WorldWideScience

Sample records for early cervical cancer

  1. Radical surgery for early stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, M.

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women worldwide. Due to an effective screening programme, in the Netherlands cervical cancer is often detected in early stages of disease. For early stage (International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB/IIA) cervical

  2. Gene expression in early stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, Petra; Buist, Marrije R.; Moerland, Perry D.; van Thernaat, Emiel Ver Loren; van Kampen, Antoine H. C.; ten Kate, Fiebo J. W.; Baas, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Pelvic lymph node metastases are the main prognostic factor for survival in early stage cervical cancer, yet accurate detection methods before surgery are lacking. In this study, we examined whether gene expression profiling can predict the presence of lymph node metastasis in early stage

  3. Early stage cervical cancer of the uterine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneyasu, Yuuko; Fujiwara, Hisaya

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the present state of radiotherapy (RT) of early stage cervical cancer involving the history, outcomes of clinical trials, procedure for each stage, irradiation methods, concurrent chemo-RT (CCRT), late adverse events, and QOL after RT. It has a history of >100 years from the brachytherapy with radium, but is not yet completely established even now. There are many RT trials hitherto. Retrospectively, no significant difference is seen in outcomes of radical RT and surgery: 80-90% efficacy for stage I and 60-80% for II in the former, respectively, and 80-96% and 65-80%, in the latter. Between RT and surgery, there is a report of randomized comparative study in Italy. In Japan, reported are comparative outcomes based on patients' choice for therapy, retrospective studies including authors' one, prospective multi-institutional cooperative trials by Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group, and Treatment Guidelines for Cervical Cancer (2007). RT procedure depends on the stage defined by FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) and at stages I-II, intracavitary RT is major with optimal dose 29 Gy/5 fractions for I, and 23/4 Gy with external total pelvic radiation 50 Gy for II. In external radiation, the planning target volume includes the whole pelvic field with 1.8-2 Gy/5 weeks and optionally, the extended field when metastasis suspicious. Intracavitary RT with application device in the uterine is of significance for the cancer as 50% complete cure even in stage III is reported. CCRT brings about good prognosis, which is shown in a Japanese trial to compare postoperative RT alone and CCRT with CDDP and 5-FU. The late adverse events are seen mainly in the large bowel and studies of QOL, an important factor for choice of treatment, are now in progress. (T.T.)

  4. Proteomic alterations in early stage cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Güzel, Coşkun; Govorukhina, Natalia; Wisman, G.B.A.; Stingl, Christoph; Dekker, Lennard; Hollema, Harry; Guryev, Victor; Horvatovich, Peter; van der Zee, Ate; Bischoff, Rainer; Luider, Theo

    2018-01-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) allows the capture of cell types or well-defined structures in tissue. We compared in a semi-quantitative way the proteomes from an equivalent of 8,000 tumor cells from patients with squamous cell cervical cancer (SCC, n = 22) with healthy epithelial and stromal cells obtained from normal cervical tissue (n = 13). Proteins were enzymatically digested into peptides which were measured by high-resolution mass spectrometry and analyzed by “all-or-nothing” anal...

  5. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  6. THE EFFECT OF EARLY CERVICAL CANCER DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Haller

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment effectiveness and clinical outcome of patients with cervical carcinoma FIGO stage IA1 and IA2 are analyzed in three different time period at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Rijeka, Croatia. Method: Retrospective analysis of the hospital chart of all cervical cancer patients between 1991 and 2005 was conducted with five-year follow up. Results: Data on cervical cancer distribution by stage and five-year survival are presented. Separately analyzed age, histology type and treatment modalities in stage FIGO IA1 and IA2 during three consecutive five-year periods are presented. Conclusions: Conservative surgical approach – conization alone in stage IA1 of the squamous cell car- cinoma is reasonable and safe treatment option for reproductive active women. During observed periods conization became the most used surgical technique applied in almost two third of FIGO IA1 cervical cancer patients. Lymph vascular space invasion in stage IA1 lead to adjunct pelvic lymphadenectomy with unclear clinical benefit. In cervical cancer patients stage IA2 simple hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy could be accepted as a standard treatment. In these patients further studies are recommended to evaluate other less radical surgical techniques – simple and radical trachelectomy with or without pelvic lymphadenectomy. Radical hysterectomy in both stages IA1 and IA2, based on personal experience and literature data represents a surgical overtreatment and should be abandoned.

  7. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) In accordance with section 10(a..., and the Director, CDC, regarding the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The... National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program; presentations on outcomes of Care Coordination...

  8. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  9. Stages of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is found early. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions . Check with your ...

  10. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) In accordance with section 10(a... detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national.... Preventive Services Task Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised...

  11. Study to Understand Cervical Cancer Early Endpoints and Determinants (SUCCEED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study to comprehensively assess biomarkers of risk for progressive cervical neoplasia, and thus develop a new set of biomarkers that can distinguish those at highest risk of cervical cancer from those with benign infection

  12. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  13. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities.

  14. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I find more information about cervical and other gynecologic cancers? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 800-CDC-INFO or www. cdc. gov/ cancer/ gynecologic National Cancer Institute: 800-4-CANCER or www. ...

  15. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.

  16. Cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bleeding between periods, after intercourse, or after menopause Vaginal discharge that does not stop, and may be pale, ... Instructions Hysterectomy - abdominal - discharge Hysterectomy - laparoscopic - ... Images Cervical cancer Cervical neoplasia ...

  17. General Information about Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is found early. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions . Check with your ...

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is found early. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions . Check with your ...

  19. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Cervical Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview Cervical Cancer Cervical ... Cervical Cancer 1 of 5 sections The Basics: Cervical Cancer What is cervical cancer? Cervical cancer is cancer ...

  20. Breast and cervical cancers diagnosed and stage at diagnosis among women served through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline W; Royalty, Janet; Henley, Jane; White, Arica; Richardson, Lisa C

    2015-05-01

    To assess cancers diagnosed and the stage of cancer at the time of diagnosis among low-income, under-insured, or uninsured women who received services through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). Using the NBCCEDP database, we examined the number and percent of women diagnosed during 2009-2011 with in situ breast cancer, invasive breast cancer, and invasive cervical cancer by demographic and clinical characteristics, including age, race and ethnicity, test indication (screening or diagnostic), symptoms (for breast cancer), and screening history (for cervical cancer). We examined these characteristics by stage at diagnosis, a new variable included in the database obtained by linking with state-based central cancer registries. There were 11,569 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, 1,988 with in situ breast cancer, and 583 with invasive cervical cancer through the NBCCEDP. Women who reported breast symptoms or who had diagnostic mammography were more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer, and at a later stage, than those who did not have symptoms or who had screening mammography. Women who had been rarely or never screened for cervical cancer were more likely to be diagnosed with cervical cancer, and at a later stage, than women who received regular screenings. Women served through the NBCCEDP who have not had prior screening or who have symptoms were more often diagnosed with late-stage disease.

  1. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  2. From Cancer Screening to Treatment: Service Delivery and Referral in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline W.; Hanson, Vivien; Johnson, Gale D.; Royalty, Janet E.; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to low-income and underserved women through a network of providers and health care organizations. Although the program serves women 40-64 years old for breast cancer screening and 21-64 years old for cervical cancer screening, the priority populations are women 50-64 years old for breast cancer and women who have never or rarely been screened for cervical cancer. From 1991 through 2011, the NBCCEDP provided screening and diagnostic services to more than 4.3 million women, diagnosing 54,276 breast cancers, 2554 cervical cancers, and 123,563 precancerous cervical lesions. A critical component of providing screening services is to ensure that all women with abnormal screening results receive appropriate and timely diagnostic evaluations. Case management is provided to assist women with overcoming barriers that would delay or prevent follow-up care. Women diagnosed with cancer receive treatment through the states' Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment Programs (a special waiver for Medicaid) if they are eligible. The NBCCEDP has performance measures that serve as benchmarks to monitor the completeness and timeliness of care. More than 90% of the women receive complete diagnostic care and initiate treatment less than 30 days from the time of their diagnosis. Provision of effective screening and diagnostic services depends on effective program management, networks of providers throughout the community, and the use of evidence-based knowledge, procedures, and technologies. PMID:25099897

  3. 77 FR 60703 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice... Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee, Department of Health and Human Services...

  4. HPV16 early gene E5 specifically reduces miRNA-196a in cervical cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chanzhen; Lin, Jianfei; Li, Lianqin; Zhang, Yonggang; Chen, Weiling; Cao, Zeyi; Zuo, Huancong; Chen, Chunling; Kee, Kehkooi

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16, which is responsible for greater than 50% of cervical cancer cases, is the most prevalent and lethal HPV type. However, the molecular mechanisms of cervical carcinogenesis remain elusive, particularly the early steps of HPV infection that may transform normal cervical epithelium into a pre-neoplastic state. Here, we report that a group of microRNAs (microRNAs) were aberrantly decreased in HPV16-positive normal cervical tissues, and these groups of microRNAs are further reduced in cervical carcinoma. Among these miRNAs, miR196a expression is the most reduced in HPV16-infected tissues. Interestingly, miR196a expression is low in HPV16-positive cervical cancer cell lines but high in HPV16-negative cervical cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we found that only HPV16 early gene E5 specifically down-regulated miRNA196a in the cervical cancer cell lines. In addition, HoxB8, a known miR196a target gene, is up-regulated in the HPV16 cervical carcinoma cell line but not in HPV18 cervical cancer cell lines. Various doses of miR196a affected cervical cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. Altogether, these results suggested that HPV16 E5 specifically down-regulates miR196a upon infection of the human cervix and initiates the transformation of normal cervix cells to cervical carcinoma. PMID:25563170

  5. 76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... 16, 2011. 9 a.m.-12:30 p.m., June 17, 2011. Place: Westin Atlanta Perimeter North, 7 Concourse... program goals and objectives; implementation strategies; and program, priorities including surveillance... Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program Marketing Tool kit for increased awareness for the state programs...

  6. 75 FR 57472 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the...

  7. 77 FR 71193 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on November 5, 2012, Volume 77, Number 214, Page 66469. A teleconference line...

  8. HPV16 early gene E5 specifically reduces miRNA-196a in cervical cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chanzhen; Lin, Jianfei; Li, Lianqin; Zhang, Yonggang; Chen, Weiling; Cao, Zeyi; Zuo, Huancong; Chen, Chunling; Kee, Kehkooi

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16, which is responsible for greater than 50% of cervical cancer cases, is the most prevalent and lethal HPV type. However, the molecular mechanisms of cervical carcinogenesis remain elusive, particularly the early steps of HPV infection that may transform normal cervical epithelium into a pre-neoplastic state. Here, we report that a group of microRNAs (microRNAs) were aberrantly decreased in HPV16-positive normal cervical tissues, and these groups of...

  9. SCREENING FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Cervical cancer remains a major health concern worldwide, especially in devel- ... Important aspects of cervical cancer screening include the age at which .... High-risk types HPV (16,18) are impli- cated in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer.

  10. Early detection of breast and cervical cancer among indigenous communities in Morelos, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Campero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the perception in relation to when and how to perform actions for the early detection of breast and cervical cancer among women and health care providers in communities with a high percentage of indigenous population in Morelos, Mexico. Materials and methods. Ten health providers and 58 women users of health services were interviewed which have a first level of attention in five communities. The analysis was developed under the approach of the Grounded Theory. Results. Providers are poorly informed about current regulations and specific clinical indications for the detection of cervical and breast cancer. Few propitiate health literacy under intercultural sensitization. The users have imprecise or wrong notions of the early detection. Conclusions. The need for training in adherence to norms is evident. It is urgent to assume a culturally relevant approach to enable efficient communication and promote health literacy for early detection of these two cancers.

  11. Performance of Early Diagnosis of Breast and Cervical Cancer in the Municipality of Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Padrón González

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: breast and cervical cancer are among the most frequent causes of death in women. Therefore, the early detection of these diseases is one of the prioritized programs of the Public Health System. Objective: to describe the performance of the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in the municipality of Cienfuegos. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted over the period 2010-2011 in the context of the CARMEN project. A random sample was selected which was randomly stratified. The variables analyzed included age, marital status, skin color, health professional’s visits, knowledge of breast self-examination, clinical breast exam, mammography, cervical smear and time from the last medical examination of each test. The questionnaire of the CARMEN study was used. Results analysis was performed by SPSS package version 15, 0. Statistical significance level used was 95 %. Results: a total of 428 women (41,1 % had not been examined in over a year; 49 of them (4,6 % had not been checked for more than five years. 7,2 % of the study sample have never undergone a mammography, 28,6 % have had this test performed. 91,0 % of the women whose ages are included in the program has undergone a cervical smear. Conclusions: the objectives of the General Program for Cancer Control in Cuba are not being achieved. The inefficient areas of the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program are exposed.

  12. Cervical cancer screening in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) in four US-Affiliated Pacific Islands between 2007 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkomago, Virginia; Royalty, Janet; Miller, Jacqueline W; Buenconsejo-Lum, Lee E; Benard, Vicki B; Saraiya, Mona

    2017-10-01

    Cervical cancer incidence in the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPIs) is double that of the US mainland. American Samoa, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Guam and the Republic of Palau receive funding from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) to implement cervical cancer screening to low-income, uninsured or under insured women. The USAPI grantees report data on screening and follow-up activities to the CDC. We examined cervical cancer screening and follow-up data from the NBCCEDP programs in the four USAPIs from 2007 to 2015. We summarized screening done by Papanicolaou (Pap) and oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) tests, follow-up and diagnostic tests provided, and histology results observed. A total of 22,249 Pap tests were conducted in 14,206 women in the four USAPIs programs from 2007-2015. The overall percentages of abnormal Pap results (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse) was 2.4% for first program screens and 1.8% for subsequent program screens. Histology results showed a high proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (57%) among women with precancers and cancers. Roughly one-third (32%) of Pap test results warranting follow-up had no data recorded on diagnostic tests or follow-up done. This is the first report of cervical cancer screening and outcomes of women served in the USAPI through the NBCCEDP with similar results for abnormal Pap tests, but higher proportion of precancers and cancers, when compared to national NBCCEDP data. The USAPI face significant challenges in implementing cervical cancer screening, particularly in providing and recording data on diagnostic tests and follow-up. The screening programs in the USAPI should further examine specific barriers to follow-up of women with abnormal Pap results and possible solutions to address them. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Early stage cervical cancer, radical hysterectomy and sexual function: a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Tine

    Background: Limited knowledge exists regarding the impact of treatment on the sexual function of early stage cervical cancer patients. We investigated the longitudinal course of self-reported sexual function after radical hysterectomy (RH) alone. Methods: 173 patients with lymph node-negative early...... stage cervical cancer who had undergone RH and pelvic lymphadenectomy alone were assessed prospectively using a validated self-assessment questionnaire 5 weeks and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after RH. Results were compared with an age-matched control group from the general population. At 12 months post......-surgery, the patients completed an extended version of the questionnaire with additional items assessing the patient’s perception of changes in sexual function compared with before the cancer diagnosis. Results: Compared with control women, patients experienced severe orgasmic problems and uncomfortable sexual...

  14. An opto-electronic joint detection system based on DSP aiming at early cervical cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiya; Jia, Mengyu; Gao, Feng; Yang, Lihong; Qu, Pengpeng; Zou, Changping; Liu, Pengxi; Zhao, Huijuan

    2015-02-01

    The cervical cancer screening at a pre-cancer stage is beneficial to reduce the mortality of women. An opto-electronic joint detection system based on DSP aiming at early cervical cancer screening is introduced in this paper. In this system, three electrodes alternately discharge to the cervical tissue and three light emitting diodes in different wavelengths alternately irradiate the cervical tissue. Then the relative optical reflectance and electrical voltage attenuation curve are obtained by optical and electrical detection, respectively. The system is based on DSP to attain the portable and cheap instrument. By adopting the relative reflectance and the voltage attenuation constant, the classification algorithm based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) discriminates abnormal cervical tissue from normal. We use particle swarm optimization to optimize the two key parameters of SVM, i.e. nuclear factor and cost factor. The clinical data were collected on 313 patients to build a clinical database of tissue responses under optical and electrical stimulations with the histopathologic examination as the gold standard. The classification result shows that the opto-electronic joint detection has higher total coincidence rate than separate optical detection or separate electrical detection. The sensitivity, specificity, and total coincidence rate increase with the increasing of sample numbers in the training set. The average total coincidence rate of the system can reach 85.1% compared with the histopathologic examination.

  15. Treatment Options by Stage (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is found early. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions . Check with your ...

  16. Enhancement of early cervical cancer diagnosis with epithelial layer analysis of fluorescence lifetime images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Gu

    Full Text Available This work reports the use of layer analysis to aid the fluorescence lifetime diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN from H&E stained cervical tissue sections. The mean and standard deviation of lifetimes in single region of interest (ROI of cervical epithelium were previously shown to correlate to the gold standard histopathological classification of early cervical cancer. These previously defined single ROIs were evenly divided into layers for analysis. A 10-layer model revealed a steady increase in fluorescence lifetime from the inner to the outer epithelial layers of healthy tissue sections, suggesting a close association with cellular maturity. The shorter lifetime and minimal lifetime increase towards the epithelial surface of CIN-affected regions are in good agreement with the absence of cellular maturation in CIN. Mean layer lifetimes in the top-half cervical epithelium were used as feature vectors for extreme learning machine (ELM classifier discriminations. It was found that the proposed layer analysis technique greatly improves the sensitivity and specificity to 94.6% and 84.3%, respectively, which can better supplement the traditional gold standard cervical histopathological examinations.

  17. Barriers to early detection of cervical-uterine cancer in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Ponce, E C; Castro, R; Allen, B; Nájera, P; Alonso de Ruíz, P A; Hernández-Avila, M

    1999-04-01

    In Mexico, a woman dies of cervical-uterine cancer every 2 hours, indicating a low impact by the national program for early detection of this cancer, principally because of problems related to quality and coverage. Through a qualitative study, we identified the principal barriers to use of the detection program from the point of view of actual and potential program users. Four focus groups were organized in standard conditions in Mexico City (urban, developed) and in the southern state of Oaxaca (rural, economically disadvantaged area). Participants were either women with at least one previous Papanicolaou (Pap) test or women who had never had the test. Barriers to Pap test use included (1) lack of knowledge about cervical-uterine cancer etiology, (2) not knowing that the Pap test exists, (3) the conception that cancer is an inevitably fatal disease, (4) problems in doctor/medical institution-patient relationships, (5) giving priority to unmet needs related to extreme poverty, (6) opposition by the male sexual partner, (7) rejection of the pelvic examination, (8) long waits for sample collection and receiving results, and (9) perceived high costs for care. To increase coverage of the early detection program for cervical-uterine cancer in Mexico, the needs, perceptions, and beliefs of women and their partners must be taken into account when developing policy and planning, given the role these factors play in the decision-making process that leads to their participation or nonparticipation in this program.

  18. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the cancer. This blockage can cause the kidney to enlarge or stop working. Stage IIIB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  19. Sexual functioning and vaginal changes after radical vaginal trachelectomy in early stage cervical cancer patients: a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froeding, LP; Ottesen, C; Rung-Hansen, H

    2014-01-01

    Radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT) offers low complication rate, good survival, and possibility for future childbearing for young women with early stage cervical cancer. However, the literature on quality of life (QOL) and sexual functioning in patients undergoing RVT is scarce.......Radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT) offers low complication rate, good survival, and possibility for future childbearing for young women with early stage cervical cancer. However, the literature on quality of life (QOL) and sexual functioning in patients undergoing RVT is scarce....

  20. CDC's Cervical Cancer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Infographics Cancer and Alcohol Web Features Breast Cancer Awareness Breast Cancer in Young Women Cancer and Men ... in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer Awareness Colorectal Cancer Awareness Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Health Disparities ...

  1. [Laparoscopic radical trachelectomy for preservation of fertility in early cervical cancer. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla Ortiz, David; Montalvo-Esquivel, Gonzalo; Chanona-Vilchis, José Gregorio; Herrera Gómez, Ángel; Ñamendys Silva, Silvio Antonio; Pareja Franco, Luis René

    2016-01-01

    Radical hysterectomy is the standard treatment for patients with early-stage cervical cancer. However, for women who wish to preserve fertility, radical trachelectomy is a safe and viable option. To present the first case of laparoscopic radical trachelectomy performed in the National Cancer Institute, and published in Mexico. Patient, 34 years old, gravid 1, caesarean 1, stage IB1 cervical cancer, squamous, wishing to preserve fertility. She underwent a laparoscopic radical trachelectomy and bilateral dissection of the pelvic lymph nodes. Operation time was 330minutes, and the estimated blood loss was 100ml. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The final pathology reported a tumour of 15mm with infiltration of 7mm, surgical margins without injury, and pelvic nodes without tumour. After a 12 month follow-up, the patient is having regular periods, but has not yet tried to get pregnant. No evidence of recurrence. Laparoscopic radical trachelectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy is a safe alternative in young patients who wish to preserve fertility with early stage cervical cancer. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  3. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  4. January Monthly Spotlight: Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    In January, CRCHD joins the nation in raising awareness for Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities. This month we share a special focus on NCI/CRCHD research programs that are trying to reduce cervical cancer disparities in underserved communities and the people who are spreading the word about the importance of early detection.

  5. Cost of Services Provided by the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Subramanian, Sujha; Trogdon, Justin G.; Miller, Jacqueline W.; Royalty, Janet E.; Li, Chunyu; Guy, Gery P.; Crouse, Wesley; Thompson, Hope; Gardner, James G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) is the largest cancer screening program for low-income women in the United States. This study updates previous estimates of the costs of delivering preventive cancer screening services in the NBCCEDP. METHODS We developed a standardized web-based cost-assessment tool to collect annual activity-based cost data on screening for breast and cervical cancer in the NBCCEDP. Data were collected from 63 of the 66 programs that received funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during the 2006/2007 fiscal year. We used these data to calculate costs of delivering preventive public health services in the program. RESULTS We estimated the total cost of all NBCCEDP services to be $296 (standard deviation [SD], $123) per woman served (including the estimated value of in-kind donations, which constituted approximately 15% of this total estimated cost). The estimated cost of screening and diagnostic services was $145 (SD, $38) per women served, which represented 57.7% of the total cost excluding the value of in-kind donations. Including the value of in-kind donations, the weighted mean cost of screening a woman for breast cancer was $110 with an office visit and $88 without, the weighted mean cost of a diagnostic procedure was $401, and the weighted mean cost per breast cancer detected was $35,480. For cervical cancer, the corresponding cost estimates were $61, $21, $415, and $18,995, respectively. CONCLUSIONS These NBCCEDP cost estimates may help policy makers in planning and implementing future costs for various potential changes to the program. PMID:25099904

  6. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional printing [PDF-1.5MB] Cancer Home “Prevent Cervical Cancer” Infographic Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevent Cervical Cancer with the Right Test at the Right Time ...

  7. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Cervical Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued final recommendations on Screening for Cervical Cancer . These recommendations are for women ...

  8. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  9. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1275x1275 View Download Large: 2550x2550 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  10. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1575x1200 View Download Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  11. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1305 View Download Large: 2400x2610 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  12. No Value for Routine Chest Radiography in the Work-Up of Early Stage Cervical Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogendam, Jacob P.; Zweemer, Ronald P.; Verkooijen, Helena M.; de Jong, Pim A.; van den Bosch, Maurice A. A. J.; Verheijen, René H. M.; Veldhuis, Wouter B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Evidence supporting the recommendation to include chest radiography in the work-up of all cervical cancer patients is limited. We investigated the diagnostic value of routine chest radiography in cervical cancer staging. Methods All consecutive cervical cancer patients who presented at our tertiary referral center in the Netherlands (January 2006 – September 2013), and for whom ≥6 months follow-up was available, were included. As part of the staging procedure, patients underwent a routine two-directional digital chest radiograph. Findings were compared to a composite reference standard consisting of all imaging studies and histology obtained during the 6 months following radiography. Results Of the 402 women who presented with cervical cancer, 288 (71.6%) underwent chest radiography and had ≥6 months follow-up. Early clinical stage (I/II) cervical cancer was present in 244/288 (84.7%) women, while 44 (15.3%) presented with advanced disease (stage III/IV). The chest radiograph of 1 woman – with advanced pre-radiograph stage (IVA) disease – showed findings consistent with pulmonary metastases. Radiographs of 7 other women – 4 early, 3 advanced stage disease – were suspicious for pulmonary metastases which was confirmed by additional imaging in only 1 woman (with pre-radiograph advanced stage (IIIB) disease) and excluded in 6 cases, including all women with early stage disease. In none of the 288 women were thoracic skeletal metastases identified on imaging or during 6 months follow up. Radiography was unremarkable in 76.4% of the study population, and showed findings unrelated to the cervical carcinoma in 21.2%. Conclusion Routine chest radiography was of no value for any of the early stage cervical cancer patients presenting at our tertiary center over a period of 7.7 years. PMID:26135733

  13. [Validation of three screening tests used for early detection of cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Reyes, Esperanza Rosalba; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Quiñones-Pérez, Juan M; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I

    2008-01-01

    to evaluate the validity (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy) of three screening methods used in the early detection of the cervical carcinoma versus the histopathology diagnosis. a selected sample of 107 women attended in the Opportune Detection of Cervicouterine Cancer Program in the Hospital de Zona 46, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Durango, during the 2003 was included. The application of Papa-nicolaou, acetic acid test, and molecular detection of human papillomavirus, and histopatholgy diagnosis were performed in all the patients at the time of the gynecological exam. The detection and tipification of the human papillomavirus was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and analysis of polymorphisms of length of restriction fragments (RFLP). Histopathology diagnosis was considered the gold standard. The evaluation of the validity was carried out by the Bayesian method for diagnosis test. the positive cases for acetic acid test, Papanicolaou, and PCR were 47, 22, and 19. The accuracy values were 0.70, 0.80 and 0.99, respectively. since the molecular method showed a greater validity in the early detection of the cervical carcinoma we considered of vital importance its implementation in suitable programs of Opportune Detection of Cervicouterino Cancer Program in Mexico. However, in order to validate this conclusion, cross-sectional studies in different region of country must be carried out.

  14. Large Conization and Laparoendoscopic Single-Port Pelvic Lymphadenectomy in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer for Fertility Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polat Dursun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertility preservation in early-stage cervical cancer is a hot topic in gynecologic oncology. Although radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT is suggested as a fertility preserving approach, there are some serious concerns like cervical stenosis, second trimester loss, preterm delivery in survivors, and lack of residual tumor in the majority of the surgical specimens. Therefore, less radical surgical operations have been proposed in early-stage cervical carcinomas. On the other hand, single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS is an evolving endoscopic approach for minimal access surgery. In this report, we present a case with early-stage cervical cancer who wishes to preserve fertility. We successfully performed single-port pelvic lymphadenectomy and large conization to preserve fertility potential of the patient. We think that combination of less radical approach like conization and single-port pelvic lymphadenectomy might be less minimally invasive and is still an effective surgical approach in well-selected cases with cervical carcinomas. Incorporation of single-port laparoscopy into the minimally invasive fertility sparing management of the cervical cancer will improve patients outcome with less complications and better cosmesis. Further studies are needed to reach a clear conclusion.

  15. Cervical Cancer Stage IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1613x1200 View Download Large: 3225x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 cervical ...

  16. Incorporating a 3-dimensional printer into the management of early-stage cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Min-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Namkug; Rhim, Chae Chun; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Nam, Joo-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    We used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer to create anatomical replicas of real lesions and tested its application in cervical cancer. Our study patient decided to undergo radical hysterectomy after seeing her 3D model which was then used to plan and simulate this surgery. Using 3D printers to create patient-specific 3D tumor models may aid cervical cancer patients make treatment decisions. This technology will lead to better surgical and oncological outcomes for cervical cancer patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:150-152. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Evaluation of women knowledge and attitude regarding cervical cancer early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bădulescu, F; Prejbeanu, Ileana; Rada, Cornelia; Pătraşcu, Anca; Dragomir, Manuela; Popescu, Florina Carmen

    2011-01-01

    At European level, Romania unfortunately comes first as far as mortality due to cervical cancer is concerned, mortality rate recording a continuous increase due to disease detection in advanced stages. In this context, we followed an assessment of women's cognitive and attitudinal fund in relation to early detection of cervical cancer, through the application of a questionnaire on a batch of 617 women with ages from 18 to 75-year-old, with various levels of education, residents of Craiova City and communes from Dolj County. Statistic processing of their answers indicates that 43.3% of the inquired subjects have not had a routine gynecological exam for at least seven years (or even never), which is more often found in the subgroup of women from the rural environment, with ages over 35 years and with an elementary educational level (plevel being once again discrimination factors between the subgroups. The reasons usually put forward as a justification for the failure to do the cytological test for the past three years are negligence (23.8%), the lack of information on the existence of such an investigation (18.2%), the absence of a genital pathology (12.8%) or of a medical recommendation (11.8%). Results suggest the need to provide uniform accessibility of the population to health services, by developing and implementing new strategies of educational and sanitary intervention mainly in rural communities.

  18. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in evaluation of pelvic and para-aortic nodal involvement in early stage and operable cervical cancer: comparison with surgicopathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Vandana; Damania, Kaizad; Sharma, Anshu Rajnish

    2011-01-01

    Nodal metastases in cervical cancer have prognostic implications. Imaging is used as an adjunct to clinical staging for evaluation of nodal metastases. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has an advantage of superior resolution of its CT component and detecting nodal disease based on increased glycolytic activity rather than node size. But there are limited studies describing its limitations in early stage cervical cancers. We have done meta-analysis with an objective to evaluate the efficacy of FDG PET/CT and its current clinical role in early stage and operable cervical cancer. Studies in which FDG PET/CT was performed before surgery in patients with early stage cervical cancers were included for analysis. PET findings were confirmed with histopathological diagnosis rather than clinical follow-up. The current data suggest that FDG PET/CT is suboptimal in nodal staging in early stage cervical cancer

  19. Quality of life, urogynecological morbidity, and lymphedema after radical vaginal trachelectomy for early-stage cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøding, Ligita Paskeviciute; Ottosen, Christian; Mosgaard, Berit Jul

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT) offers a possibility for future childbearing for young women with early-stage cervical cancer. However, the literature on quality of life and self-reported morbidity in patients undergoing RVT is scarce. The aim of this study was to prospectively...

  20. Cervical cancer screening of underserved women in the United States: results from the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangka, Florence K L; Howard, David H; Royalty, Janet; Dalzell, Lucinda P; Miller, Jacqueline; O'Hara, Brett J; Sabatino, Susan A; Joseph, Kristy; Kenney, Kristy; Guy, Gery P; Hall, Ingrid J

    2015-05-01

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides breast and cervical cancer screens to low-income, uninsured, and underinsured women. We describe the number and proportion of women eligible for cervical cancer screening services and the proportion of eligible women screened over the period 1997-2012. Low-income, uninsured, and underinsured women aged 18-64 years who have not had a hysterectomy are eligible for cervical cancer screening through the NBCCEDP. We estimated the number of low-income, uninsured women using data from the US Census Bureau. We adjusted our estimates for hysterectomy status using the National Health Interview Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We used data from the NBCCEDP to describe the number of women receiving NBCCEDP-funded screening and calculated the proportion of eligible women who received screening through the NBCCEDP at the national level (by age group, race/ethnicity) and at the state level by age group. We used the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to estimate the proportion of NBCCEDP-eligible women who were screened outside the NBCCEDP and the proportion that are not screened. We estimate that in 2010-2012, 705,970 women aged 18-64 years, 6.5 % (705,970 of 9.8 million) of the eligible population, received NBCCEDP-funded Pap tests. We estimate that 60.2 % of eligible women aged 18-64 years were screened outside the NBCCEDP and 33.3 % were not screened. The NBCCEDP provided 623,603 screens to women aged 40-64 years, an estimated 16.5 % of the eligible population, and 83,660 screens to women aged 18-39 years, representing an estimated 1.2 % of the eligible population. The estimated proportions of eligible women screened in each state ranged from 1.5 to 32.7 % and 5 % to 73.2 % among the 18-64 and 40-64 years age groups, respectively. Changes in the proportion of eligible women screened over the study period were nonsignificant. Although the program provided cervical

  1. The clinical significance of serum SCC-Ag combined with CD105 in patients with cervical cancer during the early stage diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Chan Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To invest the clinical significance of serum SCC-Ag combined with CD105 in early diagnosis of cervical cancer to provide new ideas for early diagnosis and clinical treatment of cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 74 cases cervical cancer patients were selected as cervical cancer group, and 52 cases uterine fibroids patients were selected as normal cervical group, serum samples were collected in the early morning fasting condition, SCC-Ag and CD105 were checked by ELISA method, SCC-Ag and CD105 of two groups were analyzed by t-test, and to compare SCC-Ag and CD105 in different TMN staging, lymph gland metastasis and non-lymph gland metastasis in patients with cervical cancer, the correlation analysis was used by Pearson correlation analysis method. Results: These results came from ELISA method, comparing with normal cervical group, the SCC-Ag and CD105 of cervical cancer group increased, the difference was statistically significant. Comparing with Ⅰ period of TMN staging, SCC-Ag and CD105 of Ⅱ period increased, Ⅲ, Ⅳ period increased, the difference was statistically significant. Comparing with Ⅱ period, SCC-Ag and CD105 of Ⅲ, Ⅳ period increased, the difference was statistically significant. Comparing with non-lymph gland metastasis, SCC-Ag and CD105 of lymph gland metastasis increased in cervical cancer with surgical treatment, the difference was statistically significant. According to Pearson correlation analysis, SCC-Ag and CD105 were positively correlated. Conclusion: SCC-Ag and CD105 in patients with cervical cancer increase highly, it has important clinical value that of serum SCCAg combined with CD105 in the early diagnosis of cervical cancer, especially it has clinical guiding significance to staging and lymph gland metastasis of cervical cancer, and it is worthy of clinical reference.

  2. The Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, Medicaid, and breast cancer outcomes among Ohio's underserved women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroukian, Siran M; Bakaki, Paul M; Htoo, Phyo Than; Han, Xiaozhen; Schluchter, Mark; Owusu, Cynthia; Cooper, Gregory S; Rose, Johnie; Flocke, Susan A

    2017-08-15

    As an organized screening program, the national Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (BCCEDP) was launched in the early 1990s to improve breast cancer outcomes among underserved women. To analyze the impact of the BCCEDP on breast cancer outcomes in Ohio, this study compared cancer stages and mortality across BCCEDP participants, Medicaid beneficiaries, and "all others." This study linked data across the Ohio Cancer Incidence Surveillance System, Medicaid, the BCCEDP database, death certificates, and the US Census and identified 26,426 women aged 40 to 64 years who had been diagnosed with incident invasive breast cancer during the years 2002-2008 (deaths through 2010). The study groups were as follows: BCCEDP participants (1-time or repeat users), Medicaid beneficiaries (women enrolled in Medicaid before their cancer diagnosis [Medicaid/prediagnosis] or around the time of their cancer diagnosis [Medicaid/peridiagnosis]), and all others (women identified as neither BCCEDP participants nor Medicaid beneficiaries). The outcomes included advanced-stage cancer at diagnosis and mortality. A multivariable logistic and survival analysis was conducted to examine the independent association between the BCCEDP and Medicaid status and the outcomes. The percentage of women presenting with advanced-stage disease was highest among women in the Medicaid/peridiagnosis group (63.4%) and lowest among BCCEDP repeat users (38.6%). With adjustments for potential confounders and even in comparison with Medicaid/prediagnosis beneficiaries, those in the Medicaid/peridiagnosis group were twice as likely to be diagnosed with advanced-stage disease (adjusted odds ratio, 2.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.83-2.66). Medicaid/peridiagnosis women are at particularly high risk to be diagnosed with advanced-stage disease. Efforts to reduce breast cancer disparities must target this group of women before they present to Medicaid. Cancer 2017;123:3097-106. © 2017 American Cancer Society

  3. Clinical outcomes of adjuvant radiation therapy and prognostic factors in early stage uterine cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Rhee, Woo Joong; Choi, Seo Hee; Kim, Gwi Eon; Kim, Yong Bae [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, EunJi; Kim, Sang Wun; Kim, Sung Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    significance in early uterine cervical cancer patients. More effective systemic treatments might be needed to reduce distant metastasis in these patients.

  4. Early detection of cervical cancer with visual inspection methods: a summary of completed and on-going studies in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaranarayanan R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available India is a high-risk country for cervical cancer which accounts a quarter (126 000 new cases, 71 000 deaths around 2 000 of the world burden. The age-standardized incidence rates range from 16-55 per 100 000 women in different regions with particularly high rates in rural areas. Control of cervical cancer by early detection and treatment is a priority of the National Cancer Control Programme of India. There are no organized cytology screening programmes in the country. The technical and financial constraints to organize cytology screening have encouraged the evaluation of visual inspection approaches as potential alternatives to cervical cytology in India. Four types of visual detection approaches for cervical neoplasia are investigated in India: a naked eye inspection without acetic acid application, widely known as 'downstaging'; b naked eye inspection after application of 3-5% acetic acid (VIA; c VIA using magnification devices (VIAM; d visual inspection after the application of Lugol's iodine (VILI. Downstaging has been shown to be poorly sensitive and specific to detect cervical neoplasia and is no longer considered as a suitable screening test for cervical cancer. VIA, VIAM and VILI are currently being investigated in multicentre cross-sectional studies (without verification bias, in which cytology and HPV testing are also simultaneously evaluated, and the results of these investigations will be available in 2003. These studies will provide valuable information on the average, comparative test performances in detecting high-grade cervical cancer precursors and cancer. Results from pooled analysis of data from two completed studies indicated an approximate sensitivity of 93.4% and specificity of 85.1% for VIA to detect CIN 2 or worse lesions; the corresponding figures for cytology were 72.1% and 91.6%. The efficacy of VIA in reducing incidence of and mortality from cervical cancer and its cost-effectiveness is currently being investigated

  5. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computed tomography in evaluation of pelvic and para-aortic nodal involvement in early stage and operable cervical cancer: Comparison with surgicopathological findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Vandana; Damania, Kaizad; Sharma, Anshu Rajnish

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Nodal metastases in cervical cancer have prognostic implications. Imaging is used as an adjunct to clinical staging for evaluation of nodal metastases. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has an advantage of superior resolution of its CT component and detecting nodal disease based on increased glycolytic activity rather than node size. But there are limited studies describing its limitations in early stage cervical cancers. Objective: We have done meta-analysis with an objective to evaluate the efficacy of FDG PET/CT and its current clinical role in early stage and operable cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Studies in which FDG PET/CT was performed before surgery in patients with early stage cervical cancers were included for analysis. PET findings were confirmed with histopathological diagnosis rather than clinical follow-up. FDG PET/CT showed lower sensitivity and clinically unacceptable negative predictive value in detecting nodal metastases in early stage cervical cancer and therefore, can not replace surgicopathological staging. False negative results in presence of microscopic disease and sub-centimeter diseased nodes are still the area of concern for metabolic imaging. However, these studies are single institutional and performed in a small group of patients. There is enough available evidence of clinical utility of FDG PET/CT in locally advanced cervical cancer. But these results can not be extrapolated for early stage disease. Conclusion: The current data suggest that FDG PET/CT is suboptimal in nodal staging in early stage cervical cancer. PMID:23559711

  6. [Primary cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel; Tovar-Rodríguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    Cervico-uterine cancer screening with cytology decrease incidence by more than 50%. The cause of this cancer is the human papilloma virus high risk, and requires a sensitive test to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection and greater interval period when the results are negative. The test of the human papilloma virus high risk, is effective and safe because of its excellent sensitivity, negative predictive value and optimal reproducibility, especially when combined with liquid-based cytology or biomarkers with viral load, with higher sensitivity and specificity, by reducing false positives for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater injury, with excellent clinical benefits to cervical cancer screening and related infection of human papilloma virus diseases, is currently the best test for early detection infection of human papillomavirus and the risk of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. Imaging in cervical cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Follen, M.; Levenback, C.F.; Iyer, R.B.; Grigsby, P.W.; Boss, E.A.; Delpassand, E.S.; Fornage, B.D.; Fishman, E.K.

    2003-01-01

    Cervical cancer traditionally has been staged clinically. Advances in imaging could improve the staging of cervical cancer by facilitating the detection of lymph node metastases and micrometastases in distant organs. Such progress could lead to improvements in treatment selection and therefore

  8. Immunoreactivities of human nonmetastatic clone 23 and p53 products are disassociated and not good predictors of lymph node metastases in early-stage cervical cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Y T; Wang, P H; Ko, J L; Chen, G D; Chang, H; Lin, L Y

    2007-01-01

    To assess the relation between expressions of human nonmetastatic clone 23 (nm23-H1) and p53 in cervical cancer, their relationships with lymph node metastasis, and further to examine their predictive of lymph node metastases. nm23-H1 and p53 expression profiles were visualized by immunohistochemistry in early-stage cervical cancer specimens. Immunoreactivities of nm23-H1 and p53 were disassociated. The independent variables related with lymph node metastases were grade of cancer cell differentiation (p not good predictors of lymph node metastases in early-stage cervical cancer patients. However, stromal invasion and cell differentiation can predict lymph node metastasis.

  9. B3GNT3 Expression Is a Novel Marker Correlated with Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Clinical Outcome in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chunhao; Song, Libing; Zhang, Yanna

    2015-01-01

    Background The β1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-3 gene (B3GNT3) encodes a member of the B3GNT family that functions as the backbone structure of dimeric sialyl-Lewis A and is involved in L-selectin ligand biosynthesis, lymphocyte homing and lymphocyte trafficking. B3GNT3 has been implicated as an important element in the development of certain cancers. However, the characteristics of B3GNT3 in the development and progression of cancer remain largely unknown. Thus, our study aimed to investigate the expression pattern and the prognostic value of B3GNT3 in patients with early-stage cervical cancer. Methods The mRNA and protein levels of B3GNT3 expression were examined in eight cervical cancer cell lines and ten paired cervical cancer tumors, using real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to analyze B3GNT3 protein expression in paraffin-embedded tissues from 196 early-stage cervical cancer patients. Statistical analyses were applied to evaluate the association between B3GNT3 expression scores and clinical parameters, as well as patient survival. Results B3GNT3 expression was significantly upregulated in cervical cancer cell lines and lesions compared with normal cells and adjacent noncancerous cervical tissues. In the 196 cases of tested early-stage cervical cancer samples, the B3GNT3 protein level was positively correlated with high risk TYPES of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection (P = 0.026), FIGO stage (P cervical cancer patients. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that elevated B3GNT3 expression is associated with pelvic lymph node metastasis and poor outcome in early-stage cervical cancer patients. B3GNT3 may be a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target for the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:26709519

  10. High Smac/DIABLO expression is associated with early local recurrence of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano-Llamas, Abril; Garcia, Francisco J; Perez, Delia; Cantu, David; Espinosa, Magali; De la Garza, Jaime G; Maldonado, Vilma; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    In a recent pilot report, we showed that Smac/DIABLO mRNA is expressed de novo in a subset of cervical cancer patients. We have now expanded this study and analyzed Smac/DIABLO expression in the primary lesions in 109 cervical cancer patients. We used immunohistochemistry of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections to analyze Smac/DIABLO expression in the 109 primary lesions. Seventy-eight samples corresponded to epidermoid cervical cancer and 31 to cervical adenocarcinoma. The median follow up was 46.86 months (range 10–186). Smac/DIABLO was expressed in more adenocarcinoma samples than squamous tumours (71% vs 50%; p = 0.037). Among the pathological variables, a positive correlation was found between Smac/DIABLO immunoreactivity and microvascular density, a marker for angiogenesis (p = 0.04). Most importantly, Smac/DIABLO immunoreactivity was associated with a higher rate of local recurrence in squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.002, log rank test). No association was found between Smac/DIABLO and survival rates. Smac/DIABLO expression is a potential marker for local recurrence in cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients

  11. Visual inspection with acetic acid (via screening program: 7 years experience in early detection of cervical cancer and pre-cancers in rural South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Rani Poli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer continues to be a major public health problem in India in the absence of wide spread organised cervical screening programs. Visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA is an effective, inexpensive screening test that can be combined with simple treatment procedures for early cervical lesions, provided by trained health workers. We report 7 years experience in early detection of cervical cancer and pre-cancers using the VIA test in a community-based program in rural Andhra Pradesh, India where there are no existing organised cervical screening programs. Materials and Methods: Eligible women aged between 26 and 60 were opportunistically screened by trained health wor kers using the VIA test. Women who tested positive were further evaluated and those with cervical lesions were treated either by cryotherapy in the screening clinic or referred to a higher center. Results: A total of 18,869 women were screened by a single round of VIA testing with a positive rate of 10.75%. Biopsy proven high-grade squamous intraepithelials (HSILs were 90 (0.48% and low-grade squamous intraepithelials (LSILs were 43 (0.28%. The overall prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+ lesion rate is 1.05%. A total of 312 (1.65% cryotherapies were done and 49 women underwent hysterectomy. Conclusions: VIA by trained female health workers is a safe, acceptable, and effective test that can save lives from cervical cancer even in remote areas with few resources. These results have important implications for efficient service delivery in cervical screening programs in low-resourced settings.

  12. Management of low-risk early-stage cervical cancer: Should conization, simple trachelectomy, or simple hysterectomy replace radical surgery as the new standard of care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Pedro T.; Pareja, Rene; Rendón, Gabriel J.; Millan, Carlos; Frumovitz, Michael; Schmeler, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    The standard treatment for women with early-stage cervical cancer (IA2-IB1) remains radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy. In select patients interested in future fertility, the option of radical trachelectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy is also considered a viable option. The possibility of less radical surgery may be appropriate not only for patients desiring to preserve fertility but also for all patients with low-risk early-stage cervical cancer. Recently, a number of studies have explored less radical surgical options for early-stage cervical cancer, including simple hysterectomy, simple trachelectomy, and cervical conization with or without sentinel lymph node biopsy and pelvic lymph node dissection. Such options may be available for patients with low-risk early-stage cervical cancer. Criteria that define this low-risk group include: squamous carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, or adenosquamous carcinoma, tumor size <2 cm, stromal invasion <10mm, and no lymph-vascular space invasion. In this report, we provide a review of the existing literature on the conservative management of cervical cancer and describe ongoing multi-institutional trials evaluating the role of conservative surgery in selected patients with early-stage cervical cancer. PMID:24041877

  13. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  14. The central nervous system of the fetus in pregnant women after organ-preserving treatment of precancer and early stages of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, O.O.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a promising method of research in tocology. The use of MRI for the first time with high precision anatomical interpretation to diagnose the state of the Central nervous system of the fetus in pregnant women after organ-preserving treatment of precancerous cervical disease and early stages of cervical cancer

  15. Histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient for monitoring early response in patients with advanced cervical cancers undergoing concurrent chemo-radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jie; Zhu, Lijing; Zhu, Li; Ge, Yun; He, Jian; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2017-11-01

    Background Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis has been widely used in determining tumor prognosis. Purpose To investigate the dynamic changes of ADC histogram parameters during concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with advanced cervical cancers. Material and Methods This prospective study enrolled 32 patients with advanced cervical cancers undergoing CCRT who received diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before CCRT, at the end of the second and fourth week during CCRT and one month after CCRT completion. The ADC histogram for the entire tumor volume was generated, and a series of histogram parameters was obtained. Dynamic changes of those parameters in cervical cancers were investigated as early biomarkers for treatment response. Results All histogram parameters except AUC low showed significant changes during CCRT (all P histogram parameters of cervical cancers changed significantly at the early stage of CCRT, indicating their potential in monitoring early tumor response to therapy.

  16. Future Directions - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about possible changes in cervical cancer screening and management.

  17. Vaginal Radical Trachelectomy for early stage cervical cancer. Results of the Danish National Single Center Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauerberg, L; Høgdall, C; Loft, A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present and evaluate an unselected national single center strategy with fertility preserving trachelectomy in cervical cancer. In 2003 nationwide single-center referral of women for trachelectomies was agreed upon between all Danish departments performing cervical cancer surgery...... a total of 77 pregnancies. Of the 72 women 40 were referred to fertility treatment. First and second trimester miscarriage rates were 21.6% and 2.7%, respectively. A total of 53 children were born of which 41 were delivered after gestational week 34. CONCLUSION: This unselected national single center...... of 120 unselected consecutive VRTs were assessed. To obtain complete follow-up about fertility treatment, pregnancy and obstetric outcome the women filled out an electronic questionnaire. Median follow-up: 55.7 months. RESULTS: 85.8% of the patients had stage IB1 disease, 68.3% squamous cell carcinomas...

  18. Complications of combined radical hysterectomy-postoperative radiation therapy in women with early stage cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barter, J.F.; Soong, S.J.; Shingleton, H.M.; Hatch, K.D.; Orr, J.W. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Fifty patients with cervical cancer were treated with radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy followed by postoperative radiation therapy for high risk factors (nodal metastases, lymphvascular space invasion, close or involved margins) at the University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical Center from 1969 to 1984. Fifteen (30%) of the patients treated had serious complications, 8 (16%) requiring an operation, and 1 (2%) dying as a result of treatment-related problems. This combined modality approach is associated with significant complications

  19. Nanotechnology in the management of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiezhong; Gu, Wenyi; Yang, Lei; Chen, Chen; Shao, Renfu; Xu, Kewei; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a major disease with high mortality. All cervical cancers are caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV). Although preventive vaccines for cervical cancer are successful, treatment of cervical cancer is far less satisfactory because of multidrug resistance and side effects. In this review, we summarize the recent application of nanotechnology to the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer as well as the development of HPV vaccines. Early detection of cervical cancer enables tumours to be efficiently removed by surgical procedures, leading to increased survival rate. The current method of detecting cervical cancer by Pap smear can only achieve 50% sensitivity, whereas nanotechnology has been used to detect HPVs with greatly improved sensitivity. In cervical cancer treatment, nanotechnology has been used for the delivery of anticancer drugs to increase treatment efficacy and decrease side effects. Nanodelivery of HPV preventive and therapeutic vaccines has also been investigated to increase vaccine efficacy. Overall, these developments suggest that nanoparticle-based vaccine may become the most effective way to prevent and treat cervical cancer, assisted or combined with some other nanotechnology-based therapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography?computed tomography in evaluation of pelvic and para-aortic nodal involvement in early stage and operable cervical cancer: Comparison with surgicopathological findings

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Vandana; Damania, Kaizad; Sharma, Anshu Rajnish

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Nodal metastases in cervical cancer have prognostic implications. Imaging is used as an adjunct to clinical staging for evaluation of nodal metastases. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has an advantage of superior resolution of its CT component and detecting nodal disease based on increased glycolytic activity rather than node size. But there are limited studies describing its limitations in early stage cervical cancers. Objectiv...

  1. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major risk factor for cervical cancer. Although most women with ... clinical trials is available from the NCI website . Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  2. Molecular imaging in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KHAN, Sairah R.; ROCKALL, Andrea G.; BARWICK, Tara D.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the development of screening and of a vaccine, cervix cancer is a major cause of cancer death in young women worldwide. A third of women treated for the disease will recur, almost inevitably leading to death. Functional imaging has the potential to stratify patients at higher risk of poor response or relapse by improved delineation of disease extent and tumor characteristics. A number of molecular imaging biomarkers have been shown to predict outcome at baseline and/or early during therapy in cervical cancer. In future this could help tailor the treatment plan which could include selection of patients for close follow up, adjuvant therapy or trial entry for novel agents or adaptive clinical trials. The use of molecular imaging techniques, FDG PET/CT and functional MRI, in staging and response assessment of cervical cancer is reviewed.

  3. Leverage of an Existing Cervical Cancer Prevention Service Platform to Initiate Breast Cancer Control Services in Zambia: Experiences and Early Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeya F. Pinder

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In 2005, the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Zambia (CCPPZ was implemented and has since provided cervical cancer screen-and-treat services to more than 500,000 women. By leveraging the successes and experiences of the CCPPZ, we intended to build capacity for the early detection and surgical treatment of breast cancer. Methods: Our initiative sought to build capacity for breast cancer care through the (1 formation of a breast cancer advocacy alliance to raise awareness, (2 creation of resource-appropriate breast cancer care training curricula for mid- and high-level providers, and (3 implementation of early detection and treatment capacity within two major health care facilities. Results: Six months after the completion of the initiative, the following outcomes were documented: Breast health education and clinical breast examination (CBE services were successfully integrated into the service platforms of four CCPPZ clinics. Two new breast diagnostic centers were opened, which provided access to breast ultrasound, ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy, and needle aspiration. Breast health education and CBE were provided to 1,955 clients, 167 of whom were evaluated at the two diagnostic centers; 55 of those evaluated underwent core-needle biopsy, of which 17 were diagnosed with invasive cancer. Newly trained surgeons performed six sentinel lymph node mappings, eight sentinel lymph node dissections, and 10 breast conservation surgeries (lumpectomies. Conclusion: This initiative successfully established clinical services in Zambia that are critical for the early detection and surgical management of breast cancer.

  4. Laparoscopic surgery compared to traditional abdominal surgery in the management of early stage cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, T; Ozekinci, M; Saruhan, Z; Sever, B; Pestereli, E

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare laparoscopic total radical hysterectomy with classic radical hysterectomy regarding parametrial, and vaginal resection, and lymphadenectomy. Laparoscopic or laparotomic total radical hysterectomy with advantages and disadvantages was offered to the patients diagnosed as having operable cervical cancer between 2007 and 2010. Lymph node status, resection of the parametria and vagina, and margin positivity were recorded for both groups. Data were collected prospectively. Statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS statistical software program. Totally, 53 cases had classical abdominal radical hysterectomy and 35 laparoscopic radical hysterectomy, respectively. Parametrial involvement was detected in four (11.4%) cases in laparoscopic radical surgery versus nine (16.9%) in laparatomic surgery. All the cases with parametrial involvement had free surgical margins of tumor. Also there were no significant statistical differences in lymph node number and metastasis between the two groups. There is no difference in anatomical considerations between laparoscopic and laparatomic radical surgery in the surgical management of cervical cancer.

  5. Early response of patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer. A comparison of PET/CT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Huh, Seung-Jae; Nam, Heerim; Ju, Sang-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for early response evaluation of cervical cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Fifty-two patients were prospectively enrolled in the study. The pathologic findings were squamous cell carcinoma in 47 patients and adenocarcinoma in 5 patients. All patients underwent PET/CT and MRI scans before, during and within 1 month after completion of CCRT. The percent change in tumor volume during and after CCRT based on PET/CT and MRI images was compared. There were significant differences (p<0.001) between the initial tumor volume and tumor volume during and after CCRT as measured by both PET/CT and MRI. During CCRT, the percent volume reduction based on PET/CT images was significantly greater than the percent volume reduction calculated from MRI images (p=0.024). However, after the completion of CCRT, no significant differences were found in volume reduction as calculated based on PET/CT versus MRI images (p=0.289). The percent volume reduction of adenocarcinomas was significantly smaller than that of squamous cell carcinomas based on both PET/CT (p=0.041) and MRI images (p<0.001). Significant decreases in tumor volume were observed during and after CCRT in patients with cervical cancer. Tumor volume reduction on PET/CT images was greater than that on MRI images during CCRT. We suggest that early PET/CT as well as MRI scans could be taken during CCRT to evaluate tumor response and allow personalized treatment of cervical cancer. (author)

  6. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.

  7. Preventing cervical cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (HPV) will hopefully reduce cervical cancer rates globally even ... active people will get HPV at some time in their lives', making it ... cells due to HPV infection of the cervix are the first step in a series ..... A randomised controlled study of purified air administered to the 'breathing zone' at night to people with allergic asthma ...

  8. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  9. Future Directions - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about possible changes in cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  10. Using Evidence-Based Interventions to Improve Cancer Screening in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroff, Amy; Carter, Aundrea; Kenney, Kristy; Myles, Zachary; Melillo, Stephanie; Royalty, Janet; Rice, Ketra; Gressard, Lindsay; Miller, Jacqueline W

    2016-01-01

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides cancer screening to low-income, un-, and underinsured women through more than 11 000 primary care clinics. The program is well-positioned to work with health systems to implement evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to increase screening among all women. To collect baseline data on EBI use, evaluation of EBIs, and related training needs among NBCCEDP grantees. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a Web-based survey in late 2013 among NBCCEDP grantees for the period July 2012 to June 2013. This was the first systematic assessment of EBIs among NBCCEDP grantees. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's NBCCEDP. Primarily program directors/coordinators for all 67 NBCCEDP grantees. Data captured were used to assess implementation of 5 EBIs, their evaluation, and related training needs. Frequencies and proportions were determined. Cluster analysis identified grantees with similar patterns of EBI use for NBCCEDP clients and providers. On average, 4.1 of 5 EBIs were implemented per grantee for NBCCEDP clients and providers. Four clusters were identified including "high overall EBI users," "high provider EBI users," "high EBI users with no provider assessment and feedback," and "high client EBI users." Only 1.8 EBIs were implemented, on average, with non-NBCCEDP clients and providers. Fewer than half (n = 32, 47.8%) of grantees conducted process or outcome evaluation of 1 or more EBIs. Overall, 47.6% of grantees reported high or medium training needs for client-oriented EBIs and 54.3% for provider-oriented EBIs. The NBCCEDP grantees are implementing EBIs extensively with clients and providers. Increased EBI use among non-NBCCEDP clients/providers is needed to extend the NBCCEDP's reach and impact. Grantee training and technical assistance is necessary across EBIs. In addition, grantees' use of process and outcome evaluation of EBI implementation must be increased

  11. Radiosensitizers in cervical cancer. Cisplatin and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelaria, Myrna; Garcia-Arias, Alicia; Cetina, Lucely; Dueñas-Gonzalez, Alfonso

    2006-01-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be a significant health burden worldwide. Globally, the majority of cancers are locally advanced at diagnosis; hence, radiation remains the most frequently used therapeutical modality. Currently, the value of adding cisplatin or cisplatin-based chemotherapy to radiation for treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer is strongly supported by randomized studies and meta-analyses. Nevertheless, despite these significant achievements, therapeutic results are far from optimal; thus, novel therapies need to be assayed. A strategy currently being investigated is the use of newer radiosensitizers alone or in combination with platinum compounds. In the present work, we present preclinical information on known and newer cytotoxic agents as radiosensitizers on cervical cancer models, as well as the clinical information emanating from early phase trials that incorporate them to the cervical cancer management. In addition, we present the perspectives on the combined approach of radiation therapy and molecular target-based drugs with proven radiosensitizing capacity

  12. Human Papillomavirus and Vaccination in Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Liahng Wang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is not only the most frequently reported cancer among women, but also the most common female genital tract neoplasm in Taiwan. Early detection is effective, because the development, maintenance and progression of precursor lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] evolve slowly into invasive cancer, typically over a period of more than 10 years. It is now recognized that human papillomavirus (HPV infection is a necessary cause for over 99% of cervical cancer cases. Advances in the understanding of the causative role of HPV in the etiology of high-grade cervical lesions (CIN 2/3 and cervical cancer have led to the development, evaluation and recommendation of HPV-based technologies for cervical cancer prevention and control. The prevention of HPV infection before the onset of CIN is now possible with recently available prophylactic HPV vaccines, e.g. the quadrivalent Gardasil (Merck & Co., NJ, USA and bivalent Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline, London, UK. This review article provides an up-to-date summary of recent studies and available information concerning HPV and vaccination in cervical cancer.

  13. Eradication of cervical cancer in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Xavier Bosch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer remains within the three most common cancer in women worldwide and is still the commonest female cancer in 41 of 184 countries. Within Latin America, cervical ranks as the most common cancer among women in Bolivia and Peru and the second most frequent in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, The Guyanas, Surinam and Venezuela. Due to its relatively early age at onset, it ranks among the three most frequent cancers in women aged below 45 years in 82% of all countries in the world irrespective of their screening practices.   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21149/spm.v58i2.7777

  14. Radical Trachelectomy for Early-Stage Cervical Cancer: A Survey of the Society of Gynecologic Oncology and Gynecologic Oncology Fellows-in-Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Sara J; Armbruster, Shannon; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Frumovitz, Michael; Greer, Marilyn; Garcia, Jaime; Redworth, Glenda; Ramirez, Pedro T

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to survey gynecologic oncologists and fellows-in-training regarding the role of radical trachelectomy (RT) and conservative surgery in patients with early-stage cervical cancer. From June 2012 to September 2012, the Society of Gynecologic Oncology member practitioners (n = 1353) and gynecologic oncology fellows (n = 156) were sent group-specific surveys investigating current practice, training, and the future of RT for early-stage cervical cancer management. Twenty-two percent of practitioners (n = 303) and 24.4% of fellows (n = 38) completed the surveys. Of the practitioners, 50% (n = 148) report performing RT, 98% (n = 269) support RT as treatment for squamous carcinoma, and 71% (n = 195) confirm the use of RT for adenocarcinoma. Most practitioners offer RT treatment for stages IA2 to IB1 smaller than 2 cm (n = 209, 76.8%) regardless of grade (77.7%) or lymph vascular space invasion (n = 211, 79.3%). Only 8% (n = 23) of practitioners feel that RT is appropriate for stage IBI larger than 2 cm. Respectively, both practitioners and fellows most frequently perform robotic-assisted (47.0%, n = 101 and 59.1%, n = 13) and abdominal (40.5%, n = 87 and 68.2%, n = 15) RT approaches. After training, fellows project the use of robotic-assisted (71%, n = 22) or abdominal methods (58.1%, n = 18). Overall, 75% (n = 227) of practitioners and 60% (n = 23) of fellows speculate that over the next 5 years, less radical procedures will be used to manage early-stage cervical cancer. Our findings suggest that practitioners and fellows believe RT remains an option for early-stage cervical cancer patients. However, a significant proportion of all respondents believe that less radical surgery may be a future consideration for patients with low-risk early-stage cervical cancer.

  15. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta-Zaragoza O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztacala UNAM, México City, MéxicoAbstract: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%–95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development.Keywords: Cervical cancer, clinical trials, gene therapy, HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, siRNAs

  16. Barriers to utilization of cervical cancer screening services among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among women of reproductive age group; yet screening for early detection of the disease among them is not a common practice in Nigeria. This study therefore, investigated the barriers to utilization of cervical cancer screening service among women of ...

  17. 3D vision improves outcomes in early cervical cancer treated with laparoscopic type B radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspagliesi, Francesco; Bogani, Giorgio; Martinelli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Scaffa, Cono; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Lorusso, Domenica; Ditto, Antonino

    2017-01-21

    To evaluate the alterations on surgical outcomes after of the implementation of 3D laparoscopic technology for the surgical treatment of early-stage cervical carcinoma. Data of patients undergoing type B radical hysterectomy (with or without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy) and pelvic lymphadenectomy via 3D laparoscopy were compared with a historical cohort of patients undergoing type B radical hysterectomy via conventional laparoscopy. Complications (within 60 days) were graded per the Accordion severity system. Data of 75 patients were studied: 15 (20%) and 60 (80%) patients undergoing surgery via 3D laparoscopy and conventional laparoscopy, respectively. Baseline patient characteristics as well as pathologic findings were similar between groups (p>0.1). Patients undergoing 3D laparoscopy experienced a trend toward shorter operative time than patients undergoing conventional laparoscopy (176.7 ± 74.6 vs 215.9 ± 61.6 minutes; p = 0.09). Similarly, patients undergoing 3D laparoscopic radical hysterectomy experienced shorter length of hospital stay (2 days, range 2-6, vs 4 days, range 3-11; p<0.001) in comparison to patients in the control group, while no difference in estimated blood loss was observed (p = 0.88). No between-group difference in complication rate was observed. 3D technology is a safe and effective way to perform type B radical hysterectomy and pelvic node dissection in early-stage cervical cancer. Further large prospective studies are warranted in order to assess the cost-effectiveness of the introduction of 3D technology in comparison to robotic assisted surgery.

  18. Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound in the early assessment of response to concurrent chemo-radiotherapy for advanced cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Zhu, Lijing; Ru, Tong; Wang, Huanhuan; He, Jian; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2017-09-01

    Background Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound (3D-PDU) imaging has been widely applied to the differentiation of benign and malignant cervical lesions; however, its potential value for predicting response to chemo-radiotherapy has not been fully explored. Purpose To investigate the feasibility of 3D-PDU imaging in predicting treatment response in patients receiving concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) for advanced cervical cancer. Material and Methods Fifty-two patients with advanced cervical cancer who received CCRT underwent 3D-PDU examinations at four timepoints: pre-therapy (baseline), 1 week and 2 weeks during, as well as immediately post CCRT. Final tumor response was determined by change in tumor size using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cervical tumor volumes and vascular indices were calculated and compared with the clinical outcome. Results Of the 52 patients, 32 patients who completed all four examinations were included in the analyses: 21 were classified as complete response (CR) and 11 as partial response (PR). During the treatment, the CR group showed that 3D vascular indices (VI and VFI) significantly increased at 1 week ( P = 0.028, P = 0.017, respectively) then decreased at 2 weeks and obviously decreased at therapy completion (both P  0.05). Conclusion Prospective longitudinal 3D-PDU imaging may have potentials in monitoring early therapeutic response to CCRT in patients with cervical cancer.

  19. Urothelial cancers following radiation therapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Seiji; Hasumi, Masaru; Sato, Jin; Mayuzumi, Takuji; Kumasaka, Fuminari; Shimizu, Toshihiro.

    1996-01-01

    Some reports have indicated that bladder cancer is induced by radiation therapy for cervical cancer. We encountered 6 cases of urothelial cancer (5 cases of bladder cancer and 1 case of ureter cancer) following radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Age at the time of diagnosis of cervical cancer ranged from 38 to 66 years, and the average was 51.2±11.0 (S.D.) years old. Age at the time of diagnosis of urothelial cancer ranged from 53 to 83 years, and the average was 67.5±10.3 years old. The interval between the diagnosis of cervical cancer and urothelial cancer ranged from 3 to 25 years, averaging 16.3 years. It is impossible to evaluate the risk of development of urothelial cancer after radiation therapy based on our data. However, it is important to make an effort to diagnose urothelial cancer at an early stage by educating patients (e.g., advising regular urine tests) after the follow-up period to cervical cancer. (author)

  20. Time-window of early detection of response to concurrent chemoradiation in cervical cancer by using diffusion-weighted MR imaging: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ying; Sun, Haoran; Bai, Renju; Ye, Zhaoxiang

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of DWI in evaluating early therapeutic response of uterine cervical cancer to concurrent chemoradiation (CCR) and establish optimal time window for early detection of treatment response. This was a prospective study and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Thirty-three patients with uterine cervical cancer who received CCR underwent conventional MRI and DWI examinations prior to therapy (base-line) and at 3 days (postT1), 7 days (postT2), 14 days (postT3), 1 month (postT4) and 2 months (postT5) after the therapy initiated. Tumor response was determined by comparing the base-line and postT5 MRI by using RECIST criterion. Percentage ADC change (γADC) of complete response (CR) group at each follow up time was greater than that of partial response (PR) group, and the differences were significant at postT3 (p = 0.007), postT4 (p = 0.001), and postT5 (p = 0.019). There was positive correlation between γADC at each follow-up time and percentage size reduction at postT5. The day of 14 after the therapy initiated can be considered as the optimal time for monitoring early treatment response of uterine cervical cancer to CCR, and the representative and sensitive index was γADC. With the cut-off value of 35.4 %, the sensitivity and specificity for prediction of CR group were 100 % and 73.1 %, respectively. It is feasible to use DWI to predict and monitor early treatment response in patients with uterine cervical cancer that undergoing CCR, and optimal time window for early detection of tumor response is the day of 14 after therapy initiated

  1. Citología de cuello uterino e impeditividad eléctrica en la detección temprana del cáncer cervical Cervical Cytology and Electrical Impedivity in the Early Detection of the Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra P. Corzo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan los resultados de un estudio piloto de las propiedades eléctricas del tejido epitelial de cuello uterino por medio de espectroscopia de impeditividad eléctrica, con el propósito de estudiar la detección temprana de la neoplasia intraepitelial con éste método. Para ello, se midieron 636 espectros de impeditividad eléctrica en 53 pacientes de la Liga Santandereana de Lucha Contra el Cáncer, los cuales fueron comparados con las citologías cervicales. Los datos experimentales fueron ajustados al modelo de Cole-Cole con una herramienta computacional basada en algoritmos genéticos. Los resultados del estudio realizado sugieren una sensibilidad y especificidad superiores al 70%. Salud UIS 2012; 44 (2:15-19Are reported the results of a study about the properties of cervical epitelial tissue using electrical impeditivity spectroscopy, with the objective of studying the early detection of intraepithelial neoplasia, with this metled. 636 impedivity spectrums from 53 patients at Liga Santandereana de Lucha contra el cancer were measured and compared with cervical cytology. Experimental data were felted to the Cole-Cole model, using a computational tool based in genetic algorithms. The results of the study suggest a sensibility and specificity above 70%. Salud UIS 2012; 44 (2:15-19

  2. Value of FDG-PET vs MRI/CT in detection and staging of early uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, P.; Kratzsch, A.; Horn, L.; Schmidt, F.; Einkel, J.; Sabri, O.

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study was performed to define the efficiency of FDG-PET in detecting primaries and in preoperatively assessing lymph node metastases of cervical cancer. Forty one patients with cervical cancer were investigated with PET (370 MBq F-18-FDG, Siemens ECAT EXACT HR+, visual evaluation) and MRI prior radical hysterectomy with pelvic, and additionally 12 cases paraortal, lymphadenectomies. Histopathological evaluation verified in all cases the evidence of cervical cancer except in one case, where the tumor was completely removed by conisation procedure. Sensitivity of PET and MRI were 95% and 85%, respectively. In 16/82 pelvic lymph node sites metastases were histologically detected (7 x micrometastases). Sensitivity, specificity, positive positive and negative predictive value were 50%, 85%, 44% and 88% for PET and 31%, 90%, 40% and 86% for MRI. Out of the 12 cases with dissection of paraortal lymph nodes, metastases were found histologically in 3 cases. PET detected 2/3 truly with no false positive result while CT detected 0/3 cases with no false positive findings. It is concluded that PET can detect cervical cancer with high accuracy. The accuracy of PET and MRI was similar for detection of pelvic metastases. Both methods have limited sensitivity due to the high incidence of micrometastases. PET was more accurate than CT in detection of paraortal metastases

  3. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  4. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  5. Immunotherapy for cervical cancer: Can it do another lung cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Priya; Dhandapani, Hemavathi; Jayakumar, Hascitha; Seetharaman, Abirami; Thangarajan, Rajkumar

    Cervical cancer, although preventable, is still the second most common cancer among women worldwide. In developing countries like India, where screening for cervical cancer is virtually absent, most women seek treatment only at advanced stages of the disease. Although standard treatment is curative in more than 90% of women during the early stages, for stage IIIb and above this rate drops to 50% or less. Hence, novel therapeutic adjuvants are required to improve survival at advanced stages. Lung cancer has shown the way forward with the use of Immunotherapeutic interventions as standard line of treatment in advanced stages. In this review, we provide an overview of mechanisms of immune evasion, strategies that can be employed to boost the immune system in order to improve the overall survival of the patients and summarize briefly the clinical trials that have been completed or that are underway to bring therapeutic vaccines for cervical cancer to the clinics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  7. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... in women, the cause of the majority of cervical cancers. Photo courtesy of Judy Folkenberg, NLM Writer By ...

  8. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  9. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Cervical Cancer is Preventable Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... 000 More than 4,000 women die of cervical cancer each year. 93% As many as 93% of ...

  10. Cervical cancer: A global health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, William; Bacon, Monica A; Bajaj, Amishi; Chuang, Linus T; Fisher, Brandon J; Harkenrider, Matthew M; Jhingran, Anuja; Kitchener, Henry C; Mileshkin, Linda R; Viswanathan, Akila N; Gaffney, David K

    2017-07-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy diagnosed in women worldwide. Nearly all cases of cervical cancer result from infection with the human papillomavirus, and the prevention of cervical cancer includes screening and vaccination. Primary treatment options for patients with cervical cancer may include surgery or a concurrent chemoradiotherapy regimen consisting of cisplatin-based chemotherapy with external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Cervical cancer causes more than one quarter of a million deaths per year as a result of grossly deficient treatments in many developing countries. This warrants a concerted global effort to counter the shocking loss of life and suffering that largely goes unreported. This article provides a review of the biology, prevention, and treatment of cervical cancer, and discusses the global cervical cancer crisis and efforts to improve the prevention and treatment of the disease in underdeveloped countries. Cancer 2017;123:2404-12. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  11. Apparent diffusion coefficient histogram shape analysis for monitoring early response in patients with advanced cervical cancers undergoing concurrent chemo-radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jie; Zhu, Lijing; Zhu, Li; Wang, Huanhuan; Liu, Song; Yan, Jing; Liu, Baorui; Guan, Yue; Ge, Yun; He, Jian; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2016-10-22

    To explore the role of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram shape related parameters in early assessment of treatment response during the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) course of advanced cervical cancers. This prospective study was approved by the local ethics committee and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Thirty-two patients with advanced cervical squamous cell carcinomas underwent diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (b values, 0 and 800 s/mm 2 ) before CCRT, at the end of 2nd and 4th week during CCRT and immediately after CCRT completion. Whole lesion ADC histogram analysis generated several histogram shape related parameters including skewness, kurtosis, s-sD av , width, standard deviation, as well as first-order entropy and second-order entropies. The averaged ADC histograms of 32 patients were generated to visually observe dynamic changes of the histogram shape following CCRT. All parameters except width and standard deviation showed significant changes during CCRT (all P histogram also changed obviously following CCRT. ADC histogram shape analysis held the potential in monitoring early tumor response in patients with advanced cervical cancers undergoing CCRT.

  12. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.

  13. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.

  14. Does lowering the screening age for cervical cancer in The Netherlands make sense?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, Maaike A.; de Kok, Inge M.C.M.; Siesling, Sabine; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Coebergh, Jan Willem W.

    2008-01-01

    Recommendations for the age to initiate cervical cancer screening should be directed towards maximum detection of early cervical cancer. However, the screening programme should do more good than harm. The aim of this analysis was to determine whether the target age for cervical cancer screening

  15. Therapeutic immunization strategies against cervical cancer : induction of cell-mediated immunity in murine models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bungener, Laura Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study described in this thesis is the development of a therapeutic immunization strategy against cervical cancer and pre-malignant precursor lesions of cervical cancer (CIN lesions). Cervical cancer is caused by high risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Two of the early proteins of high

  16. Radiobiological characteristics of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagabu, Teruo; Kobayashi, Takashi; Nanayama, Kunihiko

    1976-01-01

    In order to observe the radiobiological characteristics of cervical cancer, the author carried out irradiation of 60 Co in 16 cases of cervical cancer. The primary lesion of each case was exposed to radiation of 100 R once a day, 40 times in sequence, totaling 4,000 R. To evaluate this results, the vaginal smears were obtained everyday and examined for changes in cancerous cells caused by the irradiation. The results of our study showed that cervical cancer could be classified into three groups according to the radiosensitivity of its cancerous cells. In the group of low-radiosensitivity (11 cases of 16), the cancerous cells decreased gradually, and enlargement of the nuclei of the cancerous cells was observed from 2,000 R of irradiation, but the majority of the cancerous cells were those of nucleus after the irradiation of 4,000 R. In all of the 5 uterus removed, residual cancer lesion was noted. The radiocuability was unfavourable. In the group of high-radiosensitivity (4 cases of 16), the cancerous cells decreased remarkablly. Enlargement of nucleus was noted from 1,000 R of the irradiation, the cancerous cells of small-sized nucleus appeared with the irradiation of 3,000 R but the cancerous cells almost disappeared with the irradiation of 4,000 R. The radiocuability was favourable. In the group of combination of high-radiosensitivity and low-radiosensitivity portions (one case of 16), the cancerous cells decreased remarkablly until the exposure to the radiation of 2,000 R but thereafter did slowly. In a removed uterus, the cancer lesion was noted, but the prognosis was favourable. The foregoing results suggest that changes in the nuclear diameter of the cancerous cells in vaginal smears during irradiation can tell the radiosensitivity of the cancerous cells. (Kanao, N.)

  17. Thiazolidinediones abrogate cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuertz, Beverly R., E-mail: knier003@umn.edu; Darrah, Lindsay, E-mail: ldarrah@obgynmn.com; Wudel, Justin, E-mail: drwudel@drwudel.com; Ondrey, Frank G., E-mail: ondre002@umn.edu

    2017-04-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) is activated by thiazolidinedione drugs (TZDs) and can promote anti-cancer properties. We used three TZDs (pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, and ciglitazone) to target cervical cancer cell lines and a nude mouse animal model. Each agent increased activation of PPAR γ, as judged by a luciferase reporter gene assay in three HPV-associated cell lines (CaSki, SiHa, and HeLa cells) while decreasing cellular proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. They also promoted Oil Red O accumulation in treated cell lines and upregulated the lipid differentiation marker adipsin. Interestingly, xenograft HeLa tumors in nude mice treated with 100 mg/kg/day pioglitazone exhibited decreased growth compared to control mice or mice treated with standard cervical chemotherapy. In conclusion, TZDs slow tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo with decreases in cell proliferation and increases in PPAR γ and adipsin. These agents may be interesting treatments or treatment adjuncts for HPV-associated cancers or perhaps even precancerous conditions. - Highlights: • Thiazolidinediones decreases cervical cancer proliferation. • Pioglitazone increases cervical cancer differentiation. • Pioglitazone decreases tumor growth in mice. • Pioglitazone may be a useful treatment adjunct.

  18. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  19. Multi-parametric MRI in cervical cancer. Early prediction of response to concurrent chemoradiotherapy in combination with clinical prognostic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wei; Chen, Bing; Wang, Ai Jun; Zhao, Jian Guo [The General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Department of Radiology, Yinchuan (China); Qiang, Jin Wei [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Jinshan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Tian, Hai Ping [The General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Department of Pathology, Yinchuan (China)

    2018-01-15

    To investigate the prediction of response to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) through a combination of pretreatment multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with clinical prognostic factors (CPF) in cervical cancer patients. Sixty-five patients underwent conventional MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) before CCRT. The patients were divided into non- and residual tumour groups according to post-treatment MRI. Pretreatment MRI parameters and CPF between the two groups were compared and prognostic factors, optimal thresholds, and predictive performance for post-treatment residual tumour occurrence were estimated. The residual group showed a lower maximum slope of increase (MSI{sub L}) and signal enhancement ratio (SER{sub L}) in low-perfusion subregions, a higher apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, and a higher stage than the non-residual tumour group (p < 0.001, p = 0.003, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). MSI{sub L} and ADC were independent prognostic factors. The combination of both measures improved the diagnostic performance compared with individual MRI parameters. A further combination of these two factors with CPF exhibited the highest predictive performance. Pretreatment MSI{sub L} and ADC were independent prognostic factors for cervical cancer. The predictive capacity of multi-parametric MRI was superior to individual MRI parameters. The combination of multi-parametric MRI with CPF further improved the predictive performance. (orig.)

  20. Defining a strategy to evaluate cervical cancer prevention and early detection in the era of HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Roberta I; Miller, Anthony B; Pasut, George; Mai, Verna

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the short-, medium- and long-term requirements of a strategy to evaluate the impact of HPV immunization and to define a framework to facilitate planning and evaluation. This strategy was developed in Ontario from January to August 2008. Literature review was completed to assess existing material relevant to vaccine evaluation, and HPV vaccine specifically. Scientists and epidemiologists within our organization attended meetings to brainstorm and identify key requirements for vaccine evaluation. Other selected internal and external experts were consulted to review preliminary lists of potential indicators and questions for inclusion in an evaluation strategy. Results are reported in three sections--literature review, proposed evaluation framework and data requirements. The first vaccine evaluation strategy that integrates primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer is presented. Among women who are neither screened nor immunized, customized interventions will be required to ensure that they are aware of potential risks and benefits. This evaluation strategy may serve as a useful outline for jurisdictions in Canada and elsewhere. This new paradigm of combined primary and secondary intervention will encourage cooperation for effective evaluation of an integrated approach for control of cervical cancer and other HPV-related disease.

  1. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.

  2. Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Barriers of Screening Program among Women in Wufeng County, a High-Incidence Region of Cervical Cancer in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hang; Xiang, Qunying; Hu, Ting; Zhang, Qinghua; Chen, Zhilan; Ma, Ding; Feng, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Cervical cancer screening is an effective method for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, but the screening attendance rate in developing countries is far from satisfactory, especially in rural areas. Wufeng is a region of high cervical cancer incidence in China. This study aimed to investigate the issues that concern cervical cancer and screening and the factors that affect women’s willingness to undergo cervical cancer screening in the Wufeng area. Participants and Methods A cross-sectional survey of women was conducted to determine their knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, demographic characteristics and the barriers to screening. Results Women who were willing to undergo screenings had higher knowledge levels. “Anxious feeling once the disease was diagnosed” (47.6%), “No symptoms/discomfort” (34.1%) and “Do not know the benefits of cervical cancer screening” (13.4%) were the top three reasons for refusing cervical cancer screening. Women who were younger than 45 years old or who had lower incomes, positive family histories of cancer, secondary or higher levels of education, higher levels of knowledge and fewer barriers to screening were more willing to participate in cervical cancer screenings than women without these characteristics. Conclusion Efforts are needed to increase women’s knowledge about cervical cancer, especially the screening methods, and to improve their perceptions of the screening process for early detection to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates. PMID:23843976

  3. 6 Common Cancers - Gynecologic Cancers Cervical, Endometrial, and Ovarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... takes several years for normal cells in the cervix to turn into cancer cells. A test called a Pap smear is ... in the treatment of invasive cervical cancer. (Cervical) HPV vaccine: Another major advance in the management of ...

  4. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WHEELER COSETTE M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.

  5. Provider Perspectives on Promoting Cervical Cancer Screening Among Refugee Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ornelas, India J; Do, H Hoai; Magarati, Maya; Jackson, J Carey; Taylor, Victoria M

    2017-06-01

    Many refugees in the United States emigrated from countries where the incidence of cervical cancer is high. Refugee women are unlikely to have been screened for cervical cancer prior to resettlement in the U.S. National organizations recommend cervical cancer screening for refugee women soon after resettlement. We sought to identify health and social service providers' perspectives on promoting cervical cancer screening in order to inform the development of effective programs to increase screening among recently resettled refugees. This study consisted of 21 in-depth key informant interviews with staff from voluntary refugee resettlement agencies, community based organizations, and healthcare clinics serving refugees in King County, Washington. Interview transcripts were analyzed to identify themes. We identified the following themes: (1) refugee women are unfamiliar with preventive care and cancer screening; (2) providers have concerns about the timing of cervical cancer education and screening; (3) linguistic and cultural barriers impact screening uptake; (4) provider factors and clinic systems facilitate promotion of screening; and (5) strategies for educating refugee women about screening. Our findings suggest that refugee women are in need of health education on cervical cancer screening during early resettlement. Frequent messaging about screening could help ensure that women receive screening within the early resettlement period. Health education videos may be effective for providing simple, low literacy messages in women's native languages. Appointments with female clinicians and interpreters, as well as clinic systems that remind clinicians to offer screening at each appointment could increase screening among refugee women.

  6. ATF1 and RAS in exosomes are potential clinical diagnostic markers for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanhua; Wang, Wei; Yang, Baozhi; Tian, Hongge

    2017-10-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide. It is highly lethal yet can be treated when found in early stage. Thus, early detection is of significant important for early diagnosis of cervical cancer. Exosomes have been used as biomarkers in clinical diagnosis. It is unknown that whether blood exosomes associated with cervical cancer can be detected and if these exosomes can accurately represent the developmental stage of cervical cancer. Mouse models were made out of a relapsed cervical cancer patient's tumour sample for original and recurrent cervical cancer, and gene analysis in both tumours and exosomes in these mouse models were performed. We found that activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) and RAS genes were significantly up-regulated in tumours of both primary and recurrent cervical cancer mouse model, and they can also be detected in the blood exosomes of the mouse model. Our results indicated that ATF1 and RAS could be potential candidate biomarkers for cervical cancer in early diagnosis. ATF1 and RAS genes were found significantly elevated in tumours of primary and recurrent cervical cancer mouse model, and they were also detected in the blood exosomes. Therefore, ATF1 and RAS could be used as a diagnostic marker for cervical cancer in the future. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Ultrasonic histogram assessment of early response to concurrent chemo-radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Ru, Tong; Zhu, Lijing; Liu, Baorui; Wang, Huanhuan; Zhu, Li; He, Jian; Liu, Song; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yang, Xiaofeng

    To monitor early response for locally advanced cervical cancers undergoing concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) by ultrasonic histogram. B-mode ultrasound examinations were performed at 4 time points in thirty-four patients during CCRT. Six ultrasonic histogram parameters were used to assess the echogenicity, homogeneity and heterogeneity of tumors. I peak increased rapidly since the first week after therapy initiation, whereas W low , W high and A high changed significantly at the second week. The average ultrasonic histogram progressively moved toward the right and converted into more symmetrical shape. Ultrasonic histogram could be served as a potential marker to monitor early response during CCRT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Screen project 2 (VACCS 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Screen project 2 (VACCS 2): Linking cervical cancer screening to a two-dose HPV vaccination ... In VACCS 1 the feasibility of linking cervical cancer with HPV vaccination was demonstrated. ... Article Metrics.

  9. A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among Women in ... and source of information for awareness of women about cervical cancer in India. ... Results: Majority of the women have poor knowledge about cervical cancer ...

  10. Cervical cancer: current knowledge, perception and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Cervical cancer is a major public health problem and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality amongst the gynaecological cancers worldwide, especially in developing countries. Cervical cancer continues to persist in Nigeria like other developing countries despite the existence of ...

  11. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  12. THE CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING - UNSOLVED PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kaprin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of cervical cancer (CC for many decades continues to be the center of attention leading foreign and domestic oncologists. Malignant cervical tumors occupy the leading position among malignant neoplasms of reproductive system in women, second only to breast cancer, despite having far more effective screening compared with this disease. On predictive expert estimates (taking into account population growth and the expected increase in life expectancy by 2020 in developing countries, the rising incidence and prevalence of cervical cancer is 40%, while in developed countries - 11%. If we do not perform timely interventions for prevention and treatment of cervical cancer, after 2050 cervical cancer every year in the world will become sick 1 million women. In the last decade inRussiathere has been a gradual increase in the incidence of cervical cancer: average annual growth rate of 2.21%, General 25,18%. Cervical cancer is one of nosological forms that meet all the requirements of population-based screening. The current Russian normative documents do not give clear answers to questions concerning the age of onset of cervical cancer screening and the time interval between tests, no clear program organized cytological screening of cervical cancer.

  13. Technological advances in radiotherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Lorraine; Morgia, Marita; Fyles, Anthony; Milosevic, Michael

    2011-09-01

    To discuss the important technological advances that have taken place in the planning and delivery of both external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, and the implications for improved clinical outcomes. Technological advances in external beam radiation treatment and brachytherapy for patients with cervical cancer allow more precise targeting of tumour and relative sparing of surrounding normal organs and tissues. Early evidence is emerging to indicate that these advances will translate into improvements in tumour control and reduced side effects. However, there are patient, tumour and treatment-related factors that can detract from these benefits. Foremost among these is complex, unpredictable and sometimes dramatic internal tumour and normal organ motion during treatment. The focus of current research and clinical development is on tracking internal anatomic change in individual patients and adapting treatment plans as required to assure that optimal tumour coverage and normal tissue sparing is maintained at all times. The success of this approach will depend on clear definitions of target volumes, high resolution daily soft tissue imaging, and new software tools for rapid contouring, treatment planning and quality assurance. Radiation treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer is evolving rapidly, driven by advances in technology, towards more individualized patient care that has the potential to substantially improve clinical outcomes.

  14. Individualized Prediction of Overall Survival After Postoperative Radiation Therapy in Patients With Early-Stage Cervical Cancer: A Korean Radiation Oncology Group Study (KROG 13-03)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Jin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seungbong [Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Seok, E-mail: ysk@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Joo-Hyun [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Jae [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Weon [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung-Gie [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Soon Do [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juree [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cheil General Hospital and Women' s Healthcare Center, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki-Heon [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cheil General Hospital and Women' s Healthcare Center, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Mee Sun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, Jeollanam-do (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: A nomogram is a predictive statistical model that generates the continuous probability of a clinical event such as death or recurrence. The aim of the study was to construct a nomogram to predict 5-year overall survival after postoperative radiation therapy for stage IB to IIA cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: The clinical data from 1702 patients with early-stage cervical cancer, treated at 10 participating hospitals from 1990 to 2011, were reviewed to develop a prediction nomogram based on the Cox proportional hazards model. Demographic, clinical, and pathologic variables were included and analyzed to formulate the nomogram. The discrimination and calibration power of the model was measured using a concordance index (c-index) and calibration curve. Results: The median follow-up period for surviving patients was 75.6 months, and the 5-year overall survival probability was 87.1%. The final model was constructed using the following variables: age, number of positive pelvic lymph nodes, parametrial invasion, lymphovascular invasion, and the use of concurrent chemotherapy. The nomogram predicted the 5-year overall survival with a c-index of 0.69, which was superior to the predictive power of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system (c-index of 0.54). Conclusions: A survival-predicting nomogram that offers an accurate level of prediction and discrimination was developed based on a large multi-center study. The model may be more useful than the FIGO staging system for counseling individual patients regarding prognosis.

  15. Individualized Prediction of Overall Survival After Postoperative Radiation Therapy in Patients With Early-Stage Cervical Cancer: A Korean Radiation Oncology Group Study (KROG 13-03)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Jin; Han, Seungbong; Kim, Young Seok; Nam, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Jae Weon; Park, Won; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Kim, Jin Hee; Cha, Soon Do; Kim, Juree; Lee, Ki-Heon; Yoon, Mee Sun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A nomogram is a predictive statistical model that generates the continuous probability of a clinical event such as death or recurrence. The aim of the study was to construct a nomogram to predict 5-year overall survival after postoperative radiation therapy for stage IB to IIA cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: The clinical data from 1702 patients with early-stage cervical cancer, treated at 10 participating hospitals from 1990 to 2011, were reviewed to develop a prediction nomogram based on the Cox proportional hazards model. Demographic, clinical, and pathologic variables were included and analyzed to formulate the nomogram. The discrimination and calibration power of the model was measured using a concordance index (c-index) and calibration curve. Results: The median follow-up period for surviving patients was 75.6 months, and the 5-year overall survival probability was 87.1%. The final model was constructed using the following variables: age, number of positive pelvic lymph nodes, parametrial invasion, lymphovascular invasion, and the use of concurrent chemotherapy. The nomogram predicted the 5-year overall survival with a c-index of 0.69, which was superior to the predictive power of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system (c-index of 0.54). Conclusions: A survival-predicting nomogram that offers an accurate level of prediction and discrimination was developed based on a large multi-center study. The model may be more useful than the FIGO staging system for counseling individual patients regarding prognosis

  16. Radical parametrectomy after 'cut-through' hysterectomy in low-risk early-stage cervical cancer: Time to consider this procedure obsolete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Rene; Echeverri, Lina; Rendon, Gabriel; Munsell, Mark; Gonzalez-Comadran, Mireia; Sanabria, Daniel; Isla, David; Frumovitz, Michael; Ramirez, Pedro T

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this study is to identify predictive factors in patients with a diagnosis of early-stage cervical cancer after simple hysterectomy in order to avoid a radical parametrectomy. A retrospective review was performed of all patients who underwent radical parametrectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy at MD Anderson Cancer Center and at the Instituto de Cancerologia Las Americas in Medellin, Colombia from December 1999 to September 2017. We sought to determine the outcomes in patients diagnosed with low-risk factors (squamous, adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous lesions<2cm in size, and invading<10mm) undergoing radical parametrectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. A total of 30 patients were included in the study. The median age was 40.4years (range; 26-60) and median body mass index (BMI) was 26.4kg/m 2 (range; 17.7-40.0). A total 22 patients had tumors<1cm and 8 had tumors between 1 and 2cm. A total of 6 (33%) of 18 patients had evidence of lymph-vascular invasion (LVSI). No radical parametrectomy specimen had residual tumor, involvement of the parametrium, vaginal margin positivity, or lymph node metastasis. None of the patients received adjuvant therapy. After a median follow-up of 99months (range; 6-160) only one patient recurred. Radical parametrectomy may be avoided in patients with low-risk early-stage cervical cancer detected after a simple hysterectomy. Rates of residual disease (parametrial or vaginal) and the need for adjuvant treatments or recurrences are very low. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Salvage radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy for pelvic recurrence after hysterectomy alone for early-stage uterine cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Won [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Konyang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Mison; Oh, Young-Taek [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Hee-Sug; Chang, Suk-Joon; Kong, Tae Wook [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Ju [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Hee [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    Treatment outcomes of patients with pelvic recurrence after hysterectomy alone for uterine cervical cancer who received salvage radiotherapy (RT) with or without concurrent chemotherapy were investigated. Salvage RT for recurrent cervical cancer confined to the pelvic cavity after hysterectomy alone was received by 33 patients. The median interval between initial hysterectomy and recurrence was 26 months. Whole-pelvic irradiation was delivered to median dose of 45 Gy, followed by a boost with a median dose of 16 Gy to the gross tumor volume. Cisplatin-based concurrent chemotherapy was administered to 29 patients. The median follow-up period was 53 months for surviving patients. Most patients (97.0%) completed salvage RT of ≥45 Gy. Complete response (CR) was achieved in 23 patients (69.7%). Pelvic sidewall involvement and evaluation with positron-emission tomography-computed tomography were significantly associated with CR. The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS), local control (LC), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were 62.7, 79.5, 72.5, and 60.1%, respectively. Initial International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, pelvic sidewall involvement, and CR status were significant factors for PFS and OS rates in multivariate analysis. The incidence of severe acute and late toxicities (≥grade 3) was 12.1 and 3.0%, respectively. Aggressive salvage RT with or without concurrent chemotherapy for recurrent cervical cancer confined to the pelvic cavity was feasible, with promising treatment outcomes and acceptable toxicities. However, even more intensive novel treatment strategies should be investigated for patients with unfavorable prognostic factors. (orig.) [German] Untersuchung der Behandlungsergebnisse von Patientinnen mit Beckenrezidiv nach alleiniger Hysterektomie bei Zervixkarzinom, die eine Salvage-Radiotherapie (RT) mit oder ohne begleitende Chemotherapie erhalten hatten. Insgesamt 33 Patientinnen erhielten

  18. Boosting the SNR by adding a receive-only endorectal monopole to an external antenna array for high-resolution, T2 -weighted imaging of early-stage cervical cancer with 7-T MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kalleveen, I.M.L.; Hoogendam, J.P.; Raaijmakers, A.J.E.; Visser, F.; Arteaga de Castro, C.S.; Verheijen, R.H.M.; Luijten, P.R.; Zweemer, R.P.; Veldhuis, W.B.; Klomp, D.W.J.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain in early-stage cervical cancer at ultrahigh-field MRI (e.g. 7 T) using a combination of multiple external antennas and a single endorectal antenna. In particular, we used an endorectal monopole antenna to increase the SNR

  19. Role of Lactobacillus in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang X

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Xi Yang,1 Miao Da,2 Wenyuan Zhang,3 Quan Qi,4 Chun Zhang,5 Shuwen Han4 1Department of Intervention and Radiotherapy, Huzhou Central Hospital, 2Medical College of Nursing, Huzhou University, 3Department of Gynaecology, 4Department of Medical Oncology, 5Department of Infectious Diseases, Huzhou Central Hospital, Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Cervical cancer is a common malignant cancer among women worldwide. Changes in the vaginal microecological environment lead to multiple gynecological diseases, including cervical cancer. Recent research has shown that Lactobacillus may play an important role in the occurrence and development of cervical cancer. This review explores the role of Lactobacillus in cervical cancer. A total of 29 articles were included after identification and screening. The pertinent literature on Lactobacillus in cervical cancer from two perspectives, including clinical studies and experimental studies, was analyzed. An association network for the mechanism by which Lactobacillus induces cervical cancer was constructed. In addition, we provide direction and insight for further research on the role of Lactobacillus in cervical cancer. Keywords: CIN, cervical cancer, Lactobacillus, microorganism

  20. Vietnamese American women’s beliefs and perceptions on cervical cancer, cervical cancer screening, and cancer prevention vaccines: A community-based participatory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Kim Yen Nguyen-Truong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer remains commonly diagnosed in Vietnamese American women. Despite efforts to increase cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese American women, participation rates are persistently lower than the national goal. The objective of this study is to explore beliefs of Vietnamese American women about cervical cancer, cervical cancer screening, and cancer prevention vaccines. A qualitative descriptive investigation captured group perceptions about meaning and beliefs of cervical cancer, screening, and cancer prevention vaccines, and participants’ stories using a community-based participatory research approach. Forty Vietnamese American women were recruited from the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area into four focus groups. Using a process of directed content analysis, focus group transcripts were coded for themes. We found that cervical cancer continues to be a difficult topic to discuss, and Vietnamese American women may not bring the topic up themselves to their health care providers. Some women experienced intense emotions of fear or shame of having their cervix examined. Women delayed seeking cervical cancer screening and needed to have early warning signs, which guided them as to when to seek health care. Women focused on cleanliness through vaginal and/or perineal washing as primary prevention for cervical cancer. There were limited awareness and knowledge about cancer prevention vaccines, specifically the human papillomavirus. Some women relied heavily on their informal social networks of family, friends, or community for health knowledge. Fear and misunderstanding dominated the beliefs of Vietnamese American women about cervical cancer screening and prevention. These findings underscored the importance of having culturally-specific findings, which will inform a multicomponent intervention to promote cervical cancer screening and cancer prevention vaccine uptake within this population.

  1. Can a single dose of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine prevent cervical cancer? Early findings from an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Joshi, Smita; Muwonge, Richard; Esmy, Pulikottil Okkuru; Basu, Partha; Prabhu, Priya; Bhatla, Neerja; Nene, Bhagwan M; Shaw, Janmesh; Poli, Usha Rani Reddy; Verma, Yogesh; Zomawia, Eric; Pimple, Sharmila; Tommasino, Massimo; Pawlita, Michael; Gheit, Tarik; Waterboer, Tim; Sehr, Peter; Pillai, Madhavan Radhakrishna

    2018-03-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is a major strategy for preventing cervical and other ano-genital cancers. Worldwide HPV vaccination introduction and coverage will be facilitated if a single dose of vaccine is as effective as two or three doses or demonstrates significant protective effect compared to 'no vaccination'. In a multi-centre cluster randomized trial of two vs three doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccination (Gardasil™) in India, suspension of the vaccination due to events unrelated to the study led to per protocol and partial vaccination of unmarried 10-18 year old girls leading to four study groups, two by design and two by default. They were followed up for the primary outcomes of immunogenicity in terms of L1 genotype-specific binding antibody titres, neutralising antibody titres, and antibody avidity for the vaccine-targeted HPV types and HPV infections. Analysis was per actual number of vaccine doses received. This study is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN98283094; and with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00923702. Of the 17,729 vaccinated girls, 4348 (25%) received three doses on days 1, 60, 180 or later, 4979 (28%) received two doses on days 1 and 180 or later, 3452 (19%) received two doses on days 1 and 60, and 4950 (28%) received one dose. One dose recipients demonstrated a robust and sustained immune response against HPV 16 and 18, albeit inferior to that of 3- or 2-doses and the antibody levels were stable over a 4 year period. The frequencies of cumulative incident and persistent HPV 16 and 18 infections up to 7 years of follow-up were similar and uniformly low in all the vaccinated study groups; the frequency of HPV 16 and 18 infections were significantly higher in unvaccinated age-matched control women than among vaccine recipients. The frequency of vaccine non-targeted HPV types was similar in the vaccinated groups but higher in the unvaccinated control women. Our results indicate that a single dose of quadrivalent HPV

  2. Early detection of cervical cancer with visual inspection methods: a summary of completed and on-going studies in India Detección oportuna de cáncer cervical con métodos de inspección visual: un resumen de estudios en India

    OpenAIRE

    R Sankaranarayanan; BM Nene; K Dinshaw; R Rajkumar; S Shastri; R Wesley; P Basu; R Sharma; S Thara; A Budukh; DM Parkin

    2003-01-01

    India is a high-risk country for cervical cancer which accounts a quarter (126 000 new cases, 71 000 deaths around 2 000) of the world burden. The age-standardized incidence rates range from 16-55 per 100 000 women in different regions with particularly high rates in rural areas. Control of cervical cancer by early detection and treatment is a priority of the National Cancer Control Programme of India. There are no organized cytology screening programmes in the country. The technical and fina...

  3. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.

  4. An overview on applications of optical spectroscopy in cervical cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilakapati Murali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in the treatment modalities, cervical cancers are one of the leading causes of cancer death among women. Pap smear and colposcopy are the existing screening methods and histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. However, these methods have been shown to be prone to reporting errors, which could be due to their subjective interpretation. Radiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for the locally advanced stages of cervical cancers. The typical treatment regimen spans over 4 months, from the first fraction of radiation to clinical assessment of tumor response to radiotherapy. It is often noticed that due to intrinsic properties of tumors, patients with the same clinical stage and histological type respond differently to radiotherapy. Hence, there exists a need for the development of new methods for early diagnosis as well as for early prediction of tumor radioresponse. Optical spectroscopic methods have been shown to be potential alternatives for use in cancer diagnosis. In this review, we provide a brief background on the anatomy and histology of the uterine cervix and the etiology of cervical cancers; we briefly discuss the optical spectroscopic approach to cervical cancer diagnosis. A very brief discussion on radiation therapy and radiation resistance is also provided. We also share our experiences with the Raman spectroscopic methodologies in cervical cancer diagnosis as well as in the prediction of tumor radioresponse.

  5. Natural History of HPV and Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Phil Castle, an intramural research scientist at the National Institutes of Health, talks about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers.

  6. Small cell cervical cancer: an unusual finding at cholecystectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, Emily

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare cancer, comprising less than 3% of all cervical neoplasms. It uniformly has a poor prognosis, and has a high mortality even with early stage disease. It can metastasise rapidly and metastatic sites include lung, liver, brain, bone, pancreas and lymph nodes. CASE: Here, we report the case of a 60-year-old woman with no symptoms of cervical pathology who developed post-renal failure following a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The cause was bilateral ureteric obstruction from metastatic small cell cervical cancer and metastases were subsequently found on her gallbladder specimen. CONCLUSION: This is an unusual presentation of small cell cervical cancer and demonstrates the aggressive nature of this disease.

  7. Women’s perceived susceptibility to and utilisation of cervical cancer screening services in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Y. Hami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malawi provides cervical cancer screening services free of charge at some public health facilities. Few women make use of these cancer screening services in Malawi and many women continue to be diagnosed with cervical cancer only during the late inoperable stages of the condition. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to discover whether the perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, amongst Malawian women aged 42 and older, influenced their intentions to utilise the available free cervical cancer screening services. Method: A quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive study design was adopted. Structured interviews were conducted with 381 women who visited 3 health centres in the Blantyre District of Malawi. Results: A statistically-significant association existed between women’s intentions to be screened for cervical cancer and their knowledge about cervical cancer (X² = 8.9; df = 1; p = 0.003 and with having heard about HPV infection (X² = 4.2; df = 1; p = 0.041 at the 5% significance level. Cervical cancer screening services are provided free of charge in government health institutions in Malawi. Nevertheless, low perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer amongst women, aged 42 and older, might contribute to limited utilisation of cervical screening services, explaining why 80% of cervical cancer patients in Malawi were diagnosed during the late inoperable stages. Conclusion: Malawian women lacked awareness regarding their susceptibility to cervical cancer and required information about the available cervical cancer screening services. Malawi’s women, aged 42 and older, must be informed about the advantages of cervical cancer screening and about the importance of effective treatment if an early diagnosis has been made. Women aged 42 and older rarely attend antenatal, post-natal, well baby or family-planning clinics, where health education about cervical cancer screening is often provided. Consequently, these women

  8. Cervical cancer incidence in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Lönnberg, Stefan; Törnberg, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Aim: In many countries, the age-specific pattern of cervical cancer incidence is currently bipolar with peaks at for instance 45 and 65 years of age. Consequently, a large proportion of cervical cancer cases are presently diagnosed in women above the screening age. The purpose of the study...... was to determine whether this bipolar pattern in age-specific incidence of cervical cancer reflects underlying biology or can be explained by the fact that the data come from birth cohorts with different screening histories. Methods: Combination of historical data on cervical screening and population-based cancer...... incidence data from Denmark 1943–2013, Finland and Norway 1953–2013, and Sweden 1958–2013. Results: Since the implementation of screening, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased for each successive birth cohort. All birth cohorts showed a unipolar age-specific pattern. In unscreened women in Denmark...

  9. The guidelines for diagnostics and treatment of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inciura, A.; Juozaityte, E.

    2004-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. The purpose of this article is to analyze the main diagnostic and treatment strategies for all stages and recurrences of cervical cancer. The article reviews the epidemiological situation, clinical features, diagnostic procedures for detection of this tumor and for evaluation of the dissemination of the disease, staging criteria, TNM (Tumor, Nodes, Metastases) and FIGO (Federation Internationale de Gynecologie et d'Obstetrique) classification, as well as treatment and prognosis. Surgical treatment (radical type II or III hysterectomy and Iymphadenectomy) for early stage I and IIA cervical cancer is the main treatment method. Delivery of adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy or concomitant chemoradiation depends on the prognostic factors (tumor penetration to cervical tissues, Iymphovascular invasion, tumor invasion to paracervical tissues, and surgical margins). For treatment of more advanced stages of cervical cancer (IIB, IIIA, IIIB, IVA) concomitant chemoradiation: external beam radiotherapy with chemotherapy and brachytherapy is used. Description of the treatment guidelines for each stage of cervical cancer is given in this article. These guidelines are useful for good treatment practice. (author)

  10. Regional Monitoring of Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan-Vida, Mihaela; Lupse, Oana Sorina; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lacramioara; Salvari, Daniela; Catanet, Radu; Bernad, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most important causes of death in women in fertile age in Romania. In order to discover high-risk situations in the first stages of the disease it is important to enhance prevention actions, and ICT, respectively cloud computing and Big Data currently support such activities. The national screening program uses an information system that based on data from different medical units gives feedback related to the women healthcare status and provides statistics and reports. In order to ensure the continuity of care it is updated with HL7 CDA support and cloud computing. The current paper presents the solution and several results.

  11. Using Intervention Mapping as a Participatory Strategy: Development of a Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Theresa L.; Wilson, Katherine M.; Smith, Judith Lee; Heckert, Andrea; Orians, Carlyn E.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria E.; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable with treatment of precancerous lesions and treatable at early stages. Hispanics have higher rates of cervical cancer and lower rates of screening. "Ayndando a las Mujeres con Informaccion, Guia, y Amor para su Salud" (AMIGAS) is an intervention to increase cervical cancer screening in U.S. women of Mexican…

  12. [Cervical cancer screening: past--present--future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenecker, G

    2009-12-01

    in combination with cytology. Various models and approaches are in the testing phase and appear promising. HPV testing is on the other hand well accepted and recommended as a triage test to select women with equivocal smear results (Pap group III, ASCUS) if a biopsy is required or can be followed up and also for follow-up of patients after cone biopsy. However, vaccination of young girls against oncogenic HPV types which has now become widespread still leaves many questions open for the future because the observation period is too short. There is justified hope that this will become a valuable tool in cervical cancer control and may lead to a substantial reduction in the burden of cervical cancer in the future. However, as the current vaccines on the market do not cover all oncogenic virus types and the effects of vaccination will only be observed after many years, the necessity of a cytological screening will remain unrestricted. Therefore, cervical cytology will remain as the trusted, simple to use, economic and proven, like no other method for early cancer detection, efficient procedure even in the foreseeable future. If carried out with the highest quality demands it will play a central role in the early detection of cervical cancer.

  13. Epidemiology of cervical cancer with special focus on India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedevi, Aswathy; Javed, Reshma; Dinesh, Avani

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is on the declining trend in India according to the population-based registries; yet it continues to be a major public health problem for women in India. Multifactorial causation, potential for prevention, and the sheer threat it poses make cervical cancer an important disease for in-depth studies, as has been attempted by this paper. This paper attempts to review the available knowledge regarding the epidemiology and pattern of cervical cancer; types of HPV (human papilloma virus) prevalent among cervical cancer patients and among women in general, high-risk groups such as commercial sex workers, and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)-positive women; and the role of the national program on cancer in control efforts. The peak age of incidence of cervical cancer is 55-59 years, and a considerable proportion of women report in the late stages of disease. Specific types of oncogenic HPV-16, 18 have been identified in patients with cervical cancer. Other epidemiological risk factors are early age at marriage, multiple sexual partners, multiple pregnancies, poor genital hygiene, malnutrition, use of oral contraceptives, and lack of awareness. A multipronged approach is necessary which can target areas of high prevalence identified by registries with a combination of behavior change communication exercises and routine early screening with VIA. Sensitizing the people of the area, including menfolk, is necessary to increase uptake levels. Vaccination against types 16 and 18 can also be undertaken after taking into confidence all stakeholders, including the parents of adolescent girls. Preventing and treating cervical cancer and reducing the burden are possible by targeting resources to the areas with high prevalence.

  14. Increasing Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsainvil, Merlyn A

    The incidence of cervical cancer has declined dramatically due to Papanicolaou smear testing. However, some minority populations continue to suffer with high incidences and/or death rates of cervical cancer, due to lack of screening. This article updates on cervical cancer screening and prevention and discusses cultural impacts on screening. Knowledge deficits disproportionately affect ethnic minority groups and contribute to cancer incidence, whereas lack of healthcare coverage and low socioeconomic status contribute to screening disparities. Although minority women have cultural beliefs and practices that influence screening, recommendation and/or education from a provider often lead to screening.

  15. Overview and Prevention of Cervical Cancer | Ogu | Nigerian Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer though a preventable disease, still has an estimated mortality of 80% from invasive cervical cancer in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of cervical cancer and the various modalities available for screening and prevention of cervical cancer. Methodology: ...

  16. Economic burden of cervical cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifa E.W. Puteh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancers form the second highest number of female cancers in Malaysia, imposing a substantial amount of cost burden on its management. However, an estimation of cost burden of abnormal smears, cervical pre-invasive and invasive diseases needs to be done to show how much spending has been allocated to the problem. An expert panel committee came up with the clinical pathway and management algorithm of  cervical pre invasive and invasive diseases from July-December 2006 Malaysia. An activity based costing for each clinical pathway was done. Results were converted to USD. The cost of managing pre-invasive cervical cancers stage is USD 420,150 (Range: USD 197,158-879,679. Management of invasive cancer (new cases costs USD 51,533,233.44 (Range: USD 32,405,399.69 - USD 129,014,768.40. The cost of managing existing cases is USD 17,005,966.87 (Range: USD 10,693,781.90 - USD  28,901,587.12. The total cost of managing cervical cancers by health care providers in a public setting is around USD 75,888,329.45 (Range: USD 48,083,804.60 - USD 48,083,804.60. The outcome of this study has shown that preventive modalities such as screening have only contributed to 10.3 % of the total management cost of cervical cancer. The major cost contribution (67% came from treatment of invasive cancer especially at more advanced stages of cancer, followed by treatment of existing cases (22% and lastly on pre-invasive disease (0.6%. This study revealed that proportion of preventive modality in this country was still low, and the major cost came from actual treatment cost of cervical cancer. Therefore, heightened public cervical cancer screening in the country is needed. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 272-80Keywords: cervical cancers, pre invasive disease, HPV vaccination

  17. Dose-Volume Histogram Predictors of Chronic Gastrointestinal Complications After Radical Hysterectomy and Postoperative Concurrent Nedaplatin-Based Chemoradiation Therapy for Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Mabuchi, Seiji; Konishi, Koji; Koizumi, Masahiko; Takahashi, Yutaka; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Maruoka, Shintaroh; Kimura, Tadashi; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    concurrent nedaplatin-based chemoradiation therapy for early-stage cervical cancer

  18. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  19. Characterizing Tumor Heterogeneity With Functional Imaging and Quantifying High-Risk Tumor Volume for Early Prediction of Treatment Outcome: Cervical Cancer as a Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayr, Nina A.; Huang Zhibin; Wang, Jian Z.; Lo, Simon S.; Fan, Joline M.; Grecula, John C.; Sammet, Steffen; Sammet, Christina L.; Jia Guang; Zhang Jun; Knopp, Michael V.; Yuh, William T.C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment response in cancer has been monitored by measuring anatomic tumor volume (ATV) at various times without considering the inherent functional tumor heterogeneity known to critically influence ultimate treatment outcome: primary tumor control and survival. This study applied dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) functional MRI to characterize tumors' heterogeneous subregions with low DCE values, at risk for treatment failure, and to quantify the functional risk volume (FRV) for personalized early prediction of treatment outcome. Methods and Materials: DCE-MRI was performed in 102 stage IB 2 –IVA cervical cancer patients to assess tumor perfusion heterogeneity before and during radiation/chemotherapy. FRV represents the total volume of tumor voxels with critically low DCE signal intensity ( 20, >13, and >5 cm 3 , respectively, significantly predicted unfavorable 6-year primary tumor control (p = 0.003, 7.3 × 10 −8 , 2.0 × 10 −8 ) and disease-specific survival (p = 1.9 × 10 −4 , 2.1 × 10 −6 , 2.5 × 10 −7 , respectively). The FRVs were superior to the ATVs as early predictors of outcome, and the differentiating power of FRVs increased during treatment. Discussion: Our preliminary results suggest that functional tumor heterogeneity can be characterized by DCE-MRI to quantify FRV for predicting ultimate long-term treatment outcome. FRV is a novel functional imaging heterogeneity parameter, superior to ATV, and can be clinically translated for personalized early outcome prediction before or as early as 2–5 weeks into treatment.

  20. Socioeconomic position and survival after cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, E H; Kjær, S K; Høgdall, C

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decrease social disparities in cancer survival, it is important to consider the mechanisms by which socioeconomic position influences cancer prognosis. We aimed to investigate whether any associations between socioeconomic factors and survival after cervical cancer could...... be explained by socioeconomic differences in cancer stage, comorbidity, lifestyle factors or treatment....

  1. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  2. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  3. Trends of cervical cancer in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente B; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to its extraordinarily fast economic and social transition, virtually closed borders before 1940 and, moreover, that 85% of the population has the distinctive genetics of the Inuit, Greenland is a very interesting country to study cervical cancer from a historical perspective....... Nevertheless, little has been reported about long-term cancer trends in Greenland. Our aim was to describe and interpret the incidence of cervical cancer from 1950 to 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed for articles reporting the incidence of cervical cancer in Greenland. We...... supplemented this with data for 1980-2009 obtained from the Chief Medical Officer of Greenland. RESULTS: Incidence of cervical cancer was around 10 per 100 000 women (age-standardised, world population, ASW) in the 1950s, 30 per 100 000 in the 1960s, and in the 1980s around 60 per 100 000. From 1985 onwards...

  4. Cervical cancer and pregnancy: treatment management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, I.; Toth, R.

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy and cervical carcinoma occurring concomitantly causes therapeutic and ethical dilemmas. The management for this situation will depend on the gestational age at the time of diagnosis, disease staging, size of the lesion and the patient’s wish to maintain pregnancy and fertility. Review of the literature suggest that pregnancy does not seem to influence the prognosis of cervical cancer. (author)

  5. Impeditividad eléctrica en la detección temprana del cáncer cervical Electrical impedivity in the early detection of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Alejandro Miranda Mercado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La espectroscopia de impeditividad eléctrica (EIE es una técnica que permite estudiar las propiedades eléctricas de los materiales, como por ejemplo, el tejido humano. El objetivo de esta investigación fue comparar la EIE con la histopatología de cérvix y determinar la capacidad de la EIE de diferenciar entre tejidos normales y lesiones neoplásicas asociadas a cáncer de cervix. El espectro de impeditividad eléctrica se midió en tejido cervical in vivo y ex vivo. Las medidas EIE se compararon con los resultados obtenidos del estudio histopatológico de las mismas muestras y se encontró una correlación significativa (p The electrical impedivity spectroscopy (EIS is a technique used to study the electrical properties of the materials, including human tissue. The objective of this research was the comparison between EIS and the cervix histopathology and determinate the capability of the EIS to differentiate between normal and neoplastic tissue. In this research, the electrical impedivity spectrum in cervical tissue was measured in vivo and ex vivo. The EIS measures were compared with the histopathological study results for each tissue. A significant correlation in the discrimination between the normal and abnormal tissue was obtained (p < 0.05. The results of this research could be employed in the future studies for validation of new diagnostic techniques using the histopathology results as the gold standard. Salud UIS 2010; 42: 212-219

  6. The next Sub Saharan African epidemic? A case study of the determinants of cervical cancer knowledge and screening in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangmennaang, Joseph; Onyango, Elizabeth O; Luginaah, Isaac; Elliott, Susan J

    2018-01-01

    Early cervical cancer screening has been shown to be beneficial in reducing cervical cancer related deaths. Despite the benefits of early cervical cancer screening, uptake remains limited, with wide disparities in access and uptake in most developing countries. As part of a larger study, this paper uses a socio-ecological framework to explain the determinants of cervical cancer knowledge and screening among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in Kenya. We conducted a multilevel analysis of cervical cancer knowledge (n = 11,138) and screening (n = 10,333) using the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS). Results show regional disparities in cancer knowledge and the utilization of cervical cancer screening services; regions with high wealth inequality (OR = 0.70, 95% CI [0.56-0.87]) emerged as vulnerable regions where women were less likely to screen for cervical cancer. Gender equity, health insurance coverage and education level significantly predicted cervical cancer screening rates. Results further revealed regional as well as rural-urban wealth inequalities in cervical cancer screening. We argue that given that Kenyan women are highly exposed to human papilloma virus (HPV) due to the legacy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the country, cervical cancer may be the next epidemic if integrated measures are not adopted to increase cervical cancer knowledge and overcome the barriers to utilizing early screening services. The paper concludes with policy recommendations and directions for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Model of health information sharing behavior among patients in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragil Tri atmi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second highest cause of death for women in Indonesia, despite a deadly illness, patients with cervical cancer are not desperate to survive. Instead, they are motivated to undertake positive actions, one of which is to do health informtion sharing or share information on environmental health tersekatnya. This study aims to look at how the patterns of behavior of sharing health information on cervical cancer patients, as well as the motive behind their actions the health information sharing. This study uses the method of qualitative research grounded approach. Location of the study conducted in Surabaya, while the search for informants researchers used snowball sampling. The results from this study is there are different behavior patterns of health information sharing among cervical cancer patients who have been diagnosed with advanced cervical cancer with cervical cancer at an early stage level.

  8. Knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is the commonest genital tract malignancies in the females and its burden is enormous, to the patient and her community. It is largely preventable or curable when detected at the very early stage through effective screening programme. Very poor clients' attendance has been noticed at the services provided ...

  9. Cervical Cancer Screening in Enugu, Nigeria. | Chukwuali | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Though preventable by early detection and treatment of the pre-invasive stage, carcinoma of the cervix remains the commonest gynaecological malignancy in Nigeria and a leading cause of death among women. The preventive role of cervical cancer screening is directly related to the proportion of the population ...

  10. Stomach Cancer Following Hodgkin Lymphoma, Testicular Cancer and Cervical Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Ethel S; Curtis, Rochelle E; Hauptmann, Michael

    2017-01-01

    To further understand the risk of stomach cancer after fractionated high-dose radiotherapy, we pooled individual-level data from three recent stomach cancer case-control studies. These studies were nested in cohorts of five-year survivors of first primary Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), testicular cancer...... (TC) or cervical cancer (CX) from seven countries. Detailed data were abstracted from patient records and radiation doses were reconstructed to the site of the stomach cancer for cases and to the corresponding sites for matched controls. Among 327 cases and 678 controls, mean doses to the stomach were...... 15.3 Gy, 24.7 Gy and 1.9 Gy, respectively, for Hodgkin lymphoma, testicular cancer and cervical cancer survivors, with an overall mean dose of 10.3 Gy. Risk increased with increasing radiation dose to the stomach cancer site (P

  11. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.

  12. Detection and prognosis of cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deregowski, Valerie; Van Criekinge, Wim; Dehaspe, Luc; Wisman, G. Bea A.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; Schuuring, E. M. D.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods and kits for identifying, diagnosing, prognosing, and monitoring cervical cancer. These methods include determining the methylation status or the expression levels of particular genes, or a combination thereof.

  13. Design The Cervical Cancer Detector Use The Artificial Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Af'idah, Dwi Intan; Widianto, Eko Didik; Setyawan, Budi

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is one of the contagious diseases that become a public health issue, both in the world and in Indonesia. In the world, 12% of all deaths caused by cancer and is the second killer after cardiovascular disease. Early detection using the IVA is a practical and inexpensive (only requiring acetic acid). However, the accuracy of the method is quite low, as it can not detect the stage of the cancer. While other methods have a better sensitivity than the IVA method, is a method of PAP smear. However, this method is relatively expensive, and requires an experienced pathologist-cytologist. According to the case above, Considered important to make the cancer cervics detector that is used to detect the abnormality and cervical cancer stage and consists of a digital microscope, as well as a computer application based on artificial neural network. The use of cervical cancer detector software and hardware are integrated each other. After the specifications met, the steps to design the cervical cancer detection are: Modifying a conventional microscope by adding a lens, image recording, and the lights, Programming the tools, designing computer applications, Programming features abnormality detection and staging of cancer.

  14. Screening for Cervical Cancer: Experience from a University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Cervical cancer, cervical cytology, north-west Nigeria. Access this article .... involving a larger sample size will give better picture about the prevalent of ... Ridsdale LL. Cervical screening in general practice: Call and recall. J R.

  15. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  16. Development of a next generation Semliki Forest virus-based DNA vaccine against cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Wall, Stephanie; Ljungberg, Karl; Peng IP, Peng; Boerma, Annemarie; Nijman, Hans W.; Liljeström, Peter; Daemen, Toos

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women worldwide. The disease develops as a result of infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) through persistent expression of early proteins E6 and E7 with transforming capacities in cervical epithelial cells. Our group pioneered

  17. Cervical screening with Luviva machine for early detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical screening with Luviva machine for early detection of cervical dysplasia: ... glandular cell (AGC), Atypical glandular cell favouring neoplasia (AGC-FN), ... in low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was recorded among the patients.

  18. Highlights on recurrence after surgery for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Katrine

    Objective After surgery due to cervical cancer women are offered to attend a follow-up program 10 times during five years with the purpose for early diagnosis of recurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the follow-up program, which has remained unchanged for 20 years even though reminding...... and concerning women, who we consider healthy after surgery. Methods A retrospective longitudinal study of women attending follow-up program after surgery due to cervical cancer at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aarhus University Hospital. 524 patients were identified from 1996 to 2011...... with the diagnosis of cervical cancer combined with a surgical procedure. From the national pathological database and patient files information was extracted. Information was stored in Epidata. Associations were calculated using stratified analysis and logistic regression. Results 133(25%) women of 524 needed...

  19. Immunosuppression and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Rebolj, Matejka; Garred, Peter

    2013-01-01

    -stage renal disease seem to be at an increased risk of cervical cancer. A higher risk of cervical precancerous lesions was found in patients with some autoimmune diseases; particularly if treated with immunosuppressants. Among behavioral factors weakening the immune system, smoking appeared to strongly...... increase the risk of cervical cancer, while poor diet only moderately increased the risk. It is difficult to determine whether sexually transmitted infections other than human papillomavirus infection are independent risk factors. Identifying those groups of women likely to fail in clearing persistent...

  20. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our...... 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. CONCLUSION: Despite...

  1. Human papillomavirus in cervical cancer and oropharyngeal cancer: One cause, two diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Tara A; Schiller, John T

    2017-06-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes greater than 5% of cancers worldwide, including all cervical cancers and an alarmingly increasing proportion of oropharyngeal cancers (OPCs). Despite markedly reduced cervical cancer incidence in industrialized nations with organized screening programs, cervical cancer remains the second most common cause of death from cancer in women worldwide, as developing countries lack resources for universal, high-quality screening. In the United States, HPV-related OPC is only 1 of 5 cancers with a rising incidence since 1975 and now has taken over the cervix as the most common site of HPV-related cancer. Similar trends follow throughout North America and Europe. The need for early detection and prevention is paramount. Despite the common etiologic role of HPV in the development of cervical cancer and HPV-associated OPC, great disparity exists between incidence, screening modalities (or lack thereof), treatment, and prevention in these 2 very distinct cohorts. These differences in cervical cancer and HPV-associated OPC and their impact are discussed here. Cancer 2017;123:2219-2229. © 2017 American Cancer Society. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Human Papilloma Virus-Related Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Human Papillomavirus Infection; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7

  3. Social differences in sexual behaviour and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanjosé, S; Bosch, F X; Muñoz, N; Shah, K

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter we first describe the variation of cervical cancer in relation to social class. Thereafter we examine the causes for the occurrence of socioeconomic differences in invasive cervical cancer, using data from two case-control studies carried out in Colombia and Spain. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in developing countries and the sixth most common in developed countries. In all areas, it is more frequent among women of low socioeconomic status, it is associated with multiple sexual partners and early age at first sexual intercourse, and both incidence and mortality are reduced by screening. According to population-based surveys in industrialized countries, men of low socioeconomic status report fewer sexual partners than men of high socioeconomic status but there is no clear indication that the same is true of women of low socioeconomic status. In the case-control studies in Spain and Colombia, the human papillomavirus and all other sexually transmitted diseases were more prevalent among women in low socioeconomic strata. Number of sexual partners and particularly contacts with prostitutes were higher among husbands of women of low socioeconomic status. Other potential risk factors for the disease, such as smoking and oral contraceptive use, and also cervical cancer screening (Pap smears), were more common in women of high social strata. Women with no schooling had a threefold higher risk in Spain and a fivefold higher risk in Colombia of having cervical cancer compared with women who had achieved a higher educational level. After adjustment for sexual behaviour, HPV DNA status, history of Pap smears and husband's contact with prostitutes, this association was considerably reduced. These results are indicative that socioeconomic differences in the incidence of cervical cancer can be partly explained by differences in the prevalence of HPV DNA. Men's sexual behaviour and particularly contacts with prostitutes might be a major contributor to

  4. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Siegel

    Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2. A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003. Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated.

  5. Knowledge and attitude towards cervical cancer screening among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is a largely preventable disease. In western countries, the incidence of and mortality associated with cervical cancer has reduced substantially following the introduction of effective cervical screening programmes. This is in contrast to what is obtained in Africa including Nigeria where cervical ...

  6. Health seeking behavior of patients diagnosed with cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is increasingly recognized as one of the public health problems among women in developing countries. Most women with cervical cancer are seen in the health care system late with advanced stage of cancer. This study aims to explore the care seeking behavior of women with cervical cancer.

  7. Factores que determinan la participación en el tamizaje de cáncer cervical en el estado de Morelos Factors which determine participation in an early detection program of cervical cancer in the state of Morelos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo César Lazcano-Ponce

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVO. Determinar los principales factores relacionados con la participación en un programa de detección oportuna de cáncer (DOC en una población con elevada mortalidad por cáncer cervical (CACU. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. En el estado de Morelos se desarrolló un estudio con base poblacional que incluyó 3 197 mujeres de entre 15 y 49 años de edad, seleccionadas aleatoriamente de un marco muestral de viviendas de los 33 municipios que componen dicha entidad. RESULTADOS. El conocimiento de la utilidad de la prueba de Papanicolaou (Pap (RM 29.6, IC95% 23.6-37 y la historia previa de síntomas ginecológicos (RM 1.7; IC95% 1.2-2.4 predisponen a utilizar el programa de DOC. Los factores asociados a la utilización de la prueba de Pap fueron que las mujeres tuvieran antecedentes en la utilización de uno (RM 1.4; IC95% 1.1-1.8, dos o más métodos de planificación familiar (RM 2.1; IC95% 1.6-2.8. CONCLUSIONES. En el estado de Morelos, México, el tamizaje en CACU se ofrece predominantemente en forma oportunista, por lo que el antecedente de utilización de los servicios de salud constituye el principal determinante para la utilización del programa de DOC. Estos resultados revelan la necesidad de establecer estrategias alternativas para integrar a las mujeres que no tienen acceso a dichos servicios de atención médica, ya que constituyen el grupo de más alto riesgo para contraer CACU.OBJECTIVE. To determine the main factors associated to participation in an early detection program of cancer (DPC, in a population with a high cervical cancer (CC mortality rate. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed in the state of Morelos, which included 3 197 women aged between 15 and 49 years, randomly selected from a household sample frame of the 33 municipalities of the state. RESULTS. Awareness of the utility of the Papanicolau (Pap test (OR29.6, 95% CI 23.6-37 and a former history of gynecological symptoms (OR1

  8. Characterizing Tumor Heterogeneity With Functional Imaging and Quantifying High-Risk Tumor Volume for Early Prediction of Treatment Outcome: Cervical Cancer as a Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayr, Nina A., E-mail: Nina.Mayr@osumc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Huang Zhibin [Department of Radiation Oncology and Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Wang, Jian Z. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Lo, Simon S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Fan, Joline M. [Department of Molecular Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Grecula, John C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Sammet, Steffen [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Radiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Sammet, Christina L. [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Jia Guang; Zhang Jun; Knopp, Michael V.; Yuh, William T.C. [Department of Radiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Treatment response in cancer has been monitored by measuring anatomic tumor volume (ATV) at various times without considering the inherent functional tumor heterogeneity known to critically influence ultimate treatment outcome: primary tumor control and survival. This study applied dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) functional MRI to characterize tumors' heterogeneous subregions with low DCE values, at risk for treatment failure, and to quantify the functional risk volume (FRV) for personalized early prediction of treatment outcome. Methods and Materials: DCE-MRI was performed in 102 stage IB{sub 2}-IVA cervical cancer patients to assess tumor perfusion heterogeneity before and during radiation/chemotherapy. FRV represents the total volume of tumor voxels with critically low DCE signal intensity (<2.1 compared with precontrast image, determined by previous receiver operator characteristic analysis). FRVs were correlated with treatment outcome (follow-up: 0.2-9.4, mean 6.8 years) and compared with ATVs (Mann-Whitney, Kaplan-Meier, and multivariate analyses). Results: Before and during therapy at 2-2.5 and 4-5 weeks of RT, FRVs >20, >13, and >5 cm{sup 3}, respectively, significantly predicted unfavorable 6-year primary tumor control (p = 0.003, 7.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}, 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}) and disease-specific survival (p = 1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}, respectively). The FRVs were superior to the ATVs as early predictors of outcome, and the differentiating power of FRVs increased during treatment. Discussion: Our preliminary results suggest that functional tumor heterogeneity can be characterized by DCE-MRI to quantify FRV for predicting ultimate long-term treatment outcome. FRV is a novel functional imaging heterogeneity parameter, superior to ATV, and can be clinically translated for personalized early outcome prediction before or as early as 2

  9. Endometrial and cervical cancer: incidence and mortality among women in the Lodz region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Leśniczak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By the early 21st century the most common cancer of female genitals in Poland was cervical cancer. Now endometrial cancer ranks first. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among women in the Lodz region. Material and methods: Data on the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among inhabitants of the Lodz region were obtained from the National Cancer Registry and Bulletin of Cancer Cases in the Lodz region. The analysis covered ten consecutive years beginning in 2001. Results : The number of new cases reported in 2010 exceeded that observed in 2001 by 181. The standardized incidence rate of endometrial cancer increased by 6.3, while the standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer decreased by 1.4. Conclusions : In the years 2001-2010, the incidence of endometrial cancer increased by 88.3% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 6.5% among inhabitants of the Lodz region. In the years 2001-2010, mortality of endometrial cancer increased by 24.5% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 12.6%. In 2010, the highest crude incidence rates in the Lodz region of both endometrial and cervical cancer at 39.1 were recorded in the district town of Piotrków.

  10. January is Cervical Cancer Awareness Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Global Health supports global activities to advance global cancer research, build expertise, and leverage resources across nations to address the challenges of cancer and reduce cancer deaths worldwide. Towards these aims, NCI has partnered with Pink Ribbon Red Ribbon, a global organization founded on public-private partnerships dedicated to saving women’s lives by advancing prevention, screening, and treatment for breast and cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.

  11. Social support buffers the effect of self-esteem on quality of life of early-stage cervical cancer survivors in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Chun; Chen, Mei-Ling; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Chen, Min-Yue

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of self-esteem and social support on quality of life (QoL) in stage I and II cervical cancer survivors. The sample consisted of 110 participants who had been diagnosed with stage I-II cervical cancer and had completed their treatment 5 years or more before data collection. Each participant completed four structured questionnaires: a demographic-disease survey, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey, and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire 30. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test, one-way ANOVA, and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. The participants' mean age was 60.74 ± 10.69 years. Better QoL was significantly associated with younger age, higher self-esteem, and stronger social support; in addition, social support buffered the effect of self-esteem on global QoL. Together, five variables (age, time since treatment, self-esteem, social support, and the interaction term of self-esteem and social support) explained 36% of the variance in global QoL, with self-esteem being the strongest predictor. The results of this study advance current knowledge of QoL in cervical cancer survivors by demonstrating that survivors with low self-esteem and social support tend to have lower QoL than those with low self-esteem but high social support. Health professionals should help survivors seek support and provide appropriate strategies to expand their social networks and enhance their self-esteem to improve their global QoL after cervical cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W; Joensen, John E; Køtlum, Jóanis E; Hansen, Sæunn Ó; Sander, Bente B; Mogensen, Ole; Rebolj, Matejka

    2015-02-01

    The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital of the Faroe Islands. They included information on cytology and HPV testing whereas information on histology was not registered consistently. Process indicators were calculated, including coverage rate, excess smears, proportion of abnormal cytological samples, and frequency of HPV testing. Data on cervical cancer cases were obtained from the Faroese Ministry of Health Affairs. The analysis of the screening history was undertaken for cases diagnosed in 2000-2010. A total of 52 457 samples were taken in 1996-2012. Coverage varied between 67% and 81% and was 71% in 2012. Excess smears decreased after 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. Despite the difficult geographical setting, the organised cervical cancer screening programme in the Faroe Islands has achieved a relatively high coverage rate. Nevertheless, challenges, e.g. consistent histology registration and sending reminders, still exist.

  13. Cervical cancer management in Zaria, Nigeria SUMMARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    24 patients who needed blood transfusion were adequately transfused and only 21.74% of all patients had complete treatment). ... cancer management in this centre with a view to finding ways to improve its management. Methods. All case notes for patients managed for cervical cancer in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching ...

  14. TRAILs towards improved cervical cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maduro, John

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a life threatening disease occurring world-wide, but affecting especially women in developing countries. Standard treatment for cevical cancer varies per FIGO stage and patient related factors. In general patients with non bulky (<4 cm) FIGO stage IB and IIA are treated with a

  15. Knowledge and attitude towards cervical cancer screening among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Background: Cervical cancer is a largely preventable disease. In western countries, the ... students) wrongly believed that blood test is used for cervical cancer screening. There is a ... [1] About half a million new cases are seen annually ...

  16. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination for Control of Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination for Control of Cervical Cancer: A ... Primary HPV prevention may be the key to reducing incidence and burden of cervical cancer ... Other resources included locally-published articles and additional internet ...

  17. Awareness and knowledge level of cervical cancer among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness and knowledge level of cervical cancer among women of reproductive ... in depth knowledge on cervical cancer, the need for mass education on the disease and the ... Keywords: Tumour, behaviour, sexual age, Upper East, Ghana ...

  18. A study of radiation therapy for the cervical stump cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, Reiko; Arai, Tatsuo; Morita, Shinroku; Takamizawa, Hirokichi.

    1979-01-01

    During a period of 17 years, between 1961 and 1977, 59 cases of the cervical stump cancer were treated at NIRS Hospital. We could not epidemically find the difference between the cervical stump cancer and the cervical cancer. 5-year survival rate of cervical stump cancer was 90% in stage I, 86% in stage II, and 63% in stage III, respectively. These results show higher 5-year survival rates, compared with those of cervical cancer. The frequencies of radiation complication in rectum and bladder were lower in the case of cervical stump cancer than in cervical cancer. It was suggested that the optimal radiation dose for cervical stump cancer was 80 - 90 TDF at point A. (author)

  19. Effect of Training on Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    Effect of Training on Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Human. Papiloma Virus Vaccine ... debut, multiple sexual partners, smoking, history of sexually ... prevent cervical cancer. These include ..... needed to understand and explain the.

  20. Expression of PPARγ, p27 and Ki67 in Cervical Cancer and its Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-li LI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the expression of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, p27 and Ki67 in cervical cancer and its clinical significance. Methods: The expression of PPARγ, p27 and Ki67 in the tissues of 42 patients with cervical cancer, 28 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and 12 with normal cervix was detected using immunohistochemistry. Results:The positive rate of PPARγ protein in cervical cancer tissue (76.2% was significantly higher than in CIN (53.6% and normal cervical tissue (8.3% (P<0.05 orP<0.01, which was also evidently higher in CIN than in normal cervical tissue (P<0.05. The positive rate of p27 protein in cervical cancer tissue (31.0% was significantly lower than in CIN (57.1% and normal cervical tissue (83.3% (P<0.05 or P<0.01, and that in CIN had a markedly lower tendency compared with normal cervical tissue (P<0.05. The positive rate of Ki67 protein in cervical cancer tissue (100.0% was apparently higher than in CIN (85.7% and normal cervical tissue (33.3% (P<0.05 or P<0.01, which was also markedly higher in CIN than in normal cervical tissue (P<0.01. The expression of PPARγ, p27 and Ki67 proteins was not associated with the clinicopathological features of patients, including the age, histological types, pathological grading and clinical staging (P>0.05.Conclusion: Abnormal expression of PPARγ, p27 and Ki67 may play important roles in occurrence and progression of cervical cancer, and hence, joint detection of PPARγ, p27 and Ki67 can be used to diagnose early CIN and cervical cancer.

  1. HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancer in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Junge, Jette; Holl, Katsiaryna

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer.......Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer....

  2. Screening of cervical cancer in Catalonia 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanjosé, Silvia; Ibáñez, Raquel; Rodríguez-Salés, Vanesa; Peris, Mercè; Roura, Esther; Diaz, Mireia; Torné, Aureli; Costa, Dolors; Canet, Yolanda; Falguera, Gemma; Alejo, Maria; Espinàs, Josep Alfons; Bosch, F Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The early detection of intraepithelial lesions of the cervix, through the periodic examination of cervical cells, has been fundamental for the prevention of invasive cervical cancer and its related mortality. In this report, we summarise the cervical cancer screening activities carried out in Catalonia, Spain, within the National Health System during 2008-2011. The study population covers over two million women resident in the area. The evaluation includes 758,690 cervical cytologies performed on a total of 595,868 women. The three-year coverage of cervical cytology among women aged between 25 and 65 years was 40.8%. About 50% of first screened women with negative results had not returned to the second screening round. The introduction of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA (HPV) detection, as a primary screening cotest with cytology among women over age 40 with a poor screening history, significantly improved the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+), being far superior to cytology alone. Cotesting did not improve the detection of CIN2+. The use of the HPV test for the triage of atypical squamous cell undetermined significance (ASC-US) improved the selection of women at high risk of CIN2+. Sampling (both cytology and HPV test) was largely performed by midwives (66.7%), followed by obstetricians (23.8%) and nurses (7%). Over half of the centres (54.8%) had full use of online medical records. During the study period, educational activities for professionals and for women were carried out periodically. The organisation of screening as a population activity in which women are actively called to the screening visit and the introduction of HPV testing as a primary screening tool are strongly recommended to ensure the maximum population impact in the reduction of the cervical cancer burden.

  3. Detecting cervical cancer by quantitative promoter hypermethylation assay on cervical scrapings : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N; Wisman, G.B.A.; Jeronimo, C; Tokumaru, CY; Cohen, Y; Dong, SM; Klip, HG; Buikema, HJ; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hollema, H; Boezen, HM; Sidransky, D; van der Zee, AGJ

    Current morphology-based cervical cancer screening is associated with significant false-positive and false-negative results. Tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation is frequently present in cervical cancer. It is unknown whether a cervical scraping reflects the methylation status of the underlying

  4. Natural History of HPV and Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-12

    Dr. Phil Castle, an intramural research scientist at the National Institutes of Health, talks about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers.  Created: 10/12/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  5. Awareness of cervical cancer prevention among mothers of adolescent daughters in Korea: qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Won; Kim, Duck Hee

    2015-05-14

    Korean adolescent girls are unprepared for cervical cancer prevention due to the lack of a mandatory policy regarding human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and school health education regarding cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine how aware mothers are about cervical cancer prevention in their adolescent daughters, with a view to developing strategies for expanding primary cervical cancer prevention for adolescent girls through the mothers' involvement. A qualitative design was employed. Nine mothers with adolescent daughters participated in this study and were interviewed using open-ended questions. The themes were extracted by content analysis. A general living area in Seoul, South Korea. The snowball method was used to select mothers. Five themes emerged. In general, the mothers' awareness of cervical cancer was not clear, and they exhibited a lack of awareness of the importance of having a regular Papanicolaou screening test. The mothers recognised that they were role models for their daughters, and realised and accepted the necessity of educating their daughters regarding cervical cancer; however, they perceived barriers related to the prevention of cervical cancer in their daughters. The mothers recommended enforcing sex education in schools and the provision of financial support for HPV vaccination. The mothers' awareness and preparedness with respect to the prevention of cervical cancer in their adolescent daughters were low and inadequate. Mothers should be informed and motivated to play a role in the education of their daughters regarding cervical cancer prevention. Strategies for disseminating information regarding early cervical cancer prevention for adolescent girls are recommended by communicating with both the girls and their mothers and providing them with education regarding cervical cancer prevention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  6. Trends in the Incidence of Cervical Cancer in Jordan, 2000–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Sharkas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the incidence of cervical cancer in Jordan and assess its trend in over a 14-year period (2000–2013. Methods. This descriptive study was based on secondary analysis of cervical cancer data that are registered in the Jordan Cancer Registry (JCR. Results. A total of 591 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer in Jordan during the period 2000–2013. The age at diagnosis ranged between 15 and 97 years, with a median of 50 years. The average age standardized rate (ASR was 2.0/100,000 women. The incidence of cervical cancer started to decrease after 2006 but it remained relatively constant between 2008 and 2013. Over the 14-year period, ASR for cervical cancer decreased by 28.6% from 2.1 per 100,000 women in 2000 to 1.5 per 100,000 women in 2013. About 46.5% of the cases were of squamous cell carcinoma morphology. Early cancer constituted about 60% of the cases, regional cases constituted 9.6%, and distant metastatic cases constituted 10.7%. Conclusions. The incidence of cervical cancer in Jordan is low compared to regional estimates and remained relatively constant between 2008 and 2013. Implementation of screening measures could lead to better case finding, early diagnosis, and prevention of cervical cancer.

  7. Oncofertility in the setting of advanced cervical cancer - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Gordon

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To consider fertility options in women with advanced cervical cancer. Design: Case report. Setting: Large tertiary care center. Patient: A 30-year-old nulligravida woman diagnosed with FIGO Stage IBI squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix that had metastasized to a pelvic lymph node. Interventions: Robotic radical trachelectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and cerclage placement, followed by ovarian stimulation with oocyte retrieval and in vitro fertilization. Subsequent therapy included adjuvant chemoradiation and embryo transfer to a surrogate mother. Main outcome measures: Cervical cancer remission, live birth from surrogate pregnancy. Results: 33-year-old woman in her third year of remission from advanced cervical cancer with healthy twin girls. Conclusions: Fertility options may exist for patients even in the setting of metastatic cervical cancer. Early involvement of a reproductive endocrinologist is imperative. This case emphasizes the importance of cross-specialty communication. Keywords: Cervical cancer, Oncofertility, Radical trachelectomy, In vitro fertilization

  8. Effects of irradiation for cervical cancer on subsequent breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlan, L.C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Previous research suggests that cervical cancer patients have a lower risk of breast cancer than women in the general population. Possible explanations include opposing risk factors for cervical cancer and breast cancer, the effect of irradiation used to treat cervical cancer, or both. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between irradiation for cervical cancer and the subsequent development of breast cancer. There was no statistically significant relationship between radiation to the ovarian area and the risk of breast cancer in this study. However, the results were consistent with a 19% reduction in risk for women irradiated for cervical cancer when compared to nonirradiated women. In a dose-response analysis, there was a nonsignificant trend of decreased risk of breast cancer with increased radiation up to 1800 rad. There was no consistent pattern for higher doses. The trend, although nonsignificant, differed by age. Women <60 years of age at irradiation were generally at a lower risk of breast cancer than nonirradiated women. Women over 59 years were at an increased risk. There are some potentially important findings from this study which might influence medical care. These should be examined in the larger International Radiation Study

  9. Radiation dose and subsequent risk for stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A; Smith, Susan A; Holowaty, Eric

    2013-01-01

    To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer.......To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer....

  10. Therapeutic Vaccination for HPV Induced Cervical Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeli A. Brinkman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical Cancer is the second leading cause of cancer–related deaths in women worldwide and is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection, creating a unique opportunity to treat cervical cancer through anti-viral vaccination. Although a prophylactic vaccine may be available within a year, millions of women, already infected, will continue to suffer from HPV-related disease, emphasizing the need to develop therapeutic vaccination strategies. A majority of clinical trials examining therapeutic vaccination have shown limited efficacy due to examining patients with more advanced-stage cancer who tend to have decreased immune function. Current trends in clinical trials with therapeutic agents examine patients with pre-invasive lesions in order to prevent invasive cervical cancer. However, longer follow-up is necessary to correlate immune responses to lesion regression. Meanwhile, preclinical studies in this field include further exploration of peptide or protein vaccination, and the delivery of HPV antigens in DNA-based vaccines or in viral vectors. As long as pre-clinical studies continue to advance, the prospect of therapeutic vaccination to treat existing lesions seem good in the near future. Positive consequences of therapeutic vaccination would include less disfiguring treatment options and fewer instances of recurrent or progressive lesions leading to a reduction in cervical cancer incidence.

  11. Quality control in screening programs for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarduy Napoles, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The malignancy of the cervix is one of the few locations avoidable cancers, if detected before it progresses to the infiltration. The most efficient way of early detection is through a screening program to provide women undertaking a regular and quality Pap smear. If this test results abnormal, the program offers easier access to specialized care, effective treatment, and follow-up. The objective of this article is to present usefulness of methods for quality control used in screening programs for cervical cancer to detect their inadequacies. Here are some factors and conditions that must be considered in each of the steps to take, for a cervical cancer screening program to be successful and to meet the objectives proposed in reducing mortality due to this cause. This document contains some useful indexes calculated to ensure quality throughout the process. There should be the measurement of quality throughout the screening process that allows collecting of reliable data as well as correcting deficiencies

  12. Cervical cancer and the human immunodeficiency virus: a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally cervical cancer is one of the commonest cancers in women. It comprises approximately 12% of all cancers and is the commonest cancer in women in developing countries. The most recent compilation of global data indicates that an estimated 490 000 new cases of cervical cancer occur annually worldwide and ...

  13. Cervical cancer stem cells and correlation with radiation response in locally advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, Supriya; Goda, Jayant Sastri; Deodhar, Kedar

    2016-01-01

    While tumour-initiating cells (TIC) have been reported across solid tumours, there is dearth of data regarding TICs and radiation response in cervical cancer. From October, 2013- July, 2015 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were included. Pretreatment biopsy was obtained. IHC was performed for SOX-2,OCT-4, Nanog (ESC), CD44 and Podoplanin (TIC). Semiquantitative scoring was used for IHC. All patients received uniform concurrent chemoradiation and brachytherapy. On follow up, local control and distant relapse was recorded

  14. Cervical Cancer: Reality and Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Quiñones Ceballos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical carcinoma usually reaches its highest frequency between 35-50 years of age. The Cuban prevention program screens the female population aged 25 to 60 years using the Pap smear and reexamines them every three years. Despite this effort, advanced cancer is diagnosed in young women as well as in those 40 to 60 years of age.

  15. Cervical Cancer: paradigms at home and abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI funded a clinical trial that will have an impact on the treatment of late-stage cervical cancer, and also supported a screening trial in India using a network of community outreach workers offering low tech-screening by direct visualization of the cer

  16. Cyclin A1 promoter hypermethylation in human papillomavirus-associated cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitkumthorn, Nakarin; Mutirangura, Apiwat; Yanatatsanajit, Pattamawadee; Kiatpongsan, Sorapop; Phokaew, Chureerat; Triratanachat, Surang; Trivijitsilp, Prasert; Termrungruanglert, Wichai; Tresukosol, Damrong; Niruthisard, Somchai

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate epigenetic status of cyclin A1 in human papillomavirus-associated cervical cancer. Y. Tokumaru et al., Cancer Res 64, 5982-7 (Sep 1, 2004)demonstrated in head and neck squamous-cell cancer an inverse correlation between cyclin A1 promoter hypermethylation and TP53 mutation. Human papillomavirus-associated cervical cancer, however, is deprived of TP53 function by a different mechanism. Therefore, it was of interest to investigate the epigenetic alterations during multistep cervical cancer development. In this study, we performed duplex methylation-specific PCR and reverse transcriptase PCR on several cervical cancer cell lines and microdissected cervical cancers. Furthermore, the incidence of cyclin A1 methylation was studied in 43 samples of white blood cells, 25 normal cervices, and 24, 5 and 30 human papillomavirus-associated premalignant, microinvasive and invasive cervical lesions, respectively. We demonstrated cyclin A1 methylation to be commonly found in cervical cancer, both in vitro and in vivo, with its physiological role being to decrease gene expression. More important, this study demonstrated that not only is cyclin A1 promoter hypermethylation strikingly common in cervical cancer, but is also specific to the invasive phenotype in comparison with other histopathological stages during multistep carcinogenesis. None of the normal cells and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions exhibited methylation. In contrast, 36.6%, 60% and 93.3% of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, microinvasive and invasive cancers, respectively, showed methylation. This methylation study indicated that cyclin A1 is a potential tumor marker for early diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer

  17. Awareness and risk factors for cervical cancer among Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Cervical cancer is the commonest genital tract malignancy in Nigeria. Previous evidence reported a high awareness but a low practice in cervical screening amongst Nigerian woman. Respondents attributed this to poor physician referral. Objective: To determine the level of cervical cancer awareness amongst out ...

  18. Systematic assessment of cervical cancer initiation and progression uncovers genetic panels for deep learning-based early diagnosis and proposes novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Jung, Kyung Hee; Yoon, Sang Jun; Anh, Nguyen Hoang; Nghi, Tran Diem; Kang, Yun Pyo; Yan, Hong Hua; Min, Jung Eun; Hong, Soon-Sun; Kwon, Sung Won

    2017-12-12

    Although many outstanding achievements in the management of cervical cancer (CxCa) have obtained, it still imposes a major burden which has prompted scientists to discover and validate new CxCa biomarkers to improve the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of CxCa. In this study, eight different gene expression data sets containing 202 cancer, 115 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and 105 normal samples were utilized for an integrative systems biology assessment in a multi-stage carcinogenesis manner. Deep learning-based diagnostic models were established based on the genetic panels of intrinsic genes of cervical carcinogenesis as well as on the unbiased variable selection approach. Survival analysis was also conducted to explore the potential biomarker candidates for prognostic assessment. Our results showed that cell cycle, RNA transport, mRNA surveillance, and one carbon pool by folate were the key regulatory mechanisms involved in the initiation, progression, and metastasis of CxCa. Various genetic panels combined with machine learning algorithms successfully differentiated CxCa from CIN and normalcy in cross-study normalized data sets. In particular, the 168-gene deep learning model for the differentiation of cancer from normalcy achieved an externally validated accuracy of 97.96% (99.01% sensitivity and 95.65% specificity). Survival analysis revealed that ZNF281 and EPHB6 were the two most promising prognostic genetic markers for CxCa among others. Our findings open new opportunities to enhance current understanding of the characteristics of CxCa pathobiology. In addition, the combination of transcriptomics-based signatures and deep learning classification may become an important approach to improve CxCa diagnosis and management in clinical practice.

  19. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  20. Knowledge, attitudes, practice on human papilloma virus and cervical cancer among Trinidadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekuri, A; Bassaw, B; Affan, A M; Habet, G; Mungrue, K

    2012-10-01

    Cervical cancer remains a major reproductive health problem among women especially in developing countries where about 190,000 women die from this disease annually. Despite efforts to reduce the burden of this disease, most attempts in low-resourced countries have not been successful partly from lack of awareness by women of this common cancer, as well as the role the human papilloma virus (HPV) plays in its aetiology and pathogenesis. To determine knowledge, attitudes and practice of women in Trinidad (a developing country) on HPV, cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 426 women in the reproductive age. A majority (58.4%) of participants had attained secondary level education. Whereas 326 (76.5%) women knew of cervical cancer, only 108 (25.4%) were aware of HPV and 68 (15.9%) knew of the association between HPV and cervical cancer. This study highlights the limited awareness of Trinidadian women with respect to HPV and its implication in cervical cancer aetiology. If the scourge of cervical cancer is to be adequately addressed, especially in low-resourced countries, then mass educational programmes on HPV, cervical cancer prevention, including screening and early detection and treatment of pre-cancerous lesions of the cervix, must be given high priority.

  1. Flexitouch® Home Maintenance Therapy or Standard Home Maintenance Therapy in Treating Patients With Lower-Extremity Lymphedema Caused by Treatment for Cervical Cancer, Vulvar Cancer, or Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Lymphedema; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  2. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality in Fiji 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Rebecca; Fong, James; Taylor, Richard; Gyaneshwar, Rajanishwar; Carter, Karen

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies indicate that cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer and most common cause of cancer mortality among women in Fiji. There is little published data on the epidemiology of cervical cancer in Pacific countries. To determine the incidence 2003-2009 of, and mortality 2003-2008 from, cervical cancer by ethnicity and period in Fiji, identify evidence of secular change and relate these data to other Pacific countries, Australia and New Zealand. Counts of incident cervical cancer cases (2003-2009) and unit record mortality data (2003-2008) from the Fiji Ministry of Health were used to calculate age-standardised (to the WHO World Population) cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, and cervical or uterine cancer mortality rates, by ethnicity, with 95% confidence intervals. On the basis of comparison of cervical cancer mortality with cervical or uterine cancer mortality in Fiji with similar populations, misclassification of cervical cancer deaths is unlikely. There is no evidence of secular change in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates for the study period. For women of all ages and ethnicities, the age-standardised incidence rate of cervical cancer (2003-2009) was 27.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 25.4-29.8) and the age-standardised mortality rate (2003-2008) was 23.9 per 100,000 (95% CI 21.5-26.4). The mortality/incidence ratio was 87%. Fijians had statistically significant higher age-standardised incidence and mortality rates than Indians. Fiji has one of the highest estimated rates of cervical cancer incidence and mortality in the Pacific region. Cervical cancer screening in Fiji needs to be expanded and strengthened. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. CLINIC VISITS AND CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING IN ACCRA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-01

    Jun 1, 2010 ... Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: A ... graphic factors influencing cervical cancer screening was assessed. Results: ... Conclusion: While we wait for a national program for cervical .... Mean age at first inter- course(yrs).

  4. Cervical cancer screening and practice in low resource countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Cervical cancer screening; human papillomavirus, low resource countries; Nigeria; premalignant disease. ... has led to a significant decline in the incidence of cervical .... and malignant lesions as integration of the viral DNA into the.

  5. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Sudanese Women Regarding the Pap Smear Test and Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almobarak, Ahmed O; Elbadawi, Ayman A; Elmadhoun, Wadie M; Elhoweris, Mohammed H; Ahmed, Mohammed H

    2016-01-01

    Despite the established role of the Pap smear test (PST) in prevention and early detection of cervical cancer, it is still rarely practiced in Sudan. Many challenges hinder the establishment of an effective cervical cancer screening program, including socio-cultural factors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of Sudanese women with regard to the Pap smear test and cervical cancer. A total of 500 married women aged 14 to 58 years were recruited from obstetric clinics, hospitals and universities in Khartoum in 2014. Data were collected using a standardized, pretested questionnaire that inquired socio-demographic characteristics and their KAP about cervical cancer and the PST. More than 52% of participating women were above 30 years of age, and the majority (78.8%) were university degree holders. A total of 486 (97.2 %) of participants were resident in urban areas of Khartoum State. However about 48% of the respondents had never heard about PST, and only 15.8% of the participants had undergone a Pap smear test previously; 46.6% (233/500) knew that the human papilloma virus (HPV) was the causative agent, but only 39.2% (196/500) had heard about HPV vaccination, and only 11.4% (57/500) had received the vaccine. However 68% of the respondents agreed to do Pap smear if properly informed about the test and 75.4% of the respondents agreed to participate in a cervical cancer screening program. Despite a high educational level, less than half of our participants had accurate knowledge about cervical cancer, HPV, and cervical cancer screening. Health education about cervical cancer, HPV and sexually transmitted infections and the role of PST in cervical cancer prevention are crucial when designing interventions aimed at improving cervical cancer screening for Sudanese women.

  6. Original Research Cervical cancer in southern Malawi: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by the fact that many cancers may go unrecorded and that ... International Agency for Research on Cancer's (IARC) ... All patients with a new diagnosis of cervical cancer presenting to QECH between ..... A specialist cervical cancer nurse could be appointed to ... Zuma, T., et al., The role of traditional health practitioners in.

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening by Female Workers in South East Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    India, with approximately 71,600 new cases occurring ... cancer is the most common cancer among women and ... The poor utilization of the cervical ... known that pre-cancerous lesions are detectable for 10 ... of cervical cancer deaths decreased from 70% between .... screening should be 30 - 40 years, which is the age.

  8. Cervical cancer: a missed health priority in Tanzania | Saleh | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is a malignant neoplasm of the cervix uteri. It is the second commonest cancer in women worldwide and is among the largest causes of global cancer mortality. Human papilloma virus (HPV) which is transmitted sexually, particularly subtypes 16 and 18 are responsible for causing majority of cervical cancer ...

  9. Cervical cancer risk levels in Turkey and compliance to the national cervical cancer screening standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açikgöz, Ayla; Ergör, Gül

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer screening with Pap smear test is a cost-effective method. The Ministry of Health in Turkey recommends that it be performed once every five years after age 35. The purpose of this study was to determine the cervical cancer risk levels of women between 35 and 69, and the intervals they have the Pap smear test, and to investigate the relation between the two. This study was performed on 227 women aged between 35 and 69 living in Balçova District of İzmir province. Using the cervical cancer risk index program of Harvard School of Public Health, the cervical cancer risk level of 70% of the women was found below average, 22.1% average, and 7.9% above average. Only 52% of the women have had Pap smear test at least once in their lives. The percentage screening regularly in conformity with the national screening standard was 39.2%. Women in the 40-49 age group, were married, conformed significantly more (pducation and decreased with the cervical cancer risk level (pducation level, menstruation state of the women and the economic level of the family. Not having the Pap smear test in conformity with the national cervical cancer screening standard in 35-39 age group was 2.52 times more than 40-49 age group, while it was 3.26 times more in 60-69 age group (pducation level might cause not having Pap smear test. Under these circumstances, the cervical cancer risk levels should be determined and the individuals should be informed. Providing Pap smear test screening service to individuals in the target group of national screening standard, as a public service may resolve the inequalities due to age and educational differences.

  10. [Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa

    2008-11-01

    Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile

  11. Prevalence of High risk Human Papillomavirus in cervical dysplasia and cancer samples from twin cities in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Gul

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: Our results show a strong association between HPV infection and cervical cancer among women in twin cities of Pakistan. One way to minimize the disease burden in relation to HPV infection in Pakistani population is the use of prophylactic vaccines and routine screening. An early diagnosis of HPV infection will allow better health management to reduce the risk of developing cervical cancer.

  12. Issues in cervical cancer incidence and treatment in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Mark H; Phaëton, Rébécca

    2010-09-01

    Cervical disease burden continues to be especially high in HIV-infected women, even in the era of effective antiretroviral medications. This review discusses the multiple issues surrounding HIV-associated cervical cancer. Also, the unique treatment-related issues in HIV-associated cervical cancer are addressed. The incidence of invasive cervical cancer has remained stable in industrialized nations; however, it is only estimated in developing countries secondary to a relative lack of data collection and registries. Trends in HIV-associated cervical cancer have changed in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. Recent molecular pathways suggest that the natural progression of human papillomavirus infection, the causal agent in all cervical cancers, may be related to immune system dysfunction as well as HIV/human papillomavirus synergistic mechanisms. When highly active retroviral therapies are used, invasive cervical cancer treatments are impacted by concomitant drug toxicities that could potentially limit therapeutic benefit of either HAART or the standard of care treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer, concomitant chemoradiotherapy. The significance and care of the patient with invasive cervical cancer is becoming a geographically relevant phenomenon such that it may be time to re-address the global definition. Further studies in treatment issues and drug-drug interactions with cervical cancer treatments in the setting of HIV are paramount.

  13. The male role in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellsagué Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental, clinical, and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that genital Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs are predominantly sexually transmitted. Epidemiological studies in virginal and HPV-negative women clearly indicate that sexual intercourse is virtually a necessary step for acquiring HPV. As with any other sexually transmitted disease (STD men are implicated in the epidemiological chain of the infection. Penile HPVs are predominantly acquired through sexual contacts. Sexual contacts with women who are prostitutes play an important role in HPV transmission and in some populations sex workers may become an important reservoir of high-risk HPVs. Acting both as "carriers" and "vectors" of oncogenic HPVs male partners may markedly contribute to the risk of developing cervical cancer in their female partners. Thus, in the absence of screening programs, a woman's risk of cervical cancer may depend less on her own sexual behavior than on that of her husband or other male partners. Although more rarely than women, men may also become the "victims" of their own HPV infections as a fraction of infected men are at an increased risk of developing penile and anal cancers. Male circumcision status has been shown to reduce the risk not only of acquiring and transmitting genital HPVs but also of cervical cancer in their female partners. More research is needed to better understand the natural history and epidemiology of HPV infections in men.

  14. The investment case for cervical cancer elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsu, Vivien Davis; Ginsburg, Ophira

    2017-07-01

    We already know what causes cervical cancer, how to prevent it, and how to treat it, even in resource-constrained settings. Inequitable access to human papillomavirus vaccine for girls and screening and precancer treatment for women in low- and middle-income countries is unacceptable on ethical, social, and financial grounds. The burden of cervical cancer falls on the poor and extends beyond the narrow bounds of the family, affecting national economic development and community life, as family resources are drained and poverty tightens its grip. Proven solutions are available and the priorities for the next few years are clear, as shown by the papers in this Supplement. Sustained political commitment and strategic investments in cervical cancer prevention can not only save millions of lives over the next 10 years, but can also pave the way for the broader fight against all cancers. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  15. Cervical cancer: evaluation of our results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cola, A.; Suárez, L.; Castillo, C.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical cancer in women occupies 3rd place in incidence and 5th as a cause of cancer death in our country. The evolution is mainly determined by the stage, nodal status and histological type. The treatment of these tumors is surgical, radiant and / or systemic, depending on your choice mainly Stadium. Objective: To analyze the characteristics, evolution, treatment and survival of patients carriers of cervical cancer. Patients and Methods: The medical records were retrospectively analyzed for patients with cervical cancer treated at the Department of Oncology the Clinical Hospital in the period 1994-2004. Curves were constructed survival (sv) of total and free enfemedad sv sv by stage and after relapse by the method of Kaplan-Meier. Results: n = 75 patients, median age 45 years (24-90 years). Histological type: Epidermoid carcinomas 93% 5% 2% adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous. stadium (E) Initial: 31% IE, 38% EII, EIII 25%, 6% EIVA. Treatment was according to the stadium, considering that until 1999 was not standard concurrent chemoradiation. The median sv considering all stages was 124 months. The sv to 5 years for EI was 90% (median 188 sv months), for the ISI 65% (95 months) and the median sv CIRTs was 24 months. Followed for 13 months, 12 patients relapsed and the median after sv relapse was 8 months (95% CI 4-13 months) Conclusions: Although cervical cancer is a preventable disease, remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Our results are consistent with those reported in the literature, however far from the optimal, so it is necessary to continue clinical trials in this regard

  16. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capote Negrin, Luis G

    2015-01-01

    The basic aspects of the descriptive epidemiology of cervical cancer in Latin America are presented. A decrease in the incidence and mortality rates has been observed in the period from 2000 to 2012 in all countries across the region, this has not occurred at the same proportions, and in many countries, observed figures of incidence and mortality are among the highest levels in the world. In Latin America, calculating a mean measure of the numbers from the GLOBOCAN data from 2000 to 2012, we can observe a difference of up to fivefold of the incidence (Puerto Rico 9,73 Vs Bolivia 50,73) and almost seven times for mortality (Puerto Rico 3,3 Vs Nicaragua 21,67). A report of the epidemiology, risk factors, and evaluation of screening procedures regarding the possible impact of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine I in the prevention of cervical cancer is presented.

  17. Targeting mitochondrial respiration as a therapeutic strategy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shenglan; Chen, Heng; Tan, Wei

    2018-05-23

    Targeting mitochondrial respiration has been documented as an effective therapeutic strategy in cancer. However, the impact of mitochondrial respiration inhibition on cervical cancer cells are not well elucidated. Using a panel of cervical cancer cell lines, we show that an existing drug atovaquone is active against the cervical cancer cells with high profiling of mitochondrial biogenesis. Atovaquone inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis with varying efficacy among cervical cancer cell lines regardless of HPV infection, cellular origin and their sensitivity to paclitaxel. We further demonstrated that atovaquone acts on cervical cancer cells via inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. In particular, atovaquone specifically inhibited mitochondrial complex III but not I, II or IV activity, leading to respiration inhibition and energy crisis. Importantly, we found that the different sensitivity of cervical cancer cell lines to atovaquone were due to their differential level of mitochondrial biogenesis and dependency to mitochondrial respiration. In addition, we demonstrated that the in vitro observations were translatable to in vivo cervical cancer xenograft mouse model. Our findings suggest that the mitochondrial biogenesis varies among patients with cervical cancer. Our work also suggests that atovaquone is a useful addition to cervical cancer treatment, particularly to those with high dependency on mitochondrial respiration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cervical syphilitic lesions mimicking cervical cancer: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A woman presented to the hospital due to postcoital vaginal bleeding. The patient was initially diagnosed with cervical carcinoma by clinicians at a local hospital. However, a biopsy of the cervical lesions revealed chronic inflammation and erosion of the cervical mucosa, and the rapid plasma reagin ratio titer was 1:256. The patient was eventually diagnosed with syphilitic cervicitis and treated with minocycline 0.1 g twice a day. The patient was cured with this treatment.

  19. Awareness and perception of risk for cervical cancer among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer, though preventable, remains the leading cause of cancer death among women in developing countries after breast. Lack of awareness and access to preventive methods remains a key factor contributing to high levels of cervical cancer in these populations. Objectives: The study aimed to ...

  20. Drug Delivery Approaches for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Ordikhani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a highly prevalent cancer that affects women around the world. With the availability of new technologies, researchers have increased their efforts to develop new drug delivery systems in cervical cancer chemotherapy. In this review, we summarized some of the recent research in systematic and localized drug delivery systems and compared the advantages and disadvantages of these methods.

  1. New technologies in cervical cancer precursor detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, M E; Blumenthal, P D

    2000-09-01

    The current literature reflects three routes toward improving cervical cancer screening. The first is to improve the test qualities of cytology-based screening. The use of liquid-based cytology and computerized analysis of Papanicolaou tests are examples of attempts at this approach. Secondly, through various combinations of parallel or sequential tests, either the sensitivity or the specificity of a given test could be improved depending on the tests chosen and the order in which they were performed (eg, Papanicolaou test followed by human papillomavirus [HPV] or vice versa). Several excellent studies have been published this year on the use of HPV DNA testing as a primary screening modality and as an adjunct to the triage of mildly abnormal cytologic findings. The recent literature also reflects increasing interest in visual inspection of the cervix and self-collected samples for HPV testing as an equally effective and viable alternative to cytology in low-resource settings. A third possibility is to make use of advances in digital and spectroscopic techniques. In these cost-conscious times, a significant number of articles address the cost-effectiveness of these technologies and the real value of cervical cancer screening. This article reviews the current literature concerning both the advent of new cervical cancer screening technologies and the rediscovery of old ones.

  2. Cervical cancer screening among Lebanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Orm, I R; Sakr, R E; Adib, S M

    2018-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a very common malignancy amongst women worldwide. Pap smear is an effective and inexpensive screening test in asymptomatic women. The aim of this paper was to assess the prevalence of Pap smear screening for cervical cancer among Lebanese women and to determine associated sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics. This national survey included 2255 women, selected by multi-stage random cluster sampling across Lebanon. A questionnaire about practices and perceptions related to cervical cancer screening was developed based on the "Health Belief Model". The weighted national prevalence of "ever-use" of the Pap smear for screening purposes was 35%. Most important determinants of screening behavior were: residence within Greater Beirut, higher socio-economic status and educational attainment, marriage status, presence of a health coverage, awareness of Pap smear usefulness, knowing someone who had already done it, and a balance between perceived benefits and perceived barriers to Pap smear screening. Regular information campaigns regarding the availability and effectiveness of the test should be devised, targeting in priority the sexually vulnerable women in Lebanon. Moreover, healthcare providers should be encouraged to discuss with their patients the opportunity of obtaining a Pap smear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Low adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A reason for not recommending subtotal hysterectomy is the risk of cervical pathology. We aimed to evaluate cervical cancer screening and to describe cervical pathology after subtotal and total hysterectomy for benign indications. METHODS: Data regarding adherence to screening...... Hospital, Rigs-hospitalet and Roskilde Hospital, Denmark. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01880710....

  4. Second cancer after radiotherapy of the uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Tadashi; Soejima, Toshinori; Hirota, Saeko; Obayashi, Kayoko; Ishida, Teruko; Takada, Yoshiki; Yoshida, Shoji; Kimura, Shuji

    1993-01-01

    To study the relative risk of second cancer after radiotherapy, we reviewed 2465 cases of uterine cervical cancer who were treated in our institute from 1962 to 1986 and were followed up for more than 5 years. Among them, 1502 cases were treated by radiotherapy with or without surgery (radiotherapy group), and the remainder were treated by surgery only (surgery only group). We defined second cancer as malignancy that occurred in another organ after an interval of 5 years or more from the end of treatment of the first cancer. The relative risk of second cancer was computed by the person-year method advocated by Schoenberg. Second cancer was observed among 8 cases of the surgery group, whereas 43 cases were observed among the radiotherapy group. The cases were: rectal cancer, 6 cases; bladder cancer, 4 cases. The observed and expected ratio (O/E ratio) was 4.02 in rectal cancer and 7.98 in bladder cancer. This incidence of the both cancers was significantly high in the radiotherapy group. Three of the 6 cases with rectal cancer underwent operation in our institute. The incubation periods between the first and second cancers were from 9 to 21 years. Each case exhibited symptoms of chronic radiation proctitis after radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer. It is thought necessary to follow up such cases carefully to detect radiation induced cancer. (author)

  5. Molecular mechanisms of cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Wenwen; Shen, Zhaojun; Hu, Xiaoli; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2016-01-01

    Patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer have poor prognosis, and their 1-year survival is only 10%-20%. Chemotherapy is considered as the standard treatment for patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer, and cisplatin appears to treat the disease effectively. However, resistance to cisplatin may develop, thus substantially compromising the efficacy of cisplatin to treat advanced or recurrent cervical cancer. In this article, we systematically review the recent literature and summarize the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer.

  6. Epidemiology of cervical cancer with special focus on India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedevi A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aswathy Sreedevi, Reshma Javed, Avani Dinesh Community Medicine, AIMS, Kochi, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India Abstract: Cervical cancer is on the declining trend in India according to the population-based registries; yet it continues to be a major public health problem for women in India. Multifactorial causation, potential for prevention, and the sheer threat it poses make cervical cancer an important disease for in-depth studies, as has been attempted by this paper. This paper attempts to review the available knowledge regarding the epidemiology and pattern of cervical cancer; types of HPV (human papilloma virus prevalent among cervical cancer patients and among women in general, high-risk groups such as commercial sex workers, and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus-positive women; and the role of the national program on cancer in control efforts. The peak age of incidence of cervical cancer is 55–59 years, and a considerable proportion of women report in the late stages of disease. Specific types of oncogenic HPV-16, 18 have been identified in patients with cervical cancer. Other epidemiological risk factors are early age at marriage, multiple sexual partners, multiple pregnancies, poor genital hygiene, malnutrition, use of oral contraceptives, and lack of awareness. A multipronged approach is necessary which can target areas of high prevalence identified by registries with a combination of behavior change communication exercises and routine early screening with VIA. Sensitizing the people of the area, including menfolk, is necessary to increase uptake levels. Vaccination against types 16 and 18 can also be undertaken after taking into confidence all stakeholders, including the parents of adolescent girls. Preventing and treating cervical cancer and reducing the burden are possible by targeting resources to the areas with high prevalence. Keywords: cervical cancer, HPV, screening, prevention, epidemiology, India

  7. HPV DNA methylation at the early promoter and E1/E2 integrity: A comparison between HPV16, HPV18 and HPV45 in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Filho, Sérgio Menezes; Pereira Chaves, Cláudia Bessa; Felix, Shayany Pinto; Basto, Diogo Lisbôa; de Almeida, Liz Maria; Moreira, Miguel Angelo Martins

    2018-04-09

    To compare and describe type-specific characteristics of HPV16, HPV18 and HPV45 in cervical cancer with respect to 3'LCR methylation and disruption of E1/E2. The methylation level of 137 cervical cancer samples (70 with HPV16, 37 with HPV18, and 30 with HPV45) of Brazilian patients was analyzed by pyrosequencing. PCR amplifications were performed to characterize E1 and E2 disruption as an episomal surrogate. The 3'LCR of HPV16 showed a higher methylation at all CpG sites (7%, 9%, 11%, 10% and 10%) than homologous HPV18 regions (4%, 5%. 6%, 9% and 5%) and HPV45 regions (7%, 7% and 5%). Presence of intact E1/E2 was associated with higher HPV16 and HPV18 methylation levels at all CpG sites (p < 0.05). Disruption of E1/E2 was more frequently found in HPV45 (97%) and HPV18 (84%) than in HPV16 DNA (30%). HPV16 disruption was more frequently found in E1 (48%) unlike HPV18, where it was found in E2 (61%). Concomitant disruption of E1/E2 was most frequent in HPV45 (72%). The findings showed a higher methylation associated with intact E1/E2 for HPV16 and HPV18. The closely phylogenetic related HPV18 and HPV45 share a similar methylation level and the frequency of viral genome disruption. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, J; McKenzie, J; Buenconsejo-Lum, L E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccinatio...... of prevention programs, operational research and advocacy could strengthen political momentum for cervical cancer prevention and avoid risking the lives of many women in the Pacific....

  9. Time since first sexual intercourse and the risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plummer, Martyn; Peto, Julian; Franceschi, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Young age at first sexual intercourse (AFI) is an important risk factor for cervical cancer, but no simple statistical model of its influence has been established. We investigated the relationship between risk of cervical carcinoma and time since first intercourse using data on monogamous women (5...... proportional to the square of time since first intercourse (exponent 1.95, 95% CI: 1.76-2.15) up to age 45. First cervical infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) often occurs soon after first sexual intercourse, so early AFI is a reasonable proxy for early age at first exposure to HPV. In addition, age...

  10. Analysis of acute and late toxicity of adjuvant radiotherapy in women with cervical and endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warenczak-Florczak, Z.; Roszak, A.; Wlodarczyk, H.; Wojciechowska-Lacka, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In case of pure prognostic factors women with cervical and endometrial cancer after surgical operation need to be treated with radiotherapy . Every radiation treatment may be involved with toxicity, acute and late. Material and methods: Performed was detailed analysis of 173 patients with cervical (38) and endometrial (135) cancer. We evaluated early and late post radiation reactions in all patients. Results: Acute reactions were found in 48.5% and late toxicity was found in 9.8% of patients. Women with endometrial cancer were significantly older then patients with cervical cancer (p < 0.002). Higher percentage of acute and late toxicity was observed from the bowel tah urinary tract (26% and 22.5% - acute; 8.1% and 1.73% - late). Higher percentage of acute side effects was observed in patients with cervical than with endometrial cancer (60.5% and 33.7%). Late post radiation reaction predominate also in patient with cervical cancer (13.2% and 8.9%). The adverse effects were associated with prolonged time of treatment due to breaks in radiotherapy. Higher percentage of breaks was found in older patients, more frequent in patient with endometrial than in cervical cancer group (7.4% and 2.6%).To conclude early postradiation reaction appeared more frequently, than late post radiation reactions. It was stated that early and late post radiation reaction appear more frequently in women with cervical than in endometrial cancer. Interruption in radiation delivery was longer than seven days in group with endometrial cancer that leads to extension of complete radiation treatment. (authors)

  11. Temporal Patterns of Cervical Cancer Screening Among Danish Women 55 Years and Older Diagnosed With Cervical Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne; Hee, Lene; Blaakær, Jan

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the screening history in postmenopausal women diagnosed with cervical cancer during 1990-2013 by age and screening period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This hospital-based cohort study included women 55 years and older diagnosed with cervical cancer...... at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, during 1990-2013. Information on their previous history of cervical cancer screening was obtained from the Danish Pathology Databank. RESULTS: Overall, 47.0% (95% CI = 42.6-51.4) had no record of screening before their cervical cancer diagnosis. This proportion...

  12. The association between methylated CDKN2A and cervical carcinogenesis, and its diagnostic value in cervical cancer: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li J

    2016-08-01

    specificity, sensitivity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and diagnostic odds ratio were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97–0.99, 0.36 (95% CI: 0.28–0.45, 0.93 (95% CI: 0.91–0.95, and 43 (95% CI: 19–98, respectively.Conclusion: Our findings indicate that abnormal CDKN2A methylation may be strongly correlated with the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. Our results also demonstrate that CDKN2A methylation might serve as an early detector of cervical cancer. These findings require further confirmation. Keywords: p16, methylation, cervical cancer carcinogenesis

  13. PET imaging in the management of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, Tzu-Chen; Lai, Chyong-Huey

    2004-01-01

    FDG-PET has shown its great potential in improving the management of cervical cancer. The dual time-point strategy is attractive and further investigation is needed to justify the lengthening of the imaging line. Early detection of recurrence or more accurate initial staging or re-staging on relapse does not automatically lead to improved long-term survival. Besides, cost-effectiveness analyses of using PET scan should be evaluated. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and cost per life year saved (NT dollars/LYS) is a logical way to validate the benefit of a procedure. However, a potential of cost saving is viable. For example, pelvic exenteration is a highly morbid procedure but also the only way to seek cure in a cervical patient with central recurrence after primary or adjuvant RT

  14. Cervical cancer screening attitudes and beliefs of Malaysian women who have never had a pap smear: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P; Wong, Y L; Low, W Y; Khoo, E M; Shuib, R

    2008-01-01

    Attitudes toward cervical cancer and participation in early detection and screening services are well known to be profoundly affected by cultural beliefs and norms. This study explored the attitudes and sociocultural beliefs on cervical cancer screening among Malaysian women. In this qualitative study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 Malaysian women, ages 21 to 56 years, who have never had a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Respondents generally showed a lack of knowledge about cervical cancer screening using Pap smear, and the need for early detection for cervical cancer. Many believed the Pap smear was a diagnostic test for cervical cancer, and since they had no symptoms, they did not go for Pap screening. Other main reasons for not doing the screening included lack of awareness of Pap smear indications and benefits, perceived low susceptibility to cervical cancer, and embarrassment. Other reasons for not being screened were related to fear of pain, misconceptions about cervical cancer, fatalistic attitude, and undervaluation of own health needs versus those of the family. Women need to be educated about the benefits of cervical cancer screening. Health education, counseling, outreach programs, and community-based interventions are needed to improve the uptake of Pap smear in Malaysia.

  15. Bevacizumab with metronomic chemotherapy of low-dose oral cyclophosphamide in recurrent cervical cancer: Four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Isono-Nakata

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Standard chemotherapy for women with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer involves a combination of paclitaxel, platinum, and bevacizumab. However, for patients who experience anaphylaxis in response to paclitaxel or platinum, have permanent peripheral neuropathy, or develop early recurrence or progressive disease during first-line chemotherapy, the development of a non-taxane non-platinum regimen is mandatory. Clinical trials using anti-angiogenic treatment demonstrated favorable outcomes in cases of highly vascularized cervical cancer. Metronomic chemotherapy has been considered an anti-angiogenic treatment, although its use in combination with bevacizumab has not been studied in cervical cancer. We treated four patients with recurrent cervical cancer with 50 mg of oral cyclophosphamide daily and 15 mg/kg of intravenous bevacizumab every 3 weeks (CFA-BEV. One patient experienced disease progression after 4 months, whereas the other three patients continued the regimen until their last follow-up at 13, 14, and 15 months, respectively. One patient suffered from grade 3 neutropenia; however, no grade 2 or higher non-hematological toxicities were observed. These cases demonstrate the use of CFA-BEV with minimal toxicity and expected anti-cancer activity and indicate that this regimen should be considered for second-line chemotherapy in advanced recurrent cervical cancer. Keywords: Cervical cancer, Metronomic chemotherapy, Bevacizumab

  16. Predictors of cervical cancer screening adherence in the United States: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Karen; LoBiondo-Wood, Geri; Dains, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer incidence rates have decreased dramatically since the implementation of the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Nevertheless, the American Cancer Society (ACS) estimates for 2013 predicted more than 12,000 new cases of cervical cancer in the United States. Given that some subpopulations in the United States are at a higher risk for cervical cancer than others, efforts to increase screening adherence are warranted. Many studies have explored the demographics of underscreened women, but no systematic reviews of screening demographics in adult US women were identified in the past 10 years, after release of the 2002 ACS cervical cancer screening guidelines. Knowledge of adherence to these guidelines becomes important as new guidelines were developed and released in 2012. The purpose of this systematic review of relevant studies was to identify factors that predict the use of cervical cancer screening in US women. Variables found to be significantly associated with adherence to screening included education, financial status, acculturation, psychosocial issues, and marital status. Using this information, nurse practitioners and other providers can target specific at-risk populations to increase screening by educating women about the need for cervical cancer screening and ensuring access to methods for prevention and early detection of the disease.

  17. Integrated analysis of HPV-mediated immune alterations in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Luan, Shaohong; Xia, Baoguo; Liu, Yansheng; Gao, Yuan; Yu, Hongyan; Mu, Qingling; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Weina; Zhang, Shengmiao; Wei, Guopeng; Yang, Min; Li, Ke

    2018-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the primary cause of cervical cancer. HPV-mediated immune alterations are known to play crucial roles in determining viral persistence and host cell transformation. We sought to thoroughly understand HPV-directed immune alterations in cervical cancer by exploring publically available datasets. 130 HPV positive and 7 HPV negative cervical cancer cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas were compared for differences in gene expression levels and functional enrichment. Analyses for copy number variation (CNV) and genetic mutation were conducted for differentially expressed immune genes. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to assess survival and relapse differences across cases with or without alterations of the identified immune signature genes. Genes up-regulated in HPV positive cervical cancer were enriched for various gene ontology terms of immune processes (P=1.05E-14~1.00E-05). Integrated analysis of the differentially expressed immune genes identified 9 genes that displayed either CNV, genetic mutation and/or gene expression changes in at least 10% of the cases of HPV positive cervical cancer. Genomic amplification may cause elevated levels of these genes in some HPV positive cases. Finally, patients with alterations in at least one of the nine signature genes overall had earlier relapse compared to those without any alterations. The altered expression of either TFRC or MMP13 may indicate poor survival for a subset of cervical cancer patients (P=1.07E-07). We identified a novel immune gene signature for HPV positive cervical cancer that is potentially associated with early relapse of cervical cancer. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Biomarker discovery for cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govorukhina, Natalia I.

    2007-01-01

    Proteomics of human boy fluids is still in its early stage of development with major methodological challenges ahead. This implies that much attention is given to improving the methods and strategies. One major challenge is that many samples that have been acquired in the past may not fulfill the

  19. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  20. [HPV immunization for the prevention of cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, Christiane; Bourgault-Villada, Isabelle; Coursaget, Pierre

    2009-12-01

    Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) infect epithelial cells of the skin and mucosae. Mucosal high-risk HPV types (mainly HPV 16 and 18) are involved in the development of cervical cancer, one of the most common cancers in young women. HPV infection is usually asymptomatic and clears spontaneously, but 10 - 15 % of high-risk HPV infections are persistent and increase the risk of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the cervix. Two HPV vaccines have been licensed to provide protection against cervical cancer. To report the different aspects of HPV infection in order to improve the understanding of the particular problems of HPV vaccination and to review the most recent findings related to HPV vaccines, particularly regarding the protective efficacy of vaccines and the roles of adjuvants and immune response in protection. Articles were selected from the PubMed database (National Library of Medicine- National Institute of Health) with the following Keywords "HPV", "Prevention", "HPV vaccines", "Immune response", "Antibody". Abstracts of oral presentations from international meetings were also selected for the more recent findings. a critical analysis of the majority of papers published was undertaken and relevant information summarized. Virus-like particle production by expressing the major protein of the HPV capsid was carried out in the early 90's, leading to the recent development of two HPV vaccines. These vaccines are now licensed in many countries and have been demonstrated to be highly immunogenic. In subjects that are non-infected at the time of vaccination, HPV vaccines are highly effective in preventing persistent HPV 16 - 18 infections (90 %) and precursors lesions of cervical cancer associated with these two HPV types (close to 100 %). Clinical trials have also confirmed that HPV vaccines are well tolerated by recipients. The present paper is a detailed review published in French on HPV vaccines, their efficacy in the prevention of HPV infections and unresolved

  1. Cervical cancer management in Zaria, Nigeria | Sule | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper\\'s objective was to identify factors influencing cervical cancer management in Zaria with a view to improving the outcome of management. Case notes of patients managed for cervical cancer in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), Zaria between January 1 1999 and December 31 2003, were ...

  2. Targeting women with free cervical cancer screening: challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: the study was conducted to determine the challenges and suggest solutions to conducting free cervical cancer screening among Nigerian women. Methods: awareness was created among women groups and mass media in Osun State for women to undergo free cervical cancer screening programme.

  3. Apoptosis induction of epifriedelinol on human cervical cancer cell line

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Present investigation evaluates the antitumor activity of epifriedelinol for the management of cervical cancer by inducing process of apoptosis. Methods: Human Cervical Cancer Cell Line, C33A and HeLa were selected for study and treated with epifriedelinol at a concentration of (50-1000 μg/ml). Cytotoxicity of ...

  4. Women's Attitude Towards Cervical Cancer Screening in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women's Attitude Towards Cervical Cancer Screening in North Eastern ... of obstetrics and gynaecology in two tertiary institutions in Northeastern Nigeria ... be used to increase both awareness and utilization of cervical cancer screening services. Adoption of social marketing strategy may lead to improvement in the use of ...

  5. Perception and risk factors for cervical cancer among women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study assessed the perception of risk of cervical cancer and existence of risk factors for cervical cancer based on five known risk factors among women attending the Tamale Teaching Hospital in Tamale, Ghana. Methods: A consecutive sample of 300 women was interviewed using a semi structured ...

  6. Immunology and Immunotherapy of high grade cervical lesions and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos van Steenwijk, Peggy Jacqueline de

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The immune system plays an important role in the protection against HPV and failure of the immune system can lead to the development of cervical cancer. Immunotherapy aims at the restoration of an effective anti-tumour immunity. This

  7. Cervical cancer knowledge and screening practices among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer remains a major public health challenge in developing countries including Nigeria and contributes signi cantly as a major cause of death among women of reproductive age. This study was conducted to assess knowledge and cervical cancer screening practices among women of reproductive ...

  8. The Need for Societal Investment to Improve Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    to cervical cancer. Implementing evidence-based interventions such as human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young girls, ... compared to North America with cervical cancer .... 6/11/16/18 L1 virus-like particle vaccine that protects against ...

  9. Cervical Cancer and Human Papilloma Virus Knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This study was aimed at determining the knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV as well as the ... is a global public health issue as it is the second ... younger population with the highest rate in the age range of 20 to 30 years which include many college-aged students5,9. ... If the current mortality trend of cervical cancer.

  10. Social Construction of Cervical Cancer Screening among Panamanian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Arlene; Brown, Kelli McCormack; McDermott, Robert J.; Bryant, Carol A.; Coreil, Jeanine; Loseke, Donileen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding how "health issues" are socially constructed may be useful for creating culturally relevant programs for Hispanic/Latino populations. Purpose: We explored the constructed meanings of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Panamanian women, as well as socio-cultural factors that deter or encourage…

  11. Association between cervical screening and prevention of invasive cervical cancer in Ontario: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicus, Danielle; Sutradhar, Rinku; Lu, Yan; Kupets, Rachel; Paszat, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of cervical screening in the prevention of invasive cervical cancer among age groups, using a population-based case-control study in the province of Ontario, Canada. Exposure was defined as cervical cytology history greater than 3 months before the diagnosis date of cervical cancer (index date). Cases were women who were diagnosed with cervical cancer between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2008. Controls were women without a diagnosis of cervical cancer on, or before, December 31, 2008. Two controls were matched to each case on year of birth and income quintile, as of the index date. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio for having been screened among those with cervical cancer. Cervical cancer screening performed between 3 and 36 months before the index date was protective against invasive cervical cancer in women aged 40 through 69 years. In women younger than 40 years, cervical cancer screening performed 3 to 36 months before the index date was not protective. Cervical screening is associated with a reduced risk for invasive cervical cancer among women older than 40 years. Cervical cancer resources should be focused on maximizing the risk reduction.

  12. Reducing uncertainties about the effects of chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vale, Claire; Jakobsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After a 1999 National Cancer Institute (NCI) clinical alert was issued, chemoradiotherapy has become widely used in treating women with cervical cancer. Two subsequent systematic reviews found that interpretation of the benefits was complicated, and some important clinical questions...

  13. TCGA study identifies genomic features of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have identified novel genomic and molecular characteristics of cervical cancer that will aid in subclassification of the disease and may help target therapies that are most appropriate for each patient.

  14. Cancer treatment - early menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premature menopause; Ovarian insufficiency - cancer ... Cancer treatments that can cause early menopause include: Surgery. Having both ovaries removed causes menopause to happen right away. If you are age 50 or younger, your provider may ...

  15. Modeling Cervical Cancer Prevention in Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jane J.; Brisson, Marc; Edmunds, W. John; Goldie, Sue J.

    2009-01-01

    Cytology-based screening has reduced cervical cancer mortality in countries able to implement, sustain and financially support organized programs that achieve broad coverage. These ongoing secondary prevention efforts considerably complicate the question of whether vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types -16 and 18 should be introduced. Policy questions focus primarily on the target ages of vaccination, appropriate ages for a temporary “catch-up” program, possible revisions in screening policies to optimize synergies with vaccination, including the increased used of HPV DNA testing, and the inclusion of boys in the vaccination program. Decision-analytic models are increasingly being developed to simulate disease burden and interventions in different settings in order to evaluate the benefits and cost-effectiveness of primary and secondary interventions for informed decision-making. This article is a focused review on existing mathematical models that have been used to evaluate HPV vaccination in the context of developed countries with existing screening programs. Despite variations in model assumptions and uncertainty in existing data, pre-adolescent vaccination of girls is consistently found to be attractive in the context of current screening practices, provided there is complete and lifelong vaccine protection and widespread vaccination coverage. Questions related to catch-up vaccination programs, potential benefits of other non-cervical cancer outcomes and inclusion of boys are subject to far more uncertainty, and results from these analyses have reached conflicting conclusions. Most analyses find that some catch-up vaccination is warranted but becomes increasingly unattractive as the catch-up age is extended, and vaccination of boys is unlikely to be cost-effective if reasonable levels of coverage are achieved in girls or coverage among girls can be improved. The objective of the review is to highlight points of consensus and qualitative

  16. Common filaggrin gene mutations and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Sørensen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As carriers of filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations may have a compromised cervical mucosal barrier against human papillomavirus infection, our primary objective was to study their risk of cervical cancer. METHODS: We genotyped 586 cervical cancer patients for the two most common FLG...... mutations, R501X and 2282del4, using blood from the Copenhagen Hospital Biobank, Denmark. Controls (n = 8050) were genotyped in previous population-based studies. Information on cervical cancer, mortality and emigration were obtained from national registers. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic...... and stratification by cancer stage. RESULTS: The primary results showed that FLG mutations were not associated with the risk of cervical cancer (6.3% of cases and 7.7% of controls were carriers; OR adjusted 0.81, 95% CI 0.57-1.14; OR adjusted+ weighted 0.96, 95% CI 0.58-1.57). Among cases, FLG mutations increased...

  17. Early detection of cervical cancer with visual inspection methods: a summary of completed and on-going studies in India Detección oportuna de cáncer cervical con métodos de inspección visual: un resumen de estudios en India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sankaranarayanan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available India is a high-risk country for cervical cancer which accounts a quarter (126 000 new cases, 71 000 deaths around 2 000 of the world burden. The age-standardized incidence rates range from 16-55 per 100 000 women in different regions with particularly high rates in rural areas. Control of cervical cancer by early detection and treatment is a priority of the National Cancer Control Programme of India. There are no organized cytology screening programmes in the country. The technical and financial constraints to organize cytology screening have encouraged the evaluation of visual inspection approaches as potential alternatives to cervical cytology in India. Four types of visual detection approaches for cervical neoplasia are investigated in India: a naked eye inspection without acetic acid application, widely known as 'downstaging'; b naked eye inspection after application of 3-5% acetic acid (VIA; c VIA using magnification devices (VIAM; d visual inspection after the application of Lugol's iodine (VILI. Downstaging has been shown to be poorly sensitive and specific to detect cervical neoplasia and is no longer considered as a suitable screening test for cervical cancer. VIA, VIAM and VILI are currently being investigated in multicentre cross-sectional studies (without verification bias, in which cytology and HPV testing are also simultaneously evaluated, and the results of these investigations will be available in 2003. These studies will provide valuable information on the average, comparative test performances in detecting high-grade cervical cancer precursors and cancer. Results from pooled analysis of data from two completed studies indicated an approximate sensitivity of 93.4% and specificity of 85.1% for VIA to detect CIN 2 or worse lesions; the corresponding figures for cytology were 72.1% and 91.6%. The efficacy of VIA in reducing incidence of and mortality from cervical cancer and its cost-effectiveness is currently being investigated

  18. Radiotherapy for bone metastases from cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzen, Yoshio; Nakanishi, Kazue; Ajimu, Akira; Morikawa, Minoru; Hayashi, Kuniaki

    1989-03-01

    The authors have investigated 6 cases of bone metastases from cervical cancer out of a total of 90 cases of metastatic bone tumors that were irradiated for relief of associated pain at the Department of Radiology, Nagasaki University Hospital from April 1977 to March 1987. In 2 of the 6 cases, a rare, delayed recurrence with paraaortic lymph node metastases was seen. An invasion to the proasmajor muscle, iliomajor muscle was demonstrated by Computed Tomography after the initiation of therapy, so that the size of the field was modified. Computed Tomography was found useful to determine the exact field size for radiotherapy of metastatic bone tumor.

  19. Knowledge, attitude and practice of screening for cervical cancer among female students of a tertiary institution in South Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akujobi, C N; Ikechebelu, J I; Onunkwo, I; Onyiaorah, I V

    2008-09-01

    Cervical cancer is the second commonest cancer of females worldwide and the commonest cancer of the female genital tract in our environment. It can be prevented through early detection by cervical screening (Pap smear). The objective of this study is to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among female undergraduates. A pre tested questionnaire was administered to third and fourth year female students of the Faculty of Natural Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria. Out of the 220 students involved in the study, 134 (60.9) had knowledge of cervical cancer and 118 (53.6%) were sexually active with the average age at sexual debut being 21.2 years. The mean age of the students was 23.8 years and the age range was 17 to 39 years with 175 (80%) in the age range of 20-29 years. About 2/3 of the students did not know about Pap smear and worse still, none of them had undergone a Pap screening test before. This low participation in screening for cervical cancer was attributed to several reasons including ignorance of the existence of such a test, lack of awareness of centers where such services are obtainable, ignorance of the importance of screening and the risk factors to the development of cervical cancer. There is good level of awareness of cervical cancer among the female undergraduates but poor knowledge and participation in cervical cancer screening. The development of a comprehensive cervical cancer screening strategy is being recommended to improve participation with a view to prevent cervical cancer by early detection and treatment of the pre-malignant stages.

  20. Perception and risk factors for cervical cancer among women in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoku, Constance A; Browne, Edmund Nii Laryea; Spangenberg, Kathryn; Moyer, Cheryl; Kolbilla, David; Gold, Katherine J

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the perception of risk of cervical cancer and existence of risk factors for cervical cancer based on five known risk factors among women attending the Tamale Teaching Hospital in Tamale, Ghana. A consecutive sample of 300 women was interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire to inquire about risk factors and perception of risk of cervical cancer. Specific risk factors that were explored included early coitarche, multiple sexual partners, polygamous relationships, history of smoking, and having a current partner who had multiple sexual partners. Sixty-one per cent of women reported that they had no personal risk for cervical cancer. 27% of respondents were in polygamous relationships, and of those, more than half didn't think they were at an increased risk of cervical cancer. 2 women had a total of ≥ 5 sexual partners in their lifetime and neither believed they were at any risk for cervical cancer. 23% said their current partner had had at least 2 sexual partners in his lifetime, and of those, (61%) thought they were at no risk for cervical cancer. 46% of respondents reported not having any of the risk factors listed in the study. 23% of respondents reported having one risk factor while 21% had two risk factors and 11% had three or more risk factors. Women's perception of personal risk for cervical cancer is lower than their actual risk based on the five behavioural risk factors assessed and a lack of knowledge of the personal factors for the disease. This project was supported by NIH Research Training Grant #R25 TW009345 funded by the Fogarty International Centre, in partnership with several NIH Institutes (NIMH, NIGMS, NHLBI, OAR and OWH).

  1. Proficiency-based cervical cancer brachytherapy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sherry; Francis, Louise; Todor, Dorin; Fields, Emma C

    2018-04-25

    Although brachytherapy increases the local control rate for cervical cancer, there has been a progressive decline in its use. Furthermore, the training among residency programs for gynecologic brachytherapy varies considerably, with some residents receiving little to no training. This trend is especially concerning given the association between poor applicator placement and decline in local control. Considering the success of proficiency-based training in other procedural specialties, we developed and implemented a proficiency-based cervical brachytherapy training curriculum for our residents. Each resident placed tandem and ovoid applicators with attending guidance and again alone 2 weeks later using a pelvic model that was modified to allow for cervical brachytherapy. Plain films were taken of the pelvic model, and applicator placement quality was evaluated. Other evaluated metrics included retention of key procedural details, the time taken for each procedure and presession and postsession surveys to assess confidence. During the initial session, residents on average met 4.5 of 5 placement criteria, which improved to 5 the second session. On average, residents were able to remember 7.6 of the 8 key procedural steps. Execution time decreased by an average of 10.5%. Resident confidence with the procedure improved dramatically, from 2.6 to 4.6 of 5. Residents who had previously never performed a tandem and ovoid procedure showed greater improvements in these criteria than those who had. All residents strongly agreed that the training was helpful and wanted to participate again the following year. Residents participating in this simulation training had measurable improvements in the time to perform the procedure, applicator placement quality, and confidence. This curriculum is easy to implement and is of great value for training residents, and would be particularly beneficial in programs with low volume of cervical brachytherapy cases. Simulation programs could

  2. Evaluación del programa de detección precoz de cáncer cervicouterino en Consolación del Sur Assessment of Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program in Consolacion del Sur municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Ramírez Valle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la evaluación del Programa de Detección Precoz de Cáncer Cervicouterino debe realizarse con frecuencia para ir resolviendo las dificultades presentes. Objetivo: evaluar el desarrollo y la calidad del Programa de Detección Precoz de Cáncer Cervicouterino en Consolación del Sur en el período 2005-2007. Material y método: se realizó un estudio observacional, retrospectivo y transversal con componentes analíticos. Universo (N =34570 mujeres de =15 años. Marco muestral 22233 mujeres comprendidas entre 25-59 años (las contempladas en el Programa de Detección Precoz de Cáncer Cervicouterino. Se calculó la incidencia anual de lesiones, la edad de presentación de las mismas. Se evaluó la calidad del diagnóstico citológico mediante las pruebas de rendimiento. Se utilizaron los estadígrafos X², concordancia Kappa de Cohen, y coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Resultados: la cobertura continúa baja, con variaciones en las diferentes áreas de salud del municipio. Sin embargo, el diagnóstico citológico está dentro de rangos internacionales con una sensibilidad de más del 60 % y una eficacia global de más del 70 %. La incidencia anual de lesiones de bajo grado se duplica al final del período, pero las de alto grado se mantienen estables. Los carcinomas invasores aunque escasos continúan presentándose. Conclusiones: el Programa de Detección Precoz de Cáncer Cervicouterino en Consolación del Sur muestra logros, pero aún hay deficiencias tanto en la atención primaria de salud, como en la secundaria.Introduction: the assessment of Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program should be carried out frequently to solve current difficulties. Objective: to assess the development and quality of Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program in Consolacion del Sur during 2005-2007. Material and Method: an observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study with analytical components was conducted. The target group involved

  3. Changes in knowledge of cervical cancer following introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine among women at high risk for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Stewart Massad

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Substantial gaps in understanding of HPV and cervical cancer prevention exist despite years of health education. While more effective educational interventions may help, optimal cancer prevention may require opt-out vaccination programs that do not require nuanced understanding.

  4. Risk of cervical cancer after completed post-treatment follow-up of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Helmerhorst, Theo; Habbema, Dik

    2012-01-01

    To compare the risk of cervical cancer in women with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia who returned to routine screening after having completed post-treatment follow-up with consecutive normal smear test results with women with a normal primary smear test result....

  5. Why does cervical cancer occur in a state-of-the-art screening program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Philip E; Kinney, Walter K; Cheung, Li C; Gage, Julia C; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas S; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Befano, Brian; Schussler, John; Katki, Hormuzd A; Schiffman, Mark

    2017-09-01

    The goal of cervical screening is to detect and treat precancers before some become cancer. We wanted to understand why, despite state-of-the-art methods, cervical cancers occured in relationship to programmatic performance at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), where >1,000,000 women aged ≥30years have undergone cervical cancer screening by triennial HPV and cytology cotesting since 2003. We reviewed clinical histories preceding cervical cancer diagnoses to assign "causes" of cancer. We calculated surrogate measures of programmatic effectiveness (precancers/(precancers and cancers)) and diagnostic yield (precancers and cancers per 1000 cotests), overall and by age at cotest (30-39, 40-49, and ≥50years). Cancer was rare and found mainly in a localized (treatable) stage. Of 623 cervical cancers with at least one preceding or concurrent cotest, 360 (57.8%) were judged to be prevalent (diagnosed at a localized stage within one year or regional/distant stage within two years of the first cotest). Non-compliance with recommended screening and management preceded 9.0% of all cancers. False-negative cotests/sampling errors (HPV and cytology negative), false-negative histologic diagnoses, and treatment failures preceded 11.2%, 9.0%, and 4.3%, respectively, of all cancers. There was significant heterogeneity in the causes of cancer by histologic category (p<0.001 for all; p=0.002 excluding prevalent cases). Programmatic effectiveness (95.3%) and diagnostic yield were greater for squamous cell versus adenocarcinoma histology (p<0.0001) and both decreased with older ages (p trend <0.0001). A state-of-the-art intensive screening program results in very few cervical cancers, most of which are detected early by screening. Screening may become less efficient at older ages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Second cancers following radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinerman, R.A.; Curtis, R.E.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Flannery, J.T.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Incidence of second primary cancers was evaluated in 7,127 women with invasive cancer of the cervix uteri, diagnosed between 1935 and 1978, and followed up to 38 years (average, 8.9 yr) in Connecticut. Among 5,997 women treated with radiation, 449 developed second primary cancers compared with 313 expected (relative risk . 1.4) on the basis of rates from the Connecticut Tumor Registry. Excess incidence was noticeable 15 years or more after radiotherapy and attributed mostly to cancers of sites in or near the radiation field, especially the bladder, kidneys, rectum, corpus uteri, and ovaries. No excess was found for these sites among the 1,130 nonirradiated women. The ratio of observed to expected cancers for these sites did not vary appreciably by age at irradiation. The data suggested that high-dose pelvic irradiation was associated with increase in cancers of the bladder, kidneys, rectum, ovaries, corpus uteri, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma but, apparently, not leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, breast cancer, or colon cancer

  7. Renal Metastasis from Primary Cervical Cancer: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Seong Woo; Kim, See Hyung; Kwon, Sun Young

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis of malignant tumors to the kidney is clinically rare and often discovered by autopsy. Primary lymphoma and lung cancer are known that can metastasize to the kidney. Other malignant tumor metastasis to the kidney is very unusual. Primary cervical cancer metastasis to adjacent pelvic organs and lymph nodes are well known followed by abdominal solid organs such as the liver and adrenal glands. However, reported primary cervical cancer metastasis to the kidney is extremely rare and mostly appeared as bilateral multiple renal masses. We report here on a rare case of unilateral single renal metastasis from primary cervical cancer after concur- rent chemoradiotherapy.

  8. The invasive cervical cancer review: psychological issues surrounding disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, S M; Moss, E; Redman, C W E

    2013-04-01

    An audit of the screening history of all new cervical cancer cases has been a requirement since April 2007. While NHS cervical screening programmes (NHSCSP) guidance requires that women diagnosed with cervical cancer are offered the findings of the audit, as yet there has been no research to investigate the psychological impact that meeting to discuss the findings might have on patients. This is in spite of the fact that cytological under-call may play a role in as many as 20% of cervical cancer cases. This review draws on the literature concerning breaking bad news, discussing cancer and disclosing medical errors, in order to gain insight into both the negative and positive consequences that may accompany a cervical screening review meeting. We conclude that while patients are likely to experience some distress at disclosure, there are also likely to be positive aspects, such as greater trust and improved perception of care. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Perceptions of Nigerian Women about Human Papilloma Virus, Cervical Cancer, and HPV Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Anuoluwapo Akanbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV though preventable has claimed the lives of many women worldwide. This study was embarked upon to evaluate the general knowledge and perceptions of Nigerian women on HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine. Methods. Structured questionnaires were administered to a cross section of 737 women randomly selected from the general population in two southwestern States of Nigeria. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 16. A P value >0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. One hundred and seventy-six (23.9% of the respondents had knowledge of HPV; 474 (64.3% are aware of cervical cancer but only 136 (18.5% know that HPV causes cervical cancer. 200 (27.1% are aware that there is an HPV vaccine while 300 (40.7% had knowledge of Pap smear test. Two hundred and sixty (35.3% of the respondents know that early detection of HPV can prevent cervical cancer and in spite of this, only 110 (14.9% have taken the Pap smear test before while 151 (20.5% are not willing to go for the test at all. Conclusions. There is therefore the need to create proper awareness on the HPV and its possible consequence of cervical carcinoma.

  10. A survey of awareness of Pap smear and cervical cancer vaccine among women at tertiary care centre in Eastern Uttar Pradesh India

    OpenAIRE

    Anjali Rani; Kalpana Singh; Shreya Thapa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is very common in developing countries. In Uttar Pradesh the literacy rate of women is low as compared to other states of India. Poverty is very high. Most women report with advance stage of cervical cancer. It can be prevented by early screening with Pap smear. Aim of our study is to know about the awareness of Pap smear and cervical cancer vaccine among women attending a tertiary hospital in Eastern part of Uttar Pradesh India. Methods: A questionnaire based ...

  11. Vaccines against human papilloma virus and cervical cancer: An overview

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    Sharma Savita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of preventing human papilloma virus (HPV infection through currently approved vaccines, namely, Gardasil, manufactured by Merck and Co., Inc. (Whitehouse Station, NJ and Cervarix, manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK, Philadelphia holds tremendous promise for the developing countries in decreasing the burden of HPV infection and its sequelae, such as cervical cancer, genital warts and anogenital cancers. Effective screening programs that have reduced the burden of this killer disease in the developed countries are still lacking in India, despite the high incidence of cervical cancer and the implementation of the National Cancer Control Programme since 1975. The recent breakthrough in the global war against cervical cancer will provide new insight for meeting the future challenge of the prevention of cervical cancer in India.

  12. Comportamiento del diagnóstico precoz del cáncer de mama y cérvicouterino en el municipio Cienfuegos Performance of Early Diagnosis of Breast and Cervical Cancer in the Municipality of Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Padrón González

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el cáncer de mama y cérvicouterino están entre las más frecuentes causas de muerte en la población femenina. Su diagnóstico está entre los programas priorizados del Sistema de Salud Pública. Objetivo: describir el comportamiento del Programa del Cáncer de Mama y de Cuello Uterino en el municipio de Cienfuegos. Métodos: estudio descriptivo y transversal que se realiza en el marco del proyecto CARMEN y comprende el periodo 2010-2011. Se tomó una muestra aleatoria, estratificada al azar. Se analizaron variables como: edad, estado civil, color de la piel, visita de profesionales de la salud, dominio sobre el autoexamen de mama, examen clínico de las mamas, mamografía, prueba citológica y tiempo transcurrido desde el último chequeo de cada una de las pruebas. Se utilizó el cuestionario del estudio CARMEN. Para el análisis de los resultados se utilizó el paquete estadístico SPSS versión 15,00. El nivel de significación estadístico que se utilizó fue del 95 %. Resultados: un total de 428 mujeres (41,1 % llevaban más de un año sin ser chequeadas y de ellas 49 (4,6 % llevaba más de cinco años. El 71,2 % de la muestra estudiada nunca se ha realizado una mamografía, del 28,6 % que se las ha realizado. El 91,0 % de las mujeres en las edades comprendidas en el Programa alguna vez se ha hecho la prueba citológica. Conclusiones: no se alcanzan los propósitos establecidos por el Programa Integral para el Control del Cáncer en Cuba. Quedan demostradas las áreas de insuficiencias del Programa de Control del Cáncer de Mama y de Cuello Uterino.Background: breast and cervical cancer are among the most frequent causes of death in women. Therefore, the early detection of these diseases is one of the prioritized programs of the Public Health System. Objective: to describe the performance of the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in the municipality of Cienfuegos. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted

  13. Correlation of DNA Ploidy with Progression of Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.; Kalra, N.; Shukla, Y.; Mehrotra, S.; Singh, U.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of squamous cell carcinomas of cervix are preceded by visible changes in the cervix, most often detected by cervical smear. As cervical cancer is preceded by long precancerous stages, identification of the high-risk population through detection of DNA ploidy may be of importance in effective management of this disease. Here we attempted to correlate aneuploidy DNA patterns and their influence on biological behavior of flow-cytometry analysis of DNA ploidy which was carried out in cytologically diagnosed cases of mild (79), moderate (36), and severe (12) dysplasia, as well as “atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS)” (57) along with controls (69), in order to understand its importance in malignant progression of disease. Cytologically diagnosed dysplasias, which were employed for DNA ploidy studies, 39 mild, 28 moderate, and 11 severe dysplasia cases were found to be aneuploidy. Out of the 69 control subjects, 6 cases showed aneuploidy pattern and the rest 63 subjects were diploid. An aneuploidy pattern was observed in 8 out of 57 cases of cytologically evaluated ASCUS. The results of the followup studies showed that aberrant DNA content reliably predicts the occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma in cervical smear. Flow cytometric analysis of DNA ploidy may provide a strategic diagnostic tool for early detection of carcinoma cervix. Therefore, it is a concept of an HPV screening with reflex cytology in combination with DNA flow cytometry to detect progressive lesions with the greatest possible sensitivity and specificity.

  14. Survival of Patients With Cervical Cancer in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Vinoda Thulaseedharan, Jissa; Malila, Nea; Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Esmy Pulikottil, Okuru; Hakama, Matti; Muwonge, Richard; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients’ survival after diagnosis of cervical cancer is indirectly influenced by socio-economic factors. We evaluated this survival and its socio-economic determinants in a rural population in south India. Methods: We assessed 165 women diagnosed with cervical cancer from the routine care control arm of a randomized screening trial conducted in rural south India. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to illustrate the observed survival of cancer patients. The effect of socio-econom...

  15. A Systematic Review of Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Pacific Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Josephine; Souares, Y; Hoy, D

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first systematic literature review of cervical cancer incidence and mortality as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype prevalence among women with cervical cancer in the Pacific Island countries and territories. The cervical cancer burden in the Pacific Region....... There are only few comprehensive studies examining the epidemiology of cervical cancer in this region and no published data have hitherto described the current cervical cancer prevention initiatives in this region....

  16. Application of the Carolina Framework for Cervical Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jennifer L; McCarthy, Schatzi H; Gilkey, Melissa B; Brewer, Noel T

    2014-03-01

    The Carolina Framework for Cervical Cancer Prevention describes 4 main causes of cervical cancer incidence: human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, lack of screening, screening errors, and not receiving follow-up care. We present 2 applications of the Carolina Framework in which we identify high-need counties in North Carolina and generate recommendations for improving prevention efforts. We created a cervical cancer prevention need index (CCPNI) that ranked counties on cervical cancer mortality, HPV vaccine initiation and completion, Pap smear screening, and provision of Pap tests to rarely- or never-screened women. In addition, we conducted in-depth interviews with 19 key informants from programs and agencies involved in cervical cancer prevention in North Carolina. North Carolina's 100 counties varied widely on individual CCPNI components, including annual cervical cancer mortality (median 2.7/100,000 women; range 0.0-8.0), adolescent girls' HPV vaccine initiation (median 42%; range 15%-62%), and Pap testing in the previous 3 years among Medicaid-insured adult women (median 59%; range 40%-83%). Counties with the greatest prevention needs formed 2 distinct clusters in the northeast and south-central regions of the state. Interviews generated 9 recommendations to improve cervical cancer prevention in North Carolina, identifying applications to specific programs and policies in the state. This study found striking geographic disparities in cervical cancer prevention need in North Carolina. Future prevention efforts in the state should prioritize high-need regions as well as recommended strategies and applications in existing programs. Other states can use the Carolina Framework to increase the impact of their cervical cancer prevention efforts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cervical Cancer Incidence in Young U.S. Females After Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fangjian; Cofie, Leslie E; Berenson, Abbey B

    2018-05-30

    Since 2006, human papillomavirus vaccine has been recommended for young females in the U.S. This study aimed to compare cervical cancer incidence among young women before and after the human papillomavirus vaccine was introduced. This cross-sectional study used data from the National Program for Cancer Registries and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Incidence-U.S. Cancer Statistics 2001-2014 database for U.S. females aged 15-34 years. This study compared the 4-year average annual incidence of invasive cervical cancer in the 4 years before human papillomavirus vaccine was introduced (2003-2006) and the 4 most recent years in the vaccine era (2011-2014). Joinpoint regression models of cervical incidence from 2001 to 2014 were fitted to identify the discrete joints (year) that represent statistically significant changes in the direction of the trend after the introduction of human papillomavirus vaccination in 2006. Data were collected in 2001-2014, released, and analyzed in 2017. The 4-year average annual incidence rates for cervical cancer in 2011-2014 were 29% lower than that in 2003-2006 (6.0 vs 8.4 per 1,000,000 people, rate ratio=0.71, 95% CI=0.64, 0.80) among females aged 15-24 years, and 13.0% lower among females aged 25-34 years. Joinpoint analyses of cervical cancer incidence among females aged 15-24 years revealed a significant joint at 2009 for both squamous cell carcinoma and non-squamous cell carcinoma. Among females aged 25-34 years, there was no significant decrease in cervical cancer incidence after 2006. A significant decrease in the incidence of cervical cancer among young females after the introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine may indicate early effects of human papillomavirus vaccination. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The development of genes associated with radiosensitivity of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongyan; Chen Zhihua; He Guifang

    2007-01-01

    It has a good application prospect to predict effects of radiotherapy by examining radiosensitivity of patients with cervical cancers before their radiotherapy. Prediction of tumor cell radiosensitivity according to their level of gene expression and gene therapy to reverse radio-resistance prior to radiation on cervical cancers are heated researches on tumor therapy. The expression of some proliferation-related genes, apoptosis-related genes and hypoxia-related genes can inerease the radiosensitivity of cervical cancer. Microarray technology may have more direct applications to the study of biological pathway contributing to radiation resistance and may lead to development of alternative treatment modalities. (authors)

  19. Early Detection Of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V B Bhatnagar

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Farly detection of cancer is based upon three fundamental assumptions, firstly that the trea'ment of benign and precancerous lesions reduces the incidence of cancer, secondly, that the treatment of in situ cancers is conducive to total cure and thirdly that early diagnosis and management of invasive cancer ensures be.ter survival. When patient seeks medical advice for vague symptoms, which could however be due to a possible malignant tumour at a particular site, the alert clinician should investigate the patient immediately to exclude cancer. At this stage cancer is usually not significantly advanced. Currently the U. I. C. C. (International Union for Cancer Control} is studying the epidemiology of cancers in various countries The importance of this is two folds : Firstly by focussing attention on a section of population vulnerable to a particular cancer an early detection is facilitated Secondly by changing the causative factors responsible to a particular cancer, the incidence of that cancer can be reduced e. g. reduction in lung cancer following campaigns against ciguette smoking and reductioi in breast cancer after campaigns for advocating breast feeding of infants, lowering fat consumption and encouraging self palpation of breast regularly. Indeed early diagnosis of cancer implies diagnosis of cancer in almost a symptomatic stage It involves motiva’ion of the population towards acquisitio : of knowledge, attitude and practice.. Epidemiologies and clinicians should be able to recognise high risk cases exposed to particular neoplasia and knowledge of alarming symptoms should be pro- pogated for wide publicity through common available media and means. Probable cases should have regular clhrcal examination periodically and relevant investigations including radiological, imaging techniques and Bio-Chemical examination should be undertaken as and when desired Suspicious lesions should be investigated by specific tests including smear cytology

  20. Cervical cancer screening and practice in low resource countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While developed countries have recorded significant reduction in the incidence of cervical cancer owing to organizedscreening programs, treatment of premalignant cervical lesions, and follow‑up of treated cases, developing countries including Nigeria are yet to optimally utilize screening services due to lack of organized ...

  1. Women's perspectives on illness when being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30-40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which if untre...

  2. OPPORTUNISTIC CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Bai Prabhu T

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cervical cancer is the most common malignancy diagnosed during pregnancy. In developing countries where organized screening programmes are lacking, antenatal clinics may provide an opportunity for screening. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence and management of abnormal cervical cytology in pregnancy. Methodology: This was a prospective study conducted at the Meenakshi Medical College and RI, Kancheepuram, India, from July 2013 to June 2014. Convenience sampling technique was used. After adequate counselling, 300 antenatal mothers between 12 and 34 weeks of gestation were screened with conventional Pap smear. Colposcopy directed biopsy was taken where and when necessary. Results: Among the 300 pregnant women, 90 (30% were primigravidae and 210 (70% were multigravidae. 80% were between 21 and 30 years of age. 290 (96.6% women have never had a pap smear in the past. Conventional Pap smear was taken at 21 weeks of gestation in 20% of cases. ASCUS , LSIL and HSIL were reported in one case each. In those with LSIL and HSIL , Colposcopy directed biopsy was reported as CIN 1 and CIN 2 respectively. These two cases were kept under observation during the antenatal period. The CIN II lesion persisted on postpartum follow up and was treated with LLETZ. Conclusion: In countries like India Pap smear screening during pregnancy is worthwhile and the antenatal clinics provide ample opportunities for the screening.

  3. Diffusion-weighted MRI in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVeigh, Patrick Z.; Haider, Masoom A.; Syed, Aejaz M.; Milosevic, Michael; Fyles, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate the potential value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement with MRI in the assessment of cervix cancer. Diffusion-weighted MRI was performed in 47 patients with cervical carcinoma undergoing chemoradiation therapy and 26 normal controls on a 1.5-T system with a b-value of 600 s/mm 2 . FIGO stage, tumor volume, nodal status, interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and oxygen measurements were recorded. Response was defined as no visible tumor 3-6 months following completion of therapy. The average median ADC (mADC) of cervical carcinomas (1.09±0.20 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) was significantly lower than normal cervix (2.09±0.46 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) (P -3 mm 2 /s) compared to T2b (1.21 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) and T3/T4 (1.10 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) (P<0.001). In patients with squamous carcinomas the 90th percentile of ADC values was lower in responders than non-responders (P<0.05). Median ADC in cervix carcinoma is significantly lower compared to normal cervix. ADC may have predictive value in squamous tumors, but further long-term study will determine the ultimate clinical utility. (orig.)

  4. Cervical cancer screening in Greenland, 1997-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Signe; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Kjær, Susanne Krüger

    2016-01-01

    of the screening program and to examine possible changes in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN3) incidence in Greenland during 1997-2011 according to calendar period and age. METHODS: Using nationwide registries, we calculated age-standardized incidence rates for all women born and living in Greenland......OBJECTIVE: In spite of the high incidence of cervical cancer in Greenland, no assessment has been made of the impact of organized cervical screening, introduced in 1998, in relation to occurrence of high-grade cervical lesions. The objectives of the present study were to estimate coverage...

  5. A Systematic Overview of Radiation Therapy Effects in Cervical Cancer (Cervix Uteri)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einhorn, Nina [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology; Trope, Claes; Ridderheim, Mona; Boman, Karin; Sorbe, Bengt; Cavallin-Staahl, Eva

    2003-09-01

    A systematic review of radiation therapy trials in several tumour types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). The procedures for evaluation of the scientific literature are described separately. This synthesis of the literature on radiation therapy for cervical cancer is based on data from 1 meta-analysis and 34 randomized trials. In total, 35 scientific articles are included, involving 7,952 patients. The results were compared with those of a similar overview from 1996 including 34,024 patients. The conclusions reached can be summarized in these points: There are limited scientific data supporting that postoperative pelvic radiotherapy improves disease-free survival in early cervical cancer. No firm conclusion can be drawn. There is moderate scientific evidence that external beam radiotherapy combined with brachytherapy gives a similar disease-free and overall survival rate as radical hysterectomy in early cervical cancer. There is strong scientific evidence that concomitant radiochemotherapy improves disease-free and overall survival compared to radiotherapy alone in early cervical cancer. The NCI has recently published an announcement stating that cisplantin-based chemotherapy should be used concomitantly with radiotherapy in cervical cancer. No solid documentation for this statement can be found concerning locally advanced stages (>IIB). There is a strong scientific evidence that cisplatin-based chemotherapy given concomitantly with radiotherapy is superior to concomitant chemotherapy with hydroxyurea. There is no scientific evidence to show that neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy improves disease-free or overall survival compared to radiotherapy alone in patients with localized cervical cancer. There is moderate scientific evidence that high-dose-rate brachytherapy gives the same local control rate as low-dose-rate brachytherapy but with fewer rectal complications.

  6. A Systematic Overview of Radiation Therapy Effects in Cervical Cancer (Cervix Uteri)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einhorn, Nina; Trope, Claes; Ridderheim, Mona; Boman, Karin; Sorbe, Bengt; Cavallin-Staahl, Eva

    2003-01-01

    A systematic review of radiation therapy trials in several tumour types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). The procedures for evaluation of the scientific literature are described separately. This synthesis of the literature on radiation therapy for cervical cancer is based on data from 1 meta-analysis and 34 randomized trials. In total, 35 scientific articles are included, involving 7,952 patients. The results were compared with those of a similar overview from 1996 including 34,024 patients. The conclusions reached can be summarized in these points: There are limited scientific data supporting that postoperative pelvic radiotherapy improves disease-free survival in early cervical cancer. No firm conclusion can be drawn. There is moderate scientific evidence that external beam radiotherapy combined with brachytherapy gives a similar disease-free and overall survival rate as radical hysterectomy in early cervical cancer. There is strong scientific evidence that concomitant radiochemotherapy improves disease-free and overall survival compared to radiotherapy alone in early cervical cancer. The NCI has recently published an announcement stating that cisplantin-based chemotherapy should be used concomitantly with radiotherapy in cervical cancer. No solid documentation for this statement can be found concerning locally advanced stages (>IIB). There is a strong scientific evidence that cisplatin-based chemotherapy given concomitantly with radiotherapy is superior to concomitant chemotherapy with hydroxyurea. There is no scientific evidence to show that neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy improves disease-free or overall survival compared to radiotherapy alone in patients with localized cervical cancer. There is moderate scientific evidence that high-dose-rate brachytherapy gives the same local control rate as low-dose-rate brachytherapy but with fewer rectal complications

  7. Vaccines for Prevention of Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahomed, M.F.

    2017-01-01

    The characteristics of two prophylactic Human Papilloma Virus HPV vaccines and ethical issues related to HPV vaccination are reviewed in this paper. These vaccines have the potential of substantially reducing HPV-related morbidity and mortality, and in particular cervical cancer. The vaccines cannot treat women with current HPV infection or HPV related disease. They should be administered before the commencement of sexual activity. The ideal age group is adolescent girls between the ages 9-13. Both vaccines are highly efficacious and immunogenic and induce high levels of serum antibodies after three doses for all vaccine-related HPV types. School-based vaccination is considered as a costeffective method for its delivery. Adequate education of both clinicians and patients is an essential to ensure effective implementation when considering a national vaccination program. (author)

  8. Chromosomal instability as a prognostic marker in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How, Christine; Bruce, Jeff; So, Jonathan; Pintilie, Melania; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Hui, Angela; Clarke, Blaise A; Hedley, David W; Hill, Richard P; Milosevic, Michael; Fyles, Anthony; Liu, Fei-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women globally, and despite treatment, distant metastasis and nodal recurrence will still develop in approximately 30% of patients. The ability to predict which patients are likely to experience distant relapse would allow clinicians to better tailor treatment. Previous studies have investigated the role of chromosomal instability (CIN) in cancer, which can promote tumour initiation and growth; a hallmark of human malignancies. In this study, we sought to examine the published CIN70 gene signature in a cohort of cervical cancer patients treated at the Princess Margaret (PM) Cancer Centre and an independent cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cervical cancer patients, to determine if this CIN signature associated with patient outcome. Cervical cancer samples were collected from 79 patients, treated between 2000–2007 at the PM, prior to undergoing curative chemo-radiation. Total RNA was extracted from each patient sample and analyzed using the GeneChip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 array (Affymetrix). High CIN70 scores were significantly related to increased chromosomal alterations in TCGA cervical cancer patients, including a higher percentage of genome altered and a higher number of copy number alterations. In addition, this same CIN70 signature was shown to be predictive of para-aortic nodal relapse in the PM Cancer Centre cohort. These findings demonstrate that chromosomal instability plays an important role in cervical cancer, and is significantly associated with patient outcome. For the first time, this CIN70 gene signature provided prognostic value for patients with cervical cancer

  9. Studying the Physical Function and Quality of Life Before and After Surgery in Patients With Stage I Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-14

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lymphedema; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IA1 Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IA2 Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IB1 Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7

  10. [Early effectiveness of discover cervical artificial disc replacement in treatment of cervical spondylosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yufeng; Xue, Feng; Sheng, Xiaowen; Lu, Jianmin; Chen, Bingqian

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the early effectiveness of the Discover cervical artificial disc replacement in treating cervical spondylosis. Qualified for the selective standard, 24 patients with cervical spondylosis were treated between March 2010 and March 2011. Of 24 patients, 13 patients underwent anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) (ACDF group, between March 2010 and September 2010) and 11 patients underwent Discover cervical artificial disc replacement (CADR group, between September 2010 and March 2011). There was no significant difference in gender, age, disease duration, lesions typing, and affected segments between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The operative time, blood loss, and complications were recorded. Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores, Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores, and Odom's scores were used to evaluate the postoperative effectiveness. In CADR group, the cervical range of motion (ROM) in all directions, and prosthesis eccentricity were measured before and after operation. Symptoms disappeared and no complication occurred after operation in the patients of 2 groups. The patients were followed up 12 to 18 months (mean, 15.3 months) in ACDF group and 6 to 12 months (mean, 9.6 months) in CADR group. The NDI scores in CADR group were significantly higher than those in ACDF group at 1, 3, and 6 months (P 0.05). According to Odom's score at last follow-up, the results were excellent in 6 cases, good in 4 cases, and fair in 3 cases with an excellent and good rate of 76.92% in ACDF group, and were excellent in 9 cases, good in 1 case, and poor in 1 case with an excellent and good rate of 90.91% in CADR group, showing no significant difference (chi2 = 3.000, P = 0.223). The patients in CADR group had significant limit of cervical joint ROM in flexion and extension and right bending at 1 month (P value (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, ROM in left bending were bigger than that in right bending in replaced segment and upper segment (P < 0.05), and the ROM

  11. Intraoperative irradiation in advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, G.; Goldson, A.L.; Ashayeri, E.; Petrilli, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    Conventional treatment of cervical cancer, such as radical hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy or pelvic exenteration, is limited to the pelvis. Standard radio-therapeutic treatment is a combination of external-beam radiotherapy to the pelvis and intracavitary applications. However, there is a group of patients for whom external radiotherapy alone has limitations. This group consists primarily of patients with large pelvic lymph nodes containing metastatic cancer, metastatically involved paraaortic lymph nodes outside the usual pelvic radiation field, or large central tumors with parametrial involvement. In patients with cancer of the cervix, the incidence of metastasis to paraaortic lymph nodes is high. Attempts to treat paraaortic nodes with external radiotherapy have resulted in high complication rates because the treatment field includes the highly sensitive gastrointestinal tract. External radiation therapy after retroperitoneal exploration of lymph nodes does not seem to improve survival. In an attempt to circumvent the morbidity and mortality associated with conventional external-beam irradiation, the authors initiated a pilot study of intraoperative electron-beam irradiation of the paraaortic nodes and of the large metastatic lymph nodes in the pelvis. The intraoperative boost was followed by conventional fractionated external-beam irradiation. The theoretical advantages of this procedure include a higher radiation tumor dose without a concomitant increase in treatment morbidity and mortality

  12. Survival of a cohort of women with cervical cancer diagnosed in a Brazilian cancer center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Calazan do Carmo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess overall survival of women with cervical cancer and describe prognostic factors associated. METHODS: A total of 3,341 cases of invasive cervical cancer diagnosed at the Brazilian Cancer Institute, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil, between 1999 and 2004 were selected. Clinical and pathological characteristics and follow-up data were collected. There were performed a survival analysis using Kaplan-Meier curves and a multivariate analysis through Cox model. RESULTS: Of all cases analyzed, 68.3% had locally advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. The 5-year overall survival was 48%. After multivariate analysis, tumor staging at diagnosis was the single variable significantly associated with prognosis (p<0.001. There was seen a dose-response relationship between mortality and clinical staging, ranging from 27.8 to 749.6 per 1,000 cases-year in women stage I and IV, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that early detection through prevention programs is crucial to increase cervical cancer survival.

  13. Awareness of cervical cancer risk factors and symptoms: cross-sectional community survey in post-conflict northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwaka, Amos D; Orach, Christopher G; Were, Edward M; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Wabinga, Henry; Roland, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Lack of awareness of risk factors and symptoms for cancer may lead to late diagnosis and poor prognosis. We assessed community awareness about cervical cancer risk factors and symptoms and perceptions about prevention and cure of cervical cancer in order to contribute data to inform interventions to improve cervical cancer survival. Cross-sectional population-based survey. We conducted this study in Gulu, a post-conflict district in Uganda in 2012. The sample included 448 persons aged 18 years and above, selected through a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling process. We collected data using a pretested structured questionnaire. Logistic regressions were used to determine magnitudes of associations between socio-demographic and outcome variables. Most participants (444/448) had heard about cervical cancer. Known risk factors including multiple sexual partners, human papillomavirus infection, and early onset of sexual activity, were recognized by 88%, 82%, and 78% of respondents respectively. 63% of participants believed that prolonged use of family planning pills and injections caused cervical cancer. The majority of participants recognized symptoms of cervical cancer including inter-menstrual bleeding (85%), post-menopausal bleeding (84%), and offensive vaginal discharge (83%). 70% of participants believed that cervical cancer is preventable and 92% believed that it could be cured if diagnosed at an early stage. Recognition of cervical cancer risk factors and symptoms was high among study participants. Targeted interventions including increasing availability of HPV vaccination, population-based cervical screening and diagnostic services can translate high awareness into actual benefits. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Optimal management of cervical cancer in HIV-positive patients: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ntekim, Atara; Campbell, Oladapo; Rothenbacher, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    The clinical management of cervical cancer in HIV-positive patients has challenges mainly due to the concerns on immune status. At present, their mode of management is similar to HIV-seronegative patients involving the use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy concurrently as indicated. HIV infection, cancer, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy lower immunity through reduction in CD4 cell counts. At present there are no treatment guidelines for HIV-positive patients. This study was done to systematically review the literature on cervical cancer management in HIV-positive patients and treatment outcomes. A systematic literature search was done in the major databases to identify studies on the management of HIV-positive patients with cervical cancer. Identified studies were assessed for eligibility and inclusion in the review following the guidelines of The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews and CRD's (Centre for Reviews and Dissemination) guidance for undertaking reviews in health care. Eight eligible studies were identified from the literature. Three of them were prospective while five were retrospective studies. Notably, the average age at diagnosis of cervical cancer in HIV-positive patients was a decade lower than in seronegative patients. There was no difference in distribution of stages of disease at presentation between HIV-positive and negative patients. Mild acute toxicity (Grades 1 and 2) was higher in HIV-positive patients than in HIV-negative patients in hematopoietic system. In the grades 3 and 4 reactions, anemia was reported in 4% versus 2% while gastrointestinal reactions were reported in 5% versus 2% respectively. In general, patients who were started early on HAART had higher rates of treatment completion. The study supports the suggestion that HAART should be commenced early at cervical cancer diagnosis in HIV-positive patients diagnosed with cervical cancer to ensure less toxicity and better treatment compliance

  15. Control of cervical cancer in Peru: Current barriers and challenges for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Alfredo; Pinto, Joseph A; Araujo, Jhajaira; Fajardo, Williams; Bravo, Leny; Pinillos, Luis; Vallejos, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading malignant neoplasm in Peruvian women. This malignancy is a public health problem and several efforts were previously performed to develop cancer control plans. Geographical, cultural, structural, infrastructural and procedural barriers can limit the implementation of such strategies. Several previous studies have characterized human papilloma virus (HPV) epidemiology, where prevalence of high-risk HPV in adult females is ~12% and the prevalence in cervical cancer is 90-95%. The predominant barriers for the control of cervical cancer are lack of specialists in remote villages, education/cultural issues, loss of patients in follow-up, lack of access to HPV testing and lack of compliance for HPV vaccination. A good strategy for the prevention and early detection of high-risk HPV, pre-malignant neoplasms and cervical cancer, identified by interventional studies, is the self-sampling test, which assists with overcoming the cultural and geographic barriers. The current cancer control plan, termed 'Plan Esperanza', is performed with massive training of health professionals and social sensitization campaigns leading to filling the gaps regarding education and, in addition, it provides cancer care coverage for poorer individuals. In our experience at Oncosalud-AUNA, with a cohort of ~750,000 affiliates using a pre-paid system with annual screenings for cervical cancer for women, offered free-of-charge, a lower incidence of this malignancy (5.8/100,000) is now observed compared with the national incidence (32.7/100,000). As in other countries, the HPV vaccination can be a cost-utility strategy to reduce the high burdens of cervical cancer in Peru, a rapid and cheap HPV molecular sub-typification is rapidly required.

  16. ACOG Recommendations and Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about ACOG's recommendations for cervical cancer screening and management.

  17. Acceptability of human papilloma virus vaccine and cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-14

    Jul 14, 2012 ... names in a prepared sampling frame of each group of workers, and thereafter ... Following individual counseling of eligible participants, .... Stanley M. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccines versus cervical cancer screening.

  18. Grantee Spotlight: Dr. Kolawole Okuyemi - Improving Cervical Cancer Screening Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Kolawole Okuyumi is studying cervical cancer screening attitudes and behaviors of African immigrants and refugees (Ethiopians, Nigerians, and Somalis) in Minnesota, and introducing “cancer” and “cervix” to their everyday vocabulary.

  19. Awareness and perception of risk for cervical cancer among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attending Bowen University Teaching Hospital (BUTH) general outpatient clinic. Methodology: This .... the impact of current efforts at increasing awareness about cervical cancer is .... movie stars or music artists in disseminating information on.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu H

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Haiyan Zhu, Hui Luo, Wenwen Zhang, Zhaojun Shen, Xiaoli Hu, Xueqiong Zhu Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer have poor prognosis, and their 1-year survival is only 10%–20%. Chemotherapy is considered as the standard treatment for patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer, and cisplatin appears to treat the disease effectively. However, resistance to cisplatin may develop, thus substantially compromising the efficacy of cisplatin to treat advanced or recurrent cervical cancer. In this article, we systematically review the recent literature and summarize the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer. Keywords: cisplatin, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, microRNA, molecular mechanism, resistance

  1. A Literature Review of Cervical Cancer Screening in Transgender Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatos, Kayla C

    2018-02-01

    Most female-to-male (FTM) transgender men retain their cervixes and need comprehensive sexual health care, including cervical cancer screening. According to the literature, FTM individuals obtain cervical cancer screening less frequently and are less likely to be up to date on their Pap tests compared with cisgender women. Misinformation related to human papillomavirus and cervical cancer risk was noted for health care providers and FTM individuals. Absence of transgender-specific guidelines or trained health care providers presents barriers to cervical cancer screening for FTM individuals, and further research is indicated to develop comprehensive guidelines unique to the needs and experiences of this population. © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  2. Bevacizumab improves survival for patients with advanced cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with advanced, recurrent, or persistent cervical cancer that was not curable with standard treatment who received the drug bevacizumab (Avastin) lived 3.7 months longer than patients who did not receive the drug, according to an interim analysis

  3. Prediction of rehabilitation needs after treatment of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Tina Broby; Sørensen, Bente; Dieperink, Karin B

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Women treated for cervical cancer with radiotherapy and chemotherapy have reported serious bowel, vaginal, and sexual late effects. The purpose of this study was to describe late adverse effects, health-related quality of life, and self-efficacy in a representative Danish cervical cancer...... population in order to describe rehabilitation needs. METHODS: Women, mean age 55 years, treated for cervical cancer from January 2010 to July 2013, who were alive and without known relapse/metastases were included in this cross-sectional study. EORTC QLQ C30 and CX24 and self-efficacy questionnaires were......: This study found that young, obese survivors with locally advanced cervical cancer and survivors who received chemotherapy may have a serious risk of developing late adverse effects; thus, rehabilitation should target these needs....

  4. Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic profile of cervical cancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-08-21

    Aug 21, 2015 ... Results: The incidence of cervical cancer in Butembo was 0.97% with a peak in 2011 .... bleeding, vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, Schiller. Test, clinical ..... female students and staff in a tertiary institution in the Niger Delta.

  5. The Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Screen (VACCS) project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    essential step in the development of invasive cervical cancer.[3] HPV is highly infectious ... [6] Local reactions such as pain, swelling and redness can occur, as may ..... events, and undergraduate medical students at the University of Pretoria.

  6. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren

    2014-01-01

    and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN......INTRODUCTION: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). WLWH in Denmark attend the National ICC screening program less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH...... with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, incidences were comparable between WLWH and controls adherent to the National ICC screening program. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH develop more cervical disease than controls. However, incidences of CIN are comparable...

  7. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, K; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, S

    2016-01-01

    , which contains nationwide records of all pathology specimens. The cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology result to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were......OBJECTIVES: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). A recent publication found that WLWH in Denmark attend the national ICC screening programme less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical...... in both groups were adherent to the national ICC screening programme and had a normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN and ICC were comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH developed more cervical disease than controls. Yet, in WLWH and controls adherent to the national ICC screening programme...

  8. Gene expression profiling in cervical cancer: identification of novel markers for disease diagnosis and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, Cara M

    2012-02-01

    Cervical cancer, a potentially preventable disease, remains the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. Human papillomavirus is the single most important etiological agent in cervical cancer. HPV contributes to neoplastic progression through the action of two viral oncoproteins E6 and E7, which interfere with critical cell cycle pathways, p53, and retinoblastoma. However, evidence suggests that HPV infection alone is insufficient to induce malignant changes and other host genetic variations are important in the development of cervical cancer. Advances in molecular biology and high throughput gene expression profiling technologies have heralded a new era in biomarker discovery and identification of molecular targets related to carcinogenesis. These advancements have improved our understanding of carcinogenesis and will facilitate screening, early detection, management, and personalised targeted therapy. In this chapter, we have described the use of high density microarrays to assess gene expression profiles in cervical cancer. Using this approach we have identified a number of novel genes which are differentially expressed in cervical cancer, including several genes involved in cell cycle regulation. These include p16ink4a, MCM 3 and 5, CDC6, Geminin, Cyclins A-D, TOPO2A, CDCA1, and BIRC5. We have validated expression of mRNA using real-time PCR and protein by immunohistochemistry.

  9. Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening in Burkina Faso: Needs for Patient and Professional Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compaore, Salomon; Ouedraogo, Charlemagne M R; Koanda, Seni; Haynatzki, Gleb; Chamberlain, Robert M; Soliman, Amr S

    2016-12-01

    Cervical cancer is among the leading causes of cancer deaths for women in low-income African countries, such as Burkina Faso. Given that cervical cancer is a preventable disease through early detection and vaccination, this study aimed at understanding the barriers to cervical cancer early detection in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Women seeking screening and treatment for cervical cancer (n = 351) during the period of May-August 2014, at the Yalgado Ouedraogo University Hospital, were interviewed about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward cervical cancer. Interview questions elicited information about sociodemographic of participants, history of screening, knowledge of cervical cancer, and attitudes toward cervical screening. Scores were assigned to responses of questions and knowledge, and tertitles of distributions were used for comparison. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to predict cervical screening. Study participants were relatively young (37.5 ± 10.7 years) and predominately resident of urban areas (83.8 %), and over half had no or less than high school education. Over 90 % of participants had heard about cervical cancer, and about 55 % of them had intermediate-level knowledge of the disease, its screening, and/or risk factors. Knowledge level was lower among rural than urban residents. Predictors of screening included higher level of education (odds ratio (OR) = 2.2; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.48-3.23), older age (OR = 1.1; 95 % CI 1.06-1.12), higher socioeconomic standard (SES) (OR = 1.5; 95 % CI 1-2.37), urban residence (OR = 2.0; 95 % CI 1.19-3.25), encouragement for screening by a health care worker (1.98; 95 % CI 1.06-3.69), and employment (OR = 1.9; 95 % CI 1.13-3.11). Low awareness and socioeconomic barriers lead to underutilization of screening services of women. Motivation and education by healthcare workers are important factors for increasing screening

  10. Knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer affecting women worldwide. It is a preventable disease but still remains a leading cause of cancer deaths in developing countries like Nigeria despite the availability of preventive and curative protocols. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the ...

  11. Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening Uptake among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is the most common cause of female genital cancer and female cancer deaths in developing countries such as Nigeria. The most recent government estimates put the number of new cases at 25,000 per year. According to the latest global estimates, 493, 000 new cases occur each year and ...

  12. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  13. Barriers and Motivators Related to Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bokaee

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: modern knowledge could protect against cancer for individuals in community with early stage and premalignat state. Screening of cancer is best instrument for early detection of malignancy. Between women’s cancers breast and cervical cancer have more incidence and mortality than other cancers . But could be prevented by simple and cheep screening programs. Despite specific statistics in Iran evidence shows that women’s participation in screening program is poor , so cancers are diagnosed in advanced stage. The purpose of this study was to identify major barriers and motivators for breast and cervical screening . Methods: This survey was a descriptive study in which 400 women participated in health and treatment centers in Yazd. Sampling method was done in two simple and random stages. Data was collected by inventory and questionnaire . Then data were analyzed by SPSS soft ware . Results: Findings showed that 80% of them never refereed to a health provider for clinical breast exam (C B E and only 3% of them did regularly C B E . 46% of them had never done pap smear and only 14.5 % of them did regularly pap smear. The findings showed that major motivators were as follow: advice of health’s personnel , using of contraceptive methods , and awareness of media. Also the major barriers were as follow : Not having knowledge of these exams , not having knowledge of the existence of these centers of education and practice , not having precious health problems , fear of examination , Embarrassment of examination and health providers not to teach them . to consider the most important barriers were propounded which showed that health education role to eliminate barriers for referring women for screening . Discussion: Based on the results of this sample , screening was the least expected . considering barriers and motivators observed it was revealed that health education was required for prevention of common women’s cancers. Also

  14. SOGC–GOC–SCC Joint Policy Statement. No. 255, March 2011. Cervical cancer prevention in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elit, Laurie; Jimenez, Waldo; McAlpine, Jessica; Ghatage, Prafull; Miller, Dianne; Plante, Marie

    2011-03-01

    To help care providers understand the current status of cervical cancer in low-resource countries. The most effective and practical options for cervical screening and treatment in low-resource countries are evaluated. Improvement in rates of prevention and early detection of cervical cancer in low-resource countries. PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library were searched for studies published in English between January 2006 and December 2009. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Recommendations for practice were ranked according to the method described in that report (Table). RECOMMENDATIONS 1. All girls 9 years old or over should have access to the cervical cancer vaccine before they become sexually active. (I-A) 2. Cervical cancer screening by visual inspection with acetic acid is suggested for low-resource settings acceptable. Cervical cytology or human papillomavirus testing may also be used when practical. (II-2B) 3. Cryotherapy is a safe, effective, and low-cost therapy that should be included in pre-invasive cervical cancer treatment. (III-B) 4. All countries should have a documented cervical cancer prevention strategy that includes public education built on existing outreach programs. (III-C) 5. Countries should define a centre or centres of excellence for the management of cervical cancer. (III-C) Because these units would serve a larger population, they would be able to identify leaders and develop their skills, and would be able to invest in

  15. Nuclear expression of Rac1 in cervical premalignant lesions and cervical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza-Catalán, Miguel A; Castañeda-Saucedo, Eduardo; Cristóbal-Mondragón, Gema R; Adame-Gómez, Jesús; Valle-Flores, Heidi N del; Coppe, José Fco; Sierra-López, Laura; Romero-Hernández, Mirna A; Carmen Alarcón-Romero, Luz del; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal expression of Rho-GTPases has been reported in several human cancers. However, the expression of these proteins in cervical cancer has been poorly investigated. In this study we analyzed the expression of the GTPases Rac1, RhoA, Cdc42, and the Rho-GEFs, Tiam1 and beta-Pix, in cervical pre-malignant lesions and cervical cancer cell lines. Protein expression was analyzed by immunochemistry on 102 cervical paraffin-embedded biopsies: 20 without Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (SIL), 51 Low- grade SIL, and 31 High-grade SIL; and in cervical cancer cell lines C33A and SiHa, and non-tumorigenic HaCat cells. Nuclear localization of Rac1 in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells was assessed by cellular fractionation and Western blotting, in the presence or not of a chemical Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766). Immunoreacivity for Rac1, RhoA, Tiam1 and beta-Pix was stronger in L-SIL and H-SIL, compared to samples without SIL, and it was significantly associated with the histological diagnosis. Nuclear expression of Rac1 was observed in 52.9% L-SIL and 48.4% H-SIL, but not in samples without SIL. Rac1 was found in the nucleus of C33A and SiHa cells but not in HaCat cells. Chemical inhibition of Rac1 resulted in reduced cell proliferation in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells. Rac1 is expressed in the nucleus of epithelial cells in SILs and cervical cancer cell lines, and chemical inhibition of Rac1 reduces cellular proliferation. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of Rho-GTPases in cervical cancer progression

  16. Socioecological perspectives on cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Asian American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    Although cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among Vietnamese American women (VAW) and Korean American women (KAW), both groups consistently report much lower rates of cervical cancer screening compared with other Asian ethnic subgroups and non-Hispanic Whites. This study aimed to explore multilevel factors that may underlie low screening rates among VAW and KAW living in a city where their ethnic communities are relatively small. The socioecological model was used as a conceptual framework. Thirty participants were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons run by VA and KA cosmetologists in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The participants' average age was 44.6 years (SD = .50; range = 21-60). Most participants were married (80 %) and employed (73.3 %), and had health insurance (83.3 %). A qualitative interview was conducted in Vietnamese or Korean and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis was used to identify major codes, categories, and patterns across the transcripts. The study identified several factors at the individual (e.g., pregnancy, poverty, personality), interpersonal (e.g., family responsibility, mother as influential referent), and community (e.g., lack of availability, community size) levels. The study sheds light on four major areas that must be taken into consideration in the development of culturally appropriate, community-based interventions aimed to reduce disparities in cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women in the United States: (1) ethnic community size and geographic location; (2) cross-cultural similarities and dissimilarities; (3) targeting of not only unmarried young women, but also close referents; and (4) utilization of trusted resources within social networks.

  17. Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Min Qi Wang,2 Xiang S Ma,3 Steven E Shive,4 Yin Tan,5 Jamil I Toubbeh51Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 3College of Health Professions and School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 4Center for Asian Health, Temple University, and Department of Health, East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, 5Center for Asian Health, Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USABackground: The purpose of this community-based study was to develop a structural equation model for factors contributing to cervical cancer screening among Chinese American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 573 Chinese American women aged 18 years and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis, that included the following variables: access to and satisfaction with health care, and enabling and predisposing cultural and health beliefs. Structural equation model analyses were conducted on factors related to cervical cancer screening.Results: Age, marital status, employment, household income, and having health insurance, but not educational level, were significantly related to cervical screening status. Predisposing and enabling factors were positively associated with cervical cancer screening. The cultural factor was significantly related to the enabling factor or the satisfaction with health care factor.Conclusion: This model highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in relation to cervical cancer screening. These factors were significant, with cultural, predisposing, enabling, and health belief factors and access to and satisfaction with health care reinforcing the need to assist Chinese American women with poor English fluency in translation and awareness of the importance of cervical

  18. Cervical cytology and the diagnosis of cervical cancer in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Dudding, Nick; Lim, Anita Wey Wey; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie; Sasieni, Peter D

    2015-12-01

    Most non-screen-detected cervical cancers are advanced stage. We assess the potential for cytology to expedite diagnosis when used outside of routine call and recall screening for cervical cancer. Two cohorts of women with cytology that did not appear to have been taken as part of routine screening, nested within a census of cervical cytology, in England between April 2007 and March 2010 were studied: 93,322 women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 14,668 women aged ≥70. The diagnostic performance of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse cytology was estimated. We also estimated case-fatality from stage distribution in women aged ≥66 with and without cytology in the year prior to diagnosis. There were 259 cancers diagnosed in women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 78 in women aged ≥70. The sensitivity of cytology ≥ HSIL for cancer was 89% and 83% respectively, and the number of women needed to test to identify one cancer was 404 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 355-462) and 226 (95% CI: 177-292) respectively. Women aged ≥66 with cytology within a year of diagnosis had earlier stage cancers than those without, corresponding to a 17-22% reduction in case fatality. Cervical cytology is an excellent identifier of cancer among women tested outside routine screening call and recall. Its use as a triage tool, for instance in women with vague gynaecological symptoms, could facilitate earlier stage diagnosis and reduce cervical cancer mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Surface activity, lipid profiles and their implications in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The profiles of lipids in normal and cancerous tissues may differ revealing information about cancer development and progression. Lipids being surface active, changes in lipid profiles can manifest as altered surface activity profiles. Langmuir monolayers offer a convenient model for evaluating surface activity of biological membranes. Aims: The aims of this study were to quantify phospholipids and their effects on surface activity of normal and cancerous human cervical tissues as well as to evaluate the role of phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin (SM in cervical cancer using Langmuir monolayers. Methods and Materials: Lipid quantification was done using thin layer chromatography and phosphorus assay. Surface activity was evaluated using Langmuir monolayers. Monolayers were formed on the surface of deionized water by spreading tissue organic phase corresponding to 1 mg of tissue and studying their surface pressure-area isotherms at body temperature. The PC and SM contents of cancerous human cervical tissues were higher than those of the normal human cervical tissues. Role of PC and SM were evaluated by adding varying amounts of these lipids to normal cervical pooled organic phase. Statistical analysis: Student′s t-test (p < 0.05 and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used. Results: Our results reveals that the phosphatidylglycerol level in cancerous cervical tissue was nearly five folds higher than that in normal cervical tissue. Also PC and sphingomyelin SM were found to be the major phospholipid components in cancerous and normal cervical tissues respectively. The addition of either 1.5 µg DPPC or 0.5 µg SM /mg of tissue to the normal organic phase changed its surface activity profile to that of the cancerous tissues. Statistically significant surface activity parameters showed that PC and SM have remarkable roles in shifting the normal cervical lipophilic surface activity towards that of cancerous lipophilic

  20. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.; Rasch, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    /119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap......OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values...... of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan...

  1. Distribution of Human papilloma virus genotypes in cervical cancer tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates in Serbia are among the highest in Europe and data on Human papilloma virus (HPV type distribution are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV types in archival specimens of cervical cancer tissues of women in the Serbian population. A total of 45 paraffin-embedded tissue samples of cervical carcinoma were used in this study. The procedure included deparaffinization of tissue samples, DNA extraction, PCR, gel electrophoresis and HPV genotyping by direct sequencing. HPV was detected in 32 samples (71%. Genotyping revealed the presence of 6 high-risk HPV types 16, 18, 33, 45, 53 and 58, where HPV type 16 was the most prevalent type (73.7%. The results of this study and further studies will provide more detailed information about HPV genotype distribution and may contribute to the formulation of national guidelines for the prevention of cervical cancer. [175073

  2. Quality of life characteristics inpatients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelic-Radisic, Vesna; Jensen, Pernille T; Vlasic, Karin Kuljanic

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Annually about 500,000 women worldwide are diagnosed with cervical cancer. For many patients, young age at the time of diagnosis and a good prognosis regarding the disease imply a long life with the side-effects and sequels of various treatment options. The present study investigated...... the extent to which different quality of life (QoL) domains in patients during and after treatment for cervical cancer are affected according to menopausal status, treatment status and treatment modality. METHODS: QoL data from 346 cervical cancer patients from 14 countries who were included in a cervical...... module. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics and analysis of covariance. RESULTS: Active treatment had the strongest negative impact on 13 different QoL domains: physical, role, emotional, cognitive, social functioning, global health/QoL, fatigue, nausea and emesis, pain...

  3. Contributions and Limitations of National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Korea: A Retrospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hyun Lee, MPH

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contributions and limitations of the cervical cancer screening test with accuracy in Korea. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study. The study population consisted of all participants who underwent cervical cancer screening test from 2009 to 2014. The data were obtained from National Health Information Database (NHID which represents medical use records of most Koreans. As the indices for contributions and limitations of the screening test, crude detection rate, incidence rate of interval cancer, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were used. Results: The crude detection rate of screening test per 100,000 participants increased from 100.7 in 2009 to 102.1 in 2014. The incidence rate of interval cancer per 100,000 negatives decreased from 13.0 in 2009 to 10.2 in 2014. The sensitivities of screening test were 88.7% in 2009 and 91.2% in 2014, and the specificities were 98.5% in 2009 and 97.7% in 2014. The positive predictive value of screening decreased from 6.2% in 2009 to 4.3% in 2014. Conclusion: The Korean national cervical cancer screening program has improved in accuracy and has contributed to detection of early stage of cervical cancer over the years. Along with efforts to promote participation in cancer screening programs, quality control over the screening program should be enhanced. Keywords: carcinoma in situ, early detection of cancer, Papanicolaou test, sensitivity and specificity, uterine cervical neoplasms

  4. A Controlled Study on Vaginal Blood Flow During Sexual Arousal Among Early-Stage Cervical Cancer Survivors Treated With Conventional Radical or Nerve-Sparing Surgery With or Without Radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Rinske Maria; Pieterse, Quirine D.; van Lonkhuijzen, Luc R. C. W.; Trimbos, Baptist J. B. M. Z.; Creutzberg, Carien L.; Kenter, Gemma G.; de Kroon, Cor D.; ter Kuile, Moniek M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Sexual problems among cervical cancer survivors may in part be caused by reduced vaginal blood flow due to damaged hypogastric nerves during radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and/or by radiation-induced vaginal changes after pelvic radiotherapy. A nerve-sparing modification

  5. Redefining early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Savio G; Windsor, John A

    2016-01-01

    The problem is that current definitions of early gastric cancer allow the inclusion of regional lymph node metastases. The increasing use of endoscopic submucosal dissection to treat early gastric cancer is a concern because regional lymph nodes are not addressed. The aim of the study was thus to critically evaluate current evidence with regard to tumour-specific factors associated with lymph node metastases in "early gastric cancer" to develop a more precise definition and improve clinical management. A systematic and comprehensive search of major reference databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library) was undertaken using a combination of text words "early gastric cancer", "lymph node metastasis", "factors", "endoscopy", "surgery", "lymphadenectomy" "mucosa", "submucosa", "lymphovascular invasion", "differentiated", "undifferentiated" and "ulcer". All available publications that described tumour-related factors associated with lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer were included. The initial search yielded 1494 studies, of which 42 studies were included in the final analysis. Over time, the definition of early gastric cancer has broadened and the indications for endoscopic treatment have widened. The mean frequency of lymph node metastases increased on the basis of depth of infiltration (mucosa 6% vs. submucosa 28%), presence of lymphovascular invasion (absence 9% vs. presence 53%), tumour differentiation (differentiated 13% vs. undifferentiated 34%) and macroscopic type (elevated 13% vs. flat 26%) and tumour diameter (≤2 cm 8% vs. >2 cm 25%). There is a need to re-examine the diagnosis and staging of early gastric cancer to ensure that patients with one or more identifiable risk factor for lymph node metastases are not denied appropriate chemotherapy and surgical resection.

  6. Multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadkhah, Hossein [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, 1402 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Kim, Yusung; Flynn, Ryan T., E-mail: ryan-flynn@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Wu, Xiaodong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To present a novel brachytherapy technique, called multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy (H-RSBT), for the precise angular and linear positioning of a partial shield in a curved applicator. H-RSBT mechanically enables the dose delivery using only linear translational motion of the radiation source/shield combination. The previously proposed approach of serial rotating shield brachytherapy (S-RSBT), in which the partial shield is rotated to several angular positions at each source dwell position [W. Yang et al., “Rotating-shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3931–3941 (2013)], is mechanically challenging to implement in a curved applicator, and H-RSBT is proposed as a feasible solution. Methods: A Henschke-type applicator, designed for an electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft Axxent™) and a 0.5 mm thick tungsten partial shield with 180° or 45° azimuthal emission angles and 116° asymmetric zenith angle, is proposed. The interior wall of the applicator contains six evenly spaced helical keyways that rigidly define the emission direction of the partial radiation shield as a function of depth in the applicator. The shield contains three uniformly distributed protruding keys on its exterior wall and is attached to the source such that it rotates freely, thus longitudinal translational motion of the source is transferred to rotational motion of the shield. S-RSBT and H-RSBT treatment plans with 180° and 45° azimuthal emission angles were generated for five cervical cancer patients with a diverse range of high-risk target volume (HR-CTV) shapes and applicator positions. For each patient, the total number of emission angles was held nearly constant for S-RSBT and H-RSBT by using dwell positions separated by 5 and 1.7 mm, respectively, and emission directions separated by 22.5° and 60°, respectively. Treatment delivery time and tumor coverage (D{sub 90} of HR-CTV) were the two metrics used as the basis for evaluation and

  7. Second primary cancers in survivors of cervical cancer in the Netherlands: Implications for prevention and surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Melina; Liu, Lifang; Kenter, Gemma G.; Creutzberg, Carien L.; Coebergh, Jan Willem; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: We investigated the effects of socio-demographic, treatment- and tumor-specific determinants on the risk of developing a second malignancy among patients treated for cervical cancer. Material and methods: We included patients with a first cervical cancer (N = 12,048) from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR), 1989–2008. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and absolute excess risks (AER) per 10,000 person-years were calculated to estimate the burden of second cancers in cervical cancer survivors. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were computed to identify predictors for second cancers among cervical cancer survivors. Results: During the study period, 676 (5.6%) patients were diagnosed with a second cancer. Smoking-related cancers contributed the most to the overall burden of second cancers (AER = 21) and risks remained elevated after 10 years of follow-up (SIR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4–2.2), yet it decreased markedly in the younger birth cohorts. Cervical cancer survivors who underwent radiotherapy were at higher risk for a second tumor when compared to those without radiotherapy, especially at smoking-related sites (IRR = 1.6 (1.2–2.3)). Conclusion: Patients with cervical cancer had a significantly increased risk for a second cancer compared to the general population, especially for smoking- and irradiation-related tumors. Long-term follow-up suggested the importance of smoking cessation and the benefits of counseling cervical cancer patients accordingly, particularly those who received radiotherapy

  8. The influence of knowledge and perception of the risk of cervical cancer on screening behavior in mainland Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Can; Chan, Carmen W H; Twinn, Sheila; Choi, Kai Chow

    2012-12-01

    Theories of health behavior and empirical research highlight the risk perception as a significant factor for people adopting cancer screening. However, screening uptakes and risk perception of cervical cancer in mainland Chinese women remains unknown. This paper adopted the protection motivation theory (PMT) to examine Chinese women's knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer risk and factors influencing utilization of cervical screening. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 167 participants in mainland China (79 nonscreened and 88 screened women) in 2007 which consisted of four sections: background information, women's attendance pattern for cervical screening, perceptions related to body health and knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, and PMT measures. All women considered themselves at low risk of cervical cancer. No significant association was observed between previous screening uptake and PMT variables. Using multivariate analysis, having children, a perception that visiting doctors regularly is important to health, average and high levels of knowledge about cervical screening were significantly associated with having been received screening. Chinese women demonstrated an unrealistic optimism about their personal risk of cervical cancer. The findings do not support an association between risk perception and screening uptake. In spite of this, current findings revealed some possible factors influencing women's screening behavior. This study highlights the significance of knowledge and culturally-relevant health behavior and beliefs about cervical screening for Chinese women in determining whether or not they receive screening. The promotion of cervical cancer prevention and early detection should be integrated into public education about women's health. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Detection of Recurrent Cervical Cancer by Whole-body FDG PET Scans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaxin Yang; Jinhui Wang; Zhaohui Zhu; Keng Shen; Bocheng Wang

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the role of whole-body {18F} fluro-2-dexoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scans in the detection of recurrent cervical cancer.METHODS Between June, 2000 and January, 2006, 25 patients had undergone a PET scan at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital to evaluate possible recurrent cervical cancer. All the PET findings were reviewed and compared to available clinical data to classify each PET scan result as a true positive, true negative, false positive, or false negative.RESULTS A total of 38 PET scans were conducted on the 25patients whose median age was 46 years. The Stage distributions were IA (n = 1), IB (n = 11), IIA (n = 5), IIB (n = 4), IIIB (n = 2), WB (n= 1), and unknown Stage (n = 1). There were 22 cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 3 cases of adenocarcinoma resulting in 9 true positive PET scans, 27 true negatives, 2 false positives and no false negatives. The sensitivity of the FDG PET scans for detecting recurrent cervical cancer was 100%, specificity 93.1%, positive predictive value 81.8%, and negative predictive value 100%.CONCLUSION The whole body FDG PET scans are a sensitive and specific imaging modality for the detection of recurrent cervical cancer. However the cost of PET scans is too high at this time. A large prospective study will determine whether this modality should be used routinely and take the place of other imaging methods in the early detection of recurrent cervical carcinoma

  10. Uterine cervical cancer. Usefulness of MR imaging after the initial radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzen, Yoshio; Mori, Hiromu; Matsumoto, Akira; Yoshida, Shintaro; Wakisaka, Masaki; Komatsu, Eiji; Tashiro, Makoto; Hori, Yuko.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing residual or recurrent tumors of cervical cancer after radiation therapy, we investigated the time difference between MRI and gynecologic findings in the diagnosis of residual or recurrent tumor in 12 patients with invasive cervical cancer. We defined a positive finding for residual or recurrent tumor as an uterine cervical mass isointense to muscle on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images, and when a positive biopsy specimen was obtained. Two patients were diagnosed as having a residual or recurrent tumor by MRI. Positivity was demonstrated four and seven months later, respectively. MRI was more useful in the earlier diagnosis of residual or recurrent tumor of cervical cancer after radiation therapy than uterine biopsy. There was one patient whose differentiation from residual tumor or radiation-induced necrosis or inflammation on MRI was difficult. MRI and gynecologic check-up at a regular interval after radiation therapy was needed to distinguish them. One patient was diagnosed as having a recurrent tumor by gynecologic finding three months earlier than by MRI. Follow-up MRI examinations at a regular interval in addition to gynecologic examination is necessary for the early detection of recurrent cervical cancer after radiation therapy. (author)

  11. Knowledge level of working and student nurses on cervical cancer and human papilloma virus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topan, Aysel; Ozturk, Ozlem; Eroglu, Hulya; Bahadir, Ozgur; Harma, Muge; Harma, Mehmet Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    To determine knowledge levels of working and student nurses about cervical cancer and prophylactic cancer vaccines. This study was performed on 259 nursing students in the Department of Nursing and 137 nurses working in Health Research and Practice Center, approved to participate in the study between April-June 2012. The study was performed universally without selecting a sample. A questionnaire that was prepared for evaluating participants' knowledge and attitudes about human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine was distributed to the nurses and data obtained from the forms were transferred to SPSS 15.00 program and statistically analyzed. It was found that 54.8% of the student nurses were between 21-24 years old and 13.1% of working students were between 25-28 years old. When student nurses and working nurses were compared in terms of their knowledge about the causes of cervical cancer, their ideas about prevention from cervical cancer with HPV vaccine, their ideas about possible risks of HPV vaccine and conservation ratios of HPV vaccine, it was observed that there were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05). When student nurses and working nurses were compared in terms of the information-source about HPV, ways of HPV contamination, awareness about people who are susceptible to HPV contamination and age of HPV vaccination, it was determined that there was a statistically significant difference (pknowledge about cervical cancer and HPV vaccine, but this was not sufficient. Therefore; it is recommended to use verbal, written and visual communication tools intensively in order to have topics on cervical cancer, early diagnosis and prevention in bachelor and master programs for nurses, to inform society about cervical cancer and HPV vaccine for public health and to teach precautions for its prevention.

  12. dose in cervical cancer intracavitary brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Siavashpour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the optimum organ filling point for organs at risk (OARs dose in cervical cancer high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy. Material and methods : In a retrospective study, 32 locally advanced cervical cancer patients (97 insertions who were treated with 3D conformal external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and concurrent chemotherapy during 2010-2013 were included. Rotterdam HDR tandem-ovoid applicators were used and computed tomography (CT scanning was performed after each insertion. The OARs delineation and GEC-ESTRO-based clinical target volumes (CTVs contouring was followed by 3D forward planning. Then, dose volume histogram (DVH parameters of organs were recorded and patients were classified based on their OARs volumes, as well as their inserted tandem length. Results : The absorbed dose to point A ranged between 6.5-7.5 Gy. D 0.1cm ³ and D 2cm ³ of the bladder significantly increased with the bladder volume enlargement (p value < 0.05. By increasing the bladder volume up to about 140 cm3, the rectum dose was also increased. For the cases with bladder volumes higher than 140 cm3, the rectum dose decreased. For bladder volumes lower than 75 cm3, the sigmoid dose decreased; however, for bladder volumes higher than 75 cm3, the sigmoid dose increased. The D 2cm ³ of the bladder and rectum were higher for longer tandems than for shorter ones, respectively. The divergence of the obtained results for different tandem lengths became wider by the extension of the bladder volume. The rectum and sigmoid volume had a direct impact on increasing their D 0.1cm ³ and D 2cm ³, as well as decreasing their D 10 , D 30 , and D 50 . Conclusions : There is a relationship between the volumes of OARs and their received doses. Selecting a bladder with a volume of about 70 cm3 or less proved to be better with regards to the dose to the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid.

  13. Large scale study of HPV genotypes in cervical cancer and different cytological cervical specimens in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansaenroj, Jira; Junyangdikul, Pairoj; Chinchai, Teeraporn; Swangvaree, Sukumarn; Karalak, Anant; Gemma, Nobuhiro; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-04-01

    Identification of high-risk HPV genotypes in patients is essential for vaccination and prevention programs while the geographic distribution of cervical cancer varies widely. HPV 16 is the major cause of cervical cancer followed by HPV 18, HPV 31, HPV 52, or HPV 58 depending on geographic area. In this study, the distribution of HPV genotypes in cervical specimens from women living in Thailand was analyzed by HPV testing with electrochemical DNA chip and PCR direct sequencing. The 716 specimens were grouped according to their cytological grades; 100 normal, 100 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 100 high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 416 specimens of cervical cancer. The results showed that HPV 16, HPV 18, HPV 52, and HPV 58 are the most common HPV genotypes in Thailand, respectively. With respect to age, women below the age of 26 years were almost negative for high-risk HPV DNA exclusively. Conversely, high prevalence of high-risk HPV DNA and abnormal cytology were usually found in women between 26 and 45 years while cervical cancer was detected mainly in women above the age of 45 years. To increase protection efficiency, a vaccine including HPV 52 and HPV 58 should be offered to Asian women, and primary HPV screening should start at 26-30 years of age. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [Human papilloma virus and cervical cancer. An historical review on the development of research on cancer of the cervix uteri in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tamayo, Jorge; Molina, Julia; Blasco-Olaetxea, Eduardo

    2010-06-01

    The history on the relationship of VPH infection and cervical cancer was examined. Findings were initially reported in Maracaibo(1971), later in Mexico(1973) and thereafter several studies on the ultrastructure and immunohistochemistry of VPH infection and its role on cervical cancer were described. The ultrastructural findings of viral particles of HPV and their proteins, as well as their role in the incorporation of the viral genome to the human cervical cells were also described. Glycoproteins on the surface of cervical cells were reviewed and their importance on HPV infection was related to p16, blood group antigens and early genetic changes in the cell cycle with loss of heterozigocity, all of which, stimulated by the high risk HPV infection lead to cervical cancer.

  15. Internet-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilbur, David C; Crothers, Barbara A; Eichhorn, John H; Ro, Min S; Gelfand, Jeffrey A

    2008-01-01

    This project explores the combination of computerized automated primary screening of cervical cytology specimens in remote sites with interpretation of device-selected images transmitted via the Internet...

  16. Primary care practice and facility quality orientation: influence on breast and cervical cancer screening rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldzweig, Caroline Lubick; Parkerton, Patricia H; Washington, Donna L; Lanto, Andrew B; Yano, Elizabeth M

    2004-04-01

    Despite the importance of early cancer detection, variation in screening rates among physicians is high. Insights into factors influencing variation can guide efforts to decrease variation and increase screening rates. To explore the association of primary care practice features and a facility's quality orientation with breast and cervical cancer screening rates. Cross-sectional study of screening rates among 144 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers and for a national sample of women. We linked practice structure and quality improvement characteristics of individual VA medical centers from 2 national surveys (1 to primary care directors and 1 to a stratified random sample of employees) to breast and cervical cancer screening rates determined from a review of random medical records. We conducted bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression of primary care practice and facility features on cancer screening rates, above and below the median. While the national screening rates were high for breast (87%) and cervical cancer (90%), higher screening rates were more likely when primary care providers were consistently notified of specialty visits and when staff perceived a greater organizational commitment to quality and anticipated rewards and recognition for better performance. Organization and quality orientation of the primary care practice and its facility can enhance breast and cervical cancer screening rates. Internal recognition of quality performance and an overall commitment to quality improvement may foster improved prevention performance, with impact varying by clinical service.

  17. The role of pre-invasive disease in overdiagnosis: A microsimulation study comparing mass screening for breast cancer and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijt, Paula A; Rozemeijer, Kirsten; Naber, Steffie K; Heijnsdijk, Eveline Am; van Rosmalen, Joost; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; de Koning, Harry J

    2016-12-01

    Although early detection of cancer through screening can prevent cancer deaths, a drawback of screening is overdiagnosis. Overdiagnosis has been much debated in breast cancer screening, but less so in cervical cancer screening. We examined the impact of overdiagnosis by comparing two screening programmes in the Netherlands. We estimated overdiagnosis rates by microsimulation for breast cancer screening and cervical cancer screening, using a cohort of women born in 1982 with lifelong follow-up. Overdiagnosis estimates were made analogous to two definitions formed by the UK 2012 breast screening review. Pre-invasive disease was included in both definitions. Screening prevented 921 cervical cancers (-55%) and 378 cervical cancer deaths (-59%), and 169 (-1.3%) breast cancer cases and 970 breast cancer deaths (-21%). The cervical cancer overdiagnosis rate was 74.8% (including pre-invasive disease). Breast cancer overdiagnosis was estimated at 2.5% (including pre-invasive disease). For women of all ages in breast cancer screening, an excess of 207 diagnoses/100,000 women was found, compared with an excess of 3999 diagnoses/100,000 women in cervical cancer screening. For breast cancer, the frequency of overdiagnosis in screening is relatively low, but consequences are evident. For cervical cancer, the frequency of overdiagnosis in screening is high, because of detection of pre-invasive disease, but the consequences per case are relatively small due to less invasive treatment. This illustrates that it is necessary to present overdiagnosis in relation to disease stage and consequences. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. miRNA Expression Profiles of HPV-Infected Patients with Cervical Cancer in the Uyghur Population in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Gao

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the state of human papillomavirus (HPV infection in patients with cervical cancer in the Uyghur population in China and to identify miRNA as biomarker for cervical cancer and HPV infection. We also performed genotyping to determine the variation in the types of HPV. Using microRNA (miRNA microarray technology, differential miRNA expression between HPV-infected cervical cancer and uninfected normal cervical tissues was determined; the microarray results were verified by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR using 20 samples of both the tissues. The infection rate of HPV in patients with cervical cancer was 96.7% (29 of 30, and the main subtype identified was HPV16 (29 of 29. HPV16 integration assay demonstrated that the majority of infectious cases were of the integrated form (26 of 29. Analysis of 140 miRNAs demonstrated greater than two-fold change in miRNA expression in HPV-infected cervical cancer tissue as compared to that in uninfected cervical tissue. The qRT-PCR analysis verified that the expression of miR-15a-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-96, miR-106b-5p, and miR-3653 was higher, while the expression of miR-497-5p was lower in cancer tissues than in normal tissues. The results demonstrate significant changes in miRNA expression in cervical cancer tissues associated with HPV infection as compared to that in normal tissues. These molecular markers may be useful for an early diagnosis and prognosis of cervical cancer in specific human populations.

  19. Cervical Cancer Screening Among Adult Women in China, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baohua; He, Minfu; Chao, Ann; Engelgau, Michael M.; Saraiya, Mona; Wang, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among women in China. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends routine screening for cervical cancer, and the WHO Global Monitoring Framework suggests that every nation monitors cervical cancer screening. However, little information is available on cervical cancer screening behavior among women in China. Methods. We used data from the 2010 China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance System that included 51,989 women aged 18 years and older. We report the proportion of women who reported ever having had a Papanicolaou (Pap) test, stratified by sociodemographic characteristics and geographic region. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was performed to adjust for potential confounders. Results. Overall, 21% of 51,989 women reported having ever had a Pap test. The highest proportion was reported among women aged 30–39 years (30.1%, 95% confidence interval, 26.8%–33.4%). In all geographic regions, women in rural areas were consistently less likely than women in urban areas to report having had a Pap test. Among women who reported ever having a Pap test, 82% reported having the most recent test in the past 3 years. Factors associated with reporting ever having a test were being aged 30–49 years, higher education, being married, and having urban health insurance. Conclusion. Our results indicate that screening programs need to be strengthened along with a more intense focus on specific demographic groups. National cervical cancer screening guidelines and comprehensive implementation strategies are needed to make screening services available and accessible to all women. Implications for Practice: This study is the largest nationwide and population-based assessment of self-reported history of Pap test for cervical cancer screening in China. This article describes cervical cancer screening behavior among women and examines key demographic and geographic factors. Only one

  20. Mind the gaps: a qualitative study of perceptions of healthcare professionals on challenges and proposed remedies for cervical cancer help-seeking in post conflict northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwaka, Amos D; Wabinga, Henry R; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet

    2013-12-17

    There are limited data on perceptions of health professionals on challenges faced by cervical cancer patients seeking healthcare in the developing countries. We explored the views of operational level health professionals on perceived barriers to cervical screening and early help-seeking for symptomatic cervical cancer and the proposed remedies to the challenges. Fifteen key informant interviews were held with health professionals including medical directors, gynecologists, medical officers, nurses and midwives in the gynecology and obstetrics departments of two hospitals in northern Uganda during August 2012 to April 2013. We used content analysis techniques to analyze the data. Health professionals' perceived barriers to cervical cancer care included: (i) patients and community related barriers e.g. lack of awareness on cervical cancer and available services, discomfort with exposure of women's genitals and perceived pain during pelvic examinations, and men's lack of emotional support to women (ii) individual healthcare professional's challenges e.g. inadequate knowledge and skills about cervical cancer management; (iii) health facility related barriers e.g. long distances and lack of transport to cervical cancer screening and care centers, few gynecologists and lack of pathologists, delayed histology results, lack of established palliative care services and inadequate pain control; and (iv) health policy challenges e.g. lack of specialized cancer treatment services, and lack of vaccination for human papilloma virus. Other challenges included increased number of cervical cancer patients and late stage of cervical cancer at presentations. Operational level healthcare professionals in northern Uganda reported several practical challenges facing cervical cancer care that influence their decisions, management goals and practices. The challenges and proposed remedies can inform targeted interventions for early detection, management, and control of cervical cancer in

  1. Manifestation Pattern of Early-Late Vaginal Morbidity After Definitive Radiation (Chemo)Therapy and Image-Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin, E-mail: kathrin.kirchheiner@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/General Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Nout, Remi A. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands); Tanderup, Kari; Lindegaard, Jacob C. [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital (Denmark); Westerveld, Henrike [Department of Radiotherapy, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Haie-Meder, Christine [Department of Radiotherapy, Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Petrič, Primož [Department of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana (Slovenia); Department of Radiotherapy, National Center for Cancer Care and Research, Doha (Qatar); Mahantshetty, Umesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Dörr, Wolfgang; Pötter, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/General Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2014-05-01

    Background and Purpose: Brachytherapy in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer has changed substantially because of the introduction of combined intracavitary/interstitial applicators and an adaptive target concept, which is the focus of the prospective, multi-institutional EMBRACE study ( (www.embracestudy.dk)) on image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT). So far, little has been reported about the development of early to late vaginal morbidity in the frame of IGABT. Therefore, the aim of the present EMBRACE analysis was to evaluate the manifestation pattern of vaginal morbidity during the first 2 years of follow-up. Methods and Materials: In total, 588 patients with a median follow-up time of 15 months and information on vaginal morbidity were included. Morbidity was prospectively assessed at baseline, every 3 months during the first year, and every 6 months in the second year according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3, regarding vaginal stenosis, dryness, mucositis, bleeding, fistula, and other symptoms. Crude incidence rates, actuarial probabilities, and prevalence rates were analyzed. Results: At 2 years, the actuarial probability of severe vaginal morbidity (grade ≥3) was 3.6%. However, mild and moderate vaginal symptoms were still pronounced (grade ≥1, 89%; grade ≥2, 29%), of which the majority developed within 6 months. Stenosis was most frequently observed, followed by vaginal dryness. Vaginal bleeding and mucositis were mainly mild and infrequently reported. Conclusion: Severe vaginal morbidity within the first 2 years after definitive radiation (chemo)therapy including IGABT with intracavitary/interstitial techniques for locally advanced cervical cancer is limited and is significantly less than has been reported from earlier studies. Thus, the new adaptive target concept seems to be a safe treatment with regard to the vagina being an organ at risk. However, mild to moderate vaginal morbidity

  2. Manifestation Pattern of Early-Late Vaginal Morbidity After Definitive Radiation (Chemo)Therapy and Image-Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Nout, Remi A.; Tanderup, Kari; Lindegaard, Jacob C.; Westerveld, Henrike; Haie-Meder, Christine; Petrič, Primož; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Dörr, Wolfgang; Pötter, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Brachytherapy in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer has changed substantially because of the introduction of combined intracavitary/interstitial applicators and an adaptive target concept, which is the focus of the prospective, multi-institutional EMBRACE study ( (www.embracestudy.dk)) on image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT). So far, little has been reported about the development of early to late vaginal morbidity in the frame of IGABT. Therefore, the aim of the present EMBRACE analysis was to evaluate the manifestation pattern of vaginal morbidity during the first 2 years of follow-up. Methods and Materials: In total, 588 patients with a median follow-up time of 15 months and information on vaginal morbidity were included. Morbidity was prospectively assessed at baseline, every 3 months during the first year, and every 6 months in the second year according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3, regarding vaginal stenosis, dryness, mucositis, bleeding, fistula, and other symptoms. Crude incidence rates, actuarial probabilities, and prevalence rates were analyzed. Results: At 2 years, the actuarial probability of severe vaginal morbidity (grade ≥3) was 3.6%. However, mild and moderate vaginal symptoms were still pronounced (grade ≥1, 89%; grade ≥2, 29%), of which the majority developed within 6 months. Stenosis was most frequently observed, followed by vaginal dryness. Vaginal bleeding and mucositis were mainly mild and infrequently reported. Conclusion: Severe vaginal morbidity within the first 2 years after definitive radiation (chemo)therapy including IGABT with intracavitary/interstitial techniques for locally advanced cervical cancer is limited and is significantly less than has been reported from earlier studies. Thus, the new adaptive target concept seems to be a safe treatment with regard to the vagina being an organ at risk. However, mild to moderate vaginal morbidity

  3. The Need for Cervical Cancer Control in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women from Romania by Primary Prevention and by Early Detection Using Clinically Validated HPV/DNA Tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Gabriela Ursu

    Full Text Available In Romania, a country with no organized national surveillance program regarding cervical cancer, the early diagnosis of HPV (Human Papilloma Virus infections is a major requirement, especially in HIV-infected women. The objective of this study was to determine the HPV prevalence and type distribution in young HIV-positive women and to assess the difference in the risk factors for developing cervical cancer compared to those of HIV-negative women.We conducted one cross-sectional cohort study from June 2013-September 2014, including 1,032 women: 992 HIV- women who were 36.5 years old (limits: 17 ÷ 84 and 40 HIV + women who were 22.9 years old (limits: 17 ÷ 30 with iatrogenic HIV infected. We detected HPV types with the Linear Array HPV Genotyping test (Roche, Romania.DNA/HPV was detected in 18/40 (45% of the HIV+ patients and in 350/992 (35.2% of the HIV- patients (OR = 1.5, 95%CI 0.76÷2.96. After age adjustment, the overall HPV prevalence was 51.6% in HIV+ versus 63.2% in HIV- women aged under 25, and 22.2% in HPV+ versus 47.2% in HIV- women aged 25-34. We detect HIV being a risk factor for acquiring multiple HPV type infections (OR = 2.30, 95% CI 0.88÷5.97. The eight most common HPV types (high-risk, and low-risk for women below age 30, HIV+ / - were: HPV 16, 18, 31, 51, 58, 68, and 6 and 82 respectively. To assess the risk factors of HIV-positive women for acquiring HPV infection, we analyzed the CD4/μL, ARN/HIV copies/μL, the age group, the number of sexual partners, smoking, and the type of HPV infection (single versus multiple infections. We found that the number of sexual partners and smoking are statistically significant risk factors.Even though there are no significant differences regarding the prevalence of HPV infection in HIV + versus HIV - patients, multiple infections were more frequent in the first group. In our study group young HIV-infected patients under HAART therapy, high number of sexual partners (more than 3 and smoking

  4. Cervical Microbiome and Cytokine Profile at Various Stages of Cervical Cancer: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astride Audirac-Chalifour

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer (CC is caused by high-risk human papillomavirus persistence due to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment mediated by cytokines. Vaginal microbiota determines the presence of certain cytokines locally. We assessed the association between cervical microbiota diversity and the histopathological diagnosis of each stage of CC, and we evaluated mRNA cervical expression levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TGF-β1, TNF-α and IFN-γ across the histopathological diagnosis and specific bacterial clusters. We determined the cervical microbiota by high throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons and classified it in community state types (CST. Mean difference analyses between alpha-diversity and histopathological diagnosis were carried out, as well as a β-diversity analysis within the histological diagnosis. Cervical cytokine mRNA expression was analyzed across the CSTs and the histopathological diagnoses. We found a significant difference in microbiota's diversity in NCL-HPV negative women vs those with squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL and CC(p = 0.006, p = 0.036.When β-diversity was evaluated, the CC samples showed the highest variation within groups (p<0.0006 and the largest distance compared to NCL-HPV negative ones (p<0.00001. The predominant bacteria in women with normal cytology were L. crispatus and L. iners, whereas for SIL, it was Sneathia spp. and for CC, Fusobacterium spp. We found higher median cervical levels of IL-4 and TGF-β1 mRNA in the CST dominated by Fusobacterium spp. These results suggest that the cervical microbiota may be implicated in cervical cancer pathology. Further cohort studies are needed to validate these findings.

  5. Brachytherapy in the treatment of cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Robyn Banerjee,1 Mitchell Kamrava21Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Dramatic advances have been made in brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Radiation treatment planning has evolved from two-dimensional to three-dimensional, incorporating magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography into the treatment paradigm. This allows for better delineation and coverage of the tumor, as well as improved avoidance of surrounding organs. Consequently, advanced brachytherapy can achieve very high rates of local control with a reduction in morbidity, compared with historic approaches. This review provides an overview of state-of-the-art gynecologic brachytherapy, with a focus on recent advances and their implications for women with cervical cancer.Keywords: cervical cancer, brachytherapy, image-guided brachytherapy

  6. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine: Future of Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannatul Fardows

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a deadly cancer that clutches lives of the women in most of the cases due to lack of consciousness about the disease in the developing countries. It remains a threat which is second only to breast cancer in overall disease burden for women throughout the world. Cervical cancer is almost a preventable disease by prophylactic vaccine and routine screening. Both Cervarix and Gardasil vaccines have been effective in preventing persistent infection with targeted HPV types and in preventing cervical intraepithelial lesions. It is safe and nearly 100% effective if given before onset of sexual activity. This review article is aimed to explore different aspects of this vaccine as well as to develop awareness among health professionals of different disciplines.

  7. [Incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X Y; Zheng, R S; Sun, K X; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Zou, X N; Chen, W Q; He, J

    2018-04-23

    Objective: To estimate the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in China based on the cancer registry data in 2014, collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR). Methods: There were 449 cancer registries submitted cervical cancer incidence and deaths in 2014 to NCCR. After evaluating the data quality, 339 registries' data were accepted for analysis and stratified by areas (urban/rural) and age group. Combined with data on national population in 2014, the nationwide incidence and mortality of cervical cancer were estimated. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results: Qualified 339 cancer registries covered a total of 288 243 347 populations (144 061 915 in urban and 144 181 432 in rural areas). The percentage of morphologically verified cases and death certificate-only cases were 86.07% and 1.01%, respectively. The mortality to incidence ratio was 0.30. The estimates of new cases were about 102 000 in China in 2014, with a crude incidence rate of 15.30/100 000. The age-standardized incidence rates by China standard population (ASR China) and world standard population (ASR world) of cervical cancer were 11.57/100 000 and 10.61/100 000, respectively. Cumulative incidence rate of cervical cancer in China was 1.11%. The crude and ASR China incidence rates in urban areas were 15.27/100 000 and 11.16/100 000, respectively, whereas those were 15.34/100 000 and 12.14/100 000 in rural areas. The estimates of cervical cancer deaths were about 30 400 in China in 2014, with a crude mortality rate of 4.57/100 000. The ASR China and ASR world mortality rates were 3.12/100 000 and 2.98/100 000, respectively, with a cumulative mortality rate (0-74 years old) of 0.33%. The crude and ASR China mortality rates were 4.44/100 000 and 2.92/100 000 in urban areas, respectively, whereas those were 4.72/100 000 and 3.39/100 000 in rural areas. Conclusions: There is still a heavy burden of

  8. Predictors of cervical cancer being at an advanced stage at diagnosis in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Sudan, with more than two-thirds of all women with invasive cervical cancer being diagnosed at an advanced stage (stages III and IV). The lack of a screening program for cervical cancer in Sudan may contribute to the late presentation...... of this cancer, but other factors potentially associated with advanced stages of cervical cancer at diagnosis are unknown. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between age, marital status, ethnicity, health insurance coverage, residence in an urban vs a rural setting, and stage (at...... diagnosis) of cervical cancer in Sudan....

  9. Preferences for cervical cancer screening: The role of implicit associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korfage, I.J.; Kwaadsteniet, E.W. de; Voorst, A. van; Stiggelbout, A.M.; Vries, M. de; Pieterse, A.H.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Implicit associations influence behaviour, but their impact on cancer screening intentions is unknown. Methods: We assessed implicit associations with cervical cancer screening using an evaluative priming task. Participants were shown primes ('Pap test', neutral or non-word) followed by

  10. Women's perceived susceptibility to and utilisation of cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-24

    Oct 24, 2014 ... Few women make use of these cancer screening services in Malawi and ..... 11.5. 2. < 0.003. X2, Chi-Square; df, degrees of freedom; p, probability. ... cervical cancer screening services than single, divorced or widowed ...

  11. Physical Activity and Cervical Cancer Testing among American Indian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla B.; Bogart, T. Andy; Duncan, Glen E.; Jacobsen, Clemma; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Studies have shown that women who engage in high levels of physical activity have higher rates of cancer screening, including Papanicalaou (Pap) tests. Because American Indian (AI) women are at high risk for cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, we examined Pap screening prevalence and assessed whether physical activity was associated…

  12. Factors associated with management of cervical cancer patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-seven percent of the cervical cancer patients were referred to Ocean Road Cancer Institute for radiotherapy and or chemotherapy. Patients discharged home for palliative care were 30% and 17% patients died at the hospital. Known HIV positive patients were significantly associated with death and terminal care seen ...

  13. Screening for Cervical Cancer: A Review of Outcome among Infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the second leading female cancer world-wide and the most common female ... Interestingly, it has a pre-invasive stage, which can be detected through screening. ... primarily to screen for cervical cancer and where they exist, the acceptance ...

  14. Clinico-pathological characteristics of cervical cancer in Ghanaian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    This study found high prevalence of cervical cancer among female geni- tal tract cancers in Accra Ghana. ..... (serotypes 16, 18, 33, 35, 45) of human papilloma- virus (HPV), that are known to cause the condition and the high prevalence of HIV ...

  15. Awareness of cervical cancer and its prevention among young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cancer of the cervix is a major public health issue in the developing countries. The burden of the disease is considerable with associated morbidity and mortality among women in their productive years. The lack of awareness and adequate information about cervical cancer and its prevention may be ...

  16. Knowledge, Practices and Education of Clients on Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Most patients with cancer of the cervix present late with poor prognosis. Health workers' knowledge and utilization of the screening services might influence their clients. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, practice and education of clients on cervical cancer and its screening among female ...

  17. Humeral Metastasis from Cervical Cancer: A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Chhabra; KanikaTaneja; Megha Ralli; Sunita Singh; Aditi Arora; Sohrab Arora; Pansi Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Long bone metastasis in cervical cancer is a rare presentation generally seen in the lumbar column or ribs. The reported rates of bone metastases are between 15%-29%. It is associated with poor prognosis. Bone scan and magnetic resonance imaging are useful techniques for diagnosis. In this case report, a 32-year old female with a previous history of cervical carcinoma FIGO stage IIIA presented with severe pain and swelling in her right humerus. X-ray and magnetic resonance imag...

  18. Cervical cancer in South Africa: An over- view of current status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current estimates are that 493 243 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer per ... estimated that 78 897 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer annually and 61 671 ..... eye aided by a bright light source. ... References. 1. Ferly Bray F ...

  19. Prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells from patients with risk factors for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis Campos, Lízia Maria Franco dos; Luz Dias, Francisca da; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido

    2008-11-01

    Pap smears are the most common and inexpensive screening method for cervical cancer. We analyzed micronucleus prevalence in exfoliated cervical mucosa cells, to investigate associations between increased numbers of micronuclei and risk factors for cervical cancer. Analytical cross-sectional study, at Instituto de Pesquisa em Oncologia (IPON). Exfoliated cervical cells were obtained from 101 patients between September 2004 and November 2005. Patients' ages, habits (passive or active smoking, alcoholism and numbers of sexual partners), age at first sexual intercourse, contraceptive methods used, histories of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormone replacement therapy, numbers of pregnancies and abortions, inflammatory cytology and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were obtained. Cells were collected using Ayre spatulas, transferred to vials containing 0.9% saline solution for micronucleus tests and analyzed at 1000x magnification. The number of micronuclei in 1,000 epithelial cells per patient sample was counted. Comparisons between groups with active (7.9 +/- 7.8) and passive (7.2 +/- 10.6) smoking versus no smoking (3.7 +/- 5.1); with/without alcoholism (7.8 +/- 1.4 and 6.9 +/- 10.1); with/without inflammatory cytology (10.7 +/- 10.5 and 1.3 +/- 1.7); and with CIN I, II and III and no CIN (respectively 4.3 +/- 4.3, 10.6 +/- 5.3, 22.7 +/- 11.9 and 1.3 +/- 1.4) found elevated micronucleus prevalence (P < 0.05). We concluded that the prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells was greater in patients with one or more risk factors for uterine cervical cancer than in patients without risk factors.

  20. Prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells from patients with risk factors for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lízia Maria Franco dos Reis Campos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Pap smears are the most common and inexpensive screening method for cervical cancer. We analyzed micronucleus prevalence in exfoliated cervical mucosa cells, to investigate associations between increased numbers of micronuclei and risk factors for cervical cancer. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study, at Instituto de Pesquisa em Oncologia (IPON. METHODS: Exfoliated cervical cells were obtained from 101 patients between September 2004 and November 2005. Patients' ages, habits (passive or active smoking, alcoholism and numbers of sexual partners, age at first sexual intercourse, contraceptive methods used, histories of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormone replacement therapy, numbers of pregnancies and abortions, inflammatory cytology and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN were obtained. Cells were collected using Ayre spatulas, transferred to vials containing 0.9% saline solution for micronucleus tests and analyzed at 1000x magnification. The number of micronuclei in 1,000 epithelial cells per patient sample was counted. RESULTS: Comparisons between groups with active (7.9 ± 7.8 and passive (7.2 ± 10.6 smoking versus no smoking (3.7 ± 5.1; with/without alcoholism (7.8 ± 1.4 and 6.9 ± 10.1; with/without inflammatory cytology (10.7 ± 10.5 and 1.3 ± 1.7; and with CIN I, II and III and no CIN (respectively 4.3 ± 4.3, 10.6 ± 5.3, 22.7 ± 11.9 and 1.3 ± 1.4 found elevated micronucleus prevalence (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells was greater in patients with one or more risk factors for uterine cervical cancer than in patients without risk factors.

  1. The German cervical cancer screening model: development and validation of a decision-analytic model for cervical cancer screening in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Uwe; Sroczynski, Gaby; Hillemanns, Peter; Engel, Jutta; Stabenow, Roland; Stegmaier, Christa; Voigt, Kerstin; Gibis, Bernhard; Hölzel, Dieter; Goldie, Sue J

    2006-04-01

    We sought to develop and validate a decision-analytic model for the natural history of cervical cancer for the German health care context and to apply it to cervical cancer screening. We developed a Markov model for the natural history of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening in the German health care context. The model reflects current German practice standards for screening, diagnostic follow-up and treatment regarding cervical cancer and its precursors. Data for disease progression and cervical cancer survival were obtained from the literature and German cancer registries. Accuracy of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing was based on meta-analyses. We performed internal and external model validation using observed epidemiological data for unscreened women from different German cancer registries. The model predicts life expectancy, incidence of detected cervical cancer cases, lifetime cervical cancer risks and mortality. The model predicted a lifetime cervical cancer risk of 3.0% and a lifetime cervical cancer mortality of 1.0%, with a peak cancer incidence of 84/100,000 at age 51 years. These results were similar to observed data from German cancer registries, German literature data and results from other international models. Based on our model, annual Pap screening could prevent 98.7% of diagnosed cancer cases and 99.6% of deaths due to cervical cancer in women completely adherent to screening and compliant to treatment. Extending the screening interval from 1 year to 2, 3 or 5 years resulted in reduced screening effectiveness. This model provides a tool for evaluating the long-term effectiveness of different cervical cancer screening tests and strategies.

  2. Cervical cancer screening in women referred to healthcare centres in Tabriz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshbaf-Khalili, Azizeh; Salehi-Pourmehr, Hanieh; Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Yaghoubi, Sina; Gahremani-Nasab, Parvaneh

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among Iranian women and among the few cancers that could be easily diagnosed in the pre-malignant stage. We aimed to assess the status of cervical cancer screening in women referred to health care centres in Tabriz, northwest Iran. This descriptive-analytical study was done on 441 women referred to health care centres of Tabriz, northwest Iran. The centres were selected using the multi-stage cluster sampling method. The participants were selected from the active records of those centres. A questionnaire regarding the socio-demographic characteristics and cervical cancer screening and reasons for referring or not referring for screening was completed by the participants A P marriage or having sexual intercourse at a young age, history of obvious cervical infection, cautery, cryotherapy or repeated curettage), age and type of family planning] in screening was controlled. Suitable and continuous educational programmes especially for high risk women should be implemented through the health care services. Preparing educational brochures and pamphlets and providing adequate training on the necessity of early referral and marriage counseling could also be effective in improving woman's awareness and performance.

  3. A joint model of persistent human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer risk: Implications for cervical cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Katki, Hormuzd A.; Cheung, Li C.; Fetterman, Barbara; Castle, Philip E.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari

    2015-01-01

    New cervical cancer screening guidelines in the US and many European countries recommend that women get tested for human papillomavirus (HPV). To inform decisions about screening intervals, we calculate the increase in precancer/cancer risk per year of continued HPV infection. However, both time to onset of precancer/cancer and time to HPV clearance are interval-censored, and onset of precancer/cancer strongly informatively censors HPV clearance. We analyze this bivariate informatively interv...

  4. Knowledge about cervical cancer screening and its practice among female health care workers in southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulla D

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dubale Dulla,1 Deresse Daka,2 Negash Wakgari1 1School of Nursing and Midwifery, 2Department of Medical Science, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia Background: Cervical cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among the women in the world. Early screening for cervical cancer is a key intervention in reduction of maternal deaths. Health care workers have a significant contribution to improve cervical cancer screening practice among women. Hence, this study aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among female health care workers in southern Ethiopia.Methods: Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted during March and April, 2015. All hospitals in Hawassa city administration and Sidama zone were purposively selected. A simple random sampling technique was used to draw the health centers. After proportional allocations to their respective health facilities, a total of 367 female health workers were selected by simple random sampling technique. A structured and pretested questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were entered to SPSS version 20.0 for further analysis. Logistic regression analyses were used to see the association of different variables.Results: Out of the total respondents, 319 (86.9% had a good level of knowledge on cervical cancer. Similarly, a majority of them, 329 (89.6%, 321 (87.5%, and 295 (80.4%, knew about the risk factors, symptoms, and outcomes of cervical cancer, respectively. More than two thirds of the respondents, 283 (77.1%, knew that there is a procedure used to detect premalignant cervical lesions and 138 (37.6% of them mentioned visual inspection with acetic acid as a screening method. In this study, only 42 (11.4% of the respondents were screened for cervical cancer (confidence interval [CI]: 8.7, 13.9. Being a physician (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.12, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.79 and working in a cervical cancer

  5. HIV serostatus and tumor differentiation among patients with cervical cancer at Bugando Medical Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matovelo Dismas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence for the association between Human immunodeficiency virus infection and cervical cancer has been contrasting, with some studies reporting increased risk of cervical cancer among HIV positive women while others report no association. Similar evidence from Tanzania is scarce as HIV seroprevalence among cervical cancer patients has not been rigorously evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between HIV and tumor differentiation among patients with cervical cancer at Bugando Medical Centre and Teaching Hospital in Mwanza, North-Western Tanzania. Methods This was a descriptive analytical study involving suspected cervical cancer patients seen at the gynaecology outpatient clinic and in the gynaecological ward from November 2010 to March 2011. Results A total of 91 suspected cervical cancer patients were seen during the study period and 74 patients were histologically confirmed with cervical cancer. The mean age of those confirmed of cervical cancer was 50.5 ± 12.5 years. Most patients (39 of the total 74–52.7% were in early disease stages (stages IA-IIA. HIV infection was diagnosed in 22 (29.7% patients. On average, HIV positive women with early cervical cancer disease had significantly more CD4+ cells than those with advanced disease (385.8 ± 170.4 95% CI 354.8-516.7 and 266.2 ± 87.5, 95% CI 213.3-319.0 respectively p = 0.042. In a binary logistic regression model, factors associated with HIV seropositivity were ever use of hormonal contraception (OR 5.79 95% CI 1.99-16.83 p = 0.001, aged over 50 years (OR 0.09 95% CI 0.02-0.36 p = 0.001, previous history of STI (OR 3.43 95% CI 1.10-10.80 p = 0.035 and multiple sexual partners OR 5.56 95% CI 1.18-26.25 p = 0.030. Of these factors, only ever use of hormonal contraception was associated with tumor cell differentiation (OR 0.16 95% CI 0.06-0.49 p = 0.001. HIV seropositivity was weakly associated with

  6. Knowledge and beliefs about cervical cancer screening among men in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M S; Amoateng, P

    2012-09-01

    The age-standardized mortality rate for cervical cancer in Ghana, West Africa is more than three times the global cervical cancer mortality rate (27.6/100,000 vs. 7.8/100,000 respectively). The Pap test and visual inspection with acetic acid are available at public and private hospitals in Ghana. Approximately, 2.7% of Ghanaian women obtain cervical cancer screenings regularly. Men in middle-income countries play a key role in cervical cancer prevention. Increasing spousal support for cervical cancer screening may increase screening rates in Ghana. Five focus groups were conducted with Ghanaian men (N = 29) to assess their cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening knowledge and beliefs. The qualitative data was analyzed via indexed coding. Targets for education interventions were identified including inaccurate knowledge about cervical cancer and stigmatizing beliefs about cervical cancer risk factors. Cultural taboos regarding women's health care behaviours were also identified. Several participants indicated that they would be willing to provide spousal support for cervical cancer screening if they knew more about the disease and the screening methods. Men play a significant role in the health behaviours of some Ghanaian women. Cervical cancer education interventions targeting Ghanaian men are needed to correct misconceptions and increase spousal support for cervical cancer screening.

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening Interventions for U.S. Latinas: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Dattalo, Patrick; Crowley, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    The high cervical cancer mortality rate among Latinas compared with other ethnic groups in the United States is of major concern. Latina women are almost twice as likely to die from cervical cancer as non-Hispanic white women. To improve Latina cervical cancer screening rates, interventions have been developed and tested. This systematic review…

  8. Screening for the Prevention of Cervical Cancer: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Philip Castle is a Professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Population Health at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, N.Y., USA and the CEO and Co-Founder of the Global Coalition Against Cervical Cancer (Arlington, VA, USA). He is also a Visiting Professor at the Cancer Institute/Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College in Beijing, P.R. China and was Honorary Professor at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Previously, Dr. Castle was the Chief Scientific Officer of the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) (2011-2). He was a Senior, Tenured Investigator (2010-11) and Tenure-Track Investigator (2003-10) in the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG) at the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI). He received his Ph.D. in Biophysics in 1995 and M.P.H. in Epidemiology in 2000 from the Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Castle regularly participates in the development of national and international guidelines for cervical cancer prevention. Dr. Castle serves as a consultant for several countries, including Nicaragua, Norway, and Australia, on the development of national cervical cancer prevention programs and is participating in/consulting on pilot/demonstration projects in El Salvador and Botswana. He was recently a member of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Prevention (NBCCEDP) Advisory Committee. Dr. Castle is a member of the Board of Directors of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP). He serves as steering committee member of the American Society for Clinical Oncology’s Cervical Cancer Resource Stratified Secondary Prevention Guideline Panel. For his work in cervical cancer prevention, Dr. Castle has received (1) An EUROGIN Distinguished Service Award (2006); (2) a NIH Merit Award for introduction of HPV testing into low-resource settings in the U.S. (2007); (3) a

  9. Methylation and silencing of the retinoic acid receptor-β2 gene in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, Tatyana; Petrenko, Anatolii; Gritsko, Tatyana; Vinokourova, Svetlana; Eshilev, Ernest; Kobzeva, Vera; Kisseljov, Fjodor; Kisseljova, Natalia

    2002-01-01

    Expression of the retinoic acid receptor β2 (RAR-β2), a putative tumor suppressor gene, is reduced in various human cancers, including squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the uterine cervix. The mechanism of the inhibition of RAR-β2 expression remains obscure. We examined whether methylation of RAR-β2 gene could be responsible for this silencing in cervical SCC. Expression of RAR-β2 mRNA and methylation status of the 5' region of RAR-β2 gene were examined in 20 matched specimens from patients with cervical SCC and in three cervical cancer cell lines by Northern blot analysis and methylation-specific PCR (MSP) assay or Southern blot analysis respectively. In 8 out 20 cervical SCC (40%) the levels of RAR-β2 mRNA were decreased or undetectable in comparison with non-neoplastic cervix tissues. All 8 tumors with reduced levels of RAR-β2 mRNA expression showed methylation of the promoter and the first exon expressed in the RAR-β2 transcript. The RAR-β2 gene from non-neoplastic cervical tissues was mostly unmethylated and expressed, but methylated alleles of the gene were found in three samples of the morphologically normal tissues adjacent to the tumors. Three cervical cancer cell lines with extremely low level of RAR-β2 mRNA expression, SiHA, HeLA and CaSki, also showed methylation of this region of the RAR-β2 gene. These findings suggest that methylation of the 5' region of RAR-β2 gene may contribute to gene silencing and that methylation of this region may be an important and early event in cervical carcinogenesis. These findings may be useful to make retinoids more effective as preventive and therapeutic agents in combination with inhibitors of DNA methylation

  10. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for advanced cervical cancer. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Junichi; Hashimoto, Ichiro; Seki, Noriko; Hongo, Atsushi; Mizutani, Yasushi; Miyagi, Yasunari; Yoshinouchi, Mitsuo; Kudo, Takafumi

    2001-01-01

    Recently, attempts have made to use radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy in various solid tumors including cervical cancer. Twenty-four patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were treated with concurrent Carboplatin (16-24 mg/m 2 /day) or Nedaplatin (20 mg/m 2 /week) and conventional radiotherapy. Of 13 evaluable patients, there were nine complete responders and four partial responders. There was no renal damage or grade 4 hematological toxicity. Gastrointestinal adverse reactions were mild. One patient had grade 3 dermatologic toxicity after delayed radiation therapy. This pilot study suggests that daily Carboplatin or weekly Nedaplatin administered with standard radiation therapy is safe, well-tolerated, and thus may be useful as a radiation sensitizer in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. (author)

  11. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Aasmaa, Auni

    2009-01-01

    with education, training and communication among women, medical professionals and authorities are required, accordingly. The study indicates that, despite substantial efforts, the recommendations of the Council of the EU on organised population-based screening for cervical cancer are not yet fulfilled. Decision......The aim of the study was to compare current policy, organisation and coverage of cervical cancer screening programmes in the European Union (EU) member states with European and other international recommendations. According to the questionnaire-based survey, there are large variations in cervical...... cancer screening policies and inadequacies in the key organisational elements of the programme such as registration and monitoring required for quality-assurance and fail-safe mechanisms. Based on data from available screening registers, coverage of the screening test taken within the population...

  12. The Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Bosch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer has been recognized as a rare outcome of a common Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI. The etiologic association is restricted to a limited number of viral types of the family of the Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs. The association is causal in nature and under optimal testing systems, HPV DNA can be identified in all specimens of invasive cervical cancer. As a consequence, it has been claimed that HPV infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The evidence is consistent worldwide and implies both the Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC, the adenocarcinomas and the vast majority (i.e. > 95% of the immediate precursors, namely High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL/Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 (CIN3/Carcinoma in situ. Co-factors that modify the risk among HPV DNA positive women include the use of oral contraceptives (OC for five or more years, smoking, high parity (five or more full term pregnancies and previous exposure to other sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2. Women exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are at high risk for HPV infection, HPV DNA persistency and progression of HPV lesions to cervical cancer.

  13. Evaluation of the knowledge regarding prevention of cervical cancer among women from a Health Unit

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    Ernandes Gonçalves Dias

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Cervical cancer is a disease with high degree of morbidity and mortality, but has early detection by performing screening test which allows healing. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge regarding prevention of Cervical Cancer among women in a Basic Health Unit in Minas Gerais. Methods: This is a study descriptive with approach qualitative with 44 women. Was used as the data collection instrument of a semistructured script consisting of subjective questions. Data were collected between March April 2014. Results: The women had age of 40-57 years old, 33 (75% were married, 43(97,73% had children, 20 (45,45% had incomplete primary education, 36 (81,82% were responsible for all financial income of the family and lived with up to the minimum wage. As for the Pap smear, considered important, however showed little clarity as to the meaning of prevention. Performed the test as means of prevention and early diagnosis of Cervical Cancer. Among women who did not perform the preventive the cause was discouragement. Conclusion: We conclude that although the Pap smear be offered for free, there is still women who do not have adequate knowledge about the same and not makes periodically, fitting to health services intensify health education programs to seeking to raise awareness about the importance of regular practice of the Pap smear. Keywords: Cervix Uteri. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms. Health centers.

  14. Awareness, perception and factors affecting utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan, Nigeria: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndikom Chizoma

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the years awareness and uptake of cervical cancer screening services has remained poor in developing countries. Problems associated with cervical cancer incidence include late reporting, ignorance and cultural issues relating to cervical cancer screening. This study sought to explore the awareness, perception and utilization of cervical cancer screening among women in Ibadan as well as factors that influence utilization. Method This is a qualitative study that utilized Eight Focus Group Discussions to collect information from women in selected health facilities in Ibadan, South West, Nigeria. The 82 participants were purposely recruited from women attending Antenatal clinics in 4 secondary and 4 primary health care facilities after approval was received from the Institutional Review Board in charge of the facilities. The focus group discussions were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were analyzed into themes. Findings The study provided qualitative information on the awareness, perception of the utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan. Participants were mainly married women (92.7%, mean age =27.6, SD =4.5, mainly traders (39% and from Yoruba ethnic backgrounds (87.8% and had secondary education (39%. The respondents reported not being aware of cervical cancer and were not utilizing the services. Though they did not know what cervical cancer screening entailed or the screening methods, they still believed that it is important since like for other diseases will help in early detection and treatment. The participants were eager to get more information from nurses on cervical cancer about cervical cancer screening. The major factors identified by the women that influence screening utilization were ignorance, Illiteracy, belief in not being at risk, having many contending issues, nonchalant attitude to their health, financial constraint and fear of having a positive result

  15. Awareness, perception and factors affecting utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan, Nigeria: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndikom, Chizoma Millicent; Ofi, Bola Abosede

    2012-08-06

    Over the years awareness and uptake of cervical cancer screening services has remained poor in developing countries. Problems associated with cervical cancer incidence include late reporting, ignorance and cultural issues relating to cervical cancer screening. This study sought to explore the awareness, perception and utilization of cervical cancer screening among women in Ibadan as well as factors that influence utilization. This is a qualitative study that utilized Eight Focus Group Discussions to collect information from women in selected health facilities in Ibadan, South West, Nigeria. The 82 participants were purposely recruited from women attending Antenatal clinics in 4 secondary and 4 primary health care facilities after approval was received from the Institutional Review Board in charge of the facilities. The focus group discussions were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were analyzed into themes. The study provided qualitative information on the awareness, perception of the utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan. Participants were mainly married women (92.7%), mean age =27.6, SD =4.5, mainly traders (39%) and from Yoruba ethnic backgrounds (87.8%) and had secondary education (39%). The respondents reported not being aware of cervical cancer and were not utilizing the services. Though they did not know what cervical cancer screening entailed or the screening methods, they still believed that it is important since like for other diseases will help in early detection and treatment. The participants were eager to get more information from nurses on cervical cancer about cervical cancer screening. The major factors identified by the women that influence screening utilization were ignorance, Illiteracy, belief in not being at risk, having many contending issues, nonchalant attitude to their health, financial constraint and fear of having a positive result. There is an urgent need for more enlightenment

  16. Can we rely on cancer mortality data? Checking the validity of cervical cancer mortality data for Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primic Zakelj, M.; Pompe Kirn, V.; Skrlec, F.; Selb, J.

    2001-01-01

    Background. Valid inference on cervical cancer mortality is very difficult since - on the basis of death certificates - it is not always possible to distinguish between cervix, corpus and unspecified uterine cancer deaths. Our aim was to estimate the extent to which cervical cancer as the official cause of death reflects the true mortality from cervical cancer in Slovenia. Material and methods. The data on 2245 deaths from cervix, corpus uteri, and uterus-unspecified cancers for the period 1985-1999 were linked to the Cancer Registry of Slovenia database from the mortality database of Slovenia. Results. Officially, in the period 1985-1999, there were 878 cervical cancer deaths. The comparison of these causes of death with the cancer sites registered in the Cancer Registry revealed that they include only 87.7% patients with a previous diagnosis of cervical cancer. Of 650 corpus uteri cancer deaths, 17. 1 % of patients were registered to have cervical cancer, and of 717 unspecified uterine cancer deaths, 31.4% were registered. Taking into account the correctly identified cervical cancer cases among cervical cancer deaths and misclassified cervical cancer deaths as corpus uteri and unspecified uterine, the corrected number of deaths would be 1106. Conclusions. When evaluating the impact of cervical cancer mortality from national mortality rates, the stated underestimation should be taken into account. However, this does not hold for some other cancers. (author)

  17. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  18. Cervical Cancer in Women with Unhealthy Cervix in a Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubeen

    women with grossly unhealthy cervix in a rural population and to get an overview of ... to be implemented with immediate effect to early diagnose cases to decrease the ... hygiene and early marriage are closely related to the ... and incidence of cervicitis is high. .... other factors such as smoking, diet, oral contraceptives,.

  19. Early determination of uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma radioresponse identifies high- and low-response tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Kiyoshi; Oki, Akinori; Tanaka, Yumiko Oishi; Onishi, Kayoko; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Satoh, Toyomi; Tsunoda, Hajime; Hata, Masaharu; Sugahara, Shinji; Tokuuye, Koichi; Akine, Yasuyuki; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether early-assessed radioresponse of tumors corresponds with late-assessed radioresponse, which is associated with local disease control in radiotherapy (RT) for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: This prospective study included 12 patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma treated by RT with or without concurrent cisplatin. Tumor volume was estimated by scheduled magnetic resonance imaging before (preRT), 3 to 4 weeks after (early assessment), and 6 to 7 weeks after (late assessment) RT initiation. Radioresponse was assessed with tumor shrinkage curves based on these volumes. Radioresponse for each tumor was calculated as the slope (day -1 ) of the shrinkage curve by fitting to an exponential equation. Results: Early-assessed radioresponse ranged from 0.001 to 0.106 day -1 (median, 0.021 day -1 ) and late-assessed radioresponse from 0.009 to 0.091 day -1 (median, 0.021 day -1 ), with no significant difference between them (p = 0.1191). The early-assessed radioresponse correlated with the late-assessed radioresponse (R 2 = 0.714, p = 0.0005). Conclusions: Correspondence between early- and late-assessed radioresponse in a series of tumors showing a wide range of radioresponse was not particularly close overall. However, early assessment of radioresponsiveness did seem to be useful for characterizing those tumors with high or low radioresponsiveness

  20. Detention of HPV L1 Capsid Protein and hTERC Gene in Screening of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Bin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: To investigate the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV L1 capsid protein, and human telomerase RNA component (hTERC in cervical cancer and the role of detection of both genes in screening of cervical cancer.   Materials and Methods: A total of 309 patients were recruited and cervical exfoliated cells were collected. Immunocytochemistry was employed to detect HPV L1 capsid protein, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH was performed to detect the hTERC. Results: The expression of HPV L1 capsid protein reduced with the increase of the histological grade of cervical cells and was negatively related to the grade of cervical lesions. However, the expression of hTERC increased with the increase of the histological grade and positively associated with the grade of cervical lesions. The proportion of patients with L1(-/hTERC(+ was higher in patients with histological grade of CIN2 or higher than that in those with histological grade of CIN1. The L1(+/hTERC(- and L1(-/hTERC(- were negatively related to the grade of cervical lesions. L1(-/hTERC(+ was positively associated with the grade of cervical lesions. The L1/hTERC ratio increased. The negative predictive value of both HPV L1 and hTERC was higher than that of HPV L1 or hTERC, but there was no marked difference in the screening efficacy of cervical cancer among HPV L1, hTERC and HPV L1+hTERC. Conclusion: HPV L1 capsid protein and hTERC gene may serve as markers for the early diagnosis and prediction of cervical lesions. The increase in L1/hTERC ratio reflects the progression of cervical lesions to a certain extent.

  1. Cervical cancer screening in adolescents: an evidence-based internet education program for practice improvement among advanced practice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choma, Kim; McKeever, Amy E

    2015-02-01

    The literature reports great variation in the knowledge levels and application of the recent changes of cervical cancer screening guidelines into clinical practice. Evidence-based screening guidelines for the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer offers healthcare providers the opportunity to improve practice patterns among female adolescents by decreasing psychological distress as well as reducing healthcare costs and morbidities associated with over-screening. The purpose of this pilot intervention study was to determine the effects of a Web-based continuing education unit (CEU) program on advanced practice nurses' (APNs) knowledge of current cervical cancer screening evidence-based recommendations and their application in practice. This paper presents a process improvement project as an example of a way to disseminate updated evidence-based practice guidelines among busy healthcare providers. This Web-based CEU program was developed, piloted, and evaluated specifically for APNs. The program addressed their knowledge level of cervical cancer and its relationship with high-risk human papillomavirus. It also addressed the new cervical cancer screening guidelines and the application of those guidelines into clinical practice. Results of the study indicated that knowledge gaps exist among APNs about cervical cancer screening in adolescents. However, when provided with a CEU educational intervention, APNs' knowledge levels increased and their self-reported clinical practice behaviors changed in accordance with the new cervical cancer screening guidelines. Providing convenient and readily accessible up-to-date electronic content that provides CEU enhances the adoption of clinical practice guidelines, thereby decreasing the potential of the morbidities associated with over-screening for cervical cancer in adolescents and young women. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for cervical cancer and pre-cancerous lesions in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuza, Jean Damascène; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Muhimpundu, Marie Aimee; Pace, Lydia Eleanor; Ntaganira, Joseph; Riedel, David James

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer prevalence in Rwanda has not been well-described. Visual inspection with acetic acid or Lugol solution has been shown to be effective for cervical cancer screening in low resource settings. The aim of the study is to understand the prevalence and risk factors for cervical cancer and pre- cancerous lesions among Rwandan women between 30 and 50 old undergoing screening. This cross-sectional analytical study was done in 3 districts of Rwanda from October 2010 to June 2013. Women aged 30 to 50 years screened for cervical cancer by trained doctors, nurses and midwives. Prevalence of pre-cancerous and cancerous cervical lesions was determined. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess risk factors associated with cervical cancer. The prevalence of pre-cancer and invasive cervical cancer was 5.9% (95% CI 4.5, 7.5) and 1.7% (95% CI 0.9, 2.5), respectively. Risk factors associated with cervical cancer in multivariate analysis included initiation of sexual activity at less than 20 years (OR=1.75; 95% CI=(1.01, 3.03); being unmarried (single, divorced and widowed) (OR=3.29; 95% CI=( 1.26, 8.60)); Older age of participants (OR= 0.52; 95% CI= (0.28, 0.97)), older age at the first pregnancy (OR=2.10; 95% CI=(1.20, 3.67) and higher number of children born (OR=0.42; 95%CI =(0.23, 0.76)) were protective. Cervical cancer continues to be a public health problem in Rwanda, but screening using VIA is practical and feasible even in rural settings.

  3. Early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongen, J.A. van

    1989-01-01

    The therapy of early breast cancer has been changing during the last decennium. It requires a multi-disciplinary approach and in each of these disciplines improvements have been implemented. The result is that treatment schedules can now be adapted to specific subgroups. In this review early breast cancer is defined as operable disease, using the criteria set out by Haagensen. Emphasis is given to describing the new developments in prognostic criteria, since these form the basis for creating subgroups for specific treatment schedules. Distinction is made between the factors relating to growth rate and those relating to metastatic potential. Data on screening promises a beneficial effect of the implementation of screening in national health care programs. Important shifts are seen in treatment schedules; the place of postoperative radiotherapy after classic ablative treatment is being challenged, whereas it plays a major role in the new breast conserving therapy schedules. The data mentioned in the review suggest that a large proportion of 'operable' cases can be treated with breast conservation but details in the technique of breast conserving therapy are still under investigation. They form a major part of the coming prospective studies in breast cancer. Improvements in reconstruction techniques, creating better cosmetic results, make reconstruction more competitive with breast conserving therapy. The use of chemotherapy and endocrine manipulation in early breast cancer has now been clearly confirmed by the overview technique by the Peto-group, thanks to all efforts of individual trialists together. (orig.)

  4. Postoperative radiation for cervical cancer with pathologic risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, Kimberly; Han, Ihn; Deppe, Gunter; Malviya, Vinay; Malone, John; Christensen, Carl; Chuba, Paul; Porter, Arthur

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the efficacy of postoperative radiation therapy for early-stage cervical cancer with pathologic risk factors. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the charts of 83 patients who received postoperative radiation therapy at our facility from March 1980 to November 1993 for early stage cervix cancer with positive surgical margins, positive pelvic or periaortic lymph nodes, lymphovascular space invasion, deep invasion, or for disease discovered incidentally at simple hysterectomy. Twenty-eight patients received low dose rate (LDR) intracavitary radiation with or without external beam pelvic irradiation and 55 patients received external beam pelvic irradiation with high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary implants. Of these 83 patients, 66 were evaluable--20 LDR and 46 HDR patients. All patients received 45-50 Gy external beam irradiation and 20 Gy LDR equivalent intracavitary irradiation prescribed to 0.5 cm below the mucosa. Ninety percent of the LDR group and 92% of the HDR group completed treatment within < 56 days. Treatment-related toxicities were scored according to the GOG toxicity scale. Mean and median follow-up times were 101 months and 111 months (3-172 months) for the LDR group and 42 and 40 months (3-98 months) for the HDR group. Results: The 5-year disease-free survival was 89% for the LDR group and 72% for the HDR group. Local control was observed in 90% (18 out of 20) of the LDR patients and 89% (41 out of 46) of the HDR patients for an overall local control rate of 89.5%. Two of 20 LDR patients (10%) experienced recurrence (two pelvic with distant metastasis). Nine of 46 HDR patients (22%) had recurrence of disease (three pelvic, four distant metastasis, and two pelvic with distant metastasis). In the HDR group, 6 out of 16 (38%) with positive lymph nodes died of disease whereas, 27 out of 30 (90%) of the patients with negative lymph nodes remain free of disease. Three of 20 (15%) LDR patients and 4 out of 46 (9%) HDR patients experienced

  5. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti; Bahar, Arifah

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits

  6. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor and UTM Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits.

  7. A rare case of ileal metastasis from cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, L; David, L; Orban, C; Herlea, V; Toma, L

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 70-year-old woman, with a history of radiation-treated and surgically- resected cervical cancer, who was admitted to our clinic for intermittent sub occlusive symptoms. CT scan revealed a liver nodule and intestinal obstruction. The patient underwent surgery for excision of suspected liver metastasis and resolution of intestinal obstruction.Intraoperatively an ileal tumour was found to be the cause of the obstruction. Anatomo-pathological findings were consistent with an ileal metastasis from the cervical cancer.The liver nodule was only an area of focal steatosis. Celsius.

  8. Sex, drugs, and politics: the HPV vaccine for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Monica J; Carpenter, Laura M

    2008-09-01

    HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world. While most strains are relatively harmless, some increase a woman's risk of developing cervical cancer. This article explores the intimate, contested relationships among etiologies of cervical cancer, development and use of the new HPV vaccine, and contested notions of sexuality. We particularly focus on shifts in US health care and sexual politics, where the vaccine has animated longstanding concerns about vaccination (e.g. parental rights, cost, specialisation) and young women's bodies and behaviour. We conclude that vaccines are a distinctive kind of pharmaceutical, invoking notions of contagion and containment, and that politics shape every aspect of the pharmaceutical life course.

  9. Faith Moves Mountains: An Appalachian Cervical Cancer Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Hatcher, Jennifer; Dignan, Mark B.; Shelton, Brent; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To provide a conceptual description of Faith Moves Mountains (FMM), an intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate burden of cervical cancer among Appalachian women. Methods FMM, a community-based participatory research program designed and implemented in collaboration with churches in rural, southeastern Kentucky, aims to increase cervical cancer screening (Pap tests) through a multiphase process of educational programming and lay health counseling. Results We provide a conceptual overview to key elements of the intervention, including programmatic development, theoretical basis, intervention approach and implementation, and evaluation procedures. Conclusions After numerous modifications, FMM has recruited and retained over 400 women, 30 churches, and has become a change agent in the community. PMID:19320612

  10. Application of wavelet based MFDFA on Mueller matrix images for cervical pre-cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffar, Mohammad; Pradhan, Asima

    2018-02-01

    A systematic study has been conducted on application of wavelet based multifractal de-trended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) on Mueller matrix (MM) images of cervical tissue sections for early cancer detection. Changes in multiple scattering and orientation of fibers are observed by utilizing a discrete wavelet transform (Daubechies) which identifies fluctuations over polynomial trends. Fluctuation profiles, after 9th level decomposition, for all elements of MM qualitatively establish a demarcation of different grades of cancer from normal tissue. Moreover, applying MFDFA on MM images, Hurst exponent profiles for images of MM qualitatively are seen to display differences. In addition, the values of Hurst exponent increase for the diagonal elements of MM with increasing grades of the cervical cancer, while the value for the elements which correspond to linear polarizance decrease. However, for circular polarizance the value increases with increasing grades. These fluctuation profiles reveal the trend of local variation of refractive -indices and along with Hurst exponent profile, may serve as a useful biological metric in the early detection of cervical cancer. The quantitative measurements of Hurst exponent for diagonal and first column (polarizance governing elements) elements which reflect changes in multiple scattering and structural anisotropy in stroma, may be sensitive indicators of pre-cancer.

  11. Radiosensitivity is increased by knockdown of FTS in uterine cervical cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Wo Yoon; Anandharaj, Arunkumar; Cinghu, Senthikumar; Kim, Won Dong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Jae Ran [Dept. of Environmental and Tropical Medicine, Konkuk University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Uterine cervical cancer is still the second largest cancer in women worldwide, despite of effective screening methods. Radiotherapy is used to treat all the stages of cervical cancer and more than 60% of cervical cancer patients receive radiotherapy. New therapeutic targets or approaches are needed to further increase the results of radiotherapy. In the present study, we demonstrated the radiation induced overexpression and nuclear export of FTS in cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, we showed that silencing of FTS expression with FTS shRNA enhanced radiosensitivity of cervical cancer cells, induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis FTS is involved in radioresistance of cervical cancer. Targeted inhibition of FTS can shutdown the key elemental characteristics of cervical cancer and could lead to an effective therapeutic strategy.

  12. Radiosensitivity is increased by knockdown of FTS in uterine cervical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Wo Yoon; Anandharaj, Arunkumar; Cinghu, Senthikumar; Kim, Won Dong; Yu, Jae Ran

    2012-01-01

    Uterine cervical cancer is still the second largest cancer in women worldwide, despite of effective screening methods. Radiotherapy is used to treat all the stages of cervical cancer and more than 60% of cervical cancer patients receive radiotherapy. New therapeutic targets or approaches are needed to further increase the results of radiotherapy. In the present study, we demonstrated the radiation induced overexpression and nuclear export of FTS in cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, we showed that silencing of FTS expression with FTS shRNA enhanced radiosensitivity of cervical cancer cells, induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis FTS is involved in radioresistance of cervical cancer. Targeted inhibition of FTS can shutdown the key elemental characteristics of cervical cancer and could lead to an effective therapeutic strategy

  13. Knowledge and Awareness of Cervical Cancer among HIV-Infected Women in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netsanet Shiferaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among Ethiopian women. Low awareness of cervical cancer, in combination with low health care seeking behavior, is a key challenge for cervical cancer prevention. This study assessed the knowledge of cervical cancer among HIV-infected women in Ethiopia. Methods. A facility-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from August to September 2012 among HIV-infected women between 21 and 49 years of age. Basic descriptive statistics were performed using SPSS. Results. A total of 432 HIV-infected women participated in this study. About 71% of participants had ever heard of cervical cancer. Among women who had ever heard of cervical cancer, 49% did not know the cause while 74% were able to identify at least one risk factor for cervical cancer. Only 33% of women were able to correctly address when women should seek care and 33% identified at least one treatment option for cervical cancer. Conclusion. This study revealed that knowledge about cervical cancer was generally low, in particular for health care seeking behavior and treatment of cervical cancer. Health awareness programs should be strengthened at both community and health facility levels with emphasis highlighting the causes, risk factors, care seeking behaviors, and treatment options for cervical cancer.

  14. Detecting and Treating Cervical Cancer Using Diagnostic Imaging Techniques and Radiotherapy. IAEA Support to Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer are an important area of cooperation in the field of human health between Member States in the Latin America and the Caribbean region and the IAEA. Nuclear medicine and radiation therapy offer rapid diagnosis and effective treatment for various types of cancer. Cervical cancer is usually curable if caught early and treated. Member States in the region have shown a very strong commitment to enhancing access to radiation oncology and to assuring the quality of treatment. Many are focusing on education and training and the modernization of clinical infrastructure in national institutions responsible for health care and services.

  15. Calidad del Programa de Detección Oportuna de Cáncer Cervicouterino en el estado de Nuevo León Quality of the Early Cervical Cancer Detection Program in the state of Nuevo León

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARÍA SALINAS-MARTÍNEZ

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la calidad del Programa de Detección Oportuna de Cáncer Cervicouterino en Nuevo León. Material y métodos. Se analizaron 4 791 informes citológicos emitidos por los módulos de detección oportuna de la Secretaría de Salud Estatal, el Hospital Universitario y el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, seleccionados al azar. Se excluyeron aquellos que pertenecían a mujeres con histerectomía, embarazo actual, menopausia o resultado citológico positivo. La calidad se midió con apego a estándares. El análisis incluyó, además de la estadística descriptiva, pruebas para diferencias de proporciones y de medias. Resultados. La calidad del Programa fue moderadamente satisfactoria en el ámbito estatal. La calidad de la toma de la muestra fue poco satisfactoria; 39.9% presentó células endocervicales. La calidad en términos de la cobertura fue poco satisfactoria; 15.6% correspondió a mujeres de 25 y más años atendidas por primera vez. La calidad en términos de la oportunidad fue muy satisfactoria; 8.5 ± .7 días hábiles entre las fechas de toma e interpretación. Conclusiones. Se requiere de estrategias para incrementar el impacto del Programa en el estado, tales como el mejoramiento en la calidad de la toma de la muestra y de la cobertura.Objective. To determine the quality of the Early Cervical Cancer Detection Program in the state of Nuevo León. Material and methods. A random selection of 4 791 cytologic reports were analyzed, emitted by the State Ministry of Health, the University Hospital and the Mexican Institute for Social Security early cervical cancer detection modules. Pap tests of women with hysterectomy, current pregnancy, menopause or positive result were excluded. Quality was measured with previously defined standards. Analysis included, besides univariate statistics, tests of significance for proportions and means. Results. The quality of the program was fairly satisfactory at the level of the State

  16. Use of Tc-99m - nanocolloid for sentinel node indentification in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubalewska, A.; Sowa-Staszczak, A.; Huszczno, B.; Markocka, A.; Pitynski, K.; Basta, A.; Oplawski, M.; Basta, P.

    2003-01-01

    patients had those located bilaterally. Histologically positive SNs were found in 5 women (13.5%). A combination pre-operatively administered radioactively labelled albumin with blue dye allows the successful detection of SN in patient with cervical cancer. This technique will result in a real advance in the less aggressive management of patients with early stage cervical cancer. Sentinel lymph node status may be representative of the pelvic lymph nodes status in cervical cancer and thus could provide important information for further treatment. (author)

  17. Automated recommendation for cervical cancer screening and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagholikar, Kavishwar B; MacLaughlin, Kathy L; Casey, Petra M; Kastner, Thomas M; Henry, Michael R; Hankey, Ronald A; Peters, Steve G; Greenes, Robert A; Chute, Christopher G; Liu, Hongfang; Chaudhry, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Because of the complexity of cervical cancer prevention guidelines, clinicians often fail to follow best-practice recommendations. Moreover, existing clinical decision support (CDS) systems generally recommend a cervical cytology every three years for all female patients, which is inappropriate for patients with abnormal findings that require surveillance at shorter intervals. To address this problem, we developed a decision tree-based CDS system that integrates national guidelines to provide comprehensive guidance to clinicians. Validation was performed in several iterations by comparing recommendations generated by the system with those of clinicians for 333 patients. The CDS system extracted relevant patient information from the electronic health record and applied the guideline model with an overall accuracy of 87%. Providers without CDS assistance needed an average of 1 minute 39 seconds to decide on recommendations for management of abnormal findings. Overall, our work demonstrates the feasibility and potential utility of automated recommendation system for cervical cancer screening and surveillance.

  18. Human Papilloma Virus 16 and 18 Association in Cervical Intraepithelial Lesions and Cervical Cancers by In Situ Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanty Manisa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To correlate the association of high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV 16, 18 in cervical intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancers by in-situ hybridization (ISH technique. Study Group: Cervical biopsy and hysterectomy specimen of 78 young and adult women, attending Hi-Tech Medical College and Hospital, Bhubaneswar, who were clinically or cytologically suspected of cervical intraepithelial lesion or cervical cancer were taken as source of target viral DNA. Material: Formalin 10% as fixative H & E stain as routine staining agent In-situ hybridization kit for HPV 16 and 18 DNA. Method: After following standard protocol for surgical grossing, HPV 16, 18 In-situ hybridization kit was used on paraffin embedded tissue sections. Results: The percentage of positive cases was highest in cervical cancer patients followed by cervical intraepithelial lesions, high grade, and low grade. Conclusion: This study has been carried out for the first in our state and our results show high degree of positivity of HPV 16/18 in females with cervical intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancers attending our tertiary care hospital.

  19. Clinical study of early laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatani, Gunji; Mori, Takanori; Udaka, Tsuyoshi; Shiomori, Teruo; Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Suzuki, Hideaki

    2007-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed 71 consecutive cases of early laryngeal cancer (stage I or II) that had undergone primary treatment in our department between 1999 and 2004. There were 68 males and 3 females, and their ages ranged from 40 to 85 years of age (average; 67.7 years). Eight patients had the supraglottic type, 61 had the glottic type, and 2 had the subglottic type. Chemoradiotherapy was performed as the primary treatment except in the patients with glottic T1a cancer, who received radiotherapy alone. The 5-year survival rates was 91.1% for glottic cancer (T1a: 100%, T1b: 92.3%, T2: 85.8%) and 75.0% for supraglottic cancer. The local control rate of glottic cancer was 79.6% (T1a: 80.0%, T1b: 74.0%, T2: 85.2%), and significantly higher than that of supraglottic cancer (56.2%, p<0.05). The laryngeal preservation rate was 84.4% in glottic cancer (T1a: 100%, T1b: 76.9%, T2: 77.5%) and 58.3% in supraglottic cancer, and the difference between T1a and T2 glottic cancer was significant (p<0.05). Local recurrence and cervical lymph node metastasis were seen in 9 patients and 6 patients, respectively. Distant metastasis occurred in 4 patients, all of whom had the glottic type. Four patients died of their disease, and distant metastasis was the major cause of death in 3 of them. These results indicate that additional treatment should be performed in cases in which radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy is ineffective and that both in the early stages glottic and supraglottic cancers can be successfully treated by radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy. The results also suggested that the survival of patients with early laryngeal cancer depends on whether they develop distant metastasis. Introduction of adjuvant chemotherapy to improve their prognosis remains to be assessed. (author)

  20. Cervical Cancer Knowledge, Perceptions and Screening Behaviour Among Female University Students in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binka, Charity; Nyarko, Samuel H; Doku, David T

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer is becoming a leading cause of death among women in developing countries. Nevertheless, little is known regarding knowledge and perception of cervical cancer and screening behaviour particularly among female tertiary students in Ghana. This study sought to examine the knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer and screening behaviour among female students in the University of Cape Coast and Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration in Ghana. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted for the study. Systematic and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select 410 participants for the study. The study found that the participants lacked knowledge on specific risk factors and symptoms of cervical cancer. Also, even though the participants had a fair perception of cervical cancer, they had a poor cervical cancer screening behaviour. Awareness of cervical cancer was significantly influenced by religious affiliation while cervical cancer screening was significantly determined by the working status of the participants. Specific knowledge on cervical cancer and its risk factors as well as regular screening behaviour is paramount to the prevention of cervical cancer. Consequently, the University Health Services should focus on promoting regular cervical cancer awareness campaigns and screening among the students particularly, females.

  1. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of prevention for cervical cancer and breast cancer among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Feria, Pablo; Hernández-Flórez, Luis J; Rodríguez-Feria, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    Objective To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of medical students for health promotion, primary prevention and early detection of breast neoplasm and uterine cervical neoplasm, as well as to make recommendations for improving the Public Health curriculum at the Universidad de los Andes. Methodology This study utilized a survey of medical knowledge, attitudes and practices applied to fifth year Colombian medical students attending the Universidad de los Andes in the first semester of 2013. Results 64/76 students answered the surveys (response rate 84.2 % ): 62.5 % (40/64) and 37.5 % (24/64) response rates from students in their ninth and tenth semesters, respectively; and 64.1 % (41/64) and 35.9 % (23/64) response rates from female and male students, respectively. Knowledge: clinical breast exam (CBE), breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography were recommended by 95.3 % (61/64) of students, 96.9 % (62/64) of medical students and 90.7 % (58/64) of students, respectively. Attitude: the most effective tests to reduce mortality in women aged ≥ 50 years were the Papanicolaou test according to 90.6 % (58/64) of students and mammography according to 82.8 % (53/64) of students. Practice: 55.0 % (35/64) of students had received training in the guidelines and protocols for breast neoplasm and uterine cervical neoplasm screening. Discussion To promote early detection of cervical and breast cancer, knowledge, attitudes and practices must be improved to enhance clinical practices (e.g. Papanicolaou test) and medical student training guidelines or protocols for these two cancers. Overall, with induced demand and support from research communities and institutions seeking to make these improvements, we collaborate to decrease missed opportunities in medical research and Public Health.

  2. Expression profiling of cervical cancers in Indian women at different stages to identify gene signatures during progression of the disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Asha; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Kannan, Sadhana; Deodhar, Kedar; Shrivastava, Shyam K; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan; Mulherkar, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide, with developing countries accounting for >80% of the disease burden. Although in the West, active screening has been instrumental in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer, disease management is hampered due to lack of biomarkers for disease progression and defined therapeutic targets. Here we carried out gene expression profiling of 29 cervical cancer tissues from Indian women, spanning International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages of the disease from early lesion (IA and IIA) to progressive stages (IIB and IIIA–B), and identified distinct gene expression signatures. Overall, metabolic pathways, pathways in cancer and signaling pathways were found to be significantly upregulated, while focal adhesion, cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction and WNT signaling were downregulated. Additionally, we identified candidate biomarkers of disease progression such as SPP1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), STK17A, and DUSP1 among others that were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in the samples used for microarray studies as well in an independent set of 34 additional samples. Integrative analysis of our results with other cervical cancer profiling studies could facilitate the development of multiplex diagnostic markers of cervical cancer progression

  3. Autophagy regulates the stemness of cervical cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Y

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Yi Yang,1,2 Li Yu,1 Jin Li,1 Ya Hong Yuan,1 Xiao Li Wang,1 Shi Rong Yan,1 Dong Sheng Li,1 Yan Ding1 1Hubei Key Laboratory of Embryonic Stem Cell Research, 2Reproductive Center, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs are a rare population of multipotent cells with the capacity to self-renew. It has been reported that there are CSCs in cervical cancer cells. Pluripotency-associated (PA transcription factors such as Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and CD44 have been used to isolate CSCs subpopulations. In this study, we showed that autophagy plays an important role in the biological behavior of cervical cancer cells. The expression of the autophagy protein Beclin 1 and LC3B was higher in tumorspheres established from human cervical cancers cell lines (and CaSki than in the parental adherent cells. It was also observed that the basal and starvation-induced autophagy flux was higher in tumorspheres than in the bulk population. Autophagy could regulate the expression level of PA proteins in cervical CSCs. In addition, CRISPR/Cas 9-mediated Beclin 1 knockout enhanced the malignancy of HeLa cells, leading to accumulation of PA proteins and promoted tumorsphere formation. Our findings suggest that autophagy modulates homeostasis of PA proteins, and Beclin 1 is critical for CSC maintenance and tumor development in nude mice. This demonstrates that a prosurvival autophagic pathway is critical for CSC maintenance. Keywords: cervical cancer, autophagy, cancer stem cell, LC3, Oct4

  4. Mis-dose rate intracavitary therapy for cervical cancer with a Selectron; A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshima, Teruki; Inoue, Takehiro; Inoue, Toshihiko; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Hideya; Ohtani, Masatoshi; Sasaki, Shigeru; Murayama, Shigeyuki; Kozuka, Takahiro (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    Our early experience with Selectron MDR in treating cervical cancer patients at Osaka University Hospital is presented. From May 1991 through December 1992, a total of 22 patients (stage Ia, 1; stage Ib, 3; stage IIa, 1; stage IIb, 2; stage IIIb, 13 and stage IVa, 2) with previously untreated uterine cervical cancer and intact uterus were treated with mid-dose rate intracavitary therapy administered with a Selectron. A rigid applicator made of stainless steel for the Selectron was used for the treatment. The [sup 137]Cs source had an activity of 1.48 GBq as of reference time. Source loading corresponded to the Manchester System. Early tumor responses for all patients were complete. No acute radiation injury has been observed. There have been two local recurrences in stage IIIb patients. One of them developed para-aortic lymph node metastasis and died from distant metastasis. Another patient in stage IIIb had para-aortic and left supraclavicular lymph node metastasis and died from distant metastasis. Four patients developed rectal bleeding (grade 1, 3; grade 3, 1) . One of them had been treated for aplastic anemia with steroid. The cause of grade 3 rectal bleeding was considered to be technical failure in intracavitary application. The remaining two patients recovered without treatment. From our early experience, it is concluded that Selectron MDR can be used for cervical cancer patients as safely and effectively as our previously used high-dose rate machine. (author).

  5. HER2 expression in cervical cancer as a potential therapeutic target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez-Blanco, Alma; Perez-Sanchez, Victor; Gonzalez-Fierro, Aurora; Vela-Chavez, Teresa; Candelaria, Myrna; Cetina, Lucely; Vidal, Silvia; Dueñas-Gonzalez, Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    Trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the HER2 receptor is currently being used in breast and other tumor types. Early studies have shown that a variable proportion of cervical carcinoma tumors overexpress the HER2 receptor as evaluated by diverse techniques and antibodies. Currently it is known that a tumor response to trastuzumab strongly correlates with the level of HER2 expression evaluated by the Hercep Test, thus, it seems desirable to evaluate the status of expression of this receptor using the FDA-approved Hercep Test and grading system to gain insight in the feasibility of using trastuzumab in cervical cancer patients. We analyzed a series of cervical cancer cell lines, the primary tumors of 35 cases of cervical cancer patients and four recurrent cases, with the Hercep Test in order to establish whether this tumor type overexpress HER2 at level of 2+/3+ as trastuzumab is currently approved for breast cancer having such level of expression. The results indicate that only 1 out of 35 primary tumors cases overexpress the receptor at this level, however, two out of four recurrent tumors that tested negative at diagnosis shifted to Hercep Test 2+ and 3+ respectively. The low frequency of expression in primary cases suggests that trastuzumab could have a limited value for the primary management of cervical cancer patients, however, the finding of 'conversion' to Hercep Test 2+ and 3+ of recurrent tumors indicates the need to further evaluate the expression of HER2 in the metastatic and recurrent cases

  6. Treatment Extends Survival for Women with Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who received gemcitabine (Gemzar®) both as part of initial treatment and as part of therapy following primary treatment had improved survival compared with patients whose treatment did not include gemcitabine, according to findings presented at the 2009 ASCO meeting in Orlando.

  7. a survey on drug related problems in cervical cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Cisplatin/5FU/paclitaxel. 6. 9.23. 6. Seizure. Cisplatin. 2. 3.08. 7. Loss of hair. Cisplatin/5FU/Paclitaxel. 3. 4.62. 8. Nephrotoxicity. Cisplatin. 3. 4.62. 9. Hypotension. Paclitaxel. 3. 4.62. TOTAL. 65. 100. Table 3: Relationship between cervical cancer patients' factors and DRPs. Patients Factor. Drug Related Problems (DRPs).

  8. Should helical tomotherapy replace brachytherapy for cervical cancer? Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Wei, Ming-Chow; Hsu, Yao-Peng; Chong, Ngot-Swan; Chen, Yu-Jen; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou; Hsieh, Yen-Ping; Wang, Li-Ying; Shueng, Pei-Wei

    2010-11-23

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) administered via a helical tomotherapy (HT) system is an effective modality for treating lung cancer and metastatic liver tumors. Whether SBRT delivered via HT is a feasible alternative to brachytherapy in treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer in patients with unusual anatomic configurations of the uterus has never been studied. A 46-year-old woman presented with an 8-month history of abnormal vaginal bleeding. Biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a cervical tumor with direct invasion of the right parametrium, bilateral hydronephrosis, and multiple uterine myomas. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIIB cervical cancer was diagnosed. Concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) followed by SBRT delivered via HT was administered instead of brachytherapy because of the presence of multiple uterine myomas with bleeding tendency. Total abdominal hysterectomy was performed after 6 weeks of treatment because of the presence of multiple uterine myomas. Neither pelvic MRI nor results of histopathologic examination at X-month follow-up showed evidence of tumor recurrence. Only grade 1 nausea and vomiting during treatment were noted. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding was noted at 14-month follow-up. No fistula formation and no evidence of haematological, gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities were noted on the most recent follow-up. CCRT followed by SBRT appears to be an effective and safe modality for treatment of cervical cancer. Larger-scale studies are warranted.

  9. Should helical tomotherapy replace brachytherapy for cervical cancer? Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yu-Jen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT administered via a helical tomotherapy (HT system is an effective modality for treating lung cancer and metastatic liver tumors. Whether SBRT delivered via HT is a feasible alternative to brachytherapy in treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer in patients with unusual anatomic configurations of the uterus has never been studied. Case Presentation A 46-year-old woman presented with an 8-month history of abnormal vaginal bleeding. Biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a cervical tumor with direct invasion of the right parametrium, bilateral hydronephrosis, and multiple uterine myomas. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO stage IIIB cervical cancer was diagnosed. Concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT followed by SBRT delivered via HT was administered instead of brachytherapy because of the presence of multiple uterine myomas with bleeding tendency. Total abdominal hysterectomy was performed after 6 weeks of treatment because of the presence of multiple uterine myomas. Neither pelvic MRI nor results of histopathologic examination at X-month follow-up showed evidence of tumor recurrence. Only grade 1 nausea and vomiting during treatment were noted. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding was noted at 14-month follow-up. No fistula formation and no evidence of haematological, gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities were noted on the most recent follow-up. Conclusions CCRT followed by SBRT appears to be an effective and safe modality for treatment of cervical cancer. Larger-scale studies are warranted.

  10. Utilisation and outcomes of cervical cancer prevention services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proportion of women undergoing cervical cancer screening after HIV diagnosis at primary health clinics, demographic characteristics of women referred for colposcopy at a tertiary centre, and outcomes of therapy for precancerous lesions of the cervix. Results. The proportion of women undergoing at least one Pap ...

  11. A review of patients with advanced cervical cancer presenting to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    outcomes of cervical cancer patients who entered care at Tiyanjane Clinic in Blantyre, Malawi ... a palliative approach from the time of presentation. Opportunities for ... to start on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), irrespective of ..... antenatal care, maternity care, under 5 clinics, family planning clinics, exposed ...

  12. Chemoradiation therapy efficacy in patients with local cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemal'tsova, O.A.

    2007-01-01

    To analyze the efficacy of the original chronomodulation chemoradiation for local cervical cancer (CC) comparing it with the results of the standard treatment protocol and Hydrea administration as a radiomodifier. The use of the original protocol reduced the number of long-term metastases 6.3 times when compared with Hydrea use and 4.5 times when compared with the traditional treatment

  13. Acceptability of human papilloma virus vaccine and cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the awareness and acceptability of the HPV vaccine and screening for cervical cancer among female health-care workers in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires were administered to a cross-section of 177 female health-care workers selected systematically from the ...

  14. Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Africa: A Daunting Task ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa has a high estimated incidence of cervical cancer, thus requiring the development of an effective prevention strategy. Cytology-based screening is beyond the capacity of many African countries, hence the need for alternatives. Visual inspection of the cervix after application of 3–5% acetic acid (VIA) is a promising ...

  15. Knowledge and attitudes towards cervical cancer and human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on respondents' biodata, knowledge of STIs, human papilloma virus and cervical cancer, health and communication resources in their communities. This was supplemented by focus group discussions among religious and tribal groups within the urban and rural communities. We found a low level of awareness about HPV ...

  16. Evolution of the health economics of cervical cancer vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferko, Nicole; Postma, Maarten; Gallivan, Steve; Kruzikas, Denise; Drummond, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of modelling for cervical cancer vaccination. We provide an interpretation and summary of conclusions pertaining to the usefulness of different models, the predicted epidemiological impact of vaccination and the cost-effectiveness of adolescent, catch-up and

  17. A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In India, it is one the leading causes of mortality among women accounting for ... Knowledge about cervical cancer, its screening among women. • Role of health ..... by health professional [14 (16.9)], lack of time [4 (4.8)], fear of having a bad ...

  18. Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening Uptake among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    femi oloka

    year and 274,000 women die of the disease annually. ... and the overall knowledge was equally poor. ... population and HPV in women with cervical cancer. 6 ..... This finding is similar to the study done among rural women in. 28 india.

  19. Should helical tomotherapy replace brachytherapy for cervical cancer? Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Wei, Ming-Chow; Hsu, Yao-Peng; Chong, Ngot-Swan; Chen, Yu-Jen; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou; Hsieh, Yen-Ping; Wang, Li-Ying; Shueng, Pei-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) administered via a helical tomotherapy (HT) system is an effective modality for treating lung cancer and metastatic liver tumors. Whether SBRT delivered via HT is a feasible alternative to brachytherapy in treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer in patients with unusual anatomic configurations of the uterus has never been studied. A 46-year-old woman presented with an 8-month history of abnormal vaginal bleeding. Biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a cervical tumor with direct invasion of the right parametrium, bilateral hydronephrosis, and multiple uterine myomas. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIIB cervical cancer was diagnosed. Concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) followed by SBRT delivered via HT was administered instead of brachytherapy because of the presence of multiple uterine myomas with bleeding tendency. Total abdominal hysterectomy was performed after 6 weeks of treatment because of the presence of multiple uterine myomas. Neither pelvic MRI nor results of histopathologic examination at X-month follow-up showed evidence of tumor recurrence. Only grade 1 nausea and vomiting during treatment were noted. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding was noted at 14-month follow-up. No fistula formation and no evidence of haematological, gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities were noted on the most recent follow-up. CCRT followed by SBRT appears to be an effective and safe modality for treatment of cervical cancer. Larger-scale studies are warranted

  20. Evaluation Of Cervical Cancer Screening Program At A Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But the condition is preventable through regular screening of women those are 'at risk\\' for abnormal changes in the cervix and treating them who have positive results. Although screening facilities are ... Keywords: Cervical cancer, Pap smear test, knowledge, practice, programme coverage. East African Journal of Public ...

  1. Assessment of psychological barriers to cervical cancer screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    among women in Kumasi, Ghana using a mixed methods approach. *Williams M1 ... Conclusion: The results of this study can be used to inform the development of culturally relevant cervical cancer education ... psychological barriers, and specific cultural barriers to ... Technology reviewed the interview guide to establish.

  2. Acceptability of Cervical Cancer Screening in Rural Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Carolyn M.; Matos, Carla Silva; Blevins, Meridith; Cardoso, Aventina; Moon, Troy D.; Sidat, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    In Zambezia province, Mozambique, cervical cancer (CC) screening was introduced to rural communities in 2010. Our study sought to determine whether women would accept screening via pelvic examination and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) at two clinical sites near the onset of a new CC screening program. A cross-sectional descriptive study…

  3. Cervical Cancer: A Review of the Psychosocial Factors Following Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Kevin Clark

    Cervical cancer is a diagnosis that has a profound psychosocial impact, constituting a physical and emotional crisis for patients as well as family. In general, research indicates that the choice of treatment and the stage of the disease are instrumental in determining the psychosocial adjustment. Disruptions are likely to occur in self-esteem,…

  4. Caudal epidural anesthesia during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoyama-Shirakawa, Yuko; Abe, Madoka; Nakamura, Katsumasa

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that pain control during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer is insufficient in most hospitals in Japan. Our hospital began using caudal epidural anesthesia during high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy in 2011. The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the effects of caudal epidural anesthesia during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer patients. Caudal epidural anesthesia for 34 cervical cancer patients was performed during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy between October 2011 and August 2013. We used the patients' self-reported Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score at the first session of HDR intracavitary brachytherapy as a subjective evaluation of pain. We compared NRS scores of the patients with anesthesia with those of 30 patients who underwent HDR intracavitary brachytherapy without sacral epidural anesthesia at our hospital between May 2010 and August 2011. Caudal epidural anesthesia succeeded in 33 patients (97%), and the NRS score was recorded in 30 patients. The mean NRS score of the anesthesia group was 5.17 ± 2.97, significantly lower than that of the control group's 6.80 ± 2.59 (P = 0.035). The caudal epidural block resulted in no side-effects. Caudal epidural anesthesia is an effective and safe anesthesia option during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer. (author)

  5. Quality control in screening programs for cervical cancer; Control de la calidad en los programas de pesquisa de cancer cervicouterino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarduy Napoles, Miguel, E-mail: miguel.sarduy@infomed.sld.cu [Centro de Investigaciones Medico Quirurgicas, La Habana (Cuba)

    2012-07-01

    The malignancy of the cervix is one of the few locations avoidable cancers, if detected before it progresses to the infiltration. The most efficient way of early detection is through a screening program to provide women undertaking a regular and quality Pap smear. If this test results abnormal, the program offers easier access to specialized care, effective treatment, and follow-up. The objective of this article is to present usefulness of methods for quality control used in screening programs for cervical cancer to detect their inadequacies. Here are some factors and conditions that must be considered in each of the steps to take, for a cervical cancer screening program to be successful and to meet the objectives proposed in reducing mortality due to this cause. This document contains some useful indexes calculated to ensure quality throughout the process. There should be the measurement of quality throughout the screening process that allows collecting of reliable data as well as correcting deficiencies

  6. The evaluation of older patients with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Y

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ying Gao,1 Jin-lu Ma,1,* Fei Gao,2,* Li-ping Song11Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, 2Department of Neurology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: The number of elderly patients being diagnosed with cervical cancer is increasing, and the outcome of cervical cancer related to age is controversial. We conducted a retrospective analysis in patients treated for advanced cervical cancer in order to investigate patient characteristics and prognosis of older patients.Methods: Medical records were collected of 159 patients with cervical cancer who had been treated with radiotherapy or combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy from January 2007 to January 2009. The patients were divided into two age groups: (1 patients ≥65 years old, and (2 patients <65 years old. There were 52 women in group 1, 107 in group 2. Prognosis, patient characteristics, treatment, and toxicities were evaluated.Results: With a median follow-up of 36.5 months, local control for groups 1 and 2 was 88.5% and 79.4%, respectively. Disease-free survival for the two groups was 71.2% and 67.3%; overall survival was 73.1% and 72.9%. As shown by univariate analyses, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05. Seventy-six patients had human papillomavirus (HPV at diagnosis (twelve women ≥65 years, 64 women ≤65 years; P = 0.000. Forty-two women tested positive for HPV 16, while 32 women tested positive for HPV 18 respectively. Pelvic and/or paraaortic lymph-node metastasis was found in 25 patients (eight in group 1, 17 in group 2; P = 0.960 on computed tomography scan. Of the 159 patients analyzed, sixteen patients (16/52 in group 1 received concurrent chemotherapy, while 96 (96/107 in group 2 completed that treatment.Conclusions: Cervical cancer has the same prognosis in old and

  7. Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins in human cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, Magali; Cantú, David; Herrera, Norma; Lopez, Carlos M; De la Garza, Jaime G; Maldonado, Vilma; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown that IAPs, in particular XIAP, survivin and c-IAP1, are overexpressed in several malignancies. In the present study we investigate the expression of c-IAP1, c-IAP2, XIAP and survivin and its isoforms in cervical cancer. We used semiquantitative RT-PCR assays to analyze 41 cancer and 6 normal tissues. The study included 8 stage I cases; 16 stage II; 17 stageIII; and a control group of 6 samples of normal cervical squamous epithelial tissue. c-IAP2 and XIAP mRNA levels were similar among the samples, cervical tumors had lower c-IAP1 mRNA levels. Unexpectedly, a clear positive association was found between low levels of XIAP and disease relapse. A log-rank test showed a significant inverse association (p = 0.02) between XIAP expression and tumor aggressiveness, as indicated by disease relapse rates. There were no statistically significant differences in the presence or expression levels of c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 among any of the clinical variables studied. Survivin and its isoforms were undetectable in normal cervical tissues, in contrast with the clear upregulation observed in cancer samples. We found no association between survivin expression and age, clinical stage, histology or menopausal state. Nevertheless, we found that adenocarcinoma tumors expressed higher levels of survivin 2B and DeltaEx3 (p = 0.001 and p = 0.04 respectively, by Kruskal-Wallis). A multivariate Cox's partial likelihood-based analysis showed that only FIGO stage was an independent predictor of outcome. There are no differences in the expression of c-IAP2 and XIAP between normal vs. cancer samples, but XIAP expression correlate in cervical cancer with relapse of this disease in the patients. Otherwise, c-IAP1 was downregulated in the cervical cancer samples. The expression of survivin was upregulated in the patients with cervical cancer. We have found that adenocarcinoma presented higher levels of survivin isoforms 2B and DeltaEx3

  8. Determinants of a GP visit and cervical cancer screening examination in Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Michael Labeit

    Full Text Available In the UK, women are requested to attend a cervical cancer test every 3 years as part of the NHS Cervical Screening Programme. This analysis compares the determinants of a cervical cancer screening examination with the determinants of a GP visit in the same year and investigates if cervical cancer screening participation is more likely for women who visit their GP.A recursive probit model was used to analyse the determinants of GP visits and cervical cancer screening examinations. GP visits were considered to be endogenous in the cervical cancer screening examination. The analysed sample consisted of 52,551 observations from 8,386 women of the British Household Panel Survey.The analysis showed that a higher education level and a worsening self-perceived health status increased the probability of a GP visit, whereas smoking decreased the probability of a GP visit. GP visits enhanced the uptake of a cervical cancer screening examination in the same period. The only variables which had the same positive effect on both dependent variables were higher education and living with a partner. The probability of a cervical cancer screening examination increased also with previous cervical cancer screening examinations and being in the recommended age groups. All other variables had different results for the uptake of a GP visit or a cervical cancer screening examination.Most of the determinants of visiting a GP and cervical cancer screening examination differ from each other and a GP visit enhances the uptake of a smear test.

  9. Cytokine profile of cervical cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazelbag, S; Fleuren, GJ; Baelde, JJ; Schuuring, E; Kenter, GG; Gorter, A

    2001-01-01

    Objective. In patients with cervical carcinoma, the presence of cytokines produced by T(H)2 cells, and the presence of an eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate, has been associated with a less effective immune response and tumor progression. In the present study, we have investigated the cytokine

  10. Cytokine profile of cervical cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazelbag, S; Fleuren, GJ; Baelde, JJ; Schuuring, E; Kenter, GG; Gorter, A

    Objective. In patients with cervical carcinoma, the presence of cytokines produced by T(H)2 cells, and the presence of an eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate, has been associated with a less effective immune response and tumor progression. In the present study, we have investigated the cytokine

  11. ACOG Recommendations and Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about ACOG's recommendations for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  12. [New guidelines in regard to cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Cancer screening programs have been successful in reducing the incidence and mortality due to cervical cancer. For more than a decade, the human papillomavirus test has been recommended as part of these programs, however, Pap tests is not currently recommended for women 65 years of age who participated adequately in screening programs, continuing with these screening programs is not needed. Screening programs will be different in special populations at greatest risk where tests are frequently needed or use of alternative methods.

  13. The Impact of Education About Cervical Cancer and Human Papillomavirus on Women's Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors and Beliefs: Using the PRECEDE Educational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha; Özdeş, Emel Kurtoğlu; Topatan, Serap; Çinarli, Tuğba; Şener, Asuman; Danaci, Esra; Palazoğlu, Cansu Atmaca

    2018-02-14

    Early detection of cervical cancer improves the chances of successful treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of education about cervical cancer and human papillomavirus on the healthy lifestyle, behavior, and beliefs of Turkish women who were without cancer, using the PRECEDE education model. This qualitative and quantitative study was conducted as a prospective, randomized, 2-group (intervention and control) trial at a community training center in north Turkey. A total of 156 Turkish women who were without cancer participated in this study. The semistructured interview form, the SF-36 Health Status Questionnaire, the Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Test, and the Healthy Lifestyle Behavior Scale II were used. The subdimension scores of the Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Test were found to be higher among women in the study group (cervical cancer seriousness, P = .001; health motivation, P = .001) as compared with the control group after the education program. The SF-36 Health Status Questionnaire domain scores for physical role limitations, mental role limitations, and general health perceptions increased in the study group after the intervention. The posteducation health motivation of women in the study group was improved, the women's perceptions of obstacles to Papanicolaou testing decreased, and through increased knowledge and awareness, the rate of Papanicolaou testing increased. Educational programs aimed at motivating women to increase their awareness of cervical cancer, preventing cervical cancer, and having Papanicolaou testing are necessary and beneficial in this sample.

  14. Effect of hydronephrosis on survival in advanced stage cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goklu, Mehmet Rıfat; Seckin, Kerem Doga; Togrul, Cihan; Goklu, Yasemin; Tahaoglu, Ali Emre; Oz, Murat; Ertas, Ibrahim Egemen

    2015-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is frequently encountered in advanced stage cervical cancers, and may be associated with mortality. In the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the effect of hydronephrosis on survival in patients with inoperable advanced stage cervical cancer. The study data were acquired by retrospective analysis of the patient records belonging to 165 women with FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage-IIIB or more advanced cervical cancer, which were not surgical candidates. Parameters including patient age, pathological diagnosis, disease stage, pelvic sidewall extension, presence of hydronephrosis and administration of chemoradiation were analyzed. Further, the effects of these variables on survival were assessed. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The distribution of the study patients according to disease stage was as follows: 131 (79.4%) had stage-IIIB, 18 (10.9%) had stage-IVB and 16 (% 9.7) patients had stage-IVA disease. Hydronephrosis was not evident in 91 (55.2%) of these patients, whereas 41 (24.8%) had unilateral and 33 (20%) patients had bilateral hydronephrosis. When compared to mean survival in patients who did not have hydronephrosis, survival was significantly shortened in patients who had bilateral and unilateral hydronephrosis (phydronephrosis (p>0.05). Although patient age, pathological type, pelvic involvement, and chemotherapy treatment rates were similar (p>0.05), radiotherapy requirement rate and disease stage were significantly different among the study groups (pHydronephrosis was found to be a significant predictor of poor survival in patients with advanced stage cervical cancer, irrespective of unilateral or bilateral involvement.While waiting for future studies with larger sample sizes, we believe that the FIGO stages in advanced cervical cancer could further be stratified into subgroups according to presence or absence of hydronephrosis.

  15. Long-term risk of cervical cancer following conization of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3-A Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Freja Laerke; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Munk, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Using nationwide Danish registries we examined the long-term risk of cervical cancer in women diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) (including adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS)) on the cone compared to women with a normal cytology test. Initially, we identified women born 1918......-1990, who were recorded as living in Denmark between January 1, 1978 and December 31, 2012. From the Pathology Data Bank information on CIN3 on the cone, margins status, histological type of CIN3 and cervical cytology results was extracted. Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the relative...... risk of subsequent cervical cancer. We included 59,464 women with CIN3 on the cone and 1,918,508 women with a normal cytology test. Overall, women diagnosed with CIN3 had a higher risk of subsequent cervical cancer compared to women with normal cytology (HR = 2.06; 95%CI: 1.81-2.35). Analyses according...

  16. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension mimicking dual concordant endometrial and cervical malignancy by F18 FDG PET and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Seok Nam

    2012-01-01

    A 35 year old woman with endometrial cancer and cervical extension underwent F18 FDG PET CT and MRI studies after resection of a cervical mass presumed to be cervical myoma. The patient underwent cervical myomectomy and the histopathologic report revealed poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma. Cervical cancer was ruled out because the patient had no history of sexual intercourse and was negative for human papilloma virus infection. The patient underwent radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo oophorectomy, pelvic and para aortic lymph node dissection, and multiple biopsies. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the cervix wall. T2 weighted MRI also revealed a mass lesion with high SI involving the anterior and posterior lips of the uterine cervix. Another area of focal increased uptake above the endometrial lesion in the left pelvic cavity was observed on PET CT and MRI, possibly due to a functioning ovary. PET CT and MRI were interpreted as showing a dual concordant malignant lesion due to separated FDG uptakes and high SI without any connection between the cervical and endometrial lesions. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the endometrium. Given the patient's history and the fact that she was not menstruating at the time of imaging, this intense uptake was interpreted as another pathologic lesion, suggesting dual primary lesions. A suspected heterogeneous mass lesion along the endometrium suggesting concordant endometrial cancer was found on MRI. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary cervical cancer. The final histopathologic report showed poorly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension, although the FDG PET CT and MRI findings were suggestive of concordant cervical and endometrial cancer. Although histopathologic confirmation is necessary for final diagnosis, MRI and FDG PET CT studies may aid in the differential diagnosis. A metastatic cervical mass from

  17. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension mimicking dual concordant endometrial and cervical malignancy by F18 FDG PET and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok Nam [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    A 35 year old woman with endometrial cancer and cervical extension underwent F18 FDG PET CT and MRI studies after resection of a cervical mass presumed to be cervical myoma. The patient underwent cervical myomectomy and the histopathologic report revealed poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma. Cervical cancer was ruled out because the patient had no history of sexual intercourse and was negative for human papilloma virus infection. The patient underwent radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo oophorectomy, pelvic and para aortic lymph node dissection, and multiple biopsies. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the cervix wall. T2 weighted MRI also revealed a mass lesion with high SI involving the anterior and posterior lips of the uterine cervix. Another area of focal increased uptake above the endometrial lesion in the left pelvic cavity was observed on PET CT and MRI, possibly due to a functioning ovary. PET CT and MRI were interpreted as showing a dual concordant malignant lesion due to separated FDG uptakes and high SI without any connection between the cervical and endometrial lesions. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the endometrium. Given the patient's history and the fact that she was not menstruating at the time of imaging, this intense uptake was interpreted as another pathologic lesion, suggesting dual primary lesions. A suspected heterogeneous mass lesion along the endometrium suggesting concordant endometrial cancer was found on MRI. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary cervical cancer. The final histopathologic report showed poorly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension, although the FDG PET CT and MRI findings were suggestive of concordant cervical and endometrial cancer. Although histopathologic confirmation is necessary for final diagnosis, MRI and FDG PET CT studies may aid in the differential diagnosis. A metastatic cervical mass

  18. The Characteristics of Cervical Cancer Patients Who Underwent a Radical Hysterectomy at Sanglah Hospital Denpasar in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Bayu Mahendra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the most common gynecologic cancer in women. It is the main cause of cancer-related death in women in developing countries. Cervical cancer in Indonesia is the second most cancer affecting Indonesian women and the prevalence is relatively stable in the last 30 years. Cervical cancer was closely related to the histologic type of itself. A squamous cell carcinoma has a specific route of local spreading and a lymphatic route. The sample of this study are cervical cancer patients who underwent a radical hysterectomy from January 1 to December 31, 2015 in Sanglah Hospital Denpasar, Bali. The aim of this study is to discover the characteristics of the patients by age, parity, education level, marital status, sexual activity, the first symptoms and the early screening done, and the clinical staging. Methods: This descriptive study involved 20 patients in Sanglah Hospital Denpasar who had a radical hysterectomy from January 1 until December 31, 2015. The characteristics are gathered from the patients’ medical record. Results: The most cases done radical hysterectomy between 41-45 years old which proportion was 40%, the most parity was parity 2 (60%, elementary school was the most education level (35%, all of the samples only married once and sexually active, the most first symptom was vaginal bleeding (55%, only 10% had pap smear as early detection, and the most clinical stage was stage IIB (50%.

  19. Knowledge, attitude, and practice toward cervical cancer among women attending Obstetrics and Gynecology Department: A cross-sectional, hospital-based survey in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, G; Suchitra, M Jyothi; Sunanda, G; Ramaiah, J Dasaratha; Kumar, B Pradeep; Veerabhadrappa, K V

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer-related deaths among women in India are often due to late diagnosis of disease. Knowledge about disease and early screening is the most effective measure for cervical cancer prevention. Lack of awareness, negative attitude, and poor practice about cervical cancer and screening are the major causes to increase the incidence of disease. The study is designed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward cervical cancer, screening, and prevention. A cross-sectional, hospital-based survey was conducted in women attending Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of a secondary care referral hospital. A total of 403 subjects were enrolled and subjected for interview using prevalidated KAP questionnaire on cervical cancer. Descriptive statistics were used to represent the sociodemographic characteristics and KAP levels. Association of sociodemographic variables with KAP levels is determined using Chi-square test. Most of (301; 74.6%) the respondents had heard about cervical cancer and majority of them are heard from media (168; 41.6%) and friends (83; 20.5%). Most women knew symptoms (259; 64.2%), risk factors (253; 62.7%), screening methods (310; 76.9%), and preventive measures (249; 61.7%) for cervical cancer. More than half of the women (252; 62.5%) having positive attitude toward screening. More than three-fourth of women (349; 86.6%) are not having practice toward cervical cancer screening. Sociodemographic characteristics are strongly associated with KAP levels. Although women are having good knowledge, positive attitude toward cervical cancer screening and prevention still there is a gap to transform it into practice. There is a need for more educational programs to connect identified knowledge slits and uplift of regular practice of cervical cancer screening.

  20. Lower cervical levels: Increased risk of early dysphonia following anterior cervical spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ji-Huan; Li, Xiao-Dan; Deng, Liang; Xiao, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to re-evaluate the incidence of early dysphonia after anterior cervical spine surgery (ACSS) and to determine the related risk factors. Patients underwent ACSS between January 2011 and December 2013 at two sites were identified retrospectively from hospital's patient databases. A total of 233 cases were included in this study. Dysphonia developed 1 month postoperatively was recorded. Follow-up was conducted in all positive-response patients. Those reporting severe or persistent voice symptoms were referred to otolaryngologists for further assessments and (or) treatments. Pre and intraoperative factors were collected to determine their relationships with dysphonia one month postoperatively. 45 patients developed dysphonia at one month, including 23 males and 22 females, yielding to an incidence of 19.3%. 34 cases resolved themselves in 3 months, leaving the remaining 11 patients considered to be severe or persistent cases. However, 10 of them recovered spontaneously in the next 9 months, while the last case received vocal cord medialization and returned to almost normal speech function at 18 months. In univariate analysis, only approaching level involving C6-C7 or (and) C7-T1 was significantly associated with postoperative dysphonia (Pdysphonia following ACSS was relatively high and approaching at lower cervical levels was an independent predictive factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinicopathological analysis of cervical cancer seen in a tertiary health facility in Nnewi, south-east Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikechebelu, J I; Onyiaorah, I V; Ugboaja, J O; Anyiam, D C D; Eleje, G U

    2010-04-01

    Cervical cancer remains the commonest gynaecological cancer among women in the developing countries. The records of all the histologically confirmed cervical cancer patients managed in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, over a 5 year period were analysed for the clinical presentation and histological pattern of the malignancy. A total of 75 cases of cervical cancer were managed over the period giving an incidence of 65.2% of all gynaecological cancers and 13.4% of all gynaecological admissions. The majority of the patients were grandmultiparous women (81.3%) with a mean parity of 6.8. The modal age range was 60-69 years (38.7%) and the majority (94.7%) of the patients belonged to the low socioeconomic class. Squamous cell carcinoma of varying differentiation (89.3%) was the commonest histological type seen and adenocarcinoma accounted for only 8.0%. The common clinical features were post-menopausal bleeding (84.0%), vaginal discharge (72.0%), contact bleeding (63.9%) and abdominal pain (56.2%). Most (89.3%) of the patients presented late, in advanced stages of the disease, and almost all (97.3%) were referred for radiotherapy. The incidence of cervical cancer is high in our environment. Community sensitisation and provision of free cervical screening is recommended for early detection and treatment.

  2. Gynecologic examination and cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients eligible for salvage surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Esther R.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; In 't Hout, Bertha A.; Boomgaard, Jantine J.; de Hullu, Joanne A.; Pras, Elisabeth; Hollema, Harry; Aalders, Jan G.; Jijman, Hans W.; Willemse, Pax H. B.; Mourits, Marian J. E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of gynecologic examination under general anesthesia with cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients with residual disease who may benefit from salvage surgery. Methods and Materials: In a retrospective

  3. Gynecologic examination and cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients eligible for salvage surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, E.R.; Zee, A.G. van der; Hout, B.A. van; Boomgaard, J.J.; Hullu, J.A. de; Pras, E.; Hollema, H.; Aalders, J.G.; Nijman, H.W.; Willemse, P.H.B.; Mourits, M.J.E.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of gynecologic examination under general anesthesia with cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients with residual disease who may benefit from salvage surgery. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In a retrospective

  4. Treatment results of neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves for hypopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Toshifumi; Iwae, Shigemichi; Tanaka, Hironori; Yonezawa, Kouichiro; Inoue, Kenzo

    2007-01-01

    Treatment results of neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves for hypopharyngeal cancer were analyzed retrospectively by comparing neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves and that with the resection of cervical nerves. Pharyngolaryngectomy or pharyngolaryngoesophagectomy with bilateral neck dissection was performed in 76 hypopharyngeal cancer cases between January 1992 and November 2001. Neck dissection with the resection of cervical nerves was performed on 42 sides of the neck in 21 cases (the cervical nerve-resected group). In 55 cases we attempted to employ neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves, but in 9 cases the cervical nerves were resected because of their nodal adhesion or involvement Neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves was performed on 92 sides of the neck in 46 cases (the cervical nerve-preserved group). There were significant differences between background factors of two groups about age, sex, induction chemotherapy, preservation of accessory nerve, and pN classification. The 5-year cumulative control rates of cervical lymph nodes were 81.3% for the cervical nerve-resected group and 79.7% for the cervical nerve-preserved group. There was no significant difference between the two groups. It was suggested that neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves for cases whose cervical nerves were able to be preserved from metastatic lymph nodes under induction chemotherapy and post-operative irradiation was as effective to control cervical lymph nodes as neck dissection with the resection of cervical nerves. (author)

  5. Tetraspanin 1 promotes invasiveness of cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölters, Sebastian; Anacker, Jelena; Jansen, Lars; Beer-Grondke, Katrin; Dürst, Matthias; Rubio, Ignacio

    2013-08-01

    Tetraspanins are a heterogeneous group of 4-transmembrane proteins that segregate into so-called tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs) along with other cell surface proteins such as integrins. TEMs of various types are reportedly involved in the regulation of cell growth, migration and invasion of several tumour cell types, both as suppressors or supporting structures. Tetraspanin 1 (Tspan1, NET-1), a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) of tetraspanins, is overexpressed in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and terminal carcinomas but its precise function in the context of carcinoma of the cervix uteri is not known. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation of the role of tetraspanin 1 in the cervical cancer cell lines SiHa and HeLa. We document that tetraspanin 1 increases the invasive potential of cervical cancer cells, whereas proliferation, growth in soft agar and adhesion are largely unaffected. In line with the latter findings, our data exclude the participation of testraspanin in integrin-mediated activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and in EGFR-dependent signalling to the Ras/Erk pathway. In conclusion, our data argue against a role for tetraspanin 1 as a genuine mediator of cell surface receptor signalling but rather document a role for tetraspanin 1 in the control of cervical cancer cell motility and invasion.

  6. Quality of life of women undergoing treatment for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Ana Dallabrida

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of women with cervical cancer. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study developed with 43 women undergoing oncological treatment assisted at an Oncology High Complexity Center, in the Southern region of Brazil. The instrument used was the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer – Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30, and the data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. The average age was 54.6 years old. Married women prevailed (53.4%, with incomplete elementary education (72.1% and income from one to two minimum wages (62.8%. Quality of Life was considered very satisfactory. According to the development scales and emotional functioning, the result was from regular to satisfactory. The most frequent symptoms were fatigue, lack of appetite and pain. There is a need of structure of public health policies, for preventing cervical cancer in the most vulnerable population.

  7. The incidence of parametrial tumor involvement in select patients with early cervix cancer is too low to justify parametrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, M.; Louwen, M.; van der Velden, J.; ten Kate, F. J. W.; den Bakker, M. A.; Burger, C. W.; Ansink, A. C.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of parametrial involvement in a select group of patients with early cervical cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with cervical cancer and a maximum tumor diameter of 2 cm, infiltration depth <10 mm and negative pelvic lymph nodes

  8. What School Nurses Need to Know about Cervical Cancer, HPV, and the New Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Jeanie

    2007-01-01

    At least 12,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year in the United States, accounting for at least 4,000 deaths. Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer among women. The human papilloma virus (HPV) has been linked to at least 70% of all cervical cancer. HPV can be divided into 2 categories: (a) low risk,…

  9. Treatment of intra-epitelial lesions and cervical cancer during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Lippi Ciantelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cervical cancer is the most common type of cancer found during pregnancy. The estimated frequency is one case to 1.000 to 5.000 pregnancies, however, only 3% of cervical cancers are diagnosed during pregnancy. Considering there are still discussions regarding how to conduct this type of situation, the authors report in this article the literature update on the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer discovered during pregnancy.

  10. Biologia molecular do câncer cervical Molecular biology of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Augusto Rivoire

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A carcinogênese é um processo de múltiplas etapas. Alterações no equilíbrio citogenético ocorrem na transformação do epitélio normal a câncer cervical. Numerosos estudos apoiam a hipótese de que a infecção por HPV está associada com o desenvolvimento de alterações malignas e pré-malignas do trato genital inferior. Neste trabalho são apresentadas as bases para a compreensão da oncogênese cervical. O ciclo celular é controlado por proto-oncogenes e genes supressores. Quando ocorrem mutações, proto-oncogenes tornam-se oncogenes, que são carcinogênicos e causam multiplicação celular excessiva. A perda da ação de genes supressores funcionais pode levar a célula ao crescimento inadequado. O ciclo celular também pode ser alterado pela ação de vírus, entre eles o HPV (Human Papiloma Virus, de especial interesse na oncogênese cervical. Os tipos de HPV 16 e 18 são os de maior interesse, freqüentemente associados a câncer cervical e anal. O conhecimento das bases moleculares que estão envolvidas na oncogênese cervical tem sido possível devido a utilização de técnicas avançadas de biologia molecular. A associação destas técnicas aos métodos diagnósticos clássicos, poderão levar a uma melhor avaliação das neoplasias cervicais e auxiliar no desenvolvimento de novas terapias, talvez menos invasivas e mais efetivas.Carcinogenesis involves several steps. Disorders of the cytogenetic balance occur during the evolution from normal epithelium to cervical cancer. Several studies support the hypothesis that the Human Papiloma Virus (HPV infection is associated to development of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervical cancer. In this review we show the basis to understand cervical oncogenesis. The cell cycle is controlled by protooncogenes and supressive genes. This orchestrated cell cycle can be affected by virus such as HPV. Of special interest in the cervical carcinogenesis are the HPV subtypes 16 and 18

  11. Tafazzin (TAZ promotes the tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells and inhibits apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Chen

    Full Text Available Tafazzin (TAZ is often aberrantly expressed in some cancers, including rectal cancer and thyroid neoplasms. However, the function of TAZ in cervical cancer cells remains unknown. This study aims to explore the expression and function of TAZ in cervical cancer cells. Here, we determined the expression of TAZ protein in normal cervical tissue (NC, n = 27, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, n = 26 and squamous cervical carcinoma (SCC, n = 41 by immunohistochemistry, the expression of TAZ protein gradually increased from NC to HSIL to SCC. TAZ was overexpressed or down-regulated in cervical cancer cells by stably transfecting a TAZ-expressing plasmid or a shRNA plasmid targeting TAZ. In vitro, the cell growth curves and MTT assays showed that TAZ may promote the growth and viability of cervical cancer cells. In vivo, xenografts experiment showed that TAZ may increase tumor-forming ability. The percentage of apoptosis cells analyzed by FACS and TUNEL assays consistently showed that TAZ inhibits apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, the Cleaved Caspase 9 and Cleaved Caspase 3 were down-regulated by TAZ in cervical cancer cells. Taken together, this study demonstrated that TAZ is overexpressed in cervical cancer and may promote tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells and inhibit apoptosis.

  12. Stanniocalcin 2 promotes cell proliferation and cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuxia; Gao, Ying; Cheng, Hairong; Yang, Guichun; Tan, Wenhua

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common carcinomas in the female reproductive system. Treatment of cervical cancer involves surgical removal and chemotherapy. Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy drugs including cisplatin has increasingly become an important problem in the treatment of cervical cancer patients. We found in this study that stanniocalcin 2 (STC2) expression was upregulated in both cervical cancer tissues and cell lines. The levels of STC2 expression in cervical cancer cell lines were positively correlated with the rate of cell proliferation. Furthermore, in cisplatin resistant cervical cancer cells, the levels of STC2 expression were significantly elevated. Modulation of STC2 expression by siRNA or overexpression in cisplatin resistant cells resulted in altered cell survival, apoptosis, and cisplatin resistance. Finally, we found that there was significant difference in the activity of the MAPK signaling pathway between cisplatin sensitive and resistant cervical cancer cells, and that STC2 could regulate the activity of the MAPK signaling pathway. - Highlights: • STC2 was upregulated in cervical cancer and promoted cervical cancer cell proliferation. • Cisplatin resistant cells had elevated STC2 levels and enhanced proliferation. • STC2 regulated cisplatin chemosensitivity in cervical cancer cells. • STC2 regulated the activity of the MAPK signaling pathway.

  13. A limited role for adjuvant radiotherapy after the Wertheim/Okabayashi radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer confined to the cervix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, J.; Samlal, R.; Schilthuis, M. S.; Gonzalez, D. G.; ten Kate, F. J.; Lammes, F. B.

    1999-01-01

    The indications for radiotherapy after radical hysterectomy for early stage cervical cancer are changing. In the past only tumor outside the cervix was considered an indication for radiotherapy. Today adjuvant radiotherapy is also considered for an "intermediate-risk" group with tumor confined to

  14. Cervical cancer prevention: new guidelines in the United States and new opportunities for low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Alan G

    2013-06-01

    Developments from late 2011 to early 2013, including consensus conferences and the introduction of low-cost, rapid-turnaround testing of human papillomavirus, will change prevention strategies for cervical cancer in the United States and in low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Stress urinary incontinence in patients treated for cervical cancer: is TVT-Secur a valuable treatment option?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazewinkel, Menke H.; Schilthuis, Marten S.; Roovers, Jan-Paul

    2009-01-01

    We present two patients with bothersome stress urinary incontinence (SUI) following radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for early stage cervical cancer. One patient underwent adjuvant radiotherapy. We selected, after extensive counseling, TVT-Secur in these two patients as we aimed to

  16. Awareness of cervical cancer and willingness to participate in screening program: Public health policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Somdatta; Upadhyay, Madhu; Chhabra, Pragti

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women in India. There is a high mortality as patients usually present at an advanced stage because of lack of awareness and nonexistent screening programs. This study was planned to find out awareness about cervical cancer among women and their willingness to utilize screening services in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi, India. A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in a resettlement colony of North-West Delhi. Semi-structured interview schedule was used to collect information regarding different aspects of cervical cancer. Analysis was done using SPSS package (SPSS version 16 (UCMS and GTBH, Delhi, India)). A total of 373 women were included in the study. Mean age of study participants was 39.14 years. Two-third of the study population were illiterate. Half of the study population was aware of cervical cancer, and only one-fourth of population were willing to participate in a screening test. Willingness was higher among educated, ever user of family planning method and having knowledge about at least one risk factor, signs or symptoms, or possibility of early diagnosis of cancer cervix. The country's national program advocates for opportunistic and targeted screening of women. An understanding of the factors that influences womens' willingness to participate in screening program is essential for the success of such programs. Hence, this study emphasizes the need for dissemination of knowledge about various aspects of cancer cervix which is critical for uptake of any screening program in a developing country.

  17. A study of chronic fatigue in Norwegian cervical cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Rita; Dahl, Alv A; Hess, Siri Lothe; Kiserud, Cecilie E

    2017-09-01

    Chronic fatigue after treatment is a common adverse event in cancer patients, but there are few studies in long-term survivors of cervical cancer. The aim of this investigation was to explore the prevalence of chronic fatigue and its association with various clinical and treatment-related factors in a population-based cohort of Norwegian cervical cancer survivors treated by any modality. All patients, treated for cervical cancer from 2000 through 2007 in the Health Region of South-Eastern Norway, cancer-free, alive and aged ≤75years by the end 2013 (n=822) received a questionnaire covering chronic fatigue and other clinical variables. 461 of 822 survivors (56%) completed the questionnaire and 382 entered the analyses. Chronic fatigue was reported by 23% (95% confidence interval 19%-27%) with a median age of 52years (range 32-75) at survey, 11years (range 7-15) after diagnosis. Among survivors treated by minimal invasive- or radical surgery, 19% had chronic fatigue, while the prevalence was 28% in those treated with radiation and concomitant chemotherapy (chemoradiation). The chronic fatigue group reported significantly more cardiovascular disease, obesity, less physical activity, more treatment-related symptom experience, more menopausal symptoms, higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and poorer quality of life than the non-fatigued group. In multivariate analysis only increased level of depression and poorer global quality of life were significantly associated with chronic fatigue. Chronic fatigue was reported by 23% of long-term survivors after cervical cancer at a mean of 11years after treatment. Some of the associated factors are amenable to prevention and/or treatment and should be subjects of attention at follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Recurrence after surgery due to cervical cancer - An evaluation of the follow-up program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Katrine; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Blaakær, Jan

    Objective During the last 20 years the follow-up program after surgical treatment for cervical cancer has remained unchanged. Surprisingly, little is communicated in relation to the follow-up program even though it has a huge impact on the life of the women and their relatives for five years....... The focus for this study is to evaluate the follow-up program in fulfilling the purpose for early diagnosis of recurrence while reminding and concerning women, who we consider healthy after surgery, 10 times during five years. Already politicians are focusing on the subject due to the socioeconomic...... consequences, but there is a need for a foundation prior to an adjustment of the follow-up program. Methods Design: retrospective study of a cohort of women attending follow-up program after surgery due to cervical cancer. Material: From the patient register at the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics...

  19. Whole-Lesion Histogram Analysis of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient for the Assessment of Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yue; Shi, Hua; Chen, Ying; Liu, Song; Li, Weifeng; Jiang, Zhuoran; Wang, Huanhuan; He, Jian; Zhou, Zhengyang; Ge, Yun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the application of whole-lesion histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of cervical cancer. A total of 54 women (mean age, 53 years) with cervical cancers underwent 3-T diffusion-weighted imaging with b values of 0 and 800 s/mm prospectively. Whole-lesion histogram analysis of ADC values was performed. Paired sample t test was used to compare differences in ADC histogram parameters between cervical cancers and normal cervical tissues. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to identify the optimal threshold of each parameter. All histogram parameters in this study including ADCmean, ADCmin, ADC10%-ADC90%, mode, skewness, and kurtosis of cervical cancers were significantly lower than those of normal cervical tissues (all P histogram analysis of ADC maps is useful in the assessment of cervical cancer.

  20. Early diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiglazov, V.F.

    1989-01-01

    Modern data are presentd on epidemology etiopathogensis and statistics of breast cancer. Home and international clinical and histological classifications is given. Much attention is paid to the methods for early diagnosis of pretumor diseases and breast cancer: clinical roentgenomammography, thrmography and computerized tomomammography. The role of self-examination in cancer early detection has been analyzed. Special attention is paid to system of detection of minimal and unpalpable form of breast cancer, screening of these tumors. 113 refs.; 60 figs.; 6 tabs

  1. Cervicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that does not go away: discharge may be gray, white or yellow in color Painful sexual intercourse ... Names Cervical inflammation; Inflammation - cervix Images Female reproductive anatomy Cervicitis Uterus References Eckert LO, Lentz GM. Infections ...

  2. Potential Surgical and Oncologic Consequences Related to Skin Tattoos in the Treatment of Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Christhardt; Foiato, Tariane; Marnitz, Simone; Schneider, Achim; Le, Xin; Dogan, Nasuh Utku; Pfiffer, Tatiana; Jacob, Anna Elena; Mölgg, Andrea; Hagemann, Ingke; Favero, Giovanni

    Skin tattoos on the feet, legs, and lower abdominal wall are progressively gaining popularity. Consequently, the number of tattooed women with cervical cancer has significantly increased in the last decade. However, pigments of tattoo ink can be transported to regional lymph nodes and potentially clog lymphatic pathways that might also be used by sentinel labeling substances. Therefore, here we report whether the presence of tattoo ink affected pelvic lymph nodes in women with early cervical cancer and discuss its potential oncologic and surgical consequences. Prospective observational study. University Hospital in Hamburg, Germany (Canadian Task Force classification II2). Women affected by cervical cancer. Between January 2014 and May 2016, 267 laparoscopic oncologic operations, including at least a pelvic sentinel or complete lymphadenectomy, were performed in the Department of Advanced Surgical and Oncologic Gynecology, Asklepios Hospital, Hamburg, Germany. Among these, 191 patients were affected by cervical cancer. Data of patients in whom dyed lymph nodes without the use of patent blue as a sentinel marker or different from blue-colored pelvic lymph nodes in the case of sentinel procedure were identified and prospectively collected. In 9 patients, skin tattoos localized in the lower extremities caused discoloration of at least 1 pelvic lymph node. This effect was observed in 40% of women (9/23) with tattoos in this area of the body. Mean patient age was 34 years (range, 27-56). All women had cutaneous tattoos on their feet or legs, and in 1 woman an additional tattoo situated on the inferior abdominal wall was observed. The stage of cervical cancer was FIGO IB1 in all cases. One woman was at the 16th week of gestation at the time of cancer diagnosis. On average, 26 pelvic lymph nodes (range, 11-51) were harvested from both pelvic basin sides. None of the removed lymph nodes was tumor involved. Three patients (33%) developed postoperatively infected

  3. Health seeking behavior for cervical cancer in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birhanu Zewdie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality among women in Ethiopia, there is lack of information regarding the perception of the community about the disease. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted with men, women, and community leaders in the rural settings of Jimma Zone southwest Ethiopia and in the capital city, Addis Ababa. Data were captured using voice recorders, and field notes were transcribed verbatim from the local languages into English language. Key categories and thematic frameworks were identified using the health belief model as a framework, and presented in narratives using the respondents own words as an illustration. Results Participants had very low awareness of cervical cancer. However, once the symptoms were explained, participants had a high perception of the severity of the disease. The etiology of cervical cancer was thought to be due to breaching social taboos or undertaking unacceptable behaviors. As a result, the perceived benefits of modern treatment were very low, and various barriers to seeking any type of treatment were identified, including limited awareness and access to appropriate health services. Women with cervical cancer were excluded from society and received poor emotional support. Moreover, the aforementioned factors all caused delays in seeking any health care. Traditional remedies were the most preferred treatment option for early stage of the disease. However, as most cases presented late, treatment options were ineffective, resulting in an iterative pattern of health seeking behavior and alternated between traditional remedies and modern treatment methods. Conclusion Lack of awareness and health seeking behavior for cervical cancer was common due to misconceptions about the cause of the disease. Profound social consequences and exclusion were common. Access to services for diagnosis and treatment were poor for a variety of psycho

  4. Ezrin and E-cadherin expression profile in cervical cytology: a prognostic marker for tumor progression in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacapala-Gómez, Ana E; Navarro-Tito, Napoleón; Alarcón-Romero, Luz Del C; Ortuño-Pineda, Carlos; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice; Castañeda-Saucedo, Eduardo; Ortiz-Ortiz, Julio; Garibay-Cerdenares, Olga L; Jiménez-López, Marco A; Mendoza-Catalán, Miguel A

    2018-03-27

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the fourth cause of mortality by neoplasia in women worldwide. The use of immunomarkers is an alternative tool to complement currently used algorithms for detection of cancer, and to improve selection of therapeutic schemes. Aberrant expression of Ezrin and E-cadherin play an important role in tumor invasion. In this study we analyzed Ezrin and E-cadherin expression in liquid-based cervical cytology samples, and evaluated their potential use as prognostic immunomarkers. Immunocytochemical staining of Ezrin and E-cadherin was performed in cervical samples of 125 patients. The cytological or histological diagnostic was performed by Papanicolaou staining or H&E staining, respectively. HPV genotyping was determined using INNO-LIPA Genotyping Extra kit and the HPV physical status by in situ hybridization. Ezrin expression in HaCaT, HeLa and SiHa cell lines was determined by immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence and Western blot. High Ezrin expression was observed in cervical cancer samples (70%), samples with multiple infection by HR-HPV (43%), and samples with integrated viral genome (47%). High Ezrin expression was associated with degree of SIL, viral genotype and physical status. In contrast, low E-cadherin expression was found in cervical cancer samples (95%), samples with multiple infection by HR-HPV/LR-HPV (87%) and integrated viral genome (72%). Low E-cadherin expression was associated with degree of SIL and viral genotype. Interestingly, Ezrin nuclear staining was associated with degree of SIL and viral genotype. High Ezrin expression, high percent of nuclear Ezrin and low E-cadherin expression behaved as risk factors for progression to HSIL and cervical cancer. Ezrin and E-cadherin expression profile in cervical cytology samples could be a potential prognostic marker, useful for identifying cervical lesions with a high-risk of progression to cervical cancer.

  5. Global methylation silencing of clustered proto-cadherin genes in cervical cancer: serving as diagnostic markers comparable to HPV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kai-Hung; Lin, Cuei-Jyuan; Liu, Chou-Jen; Liu, Dai-Wei; Huang, Rui-Lan; Ding, Dah-Ching; Weng, Ching-Feng; Chu, Tang-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic remodeling of cell adhesion genes is a common phenomenon in cancer invasion. This study aims to investigate global methylation of cell adhesion genes in cervical carcinogenesis and to apply them in early detection of cancer from cervical scraping. Genome-wide methylation array was performed on an investigation cohort, including 16 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN3) and 20 cervical cancers (CA) versus 12 each of normal, inflammation and CIN1 as controls. Twelve members of clustered proto-cadherin (PCDH) genes were collectively methylated and silenced, which were validated in cancer cells of the cervix, endometrium, liver, head and neck, breast, and lung. In an independent cohort including 107 controls, 66 CIN1, 85 CIN2/3, and 38 CA, methylated PCDHA4 and PCDHA13 were detected in 2.8%, 24.2%, 52.9%, and 84.2% (P < 10 −25 ), and 2.8%, 24.2%, 50.6%, and 94.7% (P < 10 −29 ), respectively. In diagnosis of CIN2 or more severe lesion of the cervix, a combination test of methylated PCDHA4 or PCDHA13 from cervical scraping had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 74.8%, 80.3%, 73%, and 81.8%, respectively. Testing of this combination from cervical scraping is equally sensitive but more specific than human papillomavirus (HPV) test in diagnosis of CIN2 or more severe lesions. The study disclosed a collective methylation of PCDH genes in cancer of cervix and other sites. At least two of them can be promising diagnostic markers for cervical cancer noninferior to HPV

  6. Clinical evaluation of chemoradiotherapy for advanced cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneyasu, Yuko; Okawa, Tomohiko [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan); Okawa-Kita, Midori

    1997-11-01

    Locally advanced cervical cancer has a poor prognosis, poor survival rate, and high local failure rate. A number of questions regarding the optimal agents and schedule of concurrent chemoradiation remain unanswered. To improve the cure rate for advanced or recurrent cervix cancer, we studied intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy (IAIC) with or without radiotherapy. We analyzed 52 cases of advanced or recurrent cervical cancer treated by IAIC with or without radiotherapy. IAIC regimen was separated into two groups: group I consisted of 5-FU+MMC{+-}ADM (30 cases) and group II of CDDP+MMC{+-}5-FU (22 cases). The tip of the catheter was placed in the bifurcation of abdominal aorta or the bilateral internal iliac arteries (7 cases). The overall response rate (CR+PR) was 71%, 87% in patients receiving radiotherapy, 50% in those without radiotherapy, and 100% in primary cases. The five-year survival rate was 20% in primary cases, 14% in recurrent cases, 3% in group I and 38% in group II by chemotherapy regimen. Severe (more than grade III) hematological acute side effects were found in 48% of all cases, but recovered by interruption of drugs. In 7 cases in which the tip of the catheter was placed in internal iliac arteries, there were severe skin ulcers in 2 cases and severe pain of leg or gluteal region which need narcotics in 2 cases. These data suggest that IAIC mainly with cisplatin with or without radiotherapy is one of the effective treatments for advanced or recurrent cervical cancer. But we should check blood flow distribution periodically, and control the concentration of drugs. To improve the survival rate for advanced or recurrent cervical cancer, we should discuss neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy and maintenance systemic chemotherapy. (author)

  7. Clinical evaluation of chemoradiotherapy for advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneyasu, Yuko; Okawa, Tomohiko; Okawa-Kita, Midori.

    1997-01-01

    Locally advanced cervical cancer has a poor prognosis, poor survival rate, and high local failure rate. A number of questions regarding the optimal agents and schedule of concurrent chemoradiation remain unanswered. To improve the cure rate for advanced or recurrent cervix cancer, we studied intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy (IAIC) with or without radiotherapy. We analyzed 52 cases of advanced or recurrent cervical cancer treated by IAIC with or without radiotherapy. IAIC regimen was separated into two groups: group I consisted of 5-FU+MMC±ADM (30 cases) and group II of CDDP+MMC±5-FU (22 cases). The tip of the catheter was placed in the bifurcation of abdominal aorta or the bilateral internal iliac arteries (7 cases). The overall response rate (CR+PR) was 71%, 87% in patients receiving radiotherapy, 50% in those without radiotherapy, and 100% in primary cases. The five-year survival rate was 20% in primary cases, 14% in recurrent cases, 3% in group I and 38% in group II by chemotherapy regimen. Severe (more than grade III) hematological acute side effects were found in 48% of all cases, but recovered by interruption of drugs. In 7 cases in which the tip of the catheter was placed in internal iliac arteries, there were severe skin ulcers in 2 cases and severe pain of leg or gluteal region which need narcotics in 2 cases. These data suggest that IAIC mainly with cisplatin with or without radiotherapy is one of the effective treatments for advanced or recurrent cervical cancer. But we should check blood flow distribution periodically, and control the concentration of drugs. To improve the survival rate for advanced or recurrent cervical cancer, we should discuss neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy and maintenance systemic chemotherapy. (author)

  8. Multiple neoplasms among cervical cancer patients in the material of the lower Silesian cancer registry.

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    Izmajłowicz, Barbara; Kornafel, Jan; Błaszczyk, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    According to the definition by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), primary multiple neoplasms are two or more neoplasms of different histopathological build in one organ, or two or more tumors occurring in one patient, regardless of the time of their occurrence (synchronic - up to 6 months, metachronous - after 6 months), coming from an organ or a tissue and not being an infiltration from another neoplasm, a relapse or a metastasis. It was the aim of the study to analyze the frequency of the occurrence of multiple neoplasms among patients suffering from uterine cervix cancer, with a special interest in coexistent neoplasms, the time of their occurrence and total 5-year survivals. The data from the Lower Silesian Cancer Registry concerning the years 1984-2009 formed the material of the present study. 5.3% of all cervix neoplasms occurred as multiple cancers. Cervix neoplasms were 13.4% of multiple neoplasms. On average, cervical cancer occurred as a subsequent cancer in 6 patients yearly (60.7% of the occurrences of cervical cancer were in the period of 5 years following treatment for the first neoplasm). 5-year survival in patients suffering from primarily multiple cervix neoplasms constituted 57% and was convergent with the results for all patients suffering from cervical cancer. Cervical cancer as the first neoplasm occurred in 287 patients, on average in 11 patients annually. In the period of the first 5 years after the treatment of cervical cancer, there were 42.8% occurrences of other cancers. Cervical neoplasms most frequently coexisted with cancers of the breast, lung and large intestine. The frequency of the occurrence of multiple neoplasm among cervical cancer patients is increasing. Most frequently they coexist with other tobacco-related neoplasms, those related to HPV infections and with secondary post-radiation neoplasms. These facts should be taken into consideration during post-treatment observation and when directing diagnostic

  9. Intelligent Screening Systems for Cervical Cancer

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    Yessi Jusman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advent of medical image digitalization leads to image processing and computer-aided diagnosis systems in numerous clinical applications. These technologies could be used to automatically diagnose patient or serve as second opinion to pathologists. This paper briefly reviews cervical screening techniques, advantages, and disadvantages. The digital data of the screening techniques are used as data for the computer screening system as replaced in the expert analysis. Four stages of the computer system are enhancement, features extraction, feature selection, and classification reviewed in detail. The computer system based on cytology data and electromagnetic spectra data achieved better accuracy than other data.

  10. Perceived cervical cancer risk among women treated for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: The importance of specific knowledge.

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    Sonia Andersson

    Full Text Available Women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN are at increased risk for developing cervical cancer. We examine how women with high-grade CIN perceive their own risk, and about pertinent knowledge concerning human high-risk papillomavirus (HPV, CIN and cervical cancer.All patients who underwent first-time treatment of high-grade CIN (grade 2+ were followed-up at 6-months at the Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden and were invited to participate in the present study. This included completion of a questionnaire examining sociodemographic characteristics, self-perceived risk of cervical cancer without regular gynecologic follow-up, and 14 queries about HPV, CIN and cervical cancer knowledge, inter alia.The participation rate was 96.6%, with 479 women enrolled in this study. Over 75% were age 40 or younger, over half had completed university education. Most were married or co-living with their partner and were gainfully employed. On a scale scored from 10 (highest self-perceived risk of cervical cancer without regular gynecologic follow-up to 1 (lowest self-perceived risk, 64% rated their risk ≥ 7; almost 30% viewed their risk ≤ 6 and 7.5% did not rate their risk. A Specific Knowledge Scale with six of the queries explained 58.3% of the total variance. Nearly 30% of the women answered four or fewer of the six queries correctly. The Specific Knowledge Scale predicted self-perceived cervical cancer risk (Odds ratio = 11.3, 95% Confidence Interval 5.6 - 22.6 after adjusting for age, income and education. Most of the women with low self-perceived cervical cancer risk did not rate their HPV-related knowledge as good. However, 32 predominantly university-educated women, with low self-perceived cervical cancer risk, considered their HPV-related knowledge good.It is vital to effectively convey accurate information about these patients' cervical cancer risk, needed preventive and follow-up measures, together with the relevant

  11. Exploring Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Breast and Cervical Cancers in Mongolia: A National Population-Based Survey.

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    Yerramilli, Pooja; Dugee, Otgonduya; Enkhtuya, Palam; Knaul, Felicia M; Demaio, Alessandro R

    2015-11-01

    Mongolia bears the second-highest cancer burden in the world (5,214 disability-adjusted life years per 100,000 people, age standardized). To determine drivers of the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases, including breast and cervical cancers, a national knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) survey was implemented in 2010. This paper analyzed the results of the 2010 KAP survey, which sampled 3,450 households nationally. Reflecting Mongolian screening policies, women aged 30 and older were included in analyses of questions regarding breast and cervical cancer (n = 1,193). Univariate and multivariate odds ratios (MORs) were derived through logistic regression to determine associations between demographic covariables (residence, age, education, employment) and survey responses. This study found that 25.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 23.3-28.3) and 22.1% (95% CI: 19.8-24.5) of female participants aged 30 years or older self-rated their knowledge of breast and cervical cancers, respectively, as "none." Employment and education were associated with greater awareness of both cancers and participation in screening examinations (p migration. Finally, although there is awareness that early detection improves outcomes, a significant proportion of women do not engage in screening. These trends warrant further research on barriers and solutions. The rising burden of breast and cervical cancers, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, necessitates the development of effective strategies for cancer control. This paper examines barriers to health service use in Mongolia, a country with a high cancer burden. The 2010 national knowledge, attitude and practices survey data indicate that cancer control efforts should focus on improving health education among lower-educated, rural, and unemployed populations, who display the least knowledge of breast and cervical cancers. Moreover, the findings support the need to emphasize individual risk for disease in cancer

  12. Discrimination Between Cervical Cancer Cells and Normal Cervical Cells Based on Longitudinal Elasticity Using Atomic Force Microscopy.

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    Zhao, Xueqin; Zhong, Yunxin; Ye, Ting; Wang, Dajing; Mao, Bingwei

    2015-12-01

    The mechanical properties of cells are considered promising biomarkers for the early diagnosis of cancer. Recently, atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanoindentation technology has been utilized for the examination of cell cortex mechanics in order to distinguish malignant cells from normal cells. However, few attempts to evaluate the biomechanical properties of cells have focused on the quantification of the non-homogeneous longitudinal elasticity of cellular structures. In the present study, we applied a variation of the method of Carl and Schillers to investigate the differences between longitudinal elasticity of human cervical squamous carcinoma cells (CaSki) and normal cervical epithelial cells (CRL2614) using AFM. The results reveal a three-layer heterogeneous structure in the probing volume of both cell types studied. CaSki cells exhibited a lower whole-cell stiffness and a softer nuclei zone compared to the normal counterpart cells. Moreover, a better differentiated cytoskeleton was found in the inner cytoplasm/nuclei zone of the normal CRL2614 cells, whereas a deeper cytoskeletal distribution was observed in the probing volume of the cancerous counterparts. The sensitive cortical panel of CaSki cells, with a modulus of 0.35~0.47 kPa, was located at 237~225 nm; in normal cells, the elasticity was 1.20~1.32 kPa at 113~128 nm. The present improved method may be validated using the conventional Hertz-Sneddon method, which is widely reported in the literature. In conclusion, our results enable the quantification of the heterogeneous longitudinal elasticity of cancer cells, in particular the correlation with the corresponding depth. Preliminary results indicate that our method may potentially be applied to improve the detection of cancerous cells and provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease.

  13. Young Asian Americans' knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer and the human papillomavirus.

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    Gor, Beverly J; Chilton, Janice A; Camingue, Pamela T; Hajek, Richard A

    2011-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a major health disparity among Asian Americans, with cervical cancer rates of Vietnamese women being significantly higher than for the general US female population and low screening rates reported for Asian American females. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with young Vietnamese, Filipino, and Korean adults (ages 18-29) to collect information on knowledge, perceptions and sources of information regarding cervical cancer, Pap tests and the human papillomavirus. 16 Korean, 18 Vietnamese, and 18 Filipino (50% female) adults participated in the study. Many participants had never heard of HPV, cervical cancer and Pap testing. Cervical cancer screening rates were low for Korean and Vietnamese females and were influenced by moral beliefs and lack of awareness. Culturally relevant education materials that consider specific Asian ethnicity and language are needed to increase awareness of cervical cancer, Pap testing, and HPV among Asian American young adults.

  14. Risk of high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women with systemic lupus erythematosus receiving immunosuppressive drugs.

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    Feldman, C H; Liu, J; Feldman, S; Solomon, D H; Kim, S C

    2017-06-01

    Objective Prior studies suggest an increased risk of cervical cancer among women with systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the relationship with immunosuppressive drugs is not well studied in US nationwide cohorts. We compared the risk of high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer among women with systemic lupus erythematosus who started immunosuppressive drugs versus hydroxychloroquine. Methods We identified systemic lupus erythematosus patients initiating immunosuppressive drugs or hydroxychloroquine using claims data from two US commercial health plans and Medicaid (2000-2012). We used a validated claims-based algorithm to identify high-grade cervical dysplasia or cervical cancer. To account for potential confounders, including demographic factors, comorbidities, medication use, HPV vaccination status, and health care utilization, immunosuppressive drugs and hydroxychloroquine initiators were 1:1 matched on the propensity score. We used inverse variance-weighted, fixed effect models to pool hazard ratios from the propensity score-matched Medicaid and commercial cohorts. Results We included 2451 matched pairs of immunosuppressive drugs and hydroxychloroquine new users in the commercial cohort and 7690 matched pairs in Medicaid. In the commercial cohort, there were 14 cases of cervical dysplasia or cervical cancer among immunosuppressive drugs users and five cases among hydroxychloroquine users (hazard ratio 2.47, 95% CI 0.89-6.85, hydroxychloroquine = ref). In Medicaid, there were 46 cases among immunosuppressive drugs users and 29 cases in hydroxychloroquine users (hazard ratio 1.24, 95% CI 0.78-1.98, hydroxychloroquine = ref). The pooled hazard ratio of immunosuppressive drugs was 1.40 (95% CI 0.92-2.12). Conclusion Among women with systemic lupus erythematosus, immunosuppressive drugs may be associated with a greater, albeit not statistically significant, risk of high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer compared to patients receiving

  15. Cervical cancer screening programs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

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    Murillo, Raul; Almonte, Maribel; Pereira, Ana; Ferrer, Elena; Gamboa, Oscar A; Jerónimo, José; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2008-08-19

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have a significant burden of cervical cancer. Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are an opportunity for primary prevention and new screening methods, such as new HPV DNA testing, are promising alternatives to cytology screening that should be analyzed in the context of regional preventive programs. Cytology-based screening programs have not fulfilled their expectations and coverage does not sufficiently explain the lack of impact on screening in LAC. While improved evaluation of screening programs is necessary to increase the impact of screening on the reduction of incidence and mortality, other programmatic aspects will need to be addressed such as follow-up of positive tests and quality control. The implementation of new technologies might enhance screening performance and reduce mortality in the region. The characteristics, performance and impact of cervical cancer screening programs in LAC are reviewed in this article.

  16. Cervical cancer. Application of MR imaging in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebe, Kazuyu; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    1996-01-01

    For the purpose of application of MRI in arrangement of brachytherapy of cervical cancer, a method was proposed to see the radiation doses in surrounding tissues by superimposing the dose distribution pattern of the radiation source on the MR image. The applicator for the source was filled with water to get its T2-weighted image and was inserted in the patients. The MRI apparatus was Siemens Magnetom Vision (1.5T) with phased array coil. T2-weighted sagittal and coronary images were taken by turbospin echo and HASTE methods. The section thickness was 5 mm. The dose distribution pattern was superimposed on the frontal and lateral images by Siemens Mevaplan to see the doses in surrounding tissues. In 4 patients, it was possible to estimate the radiation dose in the posterior wall of bladder, anterior wall of rectum and urinary duct. The method is promising for arranging brachytherapy of cervical cancer. (K.H.)

  17. Women's knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer screening

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    Florencia Vicente Chiconela

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate women's knowledge and attitudes regarding the importance of cervical cancer screening. This is a descriptive, exploratory, with a qualitative approach study, carried out with 14 women assisted at a health service in Mozambique. Data collection occurred with a semi-structured interview from February to March 2015. The results were analyzed using the content analysis technique. Although most women have heard of cervical cancer (CC on television and in hospital lectures, they have little knowledge about prevention, are unaware of the importance of the screening and have the exam due to gynecological complaints. Women's knowledge is incipient and below the expectations about the importance of the screening.

  18. Systemic treatment of advanced, persistent or recurrent cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckova, M.

    2015-01-01

    The cervical cancer is the third most common malignancy in women in the world. Despite advances in screening and treatment there are a relatively large number of patients who are diagnosed with advanced stage of disease, or who have inoperable recurrence. In this group of patients, the main aim of a treatment is palliative intent. The main cytotoxic agent is cisplatin, but the responses are also observed with other chemotherapy agents. Improved therapeutic results are observed with combined platinum-based chemotherapy regimens as compared to cisplatin monotherapy. Overall, however, the treatment results in advanced, persistent and recurrent cervical cancer are unfavorable and disease is considered to be relatively chemo resistant. The new treatment approaches are searched and a significant therapeutic benefit, as far as progression-free and overall survival, has been recently demonstrated when adding bevacizumab to systemic chemotherapy. The current article is a review of systemic treatment in advanced, persistent and recurrent metastatic carcinoma of the cervix. (author)

  19. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer Vacunas para prevenir el cáncer cervical

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    COSETTE M WHEELER

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.El potencial uso de vacunas de virus del papiloma humano (VPH en la prevención y tratamiento del cáncer cervical posiblemente será implementado durante los próximos años. Cerca de los 20 genotipos de VPH de los 75 que se encuentran identificados infectan el tracto genital femenino, pero son cuatro subtipos: 16, 18, 31 y 45 los que se han asociado en cerca de 80% a cáncer cervical. En este ensayo se plantea que para poder diseñar una vacuna profiláctica contra la infección de VPH, efectiva, se debe garantizar una adecuada respuesta inmune a través de cuatro metas: a activación de antígenos presentes en la célula; b superar la respuesta del huésped y la variabilidad genética viral en la respuesta de células T; c generación de altos niveles de células T y B de memoria, y d persistencia de antígenos.

  20. Human papillomavirus genotype prevalence in cervical biopsies from women diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Law, Irwin; Buadromo, Eka; Stevens, Matthew P; Fong, James; Samuela, Josaia; Patel, Mahomed; Mulholland, E Kim; Russell, Fiona M; Garland, Suzanne M

    2011-09-01

    There is currently limited information about human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in women in the South Pacific region. This study's objective was to determine HPV genotypes present in cervical cancer (CC) and precancers (cervical intraepithelial lesion (CIN) 3) in Fiji. Cross-sectional analysis evaluated archival CC and CIN3 biopsy samples from 296 women of Melanesian Fijian ethnicity (n=182, 61.5%) and Indo-Fijian ethnicity (n=114, 38.5%). HPV genotypes were evaluated using the INNO-LiPA assay in archival samples from CC (n=174) and CIN3 (n=122) among women in Fiji over a 5-year period from 2003 to 2007. Overall, 99% of the specimens tested were HPV DNA-positive for high-risk genotypes, with detection rates of 100%, 97.4% and 100% in CIN3, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenosquamous carcinoma biopsies, respectively. Genotypes 16 and 18 were the most common (77%), followed by HPV 31 (4.3%). Genotype HPV 16 was the most common identified (59%) in CIN3 specimens, followed by HPV 31 (9%) and HPV 52 (6.6%). Multiple genotypes were detected in 12.5-33.3% of specimens, depending on the pathology. These results indicated that the two most prevalent CC-associated HPV genotypes in Fiji parallel those described in other regions worldwide, with genotype variations thereafter. These data suggest that the currently available bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines could potentially reduce cervical cancers in Fiji by over 80% and reduce precancers by at least 60%.