WorldWideScience

Sample records for early childhood outcome

  1. Early Childhood Adversity and Pregnancy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Megan V.; Gotman, Nathan; Yonkers, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and pregnancy outcomes; to explore mediators of this association including psychiatric illness and health habits. Methods Exposure to ACEs was determined by the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report Short Form; psychiatric diagnoses were generated by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered in a cohort of 2303 pregnant women. Linear regression and structural equation modeling bootstrapping approaches tested for multiple mediators. Results Each additional ACE decreased birth weight by 16.33 g and decreased gestational age by 0.063. Smoking was the strongest mediator of the effect on gestational age. Conclusions ACEs have an enduring effect on maternal reproductive health, as manifested by mothers’ delivery of offspring that were of reduced birth weight and shorter gestational age. PMID:26762511

  2. Early childhood programs in other nations: goals and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boocock, S S

    1995-01-01

    United States interest in the potential early childhood programs have for improving outcomes for children is shared by policymakers and researchers in many other nations. Throughout the world, enrollments in preschool and child care programs are rising. This article reviews international research documenting how participation in early childhood programs influenced children's later development and success in school. Studies conducted in 13 nations (Australia, Canada, Colombia, France, Germany, India, Ireland, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Turkey, and the United Kingdom) are included, along with key features of each nation's provision of early childhood programs. The article summarizes conclusions that are supported by research in various countries, indicating that participation in preschool promotes cognitive development and school success, although the specific type of program attended matters little. Preschool experience helps low-income children narrow, but not close, the achievement gap separating them from more advantaged children. International evidence also suggests that maternal employment and reliance on child care do not harm children and may yield benefits if the child care is of good quality. The author draws insights from the experience of other nations concerning such issues as defining quality, the effectiveness of early childhood programs in redressing social and economic inequities, and understanding how research can influence policy.

  3. Multiple childcare arrangements and health outcomes in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jen-Hao

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the associations between multiple childcare arrangements and young children's health problems. This study used three waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, collected from a nationally representative sample of children when they were 9 months old, 2 years old, and 4 years old (N = 7,150). 'Multiple childcare arrangements' was defined and measured by the number of non-parental childcare arrangements that occurred on a regular basis. During each wave of the data collection, the mother reported the number of regular childcare arrangements by three types: relative care, non-relative care, and center-based care. These numbers were summed to calculate the total number of arrangements. The mother also reported the incidence of ear infections, gastrointestinal illnesses, asthma diagnosis, and unintentional injuries of the child. Random effects and fixed effects regression models were used to estimate the association between the number of childcare arrangements and measures of early childhood health problems. Increases in the total number of childcare arrangements were associated with an elevated risk of ear infections, gastrointestinal illnesses, and diagnosed asthma in children. Further analysis indicates that increases in both the number of center-based care and non-relative care (but not relative care) arrangements can lead to a greater chance of health problems in young children. Multiple childcare arrangements are associated with communicable illness and diagnosed asthma in early childhood and appear to be a risk factor for health problems in early childhood.

  4. Perinatal Programming of Childhood Asthma: Early Fetal Size, Growth Trajectory during Infancy, and Childhood Asthma Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Turner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “fetal origins hypothesis” or concept of “developmental programming” suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  5. Outcomes of childhood conduct problem trajectories in early adulthood: findings from the ALSPAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Hickman, Matthew; Doerner, Rita; Emond, Alan; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Maughan, Barbara; Munafò, Marcus R; Heron, Jon

    2014-07-01

    Although conduct problems in childhood are stably associated with problem outcomes, not every child who presents with conduct problems is at risk. This study extends previous studies by testing whether childhood conduct problem trajectories are predictive of a wide range of other health and behavior problems in early adulthood using a general population sample. Based on 7,218 individuals from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children, a three-step approach was used to model childhood conduct problem development and identify differences in early adult health and behavior problems. Childhood conduct problems were assessed on six occasions between age 4 and 13 and health and behavior outcomes were measured at age 18. Individuals who displayed early-onset persistent conduct problems throughout childhood were at greater risk for almost all forms of later problems. Individuals on the adolescent-onset conduct problem path consumed more tobacco and illegal drugs and engaged more often in risky sexual behavior than individuals without childhood conduct problems. Levels of health and behavior problems for individuals on the childhood-limited path were in between those for stable low and stable high trajectories. Childhood conduct problems are pervasive and substantially affect adjustment in early adulthood both in at-risk samples as shown in previous studies, but also in a general population sample. Knowing a child's developmental course can help to evaluate the risk for later maladjustment and be indicative of the need for early intervention.

  6. Complex Possibilities: "Working Theories" as an Outcome for the Early Childhood Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargraves, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    "Working theories" are described as one of the two principal outcomes of Te Whariki, the early childhood curriculum in Aotearoa New Zealand. Despite its prominence as a curricular outcome, the theoretical positioning of the concept of working theory remains relatively undebated, with researchers readily attributing the term to a…

  7. Literacy outcomes of children with early childhood speech sound disorders: impact of endophenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Barbara A; Avrich, Allison A; Freebairn, Lisa A; Hansen, Amy J; Sucheston, Lara E; Kuo, Iris; Taylor, H Gerry; Iyengar, Sudha K; Stein, Catherine M

    2011-12-01

    To demonstrate that early childhood speech sound disorders (SSD) and later school-age reading, written expression, and spelling skills are influenced by shared endophenotypes that may be in part genetic. Children with SSD and their siblings were assessed at early childhood (ages 4-6 years) and followed at school age (7-12 years). The relationship of shared endophenotypes with early childhood SSD and school-age outcomes and the shared genetic influences on these outcomes were examined. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that oral motor skills, phonological awareness, phonological memory, vocabulary, and speeded naming have varying influences on reading decoding, spelling, spoken language, and written expression at school age. Genetic linkage studies demonstrated linkage for reading, spelling, and written expression measures to regions on chromosomes 1, 3, 6, and 15 that were previously linked to oral motor skills, articulation, phonological memory, and vocabulary at early childhood testing. Endophenotypes predict school-age literacy outcomes over and above that predicted by clinical diagnoses of SSD or language impairment. Findings suggest that these shared endophenotypes and common genetic influences affect early childhood SSD and later school-age reading, spelling, spoken language, and written expression skills.

  8. Social inequalities in pregnancy outcomes and early childhood behaviour: the Generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. Jansen (Pauline)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractaim of this thesis was to extend the existing knowledge on the relation of social disadvantage with pregnancy outcomes and early childhood behaviour. More specifically, we aimed to identify the mechanisms underlying this association. In this thesis, several indicators of social disadvant

  9. Social inequalities in pregnancy outcomes and early childhood behaviour: the Generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. Jansen (Pauline)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractaim of this thesis was to extend the existing knowledge on the relation of social disadvantage with pregnancy outcomes and early childhood behaviour. More specifically, we aimed to identify the mechanisms underlying this association. In this thesis, several indicators of social

  10. Screening for Childhood Mental Health Problems: Outcomes and Early Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Marilyn J.; Kraemer, Helena C.; Slattery, Marcia J.; Burk, Linnea R.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Woodward, Hermi R.; Kupfer, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Many childhood psychiatric problems are transient. Consequently, screening procedures to accurately identify children with problems unlikely to remit and thus, in need of intervention, are of major public health concern. This study aimed to develop a universal school-based screening procedure based on the answers to three questions:…

  11. Understanding the Mechanisms Through Which an Influential Early Childhood Program Boosted Adult Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James; Pinto, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    A growing literature establishes that high quality early childhood interventions targeted toward disadvantaged children have substantial impacts on later life outcomes. Little is known about the mechanisms producing these impacts. This paper uses longitudinal data on cognitive and personality traits from an experimental evaluation of the influential Perry Preschool program to analyze the channels through which the program boosted both male and female participant outcomes. Experimentally induced changes in personality traits explain a sizable portion of adult treatment effects. PMID:24634518

  12. An Early Childhood Intervention Programme and the Long-Term Outcomes for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood education has increasingly been identified as a mechanism to alleviate educational disadvantage in areas of social exclusion. This study aims to add to the understanding of the nature and distribution of long-term benefits from early childhood intervention programmes and provides a detailed analysis of both the cognitive and…

  13. Outcomes of childhood conduct problem trajectories in early adulthood : findings from the ALSPAC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Hickman, Matthew; Doerner, Rita; Emond, Alan; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Maughan, Barbara; Munafo, Marcus R.; Heron, Jon

    Although conduct problems in childhood are stably associated with problem outcomes, not every child who presents with conduct problems is at risk. This study extends previous studies by testing whether childhood conduct problem trajectories are predictive of a wide range of other health and behavior

  14. Latent class profiles of depressive symptoms from early to middle childhood: predictors, outcomes, and gender effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Diana J; Luby, Joan L; Tilman, Rebecca; Mike, Anissa; Barch, Deanna; Belden, Andy C

    2016-07-01

    There has been little available data to inform the predictors and outcomes of latent class trajectories of depressive symptoms beginning during preschool and continuing throughout school age. Further, the extant literature in this domain has been limited by the use of parent report checklists of nonspecific 'internalizing' psychopathology rather than diagnostic interviews for depression. To address these gaps in the literature, this study applied growth mixture modeling to depressive symptom severity endorsed by children and/or their caregivers (N = 348) during a structured clinical interview in a 10-year longitudinal dataset spanning from preschool into late school age. Three distinct trajectories of depressive symptom severity were found in boys and girls. For boys, but not girls, the high depression severity latent class increased in depressive symptoms from preschool through school age, followed by a decline in depressive symptom severity during later school age. For girls, the high depression severity latent class remained stable across time. Early childhood social adversity, familial history of affective disorder, preschool-onset ODD/CD, and school age functional impairment differentiated high-risk trajectory classes among both boys and girls. Extending the literature on trajectories of depressive symptoms to the preschool period, these findings incorporate structured clinical interviews of depressive symptom severity and indicate gender differences as well as psychosocial predictors and functional outcomes among children in high severity latent classes. The findings from this study suggest that increased attention to screening for depressive symptoms in early childhood is of significant public health importance. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  15. Emotion labeling and socio-emotional outcomes 18 months after early childhood traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlustos, Sarah J; Chiu, C-Y Peter; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Wade, Shari L

    2011-11-01

    A growing body of literature has documented evidence for emotion labeling (EL) deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, long-term effects of TBI on EL abilities, particularly among young children, are unclear. We investigated EL abilities and socio-emotional outcomes in 32 children with moderate-severe TBI, 23 with complicated-mild TBI, and 82 children with orthopedic injuries (OI), shortly after injury and at 18 months post-injury. All children were between 3:0 and 6:11 years of age at the time of injury. Repeated measures analyses indicated that all groups showed improved EL performance between acute and 18-month assessments, but that the moderate-severe TBI group improved at a slower rate than the OI group, so that the two groups showed significantly different performance at 18 months. Emotion labeling ability did not significantly contribute to the prediction of socio-emotional outcomes after controlling for pre-injury functioning. These results provide preliminary evidence of emerging EL deficits after early childhood TBI that are related to injury severity but that do not predict social and behavioral outcomes.

  16. Literacy and Language Outcomes of Comprehensive and Developmental-Constructivist Approaches to Early Childhood Education: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Bette; Cheung, Alan C. K.; Slavin, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review of research on early childhood programs seeks to identify effective approaches capable of improving literacy and language outcomes for preschoolers. It applies consistent standards to determine the strength of evidence supporting a variety of approaches, which fell into two main categories: "comprehensive…

  17. Adult Outcomes as a Function of an Early Childhood Educational Program: An Abecedarian Project Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Frances A.; Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Burchinal, Margaret; Kainz, Kirsten; Pan, Yi; Wasik, Barbara H.; Barbarin, Oscar A.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.

    2012-01-01

    Adult (age 30) educational, economic, and social-emotional adjustment outcomes were investigated for participants in the Abecedarian Project, a randomized controlled trial of early childhood education for children from low-income families. Of the original 111 infants enrolled (98% African American), 101 took part in the age 30 follow-up. Primary…

  18. Case-term Adverse Outcomes of Chronic Hepatitis C, Extrahepatic Manifestations of a Young Man Infected in Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Baramzina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article discusses the clinical case of unfavorable course of chronic hepatitis C with the outcome of cirrhosis and development of extrahepatic manifestations of a young man of 20 years as a result of infection in early childhood.

  19. Longitudinal stability of temperamental exuberance and social-emotional outcomes in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, Kathryn A; Hane, Amie Ashley; Henderson, Heather A; Moas, Olga Lydia; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C; Fox, Nathan A

    2011-05-01

    The goals of the current study were to investigate the stability of temperamental exuberance across infancy and toddlerhood and to examine the associations between exuberance and social-emotional outcomes in early childhood. The sample consisted of 291 4-month-olds followed at 9, 24, and 36 months and again at 5 years of age. Behavioral measures of exuberance were collected at 9, 24, and 36 months. At 36 months, frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry was assessed. At 5 years, maternal reports of temperament and behavior problems were collected, as were observational measures of social behavior during an interaction with an unfamiliar peer in the laboratory. Latent profile analysis revealed a high, stable exuberance profile that was associated with greater ratings of 5-year externalizing behavior and surgency, as well as observed disruptive behavior and social competence with unfamiliar peers. These associations were particularly true for children who displayed left frontal EEG asymmetry. Multiple factors supported an approach bias for exuberant temperament but did not differentiate between adaptive and maladaptive social-emotional outcomes at 5 years of age.

  20. Using Impact Bonds to Achieve Early Childhood Development Outcomes in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson-Wright, Emily; Gardiner, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, or Global Goals) and their associated targets set out by the United Nations in 2015 explicitly seek to address some of the largest challenges facing children around the world. Early Childhood Development (ECD) interventions have been found to improve adult health and education levels, reduce crime, and…

  1. Using the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) and Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS) to Predict Long Term Outcomes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L.; Brewer, Neil

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the predictive validity of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, Autism detection in early childhood: ADEC. Australian Council of Educational Research, Camberwell, VIC 2007) and a well-established screening tool, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS; Schopler et al. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS).…

  2. Childhood Poverty, Early Motherhood and Adult Social Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hobcraft, John; Kiernan, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Childhood poverty and early parenthood are both high on the political agenda. The key new issue addressed in this research is the relative importance of childhood poverty and of early motherhood as correlates of outcomes later in life. How far are the 'effects' of early motherhood on later outcomes due to childhood precursors, especially experience of childhood poverty? If there are powerful associations of both childhood poverty and early parenthood with later adult outcomes, there are a num...

  3. Early childhood teachers' self-efficacy toward teaching science: Outcomes of professional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah

    The teaching of science in the early childhood classrooms has slowly been decreasing. As the years have passed, the subject of science has been put on the backburner while mathematics and language arts have taken center stage in the educational system. Early childhood teachers need to find ways to integrate science with other subjects in order to ensure children are receiving a well-rounded and full education. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of professional development on teachers' efficacy in teaching science. Volunteer teachers completed the Weisgram and Bigler scale (TWBS) pre and post training, in order to determine their self-efficacy toward teaching science, they also completed pre- and post- concept maps about their knowledge of teaching science, and a demographic questionnaire. Findings indicate the training provided was effective in increasing teachers' knowledge of teaching science. Teachers who had an increase in science teaching knowledge were also found to feel more efficacious about teaching science after completing the training and an academic year of implementing science lessons in their classrooms. There was not a relationship between teacher demographics and their science-teaching efficacy. This means that the demographics of participants in this study were not influential on teachers' efficacy, but professional development workshops enabled teachers to gain more knowledge about teaching as well as increase their efficacy about teaching science.

  4. (Reconceptualizing Early Childhood Education)?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Second, I must stress the immensely precious and ..... 'useless' subjects such as emotions, sensitivity, .... a range of different sociological fields including early childhood, gender, .... The origins of intelligence in children (M. Cook, Trans.).

  5. Early childhood aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and decreasing rates in the fourth year. One-year stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds ...

  6. Parental satisfaction and seizure outcome after corpus callosotomy in patients with infantile or early childhood onset epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Masaki; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Nakayama, Tojo; Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Sato, Yuko; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Osawa, Shin-Ichiro; Jin, Kazutaka; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Tominaga, Teiji

    2013-05-01

    To elucidate the benefit of corpus callosotmy in terms of parental satisfaction and seizure outcome. This study included 16 consecutive patients with infantile or early childhood onset epilepsy who underwent total corpus callosotomy for alleviation of seizures. Questionnaires were sent anonymously to the parents asking about relative changes in seizures and about parental satisfaction for the post-operative outcome. The improvements in frequency, intensity, and duration of seizures were correlated with the level of satisfaction (Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient, ρ=0.87, 0.93, and 0.75, respectively). The highest level of satisfaction was only seen in patients who achieved freedom from all seizures or drop attacks. Complete seizure freedom and freedom from drop attacks are important goals of corpus callosotomy for parental satisfaction. These factors should be considered in assessing post-operative outcome after corpus callosotomy. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Actionable Intelligence about Early Childhood Risks in Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Barghaus, Katherine; Fantuzzo, John; Coe, Kristen; Brumley, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    "Early childhood risks" are markers of early childhood experiences that extensive research has shown to be detrimental to later academic and behavioral outcomes. In Philadelphia, evidence indicates that seven early childhood risks tracked by public agencies have negative effects on early school outcomes. These risks include low…

  8. Number of antigens in early childhood vaccines and neuropsychological outcomes at age 7-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahed; Barile, John P; Thompson, William W; DeStefano, Frank

    2013-12-01

    Concerns have been raised that children may be receiving too many immunizations under the recommended schedule in the USA. We used a publicly available dataset to evaluate the association between antibody-stimulating proteins and polysaccharides from early childhood vaccines and neuropsychological outcomes at age 7-10 years. Children aged 7-10 years from four managed care organizations underwent standardized tests for domain-specific neuropsychological outcomes: general intellectual function, speech and language, verbal memory, attention and executive function, tics, achievement, visual spatial ability, and behavior regulation. Vaccination histories up to 24 months of age were obtained from medical charts, electronic records, and parents' records. Logistic regressions and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to determine associations between total antigens up to 7, 12, and 24 months and domain-specific outcomes. On average, children (N = 1047) received 7266, 8127, and 10 341 antigens by ages 7, 12, and 24 months, respectively. For adjusted analyses, increase (per 1000) in the number of antigens was not associated with any neuropsychological outcomes. Antigen counts above the 10th percentile, compared with lower counts, were also not associated with any adverse outcomes. However, children with higher antigen counts up to 24 months performed better on attention and executive function tests (odds ratio for lower scores = 0.51, 95% confidence interval = 0.26, 0.99). Similar results were found with SEM analysis (b = 0.08, p = 0.02). We did not find any adverse associations between antigens received through vaccines in the first two years of life and neuropsychological outcomes in later childhood. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Clinical course and seizure outcome of idiopathic childhood epilepsy: determinants of early and long-term prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoumi, Pinelopi; Tzetzi, Olga; Vargiami, Efthimia; Pavlou, Evangelos; Krikonis, Konstantinos; Kontopoulos, Eleftherios; Zafeiriou, Dimitrios I

    2013-12-18

    Idiopathic epilepsies and epileptic syndromes predominate childhood and adolescence epilepsy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical course and outcome of idiopathic childhood epilepsy and identify variables determining both early and long-term prognosis. We followed 303 children with newly diagnosed idiopathic epilepsy aged 1-14 years old, both prospectively and retrospectively. Outcome was defined at one, 2 and 4 years of follow-up, as well as at the end of the study period for all patients. Based on the data collected, patients were classified in four patterns of clinical course: "excellent", "improving", "relapsing" and "poor". Variables defined at intake and after the initial year of treatment were analyzed for their prognostic relevance towards the clinical course and outcome of the patients. The mean age at seizure onset was 6.7 years and the mean duration of follow-up was 8.3 years (range 2,0-22,0,SD 4,24). During the initial year of treatment, 70,3% of patients were seizure-free. The course of epilepsy was "excellent" in 53,1% of the subjects, "improving" in 22,8%, "relapsing" in 22,1% whereas only 6 children with idiopathic epilepsy (2%) had a "poor" clinical course exhibiting drug-resistance. After multivariate analysis, variables predictive of a poor initial response to therapy were early seizure onset, multiple seizure types and history of status epilepticus. At the end of follow-up, early response to treatment was of significant positive predictive value, while the presence of multiple seizure types and the history of migraine had a negative impact on prognosis. In the vast majority of children, the long-term prognosis of idiopathic epilepsy is favorable. More than half of the patients attain seizure freedom immediately and their clinical course is considered "excellent". About one fifth exhibit either an improving or a fluctuating course. Early seizure onset, multiple seizure types and status epilepticus are predictive of an

  10. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results show

  11. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  12. Music in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feierabend, John

    1990-01-01

    Argues that music activities in early childhood education foster a variety of developmental skills. Analyzes Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, contending that music intelligence is a separate intelligence. Provides ways to identify and promote musical intelligence. Suggests methods for encouraging musical development. Using songs…

  13. Neonatal encephalopathic cerebral injury in South India assessed by perinatal magnetic resonance biomarkers and early childhood neurodevelopmental outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Lally

    Full Text Available Although brain injury after neonatal encephalopathy has been characterised well in high-income countries, little is known about such injury in low- and middle-income countries. Such injury accounts for an estimated 1 million neonatal deaths per year. We used magnetic resonance (MR biomarkers to characterise perinatal brain injury, and examined early childhood outcomes in South India.We recruited consecutive term or near term infants with evidence of perinatal asphyxia and a Thompson encephalopathy score ≥6 within 6 h of birth, over 6 months. We performed conventional MR imaging, diffusion tensor MR imaging and thalamic proton MR spectroscopy within 3 weeks of birth. We computed group-wise differences in white matter fractional anisotropy (FA using tract based spatial statistics. We allocated Sarnat encephalopathy stage aged 3 days, and evaluated neurodevelopmental outcomes aged 3½ years using Bayley III.Of the 54 neonates recruited, Sarnat staging was mild in 30 (56%; moderate in 15 (28% and severe in 6 (11%, with no encephalopathy in 3 (6%. Six infants died. Of the 48 survivors, 44 had images available for analysis. In these infants, imaging indicated perinatal rather than established antenatal origins to injury. Abnormalities were frequently observed in white matter (n = 40, 91% and cortex (n = 31, 70% while only 12 (27% had abnormal basal ganglia/thalami. Reduced white matter FA was associated with Sarnat stage, deep grey nuclear injury, and MR spectroscopy N-acetylaspartate/choline, but not early Thompson scores. Outcome data were obtained in 44 infants (81% with 38 (79% survivors examined aged 3½ years; of these, 16 (42% had adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes.No infants had evidence for established brain lesions, suggesting potentially treatable perinatal origins. White matter injury was more common than deep brain nuclei injury. Our results support the need for rigorous evaluation of the efficacy of rescue hypothermic

  14. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  15. The effects of dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese on longer-term maternal and early childhood outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodd, Jodie M; Grivell, Rosalie M; Louise, Jennie

    2017-01-01

    on the established International Weight Management in Pregnancy (i-WIP) IPD Collaborative Network, having identified researchers who have conducted randomised dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese, and where ongoing childhood follow-up of participants has been......BACKGROUND: The aim of this individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA) is to evaluate the effects of dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese on later maternal and early childhood outcomes at ages 3-5 years. METHODS/DESIGN: We will build...... or is being undertaken. The primary maternal outcome is a diagnosis of maternal metabolic syndrome. The primary childhood outcome is BMI above 90%. We have identified 7 relevant trials, involving 5425 women who were overweight or obese during pregnancy, with approximately 3544 women and children with follow...

  16. Four-year outcome after early withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs in childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, AT; Niermeijer, JMF; Arts, WFM; Brouwer, OF; Stroink, H; Peeters, EAJ; van Donselaar, CA

    2005-01-01

    Four-year follow-up of children with epilepsy included in a randomized trial of early withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs showed that 51% achieved a terminal remission of at least 2 years without medication and 21% with medication; 15% had seizures during the fourth year. Early medication withdrawal i

  17. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Hatice; DİNÇER, Çağlayan

    2012-01-01

    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...

  18. Early Seizure Frequency and Aetiology Predict Long-Term Medical Outcome in Childhood-Onset Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpaa, Matti; Schmidt, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    In clinical practice, it is important to predict as soon as possible after diagnosis and starting treatment, which children are destined to develop medically intractable seizures and be at risk of increased mortality. In this study, we determined factors predictive of long-term seizure and mortality outcome in a population-based cohort of 102…

  19. The Evidence Base for Mental Health Consultation in Early Childhood Settings: Research Synthesis Addressing Staff and Program Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Eileen M.; Bradley, Jennifer R.; Allen, Mary Dallas; Perry, Deborah F.

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: One strategy to support early childhood providers' work with children exhibiting challenging behavior is offering mental health consultation services in order to build staff skills and confidence and reduce staff stress and turnover. Through systematic search procedures, 26 recent studies were identified that addressed the…

  20. Effects of early exposure to phthalates and bisphenols on cardiometabolic outcomes in pregnancy and childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philips, E.M. (Elise M.); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); Trasande, L. (Leonardo)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPregnant women are exposed to various chemicals, including endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as phthalates and bisphenols. Increasing evidence suggests that early life exposures to phthalates and bisphenols may contribute to cardiometabolic risks. The aim of this narrative revie

  1. Teachers in Early Childhood Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilderry, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines teacher accountability and authority in early childhood policy. It reports on data from a study that investigated the influences affecting early childhood teacher decision-making at the preschool level in Victoria, Australia. Using a question raised by Ball "Where are the teachers in all this [policy]?" provided a…

  2. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  3. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice UYSAL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done before and after peer bullying.

  4. Early Childhood Special Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2011-01-01

    The process of early intervention is a critical component of Early Childhood Special Music Education. Early intervention is the process of providing services, education, and support to young children who have disabilities or to children who are at-risk of developing needs that may affect their physical, cognitive, or emotional development. The…

  5. Preschool speech intelligibility and vocabulary skills predict long-term speech and language outcomes following cochlear implantation in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G; Beer, Jessica; Henning, Shirley C; Colson, Bethany G; Pisoni, David B

    2014-07-01

    Speech and language measures during grade school predict adolescent speech-language outcomes in children who receive cochlear implants (CIs), but no research has examined whether speech and language functioning at even younger ages is predictive of long-term outcomes in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine whether early preschool measures of speech and language performance predict speech-language functioning in long-term users of CIs. Early measures of speech intelligibility and receptive vocabulary (obtained during preschool ages of 3-6 years) in a sample of 35 prelingually deaf, early-implanted children predicted speech perception, language, and verbal working memory skills up to 18 years later. Age of onset of deafness and age at implantation added additional variance to preschool speech intelligibility in predicting some long-term outcome scores, but the relationship between preschool speech-language skills and later speech-language outcomes was not significantly attenuated by the addition of these hearing history variables. These findings suggest that speech and language development during the preschool years is predictive of long-term speech and language functioning in early-implanted, prelingually deaf children. As a result, measures of speech-language functioning at preschool ages can be used to identify and adjust interventions for very young CI users who may be at long-term risk for suboptimal speech and language outcomes.

  6. Expertise of Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happo, Iiris; Määttä, Kaarina

    2011-01-01

    Every preschool age child in Finland has the right to day care and the expertise of educators is multidimensional. The aim of this article is to clarify the expertise of those early childhood educators, who have the competence of kindergarten teachers (n = 80). The data consisted of the early educators' stories of their growth towards expertise.…

  7. Health lifestyles in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Fomby, Paula

    2014-12-01

    This study integrates two important developments, the concept of health lifestyles (which has focused on adults and adolescents) and the increased attention to early childhood. We introduce the concept of children's health lifestyles, identifying differences from adult health lifestyles and articulating intergenerational transmission and socialization processes shaping children's health lifestyles. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; N ≈ 6,150), latent class analyses identify predominant health lifestyles among U.S. preschoolers. Five distinct empirical patterns representing health lifestyles emerge, two capturing low and medium levels of overall risk across domains and three capturing domain-specific risks. Social background predicts children's health lifestyles, but lower household resources often explain these relationships. Across kindergarten measures of cognition, behavior, and health, preschool health lifestyles predict children's development even after controlling for social disadvantage and concurrent household resources. Further research on health lifestyles throughout childhood is warranted.

  8. Empowering the Poor through Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Rosamunde

    1999-01-01

    Meeting children's needs for early childhood education is one of eight strategies identified by the Food and Agricultural Organization as necessary for the eradication of poverty. Explores how early childhood education might be funded in developing nations. (SLD)

  9. Childhood poverty, early motherhood and adult social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobcraft, J; Kiernan, K

    2001-09-01

    Childhood poverty and early parenthood are both high on the current political agenda. The key new issue that this research addresses is the relative importance of childhood poverty and of early motherhood as correlates of outcomes later in life. How far are the 'effects' of early motherhood on later outcomes due to childhood precursors, especially experience of childhood poverty? Subsidiary questions relate to the magnitude of these associations, the particular levels of childhood poverty that prove most critical, and whether, as often assumed, only teenage mothers are subsequently disadvantaged, or are those who have their first birth in their early twenties similarly disadvantaged? The source of data for this study is the National Child Development Study. We examine outcomes at age 33 for several domains of adult social exclusion: welfare, socio-economic, physical health, emotional well-being and demographic behaviour. We control for a wide range of childhood factors: poverty; social class of origin and of father; mother's and father's school leaving age; family structure; housing tenure; mother's and father's interest in education; personality attributes; performance on educational tests; and contact with the police by age 16. There are clear associations for the adult outcomes with age at first birth, even after controlling for childhood poverty and the other childhood background factors. Moreover, we demonstrate that the widest gulf in adult outcomes occurs for those who enter motherhood early (before age 23), though further reinforced by teenage motherhood for most adult outcomes. We also show that any experience of childhood poverty is clearly associated with adverse outcomes in adulthood, with reinforcement for higher levels of childhood poverty for a few outcomes.

  10. Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christine; And Others

    This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…

  11. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  12. SEL Interventions in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Megan M.; Tominey, Shauna L.; Schmitt, Sara A.; Duncan, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Young children who enter school without sufficient social and emotional learning (SEL) skills may have a hard time learning. Yet early childhood educators say they do not get enough training to effectively help children develop such skills. In this article, Megan McClelland, Shauna Tominey, Sara Schmitt, and Robert Duncan examine the theory and…

  13. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  14. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  15. Fostering Effective Early Learning (FEEL) through a professional development programme for early childhood educators to improve professional practice and child outcomes in the year before formal schooling: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhuish, Edward; Howard, Steven J; Siraj, Iram; Neilsen-Hewett, Cathrine; Kingston, Denise; de Rosnay, Marc; Duursma, Elisabeth; Luu, Betty

    2016-12-19

    A substantial research base documents the benefits of attendance at high-quality early childhood education and care (ECEC) for positive behavioural and learning outcomes. Research has also found that the quality of many young children's experiences and opportunities in ECEC depends on the skills, dispositions and understandings of the early childhood adult educators. Increasingly, research has shown that the quality of children's interactions with educators and their peers, more than any other programme feature, influence what children learn and how they feel about learning. Hence, we sought to investigate the extent to which evidence-based professional development (PD) - focussed on promoting sustained shared thinking through quality interactions - could improve the quality of ECEC and, as a consequence, child outcomes. The Fostering Effective Early Learning (FEEL) study is a cluster randomised controlled trial for evaluating the benefits of a professional development (PD) programme for early childhood educators, compared with no extra PD. Ninety long-day care and preschool centres in New South Wales, Australia, will be selected to ensure representation across National Quality Standards (NQS) ratings, location, centre type and socioeconomic areas. Participating centres will be randomly allocated to one of two groups, stratified by centre type and NQS rating: (1) an intervention group (45 centres) receiving a PD intervention or (2) a control group (45 centres) that continues engaging in typical classroom practice. Randomisation to these groups will occur after the collection of baseline environmental quality ratings. Primary outcomes, at the child level, will be two measures of language development: verbal comprehension and expressive vocabulary. Secondary outcomes at the child level will be measures of early numeracy, social development and self-regulation. Secondary outcomes at the ECEC room level will be measures of environmental quality derived from full

  16. Recent Coverage of Early Childhood Education Approaches in Open Access Early Childhood Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Burhanettin

    2016-01-01

    A content analysis of the coverage of the major approaches to early childhood education in the early childhood research journals, published between 2010 and 2014, that are early childhood research oriented and have free online access were investigated. Among 21 journals in early childhood education, two journals were selected for the content…

  17. Recent Coverage of Early Childhood Education Approaches in Open Access Early Childhood Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Burhanettin

    2016-01-01

    A content analysis of the coverage of the major approaches to early childhood education in the early childhood research journals, published between 2010 and 2014, that are early childhood research oriented and have free online access were investigated. Among 21 journals in early childhood education, two journals were selected for the content…

  18. The effect of childhood adversity on 4-year outcome in individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis in the Dutch Early Detection Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL) Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, Tamar C; Ising, Helga K; Fokkema, Marjolein; Velthorst, Eva; van den Berg, David P G; Kerkhoven, Margot; Veling, Wim; Smit, Filip; Linszen, Don H.; Nieman, Dorien H; Wunderink, Lex; Boonstra, Nynke; Klaassen, Rianne M C; Dragt, Sara; Rietdijk, Judith; de Haan, Lieuwe; van der Gaag, Mark

    Childhood adversity is associated with a range of mental disorders, functional impairment and higher health care costs in adulthood. In this study we evaluated if childhood adversity was predictive of adverse clinical and functional outcomes and health care costs in a sample of patients at

  19. Early childhood caries: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Lochana; Messer, Louise Brearley

    2004-12-01

    Early childhood caries is the currently accepted term used to describe dental caries occurring in infants and toddlers. It is a multifactorial, transmissible and infectious disease that has recently been under scrutiny in the literature. The microflora, substrate, saliva and host are key factors involved in the pathogenesis, together with the immature host defence system and developing bacterial flora. Immature enamel surfaces and developmental defects of enamel should also be considered in the aetiology. This paper addresses the controversies of the cariogenicity of bovine milk, human breast milk and infant formulas. Clinical management should be planned according to age, extent of lesions, compliance of primary caregivers and where treatment is rendered (private or public sector). Cases of early childhood caries need comprehensive restorative management and preventive treatment together with the help of other health care professionals.

  20. Child-Staff Ratios in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings and Child Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Michal; Fletcher, Brooke; Falenchuk, Olesya; Brunsek, Ashley; McMullen, Evelyn; Shah, Prakesh S.

    2017-01-01

    Child-staff ratios are a key quality indicator in early childhood education and care (ECEC) programs. Better ratios are believed to improve child outcomes by increasing opportunities for individual interactions and educational instruction from staff. The purpose of this systematic review, and where possible, meta-analysis, was to evaluate the association between child-staff ratios in preschool ECEC programs and children’s outcomes. Searches of Medline, PsycINFO, ERIC, websites of large datasets and reference sections of all retrieved articles were conducted up to July 3, 2015. Cross-sectional or longitudinal studies that evaluated the relationship between child-staff ratios in ECEC classrooms serving preschool aged children and child outcomes were independently identified by two reviewers. Data were independently extracted from included studies by two raters and differences between raters were resolved by consensus. Searches revealed 29 eligible studies (31 samples). Child-staff ratios ranged from 5 to 14.5 preschool-aged children per adult with a mean of 8.65. All 29 studies were included in the systematic review. However, the only meta-analysis that could be conducted was based on three studies that explored associations between ratios and children’s receptive language. Results of this meta-analysis were not significant. Results of the qualitative systematic review revealed few significant relationships between child-staff ratios and child outcomes construed broadly. Thus, the available literature reveal few, if any, relationships between child-staff ratios in preschool ECEC programs and children’s developmental outcomes. Substantial heterogeneity in the assessment of ratios, outcomes measured, and statistics used to capture associations limited quantitative synthesis. Other methodological limitations of the research integrated in this synthesis are discussed. PMID:28103288

  1. Improving Quality and Child Outcomes in Early Childhood Education by Redefining the Role Afforded to Teachers in Professional Development: A Continuous Quality Improvement Learning Collaborative among Public Preschools in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, MaryCatherine; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Atwood, Sid; Duran Mellado, Francis Romina; Godoy Ossa, Felipe; Trevino Villareal, Ernesto; Snow, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    Based on evidence derived from studies conducted mostly in the United States, many low- and middle-income countries are investing in early childhood education (ECE), with high expectations that it will improve academic outcomes, increase human capital, promote economic growth and reduce economic inequality. In Chile, there has been a great…

  2. The effects of dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese on longer-term maternal and early childhood outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodd, Jodie M.; Grivell, Rosalie M.; Louise, Jennie

    2017-01-01

    or is being undertaken. The primary maternal outcome is a diagnosis of maternal metabolic syndrome. The primary childhood outcome is BMI above 90%. We have identified 7 relevant trials, involving 5425 women who were overweight or obese during pregnancy, with approximately 3544 women and children with follow...

  3. Robotics in the Early Childhood Classroom: Learning Outcomes from an 8-Week Robotics Curriculum in Pre-Kindergarten through Second Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing focus on the missing "T" of technology and "E" of engineering in early childhood STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) curricula. Robotics offers a playful and tangible way for children to engage with both T and E concepts during their foundational early childhood…

  4. Robotics in the Early Childhood Classroom: Learning Outcomes from an 8-Week Robotics Curriculum in Pre-Kindergarten through Second Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing focus on the missing "T" of technology and "E" of engineering in early childhood STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) curricula. Robotics offers a playful and tangible way for children to engage with both T and E concepts during their foundational early childhood…

  5. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    A policy-to-practice paper is presented of early childhood inclusion in England. The article aims to report the benefits of early intervention services and early childhood inclusion for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), document the chronology of policy development, and discuss research evidence about…

  6. The academic consequences of early childhood problem behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; McLanahan, Sara

    2015-11-01

    Social/emotional skills in early childhood are associated with education, labor market, and family formation outcomes throughout the life course. One explanation for these associations is that poor social/emotional skills in early childhood interfere with the development of cognitive skills. In this paper, we use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=2302) to examine how the timing of social/emotional skills-measured as internalizing, externalizing, and attention problem behaviors in early childhood-is associated with cognitive test scores in middle childhood. Results show that externalizing problems at age 3 and attention problems at age 5, as well as externalizing and attention problems at both ages 3 and 5, are associated with poor cognitive development in middle childhood, net of a wide array of control variables and prior test scores. Surprisingly, maternal engagement at age five does not mediate these associations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental contamination in an Australian mining community and potential influences on early childhood health and behavioural outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chenyin; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Zahran, Sammy

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic, cadmium and lead in aerosols, dusts and surface soils from Australia's oldest continuous lead mining town of Broken Hill were compared to standardised national childhood developmental (year 1) and education performance measures (years 3,5,7,9). Contaminants close to mining operations were elevated with maximum lead levels in soil: 8900 mg/kg; dust wipe: 86,061 μg/m(2); dust deposition: 2950 μg/m(2)/day; aerosols: 0.707 μg/m(3). The proportion of children from Broken Hill central, the area with the highest environmental contamination, presented with vulnerabilities in two or more developmental areas at 2.6 times the national average. Compared with other school catchments of Broken Hill, children in years 3 and 5 from the most contaminated school catchment returned consistently the lowest educational scores. By contrast, children living and attending schools associated with lower environmental contamination levels recorded higher school scores and lower developmental vulnerabilities. Similar results were identified in Australia's two other major lead mining and smelting cities of Port Pirie and Mount Isa.

  8. Quality Measurement in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslow, Martha, Ed.; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse, Ed.; Tout, Kathryn, Ed.; Halle, Tamara, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What constitutes quality in early childhood settings, and how can it best be measured with today's widely used tools and promising new approaches? Find authoritative answers in this book, a must-have for high-level administrators and policymakers as more and more states adopt early childhood Quality Rating and Improvement Systems. The most…

  9. Formative Assessment: Guidance for Early Childhood Policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley-Ayers, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    This policy report provides a guide and framework to early childhood policymakers considering formative assessment. The report defines formative assessment and outlines its process and application in the context of early childhood. The substance of this document is the issues for consideration in the implementation of the formative assessment…

  10. Linking Families and Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Verna

    1985-01-01

    Discusses and uses a global human ecological system framework to analyze family needs in relation to early childhood education. Topics emphasized include family support systems, population trends, health care, employment patterns, and political systems. Suggestions for meeting these needs are addressed to early childhood educators. (DST)

  11. Moving beyond Colorblindness in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutte, Gloria Swindler; Lopez-Robertson, Julia; Powers-Costello, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Countering the position that colorblindness is desirable for teachers and children, this article encourages early childhood education teachers to engage in conversations about race and racism with young children. We discuss why the early childhood years are important for interrupting racism and make suggestions for helping children develop tools…

  12. The Early Childhood Social Skills Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Frank W.; Strain, Phillip S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the Early Childhood Social Skills Program developed at the University of Pittsburgh's Early Childhood Research Institute. The paper discusses specific social skill strategies as well as steps for implementing the peer-mediated social skill program in an integrated preschool setting. (JDD)

  13. Good practices in early childhood education:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Lise; Gregoriadis, Athanasis; Zachopoulou, Evridiki;

    Good practices in early childhood education er en undersøgelse fortaget efter Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale - R (ECERS-R). I undersøgelsen deltog Akademikere, pædagoger og kommunalt personale fra de 6 partnerlande bestående af Grækenland, Portugal, Finland, Danmark, Rumænien og Cyper...

  14. Striving for Quality in Early Childhood Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancato, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    An essential component of best practice in the field of early childhood special education is the inclusion of children with disabilities in typical early childhood settings. As the practice of inclusion has increased in recent years it has become imperative to ensure that children with disabilities attend quality programs. The main purpose of this…

  15. Acute leukemia in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emerenciano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9, E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4, PML/RARA+ve (N = 4, and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2 cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07, OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31 and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.

  16. Early Childhood Nutrition Is Positively Associated with Adolescent Educational Outcomes: Evidence from the Andhra Pradesh Child and Parents Study (APCAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Arindam; Ashok, Ashvin; Kinra, Sanjay; Behrman, Jere R; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2016-03-09

    India's Integrated Child Development Scheme, which provides supplementary nutrition and other public health services to >91 million women and children aged under the Integrated Child Development Scheme with educational outcomes when the children became adolescents. We used longitudinal data from a controlled nutrition trial conducted near the city of Hyderabad, India. From 1987 to 1990, a balanced protein-energy supplement (corn-soya meal, called upma) was offered to pregnant women and children aged Children born during the original trial period were resurveyed (654 intervention and 511 control group children) in 2003-2005. We used propensity score matching methods to correct for estimation bias in our regression models to assess the associations of supplementary nutrition with school enrollment, schooling grades completed, and academic test performance of these adolescents. Children born in intervention villages were 7.8% (95% CI: 0.1%, 15.4%; P children born in control villages. We found no association between supplementary nutrition and academic performance, as measured by school test scores. Offering a nutritional supplement to pregnant women and children children became adolescents. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. [Early outcomes of Asperger's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, A E; Somova, V M

    2013-01-01

    Mental state of adult patients, who since childhood had features of Asperger's syndrome (AS), was studied. We examined 107 patients (89 men and 18 women). At the moment of inclusion in the study, all the patients met criteria of ICD=10 for AS. This was confirmed by the examination of the patients with the help of ASDASQ and ASDI scales. Based on the results of psychopathological and psychological five variants of AS outcomes in the age of early adulthood were identified as follows: integrated, inhibitory, peculiar, border-line and hypernormative. At the moment of examination, psychosocial compensation was observed in 38% of patients, only 28% of patients were on treatment and 20% had a history of transitory psychotic episodes. The authors conclude that the results of the study suggest the relatively favorable prognosis of AS. The differential clinical evaluation of this group as well as implication of adequate psychosocial and psychotherapeutic methods in their treatment is needed.

  18. Progress Developing the Kansas Early Childhood Special Education Accountability System: Initial Findings Using ECO and COSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Walker, Dale; Hornbeck, Marguerite; Hebbeler, Kathleen; Spiker, Donna

    2007-01-01

    Policy decision makers, early educators, and early interventionists face numerous challenges as they develop and implement statewide accountability systems to evaluate and improve children's early intervention and early childhood special education outcomes. Kansas was an early adopter of the Child Outcomes Summary Form (COSF) developed by the…

  19. Managing Asthma in the Early Childhood Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graville, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…

  20. Business Case for Early Childhood Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    America's Promise's ReadyNation initiative has released this brief, which "makes the case" to business leaders on why investing in early childhood should be important to them. The brief includes "how-to" tips, helpful statistics and more.

  1. Women, motherhood and early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper explores the question of how Roma women’s situation influences Roma children’s survival, growth and development in the early years. It focuses specifically on the barriers and opportunities for action that Roma women experience and how these influence their possibilities to engage...... in efforts for their young children. The paper adopts the perspective that in poor and socially excluded Roma communities, young children’s survival, growth and development cannot be addressed effectively if the rights of women are overlooked. Roma women navigate in contexts where they, as women, experience...... an assessment of the mothers’ capacity to internalize and act upon advice. It is argued that supporting Roma women’s access to human rights is likely to have positive outcomes for the women and their families, especially the young children...

  2. Implementation of the Integrated Early Childhood Policy in Senegal. Early Childhood and Family Policy Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayna, Sylvie

    As part of a UNESCO-sponsored series of studies examining how integrated and coordinated early childhood policies are implemented, this case study focuses on Senegal's integrated early childhood policy. The case study examines the context for policy development and analyzes the structure and resources of the Ministry for the Family and Early…

  3. Physical Science in Constructivist Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tsuguhiko; Van Meeteren, Beth Dykstra

    2008-01-01

    Teachers at the Freeburg Early Childhood Program know that experimentation with physical science is of great interest to young children, and can begin as early as the age of 3. The constructivist teachers at this experimental school at the University of Northern Iowa worked for six years to develop a center-based approach to physical science with…

  4. Tracing Early Interventions on Childhood Overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Kia

    This thesis presents results from a qualitative research project on early interventions to counter childhood obesity in Denmark. Overall, it was found that these interventions in families with preschool children were rarely performed. One barrier to the interventions is the structural setting...... to enforce lifestyle changes. Overall, this thesis addresses issues of childhood obesity, inequality in health, health policy, individualization, racialized biases in health care, the role of health care practitioners and insecurity and health....

  5. Design Application Early Childhood Education Based Mobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to make learning media for Early Childhood Education in the form especially its mobile applications for Android-based smartphones. In the process of teaching and learning for Early Childhood Education is still often found constraints experienced teaching force is limited props so that learners are less eager to learn. In addition, parents also have difficulty returning to guide or teach the learning materials at home because it has no alternative instructional media. In compiling this research report author uses the Android-based Mobile Devices Applications created using the Java programming language through the Eclipse editor. Based on the results of the research, concluded that these applications can be applied in the latest version of the Android platform to its current platform version of Jellybean. Application of Learning can be used as an alternative way of learning for Early Childhood Education so as to overcome the lack of props in institutions of Early Childhood Education, can be used to be taught at home, and provide new teaching methods to early childhood so that a form of learning that is obtained is not the monotony of one form of learning how.

  6. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, respiratory outcomes and atopy in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Seif O; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Lawlor, Debbie A; Henderson, A John

    2016-01-01

    Few epidemiological studies have investigated the role of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in the aetiology of childhood respiratory and atopic outcomes.In the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children we examined associations of maternal gestational hypertension, hypertension before pregnancy and pre-eclampsia with wheezing at 18 months, wheezing and asthma at 7 years and lung function at 8-9 years, after controlling for potential confounders (n=5322-8734, depending on outcome).Gestational hypertension was not associated with any of the outcomes. There was weak evidence for a positive association between pre-eclampsia and early wheezing (adjusted OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.94-1.82, compared to normotensive pregnancies) and for negative associations between pre-eclampsia and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (adjusted mean difference in sd score -0.14, 95% CI -0.33-0.06) and maximal mid-expiratory flow (-0.15, 95% CI -0.34-0.04). Hypertension before pregnancy was positively associated with wheezing (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.16-2.31) and asthma (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.00-1.79).Gestational hypertension is unlikely to be a risk factor for childhood respiratory disorders; hypertension before pregnancy may be a risk factor for childhood wheezing and asthma, but this finding needs replication. Larger studies are needed to confirm whether pre-eclampsia is associated with impaired childhood lung function.

  7. Early childhood caries: a New Zealand perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries, primarily a preventable disease, remains the most common chronic disease of childhood and one of the most common reasons for hospital admissions for children in New Zealand. The most vulnerable children are shouldering the burden of the disease, with Maori and Pacific children having greater experience and severity of dental caries. Early childhood caries has deleterious effects on a child’s oral and general health and significant numbers of preschool-aged children experience pain and infection. Early identification by primary health care providers of children at high risk of developing early childhood caries can ensure these children are referred to the appropriate oral health services to receive appropriate and timely management.

  8. Associations of Early- and Later-Childhood Poverty With Child Cognitive Function in Indonesia: Effect Decomposition in the Presence of Exposure-Induced Mediator-Outcome Confounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maika, Amelia; Mittinty, Murthy N; Brinkman, Sally; Lynch, John

    2017-05-15

    The amount of family financial resources available in early life influences child health and development. Using data from the 2000 and 2007 waves of the Indonesian Family Life Survey, we estimated the associations of early-life poverty (at age <7 years) and poverty in later childhood (at age 7-14 years) with cognitive function at age 7-14 years. Our analysis provided little support for the idea that an early intervention to support household income has a larger effect than intervention later in childhood; both seemed equally important. We also decomposed the effect of poverty at age <7 years into direct and indirect effects mediated through poverty and schooling/home environment at age 7-14 years. For decomposing the effects, we used 3 approaches: 1) joint mediators, 2) path-specific, and 3) intervention analog. Being exposed to poverty before age 7 years had a larger direct effect (difference in cognitive function z score) on child cognitive function at age 7-14 years (i.e., joint mediators β = -0.07, 95% confidence interval: -0.12, -0.02) than the indirect effects mediated through later poverty at age 7-14 years (β = -0.01, 95% confidence interval: -0.04, 0.01) and school attendance/home environment at age 7-14 years. The effect of poverty on cognitive function was small; nevertheless, financial intervention may still benefit children's cognitive function. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Longitudinal patterns of poverty and health in early childhood: exploring the influence of concurrent, previous, and cumulative poverty on child health outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the links between poverty and health have often been studied , the dynamics of poverty and physical health in early childhood remain under-investigated. In particular, it is not known whether the health of young children is affected differently from that of adults by patterns of poverty unique to them. Methods We examined patterns of health from 5 to 41 months of age as a function of concurrent, lagged, and chronic exposure to insufficient income. Using data from the first four rounds of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we performed multilevel logistic and multilevel Poisson regressions and latent growth curve analyses to explore associations between exposure to poverty and mother-reported asthma-like attacks, and maternal perception of health status controlling for neonatal, maternal, and environmental characteristics. Results The mean number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks significantly decreased as children aged. The likelihood of being perceived in a poorer health status also decreased across time. Concurrent poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and with a higher risk of being perceived in poorer health status. One-period-lagged poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and this remained significant after controlling for concurrent poverty. The number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks was significantly higher among children in the chronic poverty class compared to those in the never-poor class, particularly at 17 and 29 months. Perceived health status at 5-months was significantly poorer among chronically poor children compared to never-poor children. Conclusion Exposure to poverty negatively affects two major health indicators in early childhood – maternal perception of child health and mother-reported asthma-like attacks. Patterns of the effects vary according to timing and duration of poverty exposure. Further longitudinal research is warranted

  10. Longitudinal patterns of poverty and health in early childhood: exploring the influence of concurrent, previous, and cumulative poverty on child health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Nikiéma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the links between poverty and health have often been studied , the dynamics of poverty and physical health in early childhood remain under-investigated. In particular, it is not known whether the health of young children is affected differently from that of adults by patterns of poverty unique to them. Methods We examined patterns of health from 5 to 41 months of age as a function of concurrent, lagged, and chronic exposure to insufficient income. Using data from the first four rounds of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we performed multilevel logistic and multilevel Poisson regressions and latent growth curve analyses to explore associations between exposure to poverty and mother-reported asthma-like attacks, and maternal perception of health status controlling for neonatal, maternal, and environmental characteristics. Results The mean number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks significantly decreased as children aged. The likelihood of being perceived in a poorer health status also decreased across time. Concurrent poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and with a higher risk of being perceived in poorer health status. One-period-lagged poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and this remained significant after controlling for concurrent poverty. The number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks was significantly higher among children in the chronic poverty class compared to those in the never-poor class, particularly at 17 and 29 months. Perceived health status at 5-months was significantly poorer among chronically poor children compared to never-poor children. Conclusion Exposure to poverty negatively affects two major health indicators in early childhood – maternal perception of child health and mother-reported asthma-like attacks. Patterns of the effects vary according to timing and duration of poverty exposure. Further

  11. Early Attachment Relationships and the Early Childhood Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Alejandra; Herreros, Francisca

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between attachment theory and the early childhood curriculum. During the first years of life children develop early attachment relationships with their primary caregivers. These attachment relationships, either secure or insecure, will shape children's socio-emotional development. In the USA, the predominant…

  12. Critical Questions about Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, Abby; Hebbeler, Kathy; Nelson, Robin; Gundler, Darla; Cate, Debbie; Hudson, Laura; Taylor, Cornelia; Peters, Mary Louise

    2015-01-01

    What is a high-quality statewide data system? One characteristic is that it provides the information needed to address important questions about early intervention and early childhood special education. But what are those questions? What questions should data users, such as program directors, advocates, and policymakers, be asking? The Center for…

  13. Scaffolding conceptual change in early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    1990-01-01

    The general educational literature draws our attention to the limitations of Piaget’s work and presents a number of interesting ideas that science educators and researchers could consider. Of interest are Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky’s writings on the zone of proximal development and the more recent writings of Jerome Bruner on scaffolding. The notion of learning as a a socially constructed process in opposition to the more individualistic orientation of Piaget has challenged much of our educational practice. This paper will briefly explore the basic tenets of constructivism and contrast the theories developed from within this paradigm to the work of Vygotsky and Bruner through an analysis of classroom discourse collected from a number of early childhood classes involved in the interactive teaching approach to science. Transcripts of teacher-child discourse are presented as evidence to support the proposition that when the teacher’s role is not clearly defined, the range of teacher-child interactions will vary enormously, and the subsequent learning outcomes for children will be quite different.

  14. ATLIS. Early Childhood Development and the Electronic Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Nancy P.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the America Tomorrow Leadership Information Service (ATLIS) and how this information can benefit early childhood professionals. Discusses the future of telecommunications in the early childhood profession and includes a glossary of telecommunications terms. (HTH)

  15. Early childhood exposure to media violence: What parents and policymakers ought to know

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caroline Fitzpatrick; Michael Oghia; Jad Melki; Linda Pagani

    2016-01-01

    .... We searched through four decades (1971-2011) of literature for enlightening details on the relationship between early exposure to media violence and health outcomes in later childhood and adolescence...

  16. Cognitive correlates of psychosocial outcome following traumatic brain injury in early childhood: comparisons between groups of children aged under and over 10 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonks, James; Williams, W Huw; Yates, Phil; Slater, Alan

    2011-04-01

    Children with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) commonly present with socioemotional difficulties, as well as accompanying multiple cognitive impairments. Often difficulties worsen at around 10 years old. This change is associated with frontal system changes, and tests of executive function (EF) predict outcome. However, children with TBI sometimes present with socioemotional difficulties despite apparent cognitive recovery. Our aims were to explore potential cognitive and socioemotional effects following childhood TBI, before and after the age of 10 years. We also wanted to identify cognitive correlates of psychosocial dysfunction. Measures of cognitive function and socioemotional disturbance administered to 14 children with TBI aged 8-10 years, and 14 children with TBI aged 10-16 years, were compared to control data from 22 non-injured 8- to 10 year-olds and 67 non-injured 10- to 16-year-olds. Results indicated that only the older group of children with TBI were impaired in tests of EF, but significant socioemotional difficulties were commonly evident in both groups. Processing speed (as well as EF) was found to correlate with socioemotional disturbance. We conclude that poor processing speed may also index the risk of socioemotional difficulties, but our general findings indicate that cognitive functions relevant to socioemotional functioning are not readily testable in younger children and are not strongly associated with such outcomes as they may be in adults.

  17. EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE & EDUCATION: AN ICT PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Mishra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century, technology serves to reinforce the educational bedrock of any country. Technology has revolutionized the teaching learning process by integrating different source of knowledge - clearly visible from primary to post-tertiary level. This paper examines the introduction of ICT in early childhood years centred on the relationship of ICT with the cognitive, emotional and social development of children. The paper discusses various aspects of the ongoing debate around ICT usage in the early years and tries to answer some of the relevant issues namely, the rationale for early introduction of ICT, the perceived risks and benefits involved in its usage, the role of the parents, and fostering appropriate application of ICT in the early childhood classrooms.

  18. Competency-Based Early Childhood Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosberg, Merilee

    This paper describes the competency-based early childhood preservice program at Iowa's Mount Mercy College, which is for people working with children from birth through age 8, including children with special needs. Program content encompasses five competency areas: child growth and development; developmentally appropriate learning; health, safety,…

  19. Inclusive Discourses in Early Childhood Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warming, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the discursive formation of inclusion in early childhood education and after-school (recreation) centres in a Danish municipality. While inclusion has been a central educational issue in research and practice for well over quarter of a century, with continuing emphasis worldwide on "initiatives by governments", this…

  20. Inclusive Discourses in Early Childhood Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warming, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the discursive formation of inclusion in early childhood education and after-school (recreation) centres in a Danish municipality. While inclusion has been a central educational issue in research and practice for well over quarter of a century, with continuing emphasis worldwide on "initiatives by governments", this…

  1. Interculturalism: Addressing Diversity in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponciano, Leslie; Shabazian, Ani

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood educators work with children and families from a range of diverse backgrounds. As society becomes increasingly multiracial, multilingual, and multicultural, so too grows the need for educators' abilities to support children's development by instilling in them the tools they need to live together respectfully and stand up to…

  2. Inclusive discourses in early childhood education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the discursive formation of inclusion in early childhood education and after-school (recreation) centres in a Danish municipality. While inclusion has been a central educational issue in research and practice for well over quarter of a century, with continuing emphasis...

  3. Privatization of Early Childhood Education in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dýrfjörð, Kristín; Magnúsdóttir, Berglind Rós

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive picture of the marketization of early childhood education in Iceland. Our theoretical framework is based on Hursh's (2007) analysis of how the governance of schools is reshaped to serve a neoliberal agenda with the help of internal and external privatization (Ball and Youdell, 2007). In this…

  4. Turkish Early Childhood Educators on Parental Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakyemez, Sevcan

    2015-01-01

    Research conducted over recent decades show that parental involvement plays a significant role in children's academic achievement as well as their cognitive, social and emotional development. For effective parental involvement, understanding the conceptualization of early childhood educators should be significant. This research investigated the…

  5. Early Childhood Education in Northern Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertan, Biran

    The history of early childhood education in Cyprus, from the time of the Ottoman Empire to the present, is reviewed in this paper as the context for reporting on a survey of 1,071 full-time and working Turkish Cypriot mothers regarding the daily difficulties of child rearing. The survey was undertaken to inform policymaking efforts of the…

  6. Early Childhood Teachers Coping with Educational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgallon, Pam; Maloney, Carmel; Lock, Graeme

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a study of early childhood teachers' (educators of children aged four - eight years in school settings) perceptions of key factors which impact on their ability to cope with the implementation of mandated educational change in the workplace. Using qualitative methodology including surveys, focus groups and in-depth interviews,…

  7. An Early Childhood Movement Laboratory Model: Kindergym

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Rip

    2004-01-01

    Early childhood motor activity programs at institutions of higher learning can operate within the tripartite mission of the university while serving a vital function in providing leadership and guidance to educators. This article describes the University of Northern Iowa's Kindergym model. Within this model, curricular areas of games/sports,…

  8. Honoring Diversity in Early Childhood Education Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Robert M.; Santos, Rosa Milagros; Roof, Virginia

    2002-01-01

    This article summarizes guidelines developed by the Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services Early Childhood Research Institute for selecting and adapting materials for young children and their families. Recommendations are provided that community teams should consider in collecting, selecting, and reflecting on materials. Tips are also…

  9. An Approach to Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Walter N.; Yawkey, Thomas D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes an early childhood program for 120 disadvantaged students, ages three to five, developed by the Green County of Eutaw, Alabama, funded under Title III, E.S.E.A., and based on a three component model: community, inservice, and instruction. (JM)

  10. Early Childhood Inclusion in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Cohen, Susan H.; van Bysterveldt, Anne K.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood education is encouraged for all 3- to 5-year-old children in New Zealand (known in the Maori language as Aotearoa) and is supported by a well-constructed bicultural curriculum (Te Whariki) and reasonably generous government funding. However, a number of factors mitigate against inclusion of children with developmental delays and…

  11. Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,…

  12. Bullying Prevention Strategies in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2017-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem that affects the young children's well being. Early childhood educators find it difficult to manage bullying in the classroom. Preschool is the first environment outside of the home setting where children encounter difficulties when they socially interact with their peers. Based on the principles of protecting and…

  13. Agentive and Communitarian Play in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytro, Dana; Kubiliene, Neringa; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    2014-01-01

    Play has long been recognised as a vehicle by which significant developmental advances occur during early childhood. Children use play to explore their relationships, their psychosocial skills, and their environment, and through their experiences, they begin to adopt specific capacities and values that have an impact on future socio-emotional and…

  14. Early Childhood Poverty: A Statistical Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Younghwan; Lu, Hsien-Hen

    Noting that young children in poverty face a greater likelihood of impaired development because of their increased exposure to a number of risk factors associated with poverty, this report presents statistical information on the incidence of poverty during early childhood. The report notes that the poverty rate for U.S. children under age 3…

  15. Learning History in Early Childhood: Teaching Methods and Children's Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjaeveland, Yngve

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the teaching of history in early childhood education and care centres and children's understanding of history. Based on interviews with eight Norwegian early childhood education and care teachers and on interpretative phenomenological analysis, the article shows how the early childhood education and care centres teach…

  16. Early onset (childhood) monogenic neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrieu, Pierre; Baets, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathies (HN) with onset in childhood are categorized according to clinical presentation, pathogenic mechanism based on electrophysiology, genetic transmission and, in selected cases, pathological findings. Especially relevant to pediatrics are the items "secondary" versus "primary" neuropathy, "syndromic versus nonsyndromic," and "period of life." Different combinations of these parameters frequently point toward specific monogenic disorders. Ruling out a neuropathy secondary to a generalized metabolic disorder remains the first concern in pediatrics. As a rule, metabolic diseases include additional, orienting symptoms or signs, and their biochemical diagnosis is based on logical algorithms. Primary, motor sensory are the most frequent HN and are dominated by demyelinating autosomal dominant (AD) forms (CMT1). Other forms include demyelinating autosomal recessive (AR) forms, axonal AD/AR forms, and forms with "intermediate" electrophysiological phenotype. Peripheral motor neuron disorders are dominated by AR SMN-linked spinal muscular atrophies. (Distal) hereditary motor neuropathies represent 40 genes with various biological functions have been found to be responsible for primary HN. Many are responsible for various phenotypes, including some without the polyneuropathic trait, and some for various types of transmission.

  17. Early Childhood Inclusion in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Coral R.

    2016-01-01

    From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…

  18. Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Pia R; Lye, Stephen J; Proulx, Kerrie; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Matthews, Stephen G; Vaivada, Tyler; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Nirmala; Ip, Patrick; Fernald, Lia C H; MacMillan, Harriet; Hanson, Mark; Wachs, Theodore D; Yao, Haogen; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Cerezo, Adrian; Leckman, James F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-01-07

    The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection. Our review concludes that to make interventions successful, smart, and sustainable, they need to be implemented as multi-sectoral intervention packages anchored in nurturing care. The recommendations emphasise that intervention packages should be applied at developmentally appropriate times during the life course, target multiple risks, and build on existing delivery platforms for feasibility of scale-up. While interventions will continue to improve with the growth of developmental science, the evidence now strongly suggests that parents, caregivers, and families need to be supported in providing nurturing care and protection in order for young children to achieve their developmental potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Women, motherhood and early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper explores the question of how Roma women’s situation influences Roma children’s survival, growth and development in the early years. It focuses specifically on the barriers and opportunities for action that Roma women experience and how these influence their possibilities to engage...... in efforts for their young children. The paper adopts the perspective that in poor and socially excluded Roma communities, young children’s survival, growth and development cannot be addressed effectively if the rights of women are overlooked. Roma women navigate in contexts where they, as women, experience...... multiple barriers to their agency in particular due to multiple forms of discrimination and living in poverty on the margins of society. In such contexts of disempowerment, programme responses are likely to meet with limited success if they seek to teach mothers about child care and rearing, without...

  20. Early Childhood Service Delivery for Families Living with Childhood Disability: Disabling Families through Problematic Implicit Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Lauren J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to unpack the implicit ideology underpinning early childhood service delivery for families living with childhood disability. The family as the unit of care is central to the philosophy and practice of early childhood services. However, the practice of family-centred care can be problematic; it is based upon neo-liberal…

  1. The clinical outcome of childhood masturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, F

    2000-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the clinical outcome of childhood masturbation. For this purpose 50 children (mean age = 48.7 +/- 24.5 months, 34 girls females and 16 boys males) with masturbation symptoms were examined at first visit to the Department of Child Psychiatry and two years thereafter with psychiatric interviews. The mean masturbation frequency at the initial interview was significantly decreased after two years. It was noted that 39 children (78%) were completely recovered and 11 children (22%) continued to masturbate after two years. Children who did not recover were significantly younger, began to masturbate earlier and masturbated more frequently than others at the time of initial evaluation. It was concluded that the findings about the beneficial effect of sedative drugs in combination with parental guidance, education and means for behavior modification were promising.

  2. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of a Measure of Staff/Child Interaction Quality (the Classroom Assessment Scoring System) in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings and Child Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Michal; Falenchuk, Olesya; Fletcher, Brooke; McMullen, Evelyn; Beyene, Joseph; Shah, Prakesh S

    2016-01-01

    The quality of staff/child interactions as measured by the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) programs is thought to be important for children's outcomes. The CLASS is made of three domains that assess Emotional Support, Classroom Organization and Instructional Support. It is a relatively new measure that is being used increasingly for research, quality monitoring/accountability and other applied purposes. Our objective was to evaluate the association between the CLASS and child outcomes. Searches of Medline, PsycINFO, ERIC, websites of large datasets and reference sections of all retrieved articles were conducted up to July 3, 2015. Studies that measured association between the CLASS and child outcomes for preschool-aged children who attended ECEC programs were included after screening by two independent reviewers. Searches and data extraction were conducted by two independent reviewers. Thirty-five studies were systematically reviewed of which 19 provided data for meta-analyses. Most studies had moderate to high risk of bias. Of the 14 meta-analyses we conducted, associations between Classroom Organization and Pencil Tapping and between Instructional Support and SSRS Social Skills were significant with pooled correlations of .06 and .09 respectively. All associations were in the expected direction. In the systematic review, significant correlations were reported mainly from one large dataset. Substantial heterogeneity in use of the CLASS, its dimensions, child outcomes and statistical measures was identified. Greater consistency in study methodology is urgently needed. Given the multitude of factors that impact child development it is encouraging that our analyses revealed some, although small, associations between the CLASS and children's outcomes.

  3. Stories and narratives in early childhood education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline de Fatima dos Santos Morais

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of oral and written narrative for the maintenance of tradition and history of each one of us, in a society that seems to valorize the information more than the stories lived and told. It stresses the need, at school, of the teachers to read stories to children from early childhood education to boys and girls love to the world of literature. The text also contains situations en countered in schools that show the value of reading and the magic that literature provides in the lives of children.

  4. STANDARD ANALYSIS OF TEACHERS AND EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayid Habiburrahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Public awareness of the importance of early childhood education is getting better with the emergence of various forms of diverse early childhood institutions. This phenomenon is very interesting to continue to develop early childhood education program. This consciousness departs from understanding the purpose of early childhood education programs that facilitate the optimal growth and development of children in accordance with the norms and values. Through proper educational programs, the child will be Able to develop all potentials, from the physical aspect, social, moral, emotional, personality and the other aspects.

  5. Factors associated with dental care utilization in early childhood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Darmawikarta, Denise; Chen, Yang; Carsley, Sarah; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Schroth, Robert J; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2014-01-01

    To identify sociodemographic, dietary, and biological factors associated with families who do not receive dental care in early childhood and to identify risk factors associated with having cavities...

  6. NAEYC Early Childhood Program Standards and Accreditation Criteria: The Mark of Quality in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redleaf Press, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) administers the nation's largest and most widely recognized accreditation system for child care centers, preschools, kindergartens, and other early childhood education programs. The standards and accreditation criteria included in this book were approved by the NAEYC Governing…

  7. Early Childhood Policy Focus: Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 2, Issue 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, David; Mackintosh, Bonnie; McCoy-Roth, Marci

    2011-01-01

    The importance of good nutrition and exercise is well known, and parents have long worried about their children's diets and envied their high energy levels. Like so many life style habits, patterns of nutrition and exercise behaviors are typically established in early childhood. Poor diet and lack of exercise contribute to obesity, which has been…

  8. Early Childhood Policy Focus: Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 2, Issue 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, David; Mackintosh, Bonnie; McCoy-Roth, Marci

    2011-01-01

    The importance of good nutrition and exercise is well known, and parents have long worried about their children's diets and envied their high energy levels. Like so many life style habits, patterns of nutrition and exercise behaviors are typically established in early childhood. Poor diet and lack of exercise contribute to obesity, which has been…

  9. Integrated and Early Childhood Education: Preparation for Social Development. Theme A: Relevant Provision for Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axton, J. H. M.

    Factors which influence child development are listed and briefly discussed. These factors are (1) mother's childhood, (2) mother's age, (3) care during pregnancy and delivery, (4) early neonatal factors, (5) birth interval, (6) effect of repeated infection and malnutrition on brain growth and intellectual development, and (7) home environment. The…

  10. Prenatal maternal anxiety and early childhood temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Megan M; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2011-11-01

    The consequences of exposure to prenatal maternal anxiety for the development of child temperament were examined in a sample of 120 healthy, 2-year-old children. Prenatal maternal state and pregnancy-specific anxiety (PSA) were measured five times during pregnancy, and maternal state anxiety was measured again at 2 years post partum. Child temperament was measured at 2 years using the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. The relationship between the trajectory of maternal anxiety across gestation and negative affectivity was evaluated using hierarchical linear growth curve modeling. Higher maternal PSA between 13 and 17 weeks of gestation was associated with increased negative temperament in the children. This association could not be explained by postnatal maternal anxiety, demographic, or obstetric factors. Prenatal maternal state anxiety was not associated with child temperament. These findings demonstrate that PSA early in gestation has a distinctive influence on the developing fetus.

  11. Low income/socio-economic status in early childhood and physical health in later childhood/adolescence: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Nick; Thanh, Tu Mai; Louise, Séguin

    2013-04-01

    To systematically review the literature on the relationship between early childhood low income/socioeconomic status (SES) and physical health in later childhood/adolescence, to identify gaps in the literature and to suggest new avenues for research. A systematic search of electronic databases from their start date to November 2011 was conducted to identify prospective longitudinal studies in industrialized countries with a measure of low income/SES in the first 5 years of life and physical health outcomes in later childhood or adolescence. STROBE criteria were used to assess study quality. Risk estimates were expressed as odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals where possible. Heterogeneity of studies precluded meta-analysis. Nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Significant associations of early childhood low income/SES with activity-limiting illness, parent-reported poor health status, acute and recurrent infections, increasing BMI percentile and hospitalization were reported. Results for parent-reported asthma were less consistent: there was a significant association with low income/SES in early childhood in 2 studies but null findings in 3 others. This systematic review of the association of early childhood low income/SES with physical health status in later childhood and adolescence shows that, in contrast to the extensive literature on the impact of poor childhood social circumstances on adult health, the evidence base is limited. The literature points to some associations of early low income/SES with later poor health status, but many key research questions remain unanswered. Implications for further research are considered.

  12. Callous-Unemotional Behaviors in Early Childhood: Measurement, Meaning, and the Influence of Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Hyde, Luke

    2017-06-01

    Antisocial behavior is costly and harmful to families, communities, and society. With roots in early childhood, antisocial behavior puts children at risk for poor physical and mental health outcomes across development. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits identify a subgroup of youth with particularly severe and stable antisocial behavior. While much literature has examined CU traits in late childhood and adolescence, researchers are just beginning to elucidate the developmental origins of CU traits. In this article, we review research examining the measurement and correlates of CU behaviors in early childhood, along with evidence that these early behaviors predict later measures of CU traits. We then describe research highlighting the role that parents play in the development of CU behaviors in early childhood. Finally, we outline translational implications and ethical considerations for studying CU behaviors and consider the use of the term CU traits in young children.

  13. [Having the best intentions is necessary but not sufficient--quality dimensions for early childhood interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann, Tanja; Brand, Tilman

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood interventions are a promising strategy to improve the development of children in socially disadvantaged families and to reduce their risk for abuse and neglect. However, proven effects are small with substantial variations between existing programs depending on differences in program planning and implementation. On the basis of international findings on the effectiveness of early childhood intervention, health promotion, and implementation research, we provide an overview of different quality aspects in the development, implementation, and evaluation of early childhood interventions, and a framework for future quality assessment of early childhood intervention programs in Germany. Scaling up of these programs should be accompanied by intensive quality assessment and development in order to achieve the intended outcomes.

  14. Early Childhood Socialization: Societal Context and Childrearing Values in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayfield, April; Korintus, Marta

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the socio-cultural context of early childhood socialization in Hungary. Using a macroscopic lens, we describe the national demographic situation and the social organization of early childhood education and care. Our analysis then shifts to a microscopic focus on parental values and beliefs about the substance of what young…

  15. Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation: Common Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Mary-alayne; Spence, Christine M.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2015-01-01

    As the field of early childhood mental health continues to expand and evolve, the evidence base is growing, and early childhood mental health consultation is viewed as a promising practice. However, there continues to be a need for further research, with particular attention given to the utility and effectiveness of this approach with infants and…

  16. Leadership Lessons from the State Early Childhood Policy Leadership Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Helene

    2004-01-01

    The State Early Childhood Policy Leadership Forum seeks to build state capacity to develop and strengthen statewide, cross-system early childhood policies and programs. The Forum provides intense leadership retreats, professional development opportunities, policy discussions, and one-on-one technical assistance for individuals who are leading…

  17. When Fewer Is More: Small Groups in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Small group instruction is important yet it is one of the most underused strategies in early childhood classrooms. This paper presents guidelines based on research-based best practices for using small groups in early childhood. In addition, the benefits of small group instruction for both children and teachers are described. Specific suggestions…

  18. The Role of Staff in Quality Improvement in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Margaret; Waniganayake, Manjula

    2015-01-01

    There is international recognition of the importance of high quality services for young children with a consensus that three pillars contribute to quality improvement: adult: child ratios, staff qualifications and group size. In Australia over the past 5 years, early childhood policy has attempted to drive improvements in early childhood service…

  19. Styles of Documentation in German Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The pedagogical documentation of educational processes in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) centres is an important concern of early childhood education. Its purpose is to make learning visible and to stimulate discussion between educators and parents. In the academic discourse, however, pedagogical documentation is subject to differing…

  20. "I Have a Hippopotamus!": Preparing Effective Early Childhood Environmental Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquati, Julia; Leeper-Miller, Jennifer; Hamel, Erin; Hong, Soo-Young; Sarver, Susan; Rupiper, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    This article describes an early childhood teacher-preparation program that infuses environmental education and nature experiences into courses, practicum, and student-teaching experiences. Program philosophy, pedagogy, materials, and methods are described and linked to the Early Childhood Environmental Education Programs: Guidelines for…

  1. Effects of Critical Thinking Intervention for Early Childhood Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…

  2. Motivation, Work Satisfaction, and Teacher Change among Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Brigid Daly; French, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    This study tests the explanatory power of Deci and Ryan's (1985) self-determination theory as a framework for describing how interactions between early childhood teachers and the systems within which their work is embedded influence motivation for professional growth and change in teaching practice. Fifty-four early childhood teachers and teacher…

  3. Literature Sources in Elementary and Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Ruta Bulderis

    This bibliometric study assesses literature sources of elementary and early childhood education documents by examining, over a 30-month period, documents entered into the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) data base by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education. The document collection is sorted into three…

  4. Multicultural Teaching Competence of Korean Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungok R.

    2016-01-01

    Discourse among early childhood education researchers increasingly emphasizes the need for teachers to better understand and support diversity in their classrooms. As part of a larger mixed-method study, this qualitative research illuminates Korean early childhood educators' multicultural teaching competence. While Korean classrooms are in…

  5. Making the Case for Early Childhood Investments: Three Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Tamar Manuelyan Atinc, vice president of The World Bank, introduces a World Bank report, "Investing in Young Children: An Early Childhood Development Guide for Policy Dialogue and Project Preparation". This report, which is a must for inclusion in every advocate's make the case for investing in early childhood services. It defines three arguments…

  6. Classroom Effects of an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algozzine, Bob; Babb, Julie; Algozzine, Kate; Mraz, Maryann; Kissel, Brian; Spano, Sedra; Foxworth, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development (ECEPD) project that provided high-quality, sustained, and intensive professional development designed to support developmentally appropriate instruction for preschool-age children based on the best available research on early childhood pedagogy, child development, and preschool…

  7. Assessment Practices and Training Needs of Early Childhood Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rashida; Luckner, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment plays a critical role in the planning and delivery of quality services for young children and their families. The purpose of this study was to identify the current assessment practices and training needs of early childhood professionals. A large sample of early childhood professionals responded to a comprehensive survey. The most…

  8. Writing and Publishing Qualitative Studies in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2017-01-01

    When a study is published in a respected professional journal, it not only verifies that the research has been completed but also that it has been subjected to anonymous peer review. Published results from studies in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge and provide direction to guide future early childhood education…

  9. Early Childhood Education: History, Theory, and Practice. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Harry Morgan lays the foundations of what early childhood education is by integrating the history of the field with the philosophy and theories behind this discipline. From birth to age eight, when children become integrated into society through their education at school and at home, "Early Childhood Education" examines the education of this age…

  10. Shared-Reading Volume in Early Childhood Special Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Justice, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes book reading practices occurring in early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms in comparison to early childhood education (ECE) classrooms. Reading logs submitted by 19 ECSE teachers and 13 ECE teachers over one academic year included all books read in whole class settings; these logs were analyzed to assess the…

  11. Renovating Early Childhood Education Pedagogy: A Case Study in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Dang Phuong; Boyd, Wendy Anne

    2014-01-01

    Since 2003, the Vietnamese government has prioritised curriculum reform efforts and commitment to improving the quality of the national curriculum. The Vietnamese early childhood education renovation has encountered considerable changes and challenges, particularly in the area of pedagogical approaches. Many early childhood teachers continue to…

  12. A Nordic Perspective on Early Childhood Education and Care Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    The national policies and historical roots of early childhood education (ECE) vary from society to society. In the Nordic countries, early childhood education and care (ECEC) policies have been built in the context of the welfare state. As such, they are closely connected to other welfare policy areas such as social policy, family policy and…

  13. Aesthetic Discourses in Early Childhood Settings: Dewey, Steiner, and Vygotsky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Booyeun

    2004-01-01

    Early childhood, when young children are already capable of undergoing aesthetic experience, must be the starting point for aesthetic education. Despite increasing attention to the significant values of the arts in early childhood classrooms, no theoretical framework to support aesthetic education has been established. This article introduces the…

  14. Multicultural Teaching Competence of Korean Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungok R.

    2016-01-01

    Discourse among early childhood education researchers increasingly emphasizes the need for teachers to better understand and support diversity in their classrooms. As part of a larger mixed-method study, this qualitative research illuminates Korean early childhood educators' multicultural teaching competence. While Korean classrooms are in…

  15. Unsettling Representational Practices: Inhabiting Relational Becomings in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nxumalo, Fikile

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to unsettle representational practices enacted through dominant multicultural pedagogical approaches in the early childhood classroom. Drawing from a research study in early childhood centers that investigated practitioners' and children's negotiations of racial difference, I explore how multicultural pedagogical approaches in…

  16. Stress in Early Childhood: Helping Children and Their Carers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Patrice

    2006-01-01

    This book offers practical and effective strategies for stress management for both early childhood staff and the children in their care. Here, the author uncovers valuable insights into the causes of stress and outlines a range of activities to counteract it. Early childhood practitioners know that theirs is both a stressful and rewarding…

  17. Classroom Effects of an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algozzine, Bob; Babb, Julie; Algozzine, Kate; Mraz, Maryann; Kissel, Brian; Spano, Sedra; Foxworth, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development (ECEPD) project that provided high-quality, sustained, and intensive professional development designed to support developmentally appropriate instruction for preschool-age children based on the best available research on early childhood pedagogy, child development, and preschool…

  18. Retention of Staff in the Early Childhood Education Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holochwost, Steven J.; DeMott, Kerri; Buell, Martha; Yannetta, Kelly; Amsden, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    What incentives can the administrators of early childhood education facilities offer their staff in order to retain them? In light of research identifying low staff turnover as a key component of high quality early childhood education, the answer to this question has ramifications beyond human-resources management. This paper presents the results…

  19. Writing and Publishing Qualitative Studies in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2017-01-01

    When a study is published in a respected professional journal, it not only verifies that the research has been completed but also that it has been subjected to anonymous peer review. Published results from studies in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge and provide direction to guide future early childhood education…

  20. Long-term outcome of childhood absence epilepsy : Dutch Study of Epilepsy in Childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callenbach, Petra M. C.; Bouma, Paul A. D.; Geerts, Ada T.; Arts, Willem Frans M.; Stroink, Hans; Peeters, Els A. J.; van Donselaar, Cees A.; Peters, A. C. Boudewijn; Brouwer, Oebele F.

    2009-01-01

    We determined long-term outcome and the predictive value of baseline and EEG characteristics on seizure activity evolution in 47 children with newly diagnosed childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) included in the Dutch Study of Epilepsy in Childhood. All children were followed for 12-17 years. The childr

  1. The Early Childhood Roots of Violence and Non-Violence: What We Can Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews research concerning the origins of violent behavior in the early childhood years. Discusses the importance of early childhood intervention, and offers recommendations for the coordination of intervention efforts by behavior specialists and early childhood educators. (Author/EV)

  2. Project ELI: Improving Early Literacy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robin Miller; Chandler, Lynette K.; Shields, LuAnn; Laubenstein, Pam; Butts, Jill; Black, Kristine

    2008-01-01

    Early childhood and elementary-level educators are engaging in conversations about how to coordinate their efforts to develop fluent readers. There is evidence that key early literacy skills that are predictive of subsequent literacy achievement in kindergarten and first grade can be taught to preschool-age children. Moreover, early childhood…

  3. EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES: CAN YOU PREVENT IT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Miloserdova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The probability of the caries development largely depends on the oral microflora imbalance. This imbalance can be corrected with probiotics. The article analyzes the results of studies on the use of adapted milk formulas with probiotics to prevent caries in early childhood. It shows that the use of adapted formulas with probiotics is accompanied by a decrease in the frequency of releasing cariogenic streptococci and actinomycetes with a simultaneous increase in the frequency of detecting bacterial antagonists of the cariogenic flora, normalization of sIgA concentration in saliva, and decrease in the severity of the caries process. The survey results will contribute to the development of effective approaches to prevention of dental caries in children.

  4. Frequency of Six Early Childhood Education Approaches: A 10-Year Content Analysis of Early Childhood Education Journal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Petty, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The frequency of early childhood education approaches spanning 10 years of publications was investigated. A content analysis of publications (N = 492) from "Early Childhood Education Journal" was conducted. From a previous content analysis six approaches or search words were identified: Bank Street, Head Start, High/Scope, Montessori, Reggio…

  5. Infant self-regulation and early childhood media exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radesky, Jenny S; Silverstein, Michael; Zuckerman, Barry; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2014-05-01

    Examine prospective associations between parent-reported early childhood self-regulation problems and media exposure (television and video viewing) at 2 years. We hypothesized that children with poor self-regulation would consume more media, possibly as a parent coping strategy. We used data from 7450 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. When children were 9 months and 2 years old, parents completed the Infant Toddler Symptom Checklist (ITSC), a validated scale of self-regulation. With daily media use at 2 years as our outcome, we conducted weighted multivariable regression analyses, controlling for child, maternal, and household characteristics. Children watched an average of 2.3 hours per day (SD 1.9) of media at age 2 years. Infants with poor self-regulation (9-month ITSC score ≥3) viewed 0.23 hour per day (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12-0.35) more media at 2 years compared with those with 9-month ITSC score of 0 to 2; this remained significant in adjusted models (0.15 hour per day [95% CI 0.02-0.28]). Children rated as having persistent self-regulation problems (ITSC ≥3 at both 9 months and 2 years) were even more likely to consume media at age 2 (adjusted β 0.21 hour per day [95% CI 0.03-0.39]; adjusted odds ratio for >2 hours per day 1.40 [95% CI 1.14-1.71]). These associations were slightly stronger in low socioeconomic status and English-speaking households. Early childhood self-regulation problems are associated with mildly increased media exposure, even after controlling for important confounding variables. Understanding this relationship may provide insight into helping parents reduce their children's screen time. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Swiftly Decreasing Cerebrospinal Fluid Cathelicidin Concentration Predicts Improved Outcome in Childhood Bacterial Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, Okko; Helve, Otto; Roine, Irmeli; Andersson, Sture; Fernández, Josefina; Peltola, Heikki; Pelkonen, Tuula

    2016-06-01

    We investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cathelicidin concentrations in childhood bacterial meningitis on admission and during antimicrobial treatment. CSF cathelicidin concentrations on admission correlated with CSF white cell counts and protein levels but not with bacterial etiology. A greater decrease in the concentration in response to treatment was associated with a better outcome. Since the CSF cathelicidin concentration reflects the degree of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, it may be used as a novel biomarker in childhood bacterial meningitis. An early decrease during treatment likely signals more rapid mitigation of the disease process and thus a better outcome.

  7. Risk analysis of early childhood eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Halkjaer, Liselotte B; Hinge, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of eczema suggests the role of environmental factors triggering a genetic predisposition. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of environmental exposures in early life and genetic predisposition on the development of eczema before age 3 years. METHODS: The Copenh......BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of eczema suggests the role of environmental factors triggering a genetic predisposition. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of environmental exposures in early life and genetic predisposition on the development of eczema before age 3 years. METHODS......: The Copenhagen Study on Asthma in Childhood is a prospective clinical study of a birth cohort of 411 children born of mothers with asthma. Eczema was diagnosed, treated, and monitored at the clinical research unit, and complete follow-up for the first 3 years of life was available for 356 children. Risk...... assessments included filaggrin loss-of-function mutation; parent's atopic disease; sex; social status; previous deliveries; third trimester complications and exposures; anthropometrics at birth; month of birth; duration solely breast-fed; introduction of egg, cow's milk, and fish; time spent in day care; cat...

  8. The Association between Maternal 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration during Gestation and Early Childhood Cardio-metabolic Outcomes: Is There Interaction with Pre-Pregnancy BMI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Jessica Hrudey

    Full Text Available Both maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD status and pre-pregnancy BMI (pBMI may influence offspring cardio-metabolic outcomes. Lower 25OHD concentrations have been observed in women with both low and high pBMIs, but the combined influence of pBMI and 25OHD on offspring cardio-metabolic outcomes is unknown. Therefore, this study investigated the role of pBMI in the association between maternal 25OHD concentration and cardio-metabolic outcomes in 5-6 year old children. Data were obtained from the ABCD cohort study and 1882 mother-child pairs were included. The offspring outcomes investigated were systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, BMI, body fat percentage (%BF, waist-to-height ratio, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, C-peptide, and insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR. 62% of the C-peptide samples were below the detection limit and were thus imputed using survival analysis. Models were corrected for maternal and offspring covariates and tested for interaction with pBMI. Interaction with pBMI was observed in the associations with insulin resistance markers: in offspring of overweight mothers (≥25.0 kg/m2, a 10 nmol/L increase in maternal 25OHD was associated with a 0.007(99%CI:-0.01,-0.001 nmol/L decrease in C-peptide and a 0.02(99%CI:-0.03,-0.004 decrease in HOMA2-IR. When only non-imputed data were analyzed, there was a trend for interaction in the relationship but the results lost significance. Interaction with pBMI was not observed for the other outcomes. A 10 nmol/L increase in maternal 25OHD was significantly associated with a 0.13%(99%CI:-0.3,-0.003 decrease in %BF after correction for maternal and child covariates. Thus, intrauterine exposure to both low 25OHD and maternal overweight may be associated with increased insulin resistance in offspring, while exposure to low 25OHD in utero may be associated with increased offspring %BF with no interactive effects from pBMI. Due to the

  9. The VicGeneration study - a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Dashper Stuart; Gussy Mark; Calache Hanny; de Silva-Sanigorski Andrea M; Gibson Jane; Waters Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental caries (decay) during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries) is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a ...

  10. The Nordic perspective on early childhood education and care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Einarsdottier, Johanna; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    as a positive societal view on ECEC. The section Development of ECEC pedagogies in Nordic countries discusses the basic educational ideas for each country and gives an account of how early childhood services and education have progressed in recent decades. Following this, the section Guidelines for ECEC......This chapter discusses a number of central dimensions and dilemmas of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in the Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The two first sections, Early Childhood Education and Care an integrated part of the welfare system, democracy...

  11. Early childhood television viewing predicts explosive leg strength and waist circumference by middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzpatrick Caroline

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Methods Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the standing long jump test (SLJ and fourth grade waist circumference. Results Controlling for many potentially confounding child and family variables, each hour per week of television watched at 29 months corresponded to a .361 cm decrease in SLJ, 95% CI between -.576 and -.145. A one hour increase in average weekly television exposure from 29 to 53 months was associated with a further .285 cm reduction in SLJ test performance, 95% CI between -.436 and -.134 cm and corresponded to a .047 cm increase in waistline circumference, 95% CI between .001 and .094 cm. Interpretation Watching television excessively in early childhood, may eventually compromise muscular fitness and waist circumference in children as they approach pubertal age.

  12. Diet quality in early pregnancy and its effects on fetal growth outcomes: the Infancia y Medio Ambiente (Childhood and Environment) Mother and Child Cohort Study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bernal, Clara L; Rebagliato, Marisa; Iñiguez, Carmen; Vioque, Jesús; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva M; Murcia, Mario; Bolumar, Francisco; Marco, Alfredo; Ballester, Ferran

    2010-06-01

    Maternal diet has been associated with fetal growth outcomes; however, evidence is scarce on the role of dietary quality. The objective was to assess the effect of diet quality during the first trimester of pregnancy, as measured by the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) adapted for pregnancy, on fetal growth. We studied 787 women and their newborns from a Spanish cohort study. Diet quality was assessed by using a modification of the AHEI. Adjusted birth weight, birth length, and head circumference were used as continuous outcomes. We used a customized model to define fetal growth restriction in weight, length, and head circumference. After adjustment of multivariate models, a positive association was observed between diet quality and adjusted birth weight and adjusted birth length. The greatest differences were found between the fourth and first quintiles of the AHEI. Newborns of women in the fourth quintile were on average 126.3 g (95% CI: 38.5, 213.9 g) heavier and 0.47 cm (95% CI: 0.08, 0.86 cm) longer than those in the lowest quintile (P for trend = 0.009 and 0.013, respectively). Women with the highest AHEI scores had a significantly lower risk of delivering a fetal growth-restricted infant for weight (odds ratio: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.55; P for trend = 0.001) than did women in the lowest quintile, but this was not the case for fetal growth restriction in length (P for trend = 0.538) or head circumference (P for trend = 0.070). A high-quality diet in the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with birth size and the risk of fetal growth restriction.

  13. Early childhood identity: ethnicity and acculturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available How are concepts such as ethnic identity, acculturation and cultural orientation being perceived by a child? What is the process of identity construction in early preschool age? How is children’s wellbeing affected by parents’ desire to expose them to a certain culture, other than the one the children were born into? How natural is learning a foreign language for children, given a multiethnic space characterized by adversity and disparities such as “them”-“us”? And what are the potential outcomes of the phenomena in question? These are a few questions that the current study reflectively followed up upon by using a qualitative research design and data triangulation in order to increase its validity. The SDQ Questionnaire used to study the children’s wellbeing, the semi-structured “in-depth” interviews conducted on the main early preschool identity builders in the Cristian community and the participative observation indicated the children were proud to be part of the German department group. They did not undergo a brutal process of affiliation to the Saxon ethnicity due to the educators’ various compromises, and their wellbeing didn’t seem to be affected at the SDQ administration stage. However, learning German proved to be a difficult process and the two potential outcomes included hitting the language barrier or resuming adaptation to the native ethnic code. This study highlights the impact of the cultural code on the early identity foundation.

  14. Early Childhood Educators' Perceived and Actual Metalinguistic Knowledge, Beliefs and Enacted Practice about Teaching Early Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Results of influential reports on early literacy have drawn attention to the need for early childhood educators to take up a more explicit, teacher-directed approach to beginning reading. Positive classroom results however are in part dependent upon teacher knowledge and this study investigated the relationship between early childhood educators'…

  15. Re-Envisioning Special Education Practica for General Early Childhood Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derer, Kristine Renee

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of special education practica for early childhood general education majors first considers exo- and meso-system issues that either enhance or constrain the redesign of the practicum experience. It then reports findings on student outcomes of 32 students who participated in a redesigned practicum. (Contains 5 references.) (DB)

  16. Coaching Conversations in Early Childhood Programs: The Contributions of Coach and Coachee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Gayatri; Marvin, Christine; Knoche, Lisa; Bainter, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Studies to date have linked early childhood (EC) coaching to child, family, and teacher outcomes but have not investigated "what" is happening in a coaching conversation. This exploratory study specifically unpacks nuances associated with the coaching conversation process and associations between the EC coaches' behaviors and coachees'…

  17. Obesity Prevention Interventions in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings with Parental Involvement: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie

    2015-01-01

    Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. A…

  18. Obesity Prevention Interventions in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings with Parental Involvement: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie

    2015-01-01

    Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. A…

  19. Early Childhood Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3869

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schady, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that young children in many developing countries suffer from profound deficits in nutrition, health, fine and gross motor skills, cognitive development, and socio-emotional development. Early childhood development (ECD) outcomes are important markers of the welfare of children. In addition, the deleterious effects of…

  20. Early Childhood Teachers' Use of Effective Instructional Practices and the Collateral Effects on Young Children's Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Maureen A.; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Vo, Abigail K.; Carr, Staci; Ogston, Paula L.

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of a classroom-based intervention, Behavioral, Emotional, and Social Training: Competent Learners Achieving School Success (BEST in CLASS), on teacher behaviors and child outcomes in early childhood classrooms. First, we examined the effects of professional development training and practice-based coaching…

  1. Contributions of School-Based Parenting and Family Literacy Centres in an Early Childhood Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Kathryn; Trent-Kratz, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, governments are seeking ways to integrate early childhood education and care services as a social policy strategy to maximize child and family outcomes. This study examines the role of a school-based parenting and family literacy program to a system of services in one community in Ontario, Canada. Using an appreciative inquiry…

  2. Identifying the Factors that Influence Computer Use in the Early Childhood Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Suzy

    2005-01-01

    Computers have become an increasingly accepted learning tool in the early childhood classroom. Despite initial concerns regarding the effect of computers on children's development, past research has indicated that computer use by young children can support their learning and developmental outcomes (Siraj-Blatchford & Whitebread, 2003; Yelland,…

  3. The development of storytelling in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Storytelling is an important aspect of child's language competence, which largely depends on her/his understanding and expression of a decontextualised content and develops rapidly in the period between the second and sixth year of life. The purpose of this study was to examine age differences in children's storytelling in the period between the third and sixth year of age. In addition, we considered the effect of gender on storytelling of children of different ages. The sample included 156 children aged from 3 to 6 years, who were divided into 3 age groups, namely children, aged 3, 4 and 5 years. Child's storytelling competence was assessed with the Little Glove Storytelling Test. Children's stories told by a standard set of illustrations, were analyzed in terms of criteria, designed to assess the developmental level of the stories. The criteria refer to the words, included in the story, the grammatical structure and the content of the story. The obtained results suggested that several important changes in the development of storytelling occur within the period of early childhood. The 5-years-old children told longer stories with a more complex grammatical structure and a coherent content as the 3-years-old children. Children's achievements on the individual criteria for assessing the developmental level of the stories progressed relatively steadily through all three age groups. The results also showed that gender had no significant effect on the storytelling of children of different ages.

  4. Early childhood numeracy in a multiage setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Karen; Frid, Sandra

    2005-10-01

    This research is a case study examining numeracy teaching and learning practices in an early childhood multiage setting with Pre-Primary to Year 2 children. Data were collected via running records, researcher reflection notes, and video and audio recordings. Video and audio transcripts were analysed using a mathematical discourse and social interactions coding system designed by MacMillan (1998), while the running records and reflection notes contributed to descriptions of the children's interactions with each other and with the teachers. Teachers used an `assisted performance' approach to instruction that supported problem solving and inquiry processes in mathematics activities, and this, combined with a child-centred pedagogy and specific values about community learning, created a learning environment designed to stimulate and foster learning. The mathematics discourse analysis showed a use of explanatory language in mathematics discourse, and this language supported scaffolding among children for new mathematics concepts. These and other interactions related to peer sharing, tutoring and regulation also emerged as key aspects of students' learning practices. However, the findings indicated that multiage grouping alone did not support learning. Rather, effective learning was dependent upon the teacher's capacities to develop productive discussion among children, as well as implement developmentally appropriate curricula that addressed the needs of the different children.

  5. Developing the quality of early childhood mentoring institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was to uncover the concept of quality improvement, the supporting and the inhibiting factors within the quality improve and the quality improvement in the early childhood mentoring institutions/kindergarten. The study was a qualitative research. The subjects in the study were kindergarten principals, kindergarten teachers and parents. The data were gathered by means of observation, interview and documentation. For the data analysis, the researcher selected the qualitative descriptive data analysis method. The results of the study were as follows. First, the concept of educational quality improvement in the early childhood mentoring institutions/ kindergarten has been improveed from the vision, the mission and the objectives and the concept includes the aspects of planning, process and output which has synergy from one to another. The planning has been formulated in the curriculum, the syllabus and the daily activity plan. Second, the approach, the strategy and the technique of quality improvement has maximized the well-qualified schools’ resources, have been supported by the sufficient facilities and have been funded by the sufficient budget. Third, the supporting factors within the quality improvement of early childhood mentoring institutions/kindergarten have been the increasing awareness within the society toward the significance of early childhood mentoring institutions, the massive socialization conducted by the Office of Education through the provision of training programs in relation to the early childhood mentoring institution/kindergarten management and the human resources empowerment toward developing the quality of early childhood mentoring institutions. Fourth, the inhibiting factors within the quality improvement of early childhood mentoring institutions have been the lack of society care and participation, the less quality human resources that early childhood mentoring institutions have, the fund limitation, the

  6. A Longitudinal Intergenerational Analysis of Executive Functions During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Wang, Zhe; Morasch, Katherine C.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of executive function (EF) in both clinical and educational contexts, the etiology of individual differences in early childhood EF remains poorly understood. This study provides the first longitudinal intergenerational analysis of mother-child EF associations during early childhood. A group of children and their mothers (n = 62) completed age-appropriate EF tasks. Mother and child EF were modestly correlated by 24 months of age and this association was stable through 48...

  7. Correlation and comparative analysis of discriminative validity of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5) and the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Izabella Barbosa; Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Bönecker, Marcelo; Abanto, Jenny; Marques, Leandro Silva; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2015-03-10

    The perceptions of parents and children regarding oral health are useful to oral public health and clinical practice in pediatric dentistry. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between the total and item scores of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5) (parental version and child's self-reports) and the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Subsequently, the discriminative validity of these assessment tools regarding dental caries was compared. One hundred twenty-one children randomly selected in the city of Diamantina (Brazil) were submitted to oral examinations. Parents answered the ECOHIS and SOHO-5p (parental version) and children answered the SOHO-5c (child's self-reports). Statistical analysis involved the Mann-Whitney test as well as the calculation of Spearman's correlation coefficients. A significant correlation was found between the SOHO-5p and ECOHIS (r = 0.85), whereas no significant correlations were found between the SOHO-5c and SOHO-5p (r = 0.00) or between the SOHO-5c and ECOHIS (r = -0.41). Significant differences in the impact on quality of life were found between children with severe decay and no severe decay (caries free, with initial or established caries) both the ECOHIS and SOHO-5p (p ≤ 0.05), whereas no difference was found in SOHO-5c (p > 0.05). The ECOHIS and SOHO-5p were correlated with each other. The accounts of the children differed from their parents' reports and were not capable of discriminating dental caries in advanced stages of progression.

  8. Associations Between Household Food Insecurity in Early Childhood and Children's Kindergarten Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anna D; Markowitz, Anna J

    2017-03-21

    Using nationally representative data on a recent birth cohort of U.S.-born children in low-income households (n = 2,800-3,700), this study investigates associations between the timing and intensity of early childhood food insecurity and children's kindergarten reading, math, and social-emotional outcomes. Descriptive patterns reveal that approximately 20% of low-income 0- to 5-year-old children reside in food-insecure households. Food insecurity experienced during early childhood is unfavorably associated with social-emotional outcomes in kindergarten, controlling for household income and prior assessments of child social-emotional skills. Results are less consistent for cognitive outcomes but similar in magnitude. If replicated, findings may inform policy efforts to reduce disparities in early skills for approximately 15 million U.S. children in food-insecure households.

  9. EARLY CHILDHOOD PREDICTORS OF LOW-INCOME BOYS' PATHWAYS TO ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR IN CHILDHOOD, ADOLESCENCE, AND EARLY ADULTHOOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel S; Gilliam, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Guided by a bridging model of pathways leading to low-income boys' early starting and persistent trajectories of antisocial behavior, the current article reviews evidence supporting the model from early childhood through early adulthood. Using primarily a cohort of 310 low-income boys of families recruited from Women, Infants, and Children Nutrition Supplement centers in a large metropolitan area followed from infancy to early adulthood and a smaller cohort of boys and girls followed through early childhood, we provide evidence supporting the critical role of parenting, maternal depression, and other proximal family risk factors in early childhood that are prospectively linked to trajectories of parent-reported conduct problems in early and middle childhood, youth-reported antisocial behavior during adolescence and early adulthood, and court-reported violent offending in adolescence. The findings are discussed in terms of the need to identify at-risk boys in early childhood and methods and platforms for engaging families in healthcare settings not previously used to implement preventive mental health services. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  10. Childhood Sporting Activities and Adult Labour-Market Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabane, Charlotte; Clark, Andrew E.

    2017-01-01

    We here ask whether childhood sport participation is positively correlated with adult labour-market outcomes. There are many potential channels for this effect, although, as usual, identifying a causal relationship is difficult. We appeal to two widely-separated waves of Add Health data to map out the correlation between childhood sports and a number of adult labour-market outcomes. We show that different types of childhood sports are associated with both managerial responsibilities and autonomy at work when adult. We take the endogeneity of sport seriously, and appeal to a variety of techniques, including the use of data on siblings, in order to obtain estimates that are as close to unbiased as possible. Last, we compare the effect of sporting activities to that of other leisure activities.* PMID:28798886

  11. Early Childhood Caries with the Perspective of Pediatrician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bucak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Early childhood caries are characterized by the presence of at least one or more decayed, missing or filled teeth surfaces in any primary tooth of a child 24-72 months of age. The prevalance of early childhood caries is variable among the world because of wide range of contributing aetiological factors. Aim of this study to determine the prevalance and aetiologic factors of early childhood caries, in South East Anatolia Region of Turkey and evaluated as a pediatrician view. Material and Method: Patients admitted to pediatric polyclinics for any reason, aging between 24 to 72 months, were enrolled in this study. The children who had dental caries and who had not were examined by a dentist. Families were requested to voluntarily answer questions asked by our staff who follow a questionnaire. This questionnaire contains breastfeeding, usage of vitamin D, multivitamin formulations, iron supplements, baby bottle and pacifier, as well as consumpion of yogurt, acidic drinks, in addition to health habits of brushing teeth, check up by the dentist, cigarette usage of parents (mother, father or both. Results: 553 patients were included the study. Early childhood caries was determined to be 33,1 %. As a result of this study, we found that pacifier usage, multiviamin supplements and acidic drinks were significantly contributing to early childhood caries. Discussion: We advise refrainment from pacifier usage and unnecesary consumption of multivitamin supplemantation, acidic drinks or at least brushing of teeth rightafter consumption of these foods in childhood.

  12. Comparing Early Childhood Education and Care from a Rights-based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ancheta Arrabal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper pretends to examine how the equal right to quality education and care in the phase of early childhood is developed in different policies, particularly within the processes for the inclusion of children in situations of social risk and exclusion in the European systems of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC. Extracted from the findings of the author’s PhD, the following pages include some of the main characteristics, as well as the outcomes and the conclusions of the study, which are briefly described, comprising the structure of a comparison on the ECEC policies between three representative countries in Europe. The work attended to the previous studies on early childhood describing ECEC throughout western European societies, to analyse their impact in equity of opportunity considering ECEC as the long life learning base, and discussing its implications for the inter-generational exclusion, in searching policy recommendations to enhance ECEC and child well-being. 

  13. Progress in Early Childhood Caries and Opportunities in Research, Policy, and Clinical Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Raul; Borrelli, Belinda; Dhar, Vineet;

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Early Childhood Caries Conference encompassed evidence-based reviews on the state of the science regarding early childhood carries (ECC) epidemiology, etiology, prevention, and disease management. The purpose of this paper was to discuss the work presented at the conference and identify...... opportunities in research, policy, and clinical management that may improve early childhood caries outcomes and lower costs of care. While great progress has been made since the 1997 ECC Conference, there remains a paucity of high-quality evidence from randomized controlled trials on what are the most effective...... to identify preschool children at risk for caries. Fluoridated toothpaste and fluoride varnish currently are the most effective chemotherapeutic strategies to prevent ECC. Motivational interviewing, a form of patient-centered counseling, is effective for motivating oral health behaviors and shows promise...

  14. Love-Based leadership in early childhood education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Uusiautti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A day care center is not just any place where children can spend their day while parents are at work. How to ensure that children have good childhood experiences and how to support their positive development from the very beginning of their educational career? In this study, we introduce the concept of love-based leadership and discuss its role and implementation in early education. Love-based leadership in early education is a method that renews teachers’ professional skills. The Finnish early childhood education system offers favorable premises for love-based leadership in early education. The method should also be included in the curriculum of future early childhood education teachers.

  15. Equity and Quality? Challenges for Early Childhood and Primary Education in Ethiopia, India and Peru. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 55. Studies in Early Childhood Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, Martin; Ames, Patricia; Vennam, Uma; Abebe, Workneh; Streuli, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Part of the "Studies in Early Transitions" series, this Working Paper draws on interviews and observations carried out as part of "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam based at the University of Oxford's Department of International Development. This paper focuses…

  16. Childhood Onset Schizophrenia: Clinical Features, Course and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Mamta; Kattimani, Shivanand

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia in children is diagnosed by using adult criteria. Based on the age of onset, patients with childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) are subdivided into those with very early onset (before age 12-14 years) and those with early onset (between 14-17 years). The prevalence of COS is reported to be 1 in 10,000 before the age of 12 years;…

  17. Remembering Childhood: Do Our Memories and Experiences Influence Our Understanding of Early Childhood and Our Practice with Young Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Karen; Penn, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Students on the Early Childhood Studies degree programme at the University of East London were asked to reflect on their childhood memories and how these have shaped their understandings of early childhood and practices with young children. Students' rich and varied accounts reflect the diversity of largely non-traditional students from countries…

  18. Early Childhood Teacher Education: The Case of Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie

    2011-01-01

    For early childhood, the domain of geometry and spatial reasoning is an important area of mathematics learning. Unfortunately, geometry and spatial thinking are often ignored or minimized in early education. We build a case for the importance of geometry and spatial thinking, review research on professional development for these teachers, and…

  19. Periodic Early Childhood Hearing Screening: The EHDI Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…

  20. Transition to School from Pacific Islands Early Childhood Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvao, Le'autuli'ilagi M.; Mapa, Lia; Podmore, Valerie N.

    Noting the need for additional information on the transition of children from Pacific Islands early childhood services to primary school, this exploratory study was designed to provide an account of the experiences of children, parents, and teachers, focusing on language and other aspects of children's move from Pacific Islands early childhood…

  1. Handwriting in Early Childhood Education: Current Research and Future Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinehart, Laura H.

    2015-01-01

    Early fine motor writing skills are quickly becoming recognized as an important school readiness skill associated with later academic success (Dinehart and Manfra, 2013; Grissmer et al., 2010; Son and Meisels, 2006). Yet, little is known about the development of handwriting, the extent to which it is of value in the early childhood classroom and…

  2. Periodic Early Childhood Hearing Screening: The EHDI Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…

  3. Development of Entrepreneurship Learning Model for Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Christianti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is an early pace in the research development of entrepreneurship learning model for early childhood. This study aims to explore how learning entrepreneurship that has been done in the early childhood; to know whether parents, teachers, and principals support the entrepreneurship learning; and what kind of values of entrepreneurship can be developed for early childhood. The results of this research are useful to create early childhood entrepreneurial learning design. The research conducts in the form of interviews, observation, and documentation. The result shows that the school which has been developing entrepreneurship has no clear guidance of learning to develop the spirit of entrepreneurship; all teachers and principals in the research agree that entrepreneurship learning developed from an early age. However, there are 90.79% of parents agreed that from an early age has begun to develop the spirit of entrepreneurship and 9.21% said they did not agree; and the values of entrepreneurship that are able to be developed since they are in early age are self-confidence, honesty, independence, responsibility, creative, never give up/hard work, caring for the environment, teamwork, discipline, and respect.

  4. Report of CCI Early Childhood Think Tank on Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Care, Inc., 2008

    2008-01-01

    Child Care, Inc. (CCI) invited a group of early childhood experts to help reflect on what CCI had learned from other states about governance and to apply that knowledge to New York City. The goal was to foster more systemic thinking about how to move toward a more coherent early care and education system in New York City that would better meet the…

  5. Continuing Evolution: The Rhode Island Early Childhood Summer Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horm, Diane M.; O'Keefe, Beverly; Diffendale, Charlotte; Cohen, Amy; Schennum, Ruth; Pucciarelli, Larry; Collins, Cheryl; Merrifield, Margaret; Nardone, Virginia; Martin, Marilyn; Bryan, Linda; DeRobbio, Gail

    2004-01-01

    This narrative chronicles the continued evolution and development of the Rhode Island Early Childhood Summer Institute, an intensive 5-day inservice professional development program designed for educational leaders from various sectors of the early care and education field. The goal is to review the continued use of successful practices…

  6. State Certification Requirements for Early Childhood Special Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayton, Vicki D.; Dietrich, Sylvia L.; Smith, Barbara J.; Bruder, Mary Beth; Mogro-Wilson, Cristina; Swigart, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    The Office of Special Education Programs funded Center to Inform Personnel Preparation Policy and Practice in Early Intervention and Preschool Education conducted a study to obtain current information about state certification requirements for early childhood special educators who work with preschool children with developmental delays and…

  7. The Relationship between Teacher Qualification and the Quality of the Early Childhood Care and Learning Environment. Campbell Systematic Reviews 2017:1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Matthew; Garvis, Susanne; Fleming, Christopher; Wong, Gabriel T. W.

    2017-01-01

    Poor quality early childhood education and care (ECEC) can be detrimental to the development of children as it could lead to poor social, emotional, educational, health, economic, and behavioural outcomes. The lack of consensus as to the strength of the relationship between teacher qualification and the quality of the early childhood learning…

  8. Early modifiable risk factors for childhood and adolescent mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Cherry

    2015-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent mental health is a major public health concern. Childhood behavioral problems and low self-esteem can predispose children to future depression. Mental health issues often emerge in adolescence making examination of potential early modifiable risk factors for these three mental health indicators crucial. Potential risk factors for mental health issues often reflect findings from Western settings where confounding by low socioeconomic position may occur, making it diffi...

  9. Association between early childhood exposure to malaria and children’s pre-school development: evidence from the Zambia early childhood development project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fink Günther

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite major progress made over the past 10 years, malaria remains one of the primary causes of ill health in developing countries in general, and in sub-Saharan Africa in particular. Whilst a large literature has documented the frequency and severity of malaria infections for children under-five years, relatively little evidence is available regarding the impact of early childhood malaria exposure on subsequent child development. Methods The objective of the study was to assess the associations between early childhood exposure to malaria and pre-school development. Child assessment data for 1,410 children in 70 clusters collected through the 2010 Zambian Early Childhood Development Project was linked with malaria parasite prevalence data from the 2006 Zambia Malaria Indicator Survey. Linear and logistic models were used to estimate the effect of early childhood exposure to malaria on anthropometric outcomes as well as on a range of cognitive and behavioural development measures. Results No statistically significant associations were found between parasite exposure and children’s height and weight. Exposure to the malaria parasite was, however, associated with lower ability to cope with cognitive tasks administered by interviewers (z-score difference −1.11, 95% CI −2.43–0.20, as well as decreased overall socio-emotional development as assessed by parents (z-score difference −1.55, 95% CI −3.13–0.02. No associations were found between malaria exposure and receptive vocabulary or fine-motor skills. Conclusions The results presented in this paper suggest potentially large developmental consequences of early childhood exposure to malaria. Continued efforts to lower the burden of malaria will not only reduce under-five mortality, but may also have positive returns in terms of the long-term well-being of exposed cohorts.

  10. Integrating emotional competences in the Early Childhood Education curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Guil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The current Spanish education legislation has started to highlight the need to work on emotional education since early childhood Education. The Spanish Education Law 2/2006 May 3rd (known as LOE, and all decrees and orders currently regulating the curriculum and teaching in Early Childhood Education include contents and objectives related to the Emotional Intelligence framework developed by Mayer & Salovey (1997. Because all these laws and regulations give teachers autonomy for both designing and programming the curriculum in Early Childhood Education and because important relationships have been established between social and emotional competence and school adaptation, we argue in this paper that the training of future teachers in Early Childhood Education should include the development of emotional intelligence abilities and skills.This article presents an emotional education proposal for its integration in the second cycle of Early Childhood Education (children aged 3 to 6 years old. This proposal is based on Mayer and Salovey’s model (1997 of emotional intelligence. This model is the only one in which emotional abilities are considered cognitive-emotional capacities which can be developed and it matches the general goal of this educational stage and also the general aims and curricular contents included in the abovementioned legislation.

  11. Learning a Music Instrument in Early Childhood: What Can We Learn from Professional Musicians' Childhood Memories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Wyverne

    2008-01-01

    Professional early childhood educators are often asked for advice about whether or when a young child should learn to play a music instrument. Many educators who do not have a background in music education may not be confident in providing such advice. A range of overseas research has supported learning a music instrument in the early childhood…

  12. Childhood Conduct Problems and Young Adult Outcomes Among Women with Childhood ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Elizabeth B.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether conduct problems predicted young adult functioning and psychiatric symptoms among women diagnosed with ADHD during childhood, in the context of three potential adolescent mediators: internalizing problems, peer rejection, and school failure and disciplinary problems. We controlled for childhood ADHD severity, IQ, and demographic factors, and in the mediational tests, for adolescent conduct problems. Data emanated from 140 participants in the Berkeley Girls with ADHD Longitudinal Study. We used bootstrapping methods to assess indirect effects (mediators). Both childhood (F1,118 change = 9.00, p = .003, R2 change = .069) and adolescent (F1,109 change = 10.41, p = .002, R2 change = .083) conduct problems were associated with worse overall functioning during young adulthood, controlling for initial ADHD severity, child IQ, and demographics. Results were similar when predicting psychiatric symptoms. Adolescent school failure and disciplinary problems mediated the relations between childhood conduct problems and both young-adult functioning and externalizing problems; adolescent internalizing problems and peer conflict mediated the relation between childhood conduct problems and young-adult internalizing problems. As is true for boys, childhood and adolescent conduct problems are associated with poor adult outcomes among girls with ADHD, with school failure and disciplinary problems, internalizing problems, and peer conflict functioning as mediators of these relations. PMID:26854507

  13. Sensorimotor Analysis of Early Onset Childhood Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel, David; Voyat, Gilbert

    1982-01-01

    Jean Piaget's theories about children's cognitive development are applied to the evaluation of childhood psychosis. Problems with the testing of such children are described, and results of a research project that used the Piaget-inspired Uzgiris and Hunt Ordinal Scales of Psychological Development to assess autistic children's cognitive processes…

  14. The Importance of Early Childhood Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Magnuson, Katherine; Kalil, Ariel; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Most poor children achieve less, exhibit more problem behaviors and are less healthy than children reared in more affluent families. We look beyond correlations such as these to a recent set of studies that attempt to assess the causal impact of childhood poverty on adult well-being. We pay particular attention to the potentially harmful effects…

  15. Evaluation of possible associated factors for early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries: a multicenter cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özen, B.; van Strijp, A.J.P.; Özer, L.; Olmus, H.; Genc, A.; Cehreli, S.B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study evaluated associated factors for developing early childhood caries (ECC) and Severe-ECC (S-ECC) in a group of children aged 24–71 months. Potential positive effects of early dental visit on formation of ECC is investigated as well. Study Design: This was a multicenter,

  16. Evaluation of possible associated factors for early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries: a multicenter cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özen, B.; van Strijp, A.J.P.; Özer, L.; Olmus, H.; Genc, A.; Cehreli, S.B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study evaluated associated factors for developing early childhood caries (ECC) and Severe-ECC (S-ECC) in a group of children aged 24–71 months. Potential positive effects of early dental visit on formation of ECC is investigated as well. Study Design: This was a multicenter,

  17. Do childhood social circumstances affect overweight and obesity in early adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestilä, Laura; Rahkonen, Ossi; Martelin, Tuija; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Koskinen, Seppo

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the association of childhood circumstances with overweight and obesity in early adulthood, to analyse whether the respondent's education and current circumstances mediate these associations, and to explore whether the respondent's health behaviour affects these associations. This was a cross-sectional study with retrospective inquiries. The study was based on a representative two-stage cluster sample (N= 1894, participation rate 79%) of young adults aged 18-29 years in Finland in 2000. The outcome measure was three-class body mass index (BMI) (normal weight, overweight, and obesity). Multinomial logistic regression was used as the main statistical tool. In women, childhood circumstances (low parental education (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 2.43), parental unemployment (RRR= 2.09) and single-parent family (RRR= 1.99)) increased the risk of overweight (25 childhood factors and early adult circumstances. In men, no significant childhood predictors of overweight were found. Single-parent family (RRR=2.32), parental alcohol problem (RRR= 2.71), parental mental health problems (RRR=2.28) and being bullied at school (RRR=3.13) predicted obesity (BMI > or = 30) in women in the age-adjusted models, and being bullied at school remained a significant predictor after adjusting for all childhood and current determinants. In both genders, the strong association between parental education and obesity remained significant after adjusting for all other determinants (for the lowest educational category, RRR= 3.56 in women, and RRR= 6.55 in men). Childhood factors predict overweight and obesity in early adulthood. This effect is stronger on obesity than on overweight and in women than in men, and it seems to be partly mediated by adult circumstances. The results emphasize the lasting effect of childhood socioeconomic position on adult obesity. When preventive policies are being planned, social circumstances in childhood should be addressed.

  18. Perinatal and early childhood environmental factors influencing allergic asthma immunopathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffin, Jonathan M; Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the past several decades. While hereditary factors are highly important, the rapid rise outstrips the pace of genomic variation. Great emphasis has been placed on potential modifiable early life exposures leading to childhood asthma. We reviewed the recent medical literature for important studies discussing the role of the perinatal and early childhood exposures and the inception of childhood asthma. Early life exposure to allergens (house dust mite (HDM), furred pets, cockroach, rodent and mold), air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), ozone (O(3)), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and particulate matter (PM)) and viral respiratory tract infections (Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (hRV)) has been implicated in the development of asthma in high risk children. Conversely, exposure to microbial diversity in the perinatal period may diminish the development of atopy and asthma symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Data Collection and Use in Early Childhood Education Programs: Evidence from the Northeast Region. REL 2015-084

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Jacqueline; Irwin, Clare W.; Kook, Janna Fuccillo; Cox, Josh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe what data preschools in a mid-sized city in the Northeast collect, how they use that data, and the challenges they face. The study focuses on three types of data: early learning outcomes, dosage (i.e., the amount of exposure to early childhood education), and classroom quality. The report further…

  20. Early outcome of noma surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, M A; Marck, K W; Griep, J E M; Marck, R E; Huijing, M A; Werker, P M N

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Reconstructive noma surgery is performed on many short-term medical missions. The treatment outcome, however, has rarely been studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied complications and clinical outcome of reconstructive noma surgery performed during four short-term medical missions.

  1. Wealth gradients in early childhood cognitive development in five Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schady, Norbert; Behrman, Jere; Araujo, Maria Caridad; Azuero, Rodrigo; Bernal, Raquel; Bravo, David; Lopez-Boo, Florencia; Macours, Karen; Marshall, Daniela; Paxson, Christina; Vakis, Renos

    2015-01-01

    Research from the United States shows that gaps in early cognitive and non-cognitive ability appear early in the life cycle. Little is known about this important question for developing countries. This paper provides new evidence of sharp differences in cognitive development by socioeconomic status in early childhood for five Latin American countries. To help with comparability, we use the same measure of receptive language ability for all five countries. We find important differences in development in early childhood across countries, and steep socioeconomic gradients within every country. For the three countries where we can follow children over time, there are few substantive changes in scores once children enter school. Our results are robust to different ways of defining socioeconomic status, to different ways of standardizing outcomes, and to selective non-response on our measure of cognitive development.

  2. Long-term Outcomes of Childhood Onset Nephrotic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorten, Rebecca; Anwar, Zohra; Reidy, Kimberly Jean

    2016-01-01

    There are limited studies on long-term outcomes of childhood onset nephrotic syndrome (NS). A majority of children with NS have steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is associated with a high risk of developing end-stage renal disease. Biomarkers and analysis of genetic mutations may provide new information for prognosis in SRNS. Frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent NS is associated with long-term complications, including dyslipidemia, cataracts, osteoporosis and fractures, obesity, impaired growth, and infertility. Long-term complications of SSNS are likely to be under-recognized. There remain many gaps in our knowledge of long-term outcomes of childhood NS, and further study is indicated.

  3. Gender and teacher training in Early Childhood Education studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Romero Díaz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a research study funded by the European Union that aims to improve early childhood teacher training in gender-related topics. Spain has made considerable headway with the inclusion of gender mainstreaming in the political agenda. However, as we point out in this paper, this issue is still not a priority in vocational training for early childhood education. A series of qualitative interviews and a quantitative questionnaire revealed a lack of training, materials and sensitivity, all needed for the introduction of gender and sexual diversity issues.

  4. Nomadic Research Practices in Early Childhood: Interrupting Racisms and Colonialisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Pacini-Ketchabaw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers how research practices on racialization in early childhood education might be reconceptualized when racialization is placed within relational intricacies and affects in multiple encounters. By foregrounding race and its emergence in multifarious, unpredictable ways in everyday encounters between human and non-human bodies, space, and discourse, the paper investigates how a movement toward research analyses that engage with both the materiality of race and its systemic and discursive formations might be used to constantly seek new ethical ways of responding to and acting against racisms and colonialism in early childhood.

  5. Psychoneuroimmunology of Early-Life Stress: The Hidden Wounds of Childhood Trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; J Lewis, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    The brain and the immune system are not fully formed at birth, but rather continue to mature in response to the postnatal environment. The two-way interaction between the brain and the immune system makes it possible for childhood psychosocial stressors to affect immune system development, which in turn can affect brain development and its long-term functioning. Drawing from experimental animal models and observational human studies, we propose that the psychoneuroimmunology of early-life stress can offer an innovative framework to understand and treat psychopathology linked to childhood trauma. Early-life stress predicts later inflammation, and there are striking analogies between the neurobiological correlates of early-life stress and of inflammation. Furthermore, there are overlapping trans-diagnostic patterns of association of childhood trauma and inflammation with clinical outcomes. These findings suggest new strategies to remediate the effect of childhood trauma before the onset of clinical symptoms, such as anti-inflammatory interventions and potentiation of adaptive immunity. Similar strategies might be used to ameliorate the unfavorable treatment response described in psychiatric patients with a history of childhood trauma.

  6. Long-term Outcomes of Childhood Onset Nephrotic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hjorten, Rebecca; Anwar, Zohra; Reidy, Kimberly Jean

    2016-01-01

    There are limited studies on long-term outcomes of childhood onset nephrotic syndrome (NS). A majority of children with NS have steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is associated with a high risk of developing end-stage renal disease. Biomarkers and analysis of genetic mutations may provide new information for prognosis in SRNS. Frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent NS is associated with long-term complications, including dyslipidemia, ...

  7. Intrauterine and genetic factors in early childhood sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The allergy-associated (atopic) diseases; asthma, eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, are the most common chronic diseases in childhood. A large number of environmental and genetic risk factors have been suggested, but still our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms and etiologies...... of opportunity” for prevention. The aim of this thesis was to increase the understanding of sensitization in early life. We studied indicators of sensitization in the newborn, and early development of sensitization and disease associated with a newly discovered genetic risk factor. Such insight may increase our...... and identifying the environmental risk factors interacting with this genetic susceptibility and the age at which intervention should be initiated. We found a FLG-associated pattern of atopic disease in early childhood characterized by early onset of eczema, early onset of asthma with severe exacerbations...

  8. The effects of childhood ADHD on adult labor market outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2014-02-01

    Although several types of mental illness, including substance abuse disorders, have been linked with poor labor market outcomes, no current research has been able to examine the effects of childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Because ADHD has become one of the most prevalent childhood mental conditions, it is useful to understand the full set of consequences of the illness. This article uses a longitudinal national sample, including sibling pairs, to show the important labor market outcome consequences of ADHD. The employment reduction is between 10 and 14 percentage points, the earnings reduction is approximately 33%, and the increase in social assistance is 15 points, figures that are larger than many estimates of the Black people/White people earnings gap and the gender earnings gap. A small share of the link is explained by educational attainments and co-morbid health conditions and behaviors. The results also show important differences in labor market consequences by family background and age of onset. These findings, along with similar research showing that ADHD is linked with poor education outcomes and adult crime, suggest the importance of treating childhood ADHD to foster human capital. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. An Ecological Risk Model for Early Childhood Anxiety: The Importance of Early Child Symptoms and Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Nicholas D.; Wainwright, Laurel; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood anxiety is impairing and associated with later emotional disorders. Studying risk factors for child anxiety may allow earlier identification of at-risk children for prevention efforts. This study applied an ecological risk model to address how early childhood anxiety symptoms, child temperament, maternal anxiety and depression symptoms,…

  10. Childhood outcomes of assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Tim; Peek, John; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2011-09-01

    There is a large population of children conceived via assisted reproductive technology (ART), which continues to increase worldwide, without a clear understanding of associated long-term outcomes. ART children are more likely to be the result of multiple pregnancies, and thus to be born prematurely or low birthweight. There is growing evidence that ART children are phenotypically and biochemically different from naturally conceived children, but the mechanism(s) leading to these changes have not been elucidated. There is a possible increased risk of rare imprinted gene disorders in these children. However, it remains unclear whether more subtle changes in DNA methylation occur commonly, leading to differences in gene expression and phenotype in ART children. Although an increased risk of cancer among ART children has been reported, the role of ART in the development of cancer has not been demonstrated. Further research and ongoing surveillance of ART children is essential to better understand the possible effects of ART on the long-term health of this population.

  11. Early-Childhood Poverty and Adult Attainment, Behavior, and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Kalil, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the consequences of poverty between a child's prenatal year and 5th birthday for several adult achievement, health, and behavior outcomes, measured as late as age 37. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1,589) and controlling for economic conditions in middle childhood and adolescence, as well as demographic…

  12. Factors associated with dental care utilization in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawikarta, Denise; Chen, Yang; Carsley, Sarah; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Schroth, Robert J; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2014-06-01

    To identify sociodemographic, dietary, and biological factors associated with families who do not receive dental care in early childhood and to identify risk factors associated with having cavities among children who receive early dental care. A cross-sectional study of healthy Canadian children seen for primary health care between September 2011 and January 2013 was conducted through the TARGet Kids! practice-based research network in Toronto, Canada. Adjusted logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with children who were not seen by a dentist in early childhood and to determine risk factors associated with having dental cavities among children who received early dental care. Of the 2505 children included in the analysis, cavities. Among healthy urban children seen by a primary care provider, those most susceptible to cavities were least likely to receive early dental care. These findings support the need for publicly funded universal early preventive dental care and underscore the importance for primary care physicians to promote dental care in early childhood. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Man Wai; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Lieberman, Martin; Lee, Jessica Y; Scoville, Richard; Hannon, Cindy; Maramaldi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC) has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM) approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI) collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR) for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.

  14. Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Wai Ng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.

  15. Understanding Emotional Development: Helping Early Childhood Providers Better Support Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicole Megan

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to provide early childhood providers with a concise overview of emerging emotional development in young children (birth-5), the important role of primary caregivers, and the link between parenting, emotional development, and behavior. Specific suggestions that have been shared with urban Head Start mothers are offered,…

  16. Diversity in Early Childhood Education: A German Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramelt, Katja

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines the theoretical foundation of a skill enhancement programme in early childhood settings which follows the ideas of the Anti-Bias approach. A focal point of the concept is to acknowledge the connection between societal, structural and individual biases. It challenges those biases and assists educators in improving their…

  17. The Incoherence of Curriculum: Questions Concerning Early Childhood Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines curriculum debates, particularly those that influence an understanding of the nature and purpose of curriculum, in providing teacher education and in influencing teaching practice. The work of Martin Heidegger provides a framework for questioning the early childhood teacher education curriculum. Central to this analysis are…

  18. Conservation Seeds Activities Book. An Early Childhood Conservation Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Sherri

    This activities book is used with an early childhood conservation education program. The activities are presented in four color-coded sections, each section representing one of the four seasons. Each activity includes a statement of purpose, list of materials needed, instructional strategies, and a list of supplementary activities. In addition to…

  19. Striking a Balance: Families, Work, and Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Paul; And Others

    This study examines the connections between work, families, and early childhood education, and analyzes international trends and perspectives on parental leave. Chapter 1, "Introduction," shows that the increase in paid work by mothers makes families, work, and education important research and policy issues, and surveys reasons for this…

  20. Intraneural perineurioma of the sciatic nerve in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John R; Smith, Torben; Stausbøl-Grøn, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Intraneural perineurioma is an uncommon benign neoplasm characterized by focal perineural cell proliferation. The typical course is indolent, with gradual onset and slow progression of motor loss. In early childhood, uncertainty concerning the time of onset can lead to difficulty in distinguishin...

  1. Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001547.htm Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Reactive attachment disorder is a problem in which a child is ...

  2. Early Childhood Special Educators and the Hospital Ethics Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    The paper discusses issues of concern to early childhood special educators serving on hospital ethics committees to assist families with seriously ill and handicapped infants in neonatal intensive care units. Issues include infant euthanasia and the right to life, child abuse legislation, and possible effects on families. (Author/JDD)

  3. Music's Representation in Early Childhood Education Journals: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Vanessa L.

    2012-01-01

    In this review of literature, the author explored the representation of music in early childhood education researcher and practitioner journal articles. Thirty-eight pertinent journal articles were identified in a keyword search for "music" in eight journals. The search was limited to a 5-year period, 2005-2010. Article summaries were categorized…

  4. Building Leadership Capacity in Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Evans, Glenda; Stamopoulos, Elizabeth; Maloney, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    Building leadership capacity has emerged as a key concern within the early childhood profession in Australia as the sector responds to recent national reforms focusing on raising standards and improving quality provision of services. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the discussion around these reforms and to make a case for changes…

  5. Creating Dialogues: Exploring the "Good Early Childhood Educator" in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviani, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the different ways in which a number of Chilean stakeholders conceptualise the "good early childhood educator" in Chile. In a context where new foreign narratives are increasingly dominating the field and the recent standardisation of the educators' professional role is being implemented, this…

  6. Development and Evaluation of Metacognition in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzipanteli, Athanasia; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Gregoriadis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to provide information and suggest ways to improve and evaluate metacognition in early childhood. Metacognition is important to learning and knowledge transfer and preparing students to become lifelong learners is a main aim of schooling. The engagement of young students in metacognitive thinking is considered…

  7. Sensitive Situations. The DLM Early Childhood Program Professional Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Pam

    Teachers know how to educate young children, but many feel ill-prepared when faced with students' emotional issues in the classroom. This book is intended as a resource for early childhood teachers who find themselves in the middle of such "sensitive situations." The information is presented by using a fictional, but typical, scenario…

  8. Early Childhood Education for Sustainability: The OMEP World Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    At the closure of the UNESCO decade on Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014), this article reports on large research projects on sustainability conducted within the World Organisation for Early Childhood Education (OMEP) through 2009-2014. The overall aim of the projects within OMEP was to enhance awareness of Education for Sustainable…

  9. Early Childhood Education for Sustainability: Recommendations for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daries, Julie; Engdahl, Ingrid; Otieno, Lorraine; Pramling-Samuelson, Ingrid; Siraj-Blatchford, John; Vallabh, Priya

    2009-01-01

    The following recommendations for "Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)" in Early Childhood Education were the product of an extended international collaboration that was supported by a number of bodies including the Centre for Environment and Sustainability in Gothenburg, the Swedish Ministry of Education and Research, the…

  10. Effects of Video Interaction Guidance on early childhood teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukkink, R.G.; Tavecchio, L.W.C.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental study showed that a video feedback intervention improved the interaction skills of early childhood education and care teachers. The teachers who had received the Video Interaction Guidance training appeared more stimulating in their behavior, were more sensitive and more verbally sti

  11. Early Childhood Professionals' Experience of Time to Facilitate Children's Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumoto, Hiroko; Robson, Sue

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the second phase of the Froebel Research Fellowship project "Ownership and Autonomy in Early Childhood" (2003-5). Based on the first phase of the project (Robson and Hargreaves, 2005), a questionnaire survey of 80 professionals working in the Foundation Stage (age 3-5) in England was conducted to obtain an overview…

  12. Children's Rights and Early Childhood Policy: A New Zealand Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    One, Sarah Te

    2005-01-01

    This paper begins with a brief historical overview of children's rights in Aotearoa New Zealand and then examines some of the key early childhood education documents since the 1984 Labour Government's reform agenda, the great experiment (Kelsey, 1995), which not only changed the language of education but also revolutionized the sector…

  13. Intellectual Integrity: Examining Common Rituals in Early Childhood Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ramona; Swim, Terri Jo

    2009-01-01

    This article examines two constructs--ritual and intellectual integrity--as they might unfold in early childhood settings. The authors use the popular practices of closed-ended crafts, calendar exercises, and worksheets to highlight the difference between learning experiences that have become formulaic habits and those that reflect rich and potent…

  14. Free Play in Early Childhood Education: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Selda

    2016-01-01

    It is aimed to investigate perceptions and implementations of early childhood teachers on free play and their involvement in children's free play. Recent studies focused on that, although there is an increase in the amount of teacher involvement, the quality of this involvement should be clearly examined. Lev Vygotsky examined play as an…

  15. Associations between Early Childhood Temperament Clusters and Later Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanson, Ann; Letcher, Primrose; Smart, Diana; Prior, Margot; Toumbourou, John W.; Oberklaid, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The study adopted a person-centered approach to examine whether clusters of children could be identified on the basis of temperament profiles assessed on four occasions from infancy to early childhood, and if so whether differing temperament clusters were associated with subsequent differences in behavior problems, social skills, and school…

  16. Being Maori: Culturally Relevant Assessment in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameka, Lesley Kay

    2011-01-01

    Concern has been raised about the under-achievement of Maori children in education. The problem has tended to be located with Maori children rather than with assessments. Clearly if one takes a sociocultural perspective achievement is situated. Although studies in early childhood education have examined and developed assessment tools and…

  17. Pedagogy and Space: Design Inspirations for Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    The intersection of design and learning is a new and burgeoning area of interest in all levels of education. "Pedagogy and Space" combines architectural design information with early childhood theory to enhance children's learning and educators' experience within the space. Filled with colorful, inspiring photographs of intentionally…

  18. Narrative Assessment: Making Mathematics Learning Visible in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Glenda; McLachlan, Claire; Lim Fock Poh, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Narratives that capture children's learning as they go about their day-to-day activities are promoted as a powerful assessment tool within early childhood settings. However, in the New Zealand context, there is increasing concern that learning stories--the preferred form of narrative assessment--currently downplay domain knowledge. In this paper,…

  19. Traumatic Brain Injury in Early Childhood: Developmental Effects and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Barbara; Lowenthal, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Describes the unique effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on development in early childhood and offers suggestions for interventions in the cognitive, language, social-emotional, motor, and adaptive domains. Urges more intensive, long-term studies on the immediate and long-term effects of TBI. (Author/DB)

  20. Early Childhood Traumatic Brain Injuries: Effects on Development and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Describes the variety of possible effects of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) on early childhood development in the cognitive, language, social-emotional, motor, and adaptive domains. Suggests interventions which can assist young survivors and their families. Suggests that more long-term, intensive studies be conducted on the short- and long-term…

  1. Play and playfulness, basic features of early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singer, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education, but that play curricula can have serious drawbacks. The starting point is the play theory of the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, a radical critic of the focus on the educational benefits of play. According

  2. Evaluation Study of Early Childhood Education in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Farooq, Muhammad; Umbreen

    2011-01-01

    Early Childhood Education (ECE) was globally and locally an innovation, particularly in third world. The objective of this study was to investigate an impact evaluation of ECE initiated recently in Pakistan. The data of impact evaluation were drawn from three ECE Centers of Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT), Pakistan. Total samples of 65…

  3. The Challenges of Creativity in Norwegian Early Childhood Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Grete Skjeggestad; Eilifsen, Margareth

    2017-01-01

    Based on many years' work designing introductory, immersive, aesthetic experiences that lead to problem-based learning (PBL) tasks for student teachers (called "INTRO"), we problematize the concept of creativity and playfulness in Early Childhood Teacher Education (ECTE). The article reports on our analysis of students' experiences of…

  4. Young Children's Enactments of Human Rights in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quennerstedt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which human rights become part of and affect young children's everyday practices in early childhood education and, more particularly, how very young children enact human rights in the preschool setting. The study is conducted in a Swedish preschool through observations of the everyday practices of a group of children…

  5. Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Grace Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…

  6. Early Childhood Preservice Teachers' Constructions of Becoming an Intentional Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogharreban, Cathy C.; McIntyre, Christie; Raisor, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    This teacher research study focuses on an initial cohort of early childhood preservice teachers who participated in a case study of teachers' constructions of becoming a teacher. The purpose was to determine, through qualitative teacher research, how our teacher preparation program can better prepare preservice teachers to develop, make, and…

  7. Music Experience in Early Childhood: Potential for Emotion Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vist, Torill

    2011-01-01

    Most cultures carry an idea of music being connected to emotion. New research suggests that we may also acquire emotion knowledge from our music experiences. This article investigates music experience as a mediating tool for emotion knowledge in early childhood, as revealed through qualitative interviews of adults. The interviewees describe music…

  8. Individual Differences in Sibling Teaching in Early and Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Nina; Recchia, Holly

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: Sibling teaching and learning behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of children in early and middle childhood. Study 1 addressed individual differences in teaching/learning and associations with dyadic age, age gap, gender, birth order, and relationship quality in 71 middle-class dyads (firstborns M age = 81.54 months;…

  9. Early Childhood Special Educators Reflect on their Preparation and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lava, Valerie F.; Recchia, Susan L.; Giovacco-Johnson, Tricia

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five recent graduates of a Master's Program in Early Childhood Special Education participated in focus group interviews designed to explore their perceptions and experiences regarding their first years of practice in urban schools. Findings revealed that participants faced many challenges including collaboration with colleagues, seeking…

  10. Nurturing Social Experience in Three Early Childhood Special Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Susan L.; Soucacou, Eleni P.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the ways in which early childhood special education teachers supported children's social behavior within the context of their preschool classrooms. Data collected for six children through naturalistic classroom observations were coded and analyzed for emergent themes within a qualitative framework. Findings revealed a variety…

  11. Early Childhood Caries (ECC): an infectious transmissible oral disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Poureslami; W.E. van Amerongen

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries in babies and toddlers is called Early Childhood Caries (ECC). It is an infectious and transmissible die-to-bacterial disease. Detailed knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of infectious agents facilitates a more comprehensive approach toward prevention. Mutans streptoc

  12. Preschool and Early Childhood: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    The bibliography cites 67 items relating to preschool and early childhood selected from "Exceptional Child Education Abstracts." Bibliographical data, availability information, indexing and retrieval descriptors, and abstracts are provided for each entry. One in a series of over 50 similar selected listings in the area of handicapped and gifted…

  13. Child Care and Cortisol across Early Childhood: Context Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Daniel; Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Wiloughy, Michael; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Veron-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Granger, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable body of literature suggests that children's child-care experiences may impact adrenocortical functioning in early childhood. Yet emerging findings also suggest that the magnitude and sometimes the direction of child-care effects on development may be markedly different for children from higher risk contexts. Using data from a large…

  14. Asthma Symptoms in Early Childhood: A public health perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.D. Hafkamp-De Groen (Esther)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis focuses on asthma symptoms in early childhood. From a public health perspective, we aim to improve health and health-related quality of life through the prevention of asthma symptoms and by signaling, counselling or management of children who are at a high r

  15. Beginning Early Childhood Education Teachers' Classroom Management Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdag, Zeynep; Haser, Çigdem

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis of the classroom management concerns of pre-service early childhood education (ECE) teachers prior to beginning their career and further examines the difficulties they experienced in classroom management in their first year of teaching and their coping strategies. Sixteen pre-service ECE teachers enrolled in the same…

  16. Integrating Concrete and Virtual Manipulatives in Early Childhood Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Dina; Hoffman, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood teachers around the country and the world guide children's mathematical learning through the use of manipulatives--pattern blocks, base blocks, geoboards, Unifx cubes, Cuisenaire rods, coins, clocks, and so on. Manipulatives allow concrete, hands-on exploration and representation of mathematical concepts. In the past few years,…

  17. Teaching Adults, Revisited: Active Learning for Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This book follows master educator Elizabeth (Betty) Jones as she teaches an introductory course in early childhood education. She actively engages the students, encouraging them to make decisions, ask questions, and engage in collaborative problem solving--herself modeling the behaviors that should be practiced by adults working with young…

  18. Beginning Early Childhood Education Teachers' Struggle with Inclusion in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdag, Zeynep; Haser, Çigdem

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Turkish early childhood education teachers' perception of inclusion before they started their teaching profession and to explore their experiences with the children with disabilities in their first year of teaching. Sixteen Turkish pre-service teachers were first interviewed when they completed the…

  19. Early Childhood Schooling and Socialization at French Nursery School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisance, Eric; Rayna, Sylvie

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose to examine the question of the French early childhood schooling in terms of the socialization processes. The authors start by presenting briefly the main characteristics of the French nursery school. They then discuss socialization processes through sociological perspectives on historical and anthropological…

  20. Thinking about Art: Encouraging Art Appreciation in Early Childhood Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Ann S.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the place of art appreciation in early childhood education programs. Discusses historical changes in philosophies of art education and young children's capability for appreciating art. Presents suggestions for including art appreciation in the preschool curriculum, and describes ways to tie art activities to children's interests,…

  1. Visits to Cultural Learning Places in the Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudiappa, Michael; Kluczniok, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Studies show the important role of the home learning environment in early childhood for later school success. This article focuses on a particular aspect of the home learning environment: visits to cultural learning places (e.g. museums) as a component of the quality of the home learning environment. Therefore the educational concept of…

  2. The Early Childhood Education of Disadvantaged Children in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhanmei; Zhu, Jiaxiong; Xia, Zhuyun; Wu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, the Chinese government has adopted a series of services and policies to provide early childhood education for disadvantaged children. The rapid economic development and urbanisation process since the mid-1980s have led to great changes in social structure and demographics in China. This creates new challenges for the education of…

  3. Early Childhood Directors as Socializers of Emotional Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsser, Katherine M.; Denham, Susanne A.; Curby, Timothy W.; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood centres are vibrant social communities where child and adult emotions are integral to learning. Previous research has focused on teaching practices that support children's social-emotional learning; fewer studies have attended to relevant centre-level factors, such as the emotional leadership practices of the centre director. The…

  4. Supporting Early Childhood Environmental Education through the Natural Start Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Christy; Braus, Judy

    2013-01-01

    The Natural Start Alliance is a new initiative of the North American Association for Environmental Education. Natural Start was created to support and expand early childhood environmental education (ECEE) by creating a network of organizations, educators, parents, and others who care about using environmental education to support young children's…

  5. Should Rewards Have a Place in Early Childhood Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Virginia M.; O'Flynn, Janet C.; Reineke, June; Sonsteng, Kathleen; Gartrell, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Does the use of rewards to motivate children to learn or to follow classroom rules run counter to fostering a true desire for mastery? This column, which consists of two separate articles, provides the opposing opinions of the authors regarding the appropriateness of giving rewards in an early childhood classroom. In "Using Rewards in the Early…

  6. Play and playfulness, basic features of early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singer, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education, but that play curricula can have serious drawbacks. The starting point is the play theory of the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, a radical critic of the focus on the educational benefits of play. According

  7. Supporting Early Childhood Practitioners through Relationship-Based, Reflective Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Victor J.; Edwards, Renee C.

    2012-01-01

    Reflective supervision is a relationship-based practice that supports the professional development of early childhood practitioners. Reflective supervision helps practitioners cope with the intense feelings and stress that are generated when working with at-risk children and families. It allows them to focus on the purpose and goals of the program…

  8. Gender, Order and Discipline in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenbring, Ylva

    2014-01-01

    In early childhood education, children's daily practice revolves to a great extent around order and discipline. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork from a Swedish preschool class, the present study further explores how the task of being a teacher's assistant can be critically understood in terms of how gender, discipline and order are expressed in…

  9. Freedom of Reach for Young Children: Nonsexist Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henslee, Tish; Jones, Peg

    This handbook presents ideas for developing nonsexist early childhood education programs for young children. The book is organized into six sections. Section I presents some background information, including definitions of terms, discussions of current attitudes towards and implications of nonsexist education, traditional and nontraditional roles…

  10. More Alike than Different: Early Childhood Professional Development in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Belinda J.; Vardell, Rosemarie; de Castaneda, Albertina

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an early childhood professional development project that took place in the summer of 2005 in Guatemala City. Located in Central America, Guatemala has a population of approximately 12.3 million people, including more than two million children under the age of 5 (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2007; UNICEF, 2004). Events…

  11. Early Childhood Education: Policy Issues for the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegelin, Dolores A., Ed.

    Noting the separation of child-related policy makers from practitioners who know best what is good and appropriate for children, this anthology is designed as a guide for child-related policy development. The book's chapters are as follows: (1) "Early Childhood Policy" (Dolores A. Stegelin), providing an historical context and identifying eight…

  12. Time and Temporality in Early Childhood Educators' Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Joce; Thomas, Louise

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the persistence and significance of notions of time and temporality in interviews with early childhood educators in Victoria and Queensland, Australia, in two studies designed to explore the concept of "pedagogical leadership". Interpretive analysis of the interview transcripts of the 19 participants identified…

  13. Insights on Caring for Early Childhood Professionals and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin James

    2007-01-01

    Caring is the core value that empowers families and early childhood professionals. This article articulates the meaning and power of caring in the lives of children and families. It also explores family, professional, and community strategies for creating caring and nurturing children and families. In particular, insights that show that caring is…

  14. Napping Reduces Emotional Attention Bias during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremone, Amanda; Kurdziel, Laura B. F.; Fraticelli-Torres, Ada; McDermott, Jennifer M.; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

    2017-01-01

    Sleep loss alters processing of emotional stimuli in preschool-aged children. However, the mechanism by which sleep modifies emotional processing in early childhood is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a nap, compared to an equivalent time spent awake, reduces biases in attention allocation to affective information. Children (n = 43;…

  15. Scaffolding as a Tool for Environmental Education in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Alex; Torquati, Julia; Acar, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the process of "scaffolding" as a teaching strategy in early childhood education, and demonstrates how scaffolding can promote children's learning about the natural environment. Examples of scaffolding are provided from seventy-four running record observations made over a two-year period in a nature-based preschool…

  16. Diversity in New Zealand Early Childhood Education: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuker, Mary Jane; Cherrington, Sue

    2016-01-01

    The early childhood education (ECE) sector in New Zealand has long been recognised for the diversity of service types and range of organisations involved in delivering ECE. However, less attention has been paid to diversity within individual ECE services. This article draws on a national survey carried out as part of a larger project, "The…

  17. Diversity in Early Childhood Education: A German Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramelt, Katja

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines the theoretical foundation of a skill enhancement programme in early childhood settings which follows the ideas of the Anti-Bias approach. A focal point of the concept is to acknowledge the connection between societal, structural and individual biases. It challenges those biases and assists educators in improving their…

  18. Sensitive Situations. The DLM Early Childhood Program Professional Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Pam

    Teachers know how to educate young children, but many feel ill-prepared when faced with students' emotional issues in the classroom. This book is intended as a resource for early childhood teachers who find themselves in the middle of such "sensitive situations." The information is presented by using a fictional, but typical, scenario…

  19. Early Childhood Caries (ECC): an infectious transmissible oral disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poureslami, H.R.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries in babies and toddlers is called Early Childhood Caries (ECC). It is an infectious and transmissible die-to-bacterial disease. Detailed knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of infectious agents facilitates a more comprehensive approach toward prevention. Mutans

  20. Compassionate Pedagogy: The Ethics of Care in Early Childhood Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    This article builds upon an earlier attempt (Taggart 2011) to articulate a rationale for professional training in early childhood education and care (ECEC) which is "ethical" as opposed to one which is purely instrumental or rooted in a patriarchal notion of women's supposed unique suitability. The argument proposes that a feminist…

  1. Music Experience in Early Childhood: Potential for Emotion Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vist, Torill

    2011-01-01

    Most cultures carry an idea of music being connected to emotion. New research suggests that we may also acquire emotion knowledge from our music experiences. This article investigates music experience as a mediating tool for emotion knowledge in early childhood, as revealed through qualitative interviews of adults. The interviewees describe music…

  2. Early Childhood Education as a Resilience Intervention for Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbogen, Stephen; Klein, Benjamin; Wekerle, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The profound injuries caused by child maltreatment are well documented in the neurological, attachment, cognitive, and developmental literature. In this review paper, we explore the potential of early childhood education (ECE) as a community-based resilience intervention for mitigating the impacts of child abuse and neglect and supporting families…

  3. Early Childhood Leadership through the Lens of Distributed Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikka, Johanna; Hujala, Eeva

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate distribution of responsibilities for leadership in early childhood education (ECE) context. It focuses on the enactments of leadership by investigating how ECE stakeholders, e.g. teachers, ECE centre directors and administrative ECE leaders in municipalities perceive the leadership responsibilities. Using focus…

  4. The Role of Meaningful Dialogue in Early Childhood Education Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakins, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Action research was used to study the effectiveness of Learning Organisation and Adaptive Enterprise theories for promoting organisation-wide learning and creating a more effective early childhood education organisation. This article describes the leadership steps taken to achieve shared vision via meaningful dialogue between board, management and…

  5. Tracking Club Sport Participation from Childhood to Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Rosalina; Williams, Sheila; Poulton, Richie; Reeder, Anthony I.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the strength of tracking sport participation from childhood to early adulthood among the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort. Participation in sport, dance, or gymnastics as part of a club or group (outside of school) was assessed at ages 7, 9, 15, 18, and 21 years. In addition to the traditionally…

  6. Free Play in Early Childhood Education: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Selda

    2016-01-01

    It is aimed to investigate perceptions and implementations of early childhood teachers on free play and their involvement in children's free play. Recent studies focused on that, although there is an increase in the amount of teacher involvement, the quality of this involvement should be clearly examined. Lev Vygotsky examined play as an…

  7. Early Childhood Caries (ECC): an infectious transmissible oral disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poureslami, H.R.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries in babies and toddlers is called Early Childhood Caries (ECC). It is an infectious and transmissible die-to-bacterial disease. Detailed knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of infectious agents facilitates a more comprehensive approach toward prevention. Mutans streptoc

  8. Early Childhood Dental Caries. Building Community Systems for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.

    As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…

  9. Development and Evaluation of Metacognition in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzipanteli, Athanasia; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Gregoriadis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to provide information and suggest ways to improve and evaluate metacognition in early childhood. Metacognition is important to learning and knowledge transfer and preparing students to become lifelong learners is a main aim of schooling. The engagement of young students in metacognitive thinking is considered…

  10. Quality of Chilean Early Childhood Education from an International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalon, Malva; Suzuki, Emy; Herrera, Maria Olivia; Mathiesen, Maria Elena

    2002-01-01

    Assessed the quality of different types of early childhood care and education programs in Chile according to international standards. Recorded structural and process characteristics observed in the classrooms. Found that Chilean preschool programs showed a minimum level of quality, with a high proportion of centers in the inadequate range.…

  11. The Social and Political Construction of Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroeck, Michel; Coussee, Filip; Bradt, Lieve

    2010-01-01

    We analyse two foundational social problems regarding early childhood education. The first, in the late nineteenth century, is infant mortality, a social problem that constituted the historical legitimation for the first creches. The second, the prevention of school failure, is very topical today. By analysing these examples in their historicity,…

  12. Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

  13. Steps to Implementing Technology in Inclusive Early Childhood Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Catherine D.; Tredwell, Claire T.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-first-century preschool children, with and without disabilities, may be found using technology, including assistive technologies, on a daily basis in their homes, schools, and communities. Early childhood educators are exploring opportunities to integrate technology and interactive media into the present-day curriculum. The authors suggest…

  14. Participatory Learning Theories: A Framework for Early Childhood Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…

  15. Need for Specialist Teachers in Early Childhood Education (ECE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    in a child's behaviour, thought processes, emotions and attitude which ... children to nursery schools as to inculcate right value before primary school age. The quality of .... Learn good habits and .... Child care practitioners work in partnership with parents, ... Early childhood is the act of developing the child with necessary.

  16. Sustained Attention and Age Predict Inhibitory Control during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Sarah G.; Hund, Alycia M.

    2011-01-01

    Executive functioning skills develop rapidly during early childhood. Recent research has focused on specifying this development, particularly predictors of executive functioning skills. Here we focus on sustained attention as a predictor of inhibitory control, one key executive functioning component. Although sustained attention and inhibitory…

  17. Child Care and Cortisol across Early Childhood: Context Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Daniel; Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Wiloughy, Michael; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Veron-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Granger, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable body of literature suggests that children's child-care experiences may impact adrenocortical functioning in early childhood. Yet emerging findings also suggest that the magnitude and sometimes the direction of child-care effects on development may be markedly different for children from higher risk contexts. Using data from a large…

  18. Singaporean Early Childhood Teachers' Responses to Myths about Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Freda; Potter, Gillian K.

    2004-01-01

    Prior to attending seminars on child abuse and domestic violence, 86 kindergarten and 64 special education (early childhood) teachers completed a questionnaire seeking views relating to the accuracy of statements relating to all forms of child abuse. This was designed to identify the accuracy of teachers' knowledge of child abuse and neglect…

  19. Early Childhood Care and Education: Objectives and Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Alastair

    This report describes an international study of objectives and issues in early childhood care and education (ECCE). The study was carried out by the Center for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI), an organization created by the Council of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development to study educational issues of concern to…

  20. Processes of Early Childhood Interventions to Adult Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Mondi, Christina F.; Hayakawa, Momoko

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the contributions of cognitive-scholastic advantage, family support behavior, and school quality and support as processes through which early childhood interventions promote well-being. Evidence in support of these processes is from longitudinal cohort studies of the Child-Parent Centers and other preventive interventions…

  1. Linking Brain Principles to High-Quality Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Stephen; Juola-Rushton, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Many educators are already knowledgeable about and skilled in best practices. And much of what is happening in developmentally appropriate programs exemplifies "brain compatible" practices. Being educated in the connections between best practices and brain compatibility is an important part of the knowledge base of early childhood educators. Just…

  2. Quality Matters in Early Childhood Education and Care: Slovak Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguma, Miho; Litjens, Ineke; Makowiecki, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood education and care (ECEC) is a topic of increased policy interest in the Slovak Republic where improving quality in the ECEC sector is a subject of growing importance. The OECD has identified five effective policy levers to encourage quality in the sector: 1) quality goals and regulations; 2) curriculum and guidelines; 3)…

  3. Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Grace Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…

  4. "Cry and You Cry Alone": Timeout in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochner, Larry; Hwang, Yeonwook

    2008-01-01

    This article explores isolation in early childhood education settings in the context of historical and current theories of punishment. The authors conclude that although isolation was reinterpreted in the 20th century in relation to changing theories of learning, teaching and child development, its earlier meanings have endured. (Contains 2 notes.)

  5. Early Childhood Education in Nigeria: A Reality or a Mirage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Hannah O.

    2008-01-01

    Education is the right of every child and must not be denied it for any reason. This has been the assertion of the World Summit on the state of global children, which has led to the inclusion and expansion of early childhood care and education in the global Education for All programme (EFA). As Nigeria has pledged its commitment to this, with the…

  6. Exploring Bullying: An Early Childhood Perspective from Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Janet S.; Luo, Nili

    2008-01-01

    This article explores bullying in mainland China. The authors conducted a study to determine the existence of a problem with bullying in younger Chinese children. Samples included 40 randomly selected, early childhood educators serving children ages 2 through 6, located in 10 different urban school settings along the Yangzi River. The authors…

  7. Early Childhood Education for Limited-English-Proficient Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegl, Juergen

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the benefits of early childhood education (ECE) for children whose proficiency in English is limited. Specifically, the paper (1) defines the basic characteristics of limited English proficient (LEP) children; (2) discusses educational risk factors and preschool enrollments of LEP children; (3) presents the…

  8. Reading Aloud: Constructing Literacy in an Early Childhood Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loysen, Jeanne Reeners

    2010-01-01

    Imagine an active happily engaged, communicative, curious group of four-year-old children investigating and discovering as they play together in an early childhood classroom. Imagine yet again, the teacher beckoning them to gather on the rug to listen to a story. What happens next? Are the children allowed to continue in this curiosity-seeking,…

  9. Asthma Symptoms in Early Childhood: A public health perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.D. Hafkamp-De Groen (Esther)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis focuses on asthma symptoms in early childhood. From a public health perspective, we aim to improve health and health-related quality of life through the prevention of asthma symptoms and by signaling, counselling or management of children who are at a high r

  10. Beginning Early Childhood Education Teachers' Classroom Management Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdag, Zeynep; Haser, Çigdem

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis of the classroom management concerns of pre-service early childhood education (ECE) teachers prior to beginning their career and further examines the difficulties they experienced in classroom management in their first year of teaching and their coping strategies. Sixteen pre-service ECE teachers enrolled in the same…

  11. Early Childhood Leadership through the Lens of Distributed Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikka, Johanna; Hujala, Eeva

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate distribution of responsibilities for leadership in early childhood education (ECE) context. It focuses on the enactments of leadership by investigating how ECE stakeholders, e.g. teachers, ECE centre directors and administrative ECE leaders in municipalities perceive the leadership responsibilities. Using focus…

  12. Multicultural Early Childhood Education: Practices and Challenges in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen; Abdullah, Anna Christina

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural early childhood education is necessary in a culturally diverse country like Malaysia. Preschool teachers play an important role in implementing multicultural education in the classroom. This paper reports the findings of a self-report questionnaire involving 854 preschool teachers in Malaysia. The preschool teachers disclosed their…

  13. Creating Relational Spaces: Everyday Spirituality in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This research addressed the question of how the spiritual experience of young children might be supported in early childhood educational settings. Qualitative case study research took place in three different contexts: a Montessori casa, a Rudolf Steiner kindergarten and a private preschool. Children aged 2 1/2-6 years, their parents and teachers…

  14. Single Mothers' Religious Participation and Early Childhood Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petts, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Using data on 1,134 single mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined trajectories of religious participation among single mothers and whether these trajectories were associated with early childhood behavior. The results suggested that single mothers experienced diverse patterns of religious participation…

  15. A Field Trip Planning Guide for Early Childhood Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sylvia S.; Seevers, Randy L.

    2003-01-01

    This article provides a guide for planning field trips for educational engagement of all children in early childhood education settings. Based on interviews, environmental assessments, and evaluations of activities, it includes field trip considerations and a field trip planning guide that includes the teacher, the parents, and the field site…

  16. Practitioners' Constructions of Love in Early Childhood Education and Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Sarah Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Love is rarely mentioned in Early Childhood Education and Care and there is no agreed definition for love in this context. In order to explore love in settings practitioner views on the topic should be sought. Unstructured interviews were carried out with senior practitioners in five contrasting settings. A range of qualitative methods were…

  17. Single Mothers' Religious Participation and Early Childhood Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petts, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Using data on 1,134 single mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined trajectories of religious participation among single mothers and whether these trajectories were associated with early childhood behavior. The results suggested that single mothers experienced diverse patterns of religious participation…

  18. Psychological Burnout in Early Childhood Teachers: Levels and Reasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Adwan, Fatima Eid Zaid; Al-Khayat, Majed Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The primary education plays an important role in the life of an individual as well as the nation as a whole. This study aims at investigating the level of psychological burnout in early childhood female teachers at public and private kindergarten schools. It also aims to prove whether these burnout levels differ according to the type of school,…

  19. Assistive Technology User Group Perspectives of Early Childhood Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Stoner, Julia B.; Watts, Emily H.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing usage of assistive technology (AT) usage in early childhood education settings serving children who are at-risk or who have developmental disabilities, there is a corresponding need for effective professional development experiences such as user groups to develop skills in using AT. Using a collective case study approach, 10…

  20. The Use of Email to Coach Preservice Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Erin E.; Fuller, Elizabeth A.; Schnitz, Alana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of performance feedback on preservice teachers' use of recommended practices within inclusive early childhood classrooms. A multiple baseline design across behaviors was used to examine the relation between performance feedback delivered via email and practicum students' use of target-recommended…

  1. Early Childhood Education for Sustainability: The OMEP World Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    At the closure of the UNESCO decade on Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014), this article reports on large research projects on sustainability conducted within the World Organisation for Early Childhood Education (OMEP) through 2009-2014. The overall aim of the projects within OMEP was to enhance awareness of Education for Sustainable…

  2. A New Tool to Facilitate Learning Reading for Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, Cita; Subiyanto

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new android application for early childhood learning reading. The description includes a design, development, and an evaluation experiment of an educational game for learning reading on android. Before developing the game, Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams, interfaces, animation, narrative or audio were designed.…

  3. Identifying Online Preferences and Needs of Early Childhood Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Daniel J.; Weiser, Dana A.; Bales, Diane W.; Moyses, Kendra J.

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of early childhood professionals use the Internet to improve their skills, knowledge, and practice. The Internet may be a practical alternative for providing high-quality, research-based training, information, and resources to these professionals. When designing online materials and Web sites, however, it is important to first…

  4. Experimental Evidence from an Early Childhood Parenting Intervention in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macours, Karen; Premand, Patrick; Schady, Norbert; Vakis, Renos

    2015-01-01

    Despite the strong argument for investing in young children and the many types of interventions and delivery mechanisms that have been developed, knowledge on Early Childhood Development (ECD) programs' effectiveness in low-income settings remains thin. Yet a growing number of programs in developing countries contain interventions seeking to…

  5. Professional learning communities (PLCs) for early childhood science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eum, Jungwon

    beliefs toward science teaching. Face-to-face group teachers' comfort with planning and doing different science activities increased significantly after the workshop and after the combination of workshop and face-to-face PLC. This study contributes to the research about various forms of professional development and their process and outcome in early childhood science education and informs early childhood professional communities of creative ways to improve science teaching and learning.

  6. Precursors of adolescent substance use from early childhood and early adolescence: testing a developmental cascade model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke W

    2014-02-01

    This study examined developmentally salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting and maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence, were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers' depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed.

  7. Association of parental stress and early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ebrahim Jabbarifar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Little research has been carried out on whether the parental stress affects children′s oral health in general and dental caries in particular. This study aimed to investigate the association be-tween parental stress and early childhood caries (ECC. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed that included 250 children of 4-6 year-old; 127 ones attended the pediatric department of Isfahan School of Dentistry who had early childhood caries and a comparison group of 123 caries free children attended five kindergartens and pre-schools in Isfahan city. Clinical examinations were conducted to evaluate the caries status. The parents of the two study groups completed the self-administrated long form of the Parenting Stress Index questionnaire. De-tails of their socio-demographic status were gathered too. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5. The nonparametric Mantel-Haenszel test for correlation statistics was used to determine bivariate associations between total parenting stress and their domains scores in the two groups; i.e., those with early childhood caries and the caries free group. Results: Mean score of PSI in the early childhood caries and caries free group were 286.66 ± 66.26 and 273.87 ± 31.03, respectively. There was not any significant relationship between total parental stress and ECC. The scores of the following domains of PSI demonstrated significant differences between ECC and CF groups: child reinforcement, child distractibility, child deficit attention, life stress and relationship with spouse (P = 0.01, 0.01, 0.001, 0.005 respectively. Conclusion: Findings of this study did not show any significant association between total parenting stress score and prevalence of early childhood caries.

  8. Early Life Environments and Long Term Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bolbocean, Corneliu

    2015-01-01

    A large literature has linked “in utero” environment to health and socio-economic outcomes in adulthood. We consider the effect of early life environments on health and skill formation outcomes. We first evaluate the impact of perinatal-neonatal level of technology at birth, which varies across delivery institutions, on the long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with Cerebral Palsy. The level of technology at delivery determines the type of therapy newborns receive immediately afte...

  9. 76 FR 12977 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation AGENCY... Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation. SUMMARY: HRSA and... and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation (``the Committee''), pursuant to subsection...

  10. From Preschool to Prosperity: The Economic Payoff to Early Childhood Education. WE Focus Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    This book is the author's second book on preschool. His first book, "Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development" (2011), explored the connection between early childhood programs and the economic development of American states and metro areas, and compared early childhood programs with business tax…

  11. Developing Identities in the Workplace: Students' Experiences of Distance Early Childhood Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Alice

    2016-01-01

    In Aotearoa New Zealand, many early childhood teachers gain their teaching qualification via distance study while working in an early childhood centre. Early childhood teachers work in a team environment, and it is important to understand more about how distance students negotiate changes in their workplace practice as their professional knowledge…

  12. Equal Access to Early Childhood Education in South Korea Using the Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin; Jang, Youn Joo

    2017-01-01

    While the importance of early childhood education is well documented, scant attention is afforded to the access to institutions for early childhood education. Uneven distribution of institutions for early childhood education in segregated metropolitan areas can cause inequality of educational opportunity. By using the Geographic Information System…

  13. Developing and Validating a Survey of Korean Early Childhood English Teachers' Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung In

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop and validate a valid measure of the early childhood (EC) English teacher knowledge. Through extensive literature review on second/foreign language (L2/FL) teacher knowledge, early childhood teacher knowledge and early childhood language teacher knowledge, and semi-structured interviews from current…

  14. The Early Childhood Professional Mentoring Group: A Forum for Parallel Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Victoria I.; Recchia, Susan L.

    2008-01-01

    Novice professionals entering the fields of early childhood education and early childhood special education face many challenges and often feel disconnected from the support system that nurtured them during their teacher education programs (Brindle, Fleege, & Graves, 2000). The Early Childhood Professional Mentoring Group (ECPMG) was established…

  15. Illinois' Early Childhood Innovation Zones: A New Model for State Policy? IERC 2017-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Bradford R.; Colaninno, Carol E.; Doll, Mimi; Lewandowski, Holly

    2017-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of efforts made by Illinois Action for Children (IAFC), with oversight from the Illinois Governor's Office for Early Childhood Development (OECD), to test, support, and facilitate innovations in the early childhood system in 11 communities across the state. The Early Childhood Innovation Zones (IZ) initiative, funded…

  16. The New Turkish Early Childhood Teacher Education Curriculum: A Brief Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atay-Turhan, Tulay; Koc, Yusuf; Isiksal, Mine; Isiksal, Huseyin

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to describe and reflect on the new early childhood teacher education curriculum in Turkey. The new curriculum is part of a large-scale reform agenda to improve education at all levels. The article begins with a brief history of early childhood education and early childhood teacher education in Turkey. Then, the needs for the…

  17. No Child Misunderstood: Enhancing Early Childhood Teachers' Multicultural Responsiveness to the Social Competence of Diverse Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; Thomas, M. Shelley

    2010-01-01

    As a result of rapid demographic changes in our society, more children from diverse racial/cultural backgrounds join our early childhood classrooms. The majority of early childhood teachers, on the other hand, are middle-class and of European-decent. This paper provides early childhood teachers with both theoretical and practical understandings…

  18. The Development of Early Childhood Teachers' Language Knowledge in Different Educational Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmer, Janina; Mischo, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood teachers should have extensive knowledge about language and language development, because these facets of professional knowledge are considered as important requirements for fostering language development in early childhood education settings. It is assumed that early childhood teachers acquire this knowledge during pre-service…

  19. A Fourth Dimension: Tapping the Artist within the Early Childhood Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehouske, Ellen J.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the concept of an early childhood teacher learning, in stages, a new method for integrating the arts into the early childhood curriculum. An early childhood graduate course, Aesthetics as Learning, is the learning ground. In this course, the graduate students discover the "Adult Within," the "Child Within," the "Teacher…

  20. An Experimental Test of Parenting Practices as a Mediator of Early Childhood Physical Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; O'Neal, Colleen R.; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Rosenfelt, Amanda; Shrout, Patrick E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Parenting practices predict early childhood physical aggression. Preventive interventions that alter parenting practices and aggression during early childhood provide the opportunity to test causal models of early childhood psychopathology. Although there have been several informative preventive intervention studies that test mediation…

  1. A Consultative Itinerant Approach to Service Delivery: Considerations for the Early Childhood Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnebeil, Laurie; Pretti-Frontczak, Kristie; McInerney, William

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article, written by experts in itinerant early childhood special education, describes and differentiates approaches to itinerant early childhood special education as a primary service delivery option. Consultative itinerant early childhood special education services, in particular, are a means of ensuring that young children with…

  2. Fostering Connections to Nature -- Strategies for Community College Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Debra

    2017-01-01

    How can early childhood teacher educators at the community college level create opportunities for their students to explore and relate to the natural world? This article discusses three learning opportunities in an early childhood associate-degree program that foster connections between preservice and inservice early childhood teachers and nature…

  3. PREVENTION AND OUTCOMES FOR VICTIMS OF CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18–34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897

  4. Childhood and Adulthood Skill Acquisition - Importance for Labor Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krassel, Karl Fritjof; Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke

    the analysis contingent on cognitive and non-cognitive skills measured before entering the labor market. In this way we can measure both whether cognitive and/or non-cognitive skills relate to earnings and employment rate as well as how important the timing of acquiring skills are for outcomes on the labor...... market. Overall we find that cognitive skills are important for both earnings and employment rate but that the timing of the acquisition of the skills is of less importance. On the contrary, non-cognitive skills are important for earnings independent on whether the worker had high or low cognitive skills...... at childhood, but only important for employment rate for workers with high cognitive and low non-cognitive childhood skills. Overall our findings suggest that both cognitive and non-cognitive skills are important but that the dynamics differ....

  5. Girls' childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior predict adjustment problems in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Blokland, Arjan A J; Hipwell, Alison E; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Loeber, Rolf

    2015-07-01

    It is widely recognized that early onset of disruptive behavior is linked to a variety of detrimental outcomes in males, later in life. In contrast, little is known about the association between girls' childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior and adjustment problems in early adolescence. This study used nine waves of data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study. A semiparametric group-based model was used to identify trajectories of disruptive behavior in 1,513 girls from age 6 to 12 years. Adjustment problems were characterized by depression, self-harm, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), substance use, interpersonal aggression, sexual behavior, affiliation with delinquent peers, and academic achievement at ages 13 and 14. Three trajectories of childhood disruptive behavior were identified: low, medium, and high. Girls in the high group were at increased risk for depression, self-harm, PTSD, illegal substance use, interpersonal aggression, early and risky sexual behavior, and lower academic achievement. The likelihood of multiple adjustment problems increased with trajectories reflecting higher levels of disruptive behavior. Girls following the high childhood trajectory of disruptive behavior require early intervention programs to prevent multiple, adverse outcomes in adolescence and further escalation in adulthood. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  6. Girls’ childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior predict adjustment problems in early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Blokland, Arjan A. J.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert R.J.M.; Doreleijers, Theo A.H.; Loeber, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Background It is widely recognized that early onset of disruptive behavior is linked to a variety of detrimental outcomes in males later in life. In contrast, little is known about the association between girls’ childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior and adjustment problems in early adolescence. Methods The current study used 9 waves of data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study. A semi-parametric group based model was used to identify trajectories of disruptive behavior in 1,513 girls from age 6 to 12 years. Adjustment problems were characterized by depression, self-harm, PTSD, substance use, interpersonal aggression, sexual behavior, affiliation with delinquent peers, and academic achievement at ages 13 and 14. Results Three trajectories of childhood disruptive behavior were identified: low, medium, and high. Girls in the high group were at increased risk for depression, self-harm, PTSD, illegal substance use, interpersonal aggression, early and risky sexual behavior, and lower academic achievement. The likelihood of multiple adjustment problems increased with trajectories reflecting higher levels of disruptive behavior. Conclusion Girls following the high childhood trajectory of disruptive behavior require early intervention programs to prevent multiple, adverse outcomes in adolescence and further escalation in adulthood. PMID:25302849

  7. Cortisol secretion and change in sleep problems in early childhood: Moderation by maternal overcontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Hummel, Alexandra C; Luebbe, Aaron M

    2015-04-01

    Childhood sleep problems are prevalent and relate to a wide range of negative psychological outcomes. However, it remains unclear how biological processes, such as HPA activity, may predict sleep problems over time in childhood in the context of certain parenting environments. Fifty-one mothers and their 18-20 month-old toddlers participated in a short-term longitudinal study assessing how shared variance among morning levels, diurnal change, and nocturnal change in toddlers' cortisol secretion predicted change in sleep problems in the context of maternal overprotection and critical control. A composite characterized by low variability in, and, to a lesser extent, high morning values of cortisol, predicted increasing sleep problems from age 2 to age 3 when mothers reported high critical control. Results suggest value in assessing shared variance among different indices of cortisol secretion patterns and the interaction between cortisol and the environment in predicting sleep problems in early childhood.

  8. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…

  9. Early Childhood Education for the San in Namibia: The Working Group of Indigenous Minorities Early Childhood Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraseb, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    The Working Group of Indigenous Minorities in Southern Africa (WIMSA) has been working to improve conditions for San communities since 1996. San communities in Namibia have an extremely high dropout rate compared to all other populations in the country, and one of WIMSA's most important areas of focus is education. Early Childhood Development…

  10. The Current State of Early Childhood Education Programs: How Early Childhood Center Directors Manage Their Human Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Lauren E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Research in the field of early childhood education (ECE) demonstrated the association between skilled directors and high quality programs. Still, most state licensing requirements do not delineate the requisite knowledge or experience necessary to be an effective director. Many ECE directors advance to their position directly from the…

  11. Early Childhood Spaces: Involving Young Children and Practitioners in the Design Process. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alison

    2007-01-01

    This working paper explores the methodology and initial issues raised in seeking to involve young children in the design process. It reports a study concerned with how young children can play an active role in the designing and developing of children's spaces. The focus is on children under 6 years old in early childhood provision. (Contains 2…

  12. The Current State of Early Childhood Education Programs: How Early Childhood Center Directors Manage Their Human Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Lauren E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Research in the field of early childhood education (ECE) demonstrated the association between skilled directors and high quality programs. Still, most state licensing requirements do not delineate the requisite knowledge or experience necessary to be an effective director. Many ECE directors advance to their position directly from the…

  13. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…

  14. Keeping Our Children Safe: Protective Behaviour Programs in Early Childhood Settings. Australian Early Childhood Resource Booklets No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Coleen; Roe, Diana

    This booklet discusses the problem of child abuse in Australia, profiles four child abuse prevention programs, and provides practical suggestions for early childhood educators to help prevent child abuse. The profiled sexual abuse prevention and awareness programs include: (1) CARE Kit, which includes workshops for community agencies, parents, and…

  15. Toddlers in Nordic Early Childhood Education and Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Henrik; Greve, Anne

    2018-01-01

    -called Nordic model represents a uni ed system of early childhood education and care (ECEC). This chapter underlines the distinctive shared characteristics of the Nordic approach to play and learning, and care and education, where participation, democracy, respect for other cultures and religions...... and the possibility of achieving a healthy and stimulating childhood comprise the key elements. Furthermore, the chapter demonstrates some of the challenges when attempting to ensure quality childcare and education. The Nordic pedagogic tradition is seen as re ecting both social development and the culture...

  16. Risk factors for early childhood caries in disadvantaged populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Schwarz, Eli; Blinkhorn, Anthony Stevenson

    2011-11-01

    Early childhood caries is a significant international public health problem. The aim of this paper was to review the current evidence of the risk factors for dental caries in disadvantaged children under 6 years of age. Medline, Cochrane, and PubMed database searches were conducted. Systematic reviews were used where available, or meta-analyses; randomized, controlled trials; and cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies (in that order). Studies were restricted to those published in English from 1990 to October 2010. Early childhood caries has a complex etiology with biological, behavioral, and sociodemographic influences. Evidence suggests that young children are most likely to develop caries if Streptococcus mutans is acquired at an early age, although this is influenced by other factors, such as oral hygiene, fluoride, diet, dental visit patterns, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and health literacy. Etiological pathways should be taken into consideration when designing interventions to prevent dental caries in disadvantaged preschool children.

  17. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158met Polymorphism Interacts With Early Experience to Predict Executive Functions in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Sulik, Michael; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Petrill, Stephen; Bartlett, Christopher; Greenberg, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that the Methionine variant of the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism, which confers less efficient catabolism of catecholamines, is associated with increased focal activation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and higher levels of executive function abilities. By and large, however, studies of COMT Val158Met have been conducted with adult samples and do not account for the context in which development is occurring. Effects of early adversity on stress response physiology and the inverted U shape relating catecholamine levels to neural activity in PFC indicate the need to take into account early experience when considering relations between genes such as COMT and executive cognitive ability. Consistent with this neurobiology, we find in a prospective longitudinal sample of children and families (N=1292) that COMT Val158Met interacts with early experience to predict executive function abilities in early childhood. Specifically, the Valine variant of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, which confers more rather than less efficient catabolism of catecholamines is associated with higher executive function abilities at child ages 48 and 60 months and with faster growth of executive function for children experiencing early adversity, as indexed by cumulative risk factors in the home at child ages 7, 15, 24, and 36 months. Findings indicate the importance of the early environment for the relation between catecholamine genes and developmental outcomes and demonstrate that the genetic moderation of environmental risk is detectable in early childhood. PMID:26251232

  18. Trauma in Early Childhood: A Neglected Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, Alexandra C.; Kenardy, Justin A.; Cobham, Vanessa E.

    2011-01-01

    Infants, toddlers and preschoolers are a high risk group for exposure to trauma. Young children are also vulnerable to experiencing adverse outcomes as they are undergoing a rapid developmental period, have limited coping skills and are strongly dependent on their primary caregiver to protect them physically and emotionally. However, although…

  19. Early Childhood Depression and Alterations in the Trajectory of Gray Matter Maturation in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L; Belden, Andy C; Jackson, Joshua J; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Harms, Michael P; Tillman, Rebecca; Botteron, Kelly; Whalen, Diana; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-01-01

    The trajectory of cortical gray matter development in childhood has been characterized by early neurogenesis and volume increase, peaking at puberty followed by selective elimination and myelination, resulting in volume loss and thinning. This inverted U-shaped trajectory, as well as cortical thickness, has been associated with cognitive and emotional function. Synaptic pruning-based volume decline has been related to experience-dependent plasticity in animals. To date, there have been no data to inform whether and how childhood depression might be associated with this trajectory. To examine the effects of early childhood depression, from the preschool age to the school age period, on cortical gray matter development measured across 3 waves of neuroimaging from late school age to early adolescence. Data were collected in an academic research setting from September 22, 2003, to December 13, 2014, on 193 children aged 3 to 6 years from the St Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area who were observed for up to 11 years in a longitudinal behavioral and neuroimaging study of childhood depression. Multilevel modeling was applied to explore the association between the number of childhood depression symptoms and prior diagnosis of major depressive disorder and the trajectory of gray matter change across 3 scan waves. Data analysis was conducted from October 29, 2014, to September 28, 2015. Volume, thickness, and surface area of cortical gray matter measured using structural magnetic resonance imaging at 3 scan waves. Of the 193 children, 90 had a diagnosis of major depressive disorder; 116 children had 3 full waves of neuroimaging scans. Findings demonstrated marked alterations in cortical gray matter volume loss (slope estimate, -0.93 cm³; 95% CI, -1.75 to -0.10 cm³ per scan wave) and thinning (slope estimate, -0.0044 mm; 95% CI, -0.0077 to -0.0012 mm per scan wave) associated with experiencing an episode of major depressive disorder before the first magnetic resonance

  20. Unique Associations between Childhood Temperament Characteristics and Subsequent Psychopathology Symptom Trajectories from Childhood to Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Miriam K; Rapee, Ronald M; Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A

    2016-12-09

    Existing research suggests that temperamental traits that emerge early in childhood may have utility for early detection and intervention for common mental disorders. The present study examined the unique relationships between the temperament characteristics of reactivity, approach-sociability, and persistence in early childhood and subsequent symptom trajectories of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; ADHD) from childhood to early adolescence. Data were from the first five waves of the older cohort from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (n = 4983; 51.2% male), which spanned ages 4-5 to 12-13. Multivariate ordinal and logistic regressions examined whether parent-reported child temperament characteristics at age 4-5 predicted the study child's subsequent symptom trajectories for each domain of psychopathology (derived using latent class growth analyses), after controlling for other presenting symptoms. Temperament characteristics differentially predicted the symptom trajectories for depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and ADHD: Higher levels of reactivity uniquely predicted higher symptom trajectories for all 4 domains; higher levels of approach-sociability predicted higher trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD, but lower trajectories of anxiety; and higher levels of persistence were related to lower trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD. These findings suggest that temperament is an early identifiable risk factor for the development of psychopathology, and that identification and timely interventions for children with highly reactive temperaments in particular could prevent later mental health problems.

  1. "Race" and Early Childhood Education: An International Approach to Identity, Politics, and Pedagogy. Critical Cultural Studies of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Naughton, Glenda, Ed.; Davis, Karina, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This book explores the prominence of "race" in the lives of young children and their early childhood educators. It critiques the often presumed racial innocence of young children and shows instead how young children actively engage with the politics of race as they form their own identities. It challenges early childhood educators to engage with…

  2. Integrating Vygotsky's theory of relational ontology into early childhood science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, Susan A.

    2014-03-01

    In Science Education during Early Childhood: A Cultural- Historical Perspective, Wolff-Michael Roth, Maria Inês Mafra Goulart and Katerina Plakitsi explore the practical application of Vygotsky's relational ontological theory of human development to early childhood science teaching and teacher development. In this review, I interrogate how Roth et al. conceptualize "emergent curriculum" within the Eurocentric cultural-historical traditions of early childhood education that evolved primarily from the works of Vygotsky and Piaget and compare it to the conceptualizations from other prominent early childhood researchers and curriculum developers. I examine the implications of the authors' interpretation of emergence for early childhood science education and teacher preparation.

  3. The relation between trust beliefs and loneliness during early childhood, middle childhood, and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Ken J; Addis, Nick; Betts, Lucy R; Corrigan, Amanda; Fox, Claire; Hobson, Zoe; Rennison, Sarah; Trueman, Mark; Boulton, Michael J

    2010-08-01

    Four studies examined the relation between trust and loneliness. Studies 1, 2, and 3 showed that trust beliefs negatively predicted changes in loneliness during early childhood (5-7 years), middle childhood (9-11 years), and young adulthood (18-21 years). Structural equation modeling yielded support for the hypothesis that the relation between trust beliefs and loneliness was mediated, in part, by social disengagement, which varied by age and gender. Study 4 showed that when young adults were primed for distrust rather than for trust cognitions, they showed greater withdrawal (loneliness) affect, lower willingness to disclose, and less perceived success in achieving rapport. The findings yielded support for the hypotheses that (a) low trust beliefs promote loneliness from childhood to adulthood and (b) social disengagement and cognitive schema mechanisms account for the relation.

  4. Deviations from the expectable environment in early childhood and emerging psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Zeanah, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    Current frameworks for understanding the link between early adverse childhood experiences and later negative life outcomes, including psychopathology, focus on the mediating negative impact on brain and biological systems in the developing child resulting broadly from stress and trauma. Although this approach is useful, we argue that the framework could be functionally extended by distinguishing the effects of two different types of abnormal input, both deviations from the expectable environment in early childhood. Specifically, we review the consequences of inadequate input (eg, neglect/deprivation) and harmful input (eg, abuse/trauma) on brain and biological development. We then review evidence on the differential links between each type of abnormal input to four selected domains of psychopathology (indiscriminate social behavior, posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and conduct problems), and consider potential mechanisms for inadequate and harmful input to lead to these outcomes. We conclude that the careful consideration of the type of deviation from the expected environment, while acknowledging the practical difficulties in assessing this, is likely to lead to clearer understanding of the mechanism of risk for psychopathology, and that tailored approaches to prevention and intervention may be informed by considering the unique consequences of inadequate and harmful input when experienced in early childhood.

  5. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…

  6. A Long-Term Outcome Study of Selective Mutism in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Wachter, Miriam; Laimbock, Karin; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Controlled study of the long-term outcome of selective mutism (SM) in childhood. Method: A sample of 33 young adults with SM in childhood and two age- and gender-matched comparison groups were studied. The latter comprised 26 young adults with anxiety disorders in childhood (ANX) and 30 young adults with no psychiatric disorders during…

  7. A function of social institutions of early childhood education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Acires Candal Rocha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Try to explain this text, in my view, essential aspects of the social function of institutions for children's education. The principles and general guidelines for early childhood education that we presents the results of a discussion process to coordinate with the Municipal Department of Education Florianópolis (Division of Child Education between 2000 and 2001. The aim of the debate was to subsidize the movement of defining guidelines for action for childcare and educational Neise (Centers for Children's Education of the municipal network. As a starting point, were recovered documents previously produced a guidance curriculum. The idea was to get a deeper understanding to help rewrite the curriculum guidelines of the city, both in the light of experience by educators of the network as a function of the definitions given for early childhood education by more current legislation.

  8. Play and playfulness in early childhood education and care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education. The elements of play are pleasure, a sense of freedom, and the co-construction of shared meaning through the use of rules or rhythms. Play and learning are closely related in early childhood. But when the focus on the educational benefits of play becomes too strong, the most essential feature of play is lost: children’s pleasure. Young children in group settings often have to adapt to the teachers’ demands related to security, hygiene, and social norms and values. But the playfulness of the teachers helps to overcome differences in power in the caregiver-child relationship and prevents young children from becoming overburdened with strict rules and group discipline. Play and playfulness are a resource of shared pleasure and creativity in learning processes.

  9. Prioritizing the Risk Factors of Severe Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Samir Kabil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe early childhood caries remains the most common chronic disease affecting children. The multifactorial etiology of caries has established a controversy about which risk factors were more significant to its development. Therefore, our study aimed through meticulous statistical analysis to arrange the “well agreed upon” common risk factors in order of significance, to aid the clinician in tailoring an adequate preventive program. The study prioritized or reshuffled the risk factors contributing to severe early childhood caries and placed them in the order of their significance as follows: snacking of sugary food several times a day, increased number of siblings to three or more, night feeding, child self-employed brushing, mother’s caries experience, two siblings, on demand feeding, once/day sugary food, sharing utensils, one sibling, male gender, father’s education, late first dental visit, brushing time, mother’s education, no dental visit, decreased brushing frequency, and no night brushing.

  10. [Laser tonsillectomy in tonsillar hyperplasia of early childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helling, K; Abrams, J; Bertram, W K; Hohner, S; Scherer, H

    2002-05-01

    Tonsillotomy, the partial resection of hyperplastic tonsils, is generally rejected in Germany as a treatment option for obstructions of the isthmus faucium in early childhood. We think this approach merits consideration. The favorable results obtained with tonsillotomy in the University Hospital Benjamin Franklin (n = 637), a private clinic, and an ENT practice with surgical facilities (n = 189) showed that there is no justification for adhering to literature reports of severe late complications with scarred tonsillar crypts and peritonsillar abscesses. No patient has developed any of these complications thus far. Following tonsillotomy, preoperative complaints (snoring, respiratory obstruction, dysphagia, and failure to grow) decreased considerably. Thus, tonsillotomy proved to be a suitable modality for treating tonsillar hyperplasia in early childhood. The prerequisite for long-term success is strict limitation of this intervention to the diagnosis of tonsillar hyperplasia.

  11. How Evidence Can Be Used to Inform Policy: A Case Study of Early Childhood Evidence-Based Policy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Pia Rebello; Cerezo, Adrian; Ogbunugafor, C. Brandon

    2008-01-01

    Albeit science is clear in its support for early childhood, the developmental outcomes for young children, globally, are poor. It is hypothesized that evidence-based policies may be a potential mediator of the application of science to improve the lives and well-being of young children. However, the question arises--at what stage of policy…

  12. Childhood maltreatment and unfavourable clinical outcomes in bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Danese, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Bipolar disorder affects up to one in 25 individuals and identification of early risk indicators of negative outcomes could facilitate early detection of patients with greatest clinical needs and risk. We aimed to investigate the association between childhood maltreatment and key negative outcomes in patients with bipolar disorder. For this systematic review and meta-analysis we searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Embase to identify articles published before Jan 1, 2015, examining the association of maltreatment (physical, sexual, or emotional abuse, neglect, or family conflict) before age 18 years with clinical features and course of illness in bipolar disorder. Data were extracted from published reports and any missing information was requested from investigators. We did 12 independent random-effects meta-analyses to quantify the associations between childhood maltreatment and course of illness or clinical features. We initially identified 527 records and after unsuitable studies were removed, our search yielded 148 publications of which 30 were used in the meta-analysis. Patients with bipolar disorder and history of childhood maltreatment had greater mania severity (six studies, 780 participants; odds ratio [OR] 2·02, 95% CI 1·21-3·39, p=0·008), greater depression severity (eight studies, 1007 participants; 1·57, 1·25-1·99, p=0·0001), greater psychosis severity (seven studies, 1494 participants; 1·49, 1·10-2·04, p=0·011), higher risk of comorbidity with post-traumatic stress disorder (eight studies, 2494 participants; 3·60, 2·45-5·30, pchildhood maltreatment. Overall, these associations were not explained by publication bias, undue effects of individual studies, or variation in study quality. Childhood maltreatment predicts unfavourable clinical features and course of illness in patients with bipolar disorder. None. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Early Risk Factors of Overweight Developmental Trajectories during Middle Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Pryor, Laura E.; Mara Brendgen; Richard E Tremblay; Jean-Baptiste Pingault; Xuecheng Liu; Lise Dubois; Evelyne Touchette; Bruno Falissard; Michel Boivin; Sylvana M Côté

    2015-01-01

    Background Research is needed to identify early life risk factors associated with different developmental paths leading to overweight by adolescence. Objectives To model heterogeneity in overweight development during middle childhood and identify factors associated with differing overweight trajectories. Methods Data was drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD; 1998-2010). Trained research assistants measured height and weight according to a standardized protocol ...

  14. Leadership in Early Childhood Education:cross-cultural perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Nivala, V. (Veijo); Hujala, E. (Eeva)

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The book consists of presentations given at the Open Forum at the University of Oulu on March 2001. It highlights the contextual approach in leadership in early childhood. The studies introduced in this volume provide strong evidence that leadership is not only a leader's matter — it is a matter of concern for the whole leadership community. Different methods, like focus group — discussion, self study report and shared data will be introduced in the articles. The articles are ...

  15. Prioritizing the Risk Factors of Severe Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Noha Samir Kabil; Sherif Eltawil

    2017-01-01

    Severe early childhood caries remains the most common chronic disease affecting children. The multifactorial etiology of caries has established a controversy about which risk factors were more significant to its development. Therefore, our study aimed through meticulous statistical analysis to arrange the “well agreed upon” common risk factors in order of significance, to aid the clinician in tailoring an adequate preventive program. The study prioritized or reshuffled the risk factors contri...

  16. Nomadic Writing : Exploring Processes of Writing in Early Childhood Education

    OpenAIRE

    Hermansson, Carina

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores how writing is made in two Swedish early childhood classrooms with a focus on how processes of writing are constituted in the writing event and what writings and writers the event offers potentials for. Theoretically, the research project takes its starting point in the assumption that processes of writing are an effect of relations between different elements, where the young writer is only one part of many human and non-human matters that make way for multiple becomings ...

  17. Early childhood educators' recognition and treatment of violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Pogačar, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The thesis analyses violence against children and early childhood educators' recognition of violence against children and their treatment. The theoretical part defines different types of violence which are: physical, mental, and sexual violence, child neglect, and economic violence. Definitions as well as signs of a certain type of violence are presented. The author also describes the role of practitioners in recognition of violence against children and the legislation that defines their ...

  18. [Metabolic disorders in epilepsy of early childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, V; Týnová, L; Saxl, O; Podhradská, O; Mrskos, A

    1970-01-01

    Metabolic disorders are discussed which are associated with the pathophysiological mechanisms of the origin of convulsions. Homeostasis impairment, e. g. hyponatremia, hypo- and hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia is mentioned, as well as vitamin deficiencies, such as pyridoxin deficiency, and the problem of phenylketonuria is discussed in connection with aminoacid disorders. Possible connections between aminoacid disorders and BNS, occurring in 8.1% of 1,688 children treated for epilepsy at the neurological department of the Brno Faculty Children's Hospital, are further discussed. Results of screening for amino-aciduria (according to Berry's method) were negative in 3000 healthy infants, whereas careful investigation resulted in pathologic aminoaciduria in 17 out of 20 children with BNS. Also results of hormonal treatment in children with this sort of convulsions are reported. It is concluded that early therapy, even though incapable of influencing neurological abnormities, suppresses convulsions and may lead to the disappearance of hypsarythmia from the EEG curve. A benign influence upon mental development was observed in a small group of children in whom therapy had been initiated very early. It is emphasized that this, by no means indifferent, type of therapy should only be performed in a well equipped and managed pediatric department.

  19. 76 FR 32967 - Proposed Extensions and Waivers: National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... Proposed Extensions and Waivers: National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center AGENCY: Office of... Childhood Technical Assistance Center. SUMMARY: The Secretary proposes to waive the requirements in the...) 2006 for a National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (NECTAC). The purpose of the NECTAC...

  20. Diversity and Difference in Early Childhood Education: Issues for Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kerry; Diaz, Criss Jones

    2005-01-01

    Early childhood professionals are often required to work with children and families from a range of diverse backgrounds. This book goes beyond simplistic definitions of diversity, encouraging a much broader understanding and helping early childhood educators develop a critical disposition towards assumptions about children and childhood in…

  1. Revealing the Research "Hole" of Early Childhood Education for Sustainability: A Preliminary Survey of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Julie

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, "Environmental Education Research" dedicated a special issue to childhood and environmental education. This paper makes a case for "early childhood" to also be in the discussions. Here, I am referring to early childhood as the before-school years, focusing on educational settings such as childcare centres and…

  2. Montessori Early Childhood Teacher Perceptions of Family Priorities and Stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Epstein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Teachers of young children work closely with families. One component of teacher-family partnerships is teachers’ understanding of family priorities and stressors. This study examines Montessori early childhood (ages three through six teacher perceptions of family priorities and stressors through an analysis of responses to two parallel surveys.  Eighty teachers (37% of those who received the survey and forty-nine family members (representing a 55% response rate completed the survey.  Significant differences were found between teachers’ perceptions of four (of seven family priorities and families’ actual responses. Teachers ranked “making academic progress” as the most important of seven possible family priorities. However, families stated that “developing kindness” is the most important priority for their young children. No significant differences were found when comparing teacher rankings of family stressors with actual family responses. Montessori early childhood teachers ranked “not having enough time” as the most stressful of six possible stressors. Families confirmed that time pressures cause them the most stress. Maria Montessori’s recommendations for teachers and families are summarized. Recommendations for building stronger family partnerships in the context of Montessori’s philosophy, for example on-going self-reflection, are provided.             Keywords: Montessori, teacher-family partnerships, early childhood teacher perceptions

  3. Long-term cognitive and academic effects of early childhood education on children in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, W S

    1998-01-01

    It is generally accepted that early childhood education improves the cognitive performance of children in poverty in the short-term, but whether cognitive effects persist in the long-term is hotly debated. This paper presents the results of a critical review of 38 studies of the long-term effects of early childhood programs on children in poverty. Outcomes examined include IQ, achievement, and academic success as measured by grade repetition, special education placement, and high school graduation. Early childhood education is found to produce persistent effects on achievement and academic success, but not on IQ (with some exceptions). Head Start and public school programs produce the same types of effects as better funded model programs, but at least some of the effects are smaller. Cost-benefit analysis based on one randomized trial finds that the economic return from providing early education to children in poverty far exceeds the costs. Head Start, public school preschool education, and education in high-quality child care programs all offer avenues for government investment to improve the long-term cognitive development and academic success of children in poverty.

  4. Literacy and Music in Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M. Tomlinson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This review of literature examines relevant research that supports new ways of viewing children as active transmitters of culture in situated learning contexts, where case studies explore children’s redesign of semiotic modes of music and verbal linguistics. Some recent research discussed in this article supports the premise that cognitive abilities of children in early learning settings may be transformed through embodied ways of representing prior knowledge. Young children have been observed enriching prior knowledge during interactions in music invention, using the gestural mode to interpret rhythmic and melodic motifs, structure and phrasing through movement to music, or extending these elements of music (audio mode in invented song or instrumental play. In engaging literacy tasks, they co-construct texts by drawing on semiotic resources of visual symbols and spatial design elements in written linguistic modes. This cognitive structuring is also revealed in the underlying patterns found in their embodied music invention. How knowledge is represented is crucial to children’s apprehension of knowledge through co-construction. It enables their selection of media and mode for redesign, to promote their understanding of concepts and facilitate problem solving. Multimodal redesign in young children’s music and verbal linguistics is explored as a rich source for communicating meaning and developing higher thinking.

  5. Early Childhood Staff and Families' Perceptions: Diverse Views about Important Experiences for Children Aged 3-5 Years in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Fay

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature about the potential for early childhood settings to serve as community hubs to develop relationships with families. However, there is limited information about the ways in which families and early childhood staff interface in defining what constitutes "quality" within settings. Researchers have…

  6. Early Childhood Education and Special Education: How Well Do They Mix? An Examination of Inclusive Practices in Early Childhood Educational Settings in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaili C.

    2011-01-01

    To examine and identify the current inclusive practices in early childhood educational settings in Hong Kong, this qualitative study looks at the support and educational services available for young children with special needs in Hong Kong mainstream preschools as well as the characteristics of early childhood educational settings that support…

  7. Improving the Quality of Early Childhood Education in Chile: Tensions between Public Policy and Teacher Discourses over the Schoolarisation of Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Marcela; Woodrow, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article problematises emerging tensions in Chile, in relation to the discourses of early childhood teachers and public policies aimed at improving the quality of early childhood education. The aim of the analysis is to contribute to developing more nuanced understandings of these tensions, through the analytical lenses provided by the…

  8. Improving the Quality of Early Childhood Education in Chile: Tensions between Public Policy and Teacher Discourses over the Schoolarisation of Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Marcela; Woodrow, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article problematises emerging tensions in Chile, in relation to the discourses of early childhood teachers and public policies aimed at improving the quality of early childhood education. The aim of the analysis is to contribute to developing more nuanced understandings of these tensions, through the analytical lenses provided by the…

  9. Does Early Childhood Teacher Education Affect Students' Cognitive Orientations? The Effect of Different Education Tracks in Teacher Education on Prospective Early Childhood Teachers' Cognitive Orientations in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischo, Christoph; Wahl, Stefan; Strohmer, Janina; Wolf, Carina

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood teachers may differ regarding the knowledge base they use when making professional decisions. In this study two orientations are distinguished: the orientation towards scientific knowledge vs. the orientation towards intuition and subjective experience. As different tracks in early childhood teacher education qualify for…

  10. The Role of Motive Objects in Early Childhood Teacher Development Concerning Children's Digital Play and Play-Based Learning in Early Childhood Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Joce; Edwards, Susan; Mantilla, Ana; Grieshaber, Sue; Wood, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Digital technologies are increasingly accepted as a viable aspect of early childhood curriculum. However, teacher uptake of digital technologies in early childhood education and their use with young children in play-based approaches to learning have not been strong. Traditional approaches to the problem of teacher uptake of digital technologies in…

  11. Are Early Childhood Disparities Narrowing? The Changing Nature of Early Childhood and Its Link to Narrowing School-Entry Achievement Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassok, Daphna; Finch, Jenna; Lee, RaeHyuck; Reardon, Sean F.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2016-01-01

    To date, no studies have documented how much early childhood experiences have changed over time. In the current study, researchers use two large, nationally representative datasets of kindergarten entrants to document the following: (1) How have children's early childhood experiences changed between 1998 and 2010?; (2) To what extent have…

  12. Impact of Different Childhood Adversities on 1-Year Outcomes of Psychotic Disorder in the Genetics and Psychosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Antonella; Murray, Robin M; David, Anthony S; Kolliakou, Anna; O'Connor, Jennifer; Di Forti, Marta; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Morgan, Craig; Fisher, Helen L

    2016-03-01

    While the role of childhood adversity in increasing the risk of psychosis has been extensively investigated, it is not clear what the impact of early adverse experiences is on the outcomes of psychotic disorders. Therefore, we investigated associations between childhood adversity and 1-year outcomes in 285 first-presentation psychosis patients. Exposure to childhood adversity prior to 17 years of age was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Data on illness course, symptom remission, length of psychiatric hospitalization, compliance with medication, employment, and relationship status were extracted from clinical records for the year following first contact with mental health services for psychosis. Seventy-one percent of patients reported exposure to at least 1 type of childhood adversity (physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental separation, parental death, disrupted family arrangements, or being taken into care). No robust associations were found between childhood adversity and illness course or remission. However, childhood physical abuse was associated with almost 3-fold increased odds of not being in a relationship at 1-year follow-up compared to patients who did not report such adverse experiences. There was also evidence of a significant association between parental separation in childhood and longer admissions to psychiatric wards during 1-year follow-up and 2-fold increased odds of noncompliance with medication compared to those not separated from their parents. Therefore, our findings suggest that there may be some specificity in the impact of childhood adversity on service use and social functioning among psychosis patients over the first year following presentation to mental health services.

  13. Defending Childhood: Keeping the Promise of Early Education. Early Childhood Education Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Beverly, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book brings together a group of extraordinary educators and scholars who offer important insights about what we can do to defend childhood from societal challenges. The authors explain new findings from neuroscience and psychology, as well as emerging knowledge about the impact on child development of cultural and linguistic diversity,…

  14. Effects of early intervention with inhaled sodium cromoglycate in childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, S; Kanno, N; Yamada, Y; Ono, M; Fukuda, N; Numata, M; Abe, T; Arisaka, O

    2006-01-01

    International and Japanese guidelines classify childhood asthma as mild, moderate, or severe, and recommend treatment with "as needed" bronchodilators, inhaled sodium cromoglycate, and inhaled corticosteroids, respectively. Alternatively, some investigators proposed inhaled corticosteroids as first-line therapy to prevent airway inflammatory obstruction. This article describes a clinical study assessing the effect of early intervention with inhaled sodium cromoglycate in childhood asthma. This was a retrospective study of 189 asthmatic children treated with inhaled sodium cromoglycate for five years and whose age of onset of asthma was six year of age or younger. An end-of-study questionnaire completed the examination. Children administered oral or inhaled corticosteroids simultaneously with sodium cromoglycate, were excluded. Asthma scores as defined by the Japanese Pediatric Allergic Committee, were reduced continuously during the five years after the start of sodium cromoglycate treatment. The frequency of emergency department visits and hospitalizations also decreased. Significant between-period intervention differences showed improvement of clinical outcomes for children with severe asthma during the five years of sodium cromoglycate inhalation. The early intervention regime of starting sodium cromoglycate inhalation within two years of the onset of asthma shows a large improvement in the long-term prognosis of childhood asthma, especially for children with severe asthma. It is possible that starting inhaled sodium cromoglycate earlier than the present recommendation of corticosteroids could further improve clinical outcomes, but a prospective study should be performed to verify our results.

  15. Childhood Predictors of Adult Functional Outcomes in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arunima; Hechtman, Lily; Arnold, L Eugene; Swanson, James M; Molina, Brooke S G; Sibley, Margaret H; Howard, Andrea L

    2017-08-01

    Recent results from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; MTA) have demonstrated impairments in several functioning domains in adults with childhood ADHD. The childhood predictors of these adult functional outcomes are not adequately understood. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of childhood demographic, clinical, and family factors on adult functional outcomes in individuals with and without childhood ADHD from the MTA cohort. Regressions were used to determine associations of childhood factors (age range 7-10 years) of family income, IQ, comorbidity (internalizing, externalizing, and total number of non-ADHD diagnoses), parenting styles, parental education, number of household members, parental marital problems, parent-child relationships, and ADHD symptom severity with adult outcomes (mean age 25 years) of occupational functioning, educational attainment, emotional functioning, sexual behavior, and justice involvement in participants with (n = 579) and without (n = 258) ADHD. Predictors of adult functional outcomes in ADHD included clinical factors such as baseline ADHD severity, IQ, and comorbidity; demographic factors such as family income, number of household members and parental education; and family factors such as parental monitoring and parental marital problems. Predictors of adult outcomes were generally comparable for children with and without ADHD. Childhood ADHD symptoms, IQ, and household income levels are important predictors of adult functional outcomes. Management of these areas early on, through timely treatments for ADHD symptoms, and providing additional support to children with lower IQ and from households with low incomes, could assist in improving adult functioning. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early Risk Factors of Overweight Developmental Trajectories during Middle Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Pryor

    Full Text Available Research is needed to identify early life risk factors associated with different developmental paths leading to overweight by adolescence.To model heterogeneity in overweight development during middle childhood and identify factors associated with differing overweight trajectories.Data was drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD; 1998-2010. Trained research assistants measured height and weight according to a standardized protocol and conducted yearly home interviews with the child's caregiver (mother in 98% of cases. Information on several putative early life risk factors for the development of overweight were obtained, including factors related to the child's perinatal, early behavioral family and social environment. Group-based trajectories of the probability of overweight (6-12 years were identified with a semiparametric method (n=1678. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify early risk factors (5 months- 5 years associated with each trajectory.Three trajectories of overweight were identified: "early-onset overweight" (11.0 %, "late-onset overweight" (16.6% and "never overweight" (72.5%. Multinomial analyses indicated that children in the early and late-onset group, compared to the never overweight group, had 3 common types of risk factors: parental overweight, preschool overweight history, and large size for gestational age. Maternal overprotection (OR= 1.12, CI: 1.01-1.25, short nighttime sleep duration (OR=1.66, CI: 1.07-2.57, and immigrant status (OR=2.01, CI: 1.05-3.84 were factors specific to the early-onset group. Finally, family food insufficiency (OR=1.81, CI: 1.00-3.28 was weakly associated with membership in the late-onset trajectory group.The development of overweight in childhood follows two different trajectories, which have common and distinct risk factors that could be the target of early preventive interventions.

  17. Posttraumatic stress disorder in early childhood: classification and diagnostic issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Simonelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The 0–3 diagnostic classification of infant mental health, on the basis of DSM-IV-R, describes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD as a pattern of symptoms that may be shown by children who have experienced a single traumatic event, a series of connected traumatic events, or chronic, enduring stress situations. This definition, related to young children, needs the consideration of several factors to understand the child's symptoms, organize the diagnostic process, and realize clinical interventions. In this sense, the clinician must appreciate the classification criteria of PTSD in early childhood in the context of the child's age, temperament, and developmental level. This report presents a review of the research in the domain of the PTSD in early childhood with particular attention to the developmental considerations to define critical diagnostic criteria, specifically organized on the child characteristics, competences, and needs. Along this line, it will describe two proposed modifications of the diagnostic classification in childhood: the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Alternative Algorithm (PTSD-AA and the definition of developmental trauma disorder (DTD.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Article Tools online

  18. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  19. The PCDH1 gene and asthma in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Li J; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that variants in the protocadherin-1 (PCDH1) gene, which is important for cell-cell adhesion, are associated with asthma, bronchial, hyperresponsiveness and atopic dermatitis in school children. Our aim was to associate common variants of the PCDH1 gene with longit......Previous studies have suggested that variants in the protocadherin-1 (PCDH1) gene, which is important for cell-cell adhesion, are associated with asthma, bronchial, hyperresponsiveness and atopic dermatitis in school children. Our aim was to associate common variants of the PCDH1 gene...... with longitudinally assessed asthma phenotypes and atopic dermatitis in early childhood. We analysed eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms in PCDH1 from 411 children born to asthmatic mothers from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood birth cohort. Asthma and atopic dermatitis were diagnosed...

  20. Clinical disturbances of attachment in infancy and early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, N W; Zeanah, C H

    1998-08-01

    The development of the attachment behavioral system in infancy has been the focus of a wide range of research in the past 30 years. The clinical significance of disturbances in this area of development is currently a major focus for this research. Research on patterns of attachment in infancy has informed understanding of the development of psychopathology in later childhood; insecure-disorganized attachment is recognized as an important risk factor in this regard. The clinical features of reactive attachment disorder in early childhood are also becoming more clear. Finally, knowledge about the intersection between attachment and various risk conditions is growing and should inform clinical judgement about infants and young children requiring intervention. Primary care physicians can use these findings to identify children in need of intervention.

  1. Findings of Visual Arts Research in Early Childhood and Primary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Županić Benić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Arts research was introduced in the field of education during the 1990s by Barone and Eisner, but their methodology is rarely used because it is not considered to be consistent with traditional paradigms of the scientific method. This review identified only seven visual arts research studies in early childhood education and primary education. Four studies were conducted in early childhood education settings, and two of those studies used quantitative methods to investigate the effects of art on early childhood development. The three studies that were conducted in primary education used a case study approach to examine art projects in the community or the classroom. Participation in visual arts was associated with enhanced learning outcomes in other areas and the development of individual and social competences, but it was not found to facilitate the development of age-dependent abilities, such as visual or grapho-motor abilities. Visual arts also proved to be an effective method of communication for children in preschool and primary education institutions because it is easier for them to express their opinions and beliefs to adults with visual media than with words.

  2. Asthma trajectories in early childhood: identifying modifiable factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Panico

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are conflicting views as to whether childhood wheezing represents several discreet entities or a single but variable disease. Classification has centered on phenotypes often derived using subjective criteria, small samples, and/or with little data for young children. This is particularly problematic as asthmatic features appear to be entrenched by age 6/7. In this paper we aim to: identify longitudinal trajectories of wheeze and other atopic symptoms in early childhood; characterize the resulting trajectories by the socio-economic background of children; and identify potentially modifiable processes in infancy correlated with these trajectories. DATA AND METHODS: The Millennium Cohort Study is a large, representative birth cohort of British children born in 2000-2002. Our analytical sample includes 11,632 children with data on key variables (wheeze in the last year; ever hay-fever and/or eczema reported by the main carers at age 3, 5 and 7 using a validated tool, the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood module. We employ longitudinal Latent Class Analysis, a clustering methodology which identifies classes underlying the observed population heterogeneity. RESULTS: Our model distinguished four latent trajectories: a trajectory with both low levels of wheeze and other atopic symptoms (54% of the sample; a trajectory with low levels of wheeze but high prevalence of other atopic symptoms (29%; a trajectory with high prevalence of both wheeze and other atopic symptoms (9%; and a trajectory with high levels of wheeze but low levels of other atopic symptoms (8%. These groups differed in terms of socio-economic markers and potential intervenable factors, including household damp and breastfeeding initiation. CONCLUSION: Using data-driven techniques, we derived four trajectories of asthmatic symptoms in early childhood in a large, population based sample. These groups differ in terms of their socio-economic profiles

  3. Predicting Adverse Health Outcomes in Long-Term Survivors of a Childhood Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya S. Moskowitz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 80% of children and young adults diagnosed with invasive cancer will survive five or more years beyond their cancer diagnosis. This population has an increased risk for serious illness- and treatment-related morbidity and premature mortality. A number of these adverse health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease and some second primary neoplasms, either have modifiable risk factors or can be successfully treated if detected early. Absolute risk models that project a personalized risk of developing a health outcome can be useful in patient counseling, in designing intervention studies, in forming prevention strategies, and in deciding upon surveillance programs. Here, we review existing absolute risk prediction models that are directly applicable to survivors of a childhood cancer, discuss the concepts and interpretation of absolute risk models, and examine ways in which these models can be used applied in clinical practice and public health.

  4. Transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and problem behavior from early childhood to early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L.; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Butner, Jonathan E.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (1) how these transactions originate, (2) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (3) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth-age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior. PMID:27427803

  5. Transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and problem behavior from early childhood to early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, Linda L; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L; Dansereau, Lynne M; Butner, Jonathan E; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Lester, Barry M

    2016-08-01

    Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (a) how these transactions originate, (b) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (c) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth to age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior.

  6. Transient early wheeze and lung function in early childhood associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, Marjan; Boezen, Hendrika; Granell, Raquel; Wijga, Alet H.; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Thijs, Carel; Mommers, Monique; Penders, John; Henderson, John; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been hypothesized that a disturbed early lung development underlies the susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Little is known about whether subjects genetically predisposed to COPD show their first symptoms or reduced lung function in childhood. Objective

  7. Early childhood WIC participation, cognitive development and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Margot I

    2015-02-01

    For the 22% of American children who live below the federal poverty line, and the additional 23% who live below twice that level, nutritional policy is part of the safety net against hunger and its negative effects on children's development. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) provides steadily available food from the food groups essential for physical and cognitive development. The effects of WIC on dietary quality among participating women and children are strong and positive. Furthermore, there is a strong influence of nutrition on cognitive development and socioeconomic inequality. Yet, research on the non-health effects of U.S. child nutritional policy is scarce, despite the ultimate goal of health policies directed at children-to enable productive functioning across multiple social institutions over the life course. Using two nationally representative, longitudinal surveys of children-the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) and the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-I examine how prenatal and early childhood exposure to WIC is associated in the short-term with cognitive development, and in the longer-term with reading and math learning. Results show that early WIC participation is associated with both cognitive and academic benefits. These findings suggest that WIC meaningfully contributes to children's educational prospects.

  8. The value of early CT in complicated childhood pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan Kendrick, A.P. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore); Ling, Ho [Department of Paediatric Medicine, Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore); Subramaniam, Ramnath; Joseph, Vijeyakaran T. [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore)

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the value of CT in complicated childhood pneumonia and its role in early intervention when chest radiography (CXR) is non-contributory. Materials and methods. Forty-two immunocompetent children, aged 1-11 years, admitted for community-acquired pneumonia from October 1997 to September 1999, had 42 contrast-enhanced CT scans and frontal chest radiographs on the same day, which were assessed independently. CT was performed when the patient remained unwell and the CXR images showed failure of resolution despite 7-10 days of antibiotics and/or drainage with urokinase therapy. Results. Compared to CT, CXR revealed suboptimal accuracy rates of lobar involvement (84%), chest tube placement (73%), fluid loculation (42%), abscess formation (40%) and bronchopleural fistulae (33%). It could not assess parenchymal or pleural complications such as cavitary necrosis, early abscess formation, empyemas or pericardial effusions. On the basis of the CT findings and poor clinical progress, 16 patients underwent surgical intervention with the aid of video-assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS). The CT features correlated well with surgical findings. Ten cases required pleural decortication while six with destructive or necrotic lung lesions had surgical resection. Debridement was difficult when the pleura had become thick and fibrotic. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the offending organism in 81% of cases. The right side was affected in 67% of cases. Conclusions. In complicated childhood pneumonia, CT is far superior to CXR in revealing pleural and parenchymal complications, which may require early surgical intervention. (orig.)

  9. An Exploratory Investigation of Frequently Cited Articles from the Early Childhood Intervention Literature, 1994 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Juli Lull; Macy, Marisa; McManus, Suzanne Bells; Noh, Jina

    2008-01-01

    The authors explored frequently cited articles across four peer-reviewed journals in early intervention (EI) and early childhood special education (ECSE). The Social Sciences Citation Index was used to examine journal articles from 1994 to 2005 in "Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Infants and Young Children," the "Journal of Early…

  10. Identification of Special Educational Needs for Early Childhood Inclusive Education in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Florence Akua; Badu-Shayar, Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    Early Childhood Education is a key element for the growth and development of every country. This paper, provides a summary of reviewing the impact of early childhood special educational assessment on children to be "at risk" of developing special educational needs. It was identified mainly that early identification of at-risk factors for…

  11. Preparing Early Childhood Educators for Global Education: The Implications of Prior Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Mike W.; Bauer, Kathy Anne

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the increasing cultural diversity of Australia's education settings and explicates the global education movement and the new Australian Early Years Learning Framework. It discusses the implication of these factors for early childhood education practice and early childhood teacher education. The key research question considered…

  12. Of Helping and Measuring for Early Childhood Intervention: Reflections on Issues and School Psychology's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the topic of early identification and intervention to accelerate learning for young children. It presents the author's reflections on issues and school psychology's role in early care childhood care and education. It focuses on four central themes or issues which require resolution about early childhood care and education…

  13. Igniting the Policy Conversation: Bringing a Trauma-Informed Approach to Early Childhood System Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Julie; Oser, Cindy; Quigley, Kelsey

    2013-01-01

    The issue of early childhood trauma is becoming more prominent in early childhood policy discussions, driven by a growing recognition of the potentially devastating impacts of trauma and violence on infants, toddlers, and families. This article provides facts about the impacts of trauma and other adverse early experiences on child health and…

  14. An Overview of Research in Ireland Pertaining to Early Childhood Education and Care 1990-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The Centre for early Childhood Development and Education (CECDE) was launched in 2002 by the Minister for Education and Science and is jointly managed by the Dublin Institute of Technology and St. Patrick’s College. The remit of the CECDE is to develop, co-ordinate and enhance early childhood care and education in Ireland. The 3 objectives of the CECDE are to: > To develop a quality framework for early childhood education, > To develop targeted interventions on a pilot basis for childre...

  15. The Place of the Arts in Early Childhood Learning and Development

    OpenAIRE

    French, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    This paper has been commissioned by Arts Council Ireland to inform the development of a national strategy for early childhood arts in Ireland. The paper is based on contemporary thinking and knowledge of child psychology, early learning and development and childhood studies, in particular the theoretical principles and pedagogical approaches to early childhood art-based learning. It begins with an exploration of the concept of pedagogy. International research on the importance of effective pe...

  16. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Dearing, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high quality ECEC buffers children from the effects of income dynamics. In a population-based sample (N = 75,296), within-family changes in income-to-needs predicted changes in externalizing and ...

  17. Systematic review of physical activity and cognitive development in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Valerie; Hunter, Stephen; Kuzik, Nicholas; Wiebe, Sandra A; Spence, John C; Friedman, Alinda; Tremblay, Mark S; Slater, Linda; Hinkley, Trina

    2016-07-01

    To comprehensively review all observational and experimental studies examining the relationship between physical activity and cognitive development during early childhood (birth to 5 years). Systematic review. Electronic databases were searched in July, 2014. No study design, date, or language limits were imposed on the search. Included studies had to be published, peer reviewed articles that satisfied the a priori determined population (apparently healthy children aged birth to 5 years), intervention (duration, intensity, frequency, or patterns of physical activity), comparator (various durations, intensity, or patterns of physical activity), and outcome (cognitive development) study criteria. Study quality and risk of bias were assessed in December 2014. A total of seven studies, representing 414 participants from five different countries met the inclusion criteria, including two observational and five experimental studies. Six studies found increased or higher duration/frequency of physical activity had statistically significant (pcognitive development outcome, including 67% of the outcomes assessed in the executive function domain and 60% in the language domain. No study found that increased or higher duration/frequency of physical activity had statistically significant detrimental effects on cognitive development. Six of the seven studies were rated weak quality with a high risk of bias. This review provides some preliminary evidence that physical activity may have beneficial effects on cognitive development during early childhood. Given the shortage of the information and the weak quality of available evidence, future research is needed to strengthen the evidence base in this area. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fluoride Varnish Efficacy in Preventing Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Weintraub, J.A.; Ramos-Gomez, F; Jue, B.; Shain, S.; Hoover, C I; Featherstone, J.D.B.; Gansky, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of fluoride varnish (5% NaF, Duraphat®, Colgate) added to caregiver counseling to prevent early childhood caries, we conducted a two-year randomized, dental-examiner-masked clinical trial. Initially, 376 caries-free children, from low-income Chinese or Hispanic San Francisco families, were enrolled (mean age ± standard deviation, 1.8 ± 0.6 yrs). All families received counseling, and children were randomized to the following groups: no fluoride varnish, fluoride varni...

  19. Childhood Language Disorder and Social Anxiety in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlie, E B; Bao, Lin; Beitchman, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Language disorder is associated with anxiety and with social problems in childhood and adolescence. However, the relation between language disorder and adult social anxiety is not well known. This study examines social anxiety in early adulthood in a 26-year prospective longitudinal study following individuals identified with a communication disorder at age 5 and a control group. Social anxiety diagnoses and subthreshold symptoms were examined at ages 19, 25, and 31 using a structured diagnostic interview; social anxiety symptoms related to social interaction and social performance were also assessed dimensionally at age 31. Multiple imputation was used to address attrition. Compared to controls, participants with childhood language disorder had higher rates of subthreshold social phobia at ages 19 and 25 and endorsed higher levels of social interaction anxiety symptoms at age 31, with particular difficulty talking to others and asserting their perspectives. Childhood language disorder is a specific risk factor for a circumscribed set of social anxiety symptoms in adulthood, which are likely associated with communication challenges.

  20. Touch Screen Technology Adoption and Utilisation by Educators in Early Childhood Educational Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plumb, Melinda; Kautz, Karlheinz; Tootell, Holly

    2013-01-01

    The adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) in early childhood educational settings, in particular touch screen technology such as interactive whiteboards and tablet computing devices has potential for use within early childhood educational institutions. We conducted a literature...... in regards to touch screen technology in early childhood, particularly from a process perspective, and suggest that further research is required to understand the interplay between individual actions and organisational structural influences. This will contribute to the development of an understanding...... that can support the successful implementation of touch screen technology within early childhood educational institutions....

  1. Enhancing early child care quality and learning for toddlers at risk: the responsive early childhood program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Susan H; Zucker, Tricia A; Taylor, Heather B; Swank, Paul R; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Crawford, April; Huang, Weihua; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; de Villiers, Jill; de Villiers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia; Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice

    2014-02-01

    Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, emotional, behavioral, early literacy, language, and math outcomes as well as the teacher-child relationship. The intervention targeted the use of a set of responsive teacher practices, derived from attachment and sociocultural theories, and a comprehensive curriculum. Sixty-five childcare classrooms serving low-income 2- and 3-year-old children were randomized into 3 conditions: business-as-usual control, Responsive Early Childhood Curriculum (RECC), and RECC plus explicit social-emotional classroom activities (RECC+). Classroom observations showed greater gains for RECC and RECC+ teachers' responsive practices including helping children manage their behavior, establishing a predictable schedule, and use of cognitively stimulating activities (e.g., shared book reading) compared with controls; however, teacher behaviors did not differ for focal areas such as sensitivity and positive discipline supports. Child assessments demonstrated that children in the interventions outperformed controls in areas of social and emotional development, although children's performance in control and intervention groups was similar for cognitive skills (language, literacy, and math). Results support the positive impact of responsive teachers and environments providing appropriate support for toddlers' social and emotional development. Possible explanations for the absence of systematic differences in children's cognitive skills are considered, including implications for practice and future research targeting low-income toddlers.

  2. Increasing Choice or Inequality? Pathways through Early Education in Andhra Pradesh, India. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 58. Studies in Early Childhood Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streuli, Natalia; Vennam, Uma; Woodhead, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This working paper is part of the Studies in Early Transitions series emerging from "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. It explores recent trends for children growing up in Andhra Pradesh, one of India's most populous states, based on Young Lives survey data collected for…

  3. Continuity and Respect for Diversity: Strengthening Early Transitions in Peru. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 56. Studies in Early Childhood Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Patricia; Rojas, Vanessa; Portugal, Tamia

    2010-01-01

    This working paper is part of a series on early transitions from "Young Lives," a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. It explores the diverse experiences of 28 children from four contrasting communities in Peru as they start school. These detailed case studies highlight common problems:…

  4. Cost effectiveness of responsive stimulation and nutrition interventions on early child development outcomes in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowani, Saima; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Armstrong, Robert; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood programs are heralded as a way to improve children's health and educational outcomes. However, few studies in developing countries calculate the effectiveness of quality early childhood interventions. Even fewer estimate the associated costs of such interventions. The study here looks at the costs and effectiveness of a cluster-randomized effectiveness trial on children from birth to 24 months in rural Sindh, Pakistan. Responsive stimulation and/or enhanced nutrition interventions were integrated in the Lady Health Worker program in Pakistan. Outcomes suggest that children who receive responsive stimulation had significantly better development outcomes at 24 months than those who only received enhanced nutrition intervention. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the results verifies that early childhood interventions that include responsive stimulation are more cost effective than a nutrition intervention alone in promoting children's early development. Costs of a responsive stimulation intervention integrated in an existing community-based service providing basic health and nutrition care is approximately US$4 per month per child. We discuss these findings and make recommendations about scaling up and costs for future early child development programs. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Treatment Outcome in Older Patients with Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Pounds, Stanley; Cao, Xueyuan; Jenkins, Laura; Dahl, Gary; Bowman, W. Paul; Taub, Jeffrey W; Pui, Ching-Hon; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Campana, Dario; Inaba, Hiroto

    2013-01-01

    Background Older age has historically been an adverse prognostic factor in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The impact of age relative to that of other prognostic factors on the outcome of patients treated in recent trials is unknown. Methods Clinical outcome and causes of treatment failure of 351 patients enrolled on three consecutive protocols for childhood AML between 1991 and 2008 were analyzed according to age and protocol. Results The more recent protocol (AML02) produced improved outcomes for 10- to 21-year-old patients compared to 2 earlier studies (AML91 and 97), with 3-year rates of event-free survival (EFS), overall survival (OS) and cumulative incidence of refractory leukemia or relapse (CIR) for this group similar to those of 0- to 9-year old patients: EFS, 58.3% ± 5.4% vs. 66.6% ± 4.9%, P=.20; OS, 68.9% ± 5.1% vs. 75.1% ± 4.5%, P=.36; cumulative incidence of refractory leukemia or relapse, 21.9% ± 4.4%; vs. 25.3% ± 4.1%, P=.59. EFS and OS estimates for 10–15-year-old patients overlapped those for 16–21-year-old patients. However, the cumulative incidence of toxic death was significantly higher for 10- to 21-year-old patients compared to younger patients (13.2% ± 3.6 vs. 4.5% ± 2.0%, P=.028). Conclusion The survival rate for older children with AML has improved on our recent trial and is now similar to that of younger patients. However, deaths from toxicity remain a significant problem in the older age group. Future trials should focus on improving supportive care while striving to develop more effective antileukemic therapy. PMID:22674050

  6. Impact of bullying in childhood on adult health, wealth, crime, and social outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Copeland, William E; Angold, Adrian; Costello, E Jane

    2013-10-01

    Bullying is a serious problem for schools, parents, and public-policymakers alike. Bullying creates risks of health and social problems in childhood, but it is unclear if such risks extend into adulthood. A large cohort of children was assessed for bullying involvement in childhood and then followed up in young adulthood in an assessment of health, risky or illegal behavior, wealth, and social relationships. Victims of childhood bullying, including those that bullied others (bully-victims), were at increased risk of poor health, wealth, and social-relationship outcomes in adulthood even after we controlled for family hardship and childhood psychiatric disorders. In contrast, pure bullies were not at increased risk of poor outcomes in adulthood once other family and childhood risk factors were taken into account. Being bullied is not a harmless rite of passage but throws a long shadow over affected people's lives. Interventions in childhood are likely to reduce long-term health and social costs.

  7. Older Siblings Affect Gut Microbiota Development in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain

    of allergies. Methods: We investigated whether presence of older siblings, furred pets and early life infections affected gut microbial communities at 9 and 18 months of age and whether these differences were associated with the cumulative prevalence of atopic symptoms of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis...... and the cumulative prevalence of diagnosed asthmatic bronchitis and self-reported eczema at three years of age. Results: The number of older siblings correlated positively with bacterial diversity (p = 0.030), diversity of the phyla Firmicutes (p = 0.014) and Bacteroidetes (p = 0.004) and bacterial richness (p = 0....... Gut microbiota characteristics were not significantly associated with cumulative occurrence of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during the first three years of life. Conclusions: Presence of older siblings is associated with increased gut microbial diversity and richness during early childhood, which...

  8. BCG vaccination at birth and early childhood hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Sørup, Signe; Aaby, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The BCG vaccine is administered to protect against tuberculosis, but studies suggest there may also be non-specific beneficial effects upon the infant immune system, reducing early non-targeted infections and atopic diseases. The present randomised trial tested the hypothesis that BCG...... vaccination at birth would reduce early childhood hospitalisation in Denmark, a high-income setting. METHODS: Pregnant women planning to give birth at three Danish hospitals were invited to participate. After parental consent, newborn children were allocated to BCG or no intervention within 7 days of age......-protocol analyses. RESULTS: 4184 pregnant women were randomised and their 4262 children allocated to BCG or no intervention. There was no difference in risk of hospitalisation up to 15 months of age; 2129 children randomised to BCG experienced 1047 hospitalisations with a mean of 0.49 hospitalisation per child...

  9. Intrauterine and genetic factors in early childhood sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    predictive value of elevated cord blood IgE found in recent studies. Future studies should control for materno-fetal transfer of IgE or preferably use other markers of atopy. Variation in the gene coding for the skin barrier protein filaggrin (FLG) is the strongest known genetic risk factor for eczema. FLG......The allergy-associated (atopic) diseases; asthma, eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, are the most common chronic diseases in childhood. A large number of environmental and genetic risk factors have been suggested, but still our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms and etiologies...... of opportunity” for prevention. The aim of this thesis was to increase the understanding of sensitization in early life. We studied indicators of sensitization in the newborn, and early development of sensitization and disease associated with a newly discovered genetic risk factor. Such insight may increase our...

  10. Priorities for early childhood development in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O

    2011-01-01

    The remarkable progress in reducing child mortality in low-income countries is now accompanied with a rapidly expanding population of child survivors and increased life expectancy. However, many have special health care needs in the early foundational years for optimal health and educational and vocational status. Investment in early childhood development (ECD) is therefore crucial but likely to be constrained by lack of adequate resources making priority-setting inevitable. A review of current ECD approaches in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia shows that concerted multidisciplinary and cross-sectoral initiatives targeted at children with developmental disabilities across all crucial domains of ECD and guided by available evidence on optimal timing for interventions are urgently required. This focus would necessitate appropriate national ECD policies, modifications to the current global ECD programs in the developing world, and a more active collaboration between pediatricians and other related service providers.

  11. Clonal analysis of the microbiota of severe early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanasi, E; Dewhirst, F E; Chalmers, N I; Kent, R; Moore, A; Hughes, C V; Pradhan, N; Loo, C Y; Tanner, A C R

    2010-01-01

    Severe early childhood caries is a microbial infection that severely compromises the dentition of young children. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbiota of severe early childhood caries. Dental plaque samples from 2- to 6-year-old children were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing, and by specific PCR amplification for Streptococcus mutans and Bifidobacteriaceae species. Children with severe caries (n = 39) had more dental plaque and gingival inflammation than caries-free children (n = 41). Analysis of phylotypes from operational taxonomic unit analysis of 16S rRNA clonal metalibraries from severe caries and caries-free children indicated that while libraries differed significantly (p diversity than detected in this clonal analysis. Using the Human Oral Microbiome Database, 139 different taxa were identified. Within the limits of this study, caries-associated taxa included Granulicatella elegans (p diverse microbiota that differed between severe caries and caries-free children, but the association of S. mutans with caries was from specific PCR analysis, not from clonal analysis, of samples. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Social Support and Cognition: Early Childhood Versus Older Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Duck-Hee; Boss, Lisa; Clowtis, Licia

    2016-12-01

    Cognitive development in early childhood and cognitive preservation in older adulthood are critical for leading healthy life. Social engagement can significantly affect cognition, but their relationships are unclear. The purpose of this review was to synthesize current findings on the relationship between social engagement and cognition in early childhood and older adulthood. PubMed, Web of Science, Ovid Medline, and PsycINFO were searched for studies published in 1995-2015 for a comprehensive review. Included in this review were 42 articles written in English, published in peer-reviewed journals with participants' age being 2 to 6 or ≥65 years, and measurement of social engagement and cognition. Overall, greater social engagement was associated with higher levels of cognition across the life span, association of which seemed more prominent in populations at risk of cognitive impairment. Additional research is needed to elucidate biobehavioral mechanisms underlying these relationships and to test the efficacy of new interventions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Punishment Insensitivity in Early Childhood: A Developmental, Dimensional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Sara R; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Estabrook, Ryne; Burns, James L; Kestler, Jacqueline; Berman, Grace; Henry, David B; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2015-08-01

    Impairment in learning from punishment ("punishment insensitivity") is an established feature of severe antisocial behavior in adults and youth but it has not been well studied as a developmental phenomenon. In early childhood, differentiating a normal: abnormal spectrum of punishment insensitivity is key for distinguishing normative misbehavior from atypical manifestations. This study employed a novel measure, the Multidimensional Assessment Profile of Disruptive Behavior (MAP-DB), to examine the distribution, dimensionality, and external validity of punishment insensitivity in a large, demographically diverse community sample of preschoolers (3-5 years) recruited from pediatric clinics (N = 1,855). Caregivers completed surveys from which a seven-item Punishment Insensitivity scale was derived. Findings indicated that Punishment Insensitivity behaviors are relatively common in young children, with at least 50 % of preschoolers exhibiting them sometimes. Item response theory analyses revealed a Punishment Insensitivity spectrum. Items varied along a severity continuum: most items needed to occur "Often" in order to be severe and behaviors that were qualitatively atypical or intense were more severe. Although there were item-level differences across sociodemographic groups, these were small. Construct, convergent, and divergent validity were demonstrated via association to low concern for others and noncompliance, motivational regulation, and a disruptive family context. Incremental clinical utility was demonstrated in relation to impairment. Early childhood punishment insensitivity varies along a severity continuum and is atypical when it predominates. Implications for understanding the phenomenology of emergent disruptive behavior are discussed.

  14. [Dental caries and early childhood development: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, F Loreto; Sanz, B Javier; Mejía, L Gloria

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between dental caries and early childhood development in 3-year-olds from Talca, Chile. A pilot study with a convenience sample of 3-year-olds from Talca (n = 39) who attend public healthcare centers. Child development was measured by the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI), a screening tool used nationally among pre-school children to assess language development, fine motor skills and coordination areas. Dental caries prevalence was evaluated by decayed, missing, filled teeth (DFMT) and decayed, missing, filled tooth surfaces (DFMS) ceo-d and ceo-s indexes. The children were divided into two groups according to the PDIscore: those with a score of 40 or more were considered developmentally normal (n = 32), and those with a score below 40 were considered as having impaired development (n = 7). The severity of caries (DMFT) was negatively correlated with PDI (r = -0.82), and children with the lowest TEPSI score had the highest DFMT values. The average DMFT in children with normal development was 1.31, and 3.57 for those with impaired development. This pilot study indicates that the severity of dental caries is correlated with early childhood development. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  15. Constructs of Childhood: Enduring or Open to Change? Early Years Students' Reflections on First Hand Experiences of Childhood and Early Years Education in a Different Country and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, Gill

    2009-01-01

    It can be argued that globalisation brings change for children and their families in the guise of increased poverty and inequality; for example, for the world's poorest populations and communities. Students undertaking Early Childhood Studies degrees in the United Kingdom are likely to encounter modules with a focus on childhood in a variety of…

  16. Professional Development in Early Childhood Programs: Process Issues and Research Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Susan M; Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Marvin, Christine A; Knoche, Lisa L

    2009-05-01

    In light of the current policy context, early childhood educators are being asked to have a complex understanding of child development and early education issues and provide rich, meaningful educational experiences for all children and families in their care. Accountability for outcomes is high, and resources for professional support are limited. As such, the early education field needs well-conducted empirical studies on which to base professional development practices. In this paper, we offer research directions associated with the processes underlying professional development, including areas in need of investigation that can inform the early childhood education field in terms of how professional development efforts exert their influence and produce meaningful change in practitioners' skills, behaviors, and dispositions. The paper highlights representative research from the professional development literature on its various forms/approaches and offers an agenda for research on the professional development process. Broad issues associated with the conduct of research on professional development, including considerations of professional development processes, participant characteristics, relationships, and sustainability are discussed.

  17. The Price of Quality: Estimating the Cost of a Higher Quality Early Childhood Care and Education System for Southeast Wisconsin. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Melissa; Dickman, Anneliese; Lam, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the United States, investments in high-quality early childhood education are seen by community leaders as a strategy for improving outcomes in areas such as K-12 education, workforce development, and economic development. Indeed, many research studies conclude that high quality early learning environments produce social, educational,…

  18. Reducing racial/ethnic disparities in childhood obesity: the role of early life risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie M; Gillman, Matthew W; Kleinman, Ken P; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L

    2013-08-01

    IMPORTANCE Many early life risk factors for childhood obesity are more prevalent among blacks and Hispanics than among whites and may explain the higher prevalence of obesity among racial/ethnic minority children. OBJECTIVE To examine the extent to which racial/ethnic disparities in adiposity and overweight are explained by differences in risk factors during pregnancy (gestational diabetes and depression), infancy (rapid infant weight gain, feeding other than exclusive breastfeeding, and early introduction of solid foods), and early childhood (sleeping <12 h/d, presence of a television set in the room where the child sleeps, and any intake of sugar-sweetened beverages or fast food). DESIGN Prospective prebirth cohort study. SETTING Multisite group practice in Massachusetts. PARTICIPANTS Participants included 1116 mother-child pairs (63% white, 17% black, and 4% Hispanic) EXPOSURE Mother's report of child's race/ethnicity. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z score, total fat mass index from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and overweight or obesity, defined as a BMI in the 85th percentile or higher at age 7 years. RESULTS Black (0.48 U [95% CI, 0.31 to 0.64]) and Hispanic (0.43 [0.12 to 0.74]) children had higher BMI z scores, as well as higher total fat mass index and overweight/obesity prevalence, than white children. After adjustment for socioeconomic confounders and parental BMI, differences in BMI z score were attenuated for black and Hispanic children (0.22 U [0.05 to 0.40] and 0.22 U [-0.08 to 0.52], respectively). Adjustment for pregnancy risk factors did not substantially change these estimates. However, after further adjustment for infancy and childhood risk factors, we observed only minimal differences in BMI z scores between whites, blacks (0.07 U [-0.11 to 0.26]), and Hispanics (0.04 U [-0.27 to 0.35]). We observed similar attenuation of racial/ethnic differences in adiposity and prevalence of overweight or obesity

  19. Childhood physical punishment or maltreatment and partnership outcomes at age 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Geraldine F H; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John

    2014-05-01

    Childhood physical abuse is known to be associated with impaired outcomes in adulthood (e.g., particularly for mental and physical health). However, relatively little is known about adult partnership outcomes for those exposed to childhood physical punishment or maltreatment. This study aims to examine the associations between childhood physical punishment or maltreatment and partnership outcomes at age 30. This investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of more than 900 New Zealand adults studied to age 30. At ages 18 and 21, cohort members reported on the extent of exposure to childhood physical punishment or maltreatment prior to age 16. Measures of partner relations were collected up to age 30. After adjustment for childhood social, family, and related factors, increasing exposure to childhood physical punishment or maltreatment was associated with greater negative partner relationships (p=.002), partner social adjustment problems (p=.006), interpartner violence victimization (p=.010), and interpartner violence perpetration (p=.019). However, after adjustment, the association between childhood physical punishment or maltreatment and the number of cohabiting relationships was no longer statistically significant (p=.151). Interactions between childhood physical punishment or maltreatment and gender were tested for each of the outcomes. This analysis showed an interactive relationship between childhood physical punishment or maltreatment and partner social adjustment problems in which childhood physical punishment or maltreatment for females, but not males, was associated with partner social adjustment problems. These findings suggest that increasing exposure to childhood physical punishment or maltreatment is associated with impaired partnership outcomes: more negative partner relations, increased reports of a partner with social adjustment problems, and higher levels of interpartner violence.

  20. The Effects of Childhood ADHD on Adult Labor Market Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 18689

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason

    2013-01-01

    While several types of mental illness, including substance abuse disorders, have been linked with poor labor market outcomes, no current research has been able to examine the effects of childhood ADHD. As ADHD has become one of the most prevalent childhood mental conditions, it is useful to understand the full set of consequences of the illness.…

  1. Late Adolescent and Young Adult Outcomes of Girls Diagnosed with ADHD in Childhood: An Exploratory Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; MacLean, Michael G.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita; Robb, Jessica A.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the late adolescent and young adult outcomes of girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Method: The study included 58 women from a larger longitudinal study of ADHD. A total of 34 (M = 19.97 years old) met "DSM" criteria for ADHD in childhood, whereas the remaining 24 (M = 19.83 years old) did not. Self- and…

  2. The Effects of Childhood ADHD on Adult Labor Market Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 18689

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason

    2013-01-01

    While several types of mental illness, including substance abuse disorders, have been linked with poor labor market outcomes, no current research has been able to examine the effects of childhood ADHD. As ADHD has become one of the most prevalent childhood mental conditions, it is useful to understand the full set of consequences of the illness.…

  3. Promoting Health in Early Childhood Environments: A Health-Promotion Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Wardrope, Cheryl; Johnston, Donni; Kendall, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the mechanisms by which a health-promotion intervention might influence the health-promoting behaviours of staff members working in early childhood centres. The intervention was an ecological health-promotion initiative that was implemented within four early childhood centres in South-East Queensland, Australia. In-depth,…

  4. Exploring a Comprehensive Model for Early Childhood Vocabulary Instruction: A Design Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. Christine; Christ, Tanya; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2014-01-01

    Addressing a critical need for effective vocabulary practices in early childhood classrooms, we conducted a design experiment to achieve three goals: (1) developing a comprehensive model for early childhood vocabulary instruction, (2) examining the effectiveness of this model, and (3) discerning the contextual conditions that hinder or facilitate…

  5. Enhancing Research and Practice in Early Childhood through Formative and Design Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Barbara A.; Reinking, David

    2011-01-01

    This article describes formative and design experiments and how they can advance research and instructional practices in early childhood education. We argue that this relatively new approach to education research closes the gap between research and practice, and it addresses limitations that have been identified in early childhood research. We…

  6. 78 FR 53150 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation; Notice of... Visiting Program Evaluation (MIECHVE). Authority: Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation. Date and Time: September 12,...

  7. 76 FR 12978 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation; Notice of..., Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation. Date and Time: March 23, 2011, 9 a.m.-3 p.m... Program Evaluation will meet for its first session on Wednesday, March 23, 2011, from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m....

  8. Otherness "without Ostracism or Levelling": Towards Fresh Orientations to Teacher Foreigners in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to conceptualise the notion of the foreigner in relation to immigrant early childhood teachers. Sparked by Kristeva's challenge, to live with and as others without ostracism or levelling, it highlights tensions that arise in a juxtaposition of the Aotearoa/New Zealand early childhood curriculum document, Te Whariki and other…

  9. Assessing the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Commitment among Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd-Osborne, Tracie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to assess the relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational commitment among early childhood educators. Organizational commitment and its established precursor, job satisfaction, have gained relevance because turnover within early childhood education has fluctuated between 25% and 40% for…

  10. Confirming "Chanclas": What Early Childhood Teacher Educators Can Learn from Immigrant Preschool Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Jennifer Keys

    2011-01-01

    The immigrant teacher perspective has been largely missing from local and national debates on early childhood pedagogy and has certainly been marginalized in debates about language in early childhood settings. Interviews with dozens of preschool teachers in multiple U.S. cities about children of immigrants' language choices at school (as part of…

  11. Guia para los padres sobre educacion preescolar (A Parents' Guide to Early Childhood Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna

    This handbook, entirely in Spanish, was originally intended for parents whose children attend programs which use "The Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood" (CCEC), but the information is also useful to parents whose children attend early childhood programs using other curriculum models based on child development theories. The purpose…

  12. Validation of the Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised: A Reflective Tool for Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Belinda Bustos; Casebeer, Cindy M.; Riojas-Cortez, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Given increasing numbers of young culturally and/or linguistically diverse (CLD) children across the United States, it is crucial to prepare early childhood teachers to create high-quality environments that facilitate the development of all children. The Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised (ECES-R) has been developed as a reflective tool to help…

  13. Exploring Educators' Perspectives: How Does Learning through "Happiness" Promote Quality Early Childhood Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

    2014-01-01

    The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions…

  14. Parental and Early Childhood Influences on Adolescent Obesity: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Paola; Parker, Helen; Bulsara, Max; Beilin, Lawrence; Hands, Beth

    2012-01-01

    The influence of parental and early childhood factors on adolescent obesity was investigated using a longitudinal model of body mass index (BMI) from birth to 14 years. Trajectories of BMI using linear mixed model (LMM) analysis were used to investigate the influence of early parental and childhood factors on BMI at 14 years in the Raine birth…

  15. Ethical, Practical, and Scientific Considerations of Randomized Experiments in Early Childhood Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Karl R.; Pezzino, James

    1986-01-01

    The paper summarizes and presents counter arguments against positions claiming that randomized experiments in early childhood are unnecessary, impractical, or unethical. It is concluded that more frequent use of randomized experiments in early childhood special education would provide more effective program evaluation data for resource allocation…

  16. Whose Expertise?: An Analysis of Advice Giving in Early Childhood Parent-Teacher Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood and early childhood special education programs have a focus on parent-educator partnerships. Parent-teacher conferences are a context for these partnerships, and advice giving is one type of exchange occurring within conferences. Parent-teacher conference advice was investigated through participant interviews and the methodology of…

  17. Ready for Robotics: Bringing Together the T and E of STEM in Early Childhood Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bers, Marina Umaschi; Seddighin, Safoura; Sullivan, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Prior work has shown that early childhood educators demonstrate a lack of knowledge and understanding about technology and engineering, and about developmentally appropriate pedagogical approaches to bring those disciplines into the classrooms. This paper reports a study in which 32 early childhood educators participated in an intensive three-day…

  18. Early Childhood Inservice and Preservice Teachers' Perceived Levels of Preparedness to Handle Stress in Their Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onchwari, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a study that investigated preservice and inservice early childhood teachers' perceived levels of preparedness to handle stress in early childhood and elementary education students. A survey that included vignettes was used to collect data. Data were analyzed both qualitatively and statistically, using one-way ANOVA, "t"-test,…

  19. Validation of the Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised: A Reflective Tool for Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Belinda Bustos; Casebeer, Cindy M.; Riojas-Cortez, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Given increasing numbers of young culturally and/or linguistically diverse (CLD) children across the United States, it is crucial to prepare early childhood teachers to create high-quality environments that facilitate the development of all children. The Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised (ECES-R) has been developed as a reflective tool to help…

  20. Exploring Educators' Perspectives: How Does Learning through "Happiness" Promote Quality Early Childhood Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

    2014-01-01

    The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions…

  1. Limited validity of parental recall on pregnancy, birth, and early childhood at child age 10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Meer, Gea; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Objective: Evidence on the validity of parental recall of early childhood behavior is lacking. Our aim was to examine the validity of parental recall at child age 10-12 years for maternal lifestyle during pregnancy, the birth characteristics, and early childhood behavior. Study Design and Setting:

  2. Everyday Environmental Education Experiences: The Role of Content in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy; Edwards, Suzy

    2014-01-01

    In recent years discussions surrounding early childhood curriculum has focused on the movement from developmental to sociocultural theory. A further area worthy of investigation involves the role of content in early childhood education, specifically the relationship between content, context and pedagogy. The paper draws on teacher vignettes to…

  3. Diverse Field Experiences as a Catalyst for Preparing High Quality Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Susan L.; Beck, Lisa; Esposito, Ann; Tarrant, Kate

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the process through which a group of preservice early childhood/early childhood special education students examined their own beliefs about quality teaching and learning within the context of multiple practicum experiences in diverse settings. Students' reflections and actions are illuminated through a careful individual and…

  4. International Perspectives on Early Childhood Curriculum Changes in Singapore and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Berenice; Ng, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    This article explores early childhood curriculum reform in Australia and Singapore in order to identify international trends in early childhood education (ECE), similarities in curriculum reform initiatives and implementation strategies adopted. We have observed the existence of many shared ideas across the two contexts that may influence…

  5. Canadian Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Young Children's Gender-Role Play and Cultural Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servos, Jennifer E.; Dewar, Brandy A.; Bosacki, Sandra L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of children's gender-role play and the impact their cultural background plays in their gender identity and play behaviors. Through qualitative in-depth interviews, early childhood educators in Canada (n = 40) were asked questions relating to their experiences with children from…

  6. ICT and Play in Preschool: Early Childhood Teachers' Beliefs and Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra; Gialamas, Vasilis

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated early childhood teachers' beliefs about information and communications technology (ICT) and play in preschool, as well as their confidence in integrating ICT in the classroom. A 28-item questionnaire was compiled and administered to 190 early childhood teachers in Greece. Although ICT play (which can provide learning…

  7. Critically Redefining and Repositioning Media Texts in Early Childhood Teacher Education: What If? And Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto-Manning, Mariana; Price-Dennis, Detra

    2012-01-01

    Given the prevalence of popular media in the lives of young children today, early childhood teacher education stands to benefit from fostering critical media literacy practices. Through the use of critical media literary practices, early childhood teacher educators can facilitate a process whereby preservice teachers learn how to critically…

  8. "I Am Not a Babysitter": A Case Study of Five Chinese Mainland Early Childhood Teachers' Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limin; Yu, Shulin

    2017-01-01

    Although studies on teacher identity have proliferated in recent years, and examinations of the said topic have been conducted under various educational contexts, limited focus has been given to teacher identity in the early childhood educational context. Drawing upon data from semi-structured interviews with five early childhood teachers, this…

  9. Canadian Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Young Children's Gender-Role Play and Cultural Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servos, Jennifer E.; Dewar, Brandy A.; Bosacki, Sandra L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of children's gender-role play and the impact their cultural background plays in their gender identity and play behaviors. Through qualitative in-depth interviews, early childhood educators in Canada (n = 40) were asked questions relating to their experiences with children from…

  10. Early childhood adversities and trajectories of psychiatric problems in adoptees: Evidence for long lasting effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.M. Vegt, van der (Esther); J. van der Ende (Jan); R.F. Ferdinand (Robert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the present study is to investigate whether early childhood adversities determine the longitudinal course of psychiatric problems from childhood to adulthood; in particular if the impact of early maltreatment on psychopathology decreases as time passes. A sample of 1,984 inter

  11. Perceptions and Attitudes of Early Childhood Teachers in Korea about Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunhye; Kim, Heejin; Yu, Sunyoung

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the perceptions and attitudes of Korean early childhood teachers about education for sustainable development (ESD). A total of 301 Korean early childhood teachers participated in a survey which was purposefully developed for this research. The survey focused on three areas of interest: understanding of concepts about…

  12. Guia para los padres sobre educacion preescolar (A Parents' Guide to Early Childhood Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna

    This handbook, entirely in Spanish, was originally intended for parents whose children attend programs which use "The Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood" (CCEC), but the information is also useful to parents whose children attend early childhood programs using other curriculum models based on child development theories. The purpose of the…

  13. Examining the Association between the "Imagination Library" Early Childhood Literacy Program and Kindergarten Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiei, Shahin; Bush, Andrew J.; Sell, Marie; Imig, Doug

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated participation in the "Imagination Library" early childhood literacy enrichment program and children's pre-literacy and pre-numeracy skills at kindergarten entry in an urban school district. Previous studies have demonstrated that program participation is associated with greater early childhood reading practices.…

  14. Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities. France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallourd, Pierre, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This contribution from France is based on recently-published documents and in particular on the "Report on the Public Infancy Service for Early Childhood," published in February 2007 by a department of the Prime Minister's Office, the Centre of Strategic Analysis, Social Affairs Section and "Early Childhood Education and Care, a…

  15. Guia para los padres sobre educacion preescolar (A Parents' Guide to Early Childhood Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna

    This handbook, entirely in Spanish, was originally intended for parents whose children attend programs which use "The Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood" (CCEC), but the information is also useful to parents whose children attend early childhood programs using other curriculum models based on child development theories. The purpose…

  16. Early Childhood Educators and the FIS Grant Program: An Interview with Naomi Karp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Champaign, IL.

    Naomi Karp is the Director of the National Institute on Early Childhood Development and Education (ECI) in the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) in the U.S. Department of Education. This interview concerns funding for early childhood education research through OERI's Field-Initiated Studies (FIS) Grant Program. Questions…

  17. Breast milk IL-1β level associates with development of eczema during early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, A. A.; Chawes, B. L. K.; Carson, C. G.;

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association.......We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association....

  18. Preparing the Workforce: Early Childhood Teacher Preparation at 2- and 4-year Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Diane M.; Winton, Pamela J.

    2001-01-01

    Details investigation of characteristics of early childhood teacher preparation programs at 2- and 4-year institutions through a survey of program chairs or directors. Presents findings on faculty characteristics, including racial makeup; course and practica requirements; comparisons between early childhood programs and the institutions as whole…

  19. More than "Just" Changing Diapers: The Experiences of Preservice Early Childhood Teachers in Infant Field Placements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Lisa Marie Powell

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that early childhood preservice teachers are typically being prepared to work with children from birth through age 8, preservice field experiences with infants continue to be largely missing in early childhood teacher preparation programs Since the education and care of infants often takes place in vastly different settings than…

  20. Preparing Early Childhood Educators for the Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Classrooms and Communities of Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineke, Amy; Kennedy, Adam; Lees, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Recent Illinois state policies call for mandatory preparation of early childhood educators to address the needs of the large and growing population of young English language learners. University-based early childhood teacher preparation programs across Illinois have responded by integrating content related to cultural and linguistic diversity into…