dataset is used to determine remineralization rates and study the biogeochemical dynamics of different ecosystems of the lobe area, in order to compare levee and background sediments to the Habitats developed on the flanks of the main turbiditic channel. Levee and background sediments are characterized by significantly higher DOUs than abyssal sediments at 5000 m meters depth (2-5 mmol O2 m-2 d-1versus 1.5-2.5 mmol O2 m-2 d-1) and the Habitats are hotspots of OM remineralization with DOU values ranging between 8 and 40 mmol O2 m-2 d-1. By comparing sites near the active channel to a site located 50 km away, we show that the lobe connection to the main turbiditic channel is vital to the dense benthic communities.

  6. A multi-radioisotope approach to dating sedimentation : applying Re-Os organic-rich shale and U-Pb authigenic xenotime dating to the Shannon and Pennine Basins


    Stanislawska, Maja Anna


    Sedimentary rocks are the most abundant hthologies on the Earth, covering over 70% of the planet’s surface. Quantitative dating of sedimentary rocks (especially those devoid of fossils) is critical to understanding the past events and rates and duration of processes that shaped the Earth. Recent advances in geochronology of sedimentary rocks, such as Re-Os dating of organic-rich shales and U-Pb dating of authigenic xenotime, allow precise depositional and early diagenetic ages to be obtained,...

  7. Clays as tracers of diagenetic and hydrothermal paleo-conditions. Search for mineralogical and geochemical evidences of hydrothermal circulations in clayey, sandstone-like and carbonated diagenetic Triassic formations of the Paris Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploquin, Florian


    Within the framework of the multi-organization TAPSS 2000 program - GNR-FORPRO, led on the Bure site (Meuse-France), the ANDRA Company realized a deep drilling (named EST 433) to investigate the local Trias because the grounds Triassic levels constituting the bed rock of Clayey level for the storage of the nuclear waste. The drilling cut the Trias rocks on a total thickness of 700 m, successively from the bottom up: (1) the Buntsandstein (120 m) is characterized by sandy-conglomerate facies; (2) the Muschelkalk (150 m) is essentially consisted of clayey-sandy-siltstone series headed by a dolomitic deposit system; (3) the Keuper part (450 m) is an alternation of sandy clay-stone or silty clay-stone deposits with insertions of saliferous levels; (4) finally the Rethian part of the drilling associated with Hettangian (80 m), are characterized by clayey-shale facies. This litho-stratigraphy can redraw the evolution of the sedimentary paleo-environments since fluviatile circles (Buntsandstein) then lagoon (upper Muschelkalk), to large floods plains systems occasionally invaded by sea (Keuper) and, finally, in an epi-continental sea context (Rhetian-Hettangian) announcing the generalized transgressive phase of which the progressive evolution coming from the border towards the center of the basin. The nearness of the continental areas is recorded in the detrital fraction of the Triassic sediments. The geochemistry of these materials signs their continental crust character and their associated isotopic Nd-Sm values gives a Hercynian meta-sediments and granites origin with from time to time a contribution of young forming rock. The mineralogy of the clayey fraction (< 0,2μm) shows that only the conglomerate on the base of the drilling consists of an assembly of dickite and illites strictly associated with regular illite / smectite mixed-layer of R=1 type illite-rich. These last ones are the main part of the clayey mineralogy of the draining facies of Buntsandstein and are

  8. Dynamics of Cohesive Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Claus

    The present thesis considers the transport processes of cohesive sediments. The cohesive sediment used in the laboratory experiments was kaolinite, a clay mineral, in order to be able to reproduce the individual experiments. In the first part of the thesis, the theoretical considerations regarding...

  9. Study of the argillaceous fraction of sedimentary sequences of Meuse and Gard. Reconstitution of the diagenetic history and of the physico-chemical characteristics of the targets. Mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, D.


    Very low permeable argillaceous rocks like Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stones or Vraconian siltstones were chosen to host a research laboratory built to determine the physico-chemical properties of the host formations for a potential underground disposal of radioactive waste. Knowledge and understanding of post-sedimentary modifications are of prime importance for definition of these properties; evaluation and quantification of the post-sedimentary changes represent the aim of this study, focused specifically on the clay material of the sequences. Samples were taken from two drillings (HTM102 and MAR501). In the HTM102 core samples, illite and mixed-layers illite/smectite are the dominant clay components of most clay fractions. Systematic SEM and TEM observations and isotopic K-Ar and Rb-Sr analyses pointed to diagenetic neo-formations of carbonates (calcite, dolomite) and clays. For instance, veils and laths of authigenic clay particles around old detrital ones can distinctly be observed. The epoch, duration and extent of the diagenetic activity(ies) are difficult to evaluate because of an overall detrital contribution even in the finest granulometric fractions. However; analysis of a bentonite layer in the sequence provides a diagenetic reference for the authigenic clay material. Correlation between relative sea level and authigenesis of smectite-rich mineral has been outlined. Chemistry of diagenetic fluids also seems to be reliable with sea level variations. These observations argue in favour of diagenetic activities limited in restricted rock volumes. The case study of MAR501 is close to the HTM102 one: smectite-rich illite/smectite mixed-layers represent the major component of the clay fraction and K-Ar values argue ire the sense of a mixing between detrital and younger clay populations. Diagenetic glauconites in the sequence yield are age close to 93,7 ±0,3 Ma for Vraconian level, in agreement with stratigraphical data. The case study of a clay-filled fault

  10. Fe-C-S systematics in Bengal Fan sediments (United States)

    Volvoikar, S. P.; Mazumdar, A.; Goswami, H.; Pujari, S.; Peketi, A.


    Global biogeochemical cycles of iron, carbon and sulfur (Fe-C-S) are interrelated. Sulfate reduction in marine sediments is the major factor controlling the cycling and burial of carbon, sulfur and iron. Organoclastic sulfate reduction and anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) are the two main processes responsible for sulfate reduction in marine sediments. The amount and reactivity of organic matter, iron minerals and concentrations of dissolved sulfide in pore water control the burial of iron sulfide and organic bound sulfur in marine sediments. Here we investigate the sulfidization process in a sediment core from the western part of upper Bay of Bengal fan characterized by efficient burial of organic matter with siliclastic load. A 30 m long sediment core (MD 161/29, Lat. 170 18.04' N, Long. 870 22.56' E, water depth: 2434m) was collected onboard Marion Dufresne (May, 2007) and studied for Fe-S speciation and organic matter characterization. Buffered dithionite extractable iron (FeD) varies from 0.71 to 1.43 wt % (Avg. 0.79 wt %). FeD represents Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides mainly, ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite, goethite and hematite. Acid volatile sulfur (AVS) varies from 0.0015 to 0.63 wt % (avg: 0.058 wt %), while chromium reducible sulfur (CRS) varies from 0.00047 to 0.29 wt % (avg. 0.054 wt %). Based on the vertical distribution patterns of FeD, AVS and CRS, the core is divided into three zones, the lower (3000 to 1833 cm), middle (1833 to 398 cm) and upper (398 cm to surface) zones. FeD shows higher concentration in the lower zone. FeTR (FeOx + FeD + FeCRS + FeAVS) also exhibit higher concentration in this zone, suggesting higher availability of reactive iron for iron sulfide precipitation. AVS, elemental sulfur, spikes of CRS and gradual enrichment of δ34SAVS and δ34SCRS with sharp peaks in-between is noted in the lower zone. The gradual enrichment of δ34SAVS and δ34SCRS is the outcome of late diagenetic pyritization with higher availability of sulfide

  11. Deciphering the diagenetic alteration degree in thrombolites across the Permian-Triassic boundary and the evaluation of REY as a proxy of palaeoseawater (United States)

    Li, Rong


    The thrombolites across the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) are widely distributed in South China. In order to examine the utility of rare earth element and yttrium (REY) in the thrombolites as a proxy of palaeoseawater, the petrographic and geochemical (Sr, Mn, Fe, REY, δ13C, δ18O) features of thrombolites from Cili and Taiping sections are comparatively studied to determine the diagenetic alteration degrees of the thrombolites and the impact of diagenesis on REY concentrations and distribution patterns. The thrombolites from Cili section, digitate in mesoscopic morphology, are latest Permian in age. In contrast, most of the thrombolites in Taiping section are mottled and formed in the earliest Triassic. The variation in thrombolite morphology across the PTB is probably related to increasing amount of metazoan and increasing intensity of bioturbation after the end-Permian mass extinction. Compared to the thrombolites from Taiping section, those from Cili section underwent more extensive diagenetic alteration, which are characterized by more dolomitic content, lower Sr concentrations, more negative δ18O values, and higher Mn/Sr ratios. The REY concentrations are higher in the thrombolites from Taiping section (5-303 ppm, average 48 ppm) than in the thrombolites from Cili section (17-34 ppm, average 25 ppm). Shale-normalized REY distribution patterns of the thrombolites from both sites are similar to those of oxygenated seawater, which are characterized by positive La anomalies (Pr/Pr∗ = 1.1-1.5), negative Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce∗ = 0.2-0.9), and light rare earth element (LREE) depletion. The preserved seawater like REY distribution pattern indicates that diagenesis did not alter the REY distribution patterns. The thrombolite samples from Cili section, compared to the counterparts from Taiping, have less positive La anomaly and less negative Ce anomaly. For the thrombolites from Cili section, a positive correlation exists between Ce anomaly and siliciclastic

  12. Horizontal and vertical distribution of lignin in surface sediments of the Gdansk Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Staniszewski


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and quantify lignin transported from the River Vistula to the accumulation area in the Gdansk Basin. Sediment samples collected along the Vistula mouth - Gdansk Deep transect were analysed for lignin. Lignin was characterised by oxidative degradation, cupric oxide being chosen as the most suitable oxidising agent. The polar functional groups of the oxidation products were silylated and the derivatives analysed by capillary gas chromatography on fused capillary silica columns with flame ionisation detection. Lignin-derived oxidation products were quantified in the range from 3 to 20 µg g-1 dry wt. for phenolic acids and from 6 to 12 µg g-1 dry wt. for phenolic aldehydes. Differences in oxidation products contents are assigned to different lignin sources in the marine environment. The horizontal and vertical gradients of these compounds in the sediments of the Gdansk Basin are documented. The results are discussed in terms of the origin and fate of organic matter in the Gdansk Basin. The measured differences in quality and quantity of the identified oxidation products provide insight into diagenetic processes in the surface marine sediments.

  13. Geochemical distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and sediments of El-Tabbin, Egypt. (United States)

    Havelcová, Martina; Melegy, Ahmed; Rapant, Stanislav


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were extracted from 30 samples (24 soils and 6 stream sediments) collected in El-Tabbin area in the southern part of Greater Cairo, Egypt. Isopleth maps of PAHs clarified the regional variability and identified the most affected regions in the area suffering from high pollution. The total PAH concentrations were 53.4-5558.0 ng g(-1) in the sample extracts. The highest values were found in a soil sample near a coke factory, with the highest concentration of single PAHs, which were 1064.8 ng g(-1) of fluoranthene and 1286.4 ng g(-1) of phenanthrene. The calculated ratios and indexes allowed to elucidate origin of the organic compounds and to identify emission sources. The overall molecular patterns are signatures of pyrolysis of fossil fuels and biomass. Petrogenic contamination was recognised in the sediment samples due to petroleum products deliveries from ships. Also perylene was prominent especially in samples of the River Nile sediments as a diagenetic product of fungi. Other detailed information on petrogenic sources was provided by analysis of alkanes and calculation of alkane ratios. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Uranium accumulation in modern and ancient Fe-oxide sediments: Examples from the Ashadze-2 hydrothermal sulfide field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge) and Yubileynoe massive sulfide deposit (South Urals, Russia) (United States)

    Ayupova, N. R.; Melekestseva, I. Yu.; Maslennikov, V. V.; Tseluyko, A. S.; Blinov, I. A.; Beltenev, V. E.


    Fe-oxyhydroxide sediments (gossans) from the Ashadze-2 hydrothermal sulfide field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge) and hematite-carbonate-quartz rocks (gossanites) from the Yubileynoe Cu-Zn VHMS deposit (South Urals) are characterized by anomalously high U contents (up to 352 ppm and 73 ppm, respectively). In gossans from the Ashadze-2 hydrothermal sulfide field, rare isometric anhedral uraninite grains (up to 2 μm) with outer P- and Ca-rich rims, and numerous smaller (<1 μm) grains, occur in Fe-oxyhydroxides and sepiolite, associated with pyrite, isocubanite, chalcopyrite, galena, atacamite and halite. In gossanites from the Yubileynoe deposit, numerous uraninite particles (<3 μm) are associated with apatite, V-rich Mg-chlorite, micro-nodules of pyrite, Se-bearing galena, hessite and acanthite in a hematite-carbonate-quartz matrix. Small (1-3 μm) round grains of uraninite, which locally coalesce to large grains up to 10 μm in size, are associated with authigenic chalcopyrite. The similar diagenetic processes of U accumulation in modern and ancient Fe-oxyhydroxide sediments were the result of U fixation from seawater during the oxidation of sulfide minerals. Uraninite in gossanites was mainly deposited from diagenetic pore fluids, which circulated in the sulfide-hyaloclast-carbonate sediments.

  15. Organic geochemistry of resins from modern Agathis australis and Eocene resins from New Zealand: Diagenetic and taxonomic implications (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Mastalerz, Maria; Orem, W.H.


    and Yallourn fossil resins from brown coal (lignite B) Australia do not have some of the FTir characteristics of the New Zealand resins, which most likely indicates they have a different plant source because different degrees of oxidation and weathering and changes due to fires (i.e., charring) can be ruled out. Our results have implications for studies of the maturation, provenance, and botanical sources of fossil resins and resinites in Eocene and Miocene coals and sediments of New Zealand and Australia. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Organic geochemistry of resins from modern Agathis australis and Eocene resins from New Zealand: Diagenetic and taxonomic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, Paul C. [Lyons and Associates Consultants, 206 Amber Road, Middleboro, MA 02346 (United States); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, 611 North Walnut Grove, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Orem, William H. [U.S. Geological Survey, MS 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States)


    in the soil for as little as 1000 years. The Morwell and Yallourn fossil resins from brown coal (lignite B) Australia do not have some of the FTir characteristics of the New Zealand resins, which most likely indicates they have a different plant source because different degrees of oxidation and weathering and changes due to fires (i.e., charring) can be ruled out. Our results have implications for studies of the maturation, provenance, and botanical sources of fossil resins and resinites in Eocene and Miocene coals and sediments of New Zealand and Australia. (author)

  17. Radionuclides in marine sediments - Distribution and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudjord, A.L. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway); Oughton, D. [Agricultural Univ., Aas (Norway); Bergan, T.D.; Christensen, G. [IFE, Kjeller (Norway)


    The NO-1 part of EKO-1 involved both laboratory and field studies. The laboratory studies have been discribed earlier in this report. The following is a summary of the field studies. At station 26 (Norwegian Sea) the sediments seem to be influenced by radiocesium from the Chernobyl accident. This may be due to direct fallout deposition to the sea surface and followed by a rapid sinking and sedimentation. At station 16 (North Sea) some influence from Sellafield plutonium is suggested, as the plutonium ratio is significantly higher (0.07-0.09) than would be expected from global fallout (0.03). Sedimentation rates based on analysis of {sup 210}Pb or {sup 210}Po varied between 0.03 cm/year - 0.25 cm/year. A surprisingly low sedimentation rate was found in the tenisey Bay (0.05 cm/year). It is possible that the dating method is less suited in this area, due to the long winter ice cover. In general, the rough estimates on K{sub d} values for {sup 137}Cs obtained empirically are highter than K{sub d} values obtained from the alboratory studies. This may be due to the fact that the 2 cm surface sediment in most cases has accumulated over many years, carrying contamination from the early eighties when levels of {sup 137}Cs in the sea water were higher. The {sup 137}Cs in the sediments it now fixed, or being remobilized only very slowly. Burial of the contamination by sedimentation may also make it unavailable for exchange with free water masses. (EHS)

  18. Radionuclides in marine sediments - Distribution and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudjord, A.L.; Oughton, D.; Bergan, T.D.; Christensen, G.


    The NO-1 part of EKO-1 involved both laboratory and field studies. The laboratory studies have been discribed earlier in this report. The following is a summary of the field studies. At station 26 (Norwegian Sea) the sediments seem to be influenced by radiocesium from the Chernobyl accident. This may be due to direct fallout deposition to the sea surface and followed by a rapid sinking and sedimentation. At station 16 (North Sea) some influence from Sellafield plutonium is suggested, as the plutonium ratio is significantly higher (0.07-0.09) than would be expected from global fallout (0.03). Sedimentation rates based on analysis of 210 Pb or 210 Po varied between 0.03 cm/year - 0.25 cm/year. A surprisingly low sedimentation rate was found in the tenisey Bay (0.05 cm/year). It is possible that the dating method is less suited in this area, due to the long winter ice cover. In general, the rough estimates on K d values for 137 Cs obtained empirically are highter than K d values obtained from the alboratory studies. This may be due to the fact that the 2 cm surface sediment in most cases has accumulated over many years, carrying contamination from the early eighties when levels of 137 Cs in the sea water were higher. The 137 Cs in the sediments it now fixed, or being remobilized only very slowly. Burial of the contamination by sedimentation may also make it unavailable for exchange with free water masses. (EHS)

  19. Geochemistry and Nd-isotope systematics of chemical and terrigenous sediments from the Dun Mountain Ophiolite, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivell, W.J.


    Two sedimentary associations closely related to temporally discrete ophiolitic magma suites occur within the Early Permian Dun Mountain Ophiolite Belt (DMOB), New Zealand. These are: (1) a suite of diverse chemical sediments and turbidite argillites (TA) that bear an intimate depositional relationship to early-formed pillow lavas (back-arc basin basalts); and (2) a younger, lithic-dominated, bimodal, coarse sandstone-ophiolitic rudite assemblage of proximal turbidite/mass-flow origin, rich in clasts of infant-arc magmas which comprise the bulk of the ophiolite. There are four groups of DMOB chemical sediments. Red hematitic chert (group 1) fills interstices between basalt pillows, and black nodular Fe-Mn deposits (group 2) occur along pillow lava/sediment interfaces. These facies are overlain by red mudstones (group 3), and mottled orange-olive brown mudstones (altered hyaloclastites; group 4). Geochemical features (including REE contents, Fe/Ti and transition ratios) indicate that the cherts reflect silica and metalliferous contributions to sea water, promoted by low-temperature hydrothermal alteration of glassy basalt, while group 4 muds represent residual components in halmyrolytically altered volcanic glass. Transition metal and REE enrichments in group 2 nodules (with high Ce/Ce*, Ni/Fe, and Cu/Fe ratios) reflect hydrogenous chemisorption to a hydothermal component (with high Ba and Sr). The nodules possess ε Nd (T) values (c. 0) identical to those calculated for Permian sea water. Group 3 red muds have lower ε Nd (T) = -1 to -2, and Nd model ages (T) Nd DM) that indicate contributions from continentally derived fluvial particulate fallout of mean Proterozoic age. For the nodules and red muds, strong negative correlations between Mn/Fe, Nd, Ce*/Ce, and ε Nd (T) are attributed to increasing diagenetic influence in the muds. ε Nd (T) values (c. +2) in group 4 muds are transitional toward higher values in their (hyaloclastite) basalt glass precursors

  20. Neogene biogenic sediments of onshore Peru. Part 2. Geochemistry and diagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.A.; Dunbar, R.B.; Marty, R.C.


    The Neogene sediments of coastal Peru are comprised in part of biogenic silica, phosphorites, and authigenic dolomites. The authors have studied these sediments in the Pisco Basin of southern Peru. In this region the sediments have escaped large-scale post-depositional structural or thermal overprinting. The phosphorites of the Middle Member of the Miocene Pisco Formation occur as 5 to 10 cm. thick beds of phosphatic sediments separated by meters of siliceous, tuffaceous, or dolomitic muds and silts. The phosphatic grains are usually colitic and the depositions are often channeled and reworked on a small scale. Many of these colitic beds disconformably overlie phosphatized dolomitic beds. The dolomites of the Pisco Formation occur as authigenic beds and nodules a few centimeters to over one meter in diameter. They occur at intervals of one to tens of meters. The dolomites are well-ordered and calcite-free. The mole percent calcium varies from 47.3 to 57.4, iron from 0.12 to 2.18, and manganese from 0.03 to 0.62. Strontium varies from 90 to 837 ppm, zinc from 12 to 124 ppm, and sulfate from 100 to 2000 ppm. The carbon isotopic composition of the Pisco dolomites is usually negative, varying from +7.05 to -21.86 per mil PDB. The oxygen isotopic compositions vary from -0.18 to +4.16 per mil PDB. These chemical signatures are consistent with rapid authigenic formation of the dolomite: (1) within a few meters of the sea floor, (2) at shallow water depths, (3) in sediments undergoing microbial sulfate reduction but in the presence of some dissolved sulfate, and (4) in the absence of thermal or fresh water diagenetic overprinting.

  1. Linking Arenicola marina irrigation behavior to oxygen transport and dynamics in sandy sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Karen; Banta, Gary T.; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr


    In this study we examine how the irrigation behavior of the common lugworm Arenicola marina affects the distribution, transport and dynamics of oxygen in sediments using microelectrodes, planar optodes and diagenetic modeling. The irrigation pattern was characterized by a regular recurring period...... and only in rare situations with very high pumping rates (>200 ml h-1) and/or a narrow feeding funnel (water....... concentration in the burrow was high (80% air saturation) and oxygen was detected at distances up to 0.7 mm from the burrow wall. Volume specific oxygen consumption rates calculated from measured oxygen profiles were up to 4 times higher for sediments surrounding worm burrows as compared to surface sediments....... Model results indicated that oxygen consumption also was higher in the feeding pocket/funnel compared to the activity in surface sediments. An oxygen budget revealed that 49% of the oxygen pumped into the burrow during lugworm irrigation was consumed by the worm itself while 23% supported the diffusive...

  2. Sediment Resuspension Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The full report on sediment resuspension in drinking water storage tanks and a link to an animation of results. This dataset is associated with the following...

  3. Sediments and aquatic indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Determinations of 90 Sr, certain gamma emitting nuclides and 239,240 Pu in bottom sediment in the Baltic Sea area and in sedimenting material and biota near the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power stations were continued in 1984 and 1985. In the bottom sediments of the deep Baltic basins, the total amounts of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and Pu were 8.5-80 Bq m -2 , 83-3200 Bq m -2 and 4.7-190 Bq m -2 , respectively. The ranges were about the same as in the earlier reports 1,2 . In sedimenting material and biota the conentrations of 90 Sr and 239,240 Pu were roughly the same as in 1983. The amounts and selection of reactor originated activation products were not changed in the vicinity of the two nuclear power stations. Small amounts of 137 Cs and 134 Cs released from the Loviisa nuclear power station were detected in 1985

  4. Offshore Surficial Sediment (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data layer (PAC_EXT.txt and PAC_PRS.txt) represents two of five point coverages of known sediment samples, inspections, and probes from the usSEABED data...

  5. Underwater Sediment Sampling Research (United States)


    impacted sediments was found to be directly related to the concentration of crude oil detected in the sediment pore waters . Applying this 16. Abstract (MAXIMUM 200 WORDS ) The USCG R&D Center sought to develop a bench top system to determine the amount of total...scattered. The approach here is to sample the interstitial water between the grains of sand and attempt to determine the amount of oil in and on

  6. Effect of biostimulation on the microbial community in PCB-contaminated sediments through periodic amendment of sediment with iron. (United States)

    Srinivasa Varadhan, A; Khodadoust, Amid P; Brenner, Richard C


    Reductive dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by indigenous dehalorespiring microorganisms in contaminated sediments may be enhanced via biostimulation by supplying hydrogen generated through the anaerobic corrosion of elemental iron added to the sediment. In this study, the effect of periodic amendment of sediment with various dosages of iron on the microbial community present in sediment was investigated using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) over a period of 18 months. Three PCB-contaminated sediments (two freshwater lake sediments and one marine sediment) were used. Signature biomarker analysis of the microbial community present in all three sediments revealed the enrichment of Dehalococcoides species, the population of which was sustained for a longer period of time when the sediment microcosms were amended with the lower dosage of iron (0.01 g iron per g dry sediment) every 6 months as compared to the blank system (without iron). Lower microbial stress levels were reported for the system periodically amended with 0.01 g of iron per g dry sediment every 6 months, thus reducing the competition from other hydrogen-utilizing microorganisms like methanogens, iron reducers, and sulfate reducers. The concentration of hydrogen in the system was found to be an important factor influencing the shift in microbial communities in all sediments with time. Periodic amendment of sediment with larger dosages of iron every 3 months resulted in the early prevalence of Geobacteraceae and sulfate-reducing bacteria followed by methanogens. An average pH of 8.4 (range of 8.2-8.6) and an average hydrogen concentration of 0.75% (range of 0.3-1.2%) observed between 6 and 15 months of the study were found to be conducive to sustaining the population of Dehalococcoides species in the three sediments amended with 0.01 g iron per g dry sediment. Biostimulation of indigenous PCB dechlorinators by the periodic amendment of contaminated sediments with low dosages of

  7. Origin and geochemical behavior of uranium in marine sediments. Utilization of the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratio in marine geochemistry; Origine et comportement geochimique de l`uranium dans les sediments marins. Utilisation du rapport ({sup 234}U/{sup 238}U) en geochimie marine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Organo, Catherine [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)


    The first part of this thesis presents the current situation of knowledge of uranium in marine environment. The second part describes the methods of analysis as well as the material support of the study, i.e., the sediments and marine deposits investigated. The third part is dedicated to the study of uranium mobility in marine sediments characterized by detrital terrigenous composition (pelagic clays). This approach allowed quantifying the entering and leaving flux of uranium after the sediment settling and, to discuss, on this basis, the consequences on the uranium oceanic balance. In the third part the origin and behavior of uranium in zones of high surface productivity is studied. The uranium enrichments observed in the hemi-pelagic sediments of the EUMELI (J.G.O.F.S.-France) programme will constitute a material of study adequate for measuring the variations in the {sup 234}U/2{sup 38U} ratio in solid phase, in response to the oxido-reducing characteristics of the sediment. Thus establishing the origin of the trapped uranium has been possible. Also, the nature of the sedimentary phases related to uranium in bio-genetic sediments in the Austral Ocean was determined. Thus a relationship between the variations in the {sup 234}U/{sup 238} and the diagenetic transformations was possible to establish. Finally in the fifth part a study of the behavior of uranium in a polymetallic shell characteristic for deposits of hydrogenized origin 146 refs., 57 figs., 23 tabs.

  8. Early diagenesis driven by widespread meteoric infiltration of a Central European carbonate ramp: A reinterpretation of the Upper Muschelkalk (United States)

    Adams, Arthur; Diamond, Larryn W.


    Meteoric diagenesis of carbonate ramps is often difficult to interpret and can commonly be confused with other coinciding diagenetic processes. The Middle Triassic Upper Muschelkalk of Switzerland provides an insightful case in which the effects of several overprinting diagenetic environments, including matrix dolomitization, can be clearly unravelled. Previous studies suggested that diagenesis took place in connate marine waters, with later meteoric waters being invoked to explain recrystallization of dolomite. In this study, diagenetic analyses (C-O stable isotope ratios, thin-section point counting, cathodoluminescence and UV-fluorescence microscopy) of calcitic bioclastic samples have revealed that early diagenesis (pre-stylolitization) and the accompanying porosity evolution did not occur exclusively in the presence of marine fluids. Five sequential stages of diagenesis have been identified: marine, shallow burial, mixing-zone, meteoric and dolomitization. Marine diagenesis induced precipitation of bladed and inclusion-rich syntaxial cements that fluoresce strongly under UV-light. Both cements account for a mean 7.5 vol% reduction in the porosity of bioclastic beds. Shallow burial diagenesis likely induced mouldic porosity and associated fluorescent dog-tooth cementation. Based on light oxygen isotope and elevated strontium isotope ratios, matrix aragonite-calcite neomorphism is interpreted to have occurred in a mixture of marine and meteoric fluids. The combination of shallow burial and mixing-zone processes reduced porosity on average by 4.8 vol%. Evidence for subsequent meteoric diagenesis is found in abundant dog-tooth and blocky calcite cements that have mean δ18OVPDB of - 9.36‰ and no signs of recrystallization. These meteoric cements reduced porosity by a further 13.4 vol%. Percolation of meteoric water through the ramp was driven by hydraulic gradients on an adjacent basement high, which was exposed by a cycle of early Ladinian regressions

  9. A synthesis of Cenozoic sedimentation in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Rasmussen, E.S.


    study provides a regional synthesis of sedimentation based on a comprehensive interpretation of a regionally covering reflection seismic data set. We relate observations of sediment characteristics and unconformities to the geological evolution. The timing, regional expression and stratigraphic...... characteristics of many unconformities indicate that they were generated by eustatic sea-level fall, often in conjunction with other processes. Early Cenozoic unconformities, however, relate to tectonism associated with the opening of the North Atlantic. From observation on a regional scale, we infer...

  10. D:L-Amino Acid Modeling Reveals Fast Microbial Turnover of Days to Months in the Subsurface Hydrothermal Sediment of Guaymas Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel H. Møller


    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of temperature on the microbial turnover of organic matter (OM in a hydrothermal vent system in Guaymas Basin, by calculating microbial bio- and necromass turnover times based on the culture-independent D:L-amino acid model. Sediments were recovered from two stations near hydrothermal mounds (<74°C and from one cold station (<9°C. Cell abundance at the two hydrothermal stations dropped from 108 to 106 cells cm-3 within ∼5 m of sediment depth resulting in a 100-fold lower cell number at this depth than at the cold site where numbers remained constant at 108 cells cm-3 throughout the recovered sediment. There were strong indications that the drop in cell abundance was controlled by decreasing OM quality. The quality of the sedimentary OM was determined by the diagenetic indicators %TAAC (percentage of total organic carbon present as amino acid carbon, %TAAN (percentage of total nitrogen present as amino acid nitrogen, aspartic acid:β-alanine ratios, and glutamic acid:γ-amino butyric acid ratios. All parameters indicated that the OM became progressively degraded with increasing sediment depth, and the OM in the hydrothermal sediment was more degraded than in the uniformly cold sediment. Nonetheless, the small community of microorganisms in the hydrothermal sediment demonstrated short turnover times. The modeled turnover times of microbial bio- and necromass in the hydrothermal sediments were notably faster (biomass: days to months; necromass: up to a few hundred years than in the cold sediments (biomass: tens of years; necromass: thousands of years, suggesting that temperature has a significant influence on the microbial turnover rates. We suggest that short biomass turnover times are necessary for maintance of essential cell funtions and to overcome potential damage caused by the increased temperature.The reduced OM quality at the hyrothemal sites might thus only allow for a small population size of microorganisms.

  11. Triassic aragonite in carbonate source-rock from Ragusa Basin (Sicily): geochemistry, comparison with recent sediments and origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loreau, J.P.; Sabbadini, S.; Brosse, E.; Frixa, A.


    Aragonitic muds from the upper Triassic occur in laminites between two laminae rich in clays and/or organic matter. Two types of aragonite are identified. The first shows rod or needle morphology, with Sr content (9,300 ppm), δ 18 O(-1.1 to -1.7) and δ 13 C(+2.1 to +2.8) mostly similar to aragonite of Recent sediments. It is not biodetrital in origin but results from direct precipitation at 22-30 deg C in sea water with a m Sr 2+ / m Ca 2+ ratio very near to Recent values. The second aragonite showing greater prismatic crystals with inclusions of relics of rods and needles, a high content in strontium (15,800 ppm) and a negative δ 13 C(-13.0 to -14.4), is diagenetic. (authors). 23 refs., 6 figs

  12. Coupled organic and inorganic carbon cycling in the deep subseafloor sediment of the northeastern Bering Sea Slope (IODP Exp. 323)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehrmann, Laura M.; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Schrum, Heather


    We studied microbially mediated diagenetic processes driven by carbon mineralization in subseafloor sediment of the northeastern Bering Sea Slope to a depth of 745 meters below seafloor (mbsf). Sites U1343, U1344 and U1345 were drilled during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 323......) and between 300 and 400 mbsf. The SMTZ at the three sites is located between 6 and 9 mbsf. The upward methane fluxes into the SMTZ are similar to fluxes in SMTZs underlying high-productivity surface waters off Chile and Namibia. Our Bering Sea results show that intense organic carbon mineralization drives...... microbially mediated carbon mineralization leaves DIC isotope composition unaffected. Ongoing carbonate formation between 300 and 400 mbsf strongly influences pore-water DIC and magnesium concentration profiles. The linked succession of organic carbon mineralization and carbonate dissolution and precipitation...

  13. Towards a High-resolution Time Scale for the Early Devonian (United States)

    Dekkers, M. J.; da Silva, A. C.


    High-resolution time scales are crucial to understand Earth's history in detail. The construction of a robust geological time scale, however, inevitably becomes increasingly harder further back in time. Uncertainties associated with anchor radiometric ages increase in size, not speaking of the mere presence of suitable datable strata. However, durations of stages can be tightly constrained by making use of cyclic expressions in sediments, an approach that revolutionized the Cenozoic time scale. When precisely determined durations are stitched together, ultimately, a very precise time scale is the result. For the Mesozoic and Paleozoic an astronomical solution as a tuning target is not available but the dominant periods of eccentricity, obliquity and precession are reasonably well constrained for the entire Phanerozoic which enables their detection by means of spectral analysis. Eccentricity is time-invariant and is used as the prime building block. Here we focus on the Early Devonian, on its lowermost three stages: the Lochkovian, Pragian and Emsian. The uncertainties on the Devonian stage boundaries are currently in the order of several millions of years. The preservation of climatic cycles in diagenetically or even anchimetamorphically affected successions, however, is essential. The fit of spectral peak ratios with those calculated for orbital cycles, is classically used as a strong argument for a preserved climatic signal. Here we use primarily the low field magnetic susceptibility (MS) as proxy parameter, supported by gamma-ray spectrometry to test for consistency. Continuous Wavelet Transform, Evolutive Harmonic Analysis, Multitaper Method, and Average Spectral Misfit are used to reach an optimal astronomical interpretation. We report on classic Early Devonian sections from the Czech Republic: the Pozar-CS (Lochkovian and Pragian), Pod Barrandovem (Pragian and Lower Emsian), and Zlichov (Middle-Upper Emsian). Also a Middle-Upper Emsian section from the US

  14. Depositional setting and early diagenesis of the dinosaur eggshell-bearing Aren Fm at Bastus, Late Campanian, south-central Pyrenees (United States)

    Díaz-Molina, Margarita; Kälin, Otto; Benito, M. Isabel; Lopez-Martinez, Nieves; Vicens, Enric


    The Late Cretaceous Aren Fm exposed north of Bastus in the Tremp Basin (south-central Pyrenees) preserves an excellent record of dinosaur eggs laid in a marine littoral setting. Different from other cases reported in literature, at the Bastus site the preferential nesting ground was original beach sand. The coastal deposits of Aren Fm can be grouped into four facies assemblages, representing respectively shoreface, beachface, beach ridge plain and backbarrier lagoon environments. Shoreface deposits include fine- to coarse-grained hybrid arenites and subordinate quartz-dominated conglomerates with ripple structures of wave and wave-current origin. Beachface deposits are mainly storm beach conglomerates, but parallel-laminated foreshore arenites locally occur. Backbarrier lagoon deposits comprise of washover sandy conglomerates that grade laterally into sandy lime mudstones, biomicrites and marls. Beach ridge sediment, wherein the bulk of dinosaur eggs and eggshell debris occurs, predominantly is a reddish hybrid arenite that has undergone a complex early diagenetic evolution, including marine and meteoric cementation followed by soil development. The reddish arenites overlie wave-dominated shoreface deposits and in places pass laterally into lagoonal deposits. They originally formed shore ridges, that became stabilized during progradational episodes by pedogenesis (beach ridge, sensu [Otvos, E.G., 2000. Beach ridges—definitions and significance. Geomorphology 32, 83-108.]), which also affected the dinosaur eggs. The eggshell-bearing beach ridge arenites are typically preserved at the top of parasequences forming the systems tracts of a third-order sequence. Thick packages of this facies resulted from aggradation of barrier/beach ridge deposits, whose preservation below surfaces of transgressive erosion was favoured by incipient lithification.

  15. Non-linearities in Holocene floodplain sediment storage (United States)

    Notebaert, Bastiaan; Nils, Broothaerts; Jean-François, Berger; Gert, Verstraeten


    Floodplain sediment storage is an important part of the sediment cascade model, buffering sediment delivery between hillslopes and oceans, which is hitherto not fully quantified in contrast to other global sediment budget components. Quantification and dating of floodplain sediment storage is data and financially demanding, limiting contemporary estimates for larger spatial units to simple linear extrapolations from a number of smaller catchments. In this paper we will present non-linearities in both space and time for floodplain sediment budgets in three different catchments. Holocene floodplain sediments of the Dijle catchment in the Belgian loess region, show a clear distinction between morphological stages: early Holocene peat accumulation, followed by mineral floodplain aggradation from the start of the agricultural period on. Contrary to previous assumptions, detailed dating of this morphological change at different shows an important non-linearity in geomorphologic changes of the floodplain, both between and within cross sections. A second example comes from the Pre-Alpine French Valdaine region, where non-linearities and complex system behavior exists between (temporal) patterns of soil erosion and floodplain sediment deposition. In this region Holocene floodplain deposition is characterized by different cut-and-fill phases. The quantification of these different phases shows a complicated image of increasing and decreasing floodplain sediment storage, which hampers the image of increasing sediment accumulation over time. Although fill stages may correspond with large quantities of deposited sediment and traditionally calculated sedimentation rates for such stages are high, they do not necessary correspond with a long-term net increase in floodplain deposition. A third example is based on the floodplain sediment storage in the Amblève catchment, located in the Belgian Ardennes uplands. Detailed floodplain sediment quantification for this catchments shows

  16. Origin, conditions and processes of sandstone reservoir diagenetic silicification in the North Sea; Origine, conditions et processus de la silicification diagenetique de reservoir greseux en Mer du Nord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchet, A.


    The petroleum reservoir qualities of sandstones are partially reduce by the presence of diagenetic quartz which occlude the cement porosity. Two sandstones reservoirs have been studied to understand the process and origin of silicification. The Brent sandstones have been sampled in the Alwyn north and Dunbar fields (North Sea) and the Franklin sandstones in the Elgin and Glenelg fields (North Sea). Fluid inclusions are often used to constrain quartz precipitation temperature. However their possible stretching with burial is still a problem. Fluid inclusion (FI) petrographic and micro-thermometric study does not show any evidence of stretching: no correlation between size, shape and homogenization temperature (Th) has been observed. Large Th range, even for FI in a single detrital grain overgrowth boundary, cannot been explained by temperature reset. The fluorescence of hydrocarbon inclusions has been analysed by micro-spectro-fluorimeter (MSF) and interpreted as density after calibration using known crude oils. Hydrocarbon inclusions show large density range for FI trapped along a single detrital grain overgrowth boundary. Raman spectroscopy reveals that aqueous inclusions are not saturated with methane. Moreover, a linear relation between methane content and Th implies pressure corrections reducing the range of trapping temperatures. The similarity of Th and MSF data between FI located along detrital grain-overgrowth boundary and within the overgrowth of a single grain indicates that FI located along the boundary are trapped after the precipitation of the first overgrowth zone. These inclusions cannot then be used to represent the beginning of the silicification. The diagenetic sequence and aluminium content in the quartz overgrowth allow to establish the origin of silica for each overgrowth zone defined in cathodoluminescence. High aluminium contents (up to 1375 ppm) are linked to feldspar dissolution which can be induced by acid meteoric water or organic acids

  17. Chemosystematics and diagenesis of terpenoids in fossil conifer species and sediment from the Eocene Zeitz formation, Saxony, Germany (United States)

    Otto, Angelika; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.


    The biomarker contents of three fossil conifer species (Athrotaxis couttsiae, Taxodium balticum, Pinus palaeostrobus) and the clay sediment from the Eocene Zeitz formation, Germany, have been analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Triterpenoids of the oleanane, ursane and lupane series and aliphatic wax lipids are the major compounds in the total extracts of the sediment indicating a major angiosperm input. In contrast, diterpenoids (abietanes, phenolic abietanes, pimaranes, isopimaranes, kauranes, phyllocladanes, totaranes) and lignin degradation products are predominant in the conifer fossil extracts. Polar diterpenoids (ferruginol and derivatives, dehydroabietic acid) are preserved as major compounds in the conifers, accompained by saturated and aromatic diterpenoid products. The extracts of the fossil conifer species show characteristic biomarker patterns and contain terpenoids of chemosystematic value. The terpenoid composition of the fossil conifers is similar to that of related modern species. Phenolic abietanes (ferruginol, 6,7-dehydroferruginol, hydroxyferruginols, sugiol) which are known from modern species of the Cupressaceae and Podocarpaceae are the major terpenoids in shoots of Athrotaxis couttsiae and a cone of Taxodium balticum (both Cupressaceae). Sesquiterpenoids characteristic for Cupressaceae (cuparene, α-cedrene) are also present in Athrotaxis. Abietane-type acids (dehydroabietic acid, abietic acid) and saturated abietanes [fichtelite, 13α(H)-fichtelite] predominate in the extracts of a Pinus palaeostrobus cone and phenolic abietanes are not detectable. A diagenetic pathway for the degradation of abietic acid is proposed based on the presence of abietane-type acids and a series of their presumed degradation products in the Pinus cone. The formation of diagenetic products from the phenolic abietanes is also discussed.

  18. Study of Diagenetic Features in Rudist Buildups of Cretaceous Edwards Formation Using Ground Based Hyperspectral Scanning and Terrestrial LiDAR (United States)

    Krupnik, D.; Khan, S.; Okyay, U.; Hartzell, P. J.; Biber, K.


    Ground based remote sensing is a novel technique for development of digital outcrop models which can be instrumental in performing detailed qualitative and quantitative sedimentological analysis for the study of depositional environment, diagenetic processes, and hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. For this investigation, ground-based hyperspectral data collection is combined with terrestrial LiDAR to study outcrops of Late Albian rudist buildups of the Edwards formation in the Lake Georgetown Spillway in Williamson County, Texas. The Edwards formation consists of shallow water deposits of reef and associated inter-reef facies, including rudist bioherms and biostromes. It is a significant aquifer and was investigated as a hydrocarbon play in south central Texas. Hyperspectral data were used to map compositional variation in the outcrop by distinguishing spectral properties unique to each material. Lithological variation was mapped in detail to investigate the structure and composition of rudist buildups. Hyperspectral imagery was registered to a 3D model produced from the LiDAR point cloud with an accuracy of up to one pixel. Flat-topped toucasid-rich bioherm facies were distinguished from overlying toucasid-rich biostrome facies containing chert nodules, overlying sucrosic dolostones, and uppermost peloid wackestones and packstones of back-reef facies. Ground truth was established by petrographic study of samples from this area and has validated classification products of remote sensing data. Several types of porosity were observed and have been associated with increased dolomitization. This ongoing research involves integration of remotely sensed datasets to analyze geometrical and compositional properties of this carbonate formation at a finer scale than traditional methods have achieved and seeks to develop a workflow for quick and efficient ground based remote sensing-assisted outcrop studies.

  19. Environmental inferences and chironomid-based temperature reconstructions from fragmentary records of the Weichselian Early Glacial and Pleniglacial periods in the Niederlausitz area (eastern Germany)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, S.; Bohncke, S.J.P.; Bos, J.A.A.; Heiri, O.; Vandenberghe, J.; Wallinga, J.


    We inferred past climate conditions from lacustrine sediments intercalated in Weichselian Early Glacial and Early Pleniglacial fluvial and aeolian sediments, exposed in two opencast lignite mines from the Niederlausitz area (eastern Germany). A chronology was established using radiocarbon and

  20. Sedimentation problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.T.


    Roseires Dam and reservoir are located in Sudan, Africa on the Blue Nile River. The hydropower from the reservoir provides approximately 80% of the power used in Sudan, thus having a tremendous economic impact on the country. The reservoir was first impounded in 1966 and has been filled annually since then. The Blue Nile has historically been known to carry heavy sediment loads which is associated with erosion from overgrazing in Ethiopia, the Blue Nile's headwaters. During the flood season, the dam's turbine intakes become blocked with debris and sediment. After a severe blockage in 1981, which prevented hydropower generation for several days, consultants from USAID were asked to make recommendations on reducing the sediment and debris impacts on reservoir operations. This led to debris clearing and dredging equipment acquisitions in 1982. In 1988, blockage occurred again during the flood season. This writer was asked by the World Bank to travel to Sudan, investigate the sediment and debris problems, examine the USAID recommendations, comment on potential sediment and debris problems associated with a proposed plan to raise the dam, make additional recommendations, and return to Sudan several times to determine the effectiveness of there recommendations. This paper discussed the results of the aforementioned activities and describes the new recommendations made by this writer

  1. The oceanic sediment barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, T.J.G.; Searle, R.C.; Wilson, T.R.S.


    Burial within the sediments of the deep ocean floor is one of the options that have been proposed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. An international research programme is in progress to determine whether oceanic sediments have the requisite properties for this purpose. After summarizing the salient features of this programme, the paper focuses on the Great Meteor East study area in the Northeast Atlantic, where most oceanographic effort has been concentrated. The geological geochemical and geotechnical properties of the sediments in the area are discussed. Measurements designed to determine the rate of pore water movement through the sediment column are described. Our understanding of the chemistry of both the solid and pore-water phases of the sediment are outlined, emphasizing the control that redox conditions have on the mobility of, for example, naturally occurring manganese and uranium. The burial of instrumented free-fall penetrators to depths of 30 m beneath the ocean floor is described, modelling one of the methods by which waste might be emplaced. Finally, the nature of this oceanic environment is compared with geological environments on land and attention is drawn to the gaps in our knowledge that must be filled before oceanic burial can be regarded as an acceptable disposal option. (author)

  2. Speciation and spatial distribution of solid-phase iron in surface sediments of the East China Sea continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Mao-Xu; Hao, Xiao-Chen; Shi, Xiao-Ning; Yang, Gui-Peng; Li, Tie


    Speciation and reactivity characterization of solid-phase Fe in marine sediments are of significance to understanding its heterogeneous mineralogy and crystallinity, the diagenetic cycling of Fe and its regulating roles on many other elements in sediments. In this study, a combination of sequential and single-step extractions was used for the determination of seven Fe pools in surface sediments of the East China Sea (ECS) continental shelf: (1) carbonate associated Fe (Fe(II) carb ) plus acid volatile sulfide-Fe (Fe(II) AVS ), (2) easily reducible amorphous/poorly crystalline Fe oxides (Fe ox1 ), (3) reducible crystalline Fe oxides (Fe ox2 ), (4) magnetite (Fe mag ), (5) poorly reactive sheet silicate Fe (Fe PRS ), (6) pyrite-Fe (Fe py ), and (7) unreactive silicate Fe (Fe U ). Total Fe (Fe T ) in the sediments is largely determined by terrestrial aluminosilicate particles as indicated by a great similarity of the Fe T with that of the Yangtze River and global riverine particulates. The size of Fe PRS is found to be the largest pool, followed by Fe U , Fe ox2 , Fe mag , Fe(II) AVS+carb , Fe ox1 and Fe py . The large Fe PRS may result from neoformation of Fe-rich clay minerals via reverse weathering and subsequent ageing. The small sizes of Fe(II) AVS+carb and Fe py pools is believed to be the result of low SO 4 reduction due to generally low labile organic matter together with the oxic/suboxic, dynamic environments of the surface sediments. The occurrence of Fe ox1 , Fe ox2 and Fe PRS in the sediments is closely associated with the clay fraction as indicated by a high spatial correlation between the former and the latter. Highly reactive Fe(Fe HR ) in the sediments is comparable to that in global marine sediments, but apparently lower than in the Yangtze River and global riverine particulates due probably to sequestration in the Yangtze Estuary. The ratios of Fe HR /Fe T , Fe PR /Fe T and Fe U /Fe T in the ECS surface sediments consistently show more similarity to

  3. Petrophysics of Palaeogene sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awadalkarim, Ahmed

    defined and understood this would benefit various areas in petroleum industry. The three studied litholgoies are relatively soft and weak sediments, but they are economically important especially in petroleum industry. Drilling through intervals of shale or siliceous ooze sediments could result in severe...... and very costly borehole instability problems which are closely connected with the "bulk properties" of shale. In practice, the main technological challenge is to keep the borehole sufficiently stable until casing is set. Knowing the real in-situ effective stress is crucial to understand and to predict...... related to borehole stability. This Ph.D. study stressed on the importance of using correct β value in estimation of vertical effective stress especially on deep-sea sediments. To assess the geomechanical stability and the stiffness of the three studied lithologies, their β was found and used to calculate...

  4. Composition and origin of Early Cambrian Tiantaishan phosphorite-Mn carbonate ores, Shaanxi Province, China (United States)

    Hein, J.R.; Fan, D.; Ye, J.; Liu, T.; Yeh, H.-W.


    The Tiantaishan phosphorite-Mn carbonate ores occur in the Early Cambrian Tananpo Formation in complexly folded and faulted rocks located in southern Shaanxi Province. About 65 x 106 tonnes of 17% P2O5 ore reserves exist and Mn-ore reserves are about 8.3 x 106 tonnes of +18% Mn. The stratigraphic sequence in ascending order consists of black phyllite, black to gray phosphorite ore, black phyllite, rhodochrostone ore, Mn mixed-carbonates, and dolostone. Data are presented from microprobe mineral chemistry, whole-rock chemistry, stable isotopes of carbonates, X-ray mineralogy, petrographic and SEM observations, and statistical analysis of chemical data. The dominant ore-forming minerals are hydroxy- and carbonate fluorapatite and Ca rhodochrosite, with Mg kutnahorite and dolomite comprising the Mn mixed-carbonate section. Pyrite occurs in all rock types and alabandite (MnS) occurs throughout the rhodochrostone section. The mean P2O5 content of phosphorite is 31% and argillaceous phosphorite is 16%, while the mean MnO content of rhodochrostone ore is 37%. Phosphorite ores are massive, spheroidal, laminated, and banded, while rhodochrostone ores have oolitic, spheroidal, and granular fabrics. The most distinguishing characteristics of the ores are high total organic carbon (TOC) contents (mean 8.4%) in the phosphorite and high P2O5 contents (mean 2.7%) in the rhodochrostone ore. The atypically high TOC contents in the Tiantaishan phosphorite probably result from very strong productivity leading to high sedimentation rates accompanied by weak reworking of sediments; poor utilization of the organic matter by bacteria; and/or partial replacement of bacterial or algal mats by the apatite. The depositional setting of the ores was the margin of an epicontinental seaway created as a direct consequence of global processes that included break-up of a supercontinent, formation of narrow seaways, creation of extensive continental shelves, overturn of stagnant, metal-rich deep

  5. Cerium anomalies in the Paleo-Mesozoic pelagic sediments of the Tamba group, southwest Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musashino, Makoto


    The oceanic sediments of the Tamba group, a part of the Japanese Paleo-Mesozoic accretionary prism are geochemically examined. Based on XMA, INAA and XRF analyses, the following results were obtained. These oceanic sediments have various REE patterns which correspond to environmental change on the ocean floor. The REE pattern changes from negative Ce anomaly through LREE>HREE or MREE>LREE≥HREE pattern to positive Ce anomaly in ascending order. And each REE pattern indicates a corresponding sedimentary environment. Negative Ce anomaly indicates that chert was deposited under the influence of hydrothermal activity or diagenetic metal accumulation. Chert with a LREE>HREE or a MREE>LREE≥HREE pattern resemble the sediment with positive Ce anomaly, but the lack of Ce anomaly suggests a less oxic condition of diagenesis or less Ce content in the sea water. Positive Ce anomaly suggests that sediments accumulated at a very slow rate under oxic condition, where authigenic metal flux from sea water resulted in such an REE pattern. Cherts and siliceous shales with positive Ce anomaly are exclusively detected at the upper part of chert-siliceous shale sequences in all successions of the Tamba group. This suggests that sea water of the Panthalassa Ocean was, at least partially, enriched in Ce, resembling the modern Atlantic more than the modern Pacific Ocean. The following causes are considered. Riverine input from surrounding continents was substantial. Reductive regeneration of Ce from continental shelves was active. Ce depleted sea water did not enter from the other 'ocean'. (J.P.N.)

  6. Restoration and Purification of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen by Bacteria and Phytoremediation in Shallow Eutrophic Lakes Sediments (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yue, Yi


    Endogenous organic nitrogen loadings in lake sediments have increased with human activity in recent decades. A 6-month field study from two disparate shallow eutrophic lakes could partly reveal these issues by analysing seasonal variations of biodegradation and phytoremediation in the sediment. This paper describes the relationship between oxidation reduction potential, temperature, microbial activity and phytoremediation in nitrogen cycling by calculation degradative index of dissolved organic nitrogen and amino acid decomposition. The index was being positive in winter and negative in summer while closely positive correlated with biodegradation. Our analysis revealed that rather than anoxic condition, biomass is the primary factor to dissolved organic nitrogen distribution and decomposition. Some major amino acids statistics also confirm the above view. The comparisons of organic nitrogen and amino acid in abundance and seasons in situ provides that demonstrated plants cue important for nitrogen removal by their roots adsorption and immobilization. In conclusion, enhanced microbial activity and phytoremediation with the seasons will reduce the endogenous nitrogen loadings by the coupled mineralization and diagenetic process.

  7. Pyrolysis gas chromatographic atomic emission detection for sediments, coals and other petrochemical precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, J.A.; Zeng, Y.D.; Uden, P.C.; Eglinton, T.I.; Ericson, I. (Massachusetts University, Amherst, MA (USA). Dept. of Chemistry)


    On-line flash pyrolysis coupled to a capillary gas chromatograph for the characterization of marine sediments, coals and other heterogeneous solid samples is described. A helium microwave-induced plasma is used for chromatographic detection by atomic emission spectrometry. Simultaneous multi-element detection is achieved with a photodiode array detector. The optical path of the gas chromatographic atomic emission detector is purged with helium, allowing simultaneous, sensitive detection of atomic emission from sulfur 181 nm, phosphorous 186 nm, arsenic 189 nm, selenium 196 nm and carbon 193 nm. Several sediment and coal samples have been analysed for their carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, phosphorous, arsenic and selenium content. Qualitative information indicating the occurrence and distribution of these elements in the samples can be used to gauge the relative stage of diagenetic evolution of the samples and provide information on their depositional environment. In some instances the chromatographic behaviour of the compounds produced upon pyrolysis is improved through on-line alkylation. This on-line derivatization is achieved by adding liquid reagents to the pyrolysis probe or by adding liquid reagents to the pyrolysis probe or by adding solid reagents either to the solid sample or by packing the reagent in the injection port of the chromatograph.

  8. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broxton, D.E.


    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory conducted a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana from early August to mid-October of 1976. A total of 1240 water and 1933 sediment samples were collected from 1994 locations at a nominal density of one location per 10 km/sup 2/. The water samples were collected from streams, wells, and springs; sediment samples were taken at streams and springs. All samples were analyzed at Los Alamos for total uranium by fluorometry or delayed-neutron counting. The uranium content of water samples ranges from below the detection limit (less than 0.3 ppB) to 45.30 ppB and has a mean value of 1.40 ppB. The uranium content of the sediment samples ranges between 0.20 and 206.80 ppM and averages 6.12 ppM. The chosen uranium anomaly threshold value was 7 ppB for surface waters (streams), 9 ppB for groundwaters (wells and springs), and 25 ppM for all sediment samples. The study area consists of the following lithologic groups: Precambrian basement complex, Precambrian Belt metasediments, Paleozoic and Mesozoic shelf sediments, Cretaceous and early Tertiary volcanic and plutonic rocks, Laramide orogenic clastic sediments, and middle to late Tertiary volcanic rocks and intermontane basin sediments. Most of the anomalous water and sediment samples with well-developed dispersion trains occur in areas underlain by or adjacent to silicic plutonic rocks of the Idaho and Boulder batholiths. These anomalies may indicate the presence of uraniferous veins and pegmatites similar to those already known to exist in the area. Fewer anomalous water samples occur in areas underlain by Precambrian basement complex and Tertiary basin fill.

  9. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxton, D.E.


    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory conducted a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana from early August to mid-October of 1976. A total of 1240 water and 1933 sediment samples were collected from 1994 locations at a nominal density of one location per 10 km 2 . The water samples were collected from streams, wells, and springs; sediment samples were taken at streams and springs. All samples were analyzed at Los Alamos for total uranium by fluorometry or delayed-neutron counting. The uranium content of water samples ranges from below the detection limit (less than 0.3 ppB) to 45.30 ppB and has a mean value of 1.40 ppB. The uranium content of the sediment samples ranges between 0.20 and 206.80 ppM and averages 6.12 ppM. The chosen uranium anomaly threshold value was 7 ppB for surface waters (streams), 9 ppB for groundwaters (wells and springs), and 25 ppM for all sediment samples. The study area consists of the following lithologic groups: Precambrian basement complex, Precambrian Belt metasediments, Paleozoic and Mesozoic shelf sediments, Cretaceous and early Tertiary volcanic and plutonic rocks, Laramide orogenic clastic sediments, and middle to late Tertiary volcanic rocks and intermontane basin sediments. Most of the anomalous water and sediment samples with well-developed dispersion trains occur in areas underlain by or adjacent to silicic plutonic rocks of the Idaho and Boulder batholiths. These anomalies may indicate the presence of uraniferous veins and pegmatites similar to those already known to exist in the area. Fewer anomalous water samples occur in areas underlain by Precambrian basement complex and Tertiary basin fill

  10. Soft-sediment mullions (United States)

    Ortner, Hugo


    In this contribution I describe the appearance, formation and significance of soft-sediment mullions. I use several examples from synorogenic turbidites of the Alps and the Pyrenees to show their appearance in the field. Soft-sediment mullions are elongate, slightly irregular bulges at the base of coarse-grained clastic beds (sand to conglomerate), separated by narrow, elongate flames of fine-grained material (mud) protruding into the coarse-grained bed. Various processes may lead to the formation of such structures: (1) longitudinal furrows parallel to the sediment transport direction may form by spiral motion in flow rolls during sediment transport (Dzulinski, 1966; Dzulinski & Simpson, 1966). (2) Loading combined with downslope movement can produce elongate structures parallelling the dowslope direction (Anketell et al., 1970). (3) Soft-sediment mullions are oriented perpendicular or oblique to the downslope direction, and show evidence of bedding-parallel shortening. Thus, they resemble cuspate-lobate folds or mullions, which are well-known in ductile structural geology (e.g. Urai et al., 2001). Soft-sediment mullions have been observed in two cases: Either bedding-parallel shortening can be achieved by slump processes, or by active tectonic shortening. Slumping is characterized by an alternation of stretching and shortening (e.g. Ortner, 2007; Alsop & Marco 2014), and therefore mullions do overprint or are overprinted by normal faults. In active depositional systems that are subject to tectonic shortening growth strata will form, but sediments already deposited will be shortened during lithification. In some cases, the formation of soft-sediment mullions predates folding, but the most widespread expression of syn-lithification shortening seems to be soft-sediment mullions, that form in the inner arcs of fold hinges. In the examples documented so far, the size of soft-sediment mullions is dependent on the grain-size of the coarse-grained layer, in which the

  11. Quantifying trail erosion and stream sedimentation with sediment tracers (United States)

    Mark S. Riedel


    Abstract--The impacts of forest disturbance and roads on stream sedimentation have been rigorously investigated and documented. While historical research on turbidity and suspended sediments has been thorough, studies of stream bed sedimentation have typically relied on semi-quantitative measures such as embeddedness or marginal pool depth. To directly quantify the...

  12. Mineralogy of Rocks and Sediments at Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Achilles, Cherie; Downs, Robert; Blake, David; Vaniman, David; Ming, Doug; Rampe, Elizabeth; Morris, Dick; Morrison, Shaunna; Treiman, Allan; Chipera, Steve; Yen, Albert; Bristow, Thomas; Craig, Patricia; Hazen, Robert; Crisp, Joy; Grotzinger, John; Des Marias, David; Farmer, Jack; Sarrazin, Philippe; Morookian, John Michael


    formation is the most sampled stratigraphic unit in Gale crater. Composed mainly of finely laminated mudstones and interpreted as lacustrine deposits, the mineralogy of Murray rocks reveals a complex aqueous history. Within the lower Murray strata, CheMin identified clay minerals, crystalline and amorphous silica, hematite, magnetite, and jarosite. The mineralogy suggests a paleolake that experienced variable redox conditions and sediment influx from multiple sources. Younger Murray strata have high abundances of clay minerals, hematite, and calcium sulfate but show lower variability in mineralogy compared to the older bedforms. CheMin's identification of tridymite in one of the Murray mudstone samples led to the first in situ identification of silicic volcanism on Mars. This presentation will discuss the mineralogy of sedimentary samples analyzed by CheMin and how these data are used to characterize the depositional and diagenetic environment of Gale crater's long-lived lake system.

  13. Remagnetization and Cementation of Unconsolidated Sediments in the Mallik 5L-38 Well (Canadian Arctic) by Solute Exclusion During Gas Hydrate Formation (United States)

    Hamilton, T. S.; Enkin, R. J.; Esteban, L.


    Bulk magnetic properties provide a sensitive measure of sedimentary diagenesis related to the stability and growth of gas hydrates. The deposit at Mallik (Mackenzie Delta, Canadian Arctic) occurs in unconsolidated Tertiary sands, but is absent in interstratified silt layers. A detailed sampling of the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 5L-38 core tested the use of magnetic properties for detecting diagenetic changes related to the hydrate. Petrographic studies reveal that the sands are well sorted and clean, with quartz > chert >> muscovite and little fines content. Excepting a few rare bands of indurated dolomite in the midst of the gas hydrate zone, there is little or no cementation in the sands. Detrital magnetite is the dominant magnetic mineral, comprising up to a few percent of the sand grain population. In contrast, the muddier layers have a somewhat different detrital grain composition, richer in lithic (sedimentary and metamorphic) grains, feldspar, and clays. They are extensively diagenetically altered (to as much as 30- 40%) and cemented with carbonates, clays, chlorite and the iron sulphide greigite (the dominant magnetic mineral). The greigite is recognized by its isotropic creamy-white reflectance, cubic to prismatic habit, and characteristic tarnish to faintly bluish bireflectant mackinawite. Habits range from disseminated cubes and colliform masses to inflationary massive sulphide veins and clots. Rare detrital grains of magnetite were observed among the silt grains, but never in a reaction relationship or overgrown. Instead the greigite has nucleated separately, in tensional fractures and granular masses up to 4 mm across. In this particular sediment sequence, being so quartz and chert rich, there is insufficient local source for the introduced cements (calcite, dolomite, greigite, clays, jarosite), so ions must have been introduced by fluid flow. Magnetic studies reveal a bi-modal character related to the lithology (sands versus silts) and their magnetic


    The formation processes of metal sulfides in sediments, especially iron sulfides, have been the subjects of intense scientific research because of linkages to the global biogeochemical cycles of iron, sulfur, carbon, and oxygen. Transition metal sulfides (e.g., NiS, CuS, ZnS, Cd...

  15. Soils and organic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head, M.J.


    The organic component of soils is basically made up of substances of an individual nature (fats, waxes, resins, proteins, tannic substances, and many others), and humic substances (Kononova, 1966). These are complex polymers formed from breakdown products of the chemical and biological degradation of plant and animal residues. They are dark coloured, acidic, predominantly aromatic compounds ranging in molecular weight from less than one thousand to tens of thousands (Schnitzer, 1977). They can be partitioned into three main fractions:(i) Humic acid, which is soluble in dilute alkaline solution, but can be precipitated by acidification of the alkaline extract.(ii) Fulvic acid, which is soluble in alkaline solution, but is also soluble on acidification.(iii) Humin that cannot be extracted from the soil or sediment by dilute acid or alkaline solutions. It has mostly been assumed that the humic and fulvic acid components of the soil are part of the mobile, or 'active' component, and the humin component is part of the 'passive' component. Other types of organic sediments are likely to contain chemical breakdown products of plant material, plant fragments and material brought in from outside sources. The outside material can be contemporaneous with sediment deposition, can be older material, or younger material incorporated into the sediment long after deposition. Recognition of 'foreign' material is essential for dating, but is not an easy task. Examples of separation techniques for humic and non humic components are evaluated for their efficiency

  16. Trace metal enrichments in core sediments in Muthupet mangroves, SE coast of India: Application of acid leachable technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janaki-Raman, D.; Jonathan, M.P.; Srinivasalu, S.; Armstrong-Altrin, J.S.; Mohan, S.P.; Ram-Mohan, V.


    Core sediments from Mullipallam Creek of Muthupet mangroves on the southeast coast of India were analyzed for texture, CaCO 3 , organic carbon, sulfur and acid leachable trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn and Cd). Textural analysis reveals a predominance of mud while CaCO 3 indicates dissolution in the upper half of the core, and reprecipitation of carbonates in reduction zones. Trace metals are diagenetically modified and anthropogenic processes control Pb and, to some extent, Ni, Zn and Fe. A distinct event is identified at 90 cm suggesting a change in deposition. Strong relationship of trace metals with Fe indicates that they are associated with Fe-oxyhydroxides. The role of carbonates in absorbing trace metals is evident from their positive relationship with trace metals. Comparison of acid leachable trace metals indicates increase in concentrations in the study area and the sediments act as a sink for trace metals contributed from multiple sources. - Natural and anthropogenic trace metals afeecting mangrove sediments

  17. Post-depositional reactivity of the plutonium in different sediment facies from the English channel - an experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouzy, A.; Boust, D.; Klein, A.


    The plutonium discharged into sea (in particular resulting from the activity of the reprocessing plants of nuclear fuels) presents a great affinity for the sedimentary particles. In the English Channel, the weakness of the plutonium concentrations met in the natural environment makes very difficult a direct study of the diagenetic phenomena which influences on the behavior of this radionuclide after its incorporation to the sedimentary column. On the scale of the all English Channel, the stock of plutonium immobilized in the sediments is significant (some TBq), this fact justifies the study of its becoming. With this intention, we constructed a set of experiments on series marine sediments with various sedimentological facies, which have been spiked with plutonium. After a one-month incubation period, various parameters describing the behavior of plutonium were given: (1) distribution of plutonium between the particulate phases and the pore waters; (2) quantification of plutonium associated with reactive sulphides; (3) distribution of plutonium between the particles and the seawater during a sediment resuspension episode. (author)

  18. Recolonization and succession of subtidal macrobenthic infauna in sediments contaminated with cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, L.; Wu, R.S.S.


    No significant differences in abundance, species number, diversity and species composition were found between cadmium-contaminated and control sediments after 14 months. - Recolonization and succession of macrobenthic infauna in defaunated sediment contaminated with Cd were studied over a period of 14 months. Trays with defaunated sediment contaminated with cadmium, and trays with defaunated (control) sediment, were exposed at the subtidal in a subtropical environment. Macrobenthic succession exhibited different patterns in Cd-contaminated and control sediments. Abundance and species number were significantly higher in Cd-contaminated sediment during early succession, suggesting that cadmium may facilitate recolonization of certain species of macrobenthos. Cadmium also led to a significant change in species composition in initial colonization and subsequent succession. No significant difference in abundance, species number, diversity and species composition was found between Cd-contaminated and control sediments at the end of experiment, suggesting a stable benthic community was arrived within 14 months

  19. Recolonization and succession of subtidal macrobenthic infauna in sediments contaminated with cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, L.; Wu, R.S.S


    No significant differences in abundance, species number, diversity and species composition were found between cadmium-contaminated and control sediments after 14 months. - Recolonization and succession of macrobenthic infauna in defaunated sediment contaminated with Cd were studied over a period of 14 months. Trays with defaunated sediment contaminated with cadmium, and trays with defaunated (control) sediment, were exposed at the subtidal in a subtropical environment. Macrobenthic succession exhibited different patterns in Cd-contaminated and control sediments. Abundance and species number were significantly higher in Cd-contaminated sediment during early succession, suggesting that cadmium may facilitate recolonization of certain species of macrobenthos. Cadmium also led to a significant change in species composition in initial colonization and subsequent succession. No significant difference in abundance, species number, diversity and species composition was found between Cd-contaminated and control sediments at the end of experiment, suggesting a stable benthic community was arrived within 14 months.

  20. Ca Isotope Geochemistry in Marine Deep Sea Sediments of the Eastern Pacific (United States)

    Wittke, A.; Gussone, N. C.; Derigs, D.; Schälling, M.; Teichert, B. M.


    Ca isotope ratio analysis (δ44/40Ca) is a powerful tool to investigate diagenetic reactions in marine sedimentary porewater systems, as it is sensitive to processes such as carbonate dissolution, precipitation, recrystallization, ion exchange and deep fluid sources, due to the isotopic difference between dissolved Ca and solid carbonate minerals (e.g. [1];[2]). We analyzed eight sediment cores of the (paleo-) Pacific equatorial age transect. Two sediment cores show decreasing Ca isotope profiles starting at the sediment/water interface with seawater-like values down to sediment-like values due to recrystallization and an increasing in the bottom part again to seawater-like values. The other studied cores show different degrees of flattening of this middle bulge. We interpret this pattern either as an effect of sediment composition and thickness, decreasing recrystallization rates and/or fluid flux or a combination of all of these factors at the respective sampling sites. Element concentration profiles and Sr-isotope variations on some of these sediment cores show a similar behavior, supporting our findings ([3]; [4]). Seawater influx at (inactive) seamounts is supposed to cause seawater-like values at the bottom of the sediment cores by fluids migrating through the oceanic basement (e.g. [5]). While [6] hypothesizes that two seamounts or bathymetric pits are connected, with a recharge and a discharge site [7] say that uptaken fluids could be released through the surrounding seafloor as well due to diffusive exchange with the underlying oceanic crust. Our Ca isotope results combined with a transport reaction model approach support the latter hypothesis. References: [1] Teichert B. M., Gussone N. and Torres M. E. (2009) [2] Ockert C., Gussone N., Kaufhold S. and Teichert B. (2013) [3] Pälike H., Lyle M., Nishi H., Raffi I., Gamage K. and Klaus A. (eds.) (2010) [4] Voigt J., Hathorne E. C., Frank M., Vollstaedt H. and Eisenhauer A. (2015) [5] Villinger H. W

  1. Evaluation of surficial sediment toxicity and sediment physico-chemical characteristics of representative sites in the Lagoon of Venice (Italy) (United States)

    Losso, C.; Arizzi Novelli, A.; Picone, M.; Marchetto, D.; Pessa, G.; Molinaroli, E.; Ghetti, P. F.; Volpi Ghirardini, A.


    Toxic hazard in sites with varying types and levels of contamination in the Lagoon of Venice was estimated by means of toxicity bioassays based on the early life-stages of the autochthonous sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Elutriate was chosen as the test matrix, due to its ability to highlight potential toxic effects towards sensitive biological components of the water column caused by sediment resuspension phenomena affecting the Lagoon. Surficial sediments (core-top 5 cm deep), directly influenced by resuspension/redeposition processes, and core sediments (core 20 cm deep), recording time-mediated contamination, were sampled in some sites located in the lagoonal area most greatly influenced by anthropogenic activities. Particle size, organic matter and water content were also analysed. In two sites, the results of physical parameters showed that the core-top sediments were coarser than the 20-cm core sediments. Sperm cell toxicity test results showed the negligible acute toxicity of elutriates from all investigated sites. The embryo toxicity test demonstrated a short-term chronic toxicity gradient for elutriates from the 20-cm core sediments, in general agreement both with the expected contamination gradient and with results of the Microtox® solid-phase test. Elutriates of the core-top 5-cm sediments revealed a totally inverted gradient, in comparison with that for the 20-cm core sediments, and the presence of a "hot spot" of contamination in the site chosen as a possible reference. Investigations on ammonia and sulphides as possible confounding factors excluded their contribution to this "hot spot". Integrated physico-chemical and toxicity results on sediments at various depths demonstrated the presence of disturbed sediments in the central basin of the Lagoon of Venice.

  2. Sediment problems in reservoirs. Control of sediment deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Tom


    When a reservoir is formed on a river, sediment will deposit in the reservoir. Such processes are unfortunate, for instance, for the implementation of hydroelectric energy. This thesis studies the problem of reservoir sedimentation and discusses methods of removing the sediments. Various aspects of reservoir sedimentation are discussed. Anthropogenic impacts seem to greatly affect the erosion processes. Temporal distribution is uneven, mainly because of the very large flood events. A world map showing the Reservoir Capacity: Annual Sediment Inflow ratio for reservoirs with volume equal to 10% of annual inflow has been prepared. The map shows that sedimentation is severe in the western parts of North and South America, eastern, southern and northern Africa, parts of Australia and most of Asia. The development of medium-sized reservoirs is difficult, as they are too large for conventional flushing technique and too small to store the sediment that accumulates during their economic lifetime. A computer model, SSIIM, was used with good results in a case study of two flood drawdown trials in Lake Roxburg, New Zealand. Two techniques have been developed that permits controlled suction of sediment and water into a pipe: the Slotted Pipe Sediment Sluicer (SPSS) and the Saxophone Sediment Sluicer (SSS). The techniques exploit the inflow pattern in through a slot in a pipe. An equation describing this inflow pattern was derived and verified experimentally. The SPSS is fixed near the reservoir bed, and sediment that deposits on top of it is removed in the sluicing process. The SSS sluices sediment from the surface of the sediment deposits. Some technical and economic conditions affecting the economics of sediment removal from reservoirs have been identified and studied. 79 refs., 112 figs., 14 tabs.

  3. Effects of lead-contaminated sediment on Rana sphenocephala tadpoles (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Krest, S.K.; Ortiz-Santaliestra, M.


    We exposed larval southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) to lead-contaminated sediments to determine the lethal and sublethal effects of this metal. Tadpoles were laboratory-raised from early free-swimming stage through metamorphosis at lead concentrations of 45, 75, 180, 540, 2360, 3940, 5520, and 7580 mg/kg dry weight in sediment. Corresponding pore water lead concentrations were 123, 227, 589, 1833, 8121, 13,579, 19,038, and 24,427 ug/L. Tadpoles exposed to lead concentrations in sediment of 3940 mg/kg or higher died within 2 to 5 days of exposure. At lower concentrations, mortality through metamorphosis ranged from 3.5% at 45 mg/kg lead to 37% at 2360 mg/kg lead in sediment. The LC50 value for lead in sediment was 3728 mg/kg (95% CI=1315 to 72,847 mg/kg), which corresponded to 12,539 ug/L lead in pore water (95% CI= 4000 to 35,200 ug/L). Early growth and development were depressed at 2,360 mg/kg lead in sediment (8100 ug/L in pore water) but differences were not evident by the time of metamorphosis. The most obvious effect of lead was its pronounced influence on skeletal development. Whereas tadpoles at 45 mg/kg lead in sediment did not display permanent abnormalities, skeletal malformations increased in frequency and severity at all higher lead concentrations. By 2360 mg/kg, 100% of surviving metamorphs displayed severe spinal problems, reduced femur and humerus lengths, deformed digits, and other bone malformations. Lead concentrations in tissues correlated positively with sediment and pore water concentrations.

  4. Can behavioural responses of Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta) assess sediment toxicity? A case study with sediments exposed to acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardo, A.M.; Soares, A.M.V.M.


    The Sao Domingos mine (Portugal) is, potentially, a good site for ecotoxicological studies, due to a pH and metal gradient of acid mine drainage. In this study, the toxicity of several mine sediments was evaluated using the aquatic oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus as a test organism. Our hypothesis was that exposure to contaminated sediments would cause behavioural early warning responses in L. variegatus. Five sites, with pH ranging from 2.5 to 6.5, and with associated metals, were investigated. The results showed poor sediment quality in most of the collected sediments and Fe, S and As were the dominant elements in the samples. High mortalities were observed, ranging from 32.6 to 100%, indicating severe contamination. The collected sediments did not support good L. variegatus growth and significantly changed its behaviour. Early warning responses consisted of decreased locomotion and decreased peristaltic movements. A behaviour inhibition will affect the ecosystem balance by limiting the organisms' ability to avoid capture, which leads to a higher risk of predation. - Behavioural responses of the aquatic oligochaeta Lumbriculus variegatus may be used to detect early warning responses.

  5. Algal stabilisation of estuarine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The presence of benthic microalgae can increase the stability of intertidal sediments and influence sediment fluxes within an estuarine environment. Therefore the relative importance of algal stabilisation needs to be understood to help predict the effects of a tidal barrage. The objectives of this study are: to assess the significance of stabilisation of sediments by algae, in relation to the changes in hydrodynamic and sedimentological regimes arising from the construction of tidal power barrages; to identify a reliable and meaningful method of measuring the effectiveness, including duration, of algal binding on sediment stability, and to relate this method to other methods of measuring critical erosion velocity and sediment shear strength; to undertake a series of field experiments investigating the effect of algae on binding sediments and the parameters which could potentially influence such binding and to develop a predictive method for the assessment of sediment stabilisation by algal binding. This report contains plates, figures and tables. (author)

  6. Algal stabilisation of estuarine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The presence of benthic microalgae can increase the stability of intertidal sediments and influence sediment fluxes within an estuarine environment. Therefore the relative importance of algal stabilisation needs to be understood to help predict the effects of a tidal barrage. The biogenic stabilisation of intertidal estuarine sediments by epipelic diatom films and the macrophyte Vaucheria was studied at three sites on the Severn Estuary. The cohesive strength meter (CSM) was developed to measure surface critical shear stress with varied algal density. A number of techniques have been used to determine the general in situ erodibility of cohesive estuarine sediments. The measurements of sediment shear strength and critical erosion velocity were investigated. Field experiments were undertaken to investigate the effect of algae on binding sediments, and a predictive method for the assessment of sediment stabilisation by algal binding was developed. (author)

  7. Recolonization of macrozoobenthos on defaunated sediments in a hypertrophic brackish lagoon: effects of sulfide removal and sediment grain size. (United States)

    Kanaya, Gen


    Influences of sediment types on recolonization of estuarine macrozoobenthos were tested using enclosures in a hypertrophic lagoon. Three types of azoic sediment, sand (S), sulfide-rich mud (M), and mud removed of sulfide through iron addition (MFe), were set in field for 35 days during a hypoxic period. A total of 14 taxa including opportunistic polychaetes and amphipods occurred. Infaunal community in S treatment was characterized by highest diversity, total density and biomass, and population density of five dominant taxa, while those parameters were lowest in M treatment. Sulfide removal in MFe treatment achieved much higher density, biomass, and population densities of several taxa in the sediment. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that the established community structure was unique to each treatment. These imply that dissolved sulfide level as well as sediment grain size is a key determinant for the community composition and recolonization speed of early colonists in estuarine soft-bottom habitats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Concentrations of inorganic arsenic in groundwater, agricultural soils and subsurface sediments from the middle Gangetic plain of Bihar, India. (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Ramanathan, A L; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Naidu, Ravi


    Concentrations of inorganic forms [arsenite, As(III) and arsenate, As(V) of arsenic (As) present in groundwater, agricultural soils and subsurface sediments located in the middle Gangetic plain of Bihar, India were determined. Approximately 73% of the groundwater samples (n=19) show As(III) as the dominant species while 27% reveals As(V) was the dominant species. The concentration of As(III) in agricultural soil samples varies from not detectable to 40μg/kg and As(V) was observed as the major species (ranging from 1050 to 6835μg/kg) while the total As concentration varied from 3528 to 14,690μg/kg. Total extracted concentration of As was higher in the subsurface sediments (range 9119-20,056μg/kg in Methrapur and 4788-19,681μg/kg in Harail Chapar) than the agricultural soil, indicating the subsurface sediment as a source of As. Results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) revealed the presence of hematite and goethite throughout the vertical section below while magnetite was observed only in the upper oxidized layer at Methrapur and Harail Chapar. Alteration of Fe-oxides and presence of fibrous goethite indicating presence of diagenetic sediment. Siderite plays a crucial role as sinks to the As in subsurface sediments. The study also concluded that decomposition of organic matter present in dark and grey sections promote the redox conditions and trigger mobilization of As into groundwater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cyclic Sediment Trading Between Channel and River Bed Sediments (United States)

    Haddadchi, A.


    Much of the previous work on sediment tracing has focused on determining either the initial sources of the sediment (soils derive from a particular rock type) or the erosion processes generating the sediment. However, alluvial stores can be both a source and sink for sediment transported by streams. Here geochemical and fallout radionuclide tracing of river-bed and alluvial sediments are used to determine the role of secondary sources, sediment stores, as potential sources of sediment leaving Emu Creek catchment, southeastern Queensland, Australia. Activity concentrations of 137Cs on the river sediments are consistent with channel erosion being the dominant source at all sites sampled along the river. To characterise the deposition and remobilisation cycles in the catchment, a novel geochemical tracing approach was used. Successive pockets of alluvium were treated as discrete sink terms within geochemical mixing models and their source contributions compared with those of river bed sediments collected adjacent to each alluvial pocket. Three different size fractions were examined; silts and clays (banks indicates a high degree of 'trading' between the fluvial space and the alluvial space. Hence, management works aimed at primarily reducing the supply of sediments to the outlet of Emu Creek should focus on rehabilitation of channel banks in the lower catchment.

  10. Early anaerobic metabolisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian


    probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity......Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were...... of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent...

  11. Iron geochemistry and organic carbon preservation by iron (oxyhydr)oxides in surface sediments of the East China Sea and the south Yellow Sea (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Wei; Zhu, Mao-Xu; Yang, Gui-Peng; Li, Tie


    In marine sediments factors that influence iron (Fe) geochemistry and its interactions with other elements are diverse and remain poorly understood. Here we comparatively study Fe speciation and reactive Fe-bound organic carbon (Fe-OC) in surface sediments of the East China Sea (ECS) and the south Yellow Sea (SYS). The objectives are to better understand the potential impacts of geochemically distinct sediment sources and depositional/diagenetic settings on Fe geochemistry and OC preservation by Fe (hydr)oxides in sediments of the two extensive shelf seas around the world. Contents of carbonate- and acid-volatile-sulfide (AVS)-associated Fe(II) (FeAVS + carb) and magnetite (Femag) in the ECS sediments are about 5 and 9 times higher, respectively, than in the SYS. This could be ascribed to the ferruginous conditions of the ECS sediments that favor the formation/accumulation of Fecarb and Femag, a unique feature of marine unsteady depositional regimes. Much lower total Fe(II) contents in the SYS than in the ECS suggest that lower availability of highly reactive Fe (FeHR) and/or weak Fe reduction is a factor limiting Fe(II) formation and accumulation in the SYS sediments. The ratio of FeHR to total Fe is, on average, markedly higher (2.4 times) in the ECS sediments than in the SYS, which may be a combined result of several factors relevant to different sediment sources and depositional/diagenetic settings. In comparison with many other marine sediments, the percent fractions (fFe-OC) of Fe-OC to total organic carbon (TOC) in the ECS and the SYS are low, which can be ascribed to surface adsorption of OC rather than coprecipitation or organic complexation as the dominant binding mechanisms. Based on the fFe-OC in this study, total Fe-OC estimated for global continental shelves is equivalent to 38% of the atmospheric CO2 pool, which indicates the important role of sorptive stabilization of Fe-OC in continental shelf sediments for buffering CO2 release to the atmosphere

  12. Shelf-to-basin iron shuttling enhances vivianite formation in deep Baltic Sea sediments (United States)

    Reed, Daniel C.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Slomp, Caroline P.


    Coastal hypoxia is a growing and persistent problem largely attributable to enhanced terrestrial nutrient (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) loading. Recent studies suggest phosphorus removal through burial of iron (II) phosphates, putatively vivianite, plays an important role in nutrient cycling in the Baltic Sea - the world's largest anthropogenic dead zone - yet the dynamics of iron (II) phosphate formation are poorly constrained. To address this, a reactive-transport model was used to reconstruct the diagenetic and depositional history of sediments in the Fårö basin, a deep anoxic and sulphidic region of the Baltic Sea where iron (II) phosphates have been observed. Simulations demonstrate that transport of iron from shelf sediments to deep basins enhances vivianite formation while sulphide concentrations are low, but that pyrite forms preferentially over vivianite when sulphate reduction intensifies due to elevated organic loading. Episodic reoxygenation events, associated with major inflows of oxic waters, encourage the retention of iron oxyhydroxides and iron-bound phosphorus in sediments, increasing vivianite precipitation as a result. Results suggest that artificial reoxygenation of the Baltic Sea bottom waters could sequester up to 3% of the annual external phosphorus loads as iron (II) phosphates, but this is negligible when compared to potential internal phosphorus loads due to dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides when low oxygen conditions prevail. Thus, enhancing vivianite formation through artificial reoxygenation of deep waters is not a viable engineering solution to eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Finally, simulations suggest that regions with limited sulphate reduction and hypoxic intervals, such as eutrophic estuaries, could act as important phosphorus sinks by sequestering vivianite. This could potentially alleviate eutrophication in shelf and slope environments.

  13. New insights into the mineralogy of the Atlantis II Deep metalliferous sediments, Red Sea (United States)

    Laurila, Tea E.; Hannington, Mark D.; Leybourne, Matthew; Petersen, Sven; Devey, Colin W.; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter


    The Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea hosts the largest known hydrothermal ore deposit on the ocean floor and the only modern analog of brine pool-type metal deposition. The deposit consists mainly of chemical-clastic sediments with input from basin-scale hydrothermal and detrital sources. A characteristic feature is the millimeter-scale layering of the sediments, which bears a strong resemblance to banded iron formation (BIF). Quantitative assessment of the mineralogy based on relogging of archived cores, detailed petrography, and sequential leaching experiments shows that Fe-(oxy)hydroxides, hydrothermal carbonates, sulfides, and authigenic clays are the main "ore" minerals. Mn-oxides were mainly deposited when the brine pool was more oxidized than it is today, but detailed logging shows that Fe-deposition and Mn-deposition also alternated at the scale of individual laminae, reflecting short-term fluctuations in the Lower Brine. Previous studies underestimated the importance of nonsulfide metal-bearing components, which formed by metal adsorption onto poorly crystalline Si-Fe-OOH particles. During diagenesis, the crystallinity of all phases increased, and the fine layering of the sediment was enhanced. Within a few meters of burial (corresponding to a few thousand years of deposition), biogenic (Ca)-carbonate was dissolved, manganosiderite formed, and metals originally in poorly crystalline phases or in pore water were incorporated into diagenetic sulfides, clays, and Fe-oxides. Permeable layers with abundant radiolarian tests were the focus for late-stage hydrothermal alteration and replacement, including deposition of amorphous silica and enrichment in elements such as Ba and Au.

  14. Effect of salinity on metal mobility in Sečovlje salina sediment (northern Adriatic, Slovenia) (United States)

    Kovač, N.; Ramšak, T.; Glavaš, N.; Dolenec, M.; Rogan Šmuc, N.


    ) decreasing trend in mud was observed at that time. These data contribute to the knowledge of natural healing muds and that of diagenetic processes on metals in hypersaline sediments.

  15. Analysis of sup(210)Pb in sediment trap samples and sediments from the northern Arabian Sea: Evidence for boundary scavenging

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Borole, D.V.

    . The sup(210)Pb flux exhibited a strong seasonal pattern associated with variations in the sediment mass flux and organic carbon (C sub(org)) flux except during early southwest monsoon in the 3024 m trap. This could be due to enhanced scavenging of sup(210...

  16. From agricultural intensification to conservation: sediment transport in the Raccoon River, Iowa, 1916-2009. (United States)

    Jones, Christopher S; Schilling, Keith E


    Fluvial sediment is a ubiquitous pollutant that negatively affects surface water quality and municipal water supply treatment. As part of its routine water supply monitoring, the Des Moines Water Works (DMWW) has been measuring turbidity daily in the Raccoon River since 1916. For this study, we calibrated daily turbidity readings to modern total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations to develop an estimation of daily sediment concentrations in the river from 1916 to 2009. Our objectives were to evaluate long-term TSS patterns and trends, and relate these to changes in climate, land use, and agricultural practices that occurred during the 93-yr monitoring period. Results showed that while TSS concentrations and estimated sediment loads varied greatly from year to year, TSS concentrations were much greater in the early 20th century despite drier conditions and less discharge, and declined throughout the century. Against a backdrop of increasing discharge in the Raccoon River and widespread agricultural adaptations by farmers, sediment loads increased and peaked in the early 1970s, and then have slowly declined or remained steady throughout the 1980s to present. With annual sediment load concentrated during extreme events in the spring and early summer, continued sediment reductions in the Raccoon River watershed should be focused on conservation practices to reduce rainfall impacts and sediment mobilization. Overall, results from this study suggest that efforts to reduce sediment load from the watershed appear to be working. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Sediment management for reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.


    All natural lakes and reservoirs whether on rivers, tributaries or off channel storages are doomed to be sited up. Pakistan has two major reservoirs of Tarbela and Managla and shallow lake created by Chashma Barrage. Tarbela and Mangla Lakes are losing their capacities ever since first impounding, Tarbela since 1974 and Mangla since 1967. Tarbela Reservoir receives average annual flow of about 62 MAF and sediment deposits of 0.11 MAF whereas Mangla gets about 23 MAF of average annual flows and is losing its storage at the rate of average 34,000 MAF annually. The loss of storage is a great concern and studies for Tarbela were carried out by TAMS and Wallingford to sustain its capacity whereas no study has been done for Mangla as yet except as part of study for Raised Mangla, which is only desk work. Delta of Tarbala reservoir has advanced to about 6.59 miles (Pivot Point) from power intakes. In case of liquefaction of delta by tremor as low as 0.12g peak ground acceleration the power tunnels I, 2 and 3 will be blocked. Minimum Pool of reservoir is being raised so as to check the advance of delta. Mangla delta will follow the trend of Tarbela. Tarbela has vast amount of data as reservoir is surveyed every year, whereas Mangla Reservoir survey was done at five-year interval, which has now been proposed .to be reduced to three-year interval. In addition suspended sediment sampling of inflow streams is being done by Surface Water Hydrology Project of WAPDA as also some bed load sampling. The problem of Chasma Reservoir has also been highlighted, as it is being indiscriminately being filled up and drawdown several times a year without regard to its reaction to this treatment. The Sediment Management of these reservoirs is essential and the paper discusses pros and cons of various alternatives. (author)

  18. Sediment problems in urban areas (United States)

    Guy, Harold P.


    A recognition of and solution to sediment problems in urban areas is necessary if society is to have an acceptable living environment. Soil erosion and sediment deposition in urban areas are as much an environmental blight as badly paved and littered streets, dilapidated buildings, billboard clutter, inept land use, and air, water, and noise pollution. In addition, sediment has many direct and indirect effects on streams that may be either part of or very remote from the urban environment. Sediment, for example, is widely recognized as a pollutant of streams and other water bodies.

  19. Sediment Geo-Probe System (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides wideband in situ measurement capability of compressional wave speed and attenuation and their spatial variability in marine sediments.DESCRIPTION:...

  20. Glacimarine environments: processes and sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dowdeswell, J. A; Scourse, James D


    .... Sediments released from glaciers grounded in tidewater, floating ice shelves, ice tongues, icebergs and sea ice form complex sequences governed by glaciological, oceanographic, sedimentary and biogenic controls...

  1. 105-N Basin sediment removal subcontract acquisition strategy plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilsey, D.J.


    The 105-N Basin Sediment Removal Subcontract Acquisition Strategy Plan provides a detailed set of actions to specify and procure services and equipment for removal of approximately 400 ft 3 (wet) of radioactive sediment. The plan outlines a cost-effective approach to remove this sediment safely and within an aggressive schedule. This 105-N Basin Sediment Removal Strategy Plan includes the following key elements: a current vendor survey of capabilities and interest in this type of work, confirming that qualified, competitive sources are available, and in the time frame required; a systematic review of the various options for sediment disposal in enough detail to exhaustively uncover pros and cons of each approach; use of a workshop approach to assess different ways to accomplish the work and ensure the disposal options considered are cost and schedule effective; integration of the complicated sampling and characterization process, which is essential to successful execution of the procurement scheme; review of the various subcontracting options to maximize the use of existing technology, existing equipment, and specialized expertise; detailed early planning and strategizing for early identification of problems that can be solved early before they become restraints or potential added costs; tailored design schedule to cover three alternate approaches so that sample characterization will not delay engineering preparation for disposal; support required from various organizations onsite as well as subcontractors, well in advance of the need for that support, improving availability of the proper personnel to support schedule and cost objectives; and provides the possible opportunity to process the sediment in the valve pit and pump pit through this same subcontractor's process

  2. Sediment Trapping in Estuaries (United States)

    Burchard, Hans; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Ralston, David K.


    Estuarine turbidity maxima (ETMs) are generated by a large suite of hydrodynamic and sediment dynamic processes, leading to longitudinal convergence of cross-sectionally integrated and tidally averaged transport of cohesive and noncohesive suspended particulate matter (SPM). The relative importance of these processes for SPM trapping varies substantially among estuaries depending on topography, fluvial and tidal forcing, and SPM composition. The high-frequency dynamics of ETMs are constrained by interactions with the low-frequency dynamics of the bottom pool of easily erodible sediments. Here, we use a transport decomposition to present processes that lead to convergent SPM transport, and review trapping mechanisms that lead to ETMs at the landward limit of the salt intrusion, in the freshwater zone, at topographic transitions, and by lateral processes within the cross section. We use model simulations of example estuaries to demonstrate the complex concurrence of ETM formation mechanisms. We also discuss how changes in SPM trapping mechanisms, often caused by direct human interference, can lead to the generation of hyperturbid estuaries.

  3. Sediment Buffering and Transport in the Holocene Indus River System (United States)

    Clift, P. D.; Giosan, L.; Henstock, T.; Tabrez, A. R.; Vanlaningham, S.; Alizai, A. H.; Limmer, D. R.; Danish, M.


    Submarine fans are the largest sediment bodies on Earth and potentially hold records of erosion that could be used to assess the response of continents to changing climate in terms of both physical erosion and chemical weathering. However, buffering between the mountain sources and the abyssal plain may make detailed correlation of climate and erosion records difficult. We investigated the nature of sediment transport in the Indus drainage in SW Asia. Through trenching in the flood plain, drilling in the delta and new seismic and coring data from the shelf and canyon we can now constrain sediment transport from source to sink since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The Indus was affected by intensification of the summer monsoon during the Early Holocene and subsequent weakening since ca. 8 ka. Sediment delivery to the delta was very rapid at 12-8 ka, but slowed along with the weakening monsoon. At the LGM erosion in the Karakoram dominated the supply of sandy material, while the proportion of Lesser Himalayan flux increased with strengthening summer rainfall after 12 ka. Total load also increased at that time. Since 5 ka incision of rivers into the upper parts of the flood plain has reworked Lower Holocene sediments, although the total flux slowed. Coring in the Indus canyon shows that sediment has not reached the lower canyon since ca. 7 ka, but that sedimentation has recently been very rapid in the head of the canyon. We conclude that variations in sealevel and terrestrial climate have introduced a lag of at least 7 k.y. into the deep sea fan record and that monsoon strength is a primary control on whether sediment is stored or released in the flood plain.

  4. Final Report, University of California Merced: Uranium and strontium fate in waste-weathered sediments: Scaling of molecular processes to predict reactive transport (DE-SC0007095)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Day, Peggy Anne [University of California Merced; Chorover, Jon [University of Arizona; Steefel, Carl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mueller, Karl [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Objectives of the Project: 1. Determine the process coupling that occurs between mineral transformation and contaminant (U and Sr) speciation in acid-uranium waste weathered Hanford sediments. 2. Establish linkages between molecular-scale contaminant speciation and meso-scale contaminant lability, release and reactive transport. 3. Make conjunctive use of molecular- to bench-scale data to constrain the development of a mechanistic, reactive transport model that includes coupling of contaminant sorption-desorption and mineral transformation reactions. Hypotheses Tested: Uranium and strontium speciation in legacy sediments from the U-8 and U-12 Crib sites can be reproduced in bench-scale weathering experiments conducted on unimpacted Hanford sediments from the same formations; Reactive transport modeling of future uranium and strontium releases from the vadose zone of acid-waste weathered sediments can be effectively constrained by combining molecular-scale information on contaminant bonding environment with grain-scale information on contaminant phase partitioning, and meso-scale kinetic data on contaminant release from the waste-weathered porous media; Although field contamination and laboratory experiments differ in their diagenetic time scales (decades for field vs. months to years for lab), sediment dissolution, neophase nucleation, and crystal growth reactions that occur during the initial disequilibrium induced by waste-sediment interaction leave a strong imprint that persists over subsequent longer-term equilibration time scales and, therefore, give rise to long-term memory effects. Enabling Capabilities Developed: Our team developed an iterative measure-model approach that is broadly applicable to elucidate the mechanistic underpinnings of reactive contaminant transport in geomedia subject to active weathering.

  5. Luminescence dating of Netherland's sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, J.; Davids, F.; Dijkmans, J.W.A.


    Over the last decades luminescence dating techniques have been developed that allow earth scientists to determine the time of deposition of sediments. In this contribution we revity: 1) the development of the methodology, 2) tests of the reliability of luminescence dating on Netherlands' sediments;

  6. Reservoir sedimentation; a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.


    A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on

  7. Intensive landfarming of contaminated sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieggers, H.J.J.; Bezemer, H.W.


    The biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and mineral oil was investigated in heavily and normally polluted sediments. The aims of the research were: to improve the knowledge of dewatering and ripening of sediments in an open land-farm, to quantify the biodegradation in two


    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...


    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  10. Sediment-accumulatie in transportleidingen af waterproductiebedrijven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beverloo, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Zwaga, A.


    In drinkwatertransportleidingen hoopt zich sediment op, ondanks het feit dat de maximale stroomsnelheid hoger is dan de snelheid die voor distributieleidingen zelfreinigend is. Opwervelend sediment zorgt voor klachten over de kwaliteit van het drinkwater. Het sediment accumuleert vooral dicht bij

  11. Background radioactivity in sediments near Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLin, Stephen G.


    remained relatively constant since the early 1980s. These results suggest that clay contents in terrestrial sediments are often more important at concentrating background radionuclides than many other environmental factors, including geology, climate and vegetation. Hence, reservoirs and floodplains represent ideal radionuclide sampling locations because fine-grained materials are more easily trapped here. Ultimately, most of these differences still reflect spatial and temporal variability originating from global atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and disintegration of nuclear-powered satellites upon atmospheric reentry

  12. Distinguishing Terrestrial Organic Carbon in Marginal Sediments of East China Sea and Northern South China Sea (United States)

    Kandasamy, Selvaraj; Lin, Baozhi; Wang, Huawei; Liu, Qianqian; Liu, Zhifei; Lou, Jiann-Yuh; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Mayer, Lawrence M.


    Knowledge about the sources, transport pathways and behavior of terrestrial organic carbon in continental margins adjoining to large rivers has improved in recent decades, but uncertainties and complications still exist with human-influenced coastal regions in densely populated wet tropics and subtropics. In these regions, the monsoon and other episodic weather events exert strong climatic control on mineral and particulate organic matter delivery to the marginal seas. Here we investigate elemental (TOC, TN and bromine-Br) and stable carbon isotopic (δ13C) compositions of organic matter (OM) in surface sediments and short cores collected from active (SW Taiwan) and passive margin (East China Sea) settings to understand the sources of OM that buried in these settings. We used sedimentary bromine to total organic carbon (Br/TOC) ratios to apportion terrigenous from marine organic matter, and find that Br/TOC may serve as an additional, reliable proxy for sedimentary provenance in both settings. Variations in Br/TOC are consistent with other provenance indicators in responding to short-lived terrigenous inputs. Because diagenetic alteration of Br is insignificant on shorter time scales, applying Br/TOC ratios as a proxy to identify organic matter source along with carbon isotope mixing models may provide additional constraints on the quantity and transformation of terrigenous organics in continental margins. We apply this combination of approaches to land-derived organic matter in different depositional environments of East Asian marginal seas.

  13. Targeting sediment management strategies using sediment quantification and fingerprinting methods (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie; Rowan, John; Fenton, Owen; Jordan, Phil; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.


    Cost-effective sediment management is required to reduce excessive delivery of fine sediment due to intensive land uses such as agriculture, resulting in the degradation of aquatic ecosystems. Prioritising measures to mitigate dominant sediment sources is, however, challenging, as sediment loss risk is spatially and temporally variable between and within catchments. Fluctuations in sediment supply from potential sources result from variations in land uses resulting in increased erodibility where ground cover is low (e.g., cultivated, poached and compacted soils), and physical catchment characteristics controlling hydrological connectivity and transport pathways (surface and/or sub-surface). Sediment fingerprinting is an evidence-based management tool to identify sources of in-stream sediments at the catchment scale. Potential sediment sources are related to a river sediment sample, comprising a mixture of source sediments, using natural physico-chemical characteristics (or 'tracers'), and contributions are statistically un-mixed. Suspended sediment data were collected over two years at the outlet of three intensive agricultural catchments (approximately 10 km2) in Ireland. Dominant catchment characteristics were grassland on poorly-drained soils, arable on well-drained soils and arable on moderately-drained soils. High-resolution (10-min) calibrated turbidity-based suspended sediment and discharge data were combined to quantify yield. In-stream sediment samples (for fingerprinting analysis) were collected at six to twelve week intervals, using time-integrated sediment samplers. Potential sources, including stream channel banks, ditches, arable and grassland field topsoils, damaged road verges and tracks were sampled, oven-dried (account for particle size and organic matter selectivity processes. Contributions from potential sources type groups (channel - ditches and stream banks, roads - road verges and tracks, fields - grassland and arable topsoils) were

  14. Dating of sediments and determination of sedimentation rate. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illus, E [ed.


    The Second NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research)/EKO-1 Seminar was held at the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) on April 2-3, 1997. The work of the NKS is based on 4-year programmes; the current programme having been planned for the years 1994-1997. The programme comprises 3 major fields, one of them being environmental effects (EKO). Under this umbrella there are 4 main projects. The EKO-1 project deals with marine radioecology, in particular bottom sediments and sediment processes. The programme of the second seminar consisted of 8 invited lecturers and 6 other scientific presentations. Dating of sediments and determination of sedimentation rate are important in all types of sedimentological study and model calculations of fluxes of substances in the aquatic environment. In many cases these tasks have been closely related to radioecological studies undertaken in marine and fresh water environments, because they are often based on measured depth profiles of certain natural or artificial radionuclides present in the sediments. During recent decades Pb-210 has proved to be very useful in dating of sediments, but some other radionuclides have also been successfully used, e.g. Pu-239,240, Am-241 and Cs-137. The difficulties existing and problems involved in dating of sediments, as well as solutions for resolving these problems are discussed in the presentations

  15. Dating of sediments and determination of sedimentation rate. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illus, E.


    The Second NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research)/EKO-1 Seminar was held at the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) on April 2-3, 1997. The work of the NKS is based on 4-year programmes; the current programme having been planned for the years 1994-1997. The programme comprises 3 major fields, one of them being environmental effects (EKO). Under this umbrella there are 4 main projects. The EKO-1 project deals with marine radioecology, in particular bottom sediments and sediment processes. The programme of the second seminar consisted of 8 invited lecturers and 6 other scientific presentations. Dating of sediments and determination of sedimentation rate are important in all types of sedimentological study and model calculations of fluxes of substances in the aquatic environment. In many cases these tasks have been closely related to radioecological studies undertaken in marine and fresh water environments, because they are often based on measured depth profiles of certain natural or artificial radionuclides present in the sediments. During recent decades Pb-210 has proved to be very useful in dating of sediments, but some other radionuclides have also been successfully used, e.g. Pu-239,240, Am-241 and Cs-137. The difficulties existing and problems involved in dating of sediments, as well as solutions for resolving these problems are discussed in the presentations

  16. Sediment Evaluation Framework for the Pacific Northwest (United States)

    The Sediment Evaluation Framework provides a regional framework for assessment, characterization and management of sediments in the Pacific Northwest to determine suitability for unconfined in-water disposal.

  17. Mercury profiles in sediment from the marginal high of Arabian Sea: An indicator of increasing anthropogenic Hg input

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Vudamala, K.; Chennuri, K.; Armoury, K.; Linsy, P.; Ramteke, D.; Sebastian, T.; Jayachandran, S.; Naik, C.; Naik, R.; Nath, B.N.

    provided the sediments remain undisturbed by either natural or anthropogenic forces (Engstrom et al. 2007). However, it has also been suggested that early diagenesis in sediment column may increase mobility of Hg and can alter concentration profile of Hg... the mobility of Hg in sediment (Dehairq 1989; Gagnon and Mucci 1997; van der Zee and van Raaphorst 2004; Konovalov et al. 2007). Oxidation of sedimentary organic matter also appears to release significant amounts of mercury (associated with organic phase...

  18. Estimating sediment discharge: Appendix D (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Simões, Francisco J. M.


    Sediment-discharge measurements usually are available on a discrete or periodic basis. However, estimates of sediment transport often are needed for unmeasured periods, such as when daily or annual sediment-discharge values are sought, or when estimates of transport rates for unmeasured or hypothetical flows are required. Selected methods for estimating suspended-sediment, bed-load, bed- material-load, and total-load discharges have been presented in some detail elsewhere in this volume. The purposes of this contribution are to present some limitations and potential pitfalls associated with obtaining and using the requisite data and equations to estimate sediment discharges and to provide guidance for selecting appropriate estimating equations. Records of sediment discharge are derived from data collected with sufficient frequency to obtain reliable estimates for the computational interval and period. Most sediment- discharge records are computed at daily or annual intervals based on periodically collected data, although some partial records represent discrete or seasonal intervals such as those for flood periods. The method used to calculate sediment- discharge records is dependent on the types and frequency of available data. Records for suspended-sediment discharge computed by methods described by Porterfield (1972) are most prevalent, in part because measurement protocols and computational techniques are well established and because suspended sediment composes the bulk of sediment dis- charges for many rivers. Discharge records for bed load, total load, or in some cases bed-material load plus wash load are less common. Reliable estimation of sediment discharges presupposes that the data on which the estimates are based are comparable and reliable. Unfortunately, data describing a selected characteristic of sediment were not necessarily derived—collected, processed, analyzed, or interpreted—in a consistent manner. For example, bed-load data collected with

  19. Sedimentation rate in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Mattila, J.; Klemola, S.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Niemisto, L.


    Varying redox conditions may affect the occurrence and concentrations of certain radionuclides in the surface layers of sediments and in near-bottom waters by causing remobilization of radionuclides from surface sediments to the overlying water and their settling back into the sediment. In recent decades about 70.000 km 2 of the sea bottom in the deepest part of the Baltic Sea (about 19% of its total area) have withstood almost continuous anoxic conditions; thus, it is important to know to what extent depletion of oxygen can affect the behaviour of these radionuclides in near-bottom waters. The aim of the project was to resolve the above question in a coastal basin periodically undergoing anoxic conditions. Radioecological processes in sediments and in near-bottom water under varying redoxconditions were studied in the deep area of the Haestholmsfjaerden Bay in Loviisa (eastern Gulf of Finland) in 1995-1996. The Haestholmsfjaerden Bay is a semienclosed basin between the mainland and the archipelago and is connected with the open Gulf of Finland only through narrow, shallow sounds: In 1995, total depletion of oxygen occurred in the hypolimnion of Haestholmsfjaerden Bay during 2 periods in late summer and autumn. In 1996, oxygen conditions were the worst ever observed in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep. During early autumn anoxic conditions prevailed for more than 1 month in the near-bottom water. The highest total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations in the near-bottom water during these periods were 20- and 4- fold compared with the corresponding values in surface water. According to the results obtained in this project, remobilization of 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu from sediments to near-bottom water is negligible or non-existent in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep. If it does occur, however, it may be so slight that it is not possible to observe with the methods used in this study. Although the anoxic periods are quite short in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep, they are of

  20. Wood and Sediment Dynamics in River Corridors (United States)

    Wohl, E.; Scott, D.


    Large wood along rivers influences entrainment, transport, and storage of mineral sediment and particulate organic matter. We review how wood alters sediment dynamics and explore patterns among volumes of instream wood, sediment storage, and residual pools for dispersed pieces of wood, logjams, and beaver dams. We hypothesized that: volume of sediment per unit area of channel stored in association with wood is inversely proportional to drainage area; the form of sediment storage changes downstream; sediment storage correlates most strongly with wood load; and volume of sediment stored behind beaver dams correlates with pond area. Lack of data from larger drainage areas limits tests of these hypotheses, but analyses suggest a negative correlation between sediment volume and drainage area and a positive correlation between wood and sediment volume. The form of sediment storage in relation to wood changes downstream, with wedges of sediment upstream from jammed steps most prevalent in small, steep channels and more dispersed sediment storage in lower gradient channels. Use of a published relation between sediment volume, channel width, and gradient predicted about half of the variation in sediment stored upstream from jammed steps. Sediment volume correlates well with beaver pond area. Historically more abundant instream wood and beaver populations likely equated to greater sediment storage within river corridors. This review of the existing literature on wood and sediment dynamics highlights the lack of studies on larger rivers.

  1. Fluvial sediment transport: Analytical techniques for measuring sediment load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Sediment transport data are often used for the evaluation of land surface erosion, reservoir sedimentation, ecological habitat quality and coastal sediment budgets. Sediment transport by rivers is usually considered to occur in two major ways: (1) in the flow as a suspended load and (2) along the bed as a bed load. This publication provides guidance on selected techniques for the measurement of particles moving in both modes in the fluvial environment. The relative importance of the transport mode is variable and depends on the hydraulic and sedimentary conditions. The potential user is directed in the selection of an appropriate technique through the presentation of operating principles, application guidelines and estimated costs. Techniques which require laboratory analysis are grab sample, pump sample, depth sample, point integrated and radioactive tracers. Techniques which will continuously record data are optical backscattering, nuclear transmission, single frequency acoustic and laser diffraction

  2. Organic geochemistry and pore water chemistry of sediments from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Simoneit, B.R.T.; MacKenzie, F.T.; Neumann, A.C.; Thorstenson, D.C.; Gerchakov, S.M.


    Mangrove Lake, Bermuda, is a small coastal, brackish-water lake that has accumulated 14 m of banded, gelatinous, sapropelic sediments in less than 104 yr. Stratigraphic evidence indicates that Mangrove Lake's sedimentary environment has undergone three major depositional changes (peat, freshwater gel, brackish-water gel) as a result of sea level changes. The deposits were examined geochemically in an effort to delineate sedimentological and diagenetic changes. Gas and pore water studies include measurements of sulfides, ammonia, methane, nitrogen gas, calcium, magnesium, chloride, alkalinity, and pH. Results indicate that sulfate reduction is complete, and some evidence is presented for bacterial denitrification and metal sulfide precipitation. The organic-rich sapropel is predominantly algal in origin, composed mostly of carbohydrates and insoluble macromolecular organic matter called humin with minor amounts of proteins, lipids, and humic acids. Carbohydrates and proteins undergo hydrolysis with depth in the marine sapropel but tend to be preserved in the freshwater sapropel. The humin, which has a predominantly aliphatic structure, increases linearly with depth and composes the greatest fraction of the organic matter. Humic acids are minor components and are more like polysaccharides than typical marine humic acids. Fatty acid distributions reveal that the lipids are of an algal and/or terrestrial plant source. Normal alkanes with a total concentration of 75 ppm exhibit two distribution maxima. One is centered about n-C22 with no odd/even predominance, suggestive of a degraded algal source. The other is centered at n-C31 with a distinct odd/even predominance indicative of a vascular plant origin. Stratigraphic changes in the sediment correlate to observed changes in the gas and pore water chemistry and the organic geochemistry. ?? 1982.

  3. Coastal sediment dynamics in Spitsbergen (United States)

    Deloffre, J.; Lafite, R.; Baltzer, A.; Marlin, C.; Delangle, E.; Dethleff, D.; Petit, F.


    In arctic knowledge on coastal sediment dynamics and sedimentary processes is limited. The studied area is located in the microtidal Kongsfjorden glacial fjord on the North-western coast of Spitsbergen in the Artic Ocean (79°N). In this area sediment contributions to the coastal zone is provided by small temporary rivers that flows into the fjord. The objectives of this study are to (i) assess the origin and fate of fine-grained particles (sea ice cover on sediment dynamics. The sampling strategy is based on characterization of sediment and SPM (grain-size, X-rays diffraction, SEM images, carbonates and organic matter contents) from the glacier to the coastal zone completed by a bottom-sediment map on the nearshore using side-scan sonar validated with Ekman binge sampling. River inputs (i.e. river plumes) to the coastal zone were punctually followed using CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth and turbidity) profiles. OBS (water level, temperature and turbidity) operating at high-frequency and during at least 1 years (including under sea ice cover) was settled at the mouth of rivers at 10m depth. In the coastal zone the fine-grained sediment deposit is limited to mud patches located at river mouths that originate the piedmont glacier. However a significant amount of sediment originates the coastal glacier located in the eastern part of the fjord via two processes: direct transfer and ice-drop. Results from turbidity measurements show that the sediment dynamics is controlled by river inputs in particular during melting period. During winter sediment resuspension can occurs directly linked to significant wind-events. When the sea ice cover is present (January to April) no sediment dynamics is observed. Sediment processes in the coastal zone of arctic fjords is significant however only a small amount of SPM that originates the river plume settles in the coastal zone; only the coarser material settles at the mouth of the river while the finer one is deposited further

  4. Sediment transport under breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Mayer, Stefan


    The sediment transport in the surf zone is modelled by combining a Navier-Stokes solver, a free surface model, a turbulence model, and a sediment transport model. The flow solver is based on the finite volume technique for non-orthogonal grids. The model is capable of simulating the turbulence...... generated at the surface where the wave breaks as well as the turbulence generated near the bed due to the wave-motion and the undertow. In general, the levels of turbulent kinetic energy are found to be higher than experiments show. This results in an over prediction of the sediment transport. Nevertheless...

  5. Suspended sediment concentration–discharge relationships in the (sub- humid Ethiopian highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Guzman


    Full Text Available Loss of top soil and subsequent filling up of reservoirs in much of the lands with variable relief in developing countries degrades environmental resources necessary for subsistence. In the Ethiopia highlands, sediment mobilization from rain-fed agricultural fields is one of the leading factors causing land degradation. Sediment rating curves, produced from long-term sediment concentration and discharge data, attempt to predict suspended sediment concentration variations, which exhibit a distinct shift with the progression of the rainy season. In this paper, we calculate sediment rating curves and examine this shift in concentration for three watersheds in which rain-fed agriculture is practiced to differing extents. High sediment concentrations with low flows are found at the beginning of the rainy season of the semi-monsoonal climate, while high flows and low sediment concentrations occur at the end of the rainy season. Results show that a reasonably unique set of rating curves were obtained by separating biweekly data into early, mid, and late rainfall periods and by making adjustments for the ratio of plowed cropland. The shift from high to low concentrations suggests that diminishing sediment supply and dilution from greater base flow during the end of the rainfall period play important roles in characterizing changing sediment concentrations during the rainy season.

  6. Seasonal sediment dynamics shape temperate bedrock reef communities (United States)

    Figurski, Jared D.; Freiwald, Jan; Lonhart, Steve I.; Storlazzi, Curt


    Mobilized seafloor sediment can impact benthic reef communities through burial, scour, and turbidity. These processes are ubiquitous in coastal oceans and, through their influence on the survival, fitness, and interactions of species, can alter the structure and function of benthic communities. In northern Monterey Bay, California, USA, as much as 30% of the seafloor is buried or exposed seasonally, making this an ideal location to test how subtidal temperate rocky reef communities vary in the presence and absence of chronic sediment-based disturbances. Designated dynamic plots were naturally inundated by sediment in summer (50 to 100% cover) and swept clean in winter, whereas designated stable plots remained free of sediment during our study. Multivariate analyses indicated significant differences in the structure of sessile and mobile communities between dynamic and stable reef habitats. For sessile species, community structure in disturbed plots was less variable in space and time than in stable plots due to the maintenance of an early successional state. In contrast, community structure of mobile species varied more in disturbed plots than in stable plots, reflecting how mobile species distribute in response to sediment dynamics. Some species were found only in these disturbed areas, suggesting that the spatial mosaic of disturbance could increase regional diversity. We discuss how the relative ability of species to tolerate disturbance at different life history stages and their ability to colonize habitat translate into community-level differences among habitats, and how this response varies between mobile and sessile communities.

  7. Sedimentary record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a sediment core from a maar lake, Northeast China: evidence in historical atmospheric deposition. (United States)

    Guan, Yu-Feng; Sun, Jian-Lin; Ni, Hong-Gang; Guo, Jian-Yang


    A maar lake is an excellent ecosystem to study the atmospheric deposition of pollutants, as its contaminants are primarily by atmospheric deposition. In this study, a sediment core from Sihailongwan Maar Lake, Northeast China, was collected and the historical atmospherically deposited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed. The concentrations of TPAHs (the sum of the US EPA proposed 16 priority PAHs, excluding naphthalene and pyrene) ranged from 473.9 to 2289 ng g(-1) with a slow increasing stage in the deeper sediments and a sharp increasing stage in the upper sediments. The input rate of TPAHs, especially that of PAH(9) (the sum of fluoranthene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, dibenzo(ah)anthrathene, and benzo(ghi)perylene), correlated well to the Chinese historical socioeconomic data. This indicates that sediment PAHs were mainly derived from human activities and PAH(9) can be regarded as a better indicator of the local socioeconomic development. Source identification suggested that PAHs were originated primarily from mixed sources (e.g., coal and biomass burning and petroleum combustion), except for perylene which was mostly of diagenetic origin. In addition, the down-core PAHs profile clearly illustrated that PAHs sources in Northeast China experienced a transformation from low- and moderate temperature to high-temperature combustion processes, especially after the late 1980s. Additionally, an ecological risk assessment using two redefined biological thresholds (TEQ(ERL) and TEQ(ERM)) indicated that most of the PAHs measured in the present sediment core would not cause an immediate toxic effect; only FLU and PHEN are a potential source of concern for biological impairment.

  8. Geomorphology-based interpretation of sedimentation rates from radiodating, lower Passaic River, New Jersey, USA. (United States)

    Erickson, Michael J; Barnes, Charles R; Henderson, Matthew R; Romagnoli, Robert; Firstenberg, Clifford E


    Analysis of site geomorphology and sedimentation rates as an indicator of long-term bed stability is central to the evaluation of remedial alternatives for depositional aquatic environments. In conjunction with various investigations of contaminant distribution, sediment dynamics, and bed stability in the Passaic River Estuary, 121 sediment cores were collected in the early 1990s from the lower 9.7 km of the Passaic River and analyzed for lead-210 (210Pb), cesium-137 (137Cs), and other analytes. This paper opportunistically uses the extensive radiochemical dataset to examine the spatial patterns of long-term sedimentation rates in, and associated geomorphic aspects of, this area of the river. For the purposes of computing sedimentation rates, the utility of the 210Pb and 137Cs depositional profiles was assessed to inform appropriate interpretation. Sedimentation rates were computed for 90 datable cores by 3 different methods, depending on profile utility. A sedimentation rate of 0 was assigned to 17 additional cores that were not datable and for which evidence of no deposition exists. Sedimentation patterns were assessed by grouping results within similar geomorphic areas, delineated through inspection of bathymetric data. On the basis of channel morphology, results reflect expected patterns, with the highest sedimentation rates observed along point bars and channel margins. The lowest rates of sedimentation (and the largest percentage of undatable cores) were observed in the areas along the outer banks of channel bends. Increasing sedimentation rates from upstream to downstream were noted. Average and median sedimentation rates were estimated to be 3.8 and 3.7 cm/y, respectively, reflecting the highly depositional nature of the Passaic River estuary. This finding is consistent with published descriptions of long-term geomorphology for Atlantic Coastal Plain estuaries.

  9. Investigation of Sediment Pathways and Concealed Sedimentological Features in Hidden River Cave, Kentucky (United States)

    Feist, S.; Maclachlan, J. C.; Reinhardt, E. G.; McNeill-Jewer, C.; Eyles, C.


    Hidden River Cave is part of a cave system hydrogeologically related to Mammoth Cave in Kentucky and is a multi-level active cave system with 25km of mapped passages. Upper levels experience flow during flood events and lower levels have continuously flowing water. Improper industrial and domestic waste disposal and poor understanding of local hydrogeology lead to contamination of Hidden River Cave in the early 1940s. Previously used for hydroelectric power generation and as a source of potable water the cave was closed to the public for almost 50 years. A new sewage treatment plant and remediation efforts since 1989 have improved the cave system's health. This project focuses on sedimentological studies in the Hidden River Cave system. Water and sediment transport in the cave are being investigated using sediment cores, surface sediment samples and water level data. An Itrax core scanner is used to analyze sediment cores for elemental concentrations, magnetic susceptibility, radiography, and high resolution photography. Horizons of metal concentrations in the core allow correlation of sedimentation events in the cave system. Thecamoebian (testate amoebae) microfossils identified in surface samples allow for further constraint of sediment sources, sedimentation rates, and paleoclimatic analysis. Dive recorders monitor water levels, providing data to further understand the movement of sediment through the cave system. A general time constraint on the sediment's age is based on the presence of microplastic in the surface samples and sediment cores, and data from radiocarbon and lead-210 dating. The integration of various sedimentological data allows for better understanding of sedimentation processes and their record of paleoenvironmental change in the cave system. Sediment studies and methodologies from this project can be applied to other karst systems, and have important applications for communities living on karst landscapes and their water management policies.

  10. Palynological zonation of oligocene to early miocene sediments of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    573) which represents the base of P620 zone and top of P580 zone were undefined. P560 Zone was defined by the appearance of quantitative base Peregrinipollis nigericus at 7620ft and increase Retibrevitricolporites obodoensis at 11580ft.

  11. Fluctuations and Instability in Sedimentation

    KAUST Repository

    Guazzelli, É lisabeth; Hinch, John


    This review concentrates on the fluctuations of the velocities of sedimenting spheres, and on the structural instability of a suspension of settling fibers. For many years, theoretical estimates and numerical simulations predicted the fluctuations

  12. Paleosecular variations from lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, S.P.; Banerjee, S.K.


    Data are presented on the secular variations of the magnetization of wet and dry lake sediments for 17 North American locations. The usefullness of this data in terms of the geomagnetic field is discussed

  13. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus


    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable...... bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures...... marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary...

  14. Glacimarine environments: processes and sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dowdeswell, J. A; Scourse, James D


    This volume examines the processes responsible for sedimentation in modern glaciomarine environments, and how such modern studies can be used as analogues in the interpretation of ancient glaciomarine sequences...

  15. Mathematical theory of sedimentation analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Hiroshi; Van Rysselberghe, P


    Mathematical Theory of Sedimentation Analysis presents the flow equations for the ultracentrifuge. This book is organized into two parts encompassing six chapters that evaluate the systems of reacting components, the differential equations for the ultracentrifuge, and the case of negligible diffusion. The first chapters consider the Archibald method for molecular weight determination; pressure-dependent sedimentation; expressions for the refractive index and its gradient; relation between refractive index and concentration; and the analysis of Gaussian distribution. Other chapters deal with th

  16. Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments


    Pocevičius, Matas


    Matas Pocevičius, Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments, bachelor thesis, Vilnius University, Faculty of Physics, Department of General Physics and Spectroscopy, physics, Vilnius, 45 p., 2016. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of radiocarbon dating application for Tapeliai lake bottom sediments. The literature review discusses topics related to accelerator mass spectrometry, principles of radiocarbon formation, importance of nuclear fallout for 14C, possible applications of ...

  17. Experimental Study on the Curing Effect of Dredged Sediments with Three Types of Curing Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lei-Ming


    Full Text Available Sediment solidification technology is widely used to dispose dredged sediment, three types of curing agents were used in this study to solidified the dredged sediment from shallows in Nantong with three types of curing agents: JY, ZL and FJ. The results showed that the optimal additive amounts of these three curing agents were 140g JY, 16g ZL, 2.0g FJ per 1000g of the dredged sediment respectively, their 28d USC were up to 2.48 MPa, 2.96 MPa and 3.00 MPa. JY has obvious early strength effect, which of FJ is not that obvious, but the later-stage strength of sediment solidified by FJ are relatively higher.

  18. Butyltin compounds in a sediment core from the old Tilbury basin, London,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrimshaw, M.D.; Wahlen, R.; Catterick, T.; Lester, J.N.


    Sections from a sediment core taken from the River Thames were analysed for butyltin species using gas chromatography with species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Results demonstrated that in most samples tributyltin concentrations of 20-60 ng/g accounted for <10% of the total butyltin species present, which is in agreement with data from other sediment samples which were historically contaminated with tributyltin. Vertical distribution of the organotin residues with depth throughout the core, with data on organochlorine compounds and heavy metals allowed for the construction of a consistent hypothesis on historical deposition of contaminated sediments. From this it was possible to infer that the concentrations of tributyltin in sediments deposited during the early 1960s were in the order of 400-600 μg/g by using degradation rate constants derived by other workers. Such values fall well within the range quoted for harbour sediments in the literature

  19. Butyltin compounds in a sediment core from the old Tilbury basin, London,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrimshaw, M.D. [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Wahlen, R. [LGC Ltd., Queens Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LY (United Kingdom); Catterick, T. [LGC Ltd., Queens Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LY (United Kingdom); Lester, J.N. [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:


    Sections from a sediment core taken from the River Thames were analysed for butyltin species using gas chromatography with species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Results demonstrated that in most samples tributyltin concentrations of 20-60 ng/g accounted for <10% of the total butyltin species present, which is in agreement with data from other sediment samples which were historically contaminated with tributyltin. Vertical distribution of the organotin residues with depth throughout the core, with data on organochlorine compounds and heavy metals allowed for the construction of a consistent hypothesis on historical deposition of contaminated sediments. From this it was possible to infer that the concentrations of tributyltin in sediments deposited during the early 1960s were in the order of 400-600 {mu}g/g by using degradation rate constants derived by other workers. Such values fall well within the range quoted for harbour sediments in the literature.

  20. Influence of geologic structure on alluvial sedimentation in northwestern Yucca Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagoner, J.L.


    Using downhole photography, alluvial sediments are described in 5 emplacement holes in northwestern Yucca Flat. The holes are located on or near the Grouse Canyon fan. The 3 most proximally located holes contain the coarsest sediments and display a general decrease in grain size in the downfan direction. The 2 most distally located holes contain fine-grained distal facies sediment in the upper parts of the holes and coarse-grained proximal facies gravels lower in the holes. The proximal gravels in the lower half of the sections were derived from the gravity high, a north-south-trending horst which was exposed early during the history of Yucca Flat basin. Alluvial sedimentation eventually exceeded uplift of the horst, which was buried by distal facies sediments, derived from the western basin margin

  1. Geochemistry of trace metals in shelf sediments affected by seasonal and permanent low oxygen conditions off central Chile, SE Pacific (˜36°S) (United States)

    Muñoz, Praxedes; Dezileau, Laurent; Cardenas, Lissette; Sellanes, Javier; Lange, Carina B.; Inostroza, Jorge; Muratli, Jesse; Salamanca, Marco A.


    Trace metals (Cd, U, Co, Ni, Cu, Ba, Fe, Mn), total organic carbon (TOC) and C and N stable isotope signatures (δ 13C and δ 15N) were determined in short sediments cores from the inner and outer shelf off Concepción, Chile (˜36°S). The objectives were to establish the effect of environmental conditions on trace metal distributions at two shelf sites, one affected by seasonal oxygenation and the other by permanent low oxygen conditions due to the presence of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). We evaluate trace metals as proxies of past changes in primary productivity and the bottom water oxygen regime. Concentrations of pore water sulfides and NH4+ were also measured as indicators of the main diagenetic pathways at each site. Our results for the inner shelf (seasonal suboxia) suggest that the oxidative state of the sediments responds to seasonal pulses of organic matter and that seasonal oxygenation develops during high and low primary productivity in the water column. Here, positive fluxes (to the water column) estimated from pore water concentrations of several elements were observed (Ba, Co, Ni, Fe and Mn). The less reduced environment at this site produces authigenic enrichment of Cu associated with the formation of oxides in the oxic surface sediment layer, and the reduction of U within deeper sediment sections occur consistently with negative estimated pore water fluxes. In the outer shelf sediments (permanent suboxia, OMZ site), negative fluxes (to the sediment) were estimated for all elements, but these sediments showed authigenic enrichments only for Cd, Cu and U. The short oxygenation period during the winter season did not affect the accumulation of these metals on the shelf. The distribution of Cu, Cd and U have been preserved within the sediments and the authigenic accumulation rates estimated showed a decrease from the deep sections of the core to the surface sediments. This could be explained by a gradual decrease in the strength of the OMZ in the

  2. Sediment dynamics in Alpine basins (United States)

    Habersack, Helmut; Liébault, Fred; Comiti, Francesco


    In rivers and streams and of the European Alps, sediment transport processes are of great relevance due to their ecological (e.g. aquatic habitats), energy (e.g. reservoir sedimentation) and risk-related (floods and debris flows) consequences. In fact, sediment fluxes are crucial to maintain a good ecological status of watercourses (required by the EU ;Water Framework Directive;, WFD, 2000), as they provide the hydromorphological conditions supporting dynamic aquatic ecosystems (Fryirs and Brierley, 2013; Wohl et al., 2015; Gurnell et al., 2016). Indeed, the key issue to ameliorate river hydrogeomorphological - and thus ecological - status and to comply with WFD provisions lies in allowing the natural processes of sediment and wood supply and transport to take place as much as possible, given the constraints imposed by the non-eliminable uses of each river (Comiti, 2012; Liébault et al., 2013). Specifically river continuity is mentioned in the WFD not only for biota but also sediments, which is hardly discussed in river management so far and almost no concrete measures to improve sediment continuity have been implemented so far (Habersack et al., 2016).

  3. Tracking sediment through the Holocene: Determining anthropogenic contributions to a sediment-rich agricultural system, north-central USA (United States)

    Gran, Karen; Belmont, Patrick; Finnegan, Noah


    than modern near-channel erosion rates. Notably, depositional records from a naturally-dammed lake downstream on the upper Mississippi River show a more dramatic 10-fold increase in deposition rates from pre-agricultural times to the present. Sediment fingerprinting shows that pre-agriculture sediment loads were dominated by near-channel sediment sources. As deposition rates rose in the late 1800s and early 1900s, the sources shifted increasingly to agricultural soil erosion. In the past few decades, deposition rates have remained high, but sediment fingerprinting indicates yet another significant shift back to near-channel sources. On-going changes in basin hydrology, from both installation of agricultural drainage systems and on-going climate change have put more water in the rivers, increasing rates of near-channel bank and bluff erosion. This most recent shift in sediment sources has significant implications for turbidity management in the Minnesota River basin.

  4. Heavy metal distributions in Peru Basin surface sediments in relation to historic, present and disturbed redox environments (United States)

    Koschinsky, Andrea

    Heavy metal distributions in deep-sea surface sediments and pore water profiles from five areas in the Peru Basin were investigated with respect to the redox environment and diagenetic processes in these areas. The 10-20-cm-thick Mn oxide-rich and minor metal-rich top layer is underlain by an increase in dissolved Mn and Ni concentrations resulting from the reduction of the MnO 2 phase below the oxic zone. The mobilised associated metals like Co, Zn and Cu are partly immobilised by sorption on clay, organic or Fe compounds in the post-oxic environment. Enrichment of dissolved Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Cd, Fe and V within the upper 1-5 cm of the oxic zone can be attributed to the degradation of organic matter. In a core from one area at around 22-25 cm depth, striking enrichments of these metals in dissolved and solid forms were observed. Offset distributions between oxygen penetration and Mn reduction and the thickness of the Mn oxide-rich layer indicate fluctuations of the Mn redox boundary on a short-term time scale. Within the objectives of the German ATESEPP research programme, the effect of an industrial impact such as manganese nodule mining on the heavy metal cycle in the surface sediment was considered. If the oxic surface were to be removed or disturbed, oxygen would penetrate deep into the formerly suboxic sediment and precipitate Mn 2+ and metals like Ni and Co which are preferably scavenged by MnO 2. The solid enrichments of Cd, V, and other metals formed in post-oxic environments would move downward with the new redox boundary until a new equilibrium between oxygen diffusion and consumption is reached.

  5. Early Archaean collapse basins, a habitat for early bacterial life. (United States)

    Nijman, W.

    For a better definition of the sedimentary environment in which early life may have flourished during the early Archaean, understanding of the basin geometry in terms of shape, depth, and fill is a prerequisite. The basin fill is the easiest to approach, namely from the well exposed, low-grade metamorphic 3.4 - 3.5 Ga rock successions in the greenstone belts of the east Pilbara (Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt and North Pole Dome) in West Australia and of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (Buck Ridge volcano-sedimentary complex) in South Africa. They consist of mafic to ultramafic volcanic rocks, largely pillow basalts, with distinct intercalations of intermediate to felsic intrusive and volcanic rocks and of silicious sediments. The, partly volcaniclastic, silicious sediments of the Buck Ridge and North Pole volcano-sedimentary complexes form a regressive-transgressive sequence. They were deposited close to base level, and experienced occasional emersion. Both North Pole Chert and the chert of the Kittys Gap volcano-sedimentary complex in the Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt preserve the flat-and-channel architecture of a shallow tidal environment. Thickness and facies distribution appear to be genetically linked to systems, i.e. arrays, of syn-depositionally active, extensional faults. Structures at the rear, front and bottoms of these fault arrays, and the fault vergence from the basin margin towards the centre characterize the basins as due to surficial crustal collapse. Observations in the Pilbara craton point to a non-linear plan view and persistence for the basin-defining fault patterns over up to 50 Ma, during which several of these fault arrays became superposed. The faults linked high-crustal level felsic intrusions within the overall mafic rock suite via porphyry pipes, black chert veins and inferred hydrothermal circulations with the overlying felsic lavas, and more importantly, with the cherty sediments. Where such veins surfaced, high-energy breccias, and in the

  6. Clastic sediment flux to tropical Andean lakes: records of glaciation and soil erosion (United States)

    Rodbell, Donald T.; Seltzer, Geoffrey O.; Mark, Bryan G.; Smith, Jacqueline A.; Abbott, Mark B.


    . The interval between 20 and 18 ka was marked by near-Holocene levels of clastic sediment flux, and appears to have been an interval of much reduced ice extent. An abrupt increase in clastic sediment flux 18 ka heralded the onset of an interval of expanded ice cover that lasted until ˜14 ka. Clastic sediment flux declined thereafter to reach the lowest levels of the entire length of record during the early-middle Holocene. A middle Holocene climatic transition is apparent in nearly all records and likely reflects the onset of Neoglaciation and/or enhanced soil erosion in the tropical Andes.

  7. Sediment Capping and Natural Recovery, Contaminant Transport Fundamentals With Applications to Sediment Caps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrovski, David M; Corcoran, Maureen K; May, James H; Patrick, David M


    Engineered sediment caps and natural recovery are in situ remedial alternatives for contaminated sediments, which consist of the artificial or natural placement of a layer of material over a sediment...

  8. Geochemical and multi-isotopic (87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, 238U/235U) perspectives of sediment sources, depositional conditions, and diagenesis of the Marcellus Shale, Appalachian Basin, USA (United States)

    Phan, Thai T.; Gardiner, James B.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Stewart, Brian W.


    We investigate sediment sources, depositional conditions and diagenetic processes affecting the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale in the Appalachian Basin, eastern USA, a major target of natural gas exploration. Multiple proxies, including trace metal contents, rare earth elements (REE), the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotope systems, and U isotopes were applied to whole rock digestions and sequentially extracted fractions of the Marcellus shale and adjacent units from two locations in the Appalachian Basin. The narrow range of εNd values (from -7.8 to -6.4 at 390 Ma) is consistent with derivation of the clastic sedimentary component of the Marcellus Shale from a well-mixed source of fluvial and eolian material of the Grenville orogenic belt, and indicate minimal post-depositional alteration of the Sm-Nd system. While silicate minerals host >80% of the REE in the shale, data from sequentially extracted fractions reflect post-depositional modifications at the mineralogical scale, which is not observed in whole rock REE patterns. Limestone units thought to have formed under open ocean (oxic) conditions have δ238U values and REE patterns consistent with modern seawater. The δ238U values in whole rock shale and authigenic phases are greater than those of modern seawater and the upper crust. The δ238U values of reduced phases (the oxidizable fraction consisting of organics and sulfide minerals) are ∼0.6‰ greater than that of modern seawater. Bulk shale and carbonate cement extracted from the shale have similar δ238U values, and are greater than δ238U values of adjacent limestone units. We suggest these trends are due to the accumulation of chemically and, more likely, biologically reduced U from anoxic to euxinic bottom water as well as the influence of diagenetic reactions between pore fluids and surrounding sediment and organic matter during diagenesis and catagenesis.

  9. Hawaii Regional Sediment Management (RSM): Regional Sediment Budget for the West Maui Region (United States)


    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 6- 5 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Hawaii Regional Sediment Management (RSM): Regional Sediment Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program ERDC/CHL TR-16-5 June 2016 Hawaii Regional Sediment Management...distribution is unlimited. Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Project 454632, “ Hawaii Regional Sediment Management

  10. The effect of oil sands tailings pond sediments on embryo-larval walleye (Sander vitreus). (United States)

    Raine, J C; Turcotte, D; Tumber, V; Peru, K M; Wang, Z; Yang, C; Headley, J V; Parrott, J L


    Walleye (Sander vitreus) are a commercially important North American fish species that inhabit the Athabasca River. This river flows through the Athabasca oil sands where natural sources of bitumen erode from the McMurray formation. Little information is available on responses of walleye embryos to oil sands tailings pond sediments in a laboratory setting. The current study describes the design and implementation of a daily-renewal bioassay to assess the potential effects of tailings pond sediments from the Athabasca oil sands area on walleye development. Developing walleye embryos were exposed to increasing concentrations of two tailings pond sediments (collected in the Athabasca oil sands area) until the completion of yolk absorption in control fish. Sediments from the tailings pond represent a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs. During the 31 day exposure, the walleye were examined for mortalities, weight, length and developmental abnormalities to provide an initial evaluation of the effects of the oil sands tailings pond sediments. Walleye embryo survival differed between the tailings pond sediments, and survival decreased with increasing sediment concentration. Alkylated PAH content differed between the two tailings pond sediments and lower embryo survival corresponded to higher total and alkylated PAH content. Tailings pond sediment-exposed walleye exhibited a delay in development, as well as increased percentages of larvae with heart and yolk sac edema, and cranial and spinal malformations. These abnormalities in development are often associated with PAH and alkylated PAH exposure. This study provides an exposure design that can be used to assess sediment toxicity to early developmental stages of a fish species not commonly tested in the lab, and lays the groundwork for future studies with this and other difficult-to-culture species. These results offer information on the potential effects of tailings pond sediments

  11. Seasonal Accumulation and Depletion of Local Sediment Stores of Four Headwater Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Martin


    Full Text Available Seasonal turbidity patterns and event-level hysteresis analysis of turbidity verses discharge in four 1 km2 headwater catchments in California’s Sierra Nevada indicate localized in-channel sediment sources and seasonal accumulation-depletion patterns of stream sediments. Turbidity signals were analyzed for three years in order to look at the relationships between seasonal turbidity trends, event turbidity patterns, and precipitation type to stream sediment production and transport. Seasonal patterns showed more turbidity events associated with fall and early to mid- winter events than with peak snow-melt. No significant turbidity patterns emerged for periods of snow melt vs. rain. Single event hysteresis loops showed clockwise patterns were dominant suggesting local sediment sources. In successive discharge events, the largest turbidity spike was often associated with the first but not necessarily the largest discharge event-indicating seasonal depletion of local sediment stores. In multi-peaked discharge events, hysteresis loops shifted from clockwise to linear or random patterns suggesting that localized sediment stores are being used up and sufficient flow energy must be reached to start entraining the more consolidated bank/bed sediment or that dominant sediment sources may be shifting to less localized areas such as hill slopes. A conceptual model with phases of accumulation and transport is proposed.

  12. Regional Sediment Analysis of Mississippi River Sediment Transport and Hydrographic Survey Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thorne, Colin


    ...s. Sediments generated through channel instability are carried downstream to cause sedimentation problems in flood control channels, destroy wetlands and lakes, adversely impact fish and wildlife...

  13. Data Evaluation Report for the Lower Rouge River Sediment Investigation (United States)

    Describes a study of contaminated sediment, analyzes results, and makes recommendations for sediment remediation. Includes aerial views of study locations, photo log, data tables of sediment analysis.

  14. Ancient aqueous sedimentation on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldspiel, J.M.; Squyres, S.W.


    Viking orbiter images are presently used to calculate approximate volumes for the inflow valleys of the ancient cratered terrain of Mars; a sediment-transport model is then used to conservatively estimate the amount of water required for the removal of this volume of debris from the valleys. The results obtained for four basins with well-developed inflow networks indicate basin sediment thicknesses of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. The calculations further suggest that the quantity of water required to transport the sediment is greater than that which could be produced by a single discharge of the associated aquifer, unless the material of the Martian highlands was very fine-grained and noncohesive to depths of hundreds of meters. 48 refs

  15. Radionuclide interactions with marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.


    A critical review of the literature on the subject of the interactions of radionuclides with marine sediments has been carried out. On the basis of the information available, an attempt has been made to give ranges and 'best estimates' for the distribution ratios between seawater and sediments. These estimates have been based on an understanding of the sediment seawater system and the porewater chemistry and mineralogy. Field measurements, laboratory measurements and estimates based on stable-element geochemical data are all taken into account. Laboratory measurements include distribution-ratio and diffusion-coefficient determinations. The elements reviewed are carbon, chlorine, calcium, nickel, selenium, strontium, zirconium, niobium, technetium, tin, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium. (author)

  16. Contaminated sediment transport during floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, T.A.


    Over the past 48 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of parts of the White Oak Creek catchment. The contaminants presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in the White Oak Creek drainage system. The erosion of these sediments during floods can result in the transport of contaminants both within the catchment and off-site into the Clinch River. A data collection program and a modeling investigation are being used to evaluate the probability of contaminated sediment transport during floods and to develop strategies for controlling off-site transport under present and future conditions

  17. Radiotracer Imaging of Sediment Columns (United States)

    Moses, W. W.; O'Neil, J. P.; Boutchko, R.; Nico, P. S.; Druhan, J. L.; Vandehey, N. T.


    Nuclear medical PET and SPECT cameras routinely image radioactivity concentration of gamma ray emitting isotopes (PET - 511 keV; SPECT - 75-300 keV). We have used nuclear medical imaging technology to study contaminant transport in sediment columns. Specifically, we use Tc-99m (T1/2 = 6 h, Eγ = 140 keV) and a SPECT camera to image the bacteria mediated reduction of pertechnetate, [Tc(VII)O4]- + Fe(II) → Tc(IV)O2 + Fe(III). A 45 mL bolus of Tc-99m (32 mCi) labeled sodium pertechnetate was infused into a column (35cm x 10cm Ø) containing uranium-contaminated subsurface sediment from the Rifle, CO site. A flow rate of 1.25 ml/min of artificial groundwater was maintained in the column. Using a GE Millennium VG camera, we imaged the column for 12 hours, acquiring 44 frames. As the microbes in the sediment were inactive, we expected most of the iron to be Fe(III). The images were consistent with this hypothesis, and the Tc-99m pertechnetate acted like a conservative tracer. Virtually no binding of the Tc-99m was observed, and while the bolus of activity propagated fairly uniformly through the column, some inhomogeneity attributed to sediment packing was observed. We expect that after augmentation by acetate, the bacteria will metabolically reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), leading to significant Tc-99m binding. Imaging sediment columns using nuclear medicine techniques has many attractive features. Trace quantities of the radiolabeled compounds are used (micro- to nano- molar) and the half-lives of many of these tracers are short (Image of Tc-99m distribution in a column containing Rifle sediment at four times.

  18. Hydroxyatrazine in soils and sediments (United States)

    Lerch, R.N.; Thurman, E.M.; Blanchard, P.E.


    Hydroxyatrazine (HA) is the major metabolite of atrazine in most surface soils. Knowledge of HA sorption to soils, and its pattern of stream water contamination suggest that it is persistent in the environment. Soils with different atrazine use histories were collected from four sites, and sediments were collected from an agricultural watershed. Samples were exhaustively extracted with a mixed-mode extractant, and HA was quantitated using high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Atrazine, deethylatrazine (DEA), and deisopropylatrazine (DIA) were also measured in all samples. Concentrations of HA were considerably greater than concentrations of atrazine, DEA, and DIA in all soils and sediments studied. Soil concentrations of HA ranged from 14 to 640 ??g/kg with a median concentration of 84 ??g/kg. Sediment concentrations of HA ranged from 11 to 96 ??g/kg, with a median concentration of 14 ??g/kg. Correlations of HA and atrazine concentrations to soil properties indicated that HA levels in soils were controlled by sorption of atrazine. Because atrazine hydrolysis is known to be enhanced by sorption and pH extremes, soils with high organic matter (OM) and clay content and low pH will result in greater atrazine sorption and subsequent hydrolysis. Significant correlation of HA concentrations to OM, pH, and cation exchange capacity of sediments indicated that mixed-mode sorption (i.e., binding by cation exchange and hydrophobic interactions) was the mechanism controlling HA levels in sediment. The presence of HA in soils and stream sediments at the levels observed support existing hypotheses regarding its transport in surface runoff. These results also indicated that persistence of HA in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems is an additional risk factor associated with atrazine usage.

  19. Beryllium-10 in continental sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.; Sacks, I.S.; Tera, F.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.


    The concentration of 10 Be has been measured in 10 samples taken from a transect of surface sediments beginning in the Atchafalaya River and extending across the Bay 136 km into the Gulf of Mexico. If corrected for a lower retentivity of sand for Be, they have a concentration that is constant within 13%. This concentration is about an order of magnitude smaller than that of deep ocean sediments. For comparison, measurements of 10 Be in rainwater, in a sample of soil and in a deep ocean core were made. (orig.)

  20. 87Sr/86Sr and 18O/16O ratios, interstitial water chemistry and diagenesis in deep-sea carbonate sediments of the Ontong Java Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elderfield, H.; Oldfield, R.K.; Hawkesworth, C.J.


    Interstitial waters and sediments from DSDP sites 288 and 289 contain information on the chemistry and diagenesis of carbonate in deep-sea sediments and on the role of volcanic matter alteration processes. Sr/Ca ratios are species dependent in unaltered foraminifera from site 289 and atom ratios exceed those predicted by distribution coefficient data. During diagenesis Sr/Ca ratios of carbonates decrease and reach the theoretical distribution at a depth which is identical to the depth of Sr isotopic equilibration, where 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of interstitial waters and carbonates converge. Mg/Ca ratios in the carbonates do not increase with depth as found in some other DSDP sites, possibly because of diagenetic re-equilibration with interstitial waters showing decreasing Mg 2+ /Ca 2+ ratios with depth due to Ca input and Mg removal by alteration of volcanic matter. Interstitial 18 O/ 16 O ratios increase with depth at site 289 to delta 18 O = 0.67 per thousand (SMOW), reflecting carbonate recrystallization at elevated temperatures, the first recorded evidence of this effect in interstitial waters. Interstitial Sr 2+ concentrations reach high levels, up to 1 mM, chiefly because of carbonate recrystallization. However, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios decrease from 0.7092 to less than 0.7078, lower than for contemporaneous sea water, showing that there is a volcanic input of strontium at depth. (author)

  1. Vertical distribution of major, minor and trace elements in sediments from mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cadiz: evidence of Cd, As and Ba fronts in upper layers (United States)

    Carvalho, Lina; Monteiro, Rui; Figueira, Paula; Mieiro, Cláudia; Almeida, Joana; Pereira, Eduarda; Magalhães, Vítor; Pinheiro, Luís; Vale, Carlos


    Mud volcanoes are feature of the coastal margins where anaerobic oxidation of methane triggers geochemical signals. Elemental composition, percentage of fine particles and loss on ignition were determined in sediment layers of eleven gravity cores retrieved from four mud volcanoes (Sagres, Bonjardim, Soloviev and Porto) and three undefined structures located on the deep Portuguese margin of the Gulf of Cadiz. Calcium was positively correlated to Sr and inversely to Al as well as to most of the trace elements. Vertical profiles of Ba, Cd and As concentrations, and their ratios to Al, in Porto and Soloviev showed pronounced enhancements in the top 50-cm depth. Sub-surface enhancements were less pronounced in other mud volcanoes and were absent in sediments from the structures. These profiles were interpreted as diagenetic enrichments related to the anaerobic oxidation of methane originated from upward methane-rich fluxes. The observed barium fronts were most likely caused by the presence of barite which precipitated at the sulphate-methane transition zone. Cd and As enrichments have probably resulted from successive dissolution/precipitation of sulphides in response to vertical shifts of redox boundaries.

  2. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early Diagenetic Alteration of Recently Deposited Organic. Matter in Coastal Marine Sediments West of Unguja Island,. Zanzibar. Alfred N. N. Muzuka. Institute ofMarine Sciences, University of Dar es salaam, P.0. Box 668, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Key words: diagenesis, organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen, stable isotopes, ...

  3. Paleomagnetism and environmental magnetism of GLAD800 sediment cores from Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho (United States)

    Heil, C.W.; King, J.W.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Reynolds, R.L.; Colman, Steven M.


    A ???220,000-year record recovered in a 120-m-long sediment core from Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho, provides an opportunity to reconstruct climate change in the Great Basin and compare it with global climate records. Paleomagnetic data exhibit a geomagnetic feature that possibly occurred during the Laschamp excursion (ca. 40 ka). Although the feature does not exhibit excursional behavior (???40?? departure from the expected value), it might provide an additional age constraint for the sequence. Temporal changes in salinity, which are likely related to changes in freshwater input (mainly through the Bear River) or evaporation, are indicated by variations in mineral magnetic properties. These changes are represented by intervals with preserved detrital Fe-oxide minerals and with varying degrees of diagenetic alteration, including sulfidization. On the basis of these changes, the Bear Lake sequence is divided into seven mineral magnetic zones. The differing magnetic mineralogies among these zones reflect changes in deposition, preservation, and formation of magnetic phases related to factors such as lake level, river input, and water chemistry. The occurrence of greigite and pyrite in the lake sediments corresponds to periods of higher salinity. Pyrite is most abundant in intervals of highest salinity, suggesting that the extent of sulfidization is limited by the availability of SO42-. During MIS 2 (zone II), Bear Lake transgressed to capture the Bear River, resulting in deposition of glacially derived hematite-rich detritus from the Uinta Mountains. Millennial-scale variations in the hematite content of Bear Lake sediments during the last glacial maximum (zone II) resemble Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) oscillations and Heinrich events (within dating uncertainties), suggesting that the influence of millennial-scale climate oscillations can extend beyond the North Atlantic and influence climate of the Great Basin. The magnetic mineralogy of zones IV-VII (MIS 5, 6, and 7

  4. Dynamics of suspended sediment concentration, flow discharge and sediment particle size interdependency to identify sediment source (United States)

    Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza; Singh, Vijay P.


    Spatiotemporal behavior of sediment yield is a key for proper watershed management. This study analyzed statistical characteristics and trends of suspended sediment concentration (SCS), flow discharge (FD) and sediment particle sizes using data from 24 gage stations scattered throughout the United States. Analysis showed significant time- and location-specific differences of these variables. The median values of SSC, FD and percentage of particle sizes smaller than 63 μm (P63) for all 24 gage stations were found to be 510.236 mg l-1 (right skewed), 45.406 m3 s-1 (left skewed) and 78.648% (right skewed), respectively. Most of the stations exhibited significant trends (P practices which may call for local or regional planning based on natural (i.e., precipitation amount, type and erosivity, watershed area, and soil erodibility) and human-affected (i.e., land use and hydraulic structures and water resources management) factors governing the study variables.

  5. Mercury enrichment in sediments of Amba estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    of anthropogenic metal to the estuary. Geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor support Hg contamination of the estuarine sediment to a varying degree. Hg is not significantly correlated with TOC, Al, Fe and Mn in these sediments...

  6. Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor contains approximately 20,000 biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) from 20 locations (mostly Superfund sites) for...

  7. Phorbin steryl esters in Black Sea sediment traps and sediments: A preliminary evaluation of their paleooceanographic potential (United States)

    King, Linda L.; Repeta, Daniel J.


    The distributions of pyropheophorbide- a steryl esters in one-year deployments of sediment traps at two locations in the Black Sea are described. In nearly all our trap samples, phorbin steryl esters (PSEs) contribute a significant portion of the total phorbin flux. The relative abundances of sterols esterified to pyropheophorbide- a varied throughout the year, and we suggest these changes result from the observed seasonal variation of phytoplankton species in the overlying water column. The distribution of free sterols in a one-year composite sediment trap sample closely approximates the distribution of sterols derived from the hydrolysis of sedimentary PSEs collected at an adjacent site. From these results, we suggest that the distribution of sedimentary PSE sterols provides a record of sterol deposition to the sediment-water interface. Esterification of sterols to pyropheophorbide- a apparently prevents the preferential removal of 4-desmethyl sterols relative to 4-methyl sterols, and the reduction of stenols to stanols during degradation. Analysis of PSEs in a gravity core covering the last 8-10 Kyr shows that the abundance and distribution of PSEs change with downcore variations in sedimentology. Detailed analysis of PSEs in sediments may, therefore, provide a means to evaluate paleooceanographic changes in phytoplankton community structure and sterol early diagenesis. The synthesis, NMR, CI-MS, and visible spectroscopic properties of four abundant PSEs found in the Black Sea are also described.

  8. Sediments of a retting yard

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Remani, K.N.; Venugopal, P.; Devi, K.S.; Unnithan, R.V.

    (av. 46.8 and 92.3 mg/g respectively) compared to the reference station (20.6 and 48.9 mg/g) and published data on estuarine sediments.C/N ratios were consistently higher in the retting yard. Organic nitrogen, however,did not show this trend. Annual...

  9. Intercomparison of transuranics in sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, K.


    This paper summarizes the results of a recent intercomparison of transuranic analyses in Nordic sediments undertaken by five laboratories. Five different samplers were tested to determine their consistency and utility. Plutonium and americium were determined in all the samples and the analysis of variance is discussed. (author)

  10. Identification of carotenals in sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.


    High performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array UV–Vis detection and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry was used to analyze sediment samples from the meromictic Ace Lake (Antarctica), as well as a Pliocene sapropel from the Mediterranean Sea and a Miocene marl

  11. Flocculation Dynamics of cohesive sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, F.


    Cohesive sediment suspended in natural waters is subject not only to transport and deposition processes but also to reactions of flocculation, \\textit{i.e.} aggregation of fine particles, and breakup of aggregates. Although aggregation and breakup occur at small and very small length scales compared

  12. Bacterial chemoautotrophy in coastal sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasquez Cardenas, D.


    A key process in the biogeochemistry of coastal sediments is the reoxidation of reduced intermediates formed during anaerobic mineralization which in part is performed by chemoautotrophic bacteria. These bacteria fix inorganic carbon using the energy derived from reoxidation reactions. However the

  13. Surface sedimentation at permeable pavement systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Jan; Dam, Torben; Jensen, Marina Bergen


    Newly installed permeable pavement (PP) systems provide high surface infiltration capacity, but the accumulation of sediments causes a decrease in capacity over time, eventually leading to surface clogging. With the aim of investigating local sedimentation processes and the importance of restorat......Newly installed permeable pavement (PP) systems provide high surface infiltration capacity, but the accumulation of sediments causes a decrease in capacity over time, eventually leading to surface clogging. With the aim of investigating local sedimentation processes and the importance...

  14. Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina (United States)


    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 13 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Co as ta...ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 August 2017 Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Kevin B. Conner U.S. Army Engineer District, Wilmington P...Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Project 454632, “Sediment Budget Analysis, Masonboro Inlet, NC” ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 ii Abstract A

  15. Changing trends of rainfall and sediment fluxes in the Kinta River catchment, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Ismail


    Full Text Available The Kinta River, draining an area of 2566 km2, originates in the Korbu Mountain in Perak, Malaysia, and flows through heterogeneous, mixed land uses ranging from extensive forests to mining, rubber and oil palm plantations, and urban development. A land use change analysis of the Kinta River catchment was carried out together with assessment of the long-term trend in rainfall and sediment fluxes. The Mann-Kendall test was used to examine and assess the long-term trends in rainfall and its relationship with the sediment discharge trend. The land use analysis shows that forests, water bodies and mining land declined whilst built and agricultural land use increased significantly. This has influenced the sediment flux of the catchment. However, most of the rainfall stations and river gauging stations are experiencing an increasing trends, except at Kinta river at Tg. Rambutan. Sediment flux shows a net erosion for the period from 1961 to 1969. The total annual sediment discharge in the Kinta River catchment was low with an average rate of 1,757 t/km2/year. From 1970 to 1985, the annual sediment yield rose to an average rate of 4062 t/km2/year. Afterwards, from 1986 to 1993, the total annual sediment discharge decreased to an average rate of 1,306 t/km2/year and increased back during the period 1994 to 2000 to 2109 t/km2/year. From 2001 to 2006 the average sediment flux rate declined to 865 t/km2/year. The decline was almost 80% from the 1970s. High sediment flux in the early 1970s is partly associated with reduced tin mining activities in the area. This decreasing trend in sediment delivery leaving the Kinta River catchment is expected to continue dropping in the future.

  16. Changing trends of rainfall and sediment fluxes in the Kinta River catchment, Malaysia (United States)

    Ismail, W. R.; Hashim, M.


    The Kinta River, draining an area of 2566 km2, originates in the Korbu Mountain in Perak, Malaysia, and flows through heterogeneous, mixed land uses ranging from extensive forests to mining, rubber and oil palm plantations, and urban development. A land use change analysis of the Kinta River catchment was carried out together with assessment of the long-term trend in rainfall and sediment fluxes. The Mann-Kendall test was used to examine and assess the long-term trends in rainfall and its relationship with the sediment discharge trend. The land use analysis shows that forests, water bodies and mining land declined whilst built and agricultural land use increased significantly. This has influenced the sediment flux of the catchment. However, most of the rainfall stations and river gauging stations are experiencing an increasing trends, except at Kinta river at Tg. Rambutan. Sediment flux shows a net erosion for the period from 1961 to 1969. The total annual sediment discharge in the Kinta River catchment was low with an average rate of 1,757 t/km2/year. From 1970 to 1985, the annual sediment yield rose to an average rate of 4062 t/km2/year. Afterwards, from 1986 to 1993, the total annual sediment discharge decreased to an average rate of 1,306 t/km2/year and increased back during the period 1994 to 2000 to 2109 t/km2/year. From 2001 to 2006 the average sediment flux rate declined to 865 t/km2/year. The decline was almost 80% from the 1970s. High sediment flux in the early 1970s is partly associated with reduced tin mining activities in the area. This decreasing trend in sediment delivery leaving the Kinta River catchment is expected to continue dropping in the future.

  17. Prediction of bedload sediment transport for heterogeneous sediments in shape (United States)

    Durafour, Marine; Jarno, Armelle; Le Bot, Sophie; Lafite, Robert; Marin, François


    Key words: Particle shape, in-situ measurements, bedload transport, heterogeneous sediments Bedload sediment transport in the coastal area is a dynamic process mainly influenced by the type of hydrodynamic forcings involved (current and/or waves), the flow properties (velocity, viscosity, depth) and sediment heterogeneity (particle size, density, shape). Although particle shape is recognized to be a significant factor in the hydrodynamic behavior of grains, this parameter is not currently implemented in bedload transport formulations: firstly because the mechanisms of initiation of motion according to particle shape are still not fully understood, and secondly due to the difficulties in defining common shape parameters. In March 2011, a large panel of in-situ instruments was deployed on two sites in the Eastern English Channel, during the sea campaign MESFLUX11. Samples of the sediment cover available for transport are collected, during a slack period, per 2cm thick strata by divers and by using a Shipeck grab. Bedload discharges along a tidal cycle are also collected with a Delft Nile Sampler (DNS; Gaweesh and Van Rijn, 1992, 1994) on both sites. The first one is characterized by a sandy bed with a low size dispersion, while the other study area implies graded sediments from fine sands to granules. A detailed analysis of the data is performed to follow the evolution of in-situ bedload fluxes on the seabed for a single current. In-situ measurements are compared to existing formulations according to a single fraction approach, using the median diameter of the mixture, and a fractionwise approach, involving a discretization of the grading curve. Results emphasize the interest to oscillate between these two methods according to the dispersion in size of the site considered. The need to apply a hiding/exposure coefficient (Egiazaroff, 1965) and a hindrance factor (Kleinhans and Van Rijn, 2002) for size heterogeneous sediments is also clearly highlighted. A really good

  18. Upstream sediment input effects on experimental dune trough scour in sediment mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.


    Understanding causes of dune irregularity, especially dune trough scour, is important for the modeling of vertical sorting of sediment mixtures in morphological models of rivers with sediment mixtures. Sediment in dunes is generally sorted in a fining-upward manner, which affects the sediment

  19. Microplastic particles in sediments from Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob; Lassen, Pia; Shashoua, Yvonne

    . In some samples, several hundred particles consisting of fibres, flakes, spherules, and/or granules were identified per 100 g sediment, and also in sediments from open waters. Relationships to sediment characteristics (e.g. dry weight, TOC, grain size) and inorganic and organic contaminants including...

  20. Regional Models for Sediment Toxicity Assessment (United States)

    This paper investigates the use of empirical models to predict the toxicity of sediment samples within a region to laboratory test organisms based on sediment chemistry. In earlier work, we used a large nationwide database of matching sediment chemistry and marine amphipod sedim...

  1. Estimation of suspended sediment concentration by acoustic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concentration of sediments such as glass spheres or sand. However, the acoustic properties of natural sediments vary and depend on many parameters such as particle size, shape, mineralogy and distribution of those parameters in sample. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the possibility of soil sediment ...

  2. On the precision of sedimentation balance measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.


    The settling velocities of fine sediments can be determined using a sedimentation balance essentially consisting of a settling tube at the bottom of which the weight of the sediment deposited is measured as a function of time. The distribution of settling velocities then is calculated from an

  3. Reconstruction of the sediment flow regime in a semi-arid Mediterranean catchment using check dam sediment information. (United States)

    Bussi, G.; Rodríguez, X.; Francés, F.; Benito, G.; Sánchez-Moya, Y.; Sopeña, A.


    When using hydrological and sedimentological models, lack of historical records is often one of the main problems to face, since observed data are essential for model validation. If gauged data are poor or absent, a source of additional proxy data may be the slack-water deposits accumulated in check dams. The aim of this work is to present the result of the reconstruction of the recent hydrological and sediment yield regime of a semi-arid Mediterranean catchment (Rambla del Poyo, Spain, 184 square km) by coupling palaeoflood techniques with a distributed hydrological and sediment cycle model, using as proxy data the sandy slack-water deposits accumulated upstream a small check dam (reservoir volume 2,500 square m) located in the headwater basin (drainage area 13 square km). The solid volume trapped into the reservoir has been estimated using differential GPS data and an interpolation technique. Afterwards, the total solid volume has been disaggregated into various layers (flood units), by means of a stratigraphical description of a depositional sequence in a 3.5 m trench made across the reservoir sediment deposit, taking care of identifying all flood units; the separation between flood units is indicated by a break in deposition. The sedimentary sequence shows evidence of 15 flood events that occurred after the dam construction (early '90). Not all events until the present are included; for the last ones, the stream velocity and energy conditions for generating slack-water deposits were not fulfilled due to the reservoir filling. The volume of each flood unit has been estimated making the hypothesis that layers have a simple pyramidal shape (or wedge); every volume represents an estimation of the sediments trapped into the reservoir corresponding to each flood event. The obtained results have been compared with the results of modeling a 20 year time series (1990 - 2009) with the distributed conceptual hydrological and sediment yield model TETIS-SED, in order to

  4. The preglacial sediment record of Lake Ladoga, Russia - first results from a seismic survey and sediment coring in 2013 (United States)

    Melles, Martin; Krastel, Sebastian; Fedorov, Grigory; Subetto, Dmitry A.; Savelieva, Larisa A.; Andreev, Andrej; Wagner, Bernd


    The new German-Russian project PLOT (Paleolimnological Transect) aims at investigating the Late Quaternary climatic and environmental history along a more than 6000 km long longitudinal transect crossing northern Eurasia. Special emphasis is put on the preglacial history. For this purpose shallow and deep seismic surveys shall be carried out on five lakes, which potentially host preglacial sediment records, followed by sediment coring based on the results of the seismic campaigns. The well-studied Lake El'gygytgyn represents the eastern-most location of the transect and acts as reference site. Within the scope of a pilot phase for the PLOT project, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, we were able to investigate Lake Ladoga, which is located close to St. Petersburg at the western end of the transect. Lake Ladoga is the largest lake in Europe, covering an area of almost 18.000 km2. The modern sedimentation as well as the late glacial and Holocene history of the lake were already studied in detail over the past decades. The older, preglacial lake history, however, is only rudimentary known from a core transect drilled in the southern lake in the 1930th. The cores of up to about 60 m length were only briefly described and are not existing any more. The results from these cores, known from unpublished reports only, suggest the existence of marine sediments of presumably Eemian age, representing a time when Lake Lagoga was part of a precursor of the Baltic Sea, which had a connection via Ladoga and Onega Lakes to the White Sea and further to the Arctic Ocean. In late August/early September 2013 we carried out a seismic survey on Lake Ladoga using a Mini-GI-Gun and a 32-channel seismic streamer. In total, 1500 km of seismic profiles were measured, covering most parts of the lake. The seismic lines typically show acoustically well stratified Holocene muds overlaying rather transparent postglacial varves. These sediment successions can reach

  5. High-throughput characterization of sediment organic matter by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and multivariate curve resolution: A promising analytical tool in (paleo)limnology. (United States)

    Tolu, Julie; Gerber, Lorenz; Boily, Jean-François; Bindler, Richard


    Molecular-level chemical information about organic matter (OM) in sediments helps to establish the sources of OM and the prevalent degradation/diagenetic processes, both essential for understanding the cycling of carbon (C) and of the elements associated with OM (toxic trace metals and nutrients) in lake ecosystems. Ideally, analytical methods for characterizing OM should allow high sample throughput, consume small amounts of sample and yield relevant chemical information, which are essential for multidisciplinary, high-temporal resolution and/or large spatial scale investigations. We have developed a high-throughput analytical method based on pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and automated data processing to characterize sedimentary OM in sediments. Our method consumes 200 μg of freeze-dried and ground sediment sample. Pyrolysis was performed at 450°C, which was found to avoid degradation of specific biomarkers (e.g., lignin compounds, fresh carbohydrates/cellulose) compared to 650°C, which is in the range of temperatures commonly applied for environmental samples. The optimization was conducted using the top ten sediment samples of an annually resolved sediment record (containing 16-18% and 1.3-1.9% of total carbon and nitrogen, respectively). Several hundred pyrolytic compound peaks were detected of which over 200 were identified, which represent different classes of organic compounds (i.e., n-alkanes, n-alkenes, 2-ketones, carboxylic acids, carbohydrates, proteins, other N compounds, (methoxy)phenols, (poly)aromatics, chlorophyll and steroids/hopanoids). Technical reproducibility measured as relative standard deviation of the identified peaks in triplicate analyses was 5.5±4.3%, with 90% of the RSD values within 10% and 98% within 15%. Finally, a multivariate calibration model was calculated between the pyrolytic degradation compounds and the sediment depth (i.e., sediment age), which is a function of degradation processes and changes in OM

  6. Artificial radionuclides in an intertidal sediment from northwest England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, K.; Keith-Roach, M.J.; Butterworth, J.C.; Livens, L.K.; Day, J.P.; Hursthouse, A.S.; Fifield, L.K.; Bardgett, R.D.


    An intertidal sediment core has been analysed for the principal transuranium elements present in the BNFL Sellafield radioactive waste discharges (Np, Pu, Am) and the high yield fission products 99 Tc and 137 Cs. Interstitial water samples were collected using porous cup samplers and early results from these analyses show that there is a pronounced seasonality in the pattern of dissolved Pu, which apparently relates to changes in dissolved Fe and Mn. More recent work has concentrated on the characterization of changes in the sediment microbial community and on the development of analytical methods for the analysis of dissolved Np, apparently the most readily mobilized of the transuranic elements, which is present at concentrations of the order of 10 8 atoms/litre

  7. The GIK-Archive of sediment core radiographs with documentation (United States)

    Grobe, Hannes; Winn, Kyaw; Werner, Friedrich; Driemel, Amelie; Schumacher, Stefanie; Sieger, Rainer


    The GIK-Archive of radiographs is a collection of X-ray negative and photographic images of sediment cores based on exposures taken since the early 1960s. During four decades of marine geological work at the University of Kiel, Germany, several thousand hours of sampling, careful preparation and X-raying were spent on producing a unique archive of sediment radiographs from several parts of the World Ocean. The archive consists of more than 18 500 exposures on chemical film that were digitized, geo-referenced, supplemented with metadata and archived in the data library PANGAEA®. With this publication, the images have become available open-access for use by the scientific community at

  8. Changing Sediment Dynamics of a Mature Backbarrier Salt Marsh in Response to Sea-Level Rise and Storm Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Schuerch


    Full Text Available Our study analyses the long-term development of a tidal backbarrier salt marsh in the northern German Wadden Sea. The focus lies on the development of the high-lying, inner, mature part of the salt marsh, which shows a striking history of changing sediment dynamics. The analysis of high-resolution old aerial photographs and sampled sediment cores suggests that the mature part of the marsh was shielded by a sand barrier from the open sea for decades. The supply with fine-grained sediments occurred from the marsh inlet through the tidal channels to the inner salt marsh. Radiometric dating (210Pb and 137Cs reveals that the sedimentation pattern changed fundamentally around the early-mid 1980s when the sedimentation rates increased sharply. By analyzing the photographic evidence, we found that the sand barrier was breached during storm events in the early 1980s. As a result, coarse-grained sediments were brought directly through this overwash from the sea to the mature part of the salt marsh and increased the sedimentation rates. We show that the overwash and the channels created by these storm events built a direct connection to the sea and reduced the distance to the sediment source which promoted salt marsh growth and a supply with coarse-grained sediments. Consequently, the original sediment input from the tidal channels is found to play a minor role in the years following the breach event. The presented study showcases the morphological development of a mature marsh, which contradicts the commonly accepted paradigm of decreasing sedimentation rates with increasing age of the marsh. We argue that similar trends are likely to be observed in other backbarrier marshes, developing in the shelter of unstabilized sand barriers. It further highlights the question of how resilient these salt marshes are toward sea level rise and how extreme storm events interfere in determining the resilience of a mature salt marsh.

  9. Investigation of Composition of Particle Size in Sediments of Stormwater Sedimentation Tank


    Daiva Laučytė; Regimantas Dauknys


    The main object for the storm water runoff treatment is to remove suspended solids before the storm water runoff is discharged into surface waters. Therefore the sedimentation tank is the most often used treatment facility. In order to optimise the sedimentation, the tendency of particle size distribution in bottom sediments must be known. Two similar size storm water runoff sedimentation tanks in Vilnius city were selected for the analysis of the particle size distribution in sediments. The ...

  10. Emergence of burrowing urchins from California continental shelf sediments-A response to alongshore current reversals? (United States)

    Nichols, F.H.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Thompson, J.K.


    Two sequences of bottom photographs taken every two or four hours for two months during the Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment (CODE) off the Russian River, California, reveal the dynamic nature of interations between the water column, the sediments, and benthic organisms in the mid-shelf silt deposit. Time-lapse photographs taken between late spring and early summer in 1981 and 1982 show that the subsurface-dwelling urchin Brisaster latifrons (one of the largest invertebrates found in shelf-depth fine sediment off the U.S. Pacific coast) occasionally emerged from the sediment, plowed the sediment surface during the course of a few hours to several days, then buried themselves again. Frame-by-frame study of the film sequences shows that the urchins typically emerged following relaxation of coastal upwelling, periods characterized by current direction reversals and increases in bottom water turbidity. Among the possible causes of the emergence of urchins and the consequent bioturbation of the upper few cm of sediment, a response to an enhanced food supply seems most plausible. Circumstantial evidence suggests the possibility that phytoplankton sedimentation during periods of upwelling relaxation could provide a new source of food at the sediment surface. ?? 1989.

  11. Early discontinuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Felde, Lina; Gichangi, Anthony


    prevalence and rate of early discontinuation of different drugs consisting of, in this study, lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensive drugs, antidepressants, antidiabetics and drugs against osteoporosis. Material and methods This was a register study based on prescription data covering a 4-year period...... and consisting of 470,000 citizens. For each practice and group of drug, a 1-year prevalence for 2002 and the rate of early discontinuation among new users in 2002-2003 were estimated. Early discontinuation was defined as no prescriptions during the second half-year following the first prescription....... There was a positive association between the prevalence of prescribing for the specific drugs studied (antidepressants, antidiabetics, drugs against osteoporosis and lipid-lowering drugs) and early discontinuation (r = 0.29 -0.44), but not for anti-hypertensive drugs. The analysis of the association between prevalence...

  12. Early literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Skriver


    This paper discusses findings from the Danish contribution to the EASE project, a European research project running from 2008 to 2010 on early literacy in relation to the transition from childcare to school. It explores a holistic, inclusive approach to early literacy that resists a narrow...... and schools. The paper also draws on Gee’s (2001, 2003, 2004, 2008) sociocultural approach to literacy, and Honneth’s (2003, 2006) concept of recognition. Emphasizing participation and recognition as key elements, it claims that stakeholders in early liter- acy must pay attention to how diverse early literacy...... opportunities empower children, especially when these opportunities are employed in a project-based learning environ- ment in which each child is able to contribute to the shared literacy events....

  13. Potential Ecological Effects of Contaminants in the Exposed Par Pond Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.


    Sediment and small mammal samples were collected from the exposed sediments of Par Pond in early 1995, shortly before the reservoir was refilled after a 4-year drawdown. Sampling was confined to elevations between 58 and 61 meters (190 and 200 feet) above mean sea level, which includes the sediments likely to be exposed if the Par Pond water level is permitted to fluctuate naturally. Both soil and small mammal samples were analyzed for a number of radionuclides and metals. Some of the soil samples were also analyzed for organic contaminants. The objective of the study was to determine if contaminant levels in the Par Pond sediments were high enough to cause deleterious ecological effects

  14. Atmospheric lead fallout over the last century recorded in Gulf of Lions sediments (Mediterranean Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miralles, J. . E-mail; Veron, A.J.; Radakovitch, O.; Deschamps, P.; Tremblay, T.; Hamelin, B.


    Six marine sediment cores from the Gulf of Lions continental slope (700-1700 m water depth) were analyzed for stable lead isotopes and 21 Pb geochronology in order to reconstruct lead atmospheric fallout pattern during the last century. The detrital lead contribution is 25 μg g -1 and the mean sediment anthropogenic inventory is 110 ± 7 μg cm -2 , a little bit higher than atmospheric deposition estimate. Anthropogenic lead accumulation in sediments peaked in early 1970s (1973 ± 2) in agreement with lead emissions features. For the period 1986-1997, the sediment signal also reflect the decrease of atmospheric lead described by independent atmospheric fallout investigations. The anthropogenic Pb deposition in the late 1990s was similar to the 1950s deposition, attesting thus of the output of European environmental policies

  15. Plutonium contamination in soils and sediments at Mayak PA, Russia. (United States)

    Skipperud, Lindis; Salbu, Brit; Oughton, Deborah H; Drozcho, Eugeny; Mokrov, Yuri; Strand, Per


    The Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA) was established in the late 1940's to produce plutonium for the Soviet Nuclear Weapons Programme. In total, seven reactors and two reprocessing plants have been in operation. Today, the area comprises both military and civilian reactors as well as reprocessing and metallurgical plants. Authorized and accidental releases of radioactive waste have caused severe contamination to the surrounding areas. In the present study, [alpha]-spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) have been used to determine plutonium activities and isotope ratios in soil and sediment samples collected from reservoirs of the Techa River at the Mayak area and downstream Techa River. The objective of the study was to determine the total inventory of plutonium in the reservoirs and to identify the different sources contributing to the plutonium contamination. Results based on [alpha]-spectrometry and ICP-MS measurements show the presence of different sources and confirmed recent reports of civilian reprocessing at Mayak. Determination of activity levels and isotope ratios in soil and sediment samples from the Techa River support the hypothesis that most of the plutonium, like other radionuclides in the Techa River, originated from the very early waste discharges to the Techa River between 1949 and 1951. Analysis of reservoir sediment samples suggest that about 75% of the plutonium isotopes could have been released to Reservoir 10 during the early weapons production operation of the plant, and that the majority of plutonium in Reservoir 10 originates from discharges from power production or reprocessing. Enhanced 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in river sediment upper layers (0-2 cm) between 50 and 250 km downstream from the plant indicate a contribution from other, non-fallout sources.

  16. Poroelastic Parameters of Peru Margin Sediments: Implications for Flow and Transport at Multiple Scales in the Marine Biosphere (United States)

    Gettemy, G. L.; Cikoski, C.; Tobin, H. J.


    As part of a broader investigation of the deep marine subsurface environment, the first biosphere-focused drilling expedition, Leg 201, of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) occupied five unique sites in the Peru Margin (in a 1200 km2 region centered at 10 S, 80E). These sites represent the entire range of shallow biogeological conditions associated with this convergent margin:deep-water, mixed clay-pelagic sediments ocean-ward of the trench; slope-apron and prism toe sediments at the deformation front; and several distinct lithostratigraphic sequences on the continental shelf. Microbial enumeration and pore-water geochemistry results show that each particular site is both consistent and unique--consistent in terms of general biotic quantity and activity as predicted by energy flux and redox potential given the depositional environment and sedimentary record, but unique at key biogeological boundaries such as lithologic and/or physical property interfaces. This research addresses questions related to our understanding of how and why these boundaries form by looking at poroelastic and hydrologic parameters measured at multiple scales, from sub-millimeter to several centimeters. The issue of measurement scale, especially in regard to permeability and diffusivity characterization, is vital to interpreting observations of biologically-mediated diagenetic fronts (e.g., dolomitic lenses, depth- or time-varying barite fronts). These parameters are derived from (i) hydrologic and wave propagation experiments, (ii) SEM images, and (iii) shipboard split-core measurements, and structured in a modified Biot poroelasticity framework. This approach also allows quantification of the local heterogeneity of these parameters at the scale applicable to (and controlled by) microbial life; these results can then be used to formulate predictive models of the impact of biogeochemical processes. Ultimately, these models could then be used in interpretation of new remote-sensed data (e

  17. Unraveling the Illgraben sediment cascade (United States)

    Bennett, Georgie; Molnar, Peter; McArdell, Brian; Schlunegger, Fritz; Burlando, Paolo


    Quantification of the volumes of sediment removed by rock-slope failure and debris flows and identification of their coupling and controls are pertinent to understanding mountain basin sediment yield and landscape evolution. This study captures a multi-decadal period of hillslope erosion and channel change following an extreme rock avalanche in 1961 in the Illgraben, a catchment of high scientific interest in the Swiss Alps due to its extremely high debris-flow dominated sediment yield. We analyzed photogrammetrically-derived datasets of hillslope and channel erosion and deposition along with climatic and seismic variables for a 43-year period from 1963 to 2005. Based on these analyses we identify and discuss (1) patterns of hillslope production, channel transfer and catchment sediment yield, (2) their dominant interactions with climatic and seismic variables, and (3) the nature of hillslope-channel coupling and implications for sediment yield and landscape evolution in this mountain basin. Our results show an increase in the mean hillslope erosion rate in the 1980s from 0.24±0.01 m yr-1 to 0.42±0.03 m yr-1 that coincided with a significant increase in air temperature and decrease in snow cover depth and duration, which we presume led to an increase in the exposure of the slopes to thermal weathering processes. This is indicated by a significant increase in the number of days of subzero air temperature and no snow cover. Conversely, there was no increase in precipitation or seismic activity that would explain the increase in erosion rate. However, the combination of highly fractured slopes close to the threshold angle for failure, and multiple potential triggering mechanisms, means that it is difficult to identify an individual control on slope failure. This is illustrated by our analysis of the 1961 rockfall event, which failed to reveal an individual trigger of the failure given both extreme meteorological conditions and seismic activity in the weeks leading up

  18. Magnified Sediment Export of Small Mountainous Rivers in Taiwan: Chain Reactions from Increased Rainfall Intensity under Global Warming. (United States)

    Lee, Tsung-Yu; Huang, Jr-Chuan; Lee, Jun-Yi; Jien, Shih-Hao; Zehetner, Franz; Kao, Shuh-Ji


    Fluvial sediment export from small mountainous rivers in Oceania has global biogeochemical significance affecting the turnover rate and export of terrestrial carbon, which might be speeding up at the recognized conditions of increased rainfall intensity. In this study, the historical runoff and sediment export from 16 major rivers in Taiwan are investigated and separated into an early stage (1970-1989) and a recent stage (1990-2010) to illustrate the changes of both runoff and sediment export. The mean daily sediment export from Taiwan Island in the recent stage significantly increased by >80% with subtle increase in daily runoff, indicating more sediment being delivered to the ocean per unit of runoff in the recent stage. The medians of the runoff depth and sediment yield extremes (99.0-99.9 percentiles) among the 16 rivers increased by 6.5%-37% and 62%-94%, respectively, reflecting the disproportionately magnified response of sediment export to the increased runoff. Taiwan is facing increasing event rainfall intensity which has resulted in chain reactions on magnified runoff and sediment export responses. As the globe is warming, rainfall extremes, which are proved to be temperature-dependent, very likely intensify runoff and trigger more sediment associated hazards. Such impacts might occur globally because significant increases of high-intensity precipitation have been observed not only in Taiwan but over most land areas of the globe.

  19. Estimating Western U.S. Reservoir Sedimentation (United States)

    Bensching, L.; Livneh, B.; Greimann, B. P.


    Reservoir sedimentation is a long-term problem for water management across the Western U.S. Observations of sedimentation are limited to reservoir surveys that are costly and infrequent, with many reservoirs having only two or fewer surveys. This work aims to apply a recently developed ensemble of sediment algorithms to estimate reservoir sedimentation over several western U.S. reservoirs. The sediment algorithms include empirical, conceptual, stochastic, and processes based approaches and are coupled with a hydrologic modeling framework. Preliminary results showed that the more complex and processed based algorithms performed better in predicting high sediment flux values and in a basin transferability experiment. However, more testing and validation is required to confirm sediment model skill. This work is carried out in partnership with the Bureau of Reclamation with the goal of evaluating the viability of reservoir sediment yield prediction across the western U.S. using a multi-algorithm approach. Simulations of streamflow and sediment fluxes are validated against observed discharges, as well as a Reservoir Sedimentation Information database that is being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Specific goals of this research include (i) quantifying whether inter-algorithm differences consistently capture observational variability; (ii) identifying whether certain categories of models consistently produce the best results, (iii) assessing the expected sedimentation life-span of several western U.S. reservoirs through long-term simulations.

  20. The kinetics of denitrification in permeable sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evrard, Victor; Glud, Ronnie N.; Cook, Perran L. M.


    Permeable sediments comprise the majority of shelf sediments, yet the rates of denitrification remain highly uncertain in these environments. Computational models are increasingly being used to understand the dynamics of denitrification in permeable sediments, which are complex environments...... on sediments taken from six shallow coastal sites in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. The results showed that denitrification commenced rapidly (within 30 min) after the onset of anoxia and the kinetics could be well described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with half saturation constants (apparent K...... in cohesive sediments despite organic carbon contents one order of magnitude lower for the sediments studied here. The ratio of sediment O-2 consumption to V-max was in the range of 0.02-0.09, and was on average much lower than the theoretical ratio of 0.8. As a consequence, models implemented...

  1. Review of sediment stabilisation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The best sites for tidal power schemes are found in estuaries with high tidal ranges which have complex ecosystems and include a wide and diverse range of habitats. If the tidal power is to be developed, therefore, it is important to determine the likely effect on the environment and any ameliorative measures which may be necessary. One possible change is likely to be the erosion of material from the bed or shoreline of the estuary, and possibly the adjacent coast. This is of particular concern if intertidal sandflats, mudflats and saltmarsh are affected, as these are important wildlife habitats. Moreover, largescale movement of sediments would be undesirable. Results of a desk study of methods of preventing the erosion of sediment deposits in or near an estuary in the conditions that may occur following the construction of a tidal power barrage are presented. (author)

  2. Lithofacies and Diagenetic Controls on Formation-scale Mechanical, Transport, and Sealing Behavior of Caprocks: A Case Study of the Morrow shale and Thirteen Finger Limestone, Farnsworth Unit, Texas (United States)

    Trujillo, N. A.; Heath, J. E.; Mozley, P.; Dewers, T. A.; Cather, M.


    Assessment of caprock sealing behavior for secure CO2 storage is a multiscale endeavor. Sealing behavior arises from the nano-scale capillarity of pore throats, but sealing lithologies alone do not guarantee an effective seal since bypass systems, such as connected, conductive fractures can compromise the integrity of the seal. We apply pore-to-formation-scale data to characterize the multiscale caprock sealing behavior of the Morrow shale and Thirteen Finger Limestone. This work is part of the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration's Phase III project at the Farnsworth Unit, Texas. The caprock formations overlie the Morrow sandstone, the target for enhanced oil recovery and injection of over one million metric tons of anthropogenically-sourced CO2. Methods include: focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy; laser scanning confocal microscopy; electron and optical petrography; multi-stress path mechanical testing and constitutive modeling; core examinations of sedimentary structures and fractures; and a noble gas profile for formation-scale transport of the sealing lihologies and the reservoir. We develop relationships between diagenetic characteristics of lithofacies to mechanical and petrophysical measurements of the caprocks. The results are applied as part of a caprock sealing behavior performance assessment. Funding for this project is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory through the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42591. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Monitoring of pollution in sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee I. Abdallah


    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs were analyzed in surface sediments collected from Suez till Hurgharda coasts to establish baseline levels for various types of organic pollutants before the anticipated identification of anthropogenic activities, petrogenic and biogenic. AHs for all samples were dominated by unresolved complex mixture (UCM, and petrogenic mixed with biogenic sources. Results also revealed that sedimentary PAHs mainly originated from pyrolysis sources.

  4. Sediment unmixing using detrital geochronology (United States)

    Sharman, Glenn R.; Johnstone, Samuel A.


    Sediment mixing within sediment routing systems can exert a strong influence on the preservation of provenance signals that yield insight into the effect of environmental forcing (e.g., tectonism, climate) on the Earth's surface. Here, we discuss two approaches to unmixing detrital geochronologic data in an effort to characterize complex changes in the sedimentary record. First, we summarize 'top-down' mixing, which has been successfully employed in the past to characterize the different fractions of prescribed source distributions ('parents') that characterize a derived sample or set of samples ('daughters'). Second, we propose the use of 'bottom-up' methods, previously used primarily for grain size distributions, to model parent distributions and the abundances of these parents within a set of daughters. We demonstrate the utility of both top-down and bottom-up approaches to unmixing detrital geochronologic data within a well-constrained sediment routing system in central California. Use of a variety of goodness-of-fit metrics in top-down modeling reveals the importance of considering the range of allowable that is well mixed over any single best-fit mixture calculation. Bottom-up modeling of 12 daughter samples from beaches and submarine canyons yields modeled parent distributions that are remarkably similar to those expected from the geologic context of the sediment-routing system. In general, mixture modeling has the potential to supplement more widely applied approaches in comparing detrital geochronologic data by casting differences between samples as differing proportions of geologically meaningful end-member provenance categories.

  5. Earthworms as colonisers: Primary colonisation of contaminated land, and sediment and soil waste deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsackers, H.J.P.


    This paper reviews the role of earthworms in the early colonisation of contaminated soils as well as sediment and waste deposits, which are worm-free because of anthropogenic activities such as open-cast mining, soil sterilisation, consistent pollution or remediation of contaminated soil. Earthworms

  6. A geomorphological assessments of the distribution of sediment sinks along the lower Amazon River (United States)

    Park, E.; Latrubesse, E. M.


    Floodplain sediment storage budget is examined along the 1,000 km reach of the lower Amazon River based on extensive sets of remote sensing data and field measurements. Incorporating the washload discharges at gauge stations at the main channel and major tributaries, we analyzed the roles of vast floodplain on the Amazon River seasonal variability in sediment discharges. Annual washload accumulation rate on floodplain along the reach in between Manacapuru and Obidos of is estimated to be 79 Mt over inter-annual average. Period that the net loss over to the floodplain of washload coincide with discharge rising phase of the Amazon River at Obidos, when the river water level rises to make hydrologic connections to floodplain. Only during the early falling phase (July-August), 3.6 Mt of washload net gain occurred in a year, which was less than 5% of the annual net loss to the floodplain. To assess the spatial distribution of sediment sinks along the lower Amazon, we incorporated various hydro-geomorphic factors regarding floodplain geomorphic styles and morphometric parameters, such floodplain width, levee heights, water-saturated area, suspended sediment distribution over floodplain and distribution of impeded floodplain. Impeded floodplain that contains numerous large rounded lakes is the definition of active sediment sinks along the lower Amazon, which seasonally stores most of the water and traps sediment from the river. The results of these hydro-geomorphic factors collectively indicate that the extent and magnitudes of sediment sinks becomes larger downstream (from Manacapuru to Monte Alegre), which is proportionally related to the development of the water-saturated floodplain. This indicates the nonlinear geomorphic evolution of the Amazon floodplain through its longitudinal profile since the late Holocene that downstream reaches are still to be infilled with sediments (incomplete floodplain) thus acting as sediment sinks.

  7. A New Measure for Transported Suspended Sediment (United States)

    Yang, Q.


    Non-uniform suspended sediment plays an important role in many geographical and biological processes. Despite extensive study, understanding to it seems to stagnate when times to consider non-uniformity and non-equilibrium scenarios comes. Due to unsatisfactory reproducibility, large-scaled flume seems to be incompetent to conduct more fundamental research in this area. To push the realm a step further, experiment to find how suspended sediment exchanges is conducted in a new validated equipment, in which turbulence is motivated by oscillating grids. Analysis shows that 1) suspended sediment exchange is constrained by ωS invariance, 2) ωS of the suspended sediment that certain flow regime could support is unique regardless of the sediment gradation and 3) the more turbulent the flow, the higher ωS of the suspension the flow could achieve. A new measure for suspended sediment ωS, the work required to sustain sediment in suspension transport mode if multiplied by gravitational acceleration, is thus proposed to better describe the dynamics of transported suspended sediment. Except for the further understanding towards suspended sediment transportation mechanics, with this energy measure, a strategy to distribute total transport capacity to different fractions could be derived and rational calculation of non-uniform sediment transport capacity under non-equilibrium conditions be possible.

  8. Quantification of Gravel Rural Road Sediment Production (United States)

    Silliman, B. A.; Myers Toman, E.


    Unbound rural roads are thought to be one of the largest anthropogenic sources of sediment reaching stream channels in small watersheds. This sediment deposition can reduce water quality in the streams negatively impacting aquatic habitat as well as impacting municipal drinking water sources. These roads are thought to see an increase in construction and use in southeast Ohio due to the expansion of shale gas development in the region. This study set out to quantify the amount of sediment these rural roads are able to produce. A controlled rain event of 12.7 millimeters of rain over a half hour period was used to drive sediment production over a 0.03 kilometer section of gravel rural road. These 8 segments varied in many characteristics and produced from 2.0 to 8.4 kilograms of sediment per 0.03 kilometers of road with the average production over the 8 segments being 5.5 kilograms of sediment. Sediment production was not strongly correlated with road segment slope but traffic was found to increase sediment production from 1.1 to 3.9 times as much sediment after traffic use. These results will help inform watershed scale sediment budgeting, and inform best management practices for road maintenance and construction. This study also adds to the understanding of the impacts of rural road use and construction associated with the changing land use from agricultural to natural gas extraction.

  9. Geochemical and visual indicators of hydrothermal fluid flow through a sediment-hosted volcanic ridge in the Central Bransfield Basin (Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Aquilina

    Full Text Available In the austral summer of 2011 we undertook an investigation of three volcanic highs in the Central Bransfield Basin, Antarctica, in search of hydrothermal activity and associated fauna to assess changes since previous surveys and to evaluate the extent of hydrothermalism in this basin. At Hook Ridge, a submarine volcanic edifice at the eastern end of the basin, anomalies in water column redox potential (E(h were detected close to the seafloor, unaccompanied by temperature or turbidity anomalies, indicating low-temperature hydrothermal discharge. Seepage was manifested as shimmering water emanating from the sediment and from mineralised structures on the seafloor; recognisable vent endemic fauna were not observed. Pore fluids extracted from Hook Ridge sediment were depleted in chloride, sulfate and magnesium by up to 8% relative to seawater, enriched in lithium, boron and calcium, and had a distinct strontium isotope composition ((87Sr/(86Sr = 0.708776 at core base compared with modern seawater ((87Sr/(86Sr ≈ 0.70918, indicating advection of hydrothermal fluid through sediment at this site. Biogeochemical zonation of redox active species implies significant moderation of the hydrothermal fluid with in situ diagenetic processes. At Middle Sister, the central ridge of the Three Sisters complex located about 100 km southwest of Hook Ridge, small water column E(h anomalies were detected but visual observations of the seafloor and pore fluid profiles provided no evidence of active hydrothermal circulation. At The Axe, located about 50 km southwest of Three Sisters, no water column anomalies in E(h, temperature or turbidity were detected. These observations demonstrate that the temperature anomalies observed in previous surveys are episodic features, and suggest that hydrothermal circulation in the Bransfield Strait is ephemeral in nature and therefore may not support vent biota.

  10. Stable isotope compositions of organic carbon and contents of organic carbon and nitrogen of lacustrine sediments from sub-arid northern Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzuka, A.N.N.


    The stable isotope compositions of organic carbon (OC), and contents of OC and nitrogen for four sediment cores recovered from lakes Makat (located in the Ngorongoro Crater), Ndutu and Masek (located in the Serengeti Plains) are used to document sources of organic matter (OM) and climatic changes in sub-arid northern Tanzania during the late Pleistocene-Holocene period. Accelerate mass spectrometer (AMS) 14 C ages on total OM for sediments collected from the Ngorongoro Crater Lake indicate that the sedimentation rate is approximately 17 cm/ka. The δ 13 C values from the 20 cm long core (short core) show a downcore increase, whereas that of 500 cm long core (long core), show two peaks enriched in 13 C and three peaks depleted in 13 C. A general downcore increase in the δ 13 C values for the short core suggests changes in the relative proportion of C 3 and C 4 fraction increasing downcore. Similarly, low and high peaks in the long core suggest changes in the relative proportion of C 3 and C 4 with low values having high proportion of C 3 type of material, probably indicating changes in precipitation and lake levels in the area. Deposition of OM depleted in 13 C took place during periods of high precipitation and high lake levels. Although high content of OC and nitrogen in some core sections are associated with elevated C/N ratio values, diagenetic alteration of isotope signature is unlikely to have caused OC and isotope enrichment in sections having high contents of OC and nitrogen. The OC isotope record from Lake Ndutu shows a general downcore decrease in δ 13 C values and contents of OC and nitrogen. (author)

  11. Nearshore sediment thickness, Fire Island, New York (United States)

    Locker, Stanley D.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Buster, Noreen A.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Wadman, Heidi M.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Forde, Arnell S.; Stalk, Chelsea A.


    Investigations of coastal change at Fire Island, New York (N.Y.), sought to characterize sediment budgets and determine geologic framework controls on coastal processes. Nearshore sediment thickness is critical for assessing coastal system sediment availability, but it is largely unquantified due to the difficulty of conducting geological or geophysical surveys across the nearshore. This study used an amphibious vessel to acquire chirp subbottom profiles. These profiles were used to characterize nearshore geology and provide an assessment of nearshore sediment volume. Two resulting sediment-thickness maps are provided: total Holocene sediment thickness and the thickness of the active shoreface. The Holocene sediment section represents deposition above the maximum flooding surface that is related to the most recent marine transgression. The active shoreface section is the uppermost Holocene sediment, which is interpreted to represent the portion of the shoreface thought to contribute to present and future coastal behavior. The sediment distribution patterns correspond to previously defined zones of erosion, accretion, and stability along the island, demonstrating the importance of sediment availability in the coastal response to storms and seasonal variability. The eastern zone has a thin nearshore sediment thickness, except for an ebb-tidal deposit at the wilderness breach caused by Hurricane Sandy. Thicker sediment is found along a central zone that includes shoreface-attached sand ridges, which is consistent with a stable or accretional coastline in this area. The thickest overall Holocene section is found in the western zone of the study, where a thicker lower section of Holocene sediment appears related to the westward migration of Fire Island Inlet over several hundred years.

  12. Evolution of the Southern Margin of the Donbas (Ukraine) from Devonian to early Carboniferous Times.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, T.; Saintot, A.N.


    A Devonian-Early Carboniferous succession comprising thick clastic and carbonate sediments with interbedded volcanics was examined along the southern margin of the Donbas fold belt. Ukraine. Following initial rifting and subsidence, a continental (fluvial, lacustrine) succession was established.

  13. Two-dimensional simulation of clastic and carbonate sedimentation, consolidation, subsidence, fluid flow, heat flow and solute transport during the formation of sedimentary basins (United States)

    Bitzer, Klaus


    Geological processes that create sedimentary basins or act during their formation can be simulated using the public domain computer code `BASIN'. For a given set of geological initial and boundary conditions the sedimentary basin evolution is calculated in a forward modeling approach. The basin is represented in a two-dimensional vertical cross section with individual layers. The stratigraphic, tectonic, hydrodynamic and thermal evolution is calculated beginning at an initial state, and subsequent changes of basin geometry are calculated from sedimentation rates, compaction and pore fluid mobilization, isostatic compensation, fault movement and subsidence. The sedimentologic, hydraulic and thermal parameters are stored at discrete time steps allowing the temporal evolution of the basin to be analyzed. A maximum flexibility in terms of geological conditions is achieved by using individual program modules representing geological processes which can be switched on and off depending on the data available for a specific simulation experiment. The code incorporates a module for clastic and carbonate sedimentation, taking into account the impact of clastic sediment supply on carbonate production. A maximum of four different sediment types, which may be mixed during sedimentation, can be defined. Compaction and fluid flow are coupled through the consolidation equation and the nonlinear form of the equation of state for porosity, allowing nonequilibrium compaction and overpressuring to be calculated. Instead of empirical porosity-effective stress equations, a physically consistent consolidation model is applied which incorporates a porosity dependent sediment compressibility. Transient solute transport and heat flow are calculated as well, applying calculated fluid flow rates from the hydraulic model. As a measure for hydrocarbon generation, the Time-Temperature Index (TTI) is calculated. Three postprocessing programs are available to provide graphic output in Post