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Sample records for early cardiovascular abnormalities

  1. Importance of Early Detection and Cardiovascular Surgical Intervention in Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelloStritto, Rita; Branham, Steve; Chemmachel, Christina; Patel, Jayna; Skolkin, Dayna; Gilani, Salima; Uleanya, Klever

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder that affects multiple systems, including the skeletal, ligamentous, oculofacial, pulmonary, abdominal, neurological, and cardiovascular systems. Cardiovascular complications, which involve the aorta and aortic valve, contribute most significantly to patient morbidity and mortality. A literature review was conducted on pathophysiology of the disease and recommendations for early diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis largely relies on clinical features and a thorough history. Echocardiogram is used for monitoring aortic abnormalities and disease progression. Aortic valve-sparing surgery is indicated in any valvular abnormality and in patients with a murmur. Aortic root replacement is indicated prophylactically in women who want to give birth with diameters greater than 40 mm, anyone with a diameter greater than 50 mm, and progressive dilatation of greater than 5 mm per year. Medical management involves antihypertensive therapy. It is imperative for all health care providers to understand the clinical features, progression, and management of Marfan syndrome to appropriately care for their patients. Ensuring regular follow-up and adherence to medical and surgical prophylaxis is essential to patient well-being.

  2. PP064. Total vascular resistances in early pregnancy: A key to understand abnormal cardiovascular adaptation associated with spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Damiano; Scala, Roberta Licia; Tiralongo, Grazia Maria; Pisani, Ilaria; Gagliardi, Giulia; Novelli, Gian Paolo; Vasapollo, Barbara; Valensise, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    From early pregnancy, maternal hemodynamic profile begins to change. The absence of these changes leads to increased risk of complication during the gestation. Aim of this study is to understand in early pregnancy the behaviour of total vascular resistances (TVR) as a sign of maternal cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy. A cross section study was conducted. We followed 160 healthy women with singleton pregnancy during the first trimester of gestation. We evaluated cardiac output (CO) and TVR at 7, 9 and 11 weeks of gestation. We obtained the following haemodynamic measurements with the USCOM system, a non invasive method: heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), CO and TVR. 160 healthy pregnant women were selected, 8 patients, were excluded for a bad signal. Absolute values of the haemodynamic measures are shown in Fig. 1. 41 patients underwent spontaneous embryonic demise. This last group of patients showed in 54% (group A) TVR values within the normal limits (TVR1200) and CO values below the normal adaptation to pregnancy. Table 1 shows hemodynamic measures for the group A and group B; we found differences in term of CO, TVR and PAS between the two groups. Elevated TVR might indicate an abnormal vascular adaptation already in first weeks of pregnancy. Moreover, in women who undergo to abortion, elevated TVR could be use to distinguish genetic or environmental causes of miscarriage. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Uncomplicated obesity is associated with abnormal aortic function assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channon Keith M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims Obese subjects with insulin resistance and hypertension have abnormal aortic elastic function, which may predispose them to the development of left ventricular dysfunction. We hypothesised that obesity, uncomplicated by other cardiovascular risk factors, is independently associated with aortic function. Methods and results We used magnetic resonance imaging to measure aortic compliance, distensibility and stiffness index in 27 obese subjects (BMI 33 kg/m2 without insulin resistance and with normal cholesterol and blood pressure, and 12 controls (BMI 23 kg/m2. Obesity was associated with reduced aortic compliance (0.9 ± 0.1 vs. 1.5 ± 0.2 mm2/mmHg in controls, p -1 × 10-3, p Conclusion Aortic elastic function is abnormal in obese subjects without other cardiovascular risk factors. These findings highlight the independent importance of obesity in the development of cardiovascular disease.

  4. Congenital abnormalities of aortic artery. Assessment in neonates and early childhood with multislice tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberman, D.; Gurfinkel, E.; Beresnak, A.; Martinez, A.; Emsani, R.; Toledo, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the evaluation of aortic artery congenital abnormalities, the echocardiography and the plain X ray are the traditionally used imaging methods. Multislice angiotomography appears as an important method in diagnosis of these different diseases allowing evaluate these entities in a non invasive, fast and accurate form, giving to cardiovascular surgeons very important information to delineate the surgical strategy. In this article, we review the applications of multislice angiotomography in the evaluation of most frequent congenital anomalies of aorta artery, performed in neonates and early childhood. (authors) [es

  5. Abnormal ankle brachial indices may predict cardiovascular disease among diabetic patients without known heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Jeffrey J; Hopkins, Christie B; Hall, Patrick Ax

    2005-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the primary cause of diabetes-associated morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have failed to provide accurate, inexpensive, screening techniques to detect cardiovascular disease in diabetics. Ankle brachial indices (ABI) testing may be an effective screening technique for diabetics. The aim of this 100-subject clinical study was to determine cardiovascular disease prevalence, via perfusion stress testing, in diabetic patients having abnormal ABI (<0.90) and without known heart disease who were referred to the South Carolina Heart Center, Columbia, SC for nuclear perfusion stress testing. Study data were analyzed using frequency and descriptive statistics and 2-sample T-testing. Mean subject age was 62+/-11 years, ABI 0.76+/-13, and ejection fraction 60+/-12%. Perfusion stress testing detected 49 abnormal electrocardiograms, 36 subjects with coronary ischemia, 20 with diminished left ventricular function, and 26 subjects having significant thinning of the myocardium. There were 71 subjects who tested positive for at least one form of cardiovascular disease. The sole predictive variable reaching significance for the presence of cardiovascular disease was an ABI score <0.90 (p< or =0.0001). Cardiovascular disease may be predicted among diabetic patients via ABI scores and confirmed by nuclear perfusion testing.

  6. Abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension: contribution of neural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jere H

    2017-06-01

    During both dynamic (e.g., endurance) and static (e.g., strength) exercise there are exaggerated cardiovascular responses in hypertension. This includes greater increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and efferent sympathetic nerve activity than in normal controls. Two of the known neural factors that contribute to this abnormal cardiovascular response are the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) and functional sympatholysis. The EPR originates in contracting skeletal muscle and reflexly increases sympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart and blood vessels as well as decreases parasympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart. These changes in autonomic nerve activity cause an increase in blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular contractility, and vasoconstriction in the arterial tree. However, arterial vessels in the contracting skeletal muscle have a markedly diminished vasoconstrictor response. The markedly diminished vasoconstriction in contracting skeletal muscle has been termed functional sympatholysis. It has been shown in hypertension that there is an enhanced EPR, including both its mechanoreflex and metaboreflex components, and an impaired functional sympatholysis. These conditions set up a positive feedback or vicious cycle situation that causes a progressively greater decrease in the blood flow to the exercising muscle. Thus these two neural mechanisms contribute significantly to the abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. In addition, exercise training in hypertension decreases the enhanced EPR, including both mechanoreflex and metaboreflex function, and improves the impaired functional sympatholysis. These two changes, caused by exercise training, improve the muscle blood flow to exercising muscle and cause a more normal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spallone, Vincenza; Ziegler, Dan; Freeman, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) Subcommittee of Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy worked to update CAN guidelines, with regard to epidemiology, clinical impact, diagnosis, usefulness of CAN testing, and management. CAN is the impairment of cardiovascular autonomic control...... in type 2 diabetes. CAN is a risk marker of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, and possibly a progression promoter of diabetic nephropathy. Criteria for CAN diagnosis and staging are: 1. one abnormal cardio-vagal test identifies possible or early CAN; 2. at least two abnormal cardio-vagal tests....... diagnosis of CAN clinical forms, 2. detection and tailored treatment of CAN clinical correlates (e.g. tachycardia, OH, nondipping, QT interval prolongation), 3. risk stratification for diabetic complications and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and 4. modulation of targets of diabetes therapy...

  8. HIV and antiretroviral therapy: lipid abnormalities and associated cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Donald P

    2008-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy are at increased risk for developing metabolic abnormalities that include elevated levels of serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This dyslipidemia is similar to that seen in the metabolic syndrome, raising the concern that highly active antiretroviral therapy also potentially increases the risk for cardiovascular complications. This paper reviews the contribution of both HIV infection and the different components of highly active antiretroviral therapy to dyslipidemia and the role of these abnormalities toward increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients; therapeutic strategies to manage these risks are also considered.

  9. Abnormalities in Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Genes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zodwa Dlamini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is required for normal heart development in the embryo, but has also been shown to be an important factor in the occurrence of heart disease. Alternative splicing of apoptotic genes is currently emerging as a diagnostic and therapeutic target for heart disease. This review addresses the involvement of abnormalities in alternative splicing of apoptotic genes in cardiac disorders including cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia and heart failure. Many pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family have alternatively spliced isoforms that lack important active domains. These isoforms can play a negative regulatory role by binding to and inhibiting the pro-apoptotic forms. Alternative splicing is observed to be increased in various cardiovascular diseases with the level of alternate transcripts increasing elevated in diseased hearts compared to healthy subjects. In many cases these isoforms appear to be the underlying cause of the disease, while in others they may be induced in response to cardiovascular pathologies. Regardless of this, the detection of alternate splicing events in the heart can serve as useful diagnostic or prognostic tools, while those splicing events that seem to play a causative role in cardiovascular disease make attractive future drug targets.

  10. Measurement of ECG abnormalities and cardiovascular risk classification: a cohort study of primary care patients in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, A.; Bots, M.L.; Rutten, F.H.; den Ruijter, H.M.; Numans, M.E.; Vaartjes, I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: GPs need accurate tools for cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment. Abnormalities in resting electrocardiograms (ECGs) relate to increased CV risk. Aim: To determine whether measurement of ECG abnormalities on top of established risk estimation (SCORE) improves CV risk classification in a

  11. Incremental value of PET and MRI in the evaluation of cardiovascular abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalian, Hamid; O'Donnell, James K; Bolen, Michael; Rajiah, Prabhakar

    2016-08-01

    The cardiovascular system is affected by a wide range of pathological processes, including neoplastic, inflammatory, ischemic, and congenital aetiology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) are state-of-the-art imaging modalities used in the evaluation of these cardiovascular disorders. MRI has good spatial and temporal resolutions, tissue characterization and multi-planar imaging/reconstruction capabilities, which makes it useful in the evaluation of cardiac morphology, ventricular and valvar function, disease characterization, and evaluation of myocardial viability. FDG-PET provides valuable information on the metabolic activity of the cardiovascular diseases, including ischemia, inflammation, and neoplasm. MRI and FDG-PET can provide complementary information on the evaluation of several cardiovascular disorders. For example, in cardiac masses, FDG-PET provides the metabolic information for indeterminate cardiac masses. MRI can be used for localizing and characterizing abnormal hypermetabolic foci identified incidentally on PET scan and also for local staging. A recent advance in imaging technology has been the development of integrated PET/MRI systems that utilize the advantages of PET and MRI in a single examination. The goal of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review on the incremental value of PET and MRI in the evaluation of cardiovascular diseases. • MRI has good spatial and temporal resolutions, tissue characterization, and multi-planar reconstruction • FDG-PET provides valuable information on the metabolic activity of cardiovascular disorders • PET and MRI provide complementary information on the evaluation of cardiovascular disorders.

  12. Abnormal early cleavage events predict early embryo demise: sperm oxidative stress and early abnormal cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruel, Victoria; Klooster, Katie; Barker, Christopher M; Pera, Renee Reijo; Meyers, Stuart

    2014-10-13

    Human embryos resulting from abnormal early cleavage can result in aneuploidy and failure to develop normally to the blastocyst stage. The nature of paternal influence on early embryo development has not been directly demonstrated although many studies have suggested effects from spermatozoal chromatin packaging, DNA damage, centriolar and mitotic spindle integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. The goal of this study was to determine whether early developmental events were affected by oxidative damage to the fertilizing sperm. Survival analysis was used to compare patterns of blastocyst formation based on P2 duration. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrate that relatively few embryos with short (P2 times reached blastocysts, and the two curves diverged beginning on day 4, with nearly all of the embryos with longer P2 times reaching blastocysts by day 6 (p < .01). We determined that duration of the 2nd to 3rd mitoses were sensitive periods in the presence of spermatozoal oxidative stress. Embryos that displayed either too long or too short cytokineses demonstrated an increased failure to reach blastocyst stage and therefore survive for further development. Although paternal-derived gene expression occurs later in development, this study suggests a specific role in early mitosis that is highly influenced by paternal factors.

  13. Family history of premature death and risk of early onset cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Oyen, Nina; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Christiansen, Michael; McKenna, William J; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Boyd, Heather A

    2012-08-28

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease. Studies suggest that fatal cardiovascular events and less severe cardiovascular diseases may co-occur in families. Consequently, a family history of premature death may indicate a familial cardiac frailty that predisposes to early cardiovascular disease. We ascertained family history of premature death (age Denmark from 1950 to 2008 and followed this cohort for early cardiovascular disease (age history of premature cardiovascular death in first-degree relatives were 1.72 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.68 to 1.77), 2.21 (95% CI: 2.11 to 2.31), and 1.94 (95% CI: 1.70 to 2.20), respectively. With ≥2 cardiovascular deaths in a family, corresponding IRRs were 3.30 (95% CI: 2.77 to 3.94), 5.00 (95% CI: 3.87 to 6.45), and 6.18 (95% CI: 3.32 to 11.50). The IRR for any early cardiovascular disease given a family history of premature noncardiovascular death was significantly lower, 1.12 (95% CI: 1.10 to 1.14) (p(cardiac vs. noncardiac) history of premature cardiovascular death was consistently and significantly associated with a risk of early cardiovascular disease, suggesting an inherited cardiac vulnerability. These results should be kept in mind when assessing cardiovascular disease risk in persons with a family history of premature cardiovascular death. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Family history of premature death and risk of early onset cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Oyen, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease.......The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease....

  15. Advanced cardiovascular imaging in Williams syndrome: Abnormalities, usefulness, and strategy for use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Jordan A; Zarate, Yuri A; Danylchuk, Noelle R; Lepard, Tiffany; Chen, Jean Chi-Jen; Collins, Ronnie Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Extracardiac arterial stenoses are not uncommon in Williams syndrome (WS); however, data on the utility of advanced cardiovascular imaging (CVI) to assess these stenoses are lacking. We retrospectively reviewed the frequency, indication, and diagnostic outcomes of CVI modalities performed in patients with WS evaluated at a single institution between 2001 and 2014. Data were collected and analyzed from 34 patients (56% female) who underwent CVI during the study period. The median age was 10 years (range 1.8-33 years). Excluding echocardiograms, 78 CVI studies "advanced" were performed in the 34 patients (mean 2.3 studies/patient). The most common advanced CVI was renal ultrasound with Doppler (29/34, 85%), followed by computed tomographic angiography (13/34, 38%) and magnetic resonance angiography in (9/34, 26%). Abnormalities were detected in 62% of patients (21/34). For the 20 patients in whom advanced CVI were performed for defined clinical indications, the rate of abnormalities were 73, 70, 57, and 100% when performed for anatomic delineation (15 patients), hypertension (10 patients), bruits (7 patients), and/or decreased peripheral pulses (2 patients), respectively. Advanced CVI in patients with WS reveals abnormalities in the majority of cases, and physical exam findings frequently indicate abnormalities on advanced CVI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Chest x-ray generation and data augmentation for cardiovascular abnormality classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Ali; Moradi, Mehdi; Karargyris, Alexandros; Syeda-Mahmood, Tanveer

    2018-03-01

    Medical imaging datasets are limited in size due to privacy issues and the high cost of obtaining annotations. Augmentation is a widely used practice in deep learning to enrich the data in data-limited scenarios and to avoid overfitting. However, standard augmentation methods that produce new examples of data by varying lighting, field of view, and spatial rigid transformations do not capture the biological variance of medical imaging data and could result in unrealistic images. Generative adversarial networks (GANs) provide an avenue to understand the underlying structure of image data which can then be utilized to generate new realistic samples. In this work, we investigate the use of GANs for producing chest X-ray images to augment a dataset. This dataset is then used to train a convolutional neural network to classify images for cardiovascular abnormalities. We compare our augmentation strategy with traditional data augmentation and show higher accuracy for normal vs abnormal classification in chest X-rays.

  17. Bicuspid aortic valve morphology and associated cardiovascular abnormalities in fetal Turner syndrome: a pathomorphological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Engelen, Klaartje; Bartelings, Margot M.; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C.; Baars, Marieke J. H.; Postma, Alex V.; Bijlsma, Emilia K.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; Jongbloed, Monique R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is common in Turner syndrome (TS). In adult TS, 82-95% of BAVs have fusion of the right and left coronary leaflets. Data in fetal stages are scarce. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into aortic valve morphology and associated cardiovascular abnormalities in a

  18. Imaging of cardiovascular risk in patients with Turner's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, A.; Weir-McCall, J.R.; Webb, D.J.; Beek, E.J.R. van; Mirsadraee, S.

    2015-01-01

    Turner's syndrome is a disorder defined by an absent or structurally abnormal second X chromosome and affects around 1 in 2000 newborn females. The standardised mortality ratio in Turner's syndrome is around three-times higher than in the general female population, mainly as a result of cardiovascular disorders. Most striking is the early age at which Turner's syndrome patients develop the life-threatening complications of cardiovascular disorders compared to the general population. The cardiovascular risk stratification in Turner's syndrome is challenging and imaging is not systematically used. The aim of this article is to review cardiovascular risks in this group of patients and discuss a systematic imaging approach for early identification of cardiovascular disorders in these patients

  19. ST-T Abnormalities on ECG in Relation to Cardiovascular Risk Factors

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    Yuko Chinushi, MD

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: ST-T abnormalities without apparent heart diseas may be considered to be nonspecific but this cross-sectional study showed that they are related to CVRs and may be used as an early marker of preclinical cardiac damage by CVRs.

  20. Cardiac Abnormalities in Youth with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, Fida; Gidding, Samuel S

    2016-07-01

    Childhood obesity has been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood. Of great concern is the expected increase in the population's CVD burden in relation to childhood obesity. This is compounded by the risk related to chronic hyperglycemia exposure in youth with type 2 diabetes. We herein provide an overview of the spectrum of early cardiovascular disease manifestation in youth with obesity and type 2 diabetes, in particular abnormalities in cardiac structure and function. Cardiac remodeling and adverse target organ damage is already evident in the pediatric age group in children with obesity and type 2 diabetes. This supports the importance of intensifying obesity prevention efforts and early intervention to treat comorbidities of obesity in the pediatric age group to prevent cardiac events in early adulthood.

  1. Early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at hospital emergency department

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Kadri, Farid; Chaabane, Sondes; Tahon, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Overcrowding is one of the most crucial issues confronting emergency departments (EDs) throughout the world. Efficient management of patient flows for ED services has become an urgent issue for most hospital administrations. Handling and detection of abnormal situations is a key challenge in EDs. Thus, the early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at EDs plays an important role from the point of view of improving management of the inspected EDs. It allows the EDs mangers to prepare for high levels of care activities, to optimize the internal resources and to predict enough hospitalization capacity in downstream care services. This study reports the development of statistical method for enhancing detection of abnormal daily patient arrivals at the ED, which able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of abnormal situations. The autoregressive moving average (ARMA)-based exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) anomaly detection scheme proposed was successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department (PED) at Lille regional hospital center, France.

  2. Early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at hospital emergency department

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2015-10-21

    Overcrowding is one of the most crucial issues confronting emergency departments (EDs) throughout the world. Efficient management of patient flows for ED services has become an urgent issue for most hospital administrations. Handling and detection of abnormal situations is a key challenge in EDs. Thus, the early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at EDs plays an important role from the point of view of improving management of the inspected EDs. It allows the EDs mangers to prepare for high levels of care activities, to optimize the internal resources and to predict enough hospitalization capacity in downstream care services. This study reports the development of statistical method for enhancing detection of abnormal daily patient arrivals at the ED, which able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of abnormal situations. The autoregressive moving average (ARMA)-based exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) anomaly detection scheme proposed was successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department (PED) at Lille regional hospital center, France.

  3. MRI abnormalities of sacroiliac joints in early spondylarthropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puhakka, K B; Jurik, A G; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe changes in chronic and acute magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities of the sacroiliac joints (SIJs) in early spondylarthropathy (SpA), and to associate these findings with computed tomography (CT), X-ray, and clinical findings during a 1-year follow-up. METHODS...

  4. The Association between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Cardiovascular Risk in Children

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    Anna Di Sessa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of childhood obesity in the past decades has made Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD the most common cause of pediatric chronic liver disease worldwide. Currently, a growing body of evidence links NAFLD with cardiovascular disease (CVD even at an early age. Data on the pediatric population have shown that NAFLD could represent an independent risk factor not only for cardiovascular events but also for early subclinical abnormalities in myocardial structure and function. Briefly, we review the current knowledge regarding the relationship between pediatric NAFLD and cardiovascular risk in an attempt to clarify our understanding of NAFLD as a possible cardiovascular risk factor in childhood.

  5. ANALYSIS OF ABNORMALITIES IN COMMON CAROTID ARTERY IMAGES USING MULTIWAVELETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nandakumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the report given by World Health Organization, by 2030 almost 23.6 million people will die from cardiovascular diseases (CVD, mostly from heart disease and stroke. The main objective of this work is to develop a classifier for the diagnosis of abnormal Common Carotid Arteries (CCA. This paper proposes a new approach for the analysis of abnormalities in longitudinal B-mode ultrasound CCA images using multiwavelets. Analysis is done using HM and GHM multiwavelets at various levels of decomposition. Energy values of the coefficients of approximation, horizontal, vertical and diagonal details are calculated and plotted for different levels. Plots of energy values show high correlation with the abnormalities of CCA and offer the possibility of improved diagnosis of CVD. It is clear that the energy values can be used as an index of individual atherosclerosis and to develop a cost effective system for cardiovascular risk assessment at an early stage.

  6. Neonatal autonomic function after pregnancy complications and early cardiovascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Christina Y L; Lewandowski, Adam James; Oster, Julien; Upton, Ross; Davis, Esther; Kenworthy, Yvonne; Boardman, Henry; Yu, Grace Z; Siepmann, Timo; Adwani, Satish; McCormick, Kenny; Sverrisdottir, Yrsa B; Leeson, Paul

    2018-05-23

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has emerged as a predictor of later cardiac risk. This study tested whether pregnancy complications that may have long-term offspring cardiac sequelae are associated with differences in HRV at birth, and whether these HRV differences identify abnormal cardiovascular development in the postnatal period. Ninety-eight sleeping neonates had 5-min electrocardiogram recordings at birth. Standard time and frequency domain parameters were calculated and related to cardiovascular measures at birth and 3 months of age. Increasing prematurity, but not maternal hypertension or growth restriction, was associated with decreased HRV at birth, as demonstrated by a lower root mean square of the difference between adjacent NN intervals (rMSSD) and low (LF) and high-frequency power (HF), with decreasing gestational age (p < 0.001, p = 0.009 and p = 0.007, respectively). We also demonstrated a relative imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic tone, compared to the term infants. However, differences in autonomic function did not predict cardiovascular measures at either time point. Altered cardiac autonomic function at birth relates to prematurity rather than other pregnancy complications and does not predict cardiovascular developmental patterns during the first 3 months post birth. Long-term studies will be needed to understand the relevance to cardiovascular risk.

  7. Cardiac Diastolic Evaluation in Pregnant Women with Abnormal Glucose Tolerance: An Opportunity to Detect the Early and Subclinical Alterations and Prevent Cardiovascular Diseases

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    B. Pintaudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of this study were to assess diastolic function in pregnant women with abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT, compared with normal glucose tolerance (NGT women, and to evaluate the insulin resistance status and its association with Doppler-echocardiographic indexes. Echocardiograms of 108 consecutive Caucasian women with singleton pregnancies were performed. Insulin resistance status was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI. All the studied women showed normal diastolic patterns. Patients with AGT (50.9%, as compared with NGT women, had higher HOMA-IR (1.70±1.30 versus 1.01±0.81, P=0.003, lower QUICKI (0.36±0.005 versus 0.40±0.06, P=0.004, higher lateral mitral annulus late diastolic velocity (13.6±4.9 versus 11.9±4.9, P=0.03, and higher A-wave velocity, the wave responsible for the active atrial contraction component (75.2±14.2 versus 67.7±16.2, P=0.01. At multivariate regression analysis HOMA-IR was the only parameter associated with A-wave velocity. In conclusion, women with AGT had an increased subclinical diastolic active participation, which is associated with higher levels of insulin resistance. For the increased risk of deterioration of cardiac diastolic function, earlier and more seriously than normal pregnancy, AGT women may have a careful followup to detect the early signs of cardiac alteration and to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Immunohistochemical abnormalities of fibrillin in cardiovascular tissues in Marfan's syndrome.

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    Fleischer, K J; Nousari, H C; Anhalt, G J; Stone, C D; Laschinger, J C

    1997-04-01

    Molecular defects in the glycoprotein fibrillin are believed to be responsible for impaired structural integrity of cardiovascular, skeletal, and ocular tissues in Marfan's syndrome (MFS). Traditionally, excellent results have been achieved with the Bentall composite graft repair of aneurysms of the ascending aorta in MFS. However, because of the potential complications associated with prosthetic valves, there is growing interest in techniques that preserve the native aortic valve. Between May 1994 and February 1995, 15 patients with a history of concomitant or remote aortic root aneurysms or dissection underwent operation for valvular heart disease. Specimens of aortic valve, ascending aortic wall, and mitral valve were obtained specifically to observe differences in fibrillin content and architecture between patients with (n = 9) and without (n = 6) MFS. In addition, control specimens of aortic valve, aortic wall, and mitral valve were obtained from 4 patients with isolated valvular or coronary artery disease but no evidence of connective tissue disorders or other aortic pathologic conditions. Fibrillin immunostaining using indirect immunofluorescence was used. Specimens were coded and graded by a blinded observer to determine quantity, homogeneity, and fragmentation of fibrillin. Observed fibrillin abnormalities in MFS and control patients were limited to the midportion (elastin-associated microfibrils) of the aortic valve, aortic wall, and mitral valve tissues. Fibrillin abnormalities of aortic valve, aortic wall, and mitral valve tissues were seen in all patients with MFS and were most severe in those older than 20 years. Similar fibrillin abnormalities of aortic valve and aortic wall specimens were observed in control patients more than 60 years old. Even in the setting of a normal-appearing aortic valve, the current rationale for widespread use of valve-sparing repairs of aortic root aneurysms in patients with MFS and patients older than 60 years should be

  9. Orthostatic function and the cardiovascular response to early mobilization after breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg Müller, Rasmus; Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Kehlet, H

    2010-01-01

    procedures, because of an attenuated cardiovascular response, but the cardiovascular response and the incidence of orthostatic intolerance after minor procedures have not been clarified. We investigated the cardiovascular response and the incidence of orthostatic intolerance during early mobilization after...... breast cancer surgery....

  10. Proof of concept in cardiovascular risk: the paradoxical findings in blood pressure and lipid abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchs FD

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Flavio Danni Fuchs, Sandra Costa Fuchs, Leila Beltrami Moreira, Miguel GusDivision of Cardiology and Postgraduate Studies Program in Cardiology, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, BrazilAbstract: High blood pressure and lipoprotein abnormalities were identified by many cohort studies as the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Laboratory experiments apparently confirmed their role in the causation of atherosclerosis, but a proof of concept requires the corroboration by clinical trials in human beings. The size of benefit in clinical trials regarding the control of high blood pressure was within the estimations of risk provided by cohort studies. For a reduction of 10 mmHg in systolic blood pressure or 5 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure, the relative risk reduction of coronary heart disease was 22% (95% confidence interval 27%–17% in a meta-analysis of clinical trials, close to the estimation of reduction of 25% (95% confidence interval 23%–27% provided by a meta-analysis of cohort studies. The corresponding values for stroke were 41% (95% confidence interval 33%–48% in clinical trials compared to a cohort risk prediction of 36% (95% confidence interval 34%–38%. This efficacy was shared by all blood pressure-lowering drugs. The same figure has not paradoxically happened with drugs that act over abnormalities of cholesterol and lipoproteins. Only statins, which have other beneficial actions as well, have consistently lowered the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, an efficacy that was not reproduced by older and newer quite potent lipid drugs. The adverse effects of these drugs may nullify their beneficial effects over lipoproteins and abnormalities of lipoproteins may only be surrogate markers of the underlying real risks.Keywords: proof of concept, hypertension, lipoproteins, clinical trials

  11. Using impedance cardiography to detect asymptomatic cardiovascular disease in prehypertensive adults with risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarzo, Arthur P

    2013-06-01

    Early detection of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in prehypertension could initiate appropriate treatment and prevent progression. Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a noninvasive technology that can be used to assess cardiovascular function. This study used ICG waveform analysis with postural change to detect CVD in asymptomatic prehypertensive adults over 40 years of age with no history of CVD and at least 2 cardiovascular risk factors: cigarette smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, central obesity, family history of premature CVD, elevated blood glucose, and dyslipidemia. A study group of 25 apparently healthy adults was tested by ICG in standing and supine positions. Criteria for an age-matched control group of 16 healthy subjects included an active lifestyle, no risk factor, and no history of CVD. In addition to hemodynamic measurements of systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and cardiac index (CI), ICG used SVR to assess vascular resistive load, an index of arterial compliance and a widening of the systolic waveform to assess vascular pulsatile load, and waveform analysis and measured wave amplitude to detect ventricular dysfunction. All subjects in the study group had some abnormal ICG data, with an average of 2.9 ± 1.5 abnormalities per person. ICG indicated that 24 (96%) had elevated vascular load, 13 (52%) had some type of ventricular dysfunction, and 12 (48%) had abnormal hemodynamics. For the control group, ICG showed none (0%) with elevated vascular load, none (0%) with ventricular dysfunction, and 7 (44%) with high CI. Prehypertensives over 40 years of age with multiple risk factors have different cardiovascular abnormalities. This ICG test could be used as part of a prevention program for early detection of CVD. An abnormal ICG test could expedite the initiation of customized treatment that targets the subclinical CVD.

  12. Positive correlation between pesticide sales and central nervous system and cardiovascular congenital abnormalities in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froes Asmus, Carmen I R; Camara, Volney M; Raggio, Ronir; Landrigan, Philip J; Claudio, Luz

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the association between pesticide exposure in Brazil (2005-2013) with rates of central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular system (CVS) congenital abnormalities in 2014. An exposure variable was established from data on production and sales of pesticides (kg) per crop area (ha) for 2012 and 2013 years. The Brazilian states were divided into three categories: high, medium, and low pesticide use and rate ratios were estimated for each group of states (CI: 95 %). In 2013 and 2014, the high use group presented a 100 and a 75 % increase, and the medium group a 65 and 23 % increase, respectively, in the risk of CNS and CVS congenital abnormalities at birth, compared to the low use group. These findings suggest that pesticide exposure could be associated with increased risk of congenital malformations at birth in Brazil.

  13. Prevalence and associated factors of resting electrocardiogram abnormalities among systemic lupus erythematosus patients without cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Al Rayes, Hanan; Harvey, Paula J.; Gladman, Dafna D.; Su, Jiandong; Sabapathy, Arthy; Urowitz, Murray B.; Touma, Zahi

    2017-01-01

    Background Electrocardiogram (ECG) cardiovascular disease (CVD) abnormalities (ECG-CVD) are predictive of subsequent CVD events in the general population. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are vulnerable to CVD. We aimed to determine the prevalence of ECG-CVD in SLE patients and to examine the risk factors associated with ECG-CVD. Methods A 12-lead resting supine ECG was performed on consecutive adult patients attending the clinic. One cardiologist interpreted the ECGs. ECG-CVD were...

  14. Commentary: Using Impedance Cardiography to Detect Asymptomatic Cardiovascular Disease in Prehypertensive Adults with Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarzo, Arthur P

    2018-06-01

    New guidelines on hypertension eliminated the classification of prehypertension and divided those blood pressure (BP) levels into elevated BP and stage 1 hypertension. For elevated BP, this study showed that cardiovascular (CV) abnormalities were prevalent in adults over 40 years of age with at least 2 CV risk factors. Detecting abnormalities of the CV system moves a patient from being at high risk to having earlystage cardiovascular disease (CVD) and supports a decision to treat. By redefining stage 1 and lowering the target BP, the new guidelines have set an ambitious goal for early intervention to prevent progression of CVD. Proper drug selection and titration are critical. Hypertensive patients have diverse CV abnormalities that can be quantified by impedance cardiography. By stratifying patients with ventricular, vascular, and hemodynamic abnormalities, treatment can be customized based on the abnormal underlying mechanisms to rapidly control BP and prevent progression of CVD.

  15. Early rheumatoid arthritis and its differentiation from other joint abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutry, Nathalie; Carmo, Clarissa Canella Moraes do; Flipo, Rene-Marc; Cotten, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs has created new demands on imaging to early identify patients with rheumatoid arthritis and opened new prospects in therapeutic management of patients with aggressive disease. Therefore, new imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have developed during the past few years in this field. In some cases, both magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound may be also useful in making the distinction between early rheumatoid arthritis and other joints abnormalities, including early psoriatic arthritis. This article will review key aspects of important advances in imaging in rheumatoid arthritis, particularly focusing on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound.

  16. The unmet need for philanthropic funding of early career cardiovascular investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tariq; Becker, Richard C

    2014-05-01

    Philanthropic donations have funded scientific investigations of cardiovascular disease for much of human history, and the patrons who enabled them are indirectly responsible for major breakthroughs in the field. Today, however, the lion's share of funding for cardiovascular research in Western countries comes from the government, professional agencies, and industry. Rapid budget cuts at these traditional sources of financial support are having a devastating impact on the cardiovascular research infrastructure by slashing funding for investigators. A particularly unfortunate consequence is the discouraging effect this is having on early career investigators, who are the life-blood of future breakthroughs in the field, leading to the potential loss of an entire generation of researchers. Here, we summarize the challenges faced by emerging cardiovascular investigators, make a case for the unmet need for appropriately targeted philanthropic support for cardiovascular research, and provide a roadmap for solving the funding shortfall for these investigators.

  17. Absence of early epileptiform abnormalities predicts lack of seizures on continuous EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Mouhsin M; Westover, M Brandon; Cole, Andrew J; Kilbride, Ronan D; Hoch, Daniel B; Cash, Sydney S

    2012-10-23

    To determine whether the absence of early epileptiform abnormalities predicts absence of later seizures on continuous EEG monitoring of hospitalized patients. We retrospectively reviewed 242 consecutive patients without a prior generalized convulsive seizure or active epilepsy who underwent continuous EEG monitoring lasting at least 18 hours for detection of nonconvulsive seizures or evaluation of unexplained altered mental status. The findings on the initial 30-minute screening EEG, subsequent continuous EEG recordings, and baseline clinical data were analyzed. We identified early EEG findings associated with absence of seizures on subsequent continuous EEG. Seizures were detected in 70 (29%) patients. A total of 52 patients had their first seizure in the initial 30 minutes of continuous EEG monitoring. Of the remaining 190 patients, 63 had epileptiform discharges on their initial EEG, 24 had triphasic waves, while 103 had no epileptiform abnormalities. Seizures were later detected in 22% (n = 14) of studies with epileptiform discharges on their initial EEG, vs 3% (n = 3) of the studies without epileptiform abnormalities on initial EEG (p monitoring is necessary.

  18. Cardiovascular system diseases in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome - the role of inflammation process in this pathology and possibility of early diagnosis and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Aleksandra; Nawrocka Rutkowska, Jolanta; Brodowska, Agnieszka; Wiśniewska, Berenika; Starczewski, Andrzej

    2016-12-23

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a disorder which affects 5-10% of women in reproductive age. PCOS is a cause of hyperandrogenism, menstrual disorders and infertility. The most common clinical symptoms are hirsutism, acne and obesity. Patients often suffer from metabolic disorders: insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dislipidemia, leading to atherosclerosis and others irregularities of the metabolic syndrome. Patients are in the high risk group for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) development because of the metabolic abnormalities. Obesity is observed in 35-60% of women with PCOS. Lean women with PCOS are also exposed to a greater risk of glucose intolerance development and abnormalities in lipid profile than women without PCOS with comparable BMI. Adipocytes are the source of many compounds of the paracrine and endocrine activity. Some of them are also markers and mediators of inflammation. Increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in blood can promote atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Markers: IL-18, TNF, IL-6 and hs-CRP are often elevated in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. An increase in inflammatory markers may be an early indicator of the risk of developing insulin resistance and atherosclerosis, and may become a useful prognostic and therapeutic tool for monitoring patients with PCOS: lean and those with overweight and obesity. Assessment of the concentrations of inflammatory markers may become a very useful test in evaluating the risk of developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, long before their clinical manifestation. It will also allow for the appropriate prophylaxis.

  19. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction and electrophysi......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed....

  20. Polycystic ovary syndrome and early-onset preeclampsia: reproductive manifestations of increased cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltman-Verhulst, Susanne M; van Rijn, Bas B; Westerveld, H Egbertine; Franx, Arie; Bruinse, Hein W; Fauser, Bart C J M; Goverde, Angelique J

    2010-01-01

    Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women is a major healthcare issue. Detection of premenopausal women with increased risk of CVD could enhance prevention strategies and reduce first event-related morbidity and mortality. In this study, we argue that an unfavorable metabolic constitution in women may present itself early in life as a reproductive complication, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and preeclampsia. We evaluated the cardiovascular risk of women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia and women with PCOS and assessed their need for implementation of early risk factor-reduction strategies. We performed a standardized evaluation of 240 women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia and 456 women diagnosed with PCOS for established major CVD risk factors. Metabolic syndrome characteristics were analyzed per body mass index category. Mean age was 30.6 and 29.0 years for women with preeclampsia and PCOS, respectively. High percentages of metabolic syndrome were found in both groups (preeclampsia group, 14.6%; and PCOS group, 18.4%), with an incidence of greater than 50% in both groups of women if body mass index was greater than 30 kg/m. Overall, more than 90% of the women qualified for either lifestyle or medical intervention according to the American Heart Association guideline for CVD prevention in women. Women with PCOS and early-onset preeclampsia already show an unfavorable cardiovascular risk profile with high need for lifestyle or medical intervention at a young age. We therefore recommend an active role of the gynecologist in routine screening and follow-up of women with reproductive conditions linked to future cardiovascular risk.

  1. Cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Kazunori

    1992-01-01

    This paper is aimed to discuss the involvement of delayed radiation effects of A-bomb exposure in cardiovascular diseases. First, the relationship between radiation and cardiovascular diseases is reviewed in the literature. Animal experiments have confirmed the relationship between ionizing radiation and vascular lesions. There are many reports which describe ischemic heart disease, cervical and cerebrovascular diseases, and peripheral disease occurring after radiation therapy. The previous A-bomb survivor cohort studies, i.e., the RERF Life Span Study and Adult Health Study, have dealt with the mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases, the prevalence or incidence of cardiovascular diseases, pathological findings, clinical observation of arteriosclerosis, ECG abnormality, blood pressure abnormality, and cardiac function. The following findings have been suggested: (1) A-bomb exposure is likely to be involved in the mortality rate and incidence of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases; (2) similarly, the involvement of A-bomb exposure is considered in the prevalence of the arch of aorta; (3) ECG abnormality corresponding to ischemic heart disease may reflect the involvement of A-bomb exposure. To confirm the above findings, further studies are required on the basis of more accurate information and the appropriate number of cohort samples. Little evidence has been presented for the correlation between A-bomb exposure and both rheumatic heart disease and congenital heart disease. (N.K.) 88 refs

  2. Cardiovascular system diseases in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome – the role of inflammation process in this pathology and possibility of early diagnosis and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Marciniak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome is a disorder which affects 5–10% of women in reproductive age. PCOS is a cause of hyperandrogenism, menstrual disorders and infertility. The most common clinical symptoms are hirsutism, acne and obesity. Patients often suffer from metabolic disorders: insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dislipidemia, leading to atherosclerosis and others irregularities of the metabolic syndrome. Patients are in the high risk group for cardiovascular diseases (CVD development because of the metabolic abnormalities. Obesity is observed in 35–60% of women with PCOS. Lean women with PCOS are also exposed to a greater risk of glucose intolerance development and abnormalities in lipid profile than women without PCOS with comparable BMI. Adipocytes are the source of many compounds of the paracrine and endocrine activity. Some of them are also markers and mediators of inflammation. Increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in blood can promote atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Markers: IL-18, TNF, IL-6 and hs-CRP are often elevated in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. An increase in inflammatory markers may be an early indicator of the risk of developing insulin resistance and atherosclerosis, and may become a useful prognostic and therapeutic tool for monitoring patients with PCOS: lean and those with overweight and obesity. Assessment of the concentrations of inflammatory markers may become a very useful test in evaluating the risk of developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, long before their clinical manifestation. It will also allow for the appropriate prophylaxis.

  3. Microvascular and Macrovascular Abnormalities and Cognitive and Physical Function in Older Adults: Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Grodstein, Francine; Newman, Anne B; Chaves, Paulo H M; Odden, Michelle C; Klein, Ronald; Sarnak, Mark J; Lipsitz, Lewis A

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the associations between microvascular and macrovascular abnormalities and cognitive and physical function Cross-sectional analysis of the Cardiovascular Health Study (1998-1999). Community. Individuals with available data on three or more of five microvascular abnormalities (brain, retina, kidney) and three or more of six macrovascular abnormalities (brain, carotid artery, heart, peripheral artery) (N = 2,452; mean age 79.5). Standardized composite scores derived from three cognitive tests (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit-Symbol Substitution Test, Trail-Making Test (TMT)) and three physical tests (gait speed, grip strength, 5-time sit to stand) Participants with high microvascular and macrovascular burden had worse cognitive (mean score difference = -0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.37 to -0.24) and physical (mean score difference = -0.32, 95% CI = -0.38 to -0.26) function than those with low microvascular and macrovascular burden. Individuals with high microvascular burden alone had similarly lower scores than those with high macrovascular burden alone (cognitive function: -0.16, 95% CI = -0.24 to -0.08 vs -0.13, 95% CI = -0.20 to -0.06; physical function: -0.15, 95% CI = -0.22 to -0.08 vs -0.12, 95% CI = -0.18 to -0.06). Psychomotor speed and working memory, assessed using the TMT, were only impaired in the presence of high microvascular burden. Of the 11 vascular abnormalities considered, white matter hyperintensity, cystatin C-based glomerular filtration rate, large brain infarct, and ankle-arm index were independently associated with cognitive and physical function. Microvascular and macrovascular abnormalities assessed using noninvasive tests of the brain, kidney, and peripheral artery were independently associated with poor cognitive and physical function in older adults. Future research should evaluate the usefulness of these tests in prognostication. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015

  4. Low protein diet fed exclusively during mouse oocyte maturation leads to behavioural and cardiovascular abnormalities in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Adam J; Wilkins, Adrian; Cunningham, Colm; Perry, V Hugh; Seet, Meei J; Osmond, Clive; Eckert, Judith J; Torrens, Christopher; Cagampang, Felino R A; Cleal, Jane; Gray, William P; Hanson, Mark A; Fleming, Tom P

    2008-04-15

    Early embryonic development is known to be susceptible to maternal undernutrition, leading to a disease-related postnatal phenotype. To determine whether this sensitivity extended into oocyte development, we examined the effect of maternal normal protein diet (18% casein; NPD) or isocaloric low protein diet (9% casein; LPD) restricted to one ovulatory cycle (3.5 days) prior to natural mating in female MF-1 mice. After mating, all females received NPD for the remainder of gestation and all offspring were litter size adjusted and fed standard chow. No difference in gestation length, litter size, sex ratio or postnatal growth was observed between treatments. Maternal LPD did, however, induce abnormal anxiety-related behaviour in open field activities in male and female offspring (P size or nephron number was altered by diet treatment (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate the sensitivity of mouse maturing oocytes in vivo to maternal protein undernutrition and identify both behavioural and cardiovascular postnatal outcomes, indicative of adult disease. These outcomes probably derive from a direct effect of protein restriction, although indirect stress mechanisms may also be contributory. Similar and distinct postnatal outcomes were observed here compared with maternal LPD treatment during post-fertilization preimplantation development which may reflect the relative contribution of the paternal genome.

  5. Quantitative Folding Pattern Analysis of Early Primary Sulci in Human Fetuses with Brain Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, K; Guimaraes, A; Kim, Y; Cottrill, E; Gagoski, B; Rollins, C; Ortinau, C; Yang, E; Grant, P E

    2017-07-01

    Aberrant gyral folding is a key feature in the diagnosis of many cerebral malformations. However, in fetal life, it is particularly challenging to confidently diagnose aberrant folding because of the rapid spatiotemporal changes of gyral development. Currently, there is no resource to measure how an individual fetal brain compares with normal spatiotemporal variations. In this study, we assessed the potential for automatic analysis of early sulcal patterns to detect individual fetal brains with cerebral abnormalities. Triplane MR images were aligned to create a motion-corrected volume for each individual fetal brain, and cortical plate surfaces were extracted. Sulcal basins were automatically identified on the cortical plate surface and compared with a combined set generated from 9 normal fetal brain templates. Sulcal pattern similarities to the templates were quantified by using multivariate geometric features and intersulcal relationships for 14 normal fetal brains and 5 fetal brains that were proved to be abnormal on postnatal MR imaging. Results were compared with the gyrification index. Significantly reduced sulcal pattern similarities to normal templates were found in all abnormal individual fetuses compared with normal fetuses (mean similarity [normal, abnormal], left: 0.818, 0.752; P the primary distinguishing features. The gyrification index was not significantly different between the normal and abnormal groups. Automated analysis of interrelated patterning of early primary sulci could outperform the traditional gyrification index and has the potential to quantitatively detect individual fetuses with emerging abnormal sulcal patterns. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  6. Technological Innovations in Magnetic Resonance for Early Detection of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Maria F; Positano, Vincenzo; Martini, Nicola; Valvano, Giuseppe; Landini, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Most recent technical innovations in cardiovascular MR imaging (CMRI) are presented in this review. They include hardware and software developments, and novelties in parametric mapping. All these recent improvements lead to high spatial and temporal resolution and quantitative information on the heart structure and function. They make it achievable ambitious goals in the field of magnetic resonance, such as the early detection of cardiovascular pathologies. In this review article, we present recent innovations in CMRI, emphasizing the progresses performed and the solutions proposed to some yet opened technical problems.

  7. Association Between Tangential Beam Treatment Parameters and Cardiac Abnormalities After Definitive Radiation Treatment for Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Candace R.; Das, Indra J.; Litt, Harold I.; Ferrari, Victor; Hwang, W.-T.; Solin, Lawrence J.; Harris, Eleanor E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the association between radiation treatment (RT) parameters, cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities, and clinical cardiovascular diagnoses among patients with left-sided breast cancer after breast conservation treatment with tangential beam RT. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 416 patients treated between 1977 and 1995 with RT for primary left-sided breast cancer were reviewed for myocardial perfusion imaging and echocardiograms. Sixty-two patients (62/416, 15%) underwent these cardiac diagnostic tests for cardiovascular symptoms and were selected for further study. Central lung distance and maximum heart width and length in the treatment field were determined for each patient. Medical records were reviewed for cardiovascular diagnoses and evaluation of cardiac risk factors. Results: At a median of 12 years post-RT the incidence of cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities among symptomatic left-sided irradiated women was significantly higher than the predicted incidence of cardiovascular disease in the patient population, 6/62 (9%) predicted vs. 24/62 (39%) observed, p 0.001. As compared with patients with normal tests, patients with cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities had a larger median central lung distance (2.6 cm vs. 2.2 cm, p = 0.01). Similarly, patients with vs. without congestive heart failure had a larger median central lung distance (2.8 cm vs. 2.3 cm, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Contemporary RT for early breast cancer may be associated with a small, but potentially avoidable, risk of cardiovascular morbidity that is associated with treatment technique

  8. Basic abnormalities in visual processing affect face processing at an early age in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlamings, Petra Hendrika Johanna Maria; Jonkman, Lisa Marthe; van Daalen, Emma; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Kemner, Chantal

    2010-12-15

    A detailed visual processing style has been noted in autism spectrum disorder (ASD); this contributes to problems in face processing and has been directly related to abnormal processing of spatial frequencies (SFs). Little is known about the early development of face processing in ASD and the relation with abnormal SF processing. We investigated whether young ASD children show abnormalities in low spatial frequency (LSF, global) and high spatial frequency (HSF, detailed) processing and explored whether these are crucially involved in the early development of face processing. Three- to 4-year-old children with ASD (n = 22) were compared with developmentally delayed children without ASD (n = 17). Spatial frequency processing was studied by recording visual evoked potentials from visual brain areas while children passively viewed gratings (HSF/LSF). In addition, children watched face stimuli with different expressions, filtered to include only HSF or LSF. Enhanced activity in visual brain areas was found in response to HSF versus LSF information in children with ASD, in contrast to control subjects. Furthermore, facial-expression processing was also primarily driven by detail in ASD. Enhanced visual processing of detailed (HSF) information is present early in ASD and occurs for neutral (gratings), as well as for socially relevant stimuli (facial expressions). These data indicate that there is a general abnormality in visual SF processing in early ASD and are in agreement with suggestions that a fast LSF subcortical face processing route might be affected in ASD. This could suggest that abnormal visual processing is causative in the development of social problems in ASD. Copyright © 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Weaker masturbatory erection may be a sign of early cardiovascular risk associated with erectile dysfunction in young men without sexual intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Bin; Yao, Feng-Juan; Chen, Sheng-Fu; Ouyang, Bin; Deng, Chun-Hua; Huang, Yi-Ran

    2014-06-01

    Although increasing evidences emphasize the importance of early cardiovascular evaluation in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) of unexplained aetiology, impaired masturbation-induced erections in young men are usually overlooked and habitually presumed to be psychological origin. To evaluate the young men presenting weaker masturbatory erection with no sexual intercourse (WME-NS) and verify if this cohort have early cardiovascular risks associated with ED. Male subjects aged 18-40 years with WME-NS were screened by analyzing detailed sexual intercourse and masturbatory history. The age-matched ED and non-ED population were identified by using International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5). All subjects with acute and/or chronic diseases (including diagnosed hypertension and diabetes) and long-term pharmacotherapy were excluded. Nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity (NPTR), systemic vascular parameters and biochemical indicators related to metabolism were assessed. Comparison analysis and logistic regression analysis were conducted among WME-NS, ED and non-ED population. In total, 78 WME-NS cases (mean 28.99 ± 5.92 years), 179 ED cases (mean 30.69 ± 5.21 years) and 43 non-ED cases (mean 28.65 ± 4.30 years) were screened for analysis. Compared with non-ED group, WME-NS group had higher prevalence of early ED risk factors including endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, high level of glycosylated serum protein and abnormal NPTR. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis showed endothelia dysfunction (odds ratio: 8.83 vs. 17.11, both P benefits by targeting these formulated strategies. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. Orthostatic intolerance and the cardiovascular response to early postoperative mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Jørgensen, Christoffer Calov; Jørgensen, T B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A key element in enhanced postoperative recovery is early mobilization which, however, may be hindered by orthostatic intolerance, that is, an inability to sit or stand because of symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion as intolerable dizziness, nausea and vomiting, feeling of heat...... of orthostatic intolerance. In contrast, 8 (50%) and 2 (12%) patients were orthostatic intolerant at 6 and approximately 22 h after surgery, respectively. Before surgery, SAP, DAP, and TPR increased (P0.05) and Scv(O2) decreased (P... the preoperative evaluation (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The early postoperative postural cardiovascular response is impaired after radical prostatectomy with a risk of orthostatic intolerance, limiting early postoperative mobilization. The pathogenic mechanisms include both impaired TPR and CO responses....

  11. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius-Bjerre, Signe; Jensen, Rikke Beck; Færch, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors...

  12. ECG abnormalities in patients with chronic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, S.; Saleem, M.; Anjum, R.; Abdullah, W.; Shafi, T.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities are common in CKD patients. However, there is variation in literature regarding frequency of ECG abnormalities in CKD patients and limited information in local population. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional in nature. All patients between ages of 20-80 years with CKD not previously on renal replacement therapy who were admitted to nephrology ward at a tertiary care facility over a 6-month period were included. All patients underwent 12 lead electrocardiograms (ECG). ECG abnormalities were defined based on accepted standard criteria. Results: Total number of patients included in the study was 124. Mean age of all patients was 49.9+-13.8 years, 106 (84.8%) had hypertension, 84 (70%) had diabetes mellitus, and 35 (29.9%) had known cardiovascular disease. Mean serum creatinine was 7.2+-3.4 mg/dl, mean eGFR was 10.6+-9.2 ml/min/1.73 m/sup 2/. Overall 78.4% of all CKD patients have one or more ECG abnormality. Left ventricular hypertrophy (40%), Q waves (27.2%), ST segment elevation or depression (23.4%), prolonged QRS duration (19.2%), tachycardia (17.6%) and left and right atrial enlargement (17.6%) were the most common abnormalities. Conclusion: ECG abnormalities are common in hospitalized CKD patients in local population. All hospitalized CKD patients should undergo ECG to screen for cardiovascular disease. (author)

  13. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Duggirala Sivaram; Kabir, Zubair; Dash, Ashok Kumar; Das, Bhagabati Charan

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative

  14. Abnormal early gamma responses to emotional faces differentiate unipolar from bipolar disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T Y; Chen, Y S; Su, T P; Hsieh, J C; Chen, L F

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the cortical abnormalities of early emotion perception in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) using gamma oscillations. Twenty-three MDD patients, twenty-five BD patients, and twenty-four normal controls were enrolled and their event-related magnetoencephalographic responses were recorded during implicit emotional tasks. Our results demonstrated abnormal gamma activity within 100 ms in the emotion-related regions (amygdala, orbitofrontal (OFC) cortex, anterior insula (AI), and superior temporal pole) in the MDD patients, suggesting that these patients may have dysfunctions or negativity biases in perceptual binding of emotional features at very early stage. Decreased left superior medial frontal cortex (smFC) responses to happy faces in the MDD patients were correlated with their serious level of depression symptoms, indicating that decreased smFC activity perhaps underlies irregular positive emotion processing in depressed patients. In the BD patients, we showed abnormal activation in visual regions (inferior/middle occipital and middle temporal cortices) which responded to emotional faces within 100 ms, supporting that the BD patients may hyperactively respond to emotional features in perceptual binding. The discriminant function of gamma activation in the left smFC, right medial OFC, right AI/inferior OFC, and the right precentral cortex accurately classified 89.6% of patients as unipolar/bipolar disorders.

  15. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetes: clinical impact, assessment, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallone, Vincenza; Ziegler, Dan; Freeman, Roy; Bernardi, Luciano; Frontoni, Simona; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Stevens, Martin; Kempler, Peter; Hilsted, Jannik; Tesfaye, Solomon; Low, Phillip; Valensi, Paul

    2011-10-01

    The Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) Subcommittee of the Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy worked to update CAN guidelines, with regard to epidemiology, clinical impact, diagnosis, usefulness of CAN testing, and management. CAN is the impairment of cardiovascular autonomic control in the setting of diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The prevalence of confirmed CAN is around 20%, and increases up to 65% with age and diabetes duration. Established risk factors for CAN are glycaemic control in type 1 and a combination of hypertension, dyslipidaemia, obesity, and glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. CAN is a risk marker of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, and possibly a progression promoter of diabetic nephropathy. Criteria for CAN diagnosis and staging are: (1) one abnormal cardiovagal test result identifies possible or early CAN; (2) at least two abnormal cardiovagal test results are required for definite or confirmed CAN; and (3) the presence of orthostatic hypotension in addition to abnormal heart rate test results identifies severe or advanced CAN. Progressive stages of CAN are associated with increasingly worse prognosis. CAN assessment is relevant in clinical practice for (1) diagnosis of CAN clinical forms, (2) detection and tailored treatment of CAN clinical correlates (e.g. tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension, non-dipping, QT interval prolongation), (3) risk stratification for diabetic complications and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and (4) modulation of targets of diabetes therapy. Evidence on the cost-effectiveness of CAN testing is lacking. Apart from the preventive role of intensive glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes, recommendations cannot be made for most therapeutic approaches to CAN. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors and behavior lifestyles of young women: implications from findings of the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, C E; Nicklas, T A; Myers, L; Johnson, C C; Berenson, G S

    1997-12-01

    The primary purposes of this article are to highlight important issues related to cardiovascular risk factors and behavior life-styles in young women and to examine racial (black-white) differences in risk factors that relate to cardiovascular disease. In childhood, some girls show cardiovascular risk factors of higher blood pressure levels, dyslipidemia, and obesity, all of which continue into young adulthood. Factors that contribute to abnormal risk factors are a high-saturated fat diet, excess energy intake related to inactivity, and cigarette smoking. Trends of obesity are documented; and young white girls are continuing to use tobacco, more so than boys and black girls. Although the onset of clinical cardiovascular disease is delayed in women, the stage is set in childhood for the development of early cardiovascular risk.

  17. Serial assessment of cardiovascular control shows early signs of developing pre-eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rang, Sasika; Wolf, H.; van Montfrans, G. A.; Karemaker, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether differences in autonomic cardiovascular control between normal pregnant women and women who develop pre-eclampsia later in pregnancy can be detected even before or early in pregnancy. Design We studied 42 women, 21 multigravid with a history of pre-eclampsia and 21

  18. Cardiovascular radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanAman, M.; Mueller, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Soon after Roentgen documented the uses of x-rays in 1895, fluoroscopic and film evaluation of the heart began. Even today the chest roentgenogram remains one of the first and most frequently used studies for the evaluation of the normal and abnormal heart and great vessels. This chapter gives an overview of plain film evaluation of the cardiovascular system and follow up with comments on the newer imaging modalities of computed tomography, and digital subtraction angiography, in the cardiovascular disease workup. The authors present an evaluation of plain films of the chest, which remains their most cost effective, available, simple, and reliable initial screening tool in the evaluation of cardiovascular disease

  19. Electrogastrography abnormalities appear early in children with diabetes type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posfay-Barbe, Klara M; Lindley, Keith J; Schwitzgebel, Valérie M; Belli, Dominique C; Schäppi, Michela G

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate gastric myoelectrical activity in young patients with diabetes and to correlate it with their metabolic control [fasting blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, and fructosamine] and BMI during a 3 years follow-up. Surface electrogastrography (EGG) was performed on 49 children with diabetes aged 10.3±4.4 (mean±SD) years and 17 age-matched healthy controls after fasting glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, and fructosamine were measured. EGG parameters [percentage of bradygastria, 3 cycles per minute, tachygastria, dominant frequency instability coefficient, and power ratio] were analysed and compared with blood analysis. Patients with diabetes exhibited an increase in preprandial bradygastria 7.9±8.8 cpm (mean±SD) compared with controls 2.1±1.0 (P=0.011), with an associated decrease in preprandial normogastria (72.2±14.5 vs. 82.7±14.7; P=0.013). Normogastric power ratio (postprandial/ preprandial power) was significantly increased in the children with diabetes compared with controls (mean: 6.67 vs. 3.14, P=0.034). A longer duration of diabetes was associated with an increased risk of EGG abnormalities (P=0.036). Marked hyperglycaemia at the time of study was associated with postprandial bradygastria (P=0.01) and power ratio bradygastria (P=0.042). Changes in glycosylated haemoglobin, fructosamine and BMI did not affect EGG parameters. EGG abnormalities, presented early in a high proportion of diabetic children, are related to the acute hyperglycaemia. These abnormalities are not consistently present in the follow-up studies and not related to the glycosylated haemoglobin and fructosamine. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy is therefore an unlikely pathogenic factor for EGG abnormalities in children with diabetes.

  20. Early MR abnormality indicating functional recovery from spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumeya, Hiroshi; Hideshima, Hiroshi [Hideshima Hospital, Musashino, Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as an indicator of recovery from hemiparesis was evaluated in 60 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. T{sub 2}-weighted MR images revealed early MR abnormality (EMA) of the corticospinal tract within 1 week of ictus. Most patients without EMA recovered beyond Brunnstrom's Recovery Stage 3 while only a few patients with EMA did so. Patients with EMA cannot regain motor function because EMA is almost always followed by complete tract degeneration. EMA in the brainstem and poor motor function recovery are closely correlated. (author).

  1. Early MR abnormality indicating functional recovery from spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumeya, Hiroshi; Hideshima, Hiroshi (Hideshima Hospital, Musashino, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as an indicator of recovery from hemiparesis was evaluated in 60 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. T{sub 2}-weighted MR images revealed early MR abnormality (EMA) of the corticospinal tract within 1 week of ictus. Most patients without EMA recovered beyond Brunnstrom's Recovery Stage 3 while only a few patients with EMA did so. Patients with EMA cannot regain motor function because EMA is almost always followed by complete tract degeneration. EMA in the brainstem and poor motor function recovery are closely correlated. (author).

  2. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guardamagna Ornella

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic. The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body’s “metabolic programming”. Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease. La malattia cardiovascolare rappresenta la principale causa di morbilità e mortalità dei paesi occidentali ed è correlata a degenerazione vascolare aterosclerotica. I fattori di rischio cardiovascolari quali dislipidemia, ipertensione, insulino resistenza e obesità accelerano tale processo il cui esordio è noto sin dell’età pediatrica ed evolve nel corso della vita. L’individuazione e la cura dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari mediante la prevenzione dei fattori causali ritardano la progressione dell’aterosclerosi e l’insorgenza dei sintomi cardiovascolari. La

  3. Adiposity, post-diagnosis weight change, and risk of cardiovascular events among early-stage breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Kwan, Marilyn L; Kushi, Lawrence H; Weltzien, Erin K; Castillo, Adrienne L; Caan, Bette J

    2017-04-01

    Little research examines whether adiposity or post-diagnosis weight changes influence Cardiovascular disease (CVD) among breast cancer patients for whom effects may differ due to treatment and recovery. We studied Stage I-III breast cancer survivors 18 to  diagnosis and weight and waist circumference (WC) around 24 months post diagnosis. Using Cox models for time to incident coronary artery disease, heart failure, valve abnormality, arrhythmia, stroke, or CVD death, we examined at-diagnosis body mass index (BMI, n = 3109) and post-diagnosis WC (n = 1898) and weight change (n = 1903, stable, ±5 to  diagnosis, 25% of women gained and 14% lost ≥10-lbs; mean (SD) WC was 90 (15) cm. Over a median of 8.28 years, 915 women developed CVD. BMI 25-30-kg/m 2 (vs. BMI diagnosis weight change had no association with CVD. Extreme adiposity and any elevation in WC increased risk of CVD among breast cancer survivors; however, changes in weight in the early post-diagnosis period were not associated with CVD. Survivors with high WC and existing CVD risk factors should be monitored.

  4. Early detection of abnormality by a logistic analysis of atomic bomb survivor's serially performed examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Toyoda, Shigeki; Morikawa, Akira.

    1986-01-01

    It is important to establish a method of using periodic medical examination results for disease screening. A method is described of logistically analyzing results from four or more periodic examinations for the early detection of abnormality. This method was applied to 308 patients who died of gastric cancer and 3,002 normal controls. The logistic analysis showed that the ability to differentiate normal from abnormal findings was better when using the results of the periodic examinations than when using the data of the one particular examination. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Mortality of mothers from cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes following pregnancy complications in first delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykke, Jacob A; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Lockwood, Charles J; Triche, Elizabeth W; Paidas, Michael J

    2010-07-01

    The combined effects of preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age offspring, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, placental abruption and stillbirth on early maternal death from cardiovascular causes have not previously been described in a large cohort. We investigated the effects of pregnancy complications on early maternal death in a registry-based retrospective cohort study of 782 287 women with a first singleton delivery in Denmark 1978-2007, followed for a median of 14.8 years (range 0.25-30.2) accruing 11.6 million person-years. We employed Cox proportional hazard models of early death from cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes following preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age offspring and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. We found that preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age were both associated with subsequent death of mothers from cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes. Severe pre-eclampsia was associated with death from cardiovascular causes only. There was a less than additive effect on cardiovascular mortality hazard ratios with increasing number of pregnancy complications: preterm delivery 1.90 [95% confidence intervals 1.49, 2.43]; preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age offspring 3.30 [2.25, 4.84]; preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age offspring and pre-eclampsia 3.85 [2.07, 7.19]. Thus, we conclude that, separately and combined, preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age are strong markers of early maternal death from both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes, while hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are markers of early death of mothers from cardiovascular causes.

  6. Evaluation of cardiovascular anomalies in patients with asymptomatic turner syndrome using multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hee; Jung, Ji Mi; Song, Min Seob; Choi, Seok jin; Chung, Woo Yeong

    2013-08-01

    Turner syndrome is well known to be associated with significant cardiovascular abnormalities. This paper studied the incidence of cardiovascular abnormalities in asymptomatic adolescent patients with Turner syndrome using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) instead of echocardiography. Twenty subjects diagnosed with Turner syndrome who had no cardiac symptoms were included. Blood pressure and electrocardiography (ECG) was checked. Cardiovascular abnormalities were checked by MDCT. According to the ECG results, 11 had a prolonged QTc interval, 5 had a posterior fascicular block, 3 had a ventricular conduction disorder. MDCT revealed vascular abnormalities in 13 patients (65%). Three patients had an aberrant right subclavian artery, 2 had dilatation of left subclavian artery, and others had an aortic root dilatation, aortic diverticulum, and abnormal left vertebral artery. As for venous abnormalities, 3 patients had partial anomalous pulmonary venous return and 2 had a persistent left superior vena cava. This study found cardiovascular abnormalities in 65% of asymptomatic Turner syndrome patients using MDCT. Even though, there are no cardiac symptoms in Turner syndrome patients, a complete evaluation of the heart with echocardiography or MDCT at transition period to adults must be performed.

  7. Funding opportunities for clinical investigators in the early stages of career development in cardiovascular research

    OpenAIRE

    Mentz, Robert J.; Becker, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary cardiovascular research offers junior investigators the opportunity to explore the gamut of biomedical questions. Despite the recent reduction in the availability of funding mechanisms that have historically served as the primary pathways for investigators in the early stages of career development, there remain numerous traditional and non-traditional funding opportunities. This article highlights these opportunities in order to assist early career investigators in the developmen...

  8. World Health Organization cardiovascular risk stratification and target organ damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorz, D; Bongarzoni, L; Citta, L; Citta, N; Citta, P; Keller, L; Mata, L; Tommasi, A

    2016-01-01

    Prediction charts allow treatment to be targeted according to simple markers of cardiovascular risk; many algorithms do not recommend screening asymptomatic target organ damage which could change dramatically the assessment. To demonstrate that target organ damage is present in low cardiovascular risk hypertensive patients and it is more frequent and severe as global cardiovascular risk increases. Consecutive hypertensive patients treated at a single Latin American center. Cardiovascular risk stratified according to 2013 WHO/ISH risk prediction chart America B. Left ventricular mass assessed by Devereux method, left ventricular hypertrophy considered >95g/m(2) in women and >115g/m(2) in men. Transmitral diastolic peak early flow velocity to average septal/lateral peak early diastolic relaxation velocity (E/e' ratio) measured cut off value >13. Systolic function assessed by tissue Doppler average interventricular septum/lateral wall mitral annulus rate systolic excursion (s wave). A total of 292 patients were included of whom 159 patients (54.5%) had cardiovascular risk of 20%. Left ventricular hypertrophy was detected in 17.6% low risk patients, 27.8% in medium risk and 23.3% in high risk (p<0.05), abnormal E/e' ratio was found in 13.8%, 31.1% and 27.9%, respectively (p<0.05). Mean s wave was 8.03+8, 8.1+9 and 8.7+1cm/s for low, intermediate and high risk patients, respectively (p<0.025). Target organ damage is more frequent and severe in high risk; one over four subjects was misclassified due to the presence of asymptomatic target organ damage. Copyright © 2015 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. [Polycystic ovary syndrome: an example of obesity-related cardiovascular complication affecting young women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, Francesco; Cascella, Teresa; Giallauria, Francesco; Palomba, Stefano; De Lorenzo, Anna; Lucci, Rosa; Ambrosino, Elena; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Vigorito, Carlo

    2006-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a good example of obesity-related cardiovascular complication affecting young women. PCOS is not only considered a reproductive problem but rather represents a complex endocrine, multifaceted syndrome with important health implications. Several evidences suggest an increased cardiovascular risk of cardiovascular disease associated with this syndrome, characterized by an impairment of heart structure and function, endothelial dysfunction and lipid abnormalities. All these features, probably linked to insulin-resistance, are often present in obese PCOS patients. Cardiovascular abnormalities represent important long-term sequelae of PCOS that need further investigations.

  10. Normal and Abnormal Behavior in Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Spinner, Miriam R.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluation of normal and abnormal behavior in the period to three years of age involves many variables. Parental attitudes, determined by many factors such as previous childrearing experience, the bonding process, parental psychological status and parental temperament, often influence the labeling of behavior as normal or abnormal. This article describes the forms of crying, sleep and wakefulness, and affective responses from infancy to three years of age.

  11. Estudio de las subpoblaciones linfocitarias T en pacientes pediátricos con anomalías tronco-conales cardiovasculares Study of the T-lymphocyte subpopulations in pediatric patients with conal-truncal cardiovascular abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Beatriz Socarrás Ferrer

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron en 20 pacientes pediátricos con anomalías tronco-conales cardiovasculares las subpoblaciones de linfocitos T mediante el método de la fosfatasa alcalina antifosfatasa alcalina con los anticuerpos monoclonales específicos anti-CD3, anti-CD4 y anti-CD8. Se tomó como grupo control a 25 individuos supuestamente sanos. Se obtuvieron diferencias significativas para las subpoblaciones T CD3 y CD4 positivas (p The T-lymphocyte subpopulations were studied in 20 pediatric patients with conal-truncal cardiovascular abnormalities by the alkaline phosphatase alkaline antiphosphatase method with the anti-CD3, anti-CD4, and anti-CD8 specific monoclonal antibodies. 25 apparently sound individuals were selected as the control group. Significant differences were obtained for the CD3- and CD4-positive T cell subpopulations (p< 0.05. The cellular immunological deficit found in these patients shows the need to include immunomodulators in their treatment to prevent septic complications

  12. Gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance in Anderson-Fabry disease. Evidence for a disease specific abnormality of the myocardial interstitium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, James C C; Sachdev, Bhavesh; Elkington, Andrew G; McKenna, William J; Mehta, Atul; Pennell, Dudley J; Leed, Philip J; Elliott, Perry M

    2003-12-01

    Anderson-Fabry Disease (AFD), an X-linked disorder of sphingolipid metabolism, is a cause of idiopathic left ventricular hypertrophy but the mechanism of hypertrophy is poorly understood. Gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance can detect focal myocardial fibrosis. We hypothesised that hyperenhancement would be present in AFD. Eighteen males (mean 43+/-14 years) and eight female heterozygotes (mean 48+/-12 years) with AFD underwent cine and late gadolinium cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Nine male (50%) had myocardial hyperenhancement ranging from 3.4% to 20.6% (mean 7.7+/-5.7%) of total myocardium; in males, percentage hyperenhancement related to LV mass index (r=0.78, P=0.0002) but not to ejection fraction or left ventricular volumes. Lesser hyperenhancement was also found in four (50%) heterozygous females (mean 4.6%). In 12 (92%) patients with abnormal gadolinium uptake, hyperenhancement occurred in the basal infero-lateral wall where, unlike myocardial infarction, it was not sub-endocardial. In two male patients with severe LVH (left ventricular hypertrophy) and systolic impairment there was additional hyperenhancement in other myocardial segments. These observations suggests that myocardial fibrosis occurs in AFD and may contribute to the hypertrophy and the natural history of the disease.

  13. Postprandial dysmetabolism: Too early or too late?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christos; Kandaraki, Eleni A; Tsirona, Sofia; Kountouras, Dimitrios; Kassi, Georgia; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-07-01

    Postprandial dysmetabolism is a postprandial state characterized by abnormal metabolism of glucose and lipids and, more specifically, of elevated levels of glucose and triglyceride (TG) containing lipoproteins. Since there is evidence that postprandial dysmetabolism is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, due to macro- and microvascular complications, as well as with conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), it is recommended that clinicians be alert for early detection and management of this condition. Management consists of a holistic approach including dietary modification, exercise and use of hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic medication aiming to decrease the postprandial values of circulating glucose and triglycerides. This review aims to explain glucose and lipid homeostasis and the impact of postprandial dysmetabolism on the cardiovascular system as well as to offer suggestions with regard to the therapeutic approach for this entity. However, more trials are required to prevent or reverse early and not too late the actual tissue damage due to postprandial dysmetabolism.

  14. Risk of chromosomal abnormalities in early spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive technology: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Zhen Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies on the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in early spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive technology (ART are relatively controversial and insufficient. Thus, to obtain a more precise evaluation of the risk of embryonic chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester miscarriage after ART, we performed a meta-analysis of all available case-control studies relating to the cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester miscarriage after ART. METHODS: Literature search in the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL based on the established strategy. Meta-regression, subgroup analysis, and Galbraith plots were conducted to explore the sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies with 1,896 cases and 1,186 controls relevant to the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in first- trimester miscarriage after ART, and 8 studies with 601 cases and 602 controls evaluating frequency of chromosome anomaly for maternal age≥35 versus <35 were eligible for the meta-analysis. No statistical difference was found in risk of chromosomally abnormal miscarriage compared to natural conception and the different types of ART utilized, whereas the risk of fetal aneuploidy significantly increased with maternal age≥35 (OR 2.88, 95% CI: 1.74-4.77. CONCLUSIONS: ART treatment does not present an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities occurring in a first trimester miscarriage, but incidence of fetal aneuploidy could increase significantly with advancing maternal age.

  15. Cardiovascular risk calculation | Ker | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular disease remains a major cause of global mortality and morbidity. Atherosclerosis is the main underlying cause in the majority of cardiovascular disease events. Traditional independent risk factors for car diovascular disease include age, abnormal lipid levels, elevated blood pressure, smoking and elevated ...

  16. Can cardiovascular magnetic resonance prompt early cardiovascular/rheumatic treatment in autoimmune rheumatic diseases? Current practice and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogeni, Sophie I; Sfikakis, Petros P; Dimitroulas, Theodoros; Koutsogeorgopoulou, Loukia; Katsifis, Gikas; Markousis-Mavrogenis, George; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kitas, George D

    2018-06-01

    Life expectancy in autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs) remains lower compared to the general population, due to various comoborbidities. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the main contributor to premature mortality. Conventional and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) have considerably improved long-term outcomes in ARDs not only by suppressing systemic inflammation but also by lowering CVD burden. Regarding atherosclerotic disease prevention, EULAR has recommended tight disease control accompanied by regular assessment of traditional CVD risk factors and lifestyle changes. However, this approach, although rational and evidence-based, does not account for important issues such as myocardial inflammation and the long asymptomatic period that usually proceeds clinical manifestations of CVD disease in ARDs before or after the diagnosis of systemic disease. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can offer reliable, reproducible and operator independent information regarding myocardial inflammation, ischemia and fibrosis. Some studies suggest a role for CMR in the risk stratification of ARDs and demonstrate that oedema/fibrosis visualisation with CMR may have the potential to inform cardiac and rheumatic treatment modification in ARDs with or without abnormal routine cardiac evaluation. In this review, we discuss how CMR findings could influence anti-rheumatic treatment decisions targeting optimal control of both systemic and myocardial inflammation irrespective of clinical manifestations of cardiac disease. CMR can provide a different approach that is very promising for risk stratification and treatment modification; however, further studies are needed before the inclusion of CMR in the routine evaluation and treatment of patients with ARDs.

  17. ABNORMAL MICROFAUNAL SHELLS AS EARLY WARNING INDICATOR OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES SURROUNDING BERAU DELTA, EAST KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresna Tri Dewi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 25 sediment samples from surrounding Berau Delta, East Kalimantan have been used for microfaunal study. It is found some abnormal shells of ostracoda, foraminifera and other forms with darkish shells (black, dark green and dark brown. These forms were analyzed using SEM-Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX or EDS to know their chemical composition. The result shows that these abnormal forms composed of CaO, SiO2, C, FeO, Al2O3, K2O, and small amount of Na2O and Cl. They may derive from different sources: CaO and MgO from neutralized component during the environmental management to handle the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD. The other components may derive from coal ash during combustion process or other activities. From this result, the small amount (less than 5% of abnormal shells may be used as early warning indicator of environmental changes in the study area.

  18. Funding opportunities for clinical investigators in the early stages of career development in cardiovascular research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentz, Robert J; Becker, Richard C

    2013-11-01

    Contemporary cardiovascular research offers junior investigators the opportunity to explore the gamut of biomedical questions. Despite the recent reduction in the availability of funding mechanisms that have historically served as the primary pathways for investigators in the early stages of career development, there remain numerous traditional and non-traditional funding opportunities. This article highlights these opportunities in order to assist early career investigators in the development of a personalized research trajectory, which optimizes the potential for career success.

  19. Mortality of mothers from cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes following pregnancy complications in first delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob Alexander; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Lockwood, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes following preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age offspring and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. We found that preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age were both associated with subsequent death of mothers from cardiovascular and non...... cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes, while hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are markers of early death of mothers from cardiovascular causes....

  20. Common echocardiographic abnormalities in Nigerians of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-17

    Sep 17, 2012 ... artery disease, cardiac murmurs, atrial fibrillation, stroke, and transient ischaemic attack.[4,5] In some circumstances, the examination is an appropriate screening test even in the absence of cardiovascular symptoms, especially. Common echocardiographic abnormalities in. Nigerians of different age groups.

  1. Cardiovascular risk and subclinical cardiovascular disease in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajuk Studen, Katica; Jensterle Sever, Mojca; Pfeifer, Marija

    2013-01-01

    In addition to its effects on reproductive health, it is now well recognized that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic disorder, characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity which leads to an excess lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PCOS patients are often obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic and insulin resistant; they have obstructive sleep apnea and have been reported to have higher aldosterone levels in comparison to normal healthy controls. These are all components of an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Many studies exploring subclinical atherosclerosis using different methods (flow-mediated dilatation, intima media thickness, arterial stiffness, coronary artery calcification) as well as assessing circulating cardiovascular risk markers, point toward an increased cardiovascular risk and early atherogenesis in PCOS. The risk and early features of subclinical atherosclerosis can be reversed by non-medical (normalization of weight, healthy lifestyle) and medical (metformin, thiazolidinediones, spironolactone, and statins) interventions. However, the long-term risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as the clinical significance of different interventions still need to be properly addressed in a large prospective study. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Is cardiovascular risk in women with PCOS a real risk? Current insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios; Kandaraki, Eleni; Papalou, Olga; Vryonidou, Andromachi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2017-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive aged women. PCOS incorporates not only symptoms related to the reproductive system but also a clustering of systemic metabolic abnormalities that are linked with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). More specifically, metabolic aberrations such as impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, accompanied by increased low-grade inflammation as well as elevated coagulation factors appear to contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk. Even though many studies have indicated a rise in surrogate biomarkers of CVD in women with PCOS, it is still doubtful to what extent and magnitude this elevation can be translated to real cardiovascular events. Furthermore, the cardiovascular risk factors appear to vary significantly in the different phenotypes of the syndrome. Women with PCOS have the potential for early atherosclerosis, myocardial and endothelial dysfunction. Whether PCOS women are at real cardiovascular risk compared to controls remains between the verge of theoretical and real threat for the PCOS women at any age but particularly in the post-menopausal state. Interestingly, although the presence of the CVD risk factors is well documented in PCOS women, their combination on different phenotypes may play a role, which eventually results in a spectrum of clinical manifestations of CVD with variable degree of severity. The present manuscript aims to review the interaction between PCOS and the combination of several cardiovascular risk factors.

  3. Residual generator for cardiovascular anomalies detection

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of using observer-based approaches for cardiovascular anomalies detection and isolation. We consider a lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system that can be written in a form of nonlinear state-space representation. We show that residuals that are sensitive to variations in some cardiovascular parameters and to abnormal opening and closure of the valves, can be generated. Since the whole state is not easily available for measurement, we propose to associate the residual generator to a robust extended kalman filter. Numerical results performed on synthetic data are provided.

  4. Thyroid disease and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzi, Sara; Klein, Irwin

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid hormones, specifically triiodothyronine (T3), have significant effects on the heart and cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, subclinical thyroid disease, and low T3 syndrome each cause cardiac and cardiovascular abnormalities through both genomic and nongenomic effects on cardiac myocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. In compromised health, such as occurs in heart disease, alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism may further impair cardiac and cardiovascular function. Diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disease may benefit from including analysis of thyroid hormone status, including serum total T3 levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Development of Prostate Palpation Skills through Simulation Training May Impact Early Detection of Prostate Abnormalities and Early Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    has a high incidence rate (one in six for men in the U.S.), with an estimated 192,280 new cases in 2009. When diagnosed in an early and less...converges in a vector toward the nipple . Study results indicate that use of the vertical strip leads to an increased detection of abnormalities [10], [16...Palpation, Clinical prostate examination. Prostate cancer is one of the most common causes of death in American men , with an estimated 189,280 new cases

  6. Radiation Exposure and Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer in Early NASA Astronauts: Space for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgart, S. R.; Little, M. P.; Campbell, L. J.; Milder, C. M.; Shavers, M. R.; Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z. S.

    2018-01-01

    Of the many possible health challenges posed during extended exploratory missions to space, the effects of space radiation on cardiovascular disease and cancer are of particular concern. There are unique challenges to estimating those radiation risks; care and appropriate and rigorous methodology should be applied when considering small cohorts such as the NASA astronaut population. The objective of this work was to establish whether there is evidence for excess cardiovascular disease or cancer mortality in an early NASA astronaut cohort and determine if a correlation exists between space radiation exposure and mortality.

  7. Vitamin D, cardiovascular disease and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H.; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism......, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials...... (RCTs) have not been able to consistently replicate the observational findings. Several RCTs are ongoing, and the results from these are needed to clarify whether vitamin D deficiency is a causal and reversible factor to prevent cardiovascular disease....

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Yoshiaki; Imai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Sigeru; Inagaki, Yoshiaki; Tateno, Yukio; Ikehira, Hiroo.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new noninvasive technique for visualization of the cardiovascular system, and is used to evaluate tissue characteristics, cardiac function and blood flow abnormalities, as well as to obtain morphological information. In this paper we presented results of clinical and laboratory research obtained using conventional spin echo MRI with regard to cardiovascular anatomy, tissue characterization and physiology. Furthermore, experience with two new techniques, cine-MRI and volume-selected MR spectroscopy, and their potential clinical usefulness in detecting cardiovascular diseases are documented. (author)

  9. Visual assessment of early emphysema and interstitial abnormalities on CT is useful in lung cancer risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wille, Mathilde M.W.; Dirksen, Asger; Shaker, Saher B. [Gentofte Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hellerup (Denmark); Thomsen, Laura H. [Hvidovre Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hvidovre (Denmark); Petersen, Jens [University of Copenhagen, Department of Computer Science, DIKU, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark); Bruijne, Marleen de [University of Copenhagen, Department of Computer Science, DIKU, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark); Erasmus MC -University Medical Center Rotterdam, Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pedersen, Jesper H. [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark)

    2016-02-15

    Screening for lung cancer should be limited to a high-risk-population, and abnormalities in low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening images may be relevant for predicting the risk of lung cancer. Our aims were to compare the occurrence of visually detected emphysema and interstitial abnormalities in subjects with and without lung cancer in a screening population of smokers. Low-dose chest CT examinations (baseline and latest possible) of 1990 participants from The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial were independently evaluated by two observers who scored emphysema and interstitial abnormalities. Emphysema (lung density) was also measured quantitatively. Emphysema was seen more frequently and its extent was greater among participants with lung cancer on baseline (odds ratio (OR), 1.8, p = 0.017 and p = 0.002) and late examinations (OR 2.6, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). No significant difference was found using quantitative measurements. Interstitial abnormalities were more common findings among participants with lung cancer (OR 5.1, p < 0.001 and OR 4.5, p < 0.001).There was no association between presence of emphysema and presence of interstitial abnormalities (OR 0.75, p = 0.499). Even early signs of emphysema and interstitial abnormalities are associated with lung cancer. Quantitative measurements of emphysema - regardless of type - do not show the same association. (orig.)

  10. Visual assessment of early emphysema and interstitial abnormalities on CT is useful in lung cancer risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, Mathilde M.W.; Dirksen, Asger; Shaker, Saher B.; Thomsen, Laura H.; Petersen, Jens; Bruijne, Marleen de; Pedersen, Jesper H.

    2016-01-01

    Screening for lung cancer should be limited to a high-risk-population, and abnormalities in low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening images may be relevant for predicting the risk of lung cancer. Our aims were to compare the occurrence of visually detected emphysema and interstitial abnormalities in subjects with and without lung cancer in a screening population of smokers. Low-dose chest CT examinations (baseline and latest possible) of 1990 participants from The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial were independently evaluated by two observers who scored emphysema and interstitial abnormalities. Emphysema (lung density) was also measured quantitatively. Emphysema was seen more frequently and its extent was greater among participants with lung cancer on baseline (odds ratio (OR), 1.8, p = 0.017 and p = 0.002) and late examinations (OR 2.6, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). No significant difference was found using quantitative measurements. Interstitial abnormalities were more common findings among participants with lung cancer (OR 5.1, p < 0.001 and OR 4.5, p < 0.001).There was no association between presence of emphysema and presence of interstitial abnormalities (OR 0.75, p = 0.499). Even early signs of emphysema and interstitial abnormalities are associated with lung cancer. Quantitative measurements of emphysema - regardless of type - do not show the same association. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of malposition of the branch pulmonary arteries using cardiovascular computed tomography angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hui; Juan, Yu-Hsiang; Wang, Qiushi; Huang, Hongfei; Yang, Lin; Xie, Zhaofeng; Chen, Jimei; Zhang, Xiaoshen; Liang, Changhong; Chung, Taylor; Kwong, Raymond Y.; Saboo, Sachin S.

    2014-01-01

    To analyze 15 cases of malposition of branch pulmonary arteries (MBPA) for the hospital-based prevalence, clinical information, surgical outcome, imaging findings, associated cardiovascular and airway abnormalities on cardiovascular computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We retrospectively searched for patients with MBPA from our database consisting of patients referred for CCTA due to known or suspected congenital heart disease and also from all patients receiving chest computed tomography (CT) during the same time period. We analyzed the hospital-based prevalence, image findings, associated cardiovascular anomalies, airway compression, and recorded the clinical information and surgical outcome. Our study showed 15 patients with MBPA (hospital-based prevalence: 0.33 % among patients with congenital heart disease and 0.06 % in all patients receiving chest CT or CCTA). Classic type was more common than lesser type (67 % versus 33 %). All patients had associated cardiovascular anomalies, including aortic arch abnormalities (80 %) and secondary airway compression (33 %). Surgery was performed in 67 % of cardiovascular anomalies and 60 % of airway stenoses. MBPA has a hospital-based prevalence of 0.33 % among patients with congenital heart disease and 0.06 % in all patients receiving either chest CT or CCTA. CCTA can delineate the anatomy of MBPA, associated cardiovascular and airway abnormalities for preoperative evaluation. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of malposition of the branch pulmonary arteries using cardiovascular computed tomography angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, GuangZhou, GuangDong (China); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Department of Medicine (Division of Cardiovascular Medicine) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Juan, Yu-Hsiang [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Department of Medicine (Division of Cardiovascular Medicine) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou and Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Taoyuan (China); Wang, Qiushi; Huang, Hongfei; Yang, Lin [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, GuangZhou, GuangDong (China); Xie, Zhaofeng [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Guangdong General Hospital, GuangZhou, GuangDong (China); Chen, Jimei; Zhang, Xiaoshen [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Guangdong General Hospital, GuangZhou, GuangDong (China); Liang, Changhong [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, GuangZhou, GuangDong (China); Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Chung, Taylor [Children' s Hospital and Research Center Oakland, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Oakland, CA (United States); Kwong, Raymond Y.; Saboo, Sachin S. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Department of Medicine (Division of Cardiovascular Medicine) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    To analyze 15 cases of malposition of branch pulmonary arteries (MBPA) for the hospital-based prevalence, clinical information, surgical outcome, imaging findings, associated cardiovascular and airway abnormalities on cardiovascular computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We retrospectively searched for patients with MBPA from our database consisting of patients referred for CCTA due to known or suspected congenital heart disease and also from all patients receiving chest computed tomography (CT) during the same time period. We analyzed the hospital-based prevalence, image findings, associated cardiovascular anomalies, airway compression, and recorded the clinical information and surgical outcome. Our study showed 15 patients with MBPA (hospital-based prevalence: 0.33 % among patients with congenital heart disease and 0.06 % in all patients receiving chest CT or CCTA). Classic type was more common than lesser type (67 % versus 33 %). All patients had associated cardiovascular anomalies, including aortic arch abnormalities (80 %) and secondary airway compression (33 %). Surgery was performed in 67 % of cardiovascular anomalies and 60 % of airway stenoses. MBPA has a hospital-based prevalence of 0.33 % among patients with congenital heart disease and 0.06 % in all patients receiving either chest CT or CCTA. CCTA can delineate the anatomy of MBPA, associated cardiovascular and airway abnormalities for preoperative evaluation. (orig.)

  13. The impact of high-salt exposure on cardiovascular development in the early chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Zhang, Nuan; Wei, Yi-Fan; Jin, Yi-Mei; Zhang, Shi-Yao; Cheng, Xin; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Zhao, Shu-Zhu; Chen, You-Peng; Chuai, Manli; Hocher, Berthold; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we show that high-salt exposure dramatically increases chick mortality during embryo development. As embryonic mortality at early stages mainly results from defects in cardiovascular development, we focused on heart formation and angiogenesis. We found that high-salt exposure enhanced the risk of abnormal heart tube looping and blood congestion in the heart chamber. In the presence of high salt, both ventricular cell proliferation and apoptosis increased. The high osmolarity induced by high salt in the ventricular cardiomyocytes resulted in incomplete differentiation, which might be due to reduced expression of Nkx2.5 and GATA4. Blood vessel density and diameter were suppressed by exposure to high salt in both the yolk sac membrane (YSM) and chorioallantoic membrane models. In addition, high-salt-induced suppression of angiogenesis occurred even at the vasculogenesis stage, as blood island formation was also inhibited by high-salt exposure. At the same time, cell proliferation was repressed and cell apoptosis was enhanced by high-salt exposure in YSM tissue. Moreover, the reduction in expression of HIF2 and FGF2 genes might cause high-salt-suppressed angiogenesis. Interestingly, we show that high-salt exposure causes excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the heart and YSM tissues, which could be partially rescued through the addition of antioxidants. In total, our study suggests that excess generation of ROS might play an important role in high-salt-induced defects in heart and angiogenesis. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Timing of Conduction Abnormalities Leading to Permanent Pacemaker Insertion After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation-A Single-Centre Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozier, Daniel; Zivkovic, Nevena; Elbaz-Greener, Gabby; Singh, Sheldon M; Wijeysundera, Harindra C

    2017-12-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is the preferred alternative to traditional surgical aortic valve replacement; however, it remains expensive. One potential driver of cost is the need for postprocedural monitoring for conduction abnormalities after TAVI. Given the paucity of literature on the optimal length of monitoring, we aimed to determine when clinically significant conduction abnormalities leading to permanent pacemaker (PPM) insertion after TAVI were first identified. We identified all patients in the Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre TAVI registry (Toronto, Canada) who underwent TAVI between 2009 and 2016, excluding those with pre-existing PPMs or those who underwent emergency open heart surgery. Through dedicated chart review, the timing and type of conduction abnormalities leading to PPM were recorded. Patients were divided according to the timing of conduction abnormality: during the procedure vs after the procedure. The overall PPM insertion rate was 15.6% (80 of 512 cases), with all but 1 patient receiving a PPM for class I indications. PPMs were inserted for complete heart block/high-grade atrioventricular block (91.3%), severe sinus node dysfunction (3.8%), and alternating bundle branch block (3.8%). Of these conduction abnormalities, 55.0% occurred during the procedure (intraprocedure; n = 44 patients). The mean time to the development of a conduction abnormality necessitating PPM was 1.2 days (interquartile range, 0-2 days), with 88.8% occurring within 72 hours of the procedure (n = 71 patients). In the entire TAVI cohort, leading to PPM. The majority of conduction abnormalities leading to PPM insertion after TAVI occur in the very early periprocedural period, suggesting that early mobilization and discharge will be safe from a conduction standpoint. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dyslipoproteinemia in Gestosis in Early Puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Shcherbakova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the blood atherogenic potential in women with gestosis in early puerperium to assess a risk of cardiovascular diseases. Subjects and methods: The concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and cholesterols of high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and very low-density lipoprotein were measured in 32 patients aged 25—30 years in early puerperium. The data of examining women with gestoses (Group 3 were compared with the results of examining those after physiological pregnancy delivered both during vaginal delivery (Group 1 and via cesarean section (Group 2. Results and discussion. The puerperas with gestosis had significant hypertriglyceridemia and hyperbetacholesterolemia throughout the follow-up. There were no significant abnormal concentrations of low-density lipoproteins. In gestosis and after cesarean section, there was an almost double fall in the blood concentration of high-density lipoproteins to the level that assigned these patients to a group at risk for cardiovascular diseases. In these patients, the cholesterol atherogenicity coefficient was drastically increased. A moderate increase in the blood atherogenic potential in early puerperium was noted both during normal pregnancy and at normal labor. Conclusion. Concomitance of hypertriglyceridemia and hyperprebetacholesrerolemia with the low concentration of high-density lipoproteins suggests that after prior gestosis, cardiovascular complications may develop, presenting a high death risk. It is concluded that it is necessary to monitor the blood lipoprotein spectrum during gestation and puerperium and atherogenic dyslipoproteinemia can be corrected in case of its detection. Key words: gestosis, puerperium, dyslipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperprebetacholesterolemia.

  16. Fibrillin abnormalities and prognosis in Marfan syndrome and related disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, T.; Furthmayr, H.; Francke, U.; Gasner, C. [Stanford Univ. Medical Center, CA (United States)

    1995-08-28

    Marfan syndrome (MFS), a multisystem autosomal-dominant disorder, is characterized by mutations of the fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene and by abnormal patterns of synthesis, secretion, and matrix deposition of the fibrillin protein. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of fibrillin protein abnormalities in the diagnosis of MFS, we studied dermal fibroblasts from 57 patients with classical MFS, 15 with equivocal MFS, 8 with single-organ manifestations, and 16 with other connective tissue disorders including homocystinuria and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Abnormal fibrillin metabolism was identified in 70 samples that were classified into four different groups based on quantitation of fibrillin synthesis and matrix deposition. Significant correlations were found for phenotypic features including arachnodactyly, striae distensae, cardiovascular manifestations, and fibrillin groups II and IV, which included 70% of the MFS patients. In addition, these two groups were associated with shortened {open_quotes}event-free{close_quotes} survival and more severe cardiovascular complications than groups I and III. The latter included most of the equivocal MFS/single manifestation patients with fibrillin abnormalities. Our results indicate that fibrillin defects at the protein level per se are not specific for MFS, but that the drastically reduced fibrillin deposition, caused by a dominant-negative effect of abnormal fibrillin molecules in individuals defined as groups II and IV, is of prognostic and possibly diagnostic significance. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Early life environment and the developing cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idris, N.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The dynamics of cardiovascular system development in childhood are still largely unknown. Despite its known sensitivity to small perturbations, it has not been fully elucidated how the cardiovascular system evolves and responds to different stimuli and how these impact the future

  18. Nonfasting hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, B G; Langsted, A; Freiberg, J J

    2009-01-01

    , total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 all associate with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These new data open the possibility that nonfasting rather than fasting lipid profiles can be used for cardiovascular risk prediction. If implemented, this would...... of cardiovascular disease and early death....

  19. Echocardiographic Evidence of Early Diastolic Dysfunction in Asymptomatic Children with Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalfan S. Al-Senaidi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Structural and functional cardiovascular abnormalities have been reported in adults with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI; however, there is a lack of paediatric literature on this topic. This study aimed to investigate cardiovascular abnormalities in children with OI in comparison to a control group. Methods: This case-control study was conducted at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, between May 2013 and August 2014. Data from eight patients with OI and 24 healthy controls were compared using conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE. Results: The OI group had significantly lower peak early mitral valve flow velocity (P = 0.027, peak a-wave reversal in the pulmonary vein (P = 0.030 and peak early diastolic velocity of the mitral valve and upper septum (P = 0.001 each. The peak late diastolic velocities of the mitral valve (P = 0.002 and the upper septum (P = 0.037 were significantly higher in the OI group; however, the peak early/late diastolic velocity ratios of the mitral valve (P = 0.002 and upper septum (P = 0.001 were significantly lower. Left ventricular dimensions and aortic and pulmonary artery diameters were larger in the OI group when indexed for body surface area. Both groups had normal systolic cardiac function. Conclusion: Children with OI had normal systolic cardiac function. However, changes in myocardial tissue Doppler velocities were suggestive of early diastolic cardiac dysfunction. They also had increased left ventricular dimensions and greater vessel diameters. These findings indicate the need for early and detailed structural and functional echocardiographic assessment and follow-up of young patients with OI.

  20. [Association of muscle strength with early markers of cardiovascular risk in sedentary adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2013-10-01

    To assess the association between muscle strength and early cardiovascular risk (CVR) markers in sedentary adults. A total of 176 sedentary subjects aged 18-30 years were enrolled. Body mass index and fat percentage were calculated, and waist circumference, grip strength by dynamometry, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake by VO2max were measured as CVR markers. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between muscle strength and CVR markers. Inverse correlations were found between muscle strength and adiposity (r=-.317; P=.001), waist circumference (r=-.309; P=.001), systolic blood pressure (r=-.401; P=.001), and mean arterial pressure (r=-.256; P=.001). Subjects with lower levels of muscle strength had a 5.79-fold (95% CI 1.57 to 9.34; P=.008) risk of having higher adiposity levels (≥25%) and a 9.67-fold (95% CI=3.86 to 19.22; P<.001) risk of having lower physical capacity values for VO2max (≤31.5mL/kg/min(-1)). In sedentary adults, muscle strength is associated to early manifestations of CVR. It is suggested that muscle strength testing is added to routine measurement of VO2max and traditional risk factors for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Nervous system disruption and concomitant behavioral abnormality in early hatched pufferfish larvae exposed to heavy oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Masahumi; Sugahara, Yuki; Watanabe, Tomoe; Irie, Kouta; Ishida, Minoru; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Takata, Hiromi; Handoh, Itsuki C; Nakayama, Kei; Murakami, Yasunori

    2011-08-01

    Spills of heavy oil (HO) over the oceans have been proven to have an adverse effect on marine life. It has been hypothesized that exposure of early larvae of sinking eggs to HO leads largely to normal morphology, whereas abnormal organization of the developing neural scaffold is likely to be found. HO-induced disruption of the nervous system, which controls animal behavior, may in turn cause abnormalities in the swimming behavior of hatched larvae. To clarify the toxicological effects of HO, we performed exposure experiments and morphological and behavioral analyses in pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) larvae. Fertilized eggs of pufferfish were exposed to 50 mg/L of HO for 8 days and transferred to fresh seawater before hatching. The hatched larvae were observed for their swimming behavior, morphological appearance, and construction of muscles and nervous system. In HO-exposed larvae, we did not detect any anomaly of body morphology. However, they showed an abnormal swimming pattern and disorganized midbrain, a higher center controlling movement. Our results suggest that HO-exposed fishes suffer developmental disorder of the brain that triggers an abnormal swimming behavior and that HO may be selectively toxic to the brain and cause physical disability throughout the life span of these fishes.

  2. Liver-specific rescuing of CEACAM1 reverses endothelial and cardiovascular abnormalities in male mice with null deletion of Ceacam1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Russo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mice with global null mutation of Ceacam1 (Cc1−/−, display impairment of insulin clearance that causes hyperinsulinemia followed by insulin resistance, elevated hepatic de novo lipogenesis, and visceral obesity. In addition, they manifest abnormal vascular permeability and elevated blood pressure. Liver-specific rescuing of Ceacam1 reversed all of the metabolic abnormalities in Cc1−/−liver+ mice. The current study examined whether Cc1−/− male mice develop endothelial and cardiac dysfunction and whether this relates to the metabolic abnormalities caused by defective insulin extraction. Methods and results: Myography studies showed reduction of agonist-stimulated nitric oxide production in resistance arterioles in Cc1−/−, but not Cc1−/−liver+ mice. Liver-based rescuing of CEACAM1 also attenuated the abnormal endothelial adhesiveness to circulating leukocytes in parallel to reducing plasma endothelin-1 and recovering plasma nitric oxide levels. Echocardiography studies revealed increased septal wall thickness, cardiac hypertrophy and reduced cardiac performance in Cc1−/−, but not Cc1−/−xliver+ mice. Insulin signaling experiments indicated compromised IRS1/Akt/eNOS pathway leading to lower nitric oxide level, and activated Shc/MAPK pathway leading to more endothelin-1 production in the aortae and hearts of Cc1−/−, but not Cc1−/−xliver+ mice. The increase in the ratio of endothelin-1 receptor A/B indicated an imbalance in the vasomotor activity of Cc1−/− mice, which was normalized in Cc1−/−xliver+ mice. Conclusions: The data underscore a critical role for impaired CEACAM1-dependent hepatic insulin clearance pathways and resulting hyperinsulinemia and lipid accumulation in aortae and heart in regulating the cardiovascular function. Keywords: Insulin clearance, Hyperinsulinemia, Insulin resistance, Endothelial function, Cardiomyopathy

  3. Time to foster a rational approach to preventing cardiovascular morbid events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jay N; Duprez, Daniel A

    2008-07-29

    Efforts to prevent atherosclerotic morbid events have focused primarily on risk factor prevention and intervention. These approaches, based on the statistical association of risk factors with events, have dominated clinical practice in the last generation. Because the cardiovascular abnormalities eventuating in morbid events are detectable in the arteries and heart before the development of symptomatic disease, recent efforts have focused on identifying the presence of these abnormalities as a more sensitive and specific guide to the need for therapy. Advances in noninvasive techniques for studying the vasculature and the left ventricle now provide the opportunity to use early disease rather than risk factors as the tool for clinical decision making. A disease scoring system has been developed using 10 tests of vascular and cardiac function and structure. More extensive data to confirm the sensitivity and specificity of this scoring system and to demonstrate its utility in tracking the response to therapy are needed to justify widespread application in clinical practice.

  4. ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC ABNORMALITIES AMONG MEXICAN AMERICANS: CORRELATIONS WITH DIABETES, OBESITY, AND THE METABOLIC SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Saulette R; Smulevitz, Beverly; Rentfro, Anne R; Vatcheva, Kristina P; Kim, Hyunggun; McPherson, David D; Hanis, Craig L; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; McCormick, Joseph B; Laing, Susan T

    2012-04-01

    Resting ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities have been associated with cardiovascular mortality. Simple markers of abnormal autonomic tone have also been associated with diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in some populations. Data on these electrocardiographic abnormalities and correlations with coronary risk factors are lacking among Mexican Americans wherein these conditions are prevalent. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalent resting electrocardiographic abnormalities among community-dwelling Mexican Americans, and correlate these findings with coronary risk factors, particularly diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. Study subjects (n=1280) were drawn from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort comprised of community-dwelling Mexican Americans living in Brownsville, Texas at the United States-Mexico border. Ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities were defined as presence of ST/T wave abnormalities suggestive of ischemia, abnormal Q waves, and left bundle branch block. Parameters that reflect autonomic tone, such as heart rate-corrected QT interval and resting heart rate, were also measured. Ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities were more prevalent among older persons and those with hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. Subjects in the highest quartiles of QTc interval and resting heart rate were also more likely to be diabetic, hypertensive, obese, or have the metabolic syndrome. Among Mexican Americans, persons with diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome were more likely to have ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities, longer QTc intervals, and higher resting heart rates. A resting electrocardiogram can play a complementary role in the comprehensive evaluation of cardiovascular risk in this minority population.

  5. Deletion of exon 20 of the Familial Dysautonomia gene Ikbkap in mice causes developmental delay, cardiovascular defects, and early embryonic lethality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Dietrich

    Full Text Available Familial Dysautonomia (FD is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects 1/3,600 live births in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, and leads to death before the age of 40. The disease is characterized by abnormal development and progressive degeneration of the sensory and autonomic nervous system. A single base pair substitution in intron 20 of the Ikbkap gene accounts for 98% of FD cases, and results in the expression of low levels of the full-length mRNA with simultaneous expression of an aberrantly spliced mRNA in which exon 20 is missing. To date, there is no animal model for the disease, and the essential cellular functions of IKAP--the protein encoded by Ikbkap--remain unknown. To better understand the normal function of IKAP and in an effort to generate a mouse model for FD, we have targeted the mouse Ikbkap gene by homologous recombination. We created two distinct alleles that result in either loss of Ikbkap expression, or expression of an mRNA lacking only exon 20. Homozygosity for either mutation leads to developmental delay, cardiovascular and brain malformations, accompanied with early embryonic lethality. Our analyses indicate that IKAP is essential for expression of specific genes involved in cardiac morphogenesis, and that cardiac failure is the likely cause of abnormal vascular development and embryonic lethality. Our results also indicate that deletion of exon 20 abolishes gene function. This implies that the truncated IKAP protein expressed in FD patients does not retain any significant biological function.

  6. Corpus luteum blood flow in normal and abnormal early pregnancy: evaluation and analysis with transvaginal color and pulsed doppler sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaoyi; Lin Meifang; Zheng Meirong; Liang Xiaoxian; Liu Jianfeng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Detecting and assessment the corpus luteum blood flow in normal and abnormal early pregnancy. Methods: Using transvaginal color and pulse Doppler sonography, we detected 215 pregnant women including 150 normal intrauterine pregnancies, 25 abortion, 29 ectopic pregnancies, and then recorded corpus luteum blood flow feature and the blood flow indexes (Vmax, RI and PI). Results: 1) Corpus luteum was successfully identified in 148 cases out of 150 of normal early pregnancies, 25 cases out of 26 of threatened abortion; 22 cases out of 29 of ectopic pregnancy. 2) Three groups shared the same feature of Color Doppler imaging: a circumferential rim around the entire corpus luteum. 3) The flow index revealed mean PVS, RI and PI had no statistical difference in normal and abnormal early pregnancy; The mean PVS was lower in ectopic pregnancy than in normal pregnancy (P<0.05), while PI and PR had no characteristic in ectopic pregnancy group compared with the indexes obtained in normal pregnancy group. Conclusion: The corpus luteum can be precisely identified in most pregnancy using transvaginal color Doppler and manifests a characterized rim Doppler imaging. PVS may help in differentiating the ectopic pregnancy from normal early pregnancy. (authors)

  7. Down Syndrome: A Cardiovascular Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, J. C.; Duffels, M. G. J.; Winter, M. M.; Weijerman, M. E.; Cobben, J. M.; Huisman, S. A.; Mulder, B. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skillful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart defects, cardiovascular aspects and…

  8. Clinical Syndromes Associated with Cardiovascular Diseases: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Sheng Yang, MD, PhD, FACC, FAHA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, a variety of syndromes are associated with cardiovascular disease and have characteristic findings. Most of them are an autosomal dominant genetic disorder and have different types of cardiovascular abnormalities, including electrocardiographic conduction defects, arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy, vascular and valvular diseases, cardiac septal defects, and pulmonary problems. There is a growing need for physicians to pay more attention to these syndromes.

  9. [Clinical analysis of pregnancy and postpartum cardiovascular complications in Marfan syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin-sheng; Li, Bin; Sun, Yan-qing; Guan, Xin-liang; Xu, Bao-wei; Qiao, Zhi-yu

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the management of pregnancy and cardiovascular complications in women with Marfan syndrome (MFS). From October 1994 to September 2006, 30 patients with MFS undergoing cardiovascular surgery were studied retrospectively. In the labor of 46 offsprings given birth by 30 women, 5 cases (11%) were performed elective cesarean section because of the existence of aortic complication, and 12 (26%) were diagnosed as MFS. The gestation in two patients was terminated due to deterioration of aortic abnormalities during their third trimester, and they received surgical treatment with Bentall procedure. Two developed acute aortic dissection during labor and post delivery respectively. With the manipulation of anticoagulation peripartum, one who had the implantation with mechanical prosthesis went through pregnancy and delivery uneventfully. The average duration between delivery and cardiovascular surgery was (15 +/- 9) years. Vaginal delivery can be done safely in patients with the MFS who do not have or have mild cardiovascular system abnormalities, aortic dissection, or other important cardiac abnormalities, cesarean section should be the preferred method of delivery. Women with MFS are at increased risk for dissection and congestive heart failure during pregnancy and should be counseled before pregnancy about these risks, as well as the inheritance of the condition.

  10. Computed tomography imaging of early coronary artery lesions in stable individuals with multiple cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence, extent, severity, and features of coronary artery lesions in stable patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Seventy-seven patients with more than 3 cardiovascular risk factors were suspected of having coronary artery disease. Patients with high-risk factors and 39 controls with no risk factors were enrolled in the study. The related risk factors included hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, smoking history, and overweight. The characteristics of coronary lesions were identified and evaluated by 64-slice coronary computed tomography angiography. RESULTS: The incidence of coronary atherosclerosis was higher in the high-risk group than in the no-risk group. The involved branches of the coronary artery, the diffusivity of the lesion, the degree of stenosis, and the nature of the plaques were significantly more severe in the high-risk group compared with the no-risk group (all p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Among stable individuals with high-risk factors, early coronary artery lesions are common and severe. Computed tomography has promising value for the early screening of coronary lesions.

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities in HIV-negative patients with secondary and early latent syphilis and serum VDRL ≥ 1:32

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Pastuszczak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Syphilis is caused by a spirochete Treponema pallidum. Invasion of the central nervous system (CNS by T. pallidum may appear early during the course of disease. The diagnosis of confirmed neurosyphilis is based on the reactive Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Recent studies indicated that serum RPR ≥ 1:32 are associated with higher risk of reactivity of CSF VDRL. Aims : The main aim of the current study was to assess cerebrospinal fluid serological and biochemical abnormalities in HIV negative subjects with secondary and early latent syphilis and serum VDRL ≥ 1:32. Materials and Methods : Clinical and laboratory data of 33 HIV-negative patients with secondary and early latent syphilis, with the serum VDRL titer ≥ 1:32, who underwent a lumbar puncture and were treated in Department of Dermatology at Jagiellonian University School of Medicine in Cracow, were collected. Results : Clinical examination revealed no symptoms of CNS involvement in all patients. 18% ( n = 6 of patients met the criteria of confirmed neurosyphilis (reactive CSF-VDRL. In 14 (42% patients CSF WBC count ≥ 5/ul was found, and in 13 (39% subjects there was elevated CSF protein concentration (≥ 45 mg/dL. 10 patients had CSF WBC count ≥ 5/ul and/or elevated CSF protein concentration (≥ 45 mg/dL but CSF-VDRL was not reactive. Conclusions : Indications for CSF examination in HIV-negative patients with early syphilis are the subject of discussion. It seems that all patients with syphilis and with CSF abnormalities (reactive serological tests, elevated CSF WBC count, elevated protein concentration should be treated according to protocols for neurosyphilis. But there is a need for identification of biomarkes in order to identify a group of patients with syphilis, in whom risk of such abnormalities is high.

  12. Obesity and cardiovascular risk: a call for action from the European Society of Hypertension Working Group of Obesity, Diabetes and the High-risk Patient and European Association for the Study of Obesity: part B: obesity-induced cardiovascular disease, early prevention strategies and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsis, Vasilios; Tsioufis, Konstantinos; Antza, Christina; Seravalle, Gino; Coca, Antonio; Sierra, Cristina; Lurbe, Empar; Stabouli, Stella; Jelakovic, Bojan; Redon, Josep; Redon, Pau; Nilsson, Peter M; Jordan, Jens; Micic, Dragan; Finer, Nicholas; Leitner, Deborah R; Toplak, Hermann; Tokgozoglu, Lale; Athyros, Vasilios; Elisaf, Moses; Filippatos, Theodosios D; Grassi, Guido

    2018-04-12

    : Obesity predisposes for atrial fibrillation, heart failure, sudden cardiac death, renal disease and ischemic stroke, which are the main causes of cardiovascular hospitalization and mortality. As obesity and the cardiovascular effects on the vessels and the heart start early in life, even from childhood, it is important for health policies to prevent obesity very early before the disease manifestation emerge. Key roles in the prevention are strategies to increase physical exercise, reduce body weight and to prevent or treat hypertension, lipids disorders and diabetes earlier and efficiently to prevent cardiovascular complications.

  13. Abnormal early brain responses during visual search are evident in schizophrenia but not bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanMeerten, Nicolaas J; Dubke, Rachel E; Stanwyck, John J; Kang, Seung Suk; Sponheim, Scott R

    2016-01-01

    People with schizophrenia show deficits in processing visual stimuli but neural abnormalities underlying the deficits are unclear and it is unknown whether such functional brain abnormalities are present in other severe mental disorders or in individuals who carry genetic liability for schizophrenia. To better characterize brain responses underlying visual search deficits and test their specificity to schizophrenia we gathered behavioral and electrophysiological responses during visual search (i.e., Span of Apprehension [SOA] task) from 38 people with schizophrenia, 31 people with bipolar disorder, 58 biological relatives of people with schizophrenia, 37 biological relatives of people with bipolar disorder, and 65 non-psychiatric control participants. Through subtracting neural responses associated with purely sensory aspects of the stimuli we found that people with schizophrenia exhibited reduced early posterior task-related neural responses (i.e., Span Endogenous Negativity [SEN]) while other groups showed normative responses. People with schizophrenia exhibited longer reaction times than controls during visual search but nearly identical accuracy. Those individuals with schizophrenia who had larger SENs performed more efficiently (i.e., shorter reaction times) on the SOA task suggesting that modulation of early visual cortical responses facilitated their visual search. People with schizophrenia also exhibited a diminished P300 response compared to other groups. Unaffected first-degree relatives of people with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia showed an amplified N1 response over posterior brain regions in comparison to other groups. Diminished early posterior brain responses are associated with impaired visual search in schizophrenia and appear to be specifically associated with the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Adiponectin and C - reactive protein Relationship in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Relation to Cardiovascular Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shousha, M.A.; Soliman, S.

    2008-01-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common reproductive abnormalities, shares some components of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. Therefore, PCOS patients may represent the largest group of women at high risk for the development of early-onset cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or diabetes. The adipokine, adiponectin inhibits vascular inflammation and acts as an endogenous modulator of obesity - linked diseases. High - sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is recently debated as a risk factor and mediator for atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between adiponectin and hs- CRP in The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and to identify their relation to Cardiovascular Disease. Adiponectin and hs- CRP measurements were undertaken in 90 PCOS patients and 70 body mass index-matched controls with regular menstrual cycles. Whereas 36.8% of the PCOS patients had CRP levels above 5 mg/liter, only 9.6% of the controls exhibited high CRP levels (P < 0.001). The mean ± SD was 5.46 ± 7.0 in the PCOS group vs. 2.04 ± 1.9 mg/liter in the control (P < 0.001). The body mass index, white blood cell count, TSH, glucose, cholesterol, and homocysteine levels were not significantly different between the two groups. CRP levels are elevated in patients with PCOS and may be a marker of early cardiovascular risk in these patients. The plasma adiponectin levels being significantly lower in these patients. These results suggest that elevation of CRP and reduction of adiponectin could emerge as mediators of atherogenesis and insulin resistance. (author)

  15. Subtle gray matter changes in temporo-parietal cortex associated with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toledo Ferraz Alves, Tânia Corrêa; Scazufca, Márcia; Squarzoni, Paula; de Souza Duran, Fábio Luiz; Tamashiro-Duran, Jaqueline Hatsuko; Vallada, Homero P; Andrei, Anna; Wajngarten, Mauricio; Menezes, Paulo R; Busatto, Geraldo F

    2011-01-01

    Vascular risk factors may play an important role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). While there is consistent evidence of gray matter (GM) abnormalities in earlier stages of AD, the presence of more subtle GM changes associated with vascular risk factors in the absence of clinically significant vascular events has been scarcely investigated. This study aimed to examine GM changes in elderly subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. We predicted that the presence of cardiovascular risk would be associated with GM abnormalities involving the temporal-parietal cortices and limbic structures. We recruited 248 dementia-free subjects, age range 66-75 years, from the population-based "São Paulo Ageing and Health Study", classified in accordance to their Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk (FCHDR) score to undergo an MRI scan. We performed an overall analysis of covariance, controlled to total GM and APOE4 status, to investigate the presence of regional GM abnormalities in association with FCHDR subgroups (high-risk, medium-risk, and low-risk), and followed by post hoc t-test. We also applied a co-relational design in order to investigate the presence of linear progression of the GM vulnerability in association with cardiovascular risk factor. Voxel-based morphometry showed that the presence of cardiovascular risk factors were associated with regional GM loss involving the temporal cortices bilaterally. Those results retained statistical significance after including APOE4 as a covariate of interest. We also observed that there was a negative correlation between FCHDR scores and rGM distribution in the parietal cortex. Subclinical cerebrovascular abnormalities involving GM loss may provide an important link between cardiovascular risk factors and AD.

  16. [Strategies for cardiovascular disease prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabus, Vincent; Wuerzner, Grégoire; Saubade, Mathieu; Favre, Lucie; Jacot Sadowski, Isabelle; Nanchen, David

    2018-02-28

    Atherosclerosis is a disease which develops very gradually over decades. Under the influence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol level, smoking or lifestyle, clinical symptoms of atherosclerosis manifest more or less early in life. When cardiovascular risk factors accumulate, the risk of having a cardiovascular event increases and the benefits of prevention measures are greater. This article summarizes existing strategies for controlling modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in primary prevention. The physician can rely on an interprofessional network of cardiovascular prevention. Managing risk factors while respecting the autonomy and priorities of the patient will bring the greatest benefit.

  17. Abnormal neural precursor cell regulation in the early postnatal Fragile X mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourial, Mary; Doering, Laurie C

    2017-07-01

    The regulation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) is indispensable for a properly functioning brain. Abnormalities in NPC proliferation, differentiation, survival, or integration have been linked to various neurological diseases including Fragile X syndrome. Yet, no studies have examined NPCs from the early postnatal Fragile X mouse hippocampus despite the importance of this developmental time point, which marks the highest expression level of FMRP, the protein missing in Fragile X, in the rodent hippocampus and is when hippocampal NPCs have migrated to the dentate gyrus (DG) to give rise to lifelong neurogenesis. In this study, we examined NPCs from the early postnatal hippocampus and DG of Fragile X mice (Fmr1-KO). Immunocytochemistry on neurospheres showed increased Nestin expression and decreased Ki67 expression, which collectively indicated aberrant NPC biology. Intriguingly, flow cytometric analysis of the expression of the antigens CD15, CD24, CD133, GLAST, and PSA-NCAM showed a decreased proportion of neural stem cells (GLAST + CD15 + CD133 + ) and an increased proportion of neuroblasts (PSA-NCAM + CD15 + ) in the DG of P7 Fmr1-KO mice. This was mirrored by lower expression levels of Nestin and the mitotic marker phospho-histone H3 in vivo in the P9 hippocampus, as well as a decreased proportion of cells in the G 2 /M phases of the P7 DG. Thus, the absence of FMRP leads to fewer actively cycling NPCs, coinciding with a decrease in neural stem cells and an increase in neuroblasts. Together, these results show the importance of FMRP in the developing hippocampal formation and suggest abnormalities in cell cycle regulation in Fragile X. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetic abnormalities in patients with bipolar disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leopold, Karolina; Reif, Andreas; Haack, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in the glucose metabolism cause nervous and organic damage and are a cardiovascular risk factor. They could be a main cause for the increased morbidity and mortality rates found in patients with bipolar disorders. The exact prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetic...... quality were assessed. RESULTS: Diabetes mellitus was found in 7% of the patients, pre-diabetic abnormalities in 27%. The group of patients with abnormalities in the glucose metabolism had significantly lower quality of life and global functioning. Higher BMI, leptin, triglycerides and CRP levels...

  19. Chemotherapeutic-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction: Physiological Effects, Early Detection—The Role of Telomerase to Counteract Mitochondrial Defects and Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quryshi, Nabeel; Norwood Toro, Laura E.; Ait-Aissa, Karima; Kong, Amanda; Beyer, Andreas M.

    2018-01-01

    Although chemotherapeutics can be highly effective at targeting malignancies, their ability to trigger cardiovascular morbidity is clinically significant. Chemotherapy can adversely affect cardiovascular physiology, resulting in the development of cardiomyopathy, heart failure and microvascular defects. Specifically, anthracyclines are known to cause an excessive buildup of free radical species and mitochondrial DNA damage (mtDNA) that can lead to oxidative stress-induced cardiovascular apoptosis. Therefore, oncologists and cardiologists maintain a network of communication when dealing with patients during treatment in order to treat and prevent chemotherapy-induced cardiovascular damage; however, there is a need to discover more accurate biomarkers and therapeutics to combat and predict the onset of cardiovascular side effects. Telomerase, originally discovered to promote cellular proliferation, has recently emerged as a potential mechanism to counteract mitochondrial defects and restore healthy mitochondrial vascular phenotypes. This review details mechanisms currently used to assess cardiovascular damage, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and troponin levels, while also unearthing recently researched biomarkers, including circulating mtDNA, telomere length and telomerase activity. Further, we explore a potential role of telomerase in the mitigation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and maintenance of mtDNA integrity. Telomerase activity presents a promising indicator for the early detection and treatment of chemotherapy-derived cardiac damage. PMID:29534446

  20. Role of Peripheral Vascular Resistance for the Association Between Major Depression and Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzinova, Elena; Wiborg, Ove; Aalkjær, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Major depression and cardiovascular diseases are 2 of the most prevalent health problems in Western society, and an association between them is generally accepted. Although the specific mechanism behind this comorbidity remains to be elucidated, it is clear that it has a complex multifactorial....... The changes in arterial structure, contractile and relaxing functions associated with depression symptoms are discussed, and the role of these abnormalities for the pathology of major depression and cardiovascular diseases are suggested....... character including a number of neuronal, humoral, immune, and circulatory pathways. Depression-associated cardiovascular abnormalities associate with cardiac dysfunctions and with changes in peripheral resistance. Although cardiac dysfunction in association with depression has been studied in detail...

  1. Educational differences in cardiovascular mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøllesdal, M. K. R.; Ariansen, I.; Mortensen, L. H.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To explore the confounding effects of early family factors shared by siblings and cardiovascular risk factors in midlife on the educational differences in mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: Data from national and regional health surveys in Norway (1974–2003) were linked...

  2. Mortality of mothers from cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes following pregnancy complications in first delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob Alexander; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Lockwood, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    The combined effects of preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age offspring, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, placental abruption and stillbirth on early maternal death from cardiovascular causes have not previously been described in a large cohort. We investigated the effects of pregnancy...... cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes following preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age offspring and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. We found that preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age were both associated with subsequent death of mothers from cardiovascular and non......-cardiovascular causes. Severe pre-eclampsia was associated with death from cardiovascular causes only. There was a less than additive effect on cardiovascular mortality hazard ratios with increasing number of pregnancy complications: preterm delivery 1.90 [95% confidence intervals 1.49, 2.43]; preterm delivery...

  3. Effects of theophylline administration and intracranial abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine effects of theophylline therapy for recurrent apnoea of prematurity and abnormal early (within the first 24 hours) cranial ultrasound abnormalities on protective neck turning response in preterm infants. Design: A cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: The Neonatal Unit of Hammersmith Hospital, ...

  4. [Congenital abnormalities of the aorta in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, J G; Ley, S

    2007-11-01

    Aortic abnormalities are common cardiovascular malformations accounting for 15-20% of all congenital heart disease. Ultrafast CT and MR imaging are noninvasive, accurate and robust techniques that can be used in the diagnosis of aortic malformations. While their sensitivity in detecting vascular abnormalities seems to be as good as that of conventional catheter angiocardiography, at over 90%, they are superior in the diagnosis of potentially life-threatening complications, such as tracheal, bronchial, or esophageal compression. It has been shown that more than 80% of small children with aortic abnormalities benefit directly from the use of noninvasive imaging: either cardiac catheterization is no longer necessary or radiation doses and periods of general anesthesia for interventional catheterization procedures can be much reduced. The most important congenital abnormalities of the aorta in children and adolescents are presented with reference to examples, and the value of CT and MR angiography is documented.

  5. Body water distribution and risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a healthy population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikoline Nygård; Kjærulff, Thora Majlund; Ward, Leigh Cordwin

    2014-01-01

    Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent.......Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent....

  6. Major Electrocardiographic Abnormalities According to the Minnesota Coding System Among Brazilian Adults (from the ELSA-Brasil Cohort Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Filho, Marcelo M; Brant, Luisa C C; Foppa, Murilo; Garcia-Silva, Kaiser B; Mendes de Oliveira, Rackel Aguiar; de Jesus Mendes da Fonseca, Maria; Alvim, Sheila; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José G; Barreto, Sandhi M; Macfarlane, Peter W; Ribeiro, Antonio L P

    2017-06-15

    The electrocardiogram is a simple and useful clinical tool; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated the prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities in the Latin American population. This study aims to evaluate the major electrocardiographic abnormalities according to the Minnesota coding system in Brazilian adults, stratified by gender, age, race, and cardiovascular risk factors. Data from 14,424 adults (45.8% men, age 35 to 74 years) were obtained at baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), according to standardized protocol. The electrocardiogram were obtained with the Burdick Atria 6100 machine, stored on Pyramis System, automatically coded according to the Minnesota coding system by the Glasgow University software and then manually revised. Major abnormalities were more prevalent in men than women (11.3% and 7.9%, p <0.001). These differences were consistent through the different age groups, race, and number of cardiovascular risk factors. Electrocardiographic major abnormalities were more prevalent in black participants for both men (black: 15.1%, mixed: 10.4%, white: 11.1%, p = 0.001) and women (black: 10%, mixed: 7.6%, white: 7.2%, p = 0.004). In conclusion, in this large sample of Brazilian adults, the prevalence of major electrocardiographic abnormalities was higher among men, the elderly, black, and among people with more cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tueysuez, Beyhan [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Gazioglu, Nurperi [Istanbul University, Department of Neurosurgery, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Uenguer, Savas [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Aji, Dolly Yafet [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatrics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Tuerkmen, Seval [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Universitatsklinikum Berlin, Charite Virchow-Klinik, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered. (orig.)

  8. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tueysuez, Beyhan; Gazioglu, Nurperi; Uenguer, Savas; Aji, Dolly Yafet; Tuerkmen, Seval

    2009-01-01

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered. (orig.)

  9. Klinefelter syndrome, cardiovascular system, and thromboembolic disease: review of literature and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzano, Andrea; Arcopinto, Michele; Marra, Alberto M; Bobbio, Emanuele; Esposito, Daniela; Accardo, Giacomo; Giallauria, Francesco; Bossone, Eduardo; Vigorito, Carlo; Lenzi, Andrea; Pasquali, Daniela; Isidori, Andrea M; Cittadini, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most frequently occurring sex chromosomal aberration in males, with an incidence of about 1 in 500-700 newborns. Data acquired from large registry-based studies revealed an increase in mortality rates among KS patients when compared with mortality rates among the general population. Among all causes of death, metabolic, cardiovascular, and hemostatic complication seem to play a pivotal role. KS is associated, as are other chromosomal pathologies and genetic diseases, with cardiac congenital anomalies that contribute to the increase in mortality. The aim of the current study was to systematically review the relationships between KS and the cardiovascular system and hemostatic balance. In summary, patients with KS display an increased cardiovascular risk profile, characterized by increased prevalence of metabolic abnormalities including Diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, and alterations in biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. KS does not, however, appear to be associated with arterial hypertension. Moreover, KS patients are characterized by subclinical abnormalities in left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function and endothelial function, which, when associated with chronotropic incompetence may led to reduced cardiopulmonary performance. KS patients appear to be at a higher risk for cardiovascular disease, attributing to an increased risk of thromboembolic events with a high prevalence of recurrent venous ulcers, venous insufficiency, recurrent venous and arterial thromboembolism with higher risk of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. It appears that cardiovascular involvement in KS is mainly due to chromosomal abnormalities rather than solely on low serum testosterone levels. On the basis of evidence acquisition and authors' own experience, a flowchart addressing the management of cardiovascular function and prognosis of KS patients has been developed for clinical use. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  10. A stochastic model for early placental development.

    KAUST Repository

    Cotter, Simon L

    2014-08-01

    In the human, placental structure is closely related to placental function and consequent pregnancy outcome. Studies have noted abnormal placental shape in small-for-gestational-age infants which extends to increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. The origins and determinants of placental shape are incompletely understood and are difficult to study in vivo. In this paper, we model the early development of the human placenta, based on the hypothesis that this is driven by a chemoattractant effect emanating from proximal spiral arteries in the decidua. We derive and explore a two-dimensional stochastic model, and investigate the effects of loss of spiral arteries in regions near to the cord insertion on the shape of the placenta. This model demonstrates that disruption of spiral arteries can exert profound effects on placental shape, particularly if this is close to the cord insertion. Thus, placental shape reflects the underlying maternal vascular bed. Abnormal placental shape may reflect an abnormal uterine environment, predisposing to pregnancy complications. Through statistical analysis of model placentas, we are able to characterize the probability that a given placenta grew in a disrupted environment, and even able to distinguish between different disruptions.

  11. Disk abnormality coexists with any degree of synovial and osseous abnormality in the temporomandibular joints of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkhus, Eva; Smith, Hans-Joergen; Arvidsson, Linda Z.; Larheim, Tore A.; Flatoe, Berit; Hetlevik, Siri O.

    2016-01-01

    MRI manifestation of temporomandibular joint arthritis is frequently reported in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. However, little attention has been paid to temporomandibular joint disk abnormalities. To assess combinations of MRI findings in the symptomatic temporomandibular joint in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis with focus on disk abnormalities. This was a retrospective study of 46 patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, mean age 12 years (range: 5-17 years). Mean disease duration was 70 months (standard deviation: 61 months). MR images of 92 temporomandibular joints were scored for thickness of abnormally enhancing synovium (synovitis), joint effusion, bone marrow oedema, abnormal bone shape, bone erosion and disk abnormalities. The 92 temporomandibular joints were categorized as A: No synovitis and normal bone shape (30/92; 33%), B: Synovitis and normal bone shape (14/92: 15%), C: Synovitis and abnormal bone shape (38/92; 41%) and D: No synovitis but abnormal bone shape (10/92; 11%). Thirty-six of the 46 patients (78%) had synovitis and 33/46 (72%) had abnormal bone shape, most frequently in combination (30/46; 65%). Disk abnormalities (flat disk, fragmented disk, adherent disk and displaced disk) were found in 29/46 patients (63%). Disk abnormalities were found in all categories of juvenile idiopathic arthritis involved temporomandibular joints (B: 8/14 [57%]; C: 25/38 [66%] and D: 7/10 [70%]). Disk displacement was found in half of the joints (7/14) in category B. Synovitis was most pronounced in this category. Disk abnormalities were frequent. Disk displacement also occurred in joints with early temporomandibular joint arthritis, i.e., with normal bone shape. Other disk abnormalities were found in joints with bone abnormalities. Attention should be paid to disk abnormalities both in early and long-standing temporomandibular joint arthritis in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. (orig.)

  12. Disk abnormality coexists with any degree of synovial and osseous abnormality in the temporomandibular joints of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkhus, Eva; Smith, Hans-Joergen [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Arvidsson, Linda Z.; Larheim, Tore A. [University of Oslo, Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Institute of Clinical Dentistry, Oslo (Norway); Flatoe, Berit; Hetlevik, Siri O. [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Department of Rheumatology, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oslo (Norway)

    2016-03-15

    MRI manifestation of temporomandibular joint arthritis is frequently reported in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. However, little attention has been paid to temporomandibular joint disk abnormalities. To assess combinations of MRI findings in the symptomatic temporomandibular joint in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis with focus on disk abnormalities. This was a retrospective study of 46 patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, mean age 12 years (range: 5-17 years). Mean disease duration was 70 months (standard deviation: 61 months). MR images of 92 temporomandibular joints were scored for thickness of abnormally enhancing synovium (synovitis), joint effusion, bone marrow oedema, abnormal bone shape, bone erosion and disk abnormalities. The 92 temporomandibular joints were categorized as A: No synovitis and normal bone shape (30/92; 33%), B: Synovitis and normal bone shape (14/92: 15%), C: Synovitis and abnormal bone shape (38/92; 41%) and D: No synovitis but abnormal bone shape (10/92; 11%). Thirty-six of the 46 patients (78%) had synovitis and 33/46 (72%) had abnormal bone shape, most frequently in combination (30/46; 65%). Disk abnormalities (flat disk, fragmented disk, adherent disk and displaced disk) were found in 29/46 patients (63%). Disk abnormalities were found in all categories of juvenile idiopathic arthritis involved temporomandibular joints (B: 8/14 [57%]; C: 25/38 [66%] and D: 7/10 [70%]). Disk displacement was found in half of the joints (7/14) in category B. Synovitis was most pronounced in this category. Disk abnormalities were frequent. Disk displacement also occurred in joints with early temporomandibular joint arthritis, i.e., with normal bone shape. Other disk abnormalities were found in joints with bone abnormalities. Attention should be paid to disk abnormalities both in early and long-standing temporomandibular joint arthritis in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. (orig.)

  13. Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Han

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging strives to visualize processes in living subjects at the molecular level. Monitoring biochemical processes at this level will allow us to directly track biological processes and signaling events that lead to pathophysiological abnormalities, and help make personalized medicine a reality by allowing evaluation of therapeutic efficacies on an individual basis. Although most molecular imaging techniques emerged from the field of oncology, they have now gradually gained acceptance by the cardiovascular community. Hence, the availability of dedicated high-resolution small animal imaging systems and specific targeting imaging probes is now enhancing our understanding of cardiovascular diseases and expediting the development of newer therapies. Examples include imaging approaches to evaluate and track the progress of recent genetic and cellular therapies for treatment of myocardial ischemia. Other areas include in vivo monitoring of such key molecular processes as angiogenesis and apoptosis. Cardiovascular molecular imaging is already an important research tool in preclinical experiments. The challenge that lies ahead is to implement these techniques into the clinics so that they may help fulfill the promise of molecular therapies and personalized medicine, as well as to resolve disappointments and controversies surrounding the field

  14. SIRPA, VCAM1 and CD34 identify discrete lineages during early human cardiovascular development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys J.P. Skelton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of human cardiogenesis would benefit from a detailed cell lineage fate map akin to that established for the haematopoietic lineages. Here we sought to define cell lineage relationships based on the expression of NKX2-5 and the cell surface markers VCAM1, SIRPA and CD34 during human cardiovascular development. Expression of NKX2-5GFP was used to identify cardiac progenitors and cardiomyocytes generated during the differentiation of NKX2-5GFP/w human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. Cardiovascular cell lineages sub-fractionated on the basis of SIRPA, VCAM1 and CD34 expression were assayed for differentiation potential and gene expression. The NKX2-5posCD34pos population gave rise to endothelial cells that rapidly lost NKX2-5 expression in culture. Conversely, NKX2-5 expression was maintained in myocardial committed cells, which progressed from being NKX2-5posSIRPApos to NKX2-5posSIRPAposVCAM1pos. Up-regulation of VCAM1 was accompanied by the expression of myofilament markers and reduced clonal capacity, implying a restriction of cell fate potential. Combinatorial expression of NKX2-5, SIRPA, VCAM1 and CD34 can be used to define discrete stages of cardiovascular cell lineage differentiation. These markers identify specific stages of cardiomyocyte and endothelial lineage commitment and, thus provide a scaffold for establishing a fate map of early human cardiogenesis.

  15. Cardiovascular investigations of airline pilots with excessive cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirawan, I Made Ady; Aldington, Sarah; Griffiths, Robin F; Ellis, Chris J; Larsen, Peter D

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence of airline pilots who have an excessive cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk score according to the New Zealand Guideline Group (NZGG) Framingham-based Risk Chart and describes their cardiovascular risk assessment and investigations. A cross-sectional study was performed among 856 pilots employed in an Oceania based airline. Pilots with elevated CVD risk that had been previously evaluated at various times over the previous 19 yr were reviewed retrospectively from the airline's medical records, and the subsequent cardiovascular investigations were then described. There were 30 (3.5%) pilots who were found to have 5-yr CVD risk score of 10-15% or higher. Of the 29 pilots who had complete cardiac investigations data, 26 pilots underwent exercise electrocardiography (ECG), 2 pilots progressed directly to coronary angiograms and 1 pilot with abnormal echocardiogram was not examined further. Of the 26 pilots, 7 had positive or borderline exercise tests, all of whom subsequently had angiograms. One patient with a negative exercise test also had a coronary angiogram. Of the 9 patients who had coronary angiograms as a consequence of screening, 5 had significant disease that required treatment and 4 had either trivial disease or normal coronary arteries. The current approach to investigate excessive cardiovascular risk in pilots relies heavily on exercise electrocardiograms as a diagnostic test, and may not be optimal either to detect disease or to protect pilots from unnecessary invasive procedures. A more comprehensive and accurate cardiac investigation algorithm to assess excessive CVD risk in pilots is required.

  16. R6/2 Huntington's disease mice develop early and progressive abnormal brain metabolism and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Prado, Efrain; Popp, Susanna; Khan, Usman; Stefanov, Dimitre; Rodríguez, Jorge; Menalled, Liliana B; Dow-Edwards, Diana; Small, Scott A; Moreno, Herman

    2012-05-09

    A hallmark feature of Huntington's disease pathology is the atrophy of brain regions including, but not limited to, the striatum. Though MRI studies have identified structural CNS changes in several Huntington's disease (HD) mouse models, the functional consequences of HD pathology during the progression of the disease have yet to be investigated using in vivo functional MRI (fMRI). To address this issue, we first established the structural and functional MRI phenotype of juvenile HD mouse model R6/2 at early and advanced stages of disease. Significantly higher fMRI signals [relative cerebral blood volumes (rCBVs)] and atrophy were observed in both age groups in specific brain regions. Next, fMRI results were correlated with electrophysiological analysis, which showed abnormal increases in neuronal activity in affected brain regions, thus identifying a mechanism accounting for the abnormal fMRI findings. [(14)C] 2-deoxyglucose maps to investigate patterns of glucose utilization were also generated. An interesting mismatch between increases in rCBV and decreases in glucose uptake was observed. Finally, we evaluated the sensitivity of this mouse line to audiogenic seizures early in the disease course. We found that R6/2 mice had an increased susceptibility to develop seizures. Together, these findings identified seizure activity in R6/2 mice and show that neuroimaging measures sensitive to oxygen metabolism can be used as in vivo biomarkers, preceding the onset of an overt behavioral phenotype. Since fMRI-rCBV can also be obtained in patients, we propose that it may serve as a translational tool to evaluate therapeutic responses in humans and HD mouse models.

  17. Prognostic value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings in near drowning patients: reversibility of the early metabolite abnormalities relates with a good outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragao, Maria de Fatima Vasco; Law, Meng; Prola Netto, Joao; Naidich, Thomas; Valenca, Marcelo Moraes

    2009-01-01

    In two children with near drowning hypoxic encephalopathy and normal-appearing structural MRI, acute proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) showed biochemical alterations that correctly indicated prognosis and helped to guide management decisions. Elevation of the lipid-lactate and glutamine-glutamate peaks, on the early (72 hour) 1 H MRS, predicts a poor prognosis. Absence of lipid-lactate and glutamine-glutamate peaks on the early 1 H MRS and reversibility of early mild metabolite abnormalities on follow up examination relates with good outcome. (author)

  18. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Xie, Jing; Cui, Yi [International Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2012-04-20

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor.

  19. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Xie, Jing; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors in a population of Brazilian schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Rodrigues

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that a judicious diet, regular physical activity and blood pressure (BP monitoring must start in early childhood to minimize the impact of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. This study was designed to evaluate BP and metabolic parameters of schoolchildren from Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, and correlate them with cardiovascular risk factors. The study was conducted on 380 students aged 10-14 years (177 boys, 203 girls enrolled in public schools. Baseline measurements included body mass index, BP and heart rate. The students were submitted to exercise spirometry on a treadmill. VO2max was obtained from exercise testing to voluntary exhaustion. Fasting serum total cholesterol (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides (TG, and glucose were measured. Nine point nine percent of the boys and 11.7% of the girls were hypertensive or had pre-hypertensive levels. There was no significant correlation between VO2max and TC, LDL-C, or TG in prepubertal children, but a slight negative correlation was detected in post-pubertal boys for HDL-C and TG. In addition, children with hypertension (3.4% or pre-hypertensive levels (6.6% also had comorbidity for overweight and blood lipid abnormalities (14% for triglycerides, 44.7% for TC, 25.9% for LDL-C, 52% for low HDL-C. The present study shows for the first time high correlations between prehypertensive blood pressure levels and the cardiovascular risk factors high TC, high LDL-C, low HDL-C in schoolchildren. These are important for the formulation of public health policies and strategies.

  1. Effects of flaxseed consumption on systemic inflammation and serum lipid profile in hemodialysis patients with lipid abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalatbari Soltani, Saman; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Tabibi, Hadi; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Atabak, Shahnaz; Loh, Su-Peng; Rahmani, Leila

    2013-04-01

    Inflammation and lipid abnormalities are two important risk factors for cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of flaxseed consumption on systemic inflammation and serum lipid profile in HD patients with lipid abnormalities. This was an unblinded, randomized clinical trial. Thirty HD patients with dyslipidemia (triglyceride >200 mg/dL and/or high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) consumption improves lipid abnormalities and reduces systemic inflammation in HD patients with lipid abnormalities. © 2012 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2012 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  2. Statistical distribution of blood serotonin as a predictor of early autistic brain abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janušonis Skirmantas

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide range of abnormalities has been reported in autistic brains, but these abnormalities may be the result of an earlier underlying developmental alteration that may no longer be evident by the time autism is diagnosed. The most consistent biological finding in autistic individuals has been their statistically elevated levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin in blood platelets (platelet hyperserotonemia. The early developmental alteration of the autistic brain and the autistic platelet hyperserotonemia may be caused by the same biological factor expressed in the brain and outside the brain, respectively. Unlike the brain, blood platelets are short-lived and continue to be produced throughout the life span, suggesting that this factor may continue to operate outside the brain years after the brain is formed. The statistical distributions of the platelet 5-HT levels in normal and autistic groups have characteristic features and may contain information about the nature of this yet unidentified factor. Results The identity of this factor was studied by using a novel, quantitative approach that was applied to published distributions of the platelet 5-HT levels in normal and autistic groups. It was shown that the published data are consistent with the hypothesis that a factor that interferes with brain development in autism may also regulate the release of 5-HT from gut enterochromaffin cells. Numerical analysis revealed that this factor may be non-functional in autistic individuals. Conclusion At least some biological factors, the abnormal function of which leads to the development of the autistic brain, may regulate the release of 5-HT from the gut years after birth. If the present model is correct, it will allow future efforts to be focused on a limited number of gene candidates, some of which have not been suspected to be involved in autism (such as the 5-HT4 receptor gene based on currently available clinical and

  3. Educational inequality in cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Grethe; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Educational inequality in diseases in the circulatory system (here termed cardiovascular disease) is well documented but may be confounded by early life factors. The aim of this observational study was to examine whether the associations between education and all cardiovascular diseases...... educational status was associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease and stroke. All associations attenuated in the within-sibship analyses, in particular in the analyses on ischaemic heart disease before age 45 years. For instance, in the cohort analyses, the hazard rate...... factors shared by siblings explained the associations between education and the cardiovascular disease outcomes but to varying degrees. This should be taken into account when planning interventions aimed at reducing educational inequalities in the development of cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart...

  4. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction due to diabetes mellitus: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a common form of diabetes autonomic neuropathy, causes abnormalities in heart rate control as well as central and peripheral vascular dynamics, and may carry an increased risk of mortality. The aim of this article was to review the importance of identifying CAN and ...

  5. Race and ethnicity, obesity, metabolic health, and risk of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle D; Hedlin, Haley; Mackey, Rachel H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether obesity unaccompanied by metabolic abnormalities is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk across racial and ethnic subgroups. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 14 364 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative who had data on fasting...... serum lipids and serum glucose and no history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes at baseline. We categorized women by body mass index (in kg/m(2)) as normal weight (body mass index 18.5 to obese (body mass index ≥30) and by metabolic health, defined......, overweight women had similar risk to normal weight women (HR 0.92, interaction P=0.05). Obese black women without metabolic syndrome had higher adjusted risk (HR 1.95) than obese white women (HR 1.07; interaction P=0.02). Among women with only 2 metabolic abnormalities, cardiovascular risk was increased...

  6. Oxidative and inflammatory signals in obesity-associated vascular abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reho, John J; Rahmouni, Kamal

    2017-07-15

    Obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in part due to vascular abnormalities such as endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffening. The hypertension and other health complications that arise from these vascular defects increase the risk of heart diseases and stroke. Prooxidant and proinflammatory signaling pathways as well as adipocyte-derived factors have emerged as critical mediators of obesity-associated vascular abnormalities. Designing treatments aimed specifically at improving the vascular dysfunction caused by obesity may provide an effective therapeutic approach to prevent the cardiovascular sequelae associated with excessive adiposity. In this review, we discuss the recent evidence supporting the role of oxidative stress and cytokines and inflammatory signals within the vasculature as well as the impact of the surrounding perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) on the regulation of vascular function and arterial stiffening in obesity. In particular, we focus on the highly plastic nature of the vasculature in response to altered oxidant and inflammatory signaling and highlight how weight management can be an effective therapeutic approach to reduce the oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling and improve vascular function. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  7. Cardiovascular and renal anomalies in Turner syndrome Anomalias cardiovasculares e renais na síndrome de Turner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelise Barreto Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency and type of cardiovascular (CV and renal/collecting system (R/CS abnormalities seen in a sample of patients with Turner Syndrome (TS and to verify the proportion of those anomalies detected only after diagnosis was established. METHODS: Retrospective study of 130 patients with TS diagnosed in an outpatient setting between 1989 and 2006. The mean age at diagnosis was 11.9 years. Data were obtained by personal history of CV and R/CS disorders and by results of echocardiogram and ultrasonography of the kidneys and collecting system performed after diagnosis. RESULTS: 25.6% of patients who underwent echocardiograms presented CV abnormalities. Among them, mitral regurgitation (21.4%, bicuspid aortic valve (19% and aortic coarctation (19% were the most frequent. R/CS anomalies were found in 29.3% of patients who underwent ultrasonography. Among them, duplication of the collecting system and hydronephrosis (25% each and horseshoe kidney (21.2% were the most frequent. In about 80% of cases there was no previous knowledge of these anomalies. CONCLUSION: The frequency of CV and R/CS abnormalities found in this study was similar to that of previous studies, but most were found in routine exams after TS diagnosis. Thus, early detection of associated anomalies depends on early detection of TS.OBJETIVO: Analisar a frequência e os tipos de anomalias cardiovasculares (CV e de anomalias renais ou de sistema coletor (R/SC em uma amostra de pacientes com síndrome de Turner (ST e verificar a proporção dessas anomalias que só foram detectadas após o estabelecimento do diagnóstico. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de 130 pacientes com ST diagnosticadas em serviço ambulatorial entre 1989 e 2006. A média de idade ao diagnóstico foi 11,9 anos. Foram coletados dados sobre antecedentes pessoais de anomalias CV e R/SC e resultados de ecocardiograma e ultrassonografia de rins e vias urinárias realizados após o diagn

  8. Prognostic value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings in near drowning patients: reversibility of the early metabolite abnormalities relates with a good outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao, Maria de Fatima Vasco; Law, Meng; Prola Netto, Joao; Naidich, Thomas [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology], e-mail: aragao@truenet.com; Valenca, Marcelo Moraes [Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. of Neuropsychiatry and Behavioral Studies

    2009-03-15

    In two children with near drowning hypoxic encephalopathy and normal-appearing structural MRI, acute proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) showed biochemical alterations that correctly indicated prognosis and helped to guide management decisions. Elevation of the lipid-lactate and glutamine-glutamate peaks, on the early (72 hour) {sup 1}H MRS, predicts a poor prognosis. Absence of lipid-lactate and glutamine-glutamate peaks on the early {sup 1}H MRS and reversibility of early mild metabolite abnormalities on follow up examination relates with good outcome. (author)

  9. Structural and functional cardiac changes in myotonic dystrophy type 1: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans Mieke CE

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1 is a neuromuscular disorder with potential involvement of the heart and increased risk of sudden death. Considering the importance of cardiomyopathy as a predictor of prognosis, we aimed to systematically evaluate and describe structural and functional cardiac alterations in patients with MD1. Methods Eighty MD1 patients underwent physical examination, electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Blood samples were taken for determination of NT-proBNP plasma levels and CTG repeat length. Results Functional and structural abnormalities were detected in 35 patients (44%. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction was found in 20 cases, left ventricular dilatation in 7 patients, and left ventricular hypertrophy in 6 patients. Myocardial fibrosis was seen in 10 patients (12.5%. In general, patients had low left ventricular mass indexes. Right ventricular involvement was uncommon and only seen together with left ventricular abnormalities. Functional or structural cardiac involvement was associated with age (p = 0.04, male gender (p Conclusions CMR can be useful to detect early structural and functional myocardial abnormalities in patients with MD1. Myocardial involvement is strongly associated with conduction abnormalities, but a normal ECG does not exclude myocardial alterations. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that MD1 patients have a complex cardiac phenotype, including both myocardial and conduction system alteration.

  10. Cardiovascular calcification. An inflammatory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New, S.E.P.; Aikawa, E.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular calcification is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This disease of dysregulated metabolism is no longer viewed as a passive degenerative disease, but instead as an active process triggered by pro-inflammatory cues. Furthermore, a positive feedback loop of calcification and inflammation is hypothesized to drive disease progression in arterial calcification. Both calcific aortic valve disease and atherosclerotic arterial calcification may possess similar underlying mechanisms. Early histopathological studies first highlighted the contribution of inflammation to cardiovascular calcification by demonstrating the accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in 'early' lesions within the aortic valves and arteries. A series of in vitro work followed, which gave a mechanistic insight into the stimulation of smooth muscle cells to undergo osteogenic differentiation and mineralization. The emergence of novel technology, in the form of animal models and more recently molecular imaging, has enabled accelerated progression of this field, by providing strong evidence regarding the concept of this disorder as an inflammatory disease. Although there are still gaps in our knowledge of the mechanisms behind this disorder, this review discusses the various studies that have helped form the concept of the inflammation-dependent cardiovascular calcification paradigm. (author)

  11. Non-invasive quick diagnosis of cardiovascular problems from visible and invisible abnormal changes with increased cardiac troponin I appearing on cardiovascular representation areas of the eyebrows, left upper lip, etc. of the face & hands: beneficial manual stimulation of hands for acute anginal chest pain, and important factors in safe, effective treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn K; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu; Rodriques, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study indicated that there are at least 7 cardiovascular representation areas on the face, including the "Eyebrows", both sides of the "Nose", "Lelt Upper Lip" and the "Outside of the corner of both sides of the mouth," in addition to 2 areas in each hand. When there are cardiovascular problems, some of the heart representation areas of these areas often show the following changes: 1) Most distinctive visible changes such as the initial whitening with or without long white hair, then hair loss and complete disappearance of the hairs of the heart representation area of "Eyebrows" 2) Invisible biochemical changes that happen in heart representation areas at the "Left Upper Lips", 3) "Nose" below eye level as well as 4) "3rd segment of Middle Finger of Hands." Most distinctive visible & invisible changes are found in heart representation areas on the "Eyebrow", located nearest to the midline of face, where the color of the hairs becomes white compared with the rest of the Eyebrow. Then the cardiovascular problem advances, and hair starts disappearing. When there are no hairs at the heart representation areas of the Eyebrow, usually Cardiac Troponin I is increased to a very serious, abnormal high value. Most of the cardiovascular representation areas of the face show, regardless of presence or absence of visible change. When there is a cardiovascular problem, not only simple Bi-Digital O-Ring Test can detect without using any instrument in several minutes but also, corresponding biochemical changes of abnormally increased Cardiac Troponin I level can often be detected non-invasively from these Organ Representation Areas of Face & Hands, although changes in Eyebrows, L-Upper Lip & 3rd segment of middle fingers are clinically the most reliable changes & easy to identify the locations. Manual Stimulation of Hand's heart representation areas often eliminated acute anginal chest pain before medical help became available. Important factors for safe, effective

  12. Early Environmental Enrichment Enhances Abnormal Brain Connectivity in a Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illa, Miriam; Brito, Verónica; Pla, Laura; Eixarch, Elisenda; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; Batallé, Dafnis; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Crispi, Fatima; Udina, Esther; Figueras, Francesc; Ginés, Silvia; Gratacós, Eduard

    2017-10-12

    The structural correspondence of neurodevelopmental impairments related to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) that persists later in life remains elusive. Moreover, early postnatal stimulation strategies have been proposed to mitigate these effects. Long-term brain connectivity abnormalities in an IUGR rabbit model and the effects of early postnatal environmental enrichment (EE) were explored. IUGR was surgically induced in one horn, whereas the contralateral one produced the controls. Postnatally, a subgroup of IUGR animals was housed in an enriched environment. Functional assessment was performed at the neonatal and long-term periods. At the long-term period, structural brain connectivity was evaluated by means of diffusion-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging and by histological assessment focused on the hippocampus. IUGR animals displayed poorer functional results and presented altered whole-brain networks and decreased median fractional anisotropy in the hippocampus. Reduced density of dendritic spines and perineuronal nets from hippocampal neurons were also observed. Of note, IUGR animals exposed to enriched environment presented an improvement in terms of both function and structure. IUGR is associated with altered brain connectivity at the global and cellular level. A strategy based on early EE has the potential to restore the neurodevelopmental consequences of IUGR. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Brain and bone abnormalities of thanatophoric dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elka; Blaser, Susan; Shannon, Patrick; Widjaja, Elysa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the imaging findings of skeletal and brain abnormalities in thanatophoric dwarfism, a lethal form of dysplastic dwarfism. The bony abnormalities associated with thanatophoric dwarfism include marked shortening of the tubular bones and ribs. Abnormal temporal lobe development is a common associated feature and can be visualized as early as the second trimester. It is important to assess the brains of fetuses with suspected thanatophoric dwarfism because the presence of associated brain malformations can assist in the antenatal diagnosis of thanatophoric dwarfism.

  14. Using impedance cardiography with postural change to stratify patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarzo, Arthur P

    2011-06-01

    Early detection of cardiovascular disease in patients with hypertension could initiate appropriate treatment to control blood pressure and prevent the progression of cardiovascular disease. The goal of this study was to show how impedance cardiography waveform analysis with postural change can be used to detect subclinical cardiovascular disease in patients with high blood pressure. Patients with high blood pressure had impedance cardiography data obtained in two positions, standing upright and supine. In 50 adults, impedance cardiography indicated that all patients had abnormal data, with 44 (88%) having multiple abnormalities. Impedance cardiography showed 32 (64%) had ventricular dysfunction, 48 (96%) had vascular load abnormalities, 34 (68%) had hemodynamic abnormalities, 2 (4%) had hypovolemia, and 3 (6%) had hypervolemia. Hypertensive patients have diverse cardiovascular abnormalities that can be quantified by impedance cardiography. By stratifying patients with ventricular, vascular, and hemodynamic abnormalities, treatment could be customized based on the abnormal underlying mechanisms with the potential to rapidly control blood pressure, prevent progression of cardiovascular disease, and possibly reverse remodeling.

  15. Impact of chronic kidney disease and stress myocardial perfusion imaging as a predictor of cardiovascular events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Tatsuhiko; Joki, Nobuhiko; Hase, Hiroki; Masai, Hirofumi; Kunimasa, Taeko; Nakazato, Ryo; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Sugi, Kaoru; Moroi, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is an established means of predicting cardiovascular events and is suitable in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of CKD parameters and an abnormal stress MPI for cardiovascular events. A total of 495 patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) or history of CAD including 130 CKD patients not undergoing hemodialysis, underwent stress MPI (313 males, mean age 70 years) and were followed up for 14 months (mean period). CKD was defined as an estimated GFR of 2 and/or persistent proteinuria. Cardiovascular events were defined as sudden cardiac death, acute coronary syndrome and congestive heart failure requiring hospitalization. Cardiovascular events occurred in 41 (8.3%) patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that CKD [hazard ratio (HR) =3.76, p<0.001] and a stress MPI summed difference score (SDS) of ≥2 (HR=3.78, p<0.001) were independent predictors of cardiovascular events; CKD plus abnormal stress MPI was also a strong predictor of cardiovascular events (non-CKD and SDS <2 vs. CKD and SDS ≥2, HR=15.9, p<0.001). Both CKD and myocardial ischemia detected by stress MPI are independent predictors for cardiovascular events. Coexistence of CKD and myocardial ischemia detected by stress MPI is more useful for short-term risk stratification of cardiovascular events. (author)

  16. Trace Elements in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masironi, R. [Cardiovascular Diseases Unit, World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1970-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Their incidence increases, apparently, as a, function of technological progress so that in the future they may become a major public health problem in developing countries too. Early diagnosis and prevention are the tools best suited to curb such an alarming trend, but our knowledge of these topics is unsatisfactory, Valuable information would be obtained through a systematic investigation of trace elements in relation to cardiovascular function and to various types of cardiovascular diseases. Such studies would provide clues to the following questions: 1. Why does the incidence and type of cardiovascular disease differ from one country to another? May this be related to differences in tissue mineral concentrations among various population groups? 2. Which trace elements if any are beneficial to cardiovascular health, and which are harmful ones that may act as aetiological agents for some cardiovascular diseases? 3. Is it possible to utilize measurements of mineral element concentration for diagnostic purposes in cardiovascular disease? (author)

  17. Using impedance cardiography to detect subclinical cardiovascular disease in women with multiple risk factors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarzo, Arthur P

    2009-01-01

    Early detection of cardiovascular disease (CVD) could initiate appropriate treatment and prevent progression. This study used impedance cardiography (ICG) waveform analysis with postural change to detect functional CVD in women older than 40 years with no history of CVD and >or=2 of the following risk factors: cigarette smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, central adiposity, family history of premature CVD, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. A study group of 32 women underwent ICG in standing and supine positions. An age-matched control group had 20 women with an active lifestyle, no risk factors, and no history of CVD. All women in the control group had normal ICG data. All women in the study group had some abnormal ICG data, with 28 (87.5%) having multiple ICG abnormalities. ICG data indicated that 13 (40.6%) had ventricular dysfunction, 14 (43.8%) had high vascular resistive load, and 30 (93.8%) had elevated vascular pulsatile load. The data suggest that subclinical CVD, detectable by ICG, is prevalent in women older than 40 years with multiple risk factors. Abnormal ICG results could expedite the initiation of customized treatment as part of a preventive approach to CVD. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Caiyuan; Hou, Minming; Chen, Rong; Duan, Dongmei; Xu, Huikun; Lin, Xiaohong; Wen, Jiying; Lv, Lijuan; Lei, Qiong; Niu, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases compared with normal women. This study aimed to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese women with GDM. 453 women with GDM (cases) and 1,180 healthy women (controls) were included in this study. The post-partum examinations included 2 h 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests, lipid profiles, anthropometric measurements (blood pressure, height, weight) and documentation of medical history, diet, and lifestyle. Compared with controls, the risks of abnormal glucose metabolism, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome in women with a history of GDM were 4.61, 1.30, 1.57 and 3.52, respectively. Fasting blood glucose, progestational body mass index (pBMI) and antenatal insulin resistance at antenatal visit were predictors for abnormal glucose metabolism. pBMI and antenatal diastolic blood pressure were predictors for hypertension. pBMI and weight gain during pregnancy were predictors for obesity/overweight. pBMI, antenatal systolic blood pressure and antenatal triglyceride were predictors for metabolic syndrome. Women with a history of GDM have increased rates of cardiovascular disease risk factors including abnormal glucose metabolism, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome. pBMI is the common independent predictors of cardiometabolic disease in the post-partum.

  19. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity predicts decline in renal function and cardiovascular events in early stages of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hye Eun; Shin, Dong Il; Kim, Sung Jun; Koh, Eun Sil; Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Chung, Sungjin; Shin, Seok Joon

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the predictive capacity of the brachial-ankle aortic pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, for the decline in renal function and for cardiovascular events in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Two hundred forty-one patients who underwent a comprehensive check-up were included and were divided into two groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR): patients with CKD categories G2, G3a and G3b (30 ≤ eGFR function, the eGFR change, was determined by the slope of eGFR against time. We analysed whether baPWV was associated with eGFR change or predicted cardiovascular events. baPWV was independently associated with eGFR change in a multivariate analysis of the total patients (β=-0.011, p=0.011) and remained significantly associated with eGFR change in a subgroup analysis of the eGFR function and short-term cardiovascular events.

  20. Tissue Motion and Assembly During Early Cardiovascular Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongish, Brenda

    2010-03-01

    Conventional dogma in the field of cardiovascular developmental biology suggests that cardiac precursor cells migrate to the embryonic midline to form a tubular heart. These progenitors are believed to move relative to their extracellular matrix (ECM); responding to stimulatory and inhibitory cues in their environment. The tubular heart that is formed by 30 hours post fertilization is comprised of two concentric layers: the muscular myocardium and the endothelial-like endocardium, which are separated by a thick layer of ECM believed to be secreted predominantly by the myocardial cells. Here we describe the origin and motility of fluorescently tagged endocardial precursors in transgenic (Tie1-YFP) quail embryos (R. Lansford, Caltech) using epifluorescence time-lapse imaging. To visualize the environment of migrating endocardial progenitors, we labeled two ECM components, fibronectin and fibrillin-2, via in vivo microinjection of fluorochrome-conjugated monoclonal antibodies. Dynamic imaging was performed at stages encompassing tubular heart assembly and early looping. We established the motion of endocardial precursor cells and presumptive cardiac ECM fibrils using both object tracking and particle image velocimetry (image cross correlation). We determined the relative importance of directed cell autonomous motility versus passive tissue movements in endocardial morphogenesis. The data show presumptive endocardial cells and cardiac ECM fibrils are swept passively into the anterior and posterior poles of the elongating tubular heart. These quantitative data indicate the contribution of cell autonomous motility displayed by endocardial precursors is limited. Thus, tissue motion drives most of the cell displacements during endocardial morphogenesis.

  1. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography predicts cardiovascular events after TIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, Katrin; Sadikovic, Suwad; Esposito, Lorena; Bockelbrink, Angelina; Sander, Dirk; Hemmer, Bernhard; Poppert, Holger

    2009-01-01

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients are at high vascular risk. We assessed the value of extracranial (ECD) and transcranial (TCD) Doppler and duplex ultrasonography to predict clinical outcome after TIA. 176 consecutive TIA patients admitted to the Stroke Unit were recruited in the study. All patients received diffusion-weighted imaging, standardized ECD and TCD. At a median follow-up of 27 months, new vascular events were recorded. 22 (13.8%) patients experienced an ischemic stroke or TIA, 5 (3.1%) a myocardial infarction or acute coronary syndrome, and 5 (3.1%) underwent arterial revascularization. ECD revealed extracranial ≥ 50% stenosis or occlusions in 34 (19.3%) patients, TCD showed intracranial stenosis in 15 (9.2%) and collateral flow patterns due to extracranial stenosis in 5 (3.1%) cases. Multivariate analysis identified these abnormal ECD and TCD findings as predictors of new cerebral ischemic events (ECD: hazard ratio (HR) 4.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.75 to 10.57, P = 0.01; TCD: HR 4.73, 95% CI 1.86 to 12.04, P = 0.01). Abnormal TCD findings were also predictive of cardiovascular ischemic events (HR 18.51, 95% CI 3.49 to 98.24, P = 0.001). TIA patients with abnormal TCD findings are at high risk to develop further cerebral and cardiovascular ischemic events

  2. HEART ABNORMALITY CLASSIFICATIONS USING FOURIER TRANSFORMS METHOD AND NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Purwanti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Health problems with cardiovascular system disorder are still ranked high globally. One way to detect abnormalities in the cardiovascular system especially in the heart is through the electrocardiogram (ECG reading. However, reading ECG recording needs experience and expertise, software-based neural networks has designed to help identify any abnormalities ofthe heart through electrocardiogram digital image. This image is processed using image processing methods to obtain ordinate chart which representing the heart’s electrical potential. Feature extraction using Fourier transforms which are divided into several numbers of coefficients. As the software input, Fourier transforms coefficient have been normalized. Output of this software is divided into three classes, namely heart with atrial fibrillation, coronary heart disease and normal. Maximum accuracy rate ofthis software is 95.45%, with the distribution of the Fourier transform coefficients 1/8 and number of nodes 5, while minimum accuracy rate of this software at least 68.18% by distribution of the Fourier transform coefficients 1/32 and the number of nodes 32. Overall result accuracy rate of this software has an average of86.05% and standard deviation of7.82.

  3. Small artery structure is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, Ole Norling; Buus, Niels Henril; Sihm, Inger

    2007-01-01

    Objective Structural abnormality of resistance arteries is a characteristic pathophysiological phenomenon in essential hypertension and can be assessed in vitro as an increase in the media : lumen ratio (M : L) of isolated small arteries. We have investigated whether M: L is a risk predictor......). Conclusion Abnormal resistance artery structure independently predicts cardiovascular events in essential hypertensive patients at moderate risk. J Hypertens 25:1021-1026 Q 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Journal of Hypertension 2007, 25:1021-1026...... in uncomplicated essential hypertensive patients. Recently, high M: L was demonstrated as a prognostic marker in patients at high cardiovascular risk, including normotensive type 2 diabetic patients. Since diabetes is associated with pressure-independent changes in M: L, the relevance of this finding to essential...

  4. Cardiovascular impact in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis: Clinical management considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirakarnjanakorn, Srisakul; Navaneethan, Sankar D; Francis, Gary S; Tang, W H Wilson

    2017-04-01

    Patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis develop both structural and functional cardiovascular abnormalities. Despite improvement of dialysis technology, cardiovascular mortality of this population remains high. The pathophysiological mechanisms of these changes are complex and not well understood. It has been postulated that several non-traditional, uremic-related risk factors, especially the long-term uremic state, which may affect the cardiovascular system. There are many cardiovascular changes that occur in chronic kidney disease including left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, microvascular disease, accelerated atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. These structural and functional changes in patients receiving chronic dialysis make them more susceptible to myocardial ischemia. Hemodialysis itself may adversely affect the cardiovascular system due to non-physiologic fluid removal, leading to hemodynamic instability and initiation of systemic inflammation. In the past decade there has been growing awareness that pathophysiological mechanisms cause cardiovascular dysfunction in patients on chronic dialysis, and there are now pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies that may improve the poor quality of life and high mortality rate that these patients experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David T; Fillit, Howard

    2006-04-15

    The role of cardiovascular disease risk factors in the occurrence and progression of cognitive impairment has been the subject of a significant number of publications but has not achieved widespread recognition among many physicians and educated laymen. It is apparent that the active treatment of certain of these cardiovascular disease risk factors is accompanied by a reduced risk for cognitive impairment. Patients with hypertension who are treated experience fewer cardiovascular disease events as well as less cognitive impairment than similar untreated patients. Patients who exercise may present with less cognitive impairment, and obesity may increase the risk for cognitive impairment. Lipid abnormalities and genetic markers are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. Autopsy studies have demonstrated a correlation between elevated levels of cholesterol and amyloid deposition in the brain. Research has demonstrated a relation between atherosclerotic obstruction lesions in the circle of Willis and dementia. Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. A number of nonpharmacologic factors have a role in reducing the risk for cognitive impairment. Antioxidants, fatty acids, and micronutrients may have a role, and diets rich in fruits and vegetables and other dietary approaches may improve the outlook for patients considered at risk for cognitive impairment.

  6. T1rho, T{sub 2} and focal knee cartilage abnormalities in physically active and sedentary healthy subjects versus early OA patients - a 3.0-Tesla MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Robert [University of California, San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); University Hospitals-Campus Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Luke, Anthony; Ma, C.B. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA (United States); Li, Xiaojuan; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M. [University of California, San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2009-01-15

    (1) To assess the degree of focal cartilage abnormalities in physically active and sedentary healthy subjects as well as in patients with early osteoarthritis (OA). (2) To determine the diagnostic value of T2 and T1rho measurements in identifying asymptomatic physically active subjects with focal cartilage lesions. Thirteen asymptomatic physically active subjects, 7 asymptomatic sedentary subjects, and 17 patients with mild OA underwent 3.0-T MRI of the knee joint. T1rho and T2 values, cartilage volume and thickness, as well as the WORMS scores were obtained. Nine out of 13 active healthy subjects had focal cartilage abnormalities. T1rho and T2 values in active subjects with and without focal cartilage abnormalities differed significantly (p<0.05). T1rho and T2 values were significantly higher (p<0.05) in early OA patients compared to healthy subjects. T1rho measurements were superior to T2 in differentiating OA patients from healthy subjects, yet T1rho was moderately age-dependent. (1) Active subjects showed a high prevalence of focal cartilage abnormalities and (2) active subjects with and without focal cartilage abnormalities had different T1rho and T2 composition of cartilage. Thus, T1rho and T2 could be a parameter suited to identify active healthy subjects at higher risk for developing cartilage pathology. (orig.)

  7. Endothelial to mesenchymal transition in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hui; Lyu, Xing; Wang, Qiong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Xiangyu

    2017-09-01

    Endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is a special type of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. It is a process that is characterized by the loss of features of endothelial cells and acquisition of specific markers of mesenchymal cells. A variety of stimuli, such as inflammation, growth factors, and hypoxia, regulate EndMT through various signaling pathways and intracellular transcription factors. It has been demonstrated that epigenetic modifications are also involved in this process. Recent studies have identified the essential role of EndMT in the cardiovascular system. EndMT contributes to steps in cardiovascular development, such as cardiac valve formation and septation, as well as the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular disorders, such as congenital heart disease, myocardial fibrosis, myocardial infarction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Thus, comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms of EndMT will provide novel therapeutic strategies to overcome congenital heart disease due to abnormal development and other cardiovascular diseases. This review will focus on summarizing the currently understood signaling pathways and epigenetic modifications involved in the regulation of EndMT and the role of EndMT in pathophysiological conditions of the cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Prevalence of abnormal general movements in three-month-old infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, Hylco; Dijk-Stigter, Geerteke R.; Grooten, Hedwig M. J.; Janssen-Plas, Femke E. M.; Koopmans, Alice J.; Mulder, Christien D.; van Belle, Ans; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Background: The quality of general movements (GMs) is a sensitive tool to measure neurodevelopmental condition in early infancy. No information is available on prevalence rates of abnormal GMs in the general population. Objective: To assess the prevalence of abnormal GMs in the general population of

  9. Blood pressure and control of cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Whitworth

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Judith A WhitworthJohn Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Two key early 20th century notions, the first the primacy of diastolic pressure in determining risk, and the second that hypertension is a discrete disorder, have proved to be incorrect. We now recognize the primacy of systolic pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and that hypertension is an arbitrary definition. In the early 21st century, we are moving away from a dichotomous approach to risk classification, and away from notions of hypertension and normotension towards an appreciation that blood pressure-related risk is continuous. In parallel, there has been a paradigm shift from a single risk factor approach to comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk prevention. Accordingly, prevention of cardiovascular disease requires a focus on lowering of blood pressure and modification of associated risk factors rather than simply treatment of hypertension. This emphasis is reflected in the World Health Organization (WHO – International Society of Hypertension (ISH 2003 statement on management of hypertension.Keywords: blood pressure, hypertension, cardiovascular risk, treatment

  10. [Abnormal processing characteristics to basic emotional faces in the early phase in children with autism spectrum disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiong-Xi; Wu, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Zeng-Jian; Pan, Ning; Xu, Cai-Juan; Jing, Jin; Jin, Yu

    2018-02-01

    To explore the recognition ability and abnormal processing characteristics to basic emotional faces in the early phase in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Photos of Chinese static faces with four basic emotions (fearful, happy, angry and sad) were used as stimulus. Twenty-five ASD children and twenty-two age- and gender-matched typical developed children (normal controls) were asked to match the emotional faces with words. Event-related potential (ERP) data were recorded concurrently. N170 latencies for total emotion and fearful face in the left temporal region were faster than in the right one in normal controls (P<0.05), but the results were not noted in ASD children. Further, N170 latencies in the left temporal region of ASD children were slower than normal controls for total emotion, fearful and happy faces (P<0.05), and their N170 latencies in the right temporal region were prone to slower than normal controls for angry and fearful faces. The holistic perception speed of emotional faces in the early cognitive processing phase in ASD children is slower than normal controls. The lateralized response in the early phase of recognizing emotional faces may be aberrant in children with ASD.

  11. Shared early origins of cardiovascular and respiratory development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eising, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases are often studied separately, but there is growing awareness that these diseases are closely linked. In this thesis we focused on two non-communicable diseases, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, which form a large contribution of the total morbidity and mortality of

  12. Cardiovascular evaluation in Turner syndrome: utility of MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson-Falk, K.; Bakker, B.; Rosenfeld, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Forty patients with karyotypically proven Turner syndrome were prospectively studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiography in order to determine the frequency of cardiovascular anomalies and to assess the utility of both imaging modalities as methods for cardiovascular evaluation in Turner syndrome. Cardiovascular anomalies were found in 45% of patients. A high absolute prevalence of bicuspid aortic valve (17.5%) and aortic coarctation (12.5%) were observed relative to comparable series. Of clinically significant abnormalities, three of five aortic coarctations and four of five ascending aortic dilatations were solely MRI detected and not evident at echocardiographic examination. MRI is thus seen as a valuable adjunct to echocardiography in the cardiovascular evaluation of Turner syndrome patients. The usefulness of MRI primarily relates to its ability to provide excellent visualisation of the entire thoracic aorta where a large proportion of clinically significant anomalies occur in Turner syndrome. 23 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  13. Cardiovascular evaluation in Turner syndrome: utility of MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson-Falk, K; Bakker, B; Rosenfeld, R G [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). School of Medicine

    1992-08-01

    Forty patients with karyotypically proven Turner syndrome were prospectively studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiography in order to determine the frequency of cardiovascular anomalies and to assess the utility of both imaging modalities as methods for cardiovascular evaluation in Turner syndrome. Cardiovascular anomalies were found in 45% of patients. A high absolute prevalence of bicuspid aortic valve (17.5%) and aortic coarctation (12.5%) were observed relative to comparable series. Of clinically significant abnormalities, three of five aortic coarctations and four of five ascending aortic dilatations were solely MRI detected and not evident at echocardiographic examination. MRI is thus seen as a valuable adjunct to echocardiography in the cardiovascular evaluation of Turner syndrome patients. The usefulness of MRI primarily relates to its ability to provide excellent visualisation of the entire thoracic aorta where a large proportion of clinically significant anomalies occur in Turner syndrome. 23 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  14. Nontraditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease and visceral adiposity index among different body size phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, T; Zhang, J; Yuan, G; Zhang, M; Zhou, X; Liu, Z; Sun, X; Yu, X

    2015-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular disease and mortality risk in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals remain highly controversial. Several studies suggested risk while others do not. The traditional cardiovascular risk factors may be insufficient to demonstrate the complete range of metabolic abnormalities in MHO individuals. Hence, we aimed to compare the prevalence of elevated lipoprotein (a), apolipoprotein B, and uric acid (UA) levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, and visceral adiposity index (VAI) scores, and low apolipoprotein A1 levels among 6 body size phenotypes (normal weight with and without metabolic abnormalities, overweight with and without metabolic abnormalities, and obese with or without metabolic abnormalities). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 7765 Chinese adults using data from the nationwide China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009. MHO persons had intermediate prevalence of elevated apolipoprotein B and UA levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and VAI scores, and low apolipoprotein A1 levels between metabolically healthy normal-weight (MHNW) and metabolically abnormal obese individuals (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). Elevated apolipoprotein B and UA concentrations, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, and VAI scores were all strongly associated with the MHO phenotype (all P < 0.01). Prevalence of elevated apolipoprotein B and UA levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and VAI scores, and low levels of apolipoprotein A1 was higher among MHO persons than among MHNW individuals. The elevated levels of the nontraditional risk factors and VAI scores in MHO persons could contribute to the increased cardiovascular disease risk observed in long-term studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vootla, Vamshidhar R; Daniel, Myrta

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome.

  16. [Cardiovascular disease prevention and life style modifications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudet, M; Daugareil, C; Ferrieres, J

    2012-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are mainly caused by atherosclerosis, the development of which is highly dependent on our Western lifestyle. Slowing this pathology depends on the reduction of risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, smoking, lack of physical activity, excess weight and diabetes. Drug treatment exists and is very effective, but too often they treat the immediate abnormality such as diabetes, high blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia and not the underlying causes: poor eating habits, lack of physical activity and excess weight. These have a negative impact on endothelial function, oxidative stress, and can trigger inflammation, arrythmias and thrombosis. Cardiovascular prevention must therefore target sedentary lifestyle, excess weight, and favor low-calorie, low-salt food and Mediterranean diet. The way this diet works begins to be understood and goes beyond simple cardiovascular prevention. Therapeutic education holds a growing and complementary role in the Public Health system which should call upon the strengths of all healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  17. Cardiovascular risk in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Beatriz; Ferreira, Maria João

    2018-06-01

    Turner syndrome is a relatively common genetic disorder of female development, characterized by partial or complete absence of an X chromosome, with a variable clinical presentation. Congenital or acquired cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent and a major cause of early death in this syndrome. The most feared complication is aortic dissection, which can occur at a very young age and requires careful assessment of its risk factors. A systematic literature search identified sixty relevant publications. These were reviewed with regard to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in women with Turner syndrome, especially in pregnancy. The most common congenital cardiovascular defects are presented and illustrated with appropriate iconography. The current recommendations regarding the screening and monitoring of cardiovascular disease in these patients are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. How well does early-career investigators' cardiovascular outcomes research training align with funded outcomes research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Matthew J; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Wang, Tracy Y; Khazanie, Prateeti; Kressin, Nancy R; Krumholz, Harlan M; Kiefe, Catarina I; Wells, Barbara L; O'Brien, Sean M; Peterson, Eric D; Sanders, Gillian D

    2018-02-01

    Outcomes research training programs should prepare trainees to successfully compete for research funding. We examined how early-career investigators' prior and desired training aligns with recently funded cardiovascular (CV) outcomes research. We (1) reviewed literature to identify 13 core competency areas in CV outcomes research; (2) surveyed early-career investigators to understand their prior and desired training in each competency area; (3) examined recently funded grants commonly pursued by early-career outcomes researchers to ascertain available funding in competency areas; and (4) analyzed alignment between investigator training and funded research in each competency area. We evaluated 185 survey responses from early-career investigators (response rate 28%) and 521 funded grants from 2010 to 2014. Respondents' prior training aligned with funded grants in the areas of clinical epidemiology, observational research, randomized controlled trials, and implementation/dissemination research. Funding in community-engaged research and health informatics was more common than prior training in these areas. Respondents' prior training in biostatistics and systematic review was more common than funded grants focusing on these specific areas. Respondents' desired training aligned similarly with funded grants, with some exceptions; for example, desired training in health economics/cost-effectiveness research was more common than funded grants in these areas. Restricting to CV grants (n=132) and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded grants (n=170) produced similar results. Identifying mismatch between funded grants in outcomes research and early-career investigators' prior/desired training may help efforts to harmonize investigator interests, training, and funding. Our findings suggest a need for further consideration of how to best prepare early-career investigators for funding success. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Neuroimaging, cardiovascular physiology, and functional outcomes in infants with congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, Nathalie H. P.; Kelly, Christopher J; Counsell, Serena J.; Benders, Manon J. N. L.

    This review integrates data on brain dysmaturation and acquired brain injury using fetal and neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including the contribution of cardiovascular physiology to differences in brain development, and the relationship between brain abnormalities and subsequent

  20. Mineral Metabolic Abnormalities and Mortality in Dialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Abe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The survival rate of dialysis patients, as determined by risk factors such as hypertension, nutritional status, and chronic inflammation, is lower than that of the general population. In addition, disorders of bone mineral metabolism are independently related to mortality and morbidity associated with cardiovascular disease and fracture in dialysis patients. Hyperphosphatemia is an important risk factor of, not only secondary hyperparathyroidism, but also cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, the risk of death reportedly increases with an increase in adjusted serum calcium level, while calcium levels below the recommended target are not associated with a worsened outcome. Thus, the significance of target levels of serum calcium in dialysis patients is debatable. The consensus on determining optimal parathyroid function in dialysis patients, however, is yet to be established. Therefore, the contribution of phosphorus and calcium levels to prognosis is perhaps more significant. Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 levels have also been shown to be associated with cardiovascular events and death. In this review, we examine the associations between mineral metabolic abnormalities including serum phosphorus, calcium, and parathyroid hormone and mortality in dialysis patients.

  1. [Indications for antidepressive agents in relation to diseases of the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikal, K; Hrabánková, M

    1993-06-01

    Antidepressants, in particular tricyclic ones (TCA), and inhibitors of monoaminooxidase (IMAO) exert a number of undesirable cardiovascular effects. TCA and IMAO frequently cause postural hypotension (PH). IMAO administration is associated with the risk of hypertensive crisis. TCA raises the heart rate and can cause abnormalities in the conduction of the cardiac excitation. TCA are contraindicated after myocardial infarction and are the cause of death after overdosage. When PH is undesirable, in hypertension and cardiac insufficiency the following safe antidepressants are recommended: nortriptyline, mianserine, trazodone and viloxazine. In abnormalities of conduction of the cardiac excitation and after myocardial infarction only mianserine, trazodione and viloxazine are recommended. With regard to cardiovascular toxicity, antidepressants from the series of selective inhibitors of serotonin reabsorption are very promising: fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, citalopram, paroxetine and sertraline. The same applies also to the reversible IMAO type A moclobemide.

  2. Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes Among the NASA Astronaut Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Wear, Mary L.; Stenger, Michael B.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute effects of spaceflight on the cardiovascular system have been studied extensively, but the combined chronic effects of spaceflight and aging are not well understood. Preparation for and participation in spaceflight activities are associated with changes in the cardiovascular system such as decreased carotid artery distensibility and decreased ventricular mass which may lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Additionally, astronauts who travel into space multiple times or for longer durations may be at an increased risk across their lifespan. To that end, the purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of common cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes among the NASA astronaut corps during their active career and through retirement. METHODS: Cardiovascular disease outcomes were defined as reports of any of the following: myocardial infarction (MI), revascularization procedures (coronary artery bypass graft surgery [CABG] or percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]), hypertension, stroke or transient ischemic attack [TIA], heart failure, or total CVD (as defined by the AHA - combined outcome of MI, Angina Pectoris, heart failure, stroke, and hypertension). Each outcome was identified individually from review of NASA's Electronic Medical Record (EMR), EKG reports, and death certificates using ICD-9 codes as well as string searches of physician notes of astronaut exams that occurred between 1959 and 2016. RESULTS: Of 338 NASA astronauts selected as of 2016, 9 reported an MI, 12 reported a revascularization procedure, (7 PCI and 5 CABG), 4 reported Angina (without MI), 5 reported heart failure, 9 reported stroke/TIA, and 96 reported hypertension. Total CVD was reported in 105 astronauts. No astronaut who had an MI or revascularization procedure flew a spaceflight mission following the event. All MI, revascularization, and stroke events occurred in male astronauts. When reviewing astronaut ECG reports, abnormal ECG reports were found

  3. Big data from electronic health records for early and late translational cardiovascular research: challenges and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Harry; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Danesh, John; Dobson, Richard; Maniadakis, Nikolaos; Maggioni, Aldo; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M; Cronin, Maureen; Brobert, Gunnar; Vardas, Panos; Anker, Stefan D; Grobbee, Diederick E; Denaxas, Spiros

    2018-04-21

    Cohorts of millions of people's health records, whole genome sequencing, imaging, sensor, societal and publicly available data present a rapidly expanding digital trace of health. We aimed to critically review, for the first time, the challenges and potential of big data across early and late stages of translational cardiovascular disease research. We sought exemplars based on literature reviews and expertise across the BigData@Heart Consortium. We identified formidable challenges including: data quality, knowing what data exist, the legal and ethical framework for their use, data sharing, building and maintaining public trust, developing standards for defining disease, developing tools for scalable, replicable science and equipping the clinical and scientific work force with new inter-disciplinary skills. Opportunities claimed for big health record data include: richer profiles of health and disease from birth to death and from the molecular to the societal scale; accelerated understanding of disease causation and progression, discovery of new mechanisms and treatment-relevant disease sub-phenotypes, understanding health and diseases in whole populations and whole health systems and returning actionable feedback loops to improve (and potentially disrupt) existing models of research and care, with greater efficiency. In early translational research we identified exemplars including: discovery of fundamental biological processes e.g. linking exome sequences to lifelong electronic health records (EHR) (e.g. human knockout experiments); drug development: genomic approaches to drug target validation; precision medicine: e.g. DNA integrated into hospital EHR for pre-emptive pharmacogenomics. In late translational research we identified exemplars including: learning health systems with outcome trials integrated into clinical care; citizen driven health with 24/7 multi-parameter patient monitoring to improve outcomes and population-based linkages of multiple EHR sources

  4. Radiologic evaluation of structural abnormalities of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Y.T.; Tolliver, R.A.; Stern, D.S.; Fruin, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    This exhibit concentrates on often overlooked, unfamiliar biomechanical or structural abnormalities of the foot. Pericalcaneal pathology and its correlation with the presence of heel spurs is illustrated. In the tarsal area, coalitions, prehallux, and their relationships to abnormalities of the longitudinal arch are discussed. Distally, medial, dorsal and tailor's bunions are demonstrated. Pain and disability often precede obvious deformity, and a radiologist familiar with the early findings on x-ray studies may be the first member of the medical team to identify structural abnormalities. Diagnosis allows prompt institution of appropriate therapy, reducing the period of patient discomfort and disability

  5. Signs and symptoms of developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Koch Nogueira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The abnormalities of the genitourinary tract development are the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD in children. The diagnosis of this disease in Brazil is late and incomplete, which results in increased morbidity and mortality in this age group. Early diagnosis of this condition is the prerogative of generalist pediatricians, and the aim of this study was to review the clinical signs and symptoms associated with developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Data sources: Based on the description of a symbolic clinical case, the authors conducted a non-systematic review of medical literature. Data synthesis: The results suggest that the following data should be used as a warning for early diagnosis of affected children: (a combined urinary tract abnormalities (chromosomal abnormalities; sequence of malformations [VACTERLand Prune-Belly]; and musculoskeletal, digestive tract, heart, and nervous system malformations; (b previous history (congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract [CAKUT] in the family, low birth weight, and oligoamnios; (c clinical signs (polyuria/nocturia, urinary tract infection, systemic arterial hypertension, failure to thrive, weak urinary stream, difficulty to start urination, distended bladder, non-monosymptomatic enuresis, urinary/urge incontinence, and bowel and bladder dysfunction; and (d pre- and postnatal ultrasonographic alterations (increased anteroposterior diameter of the renal pelvis, mainly in the third trimester of pregnancy; single kidney; hydronephrosis associated with other abnormalities; and hydronephrosis with parenchymal involvement in the post-neonatal assessment. Conclusion: The suggestions shown here can help the pediatrician to establish clinical hypotheses for the early diagnosis of developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract without resorting to expensive and invasive procedures.

  6. Electron-beam CT diagnosis of congenital cardiovascular diverticula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Youyou; Zheng Lili; Li Xiangmin; Zhou Xuhui; Peng Qian; Meng Quanfei; Dai Ruping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical application of electron-beam CT (EBCT) in the diagnosis of congenital cardiovascular diverticula. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 9 patients with congenital cardiovascular diverticula confirmed by operation and pathology was done. Of them, enhanced continuous volume scan was performed on 8 patients and enhanced single slice scan was performed on one patient with an Imatron C-150 scanner. Results: The group of 9 patients included one patient with diverticulum of the left ventricle, 3 patients with diverticulum of the atria and 5 patients with diverticulum of the aorta. EBCT scan and three dimensional reconstruction could demonstrate not only the origin, size, shape, location and adjacent structure of diverticula, but also other important complicated abnormalities such as ventriculoarterial connection disorder, cardiac septal defect, aortic coarctation and even dissection. Conclusion: EBCT is an ideal noninvasive technique in the diagnosis of congenital cardiovascular diverticula. (authors)

  7. Morphological and functional abnormalities of salience network in the early-stage of paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Weidan; Li, Li; Zhang, Huiran; Ouyang, Xuan; Liu, Haihong; Zhao, Jingping; Li, Lingjiang; Xue, Zhimin; Xu, Ke; Tang, Haibo; Shan, Baoci; Liu, Zhening; Wang, Fei

    2012-10-01

    A salience network (SN), mainly composed of the anterior insula (AI) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), has been suggested to play an important role in salience attribution which has been proposed as central to the pathology of paranoid schizophrenia. The role of this SN in the pathophysiology of paranoid schizophrenia, however, still remains unclear. In the present study, voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity analyses were combined to identify morphological and functional abnormalities in the proposed SN in the early-stage of paranoid schizophrenia (ESPS). Voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity analyses were applied to 90 ESPS patients and 90 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). Correlation analyses were performed to examine the relationships between various clinical variables and both gray matter morphology and functional connectivity within the SN in ESPS. Compared to the HC group, the ESPS group showed significantly reduced gray matter volume (GMV) in both bilateral AI and ACC. Moreover, significantly reduced functional connectivity within the SN sub-networks was identified in the ESPS group. These convergent morphological and functional deficits in SN were significantly associated with hallucinations. Additionally, illness duration correlated with reduced GMV in the left AI in ESPS. In conclusion, these findings provide convergent evidence for the morphological and functional abnormalities of the SN in ESPS. Moreover, the association of illness duration with the reduced GMV in the left AI suggests that the SN and the AI, in particular, may manifest progressive morphological changes that are especially important in the emergence of ESPS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficacy of Feedback-Controlled Robotics-Assisted Treadmill Exercise to Improve Cardiovascular Fitness Early After Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Oliver; de Bruin, Eling D; Schindelholz, Matthias; Schuster-Amft, Corina; de Bie, Rob A; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular fitness is greatly reduced after stroke. Although individuals with mild to moderate impairments benefit from conventional cardiovascular exercise interventions, there is a lack of effective approaches for persons with severely impaired physical function. This randomized controlled pilot trial investigated efficacy and feasibility of feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (FC-RATE) for cardiovascular rehabilitation in persons with severe impairments early after stroke. Twenty individuals (age 61 ± 11 years; 52 ± 31 days poststroke) with severe motor limitations (Functional Ambulation Classification 0-2) were recruited for FC-RATE or conventional robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (RATE) (4 weeks, 3 × 30-minute sessions/wk). Outcome measures focused on peak cardiopulmonary performance parameters, training intensity, and feasibility, with examiners blinded to allocation. All 14 allocated participants (70% of recruited) completed the intervention (7/group, withdrawals unrelated to intervention), without serious adverse events occurring. Cardiovascular fitness increased significantly in both groups, with peak oxygen uptake increasing from 14.6 to 17.7 mL · kg · min (+17.8%) after 4 weeks (45.8%-55.7% of predicted maximal aerobic capacity; time effect P = 0.01; no group-time interaction). Training intensity (% heart rate reserve) was significantly higher for FC-RATE (40% ± 3%) than for conventional RATE (14% ± 2%) (P = 0.001). Substantive overall increases in the main cardiopulmonary performance parameters were observed, but there were no significant between-group differences when comparing FC-RATE and conventional RATE. Feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise significantly increased exercise intensity, but recommended intensity levels for cardiovascular training were not consistently achieved. Future research should focus on appropriate algorithms within advanced robotic systems to promote optimal cardiovascular

  9. Practice points in gynecardiology: Abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women taking oral anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.H.E.M.; Euler, M.; Bongers, M.Y.; Rolden, H.J.A.; Grutters, J.P.C.; Ulrich, L.; Schenck-Gustafsson, K.

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of premenopausal women are currently using antithrombotic and/or (dual) antiplatelet therapy for various cardiovascular indications. These may induce or exacerbate abnormal uterine bleeding and more awareness and knowledge among prescribers is required. Heavy and irregular menstrual

  10. Arterial stiffness, central hemodynamics, and cardiovascular risk in hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatini, Paolo; Casiglia, Edoardo; Gąsowski, Jerzy; Głuszek, Jerzy; Jankowski, Piotr; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Saladini, Francesca; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Van Bortel, Luc; Wojciechowska, Wiktoria; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes several scientific contributions at the recent Satellite Symposium of the European Society of Hypertension, held in Milan, Italy. Arterial stiffening and its hemodynamic consequences can be easily and reliably measured using a range of noninvasive techniques. However, like blood pressure (BP) measurements, arterial stiffness should be measured carefully under standardized patient conditions. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity has been proposed as the gold standard for arterial stiffness measurement and is a well recognized predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcome. Systolic BP and pulse pressure in the ascending aorta may be lower than pressures measured in the upper limb, especially in young individuals. A number of studies suggest closer correlation of end-organ damage with central BP than with peripheral BP, and central BP may provide additional prognostic information regarding cardiovascular risk. Moreover, BP-lowering drugs can have differential effects on central aortic pressures and hemodynamics compared with brachial BP. This may explain the greater beneficial effect provided by newer antihypertensive drugs beyond peripheral BP reduction. Although many methodological problems still hinder the wide clinical application of parameters of arterial stiffness, these will likely contribute to cardiovascular assessment and management in future clinical practice. Each of the abovementioned parameters reflects a different characteristic of the atherosclerotic process, involving functional and/or morphological changes in the vessel wall. Therefore, acquiring simultaneous measurements of different parameters of vascular function and structure could theoretically enhance the power to improve risk stratification. Continuous technological effort is necessary to refine our methods of investigation in order to detect early arterial abnormalities. Arterial stiffness and its consequences represent the great challenge of the twenty-first century for

  11. Abnormal resting-state connectivity of motor and cognitive networks in early manifest Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R C; Sambataro, F; Vasic, N; Depping, M S; Thomann, P A; Landwehrmeyer, G B; Süssmuth, S D; Orth, M

    2014-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of multiple neural networks during the brain's 'resting state' could facilitate biomarker development in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) and may provide new insights into the relationship between neural dysfunction and clinical symptoms. To date, however, very few studies have examined the functional integrity of multiple resting state networks (RSNs) in manifest HD, and even less is known about whether concomitant brain atrophy affects neural activity in patients. Using MRI, we investigated brain structure and RSN function in patients with early HD (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 20). For resting-state fMRI data a group-independent component analysis identified spatiotemporally distinct patterns of motor and prefrontal RSNs of interest. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess regional brain atrophy, and 'biological parametric mapping' analyses to investigate the impact of atrophy on neural activity. Compared with controls, patients showed connectivity changes within distinct neural systems including lateral prefrontal, supplementary motor, thalamic, cingulate, temporal and parietal regions. In patients, supplementary motor area and cingulate cortex connectivity indices were associated with measures of motor function, whereas lateral prefrontal connectivity was associated with cognition. This study provides evidence for aberrant connectivity of RSNs associated with motor function and cognition in early manifest HD when controlling for brain atrophy. This suggests clinically relevant changes of RSN activity in the presence of HD-associated cortical and subcortical structural abnormalities.

  12. Prevalence and predictors of an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholte, Arthur J.H.A.; Schuijf, Joanne D.; Wall, Ernst E. van der; Bax, Jeroen J.; Kharagjitsingh, Antje V.; Dibbets-Schneider, Petra; Stokkel, Marcel P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study in a cohort of truly asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using myocardial perfusion imaging by means of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Secondly, we determined which clinical characteristics may predict an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study in this population. A total of 120 asymptomatic patients (mean age 53±10 years) with type 2 diabetes mellitus and one or more risk factors for coronary artery disease were prospectively recruited from an outpatient diabetes clinic. All patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging by means of adenosine 99m Tc sestamibi SPECT. Images were evaluated for the presence of perfusion abnormalities as well as other nonperfusion abnormalities that may indicate extensive ischaemia, including left ventricular dysfunction (defined as a left ventricular ejection fraction <45%), transient ischaemic dilatation and adenosine-induced ST segment depression. Multivariable analysis was performed using a backward selection strategy to identify potential predictors for an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study. Finally, all patients were followed up for 12 months to determine the occurrence of cardiovascular events: (1) cardiac death, (2) nonfatal myocardial infarction, (3) unstable angina requiring hospitalization, (4) revascularization, or (5) stroke. Of the 120 patients, 40 (33%) had an abnormal stress study, including myocardial perfusion abnormalities in 30 patients (25%). In 10 patients (8%), indicators of extensive (possibly balanced ischaemia) were observed in the absence of abnormal perfusion. The multivariable analysis identified current smoking, duration of diabetes and the cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio as independent predictors of an abnormal stress study. During a follow-up period of 12 months six patients (5%) had a cardiovascular event. The current study revealed

  13. Prevalence and predictors of an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholte, Arthur J.H.A.; Schuijf, Joanne D.; Wall, Ernst E. van der; Bax, Jeroen J. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Albinusdreef 2, PO Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Kharagjitsingh, Antje V. [Medisch Centrum Haaglanden, Department of Internal Medicine, The Hague (Netherlands); Dibbets-Schneider, Petra; Stokkel, Marcel P. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study in a cohort of truly asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using myocardial perfusion imaging by means of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Secondly, we determined which clinical characteristics may predict an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study in this population. A total of 120 asymptomatic patients (mean age 53{+-}10 years) with type 2 diabetes mellitus and one or more risk factors for coronary artery disease were prospectively recruited from an outpatient diabetes clinic. All patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging by means of adenosine {sup 99m}Tc sestamibi SPECT. Images were evaluated for the presence of perfusion abnormalities as well as other nonperfusion abnormalities that may indicate extensive ischaemia, including left ventricular dysfunction (defined as a left ventricular ejection fraction <45%), transient ischaemic dilatation and adenosine-induced ST segment depression. Multivariable analysis was performed using a backward selection strategy to identify potential predictors for an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study. Finally, all patients were followed up for 12 months to determine the occurrence of cardiovascular events: (1) cardiac death, (2) nonfatal myocardial infarction, (3) unstable angina requiring hospitalization, (4) revascularization, or (5) stroke. Of the 120 patients, 40 (33%) had an abnormal stress study, including myocardial perfusion abnormalities in 30 patients (25%). In 10 patients (8%), indicators of extensive (possibly balanced ischaemia) were observed in the absence of abnormal perfusion. The multivariable analysis identified current smoking, duration of diabetes and the cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio as independent predictors of an abnormal stress study. During a follow-up period of 12 months six patients (5%) had a cardiovascular event. The current study

  14. Association of parental blood pressure with retinal microcirculatory abnormalities indicative of endothelial dysfunction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H; Bux, Rasool; Hashmi, Shiraz; Chaturvedi, Nish; Hughes, Alun D

    2014-03-01

    Microcirculatory abnormalities precede the onset of hypertension and may explain its familial nature. We examined the relationship between parental blood pressure (BP) and offspring retinal microvasculature in Pakistani trios [father, mother, and child (aged 9-14 years)]. This is a substudy of a population-based trial of BP reduction. Data were available on 358 normotensive, and 410 offspring of at least one hypertensive parent. Retinal vessel characteristics were measured from digital images. Multivariable linear regression models were built to assess the associations between maternal and paternal BP and offspring retinal microvasculature. Optimality deviation was greatest in offspring of two hypertensive parents, compared with those with one or no hypertensive parent (P=0.030 for trend). Paternal SBP and DBP were each significantly associated with optimality deviation in offspring (P=0.023 and P=0.006, respectively). This relationship persisted after accounting for offspring cardiovascular risk factors [increase in optimality deviation (95% confidence interval, CI) 0.0053 (0.0001-0.0106, P=0.047) and 0.0109 (0.0025-0.0193, P=0.011), for each 10 mmHg increase in paternal SBP and DBP, respectively]. Maternal DBP was inversely associated with offspring arteriovenous ratio -0.0102 (-0.0198 to -0.0007, P=0.035). Microvascular endothelial dysfunction in children is associated with increasing levels of parental hypertension. The association with paternal BP is independent of other cardiovascular risk factors, including the child's BP. Higher maternal DBP is associated with evidence of arteriolar narrowing in offspring. These early microcirculatory changes may help explain familial predisposition to hypertension in people of Pakistani origin at an early age. :

  15. Epidemiology and the physiopathological link between depression and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Pizzi

    2014-11-01

    The defined pathophysiological pathways which link depression and cardiovascular outcomes are not well recognized although various mechanisms have been proposed to explain this association. Beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors, autonomic nervous system, low grade of inflammation, platelet function, abnormal function of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and genetic factors can adversely impact the endothelium and arterial walls. Consequently, these mechanisms might be crucial factors in promoting and accelerating atherosclerosis and its complications due to plaque rupture and thrombosis. For these reasons, depression symptoms should be considered as a new cardiac risk factor in the general population and in patients with coronary artery disease.

  16. Anormalidades cardiovasculares e metabólicas em pacientes com a síndrome de Berardinelli-Seip Anormalidades cardiovasculares y metabólicas en pacientes con el síndrome de Berardinelli-Seip Cardiometabolic abnormalities in patients with berardinelli-Seip syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Guedes do Rêgo

    2010-01-01

    .BACKGROUND: Berardinelli-Seip syndrome (BSS or Generalized Congenital Lipodystrophy often affects the cardiovascular system and also promotes metabolic abnormalities involving glycidic and lipid metabolisms. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of cardiometabolic abnormalities in patients with BSS. METHODS: Twenty-two patients from the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, diagnosed with BSS, underwent clinical evaluation, resting electrocardiogram, echodopplercardiogram, chest X-ray, 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring, exercise testing and laboratory analysis. RESULTS: The patients were predominantly young adults, most of whom women. The whole sample showed insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans and diminished HDL-cholesterol. The presence of splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, type II diabetes and elevated triglycerides was constant. Metabolic syndrome was characterized in most patients, which were predominantly women and with a high degree of paternal consanguinity. SAH and prehypertension blood pressure were found in more than half of the patients (77.3%. The echodopplercardiogram showed the presence of CLVH (50%, eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy (4.5%, and normal left ventricular geometry (45.5%. High arrhythmia rates were observed by Holter monitoring, such as ventricular ectopic beats, supraventricular ectopic beats and sustained supraventricular tachycardia. Chronotropic incompetence (54.5% was observed during exercise testing. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities was observed in young asymptomatic individuals with BSS. These findings point to the need for systematic cardiological follow-up and of preventive measures in this high-risk group.

  17. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamshidhar R. Vootla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome.

  18. Abnormalities of Early “Memory-Scanning” Event-Related Potentials in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grippo

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recorded auditory event-related potentials (ERPs evoked by the “memory-scanning” (digit-probe identification/matching paradigm that was originally described by Sternberg (1966, in 17 patients with complex partial seizures (temporal lobe epilepsy and in 17 matched healthy control subjects. The patients, who had all complained spontaneously of memory difficulties, had significantly reduced scores on psychological tests of memory with relatively intact digit span and cognition. Their performance of the memory-scanning task was characterized by a higher error rate, longer reaction times and an increased slope of the reaction time/set size relationship. The associated ERPs in both patients and controls showed there were significant effects of memory load on several major components, but only a reduced amplitude of the N170 and a prolonged latency of the N290 waves distinguished the patients. In addition, the N170 wave in the patients decreased further as memory load increased. The prolonged N290 latency in the patients appeared to reflect the slowed processing time. This study has shown that ERPs generated by a short-term memory task are abnormal in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy who have neuropsychologically documented cognitive and memory deficits. Some of the significant waveform alterations occur earlier than those reported in previous ERP studies and provide electrophysiological support for the hypothesis that abnormalities of the early stages of short-term memory processing may contribute to the memory difficulties experienced by patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

  19. Early Empowerment Strategies Boost Self-Efficacy to Improve Cardiovascular Health Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Kashani, Mariam; Eliasson, Arn H; Walizer, Elaine M; Fuller, Clarie E; Engler, Renata J; Villines, Todd C; Vernalis, Marina N

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-efficacy, defined as confidence in the ability to carry out behavior to achieve a desired goal, is considered to be a prerequisite for behavior change. Self-efficacy correlates with cardiovascular health although optimal timing to incorporate self-efficacy strategies is not well established. We sought to study the effect of an empowerment approach implemented in the introductory phase of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular health outcomes. Design: Prospe...

  20. Cardiovascular System Sonographic Evaluation Algorithm: A New Sonographic Algorithm for Evaluation of the Fetal Cardiovascular System in the Second Trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De León-Luis, Juan; Bravo, Coral; Gámez, Francisco; Ortiz-Quintana, Luis

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the reproducibility and feasibility of the new cardiovascular system sonographic evaluation algorithm for studying the extended fetal cardiovascular system, including the portal, thymic, and supra-aortic areas, in the second trimester of pregnancy (19-22 weeks). We performed a cross-sectional study of pregnant women with healthy fetuses (singleton and twin pregnancies) attending our center from March to August 2011. The extended fetal cardiovascular system was evaluated by following the new algorithm, a sequential acquisition of axial views comprising the following (caudal to cranial): I, portal sinus; II, ductus venosus; III, hepatic veins; IV, 4-chamber view; V, left ventricular outflow tract; VI, right ventricular outflow tract; VII, 3-vessel and trachea view; VIII, thy-box; and IX, subclavian arteries. Interobserver agreement on the feasibility and exploration time was estimated in a subgroup of patients. The feasibility and exploration time were determined for the main cohort. Maternal, fetal, and sonographic factors affecting both features were evaluated. Interobserver agreement was excellent for all views except view VIII; the difference in the mean exploration time between observers was 1.5 minutes (95% confidence interval, 0.7-2.1 minutes; P cardiovascular system sonographic evaluation algorithm is a reproducible and feasible approach for exploration of the extended fetal cardiovascular system in a second-trimester scan. It can be used to explore these areas in normal and abnormal conditions and provides an integrated image of extended fetal cardiovascular anatomy. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  1. A stochastic model for early placental development.

    KAUST Repository

    Cotter, Simon L; Klika, Vá clav; Kimpton, Laura; Collins, Sally; Heazell, Alexander E P

    2014-01-01

    In the human, placental structure is closely related to placental function and consequent pregnancy outcome. Studies have noted abnormal placental shape in small-for-gestational-age infants which extends to increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular

  2. Cardiovascular complications of anorexia nervosa: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Katherine V; Harnke, Ben; Mehler, Philip S; Krantz, Mori J

    2016-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa portends the highest mortality among psychiatric diseases, despite primarily being a disease of adolescents and younger adults. Although some of this mortality risk is attributable to suicide, many deaths are likely cardiovascular in etiology. Recent studies suggest that adverse myocardial structural changes occur in this condition, which could underlie the increased mortality. Given limited prevalence of severe anorexia there is a paucity of clinical and autopsy data to discern an exact cause of death. Given this background we conducted a systematic review of the medical literature to provide a contemporary summary of the pathobiologic sequelae of severe anorexia nervosa on the cardiovascular system. We sought to elucidate the impact of anorexia nervosa in four cardiovascular domains: structural, repolarization/conduction, hemodynamic, and peripheral vascular. A number of cardiac abnormalities associated with anorexia nervosa have been described in the literature, including pericardial and valvular pathology, changes in left ventricular mass and function, conduction abnormalities, bradycardia, hypotension, and dysregulation in peripheral vascular contractility. Despite the prevalent theory that malignant arrhythmias are implicated as a cause of sudden death in this disorder, data to support this causal relationship are lacking. It is reasonable to obtain routine electrocardiography and measurements of orthostatic vital signs in patients presenting with anorexia nervosa. Echocardiography is generally not indicated unless prompted by clinical signs of disease. Admission to an inpatient unit with telemetry monitoring is recommended for patients with severe sinus bradycardia or junction rhythm, marked prolongation of the corrected QT interval, or syncope. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Early Reticulocytosis and Anemia Are Associated with Abnormal and Conditional Transcranial Doppler Velocities in Children with Sickle Cell Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Emily Riehm; Fasano, Ross M; Estrada, Monica; He, Jianping; Luban, Naomi L C; McCarter, Robert

    2016-02-01

    To improve prediction of sickle cell anemia severity at an early age, we evaluated whether absolute reticulocyte count (ARC) or hemoglobin (Hb) levels during early infancy (2-6 months of age) in patients with sickle cell anemia predict the risk of later developing an abnormal (abTCD) or conditional (cdTCD) Transcranial Doppler (TCD). We used chart review to identify 121 consecutive patients who underwent TCD screening and had steady state ARC and Hb levels recorded between 2 and 6 months of age. Cox regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between ARC, Hb levels, and risk of developing cdTCD/abTCD over time. Mean ARC in early infancy was highest and mean Hb lowest in those children with abTCDs and cdTCDs. Cox regression analysis revealed that those subjects with an ARC ≥200 K/μL in early infancy had nearly 3 times the risk of having an abTCD/cdTCD than the group with an ARC <200 K/μL, and patients with a Hb <8.5 g/dL had 2.7 times the risk of having an abTCD/cdTCD. These data suggest that both elevated ARC and low baseline Hb during early infancy are associated with an increased risk of developing a cdTCD or abTCD later in childhood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pattern-based approach to fetal congenital cardiovascular anomalies using the transverse aortic arch view on prenatal cardiac MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Su-Zhen; Zhu, Ming [Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai (China)

    2015-05-01

    Fetal echocardiography is the imaging modality of choice for prenatal diagnosis of congenital cardiovascular anomalies. However, echocardiography has limitations. Fetal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to complement US in detecting congenital cardiovascular anomalies. This article draws on our experience; it describes the transverse aortic arch view on fetal cardiac MRI and important clues on an abnormal transverse view at the level of the aortic arch to the diagnosis of fetal congenital cardiovascular anomalies. (orig.)

  5. Pattern-based approach to fetal congenital cardiovascular anomalies using the transverse aortic arch view on prenatal cardiac MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Su-Zhen; Zhu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Fetal echocardiography is the imaging modality of choice for prenatal diagnosis of congenital cardiovascular anomalies. However, echocardiography has limitations. Fetal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to complement US in detecting congenital cardiovascular anomalies. This article draws on our experience; it describes the transverse aortic arch view on fetal cardiac MRI and important clues on an abnormal transverse view at the level of the aortic arch to the diagnosis of fetal congenital cardiovascular anomalies. (orig.)

  6. Role of androgen excess on metabolic aberrations and cardiovascular risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakou, Charikleia D; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2008-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with a clustering of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors. Insulin resistance is implicated as the major player in the metabolic abnormalities and contributes to the increased cardiovascular risk associated with the syndrome. However, androgen excess appears to participate as an independent parameter, which further aggravates the cardiovascular and metabolic aberrations in affected women with PCOS. The resultant impact of hyperandrogenemia possibly acquires clinical significance for women's health in the context of PCOS, particularly since recent data support an increased incidence of coronary artery disease and of cardiovascular events directly related to androgen levels in women with the syndrome.

  7. Change in cardiovascular risk factors following early diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: a cohort analysis of a cluster-randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    Black, James A; Sharp, Stephen J; Wareham, Nicholas J; Sandbæk, Annelli; Rutten, Guy EHM; Lauritzen, Torsten; Khunti, Kamlesh; Davies, Melanie J; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Griffin, Simon J; Simmons, Rebecca K

    2014-01-01

    Background There is little evidence to inform the targeted treatment of individuals found early in the diabetes disease trajectory. Aim To describe cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profiles and treatment of individual CVD risk factors by modelled CVD risk at diagnosis; changes in treatment, modelled CVD risk, and CVD risk factors in the 5 years following diagnosis; and how these are patterned by socioeconomic status. Design and setting Cohort analysis of a cluster-randomised trial (ADDITION-...

  8. Effect of Time-Dependent Pinning Pressure on Abnormal Grain Growth: Phase Field Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Min; Min, Guensik; Shim, Jae-Hyeok; Lee, Kyung Jong

    2018-05-01

    The effect of the time-dependent pinning pressure of precipitates on abnormal grain growth has been investigated by multiphase field simulation with a simple precipitation model. The application of constant pinning pressure is problematic because it always induces abnormal grain growth or no grain growth, which is not reasonable considering the real situation. To produce time-dependent pinning pressure, both precipitation kinetics and precipitate coarsening kinetics have been considered with two rates: slow and fast. The results show that abnormal grain growth is suppressed at the slow precipitation rate. At the slow precipitation rate, the overall grain growth caused by the low pinning pressure in the early stage indeed plays a role in preventing abnormal grain growth by reducing the mobility advantage of abnormal grains. In addition, the fast precipitate coarsening rate tends to more quickly transform abnormal grain growth into normal grain growth by inducing the active growth of grains adjacent to the abnormal grains in the early stage. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that the time dependence of the pinning pressure of precipitates is a critical factor that determines the grain growth mode.

  9. Abnormal Mitochondrial Dynamics and Synaptic Degeneration as Early Events in Alzheimer’s Disease: Implications to Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P. Hemachandra; Tripathy, Raghav; Troung, Quang; Thirumala, Karuna; Reddy, Tejaswini P.; Anekonda, Vishwanath; Shirendeb, Ulziibat P.; Calkins, Marcus J.; Reddy, Arubala P.; Mao, Peizhong; Manczak, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Synaptic pathology and mitochondrial oxidative damage are early events in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression. Loss of synapses and synaptic damage are the best correlate of cognitive deficits found in AD patients. Recent research on amyloid bet (Aβ) and mitochondria in AD revealed that Aβ accumulates in synapses and synaptic mitochondria, leading to abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and synaptic degeneration in AD neurons. Further, recent studies using live-cell imaging and primary neurons from amyloid beta precursor protein (AβPP) transgenic mice revealed that reduced mitochondrial mass, defective axonal transport of mitochondria and synaptic degeneration, indicating that Aβ is responsible for mitochondrial and synaptic deficiencies. Tremendous progress has been made in studying antioxidant approaches in mouse models of AD and clinical trials of AD patients. This article highlights the recent developments made in Aβ-induced abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, defective mitochondrial biogenesis, impaired axonal transport and synaptic deficiencies in AD. This article also focuses on mitochondrial approaches in treating AD, and also discusses latest research on mitochondria-targeted antioxidants in AD. PMID:22037588

  10. Evaluation of dyslipidemia, lipid ratios, and atherogenic index as cardiovascular risk factors among semi-urban dwellers in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olamoyegun, Michael Adeyemi; Oluyombo, Rotimi; Asaolu, Stephen Olabode

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The increasing frequency of cardiovascular disease (CVD) rests on the presence of major cardiovascular risk factors including dyslipidemia. This dyslipidemia is also a target for the prevention and treatment of many cardiovascular diseases. Hence, identification of individuals at risk of CVD is needed for early identification and prevention. The study was carried out to evaluate dyslipidemia using the lipid ratios and indices instead of just the conventional lipid profile. Methodology: It was a cross-sectional study with 699 participants recruited from semi-urban communities in Nigeria. Anthropometric indices, blood pressure, and fasting lipid profiles were determined. Abnormalities in lipid indices and lipid ratios with atherogenic index were also determined. SPSS software version 17.0 were used for analysis, P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There were 699 participants with a mean age of 64.45 ± 15.53 years. Elevated total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, elevated triglyceride, and low high-density lipoprotein were seen in 5.3%, 19.3%, 4.4%, and 76.3% of the participants, respectively. The Castelli's risk index-I (CRI-I) predicted the highest prevalence of predisposition to cardiovascular risk (47.8%) with females being at significantly higher risk (55.2% vs. 29.3%, P < 0.001). Atherogenic coefficient, CRI-II, CHOLIndex, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) predicted a cardiovascular risk prevalence of 22.5%, 15.9%, 11.2%, and 11.0%, respectively, with no significant difference in between the sexes. Conclusions: Serum lipid ratios and AIP may be used in addition to lipid parameters in clinical practice to assess cardiovascular risks even when lipid profiles are apparently normal. AIP was more gender specific amidst the lipid ratios. PMID:27853034

  11. Cardiovascular disease in the polycystic ovary syndrome: new insights and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussons, Andrea J; Stuckey, Bronwyn G A; Watts, Gerald F

    2006-04-01

    The new millennium has brought intense focus of interest on the risk of cardiovascular disease in women. The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women characterised by hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhoea. Most women with PCOS also exhibit features of the metabolic syndrome, including insulin resistance, obesity and dyslipidaemia. While the association with type 2 diabetes is well established, whether the incidence of cardiovascular disease is increased in women with PCOS remains unclear. Echocardiography, imaging of coronary and carotid arteries, and assessments of both endothelial function and arterial stiffness have recently been employed to address this question. These studies have collectively demonstrated both structural and functional abnormalities of the cardiovascular system in PCOS. These alterations, however, appear to be related to the presence of individual cardiovascular risk factors, particularly insulin resistance, rather than to the presence of PCOS and hyperandrogenaemia per se. However, given the inferential nature of the evidence to date, more rigorous cohort studies of long-term cardiovascular outcomes and clinical trials of risk factor modification are required in women with PCOS.

  12. Detection of hydroxyapatite in calcified cardiovascular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Sam; Morrisett, Joel D; Tung, Ching-Hsuan

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a method for selective detection of the calcific (hydroxyapatite) component in human aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro and in calcified cardiovascular tissues ex vivo. This method uses a novel optical molecular imaging contrast dye, Cy-HABP-19, to target calcified cells and tissues. A peptide that mimics the binding affinity of osteocalcin was used to label hydroxyapatite in vitro and ex vivo. Morphological changes in vascular smooth muscle cells were evaluated at an early stage of the mineralization process induced by extrinsic stimuli, osteogenic factors and a magnetic suspension cell culture. Hydroxyapatite components were detected in monolayers of these cells in the presence of osteogenic factors and a magnetic suspension environment. Atherosclerotic plaque contains multiple components including lipidic, fibrotic, thrombotic, and calcific materials. Using optical imaging and the Cy-HABP-19 molecular imaging probe, we demonstrated that hydroxyapatite components could be selectively distinguished from various calcium salts in human aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro and in calcified cardiovascular tissues, carotid endarterectomy samples and aortic valves, ex vivo. Hydroxyapatite deposits in cardiovascular tissues were selectively detected in the early stage of the calcification process using our Cy-HABP-19 probe. This new probe makes it possible to study the earliest events associated with vascular hydroxyapatite deposition at the cellular and molecular levels. This target-selective molecular imaging probe approach holds high potential for revealing early pathophysiological changes, leading to progression, regression, or stabilization of cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. YKL-40: a new biomarker in cardiovascular disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Henningsen, Kristoffer Mads Aaris; Harutyunyan, Marina Jurjevna

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease in the form of coronary artery disease is the most common cause of death in western countries. Early treatment with stabilizing drugs and mechanical revascularization by percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary bypass surgery has reduced the mortality significantly....... But in spite of improved treatments, many patients are still plagued by a high frequency of angina symptoms, hospitalizations and a poor prognosis. There is a need for new independent or supplementary biomarkers that can help to predict cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events earlier and more...... precisely, and thus accompany existing biomarkers in both primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention. One such potential new biomarker is the protein YKL-40. As an independent biomarker in both cardiovascular diseases and noncardiovascular diseases, current evidence suggests YKL-40 to be most useful...

  14. Does endothelial dysfunction correlate with endocrinal abnormalities in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    To study and critically analyze the published evidence on correlation of hormonal abnormalities and endothelial dysfunction (ED) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) through a systematic review. The databases including MEDLINE, PubMed, Up-To-Date, and Science Direct were searched using Medical subject handling terms and free text term keywords such as endocrine abnormalities in PCOS, ED assessment in PCOS, ED in combination with insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenism (HA), increased free testosterone, free androgen index (FAI), gonadotrophin levels, luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, estrogen, adipocytokines to search trials, and observational studies published from January 1987 to September 2015. Authors of original studies were contacted for additional data when necessary. PCOS increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in women. ED, which is a reliable indicator of cardiovascular risk in general population, is seen in most (but not all) women with PCOS. IR, seen in 70% patients with PCOS, is associated with ED in these women, but patients can have normal endothelial function even in the presence of IR. Free testosterone and FAI are consistently associated with ED, but endothelial function can be normal despite HA. Estradiol (not estrone) appears to be protective against ED though estrone is the predominant estrogen produced in PCOS. Increased levels of adipocytokines (visfatin) are promising in predicting ED and cardiovascular risk. However, more studies are required focusing on direct correlation of levels of prolactin, LH, estrone, and visfatin with ED in PCOS. PMID:27843797

  15. The incidence of obvious congenital abnormalities among the neonates born in Rasht hospitals in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zohreh Jalali

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital abnormalities are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of obvious congenital abnormalities in live neonates and the relationship between these abnormalities and some important factors in live newborns in Rasht hospitals. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all live neonates born in maternity hospitals of Rasht were investigated for the presence of apparent congenital abnormalities. The data recorded in the patients’ files, including the information of parents, neonate and the type of abnormality were collected. Data were analyzed by SPSS (version 16. Results: From 1824 live neonates, 77 cases (4.2% had congenital abnormalities. The most common diagnosed abnormalities were musculoskeletal (37.7%, genital (16.9%, urinary (13%, cardiovascular (13%, and nervous system (10.4% anomalies. The increased incidence of congenital abnormalities was correlated with gestational age, route of pregnancy, history of maternal disease and drug consumption during pregnancy (P<0.0001. No significant relationship was found between abnormalities and sex, birth weight, age of parents, and consanguineous marriage. Conclusion: As gestational age, route of pregnancy, history of maternal disease and drug consumption during pregnancy were significantly associated with the increased incidence of congenital abnormalities in this region, it is necessary to pay more attention to the risk factors and the approach to control them.

  16. Trans-sphenoidal encephalocele in association with Dandy-Walker complex and cardiovascular anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joy, H.M.; Barker, C.S. [Wessex Neurological Centre, Southampton (United Kingdom); Small, J.H. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Bournemouth Hospital (United Kingdom); Armitage, M. [Bournemouth Diabetes and Endocrine Centre, Royal Bournemouth Hospital (United Kingdom)

    2001-01-01

    We present a case of trans-sphenoidal encephalomeningocele in association with a posterior cranial fossa malformation which fulfils the criteria for the Dandy-Walker complex. Congenital cardiovascular defects were also present. An abnormality of neural crest development may be responsible for the combined occurrence of these anomalies. (orig.)

  17. Personality traits neuroticism and openness as well as early abnormal eye conditions as predictors of the occurrence of eye problems in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the associations between psychological, biomedical and socio-demographic factors in childhood and adulthood associated with the occurrence of self-reported eye conditions in adulthood. In total, 5706 participants with complete data on parental social class at birth, cognitive ability accessed at age 11 years, abnormal eye conditions by the age of 16 years diagnosed by medical professionals, educational qualifications obtained at age 33 years, the Big Five Factor personality traits measured at age 50 years, current occupational levels and self-reported eye conditions at age 54 years were included in the study. Logistic regression analysis showed that among all the factors examined early abnormal eye conditions, traits neuroticism and openness as well as sex were the significant predictors of self-reported eye conditions in adulthood.

  18. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-06-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development.

  19. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development. (orig.)

  20. Post-traumatic stress disorder and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Donald; von Känel, Roland

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a first in a Series of two, we look at the evidence for an association of post-traumatic stress disorder with incident cardiovascular disease risk and the mechanisms that might cause this association, as well as the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder due to cardiovascular disease events and its associated prognostic risk. We discuss research done after the publication of previous relevant systematic reviews, and survey currently funded research from the two most active funders in the field: the National Institutes of Health and the US Veterans Administration. We conclude that post-traumatic stress disorder is a risk factor for incident cardiovascular disease, and a common psychiatric consequence of cardiovascular disease events that might worsen the prognosis of the cardiovascular disease. There are many candidate mechanisms for the link between post-traumatic stress disorder and cardiovascular disease, and several ongoing studies could soon point to the most important behavioural and physiological mechanisms to target in early phase intervention development. Similarly, targets are emerging for individual and environmental interventions that might offset the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder after cardiovascular disease events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Beverley [Stanford University, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Koppolu, Raji; Sylvester, Karl [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Surgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Murphy, Daniel [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Cardiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

  2. Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, Beverley; Koppolu, Raji; Sylvester, Karl; Murphy, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

  3. Androgenetic alopecia as an indicator of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertas, Ragip; Orscelik, Ozcan; Kartal, Demet; Dogan, Ali; Ertas, Sule Ketenci; Aydogdu, Ebru Guler; Ascioglu, Ozcan; Borlu, Murat

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have investigated a probable association between androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) by researching limited and dispersed parameters. We aimed to evaluate both traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors in male patients with early-onset AGA. This case-control study included 68 participants: 51 male patients with early-onset AGA and 17 healthy male controls. Patients with AGA were classified into three groups according to the Hamilton-Norwood scale and the presence of vertex hair loss. Traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors were examined in all study subjects. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 25 patients with AGA and in two control subjects (p baldness and controls (p < 0.05). The pulse-wave velocity values were also found to be significantly higher in patients (p < 0.001). A limitation of this study was the small study population. In conclusion, vertex pattern AGA appears to be a marker for early atherosclerosis. This finding supports the hypothesis that early-onset AGA alone could be an independent risk factor for CVD and metabolic syndrome.

  4. The Relationship Between Microalbuminuria, Cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background :In patients with type 2 diabetes, microalbuminuria is an early clinical sign suggestive of vascular damage to the glomerulus. Microalbuminuria has also been currently reported as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and becomes relevant in the management of type 2 diabetes. Objectives :This ...

  5. Hypercholesterolemia Causes Circadian Dysfunction: A Potential Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Akashi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known risk factor for a wide range of diseases in developed countries. Here, we report that mice lacking functional LDLR (low density lipoprotein receptor, an animal model of human familial hypercholesterolemia, show circadian abnormalities. In free running behavioral experiments in constant darkness, these mice showed a prolonged active phase and distinctly bimodal rhythms. Even when the circadian rhythms were entrained by light and dark cycles, these mice showed a significant attenuation of behavioral onset intensity at the start of the dark period. Further, we hypothesized that the combination of hypercholesterolemia and circadian abnormalities may affect cardiovascular disease progression. To examine this possibility, we generated LDLR-deficient mice with impaired circadian rhythms by simultaneously introducing a mutation into Period2, a core clock gene, and found that these mice showed a significant enlargement of artery plaque area with an increase in inflammatory cytokine IL-6 levels. These results suggest that circadian dysfunction may be associated with the development or progression of cardiovascular diseases.

  6. NT-proBNP, echocardiographic abnormalities and subclinical coronary artery disease in high risk type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Peter R; Wiinberg, Niels

    2012-01-01

    -NT-proBNP and the putative residual abnormalities in such patients are not well described. This study examined echocardiographic measurements of LV hypertrophy, atrial dilatation and LV dysfunction and their relation to P-NT-proBNP levels or subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetic patients......Intensive multifactorial treatment aimed at prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease may reduce left ventricular (LV) echocardiographic abnormalities in diabetic subjects. Plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP predicts CV mortality in diabetic patients but the association between P...

  7. Consequências cardiovasculares na SAOS Cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Lorenzi Filho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma condição clínica muito comum é SAOS, que está associada a várias doenças cardiovasculares, incluindo hipertensão arterial sistêmica, fibrilação atrial e aterosclerose. A associação entre SAOS e doença cardiovascular não é somente uma consequência da sobreposição de fatores de risco, incluindo obesidade, sedentarismo, ser do sexo masculino e ter idade maior. Existem evidências crescentes de que SAOS contribui de forma independente para o aparecimento e a progressão de várias doenças cardiovasculares. Os mecanismos pelos quais SAOS pode afetar o sistema cardiovascular são múltiplos e incluem a ativação do sistema nervoso simpático, inflamação sistêmica, resistência a insulina e geração de estresse oxidativo. Existem evidências que o tratamento de SAOS com CPAP pode reduzir a pressão arterial, sinais precoces de aterosclerose, risco de recorrência de fibrilação atrial e mortalidade, principalmente por acidente vascular cerebral e infarto agudo do miocárdio, em pacientes com SAOS grave.Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a common condition associated with various cardiovascular diseases, including systemic arterial hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and atherosclerosis. The association between OSAS and cardiovascular disease has been related to the overlapping of risk factors, including obesity, having a sedentary lifestyle, being male, and being older. However, there is mounting evidence that OSAS can also independently contribute to the development and progression of various cardiovascular diseases. The mechanisms by which OSAS can affect the cardiovascular system are multiple, including the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. There is also evidence that the treatment of OSAS with CPAP can reduce arterial blood pressure, early signs of atherosclerosis, the risk of atrial fibrillation recurrence, and mortality (principally

  8. Cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma: an analysis of 20 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yedururi, Sireesha; Morani, Ajaykumar C.; Gladish, Gregory W. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Vallabhaneni, Srilakshmi [Medstar Harbor Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Anderson, Peter M. [Levine Children' s Hospital/Levine Cancer Institute, Department of Pediatrics Hematology/Oncology/BMT, Carolinas Healthcare System, Charlotte, NC (United States); Hughes, Dennis; Daw, Najat C. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Pediatrics, Houston, TX (United States); Wang, Wei-Lien [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Although hematogenous spread of osteosarcoma is well known, the imaging findings of cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma are seldom reported and can be difficult to recognize. The enhanced resolution of modern CT and MRI scanners may lead to better detection of cardiovascular involvement. To describe the key imaging findings and clinical behavior of cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings and clinical characteristics of 20 patients with cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma identified by two pediatric radiologists from a review of imaging studies at our institution from 2007 to 2013. At initial diagnosis, the median age of the patients was 15.1 years (range 4.8-24.6 years), and 7 (35%) patients had detectable metastases. Median time to detection of cardiovascular metastases was 1.8 years (range 0-7.3 years). Sixteen patients died of disease; 4 have survived a median of 7.4 years since initial diagnosis. The sites of cardiovascular involvement were the systemic veins draining the primary and metastatic osteosarcoma, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins draining the pulmonary metastases, and heart. A dilated and mineralized terminal pulmonary arteriole is an early sign of metastatic osteosarcoma in the lung. Unfamiliarity with the imaging features resulted in under-recognition and misinterpretation of intravascular tumor thrombus as bland thrombus. Knowledge of imaging findings in the era of modern imaging modalities has enhanced our ability to detect cardiovascular involvement and lung metastases early and avoid misinterpreting tumor thrombus in draining systemic veins or pulmonary arteries as bland thrombus. (orig.)

  9. Cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma: an analysis of 20 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yedururi, Sireesha; Morani, Ajaykumar C.; Gladish, Gregory W.; Vallabhaneni, Srilakshmi; Anderson, Peter M.; Hughes, Dennis; Daw, Najat C.; Wang, Wei-Lien

    2016-01-01

    Although hematogenous spread of osteosarcoma is well known, the imaging findings of cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma are seldom reported and can be difficult to recognize. The enhanced resolution of modern CT and MRI scanners may lead to better detection of cardiovascular involvement. To describe the key imaging findings and clinical behavior of cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings and clinical characteristics of 20 patients with cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma identified by two pediatric radiologists from a review of imaging studies at our institution from 2007 to 2013. At initial diagnosis, the median age of the patients was 15.1 years (range 4.8-24.6 years), and 7 (35%) patients had detectable metastases. Median time to detection of cardiovascular metastases was 1.8 years (range 0-7.3 years). Sixteen patients died of disease; 4 have survived a median of 7.4 years since initial diagnosis. The sites of cardiovascular involvement were the systemic veins draining the primary and metastatic osteosarcoma, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins draining the pulmonary metastases, and heart. A dilated and mineralized terminal pulmonary arteriole is an early sign of metastatic osteosarcoma in the lung. Unfamiliarity with the imaging features resulted in under-recognition and misinterpretation of intravascular tumor thrombus as bland thrombus. Knowledge of imaging findings in the era of modern imaging modalities has enhanced our ability to detect cardiovascular involvement and lung metastases early and avoid misinterpreting tumor thrombus in draining systemic veins or pulmonary arteries as bland thrombus. (orig.)

  10. CHARACTERIZING THE ROLE OF THE NELL1 GENE IN CARDIOVASCULAR DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L. Y.; Culiat, C.

    2007-01-01

    abnormalities in cardiovascular development. These data demonstrate for the fi rst time that Nell1 has a role in early mammalian cardiovascular development, mediated by its regulation of ECM proteins necessary for normal cell growth and differentiation. In addition, understanding the mechanisms by which Nell1 and its associated ECM genes affect the cardiovascular system can provide future strategies for the treatment of heart and blood vessel defects.

  11. Ankle-brachial index and cardiovascular outcomes in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, J Dawn; Lombardero, Manuel S; Barsness, Gregory W; Pena-Sing, Ivan; Buitrón, L Virginia; Singh, Premranjan; Woodhead, Gail; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Kelsey, Sheryl F

    2012-10-01

    Peripheral arterial disease increases cardiovascular risk in many patient populations. The risks associated with an abnormal ankle-brachial index (ABI) in patients with type 2 diabetes and stable coronary artery disease have not been well described with respect to thresholds and types of cardiovascular events. We examined 2,368 patients in the BARI 2D trial who underwent ABI assessment at baseline. Death and major cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction and stroke) during follow-up (average 4.3 years) were assessed across the ABI spectrum and by categorized ABI: low (≤0.90), normal (0.91-1.3), high (>1.3), or noncompressible. A total of 12,568 person-years were available for mortality analysis. During follow-up, 316 patients died, and 549 had major cardiovascular events. After adjustment for potential confounders, with normal ABI as the referent group, a low ABI conferred an increased risk of death (relative risk [RR] 1.6, CI 1.2-2.2, P = .0005) and major cardiovascular events (RR 1.4, CI 1.1-1.7, P = .004). Patients with a high ABI had similar outcomes as patients with a normal ABI, but risk again increased in patients with a noncompressible ABI with a risk of death (RR 1.9, CI 1.3-2.8, P = .001) and major cardiovascular event (RR 1.5, CI 1.1-2.1, P = .01). In patients with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes, ABI screening and identification of ABI abnormalities including a low ABI (<1.0) or noncompressible artery provide incremental prognostic information. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Early vascular ageing in translation: from laboratory investigations to clinical applications in cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Peter M; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Cunha, Pedro; Kotsis, Vasilios; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Parati, Gianfranco; Rietzschel, Ernst; Scuteri, Angelo; Laurent, Stephane

    2013-08-01

    The ageing of the vascular tree is a fundamental reflection of biological ageing in general and a determinant of organ function. In the arterial wall this is characterized by a reduction in the elastin content, as well as by an increased content of collagen and its cross-linkages, leading to increased arterial stiffness and elevated central as well as brachial blood pressure, accompanied by increased SBP variability. In recent years a better understanding of these processes have led to the proposal of a condition named early vascular ageing (EVA) in patients with increased arterial stiffness for their age and sex. This is a condition that could increase cardiovascular risk and is associated with various degrees of cognitive dysfunction, as well as other features of biological ageing. This brief review aims to give an update on EVA and how the concept can be used in clinical practice.

  13. Structural brain abnormalities in early onset first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, A K; Baaré, W F C; Raabjerg Christensen, A M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations. METHODS: We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder......, delusional disorder or other non-organic psychosis), aged 10-18 to those of 29 matched controls, using optimized voxel-based morphometry. RESULTS: Psychotic patients had frontal white matter abnormalities, but expected (regional) gray matter reductions were not observed. Post hoc analyses revealed...

  14. Ophthalmologic abnormalities among deaf students in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... syndrome (0.6%) and Ushers syndrome (0.6%). Refractive error was the most common (7.9%). Conclusion: Since these deaf students use their sight to compensate for the deafness, routine ophthalmologic examination should be carried out on them so that ophthalmologic abnormalities are detected early and treatment ...

  15. Menopause and cardiovascular disease: the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosano, G M C; Vitale, C; Marazzi, G; Volterrani, M

    2007-02-01

    Menopause is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) because estrogen withdrawal has a detrimental effect on cardiovascular function and metabolism. The menopause compounds many traditional CVD risk factors, including changes in body fat distribution from a gynoid to an android pattern, reduced glucose tolerance, abnormal plasma lipids, increased blood pressure, increased sympathetic tone, endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation. Many CVD risk factors have different impacts in men and women. In postmenopausal women, treatment of arterial hypertension and glucose intolerance should be priorities. Observational studies and randomized clinical trials suggest that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) started soon after the menopause may confer cardiovascular benefit. In contrast to other synthetic progestogens used in continuous combined HRTs, the unique progestogen drospirenone has antialdosterone properties. Drospirenone can therefore counteract the water- and sodium-retaining effects of the estrogen component of HRT via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which may otherwise result in weight gain and raised blood pressure. As a continuous combined HRT with 17beta-estradiol, drospirenone has been shown to significantly reduce blood pressure in postmenopausal women with elevated blood pressure, but not in normotensive women. Therefore, in addition to relieving climacteric symptoms, drospirenone/17beta-estradiol may offer further benefits in postmenopausal women, such as improved CVD risk profile.

  16. Sex hormone-binding globulin levels predict insulin sensitivity, disposition index, and cardiovascular risk during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Munch-Andersen, Thor

    2009-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are a feature of early puberty and of conditions associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate SHBG as a predictor...... of glucose metabolism and metabolic risk during puberty....

  17. Musculo-Skeletal Abnormalities in Patients with Marfan Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Kaissi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background A leptosomic body type is tall and thin with long hands. Marfanoid features may be familial in nature or pathological, as occurs in congenital contractual arachnodactyly (Beal's syndrome and Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome mimicking some of the changes of Marfan syndrome, although not accompanied by luxation of lens and dissecting aneurysm of aorta. Methods In this article we collected eight patients who were consistent with the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome via phenotypic and genotypic characterization. Results Our patients manifested a constellation of variable presentations of musculo-skeletal abnormalities ranging from developmental dysplasia of the hip, protrusio acetabuli, leg length inequality, patellar instability, scoliosis, to early onset osteoarthritis. Each abnormality has been treated accordingly. Conclusion This is the first paper which includes the diagnosis and the management of the associated musculo-skeletal abnormalities in patients with Marfan syndrome, stressing that patients with Marfan syndrome are exhibiting great variability in the natural history and the severity of musculo-skeletal abnormalities.

  18. Pain-to-hospital times, cardiovascular risk factors, and early intrahospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brković E

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eliana Brković,1 Katarina Novak,2,3 Livia Puljak3 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, 3Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia Background: The aim of the study was to analyze the most recent trends in myocardial infarction (MI care, the number of patients treated for MI and their outcomes, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and pain-to-hospital times in MI patients. Subjects and methods: For 778 patients treated for acute MI at the Coronary Care Unit (CCU of University Hospital Split, Croatia the following data were acquired: outcome during hospitalization (survived, deceased, cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, previous MI, smoking, and pain-to-CCU time. Results: Among 778 patients treated for acute MI, there were 291 (37% women and 487 (63% men. Forty-five patients (6% died during hospitalization, mostly due to cardiogenic shock. An association was found between early intrahospital mortality and the following risk factors: age >70 years, female sex, previous MI, and smoking. Median pain-to-call time was 2 hours, and median time from the onset of pain to arrival into the CCU was 4 hours. There were 59 (7.6% patients admitted to the CCU within recommended 90 minutes. Diabetic comorbidity was not associated with early death or with longer time from pain to emergency calls. Conclusion: Some of the risk factors associated with adverse outcomes in MI are modifiable. Prehospital delay of 4 hours observed in patients who suffered an MI is too long, and more effort should be devoted to investments in health care and education of the general public regarding chest pain symptoms. Keywords: prehospital delay, ischemic heart disease

  19. Electrocardiographic changes in the most frequent endocrine disorders associated with cardiovascular diseases. Review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, Irina Iuliana; Ungureanu, Maria Christina; Iliescu, D; Petriş, A; Botnariu, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Car- diovascular abnormalities associated with endocrine diseases are often frequent and due to complex relationships between endocrine glands (with internal secretion) and cardiovascular system (heart and vessels). Certain hormones secreted by the endocrine glands (particularly the thyroid and pituitary gland) excesses or deficiencies, are involved in morphogenesis, growth processes and activity regulation of cardiovascular system, most often in connection with the autonomic nervous system. There are also a lot of electrocardiographic changes caused by hormonal disorders that requires differential diagnosis and represents the source of erroneous diagnosis. Endocrine pathology occurred later than a heart disease, may worse heart function. Ignoring the cardiovascular events that may occur in the evolution of endo- crine diseases, may induce increased mortality due to cardiovascular complications.

  20. Diabetic foot syndrome: Immune-inflammatory features as possible cardiovascular markers in diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Maida, Carlo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcerations have been extensively reported as vascular complications of diabetes mellitus associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Diabetic foot syndrome (DFS), as defined by the World Health Organization, is an “ulceration of the foot (distally from the ankle and including the ankle) associated with neuropathy and different grades of ischemia and infection”. Pathogenic events able to cause diabetic foot ulcers are multifactorial. Among the commonest causes of this pathogenic pathway it’s possible to consider peripheral neuropathy, foot deformity, abnormal foot pressures, abnormal joint mobility, trauma, peripheral artery disease. Several studies reported how diabetic patients show a higher mortality rate compared to patients without diabetes and in particular these studies under filled how cardiovascular mortality and morbidity is 2-4 times higher among patients affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus. This higher degree of cardiovascular morbidity has been explained as due to the observed higher prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factor, of asymptomatic findings of cardiovascular diseases, and of prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in diabetic patients with foot complications. In diabetes a fundamental pathogenic pathway of most of vascular complications has been reported as linked to a complex interplay of inflammatory, metabolic and procoagulant variables. These pathogenetic aspects have a direct interplay with an insulin resistance, subsequent obesity, diabetes, hypertension, prothrombotic state and blood lipid disorder. Involvement of inflammatory markers such as IL-6 plasma levels and resistin in diabetic subjects as reported by Tuttolomondo et al confirmed the pathogenetic issue of the a “adipo-vascular” axis that may contribute to cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. This “adipo-vascular axis” in patients with type 2 diabetes has been reported as characterized

  1. Radiographic Abnormalities in the Feet of Diabetic Patients with Neuropathy and Foot Ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Kumpatla, Satyavani; Rao, V Narayan

    2014-11-01

    People with diabetic neuropathy are frequently prone to several bone and joint abnormalities. Simple radiographic findings have been proven to be quite useful in the detection of such abnormalities, which might be helpful not only for early diagnosis but also in following the course of diabetes through stages of reconstruction of the ulcerated foot.The present study was designed to identify the common foot abnormalities in south Indian diabetic subjects with and without neuropathy using radiographic imaging. About 150 (M:F 94:56) subjects with type 2 diabetes were categorised into three groups: Group I (50 diabetic patients), Group II (50 patients with neuropathy), and Group III (50 diabetic patients with both neuropathy and foot ulceration). Demographic details, duration of diabetes and HbA1c values were recorded. Vibration perception threshold was measured for assessment of neuropathy. Bone and joint abnormalities in the feet and legs of the study subjects were identified using standardised dorsi-plantar and lateral weight-bearing radiographs. Radiographic findings of the study subjects revealed that those with both neuropathy and foot ulceration and a longer duration of diabetes had more number of bone and joint abnormalities. Subjects with neuropathy alone also showed presence of several abnormalities, including periosteal reaction, osteopenia, and Charcot changes. The present findings highlight the impact of neuropathy and duration of diabetes on the development of foot abnormalities in subjects with diabetes. Using radiographic imaging can help in early identification of abnormalities and better management of the diabetic foot.

  2. Enhanced monitoring of abnormal emergency department demands

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-06-13

    This paper presents a statistical technique for detecting signs of abnormal situation generated by the influx of patients at emergency department (ED). The monitoring strategy developed was able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of abnormal situations caused by abnormal patient arrivals to the ED. More specifically, This work proposed the application of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models combined with the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test for anomaly-detection. ARMA was used as the modelling framework of the ARMA-based GLR anomaly-detection methodology. The GLR test was applied to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the ARMA model to detect anomalies when the data did not fit the reference ARMA model. The ARMA-based GLR hypothesis testing scheme was successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department (PED) at Lille regional hospital center, France. © 2015 IEEE.

  3. Cardiovascular risk profile in women and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufouil, Carole; Seshadri, Sudha; Chêne, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence for the importance of cardiovascular risk factors in dementia development, including Alzheimer's disease. As cardiovascular risk profiles vary greatly by gender, with men suffering a greater burden of cardiovascular risk in midlife, this could lead to differences in dementia risk. To explore current evidence on the association between components of the cardiovascular risk profile and dementia risk in women and men, we reviewed all studies reporting the risk of dementia associated with cardiovascular risk factors stratified by gender and found 53 eligible articles out of over 4,000 published since the year 2000. Consistent results were found: 1) for exposures acting specifically in women: Overweight/obesity (harmful) and physical activity (protective), and 2) for exposures acting similarly in women and men: Moderate alcohol (protective) and hypertension, diabetes, and depression (harmful). A modified effect of tobacco or high cholesterol/statin use remained controversial. Available data do not allow us to assess whether selection of men with healthier cardiovascular profile (due to cardiovascular death in midlife) could lead in late life either to a difference in the distribution of risk factors or to a differential effect of these risk factors by gender. We recommend that results on dementia risk factors, especially cardiovascular ones, be reported systematically by gender in all future studies. More generally, as cardiovascular risk profiles evolve over time, more attention needs to be paid to the detection and correction of cardiovascular risk factors, as early as possible in the life course, and as actively in women as in men.

  4. Thematic Synthesis of Cardiovascular Risk Predictors in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlin Garí Llanes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, there has been an increased interest in the identification of cardiovascular disease and the factors that predispose its development in children and adolescents. In this sense, significant risk predictors have been cited, such as the presence of family and personal medical history, genetic predisposition, and the alteration of anthropometric and biochemical markers. The understanding of these factors is crucial to prevent the early onset of cardiovascular disease.

  5. THE STUDY OF CARDIAC ABNORMALITY IN GERIATRIC POPULATION OF RURAL CENTRAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Chaturvedi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Health care of elderly in the society has emerged as an increasingly important issue in the recent years. As the elderly proportion of our population expands, maintaining health and wellness of the aged will continue to be an important research priority in the near future. This study was undertaken to determine cardiac abnormalities in geriatric population by echocardiography in rural central India. The aim of this study is to map the spectrum of cardiac abnormality in geriatric population of rural central India. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was carried out on subjects from September 2014 – August 2016. All geriatric subjects i.e. above the age of 60 years who were admitted in medicine ward or who attended medicine OPD were considered for the study. All the preliminary biodata was collected, history taking and physical examination were done, ECG was recorded and finally 2D echo was performed in MMode, 2D echo, Doppler (CW and PW and TDI. All observations were recorded on a standard proforma sheet, statistical analysis was performed and results and conclusions drawn. RESULTS In present study, there was higher prevalence of major diseases. On M-Mode echocardiography, left atrial enlargement, LV hypertrophy/dilatation was found in significant number of subjects. On 2D echo, Myocardial Scarring/Thinning, valvular Degeneration was found significantly higher in elderly males, mitral and aortic calcification was found most frequently with prevalence higher in males. On Doppler echocardiography, diastolic dysfunction was common in elderly with very few subjects having normal diastolic function, most of the subjects having grade II diastolic dysfunction. Aortic, mitral and tricuspid regurgitation was common in elderly, and stenotic lesions of aortic and mitral valve were common. CONCLUSION We recommend that echocardiography should become an investigative norm in the elderly, this will aid in early detection of cardiovascular abnormalities

  6. Mechanisms and consequences of paternally transmitted chromosomal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, F; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-04-05

    Paternally transmitted chromosomal damage has been associated with pregnancy loss, developmental and morphological defects, infant mortality, infertility, and genetic diseases in the offspring including cancer. There is epidemiological evidence linking paternal exposure to occupational or environmental agents with an increased risk of abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also a large body of literature on germ cell mutagenesis in rodents showing that treatment of male germ cells with mutagens has dramatic consequences on reproduction producing effects such as those observed in human epidemiological studies. However, we know very little about the etiology, transmission and early embryonic consequences of paternally-derived chromosomal abnormalities. The available evidence suggests that: (1) there are distinct patterns of germ cell-stage differences in the sensitivity of induction of transmissible genetic damage with male postmeiotic cells being the most sensitive; (2) cytogenetic abnormalities at first metaphase after fertilization are critical intermediates between paternal exposure and abnormal reproductive outcomes; and, (3) there are maternally susceptibility factors that may have profound effects on the amount of sperm DNA damage that is converted into chromosomal aberrations in the zygote and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes.

  7. Prevalence and prognostic significance of ECG abnormalities in HIV-infected patients: results from the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Elsayed Z; Prineas, Ronald J; Roediger, Mollie P

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It remains debated whether to include resting electrocardiogram (ECG) in the routine care of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. METHODS: This analysis included 4518 HIV-infected patients (28% women and 29% blacks) from the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral...... Therapy study, a clinical trial aimed to compare 2 HIV treatment strategies. ECG abnormalities were classified using the Minnesota Code. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to examine the association between baseline ECG abnormalities and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). RESULTS: More than...... half of the participants (n = 2325, or 51.5%) had either minor or major ECG abnormalities. Minor ECG abnormalities (48.6%) were more common than major ECG abnormalities (7.7%). During a median follow-up of 28.7 months, 155 participants (3.4%) developed incident CVD. After adjusting for the study...

  8. Prenatal Diagnosis of Transient Abnormal Myelopoiesis in a Down Syndrome Fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwang Jun; Lee, Eun Sil

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of transient abnormal myelopoiesis in a Down syndrome fetus diagnosed at 28 +3 weeks of gestation that rapidly progressed to intrauterine death 10 days later. Fetal hepatosplenomegaly with cerebral ventriculomegaly, although not specific, may be a suggestive finding of Down syndrome with transient abnormal myelopoiesis. Prompt fetal blood sampling for liver function test and chromosomal analysis are mandatory for early detection and management

  9. Signs and symptoms of developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Koch Nogueira

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: The suggestions shown here can help the pediatrician to establish clinical hypotheses for the early diagnosis of developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract without resorting to expensive and invasive procedures.

  10. Disruption of Ah Receptor Signaling during Mouse Development Leads to Abnormal Cardiac Structure and Function in the Adult.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius S Carreira

    Full Text Available The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD Theory proposes that the environment encountered during fetal life and infancy permanently shapes tissue physiology and homeostasis such that damage resulting from maternal stress, poor nutrition or exposure to environmental agents may be at the heart of adult onset disease. Interference with endogenous developmental functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, either by gene ablation or by exposure in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a potent AHR ligand, causes structural, molecular and functional cardiac abnormalities and altered heart physiology in mouse embryos. To test if embryonic effects progress into an adult phenotype, we investigated whether Ahr ablation or TCDD exposure in utero resulted in cardiac abnormalities in adult mice long after removal of the agent. Ten-months old adult Ahr-/- and in utero TCDD-exposed Ahr+/+ mice showed sexually dimorphic abnormal cardiovascular phenotypes characterized by echocardiographic findings of hypertrophy, ventricular dilation and increased heart weight, resting heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressure, and decreased exercise tolerance. Underlying these effects, genes in signaling networks related to cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial function were differentially expressed. Cardiac dysfunction in mouse embryos resulting from AHR signaling disruption seems to progress into abnormal cardiac structure and function that predispose adults to cardiac disease, but while embryonic dysfunction is equally robust in males and females, the adult abnormalities are more prevalent in females, with the highest severity in Ahr-/- females. The findings reported here underscore the conclusion that AHR signaling in the developing heart is one potential target of environmental factors associated with cardiovascular disease.

  11. [Penile congenital abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillot, B; Teklali, Y; Moog, R; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the penis are usually diagnosed at birth and pose aesthetic and functional problems sometimes requiring surgical management. A literature review was conducted on Medline considering the articles listed until January 2012. Hypospadias is the most common malformation (1 in 250 boys. Familial forms: 7%). The causes remain hypothetical but the doubling of the incidence in 30 years could be linked to fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors "estrogen-like" used in the food industry in particular. Surgical treatment is usually intended to improve the aesthetic appearance but sometimes, in case of significant curvature or posterior meatus, necessary for normal sexual life and fertility. Other malformations (epispades, buried penis, transpositions, twists and preputial abnormalities) as well as management for functional or aesthetic consequences of these malformations in adulthood require complex surgical care in a specialized environment. The improvement of surgical techniques and pediatric anesthesia allows an early and effective specialized surgical approach of penile malformations. Management of sequelae in adulthood must be discussed and requires experience of surgical techniques on pediatric and adult penis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. THE TIME COURSE OF ABNORMALITIES IN THE BRAIN SUBCORTICAL VISUAL CENTRE FOLLOWING EARLY IMPAIRMENT OF BINOCULAR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Alekseenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amblyopia related to congenital strabismus belongs to neurological disorders since it is caused by structural and functional remodeling of the visual parts of the brain without any baseline retinal pathology. Although a large number of animal studies on experimentally induced strabismus, as well as clinical cases have been published, the mechanisms and time course of the processes within the brain structures are not fully understood. Aim: To study the time course of abnormalities in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd in animals with surgically induced convergent strabismus. LGNd is the structure through which the information from the retina goes to the visual cortex separately for each eye. Materials and methods: 14 strabismic and 17 intact kittens of four age groups were studied. Histochemical method was used to identify cytochrome oxidase which is a  mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme whose activity correlates with neuronal functional activity. Optical density in eye-specific layers  A  and A1 was measured on the images of stained LGNd sections, with calculation of the contrast difference between them. Results: In strabismic kittens, there were changes in activity of A and A1 layers in the projection of the central part of visual field in LGNd of both hemispheres. At early stages of their formation, a relative decrease in activity was found in both hemispheres in the LGNd layers innervated through non-crossed pathways from both retinae. Thereafter, the time course of abnormalities in LGNd of both hemispheres was different. In the hemisphere ipsilateral to the squinting eye, the difference in layer activity was highest at the age from 3 to 5 months. However, in the opposite hemisphere the same difference indicating a decreased activity in the layer of the squinting eye were observed only at the age of 5 months. Conclusion: The process of amblyopia development during congenital convergent strabismus is

  13. Cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and new diagnostic imaging techniques: the role of noninvasive image methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, José Augusto A; Rodrigues, Alexandre B; Mota, Cleonice Carvalho C; Barbosa, Márcia M; Simões e Silva, Ana C

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem affecting adults and children in both developed and developing countries. This condition often leads to metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A large number of studies have been carried out to understand the pathogenesis of cardiovascular dysfunction in obese patients. Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the progression of atherosclerosis and the development of coronary artery disease, hypertension and congestive heart failure. Noninvasive methods in the field of cardiovascular imaging, such as measuring intima-media thickness, flow-mediated dilatation, tissue Doppler, and strain, and strain rate, constitute new tools for the early detection of cardiac and vascular dysfunction. These techniques will certainly enable a better evaluation of initial cardiovascular injury and allow the correct, timely management of obese patients. The present review summarizes the main aspects of cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and discusses the application of recent noninvasive imaging methods for the early detection of cardiovascular alterations.

  14. Comparison of X-ray, CT and MRI in detection of abnormal sacroiliac joint changes in patients with early stage of ankylosing spondylitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhenguo; Zhang Xuezhe; Hong Wen; Wang Guochun; Zhou Huiqiong; Lu Xin; Wang Wu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare X-ray, CT, and MRI in detection of abnormal sacroiliac joint changes in patients with early stage of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods: Fifty-three patients with clinical suspected early stage of AS underwent X-ray and MRI scan. MR scan sequences for the sacroiliac joints consisted of T 1 -weighted, T 2 -weighted, short time inversion recovery (STIR) and three dimensional balance turbo field echo with water selective excitation (3D-BTFE-WATS) in all patients. In 24 of the patients, fat-saturated contrast-enhanced T 1 -weighted was used. Twenty-five of 53 patients underwent CT scan. The Chi-square test was used to analyse the uniformity of bone erosions detected by X-ray, CT, and MRI. Results: Of the 106 sacroiliac joints in 53 patients, 16 sacroiliac joints with bone erosions were detected by X-ray and 63 sacroiliac joints by MRI. Of the 50 sacroiliac joints in 25 patients, 26 sacroiliac joints with bone erosions were found by CT. With regard to the detection of bone erosions, there was no difference between Cf and MRI (χ 2 =0.16, P>0.05) and there was significant difference between CT and X-ray or MRI and X-ray (χ 2 =14.44 and 17.36, P<0.05). 3D-BTFE-WATS was better than other sequences in detection of bone erosions. Acute inflammatory changes were determined by MRI, which included subchondral bone marrow edema in 32 patients, synovitis in 35 patients, fat depositions in 16 patients, enthesitis in 15 patients, capsulitis in 9 patients, and cartilaginous disruption in 31 patients. Conclusions: MRI can detect acute inflammatory changes that can not display by X-ray and CT. Compared with radiography and CT, MRI is more useful in detection of abnormal sacroiliac joint changes in patients with early stage of AS. (authors)

  15. Effects of high-intensity training on cardiovascular risk factors in pre- and postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria; Egelund, Jon; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2017-01-01

    and cardiovascular disease in late pre- and early postmenopausal women, matched by age and body composition, and investigate the effect of high-intensity training. METHODS: A 3-month high-intensity aerobic training intervention, involving healthy, non-obese, late pre- (n=40) and early postmenopausal (n=39) women....... A three month intervention of high-intensity aerobic training reduces risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease to a similar extent in late pre- and early postmenopausal women....... the postmenopausal women had higher total cholesterol (ptraining intervention reduced body weight (p

  16. Genetics and Early Detection in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Rachel K.; Rosas, Ivan O.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic studies hold promise in helping to identify patients with early idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Recent studies using chest computed tomograms (CTs) in smokers and in the general population have demonstrated that imaging abnormalities suggestive of an early stage of pulmonary fibrosis are not uncommon and are associated with respiratory symptoms, physical examination abnormalities, and physiologic decrements expected, but less severe than those noted in patients with IPF. Similarly, recent genetic studies have demonstrated strong and replicable associations between a common promoter polymorphism in the mucin 5B gene (MUC5B) and both IPF and the presence of abnormal imaging findings in the general population. Despite these findings, it is important to note that the definition of early-stage IPF remains unclear, limited data exist to definitively connect abnormal imaging findings to IPF, and genetic studies assessing early-stage pulmonary fibrosis remain in their infancy. In this perspective we provide updated information on interstitial lung abnormalities and their connection to IPF. We summarize information on the genetics of pulmonary fibrosis by focusing on the recent genetic findings of MUC5B. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings and suggest a roadmap for the use of genetics in the detection of early IPF. PMID:24547893

  17. [Cooperative Cardiovascular Disease Research Network (RECAVA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Dorado, David; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso; Díez, Javier; Gabriel, Rafael; Gimeno-Blanes, Juan R; Ortiz de Landázuri, Manuel; Sánchez, Pedro L; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Today, cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of death and hospitalization in Spain, and accounts for an annual healthcare budget of more than 4000 million euros. Consequently, early diagnosis, effective prevention, and the optimum treatment of cardiovascular disease present a significant social and healthcare challenge for the country. In this context, combining all available resources to increase the efficacy and healthcare benefits of scientific research is a priority. This rationale prompted the establishment of the Spanish Cooperative Cardiovascular Disease Research Network, or RECAVA (Red Temática de Investigación Cooperativa en Enfermedades Cardiovasculares), 5 years ago. Since its foundation, RECAVA's activities have focused on achieving four objectives: a) to facilitate contacts between basic, clinical and epidemiological researchers; b) to promote the shared use of advanced technological facilities; c) to apply research results to clinical practice, and d) to train a new generation of translational cardiovascular researchers in Spain. At present, RECAVA consists of 41 research groups and seven shared technological facilities. RECAVA's research strategy is based on a scientific design matrix centered on the most important cardiovascular processes. The level of RECAVA's research activity is reflected in the fact that 28 co-authored articles were published in international journals during the first six months of 2007, with each involving contributions from at least two groups in the network. Finally, RECAVA also participates in the work of the Spanish National Center for Cardiovascular Research, or CNIC (Centro Nacional de Investigación Cardiovascular), and some established Biomedical Research Network Centers, or CIBER (Centros de Investigación Biomédica en RED), with the aim of consolidating the development of a dynamic multidisciplinary research framework that is capable of meeting the growing challenge that cardiovascular disease will present

  18. Efficacy of cardiovascular complications correction in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The work was performed with the purpose to assess the efficacy of cardiovascular complications correction at combination treatment for breast cancer (BC). Timely diagnosis and correction of cardiovascular diseases in BC with the use of inhalation cardioactive drugs (nitrates and calcium antagonists) improved the efficacy of accompanying therapy, prevented progress of early and late RT complications, improved the quality of life.

  19. Cardiovascular metabolic syndrome: mediators involved in the pathophysiology from obesity to coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Cornelis J; Quax, Paul H A; Jukema, J Wouter

    2012-02-01

    Patients with obesity and diabetes mellitus are at increased risk for cardiovascular events and have a higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This worse prognosis is partly explained by the late recognition of coronary heart disease in these patients, due to the absence of symptoms. Early identification of coronary heart disease is vital, to initiate preventive medical therapy and improve prognosis. At present, with the use of cardiovascular risk models, the identification of coronary heart disease in these patients remains inadequate. To this end, biomarkers should improve the early identification of patients at increased cardiovascular risk. The first part of this review describes the pathophysiologic pathway from obesity to coronary heart disease. The second part evaluates several mediators from this pathophysiologic pathway for their applicability as biomarkers for the identification of coronary heart disease.

  20. High prevalence of abnormal motor repertoire at 3 months corrected age in extremely preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjørtoft, Toril; Evensen, Kari Anne I; Øberg, Gunn Kristin; Songstad, Nils Thomas; Labori, Cathrine; Silberg, Inger Elisabeth; Loennecken, Marianne; Møinichen, Unn Inger; Vågen, Randi; Støen, Ragnhild; Adde, Lars

    2016-03-01

    To compare early motor repertoire between extremely preterm and term-born infants. An association between the motor repertoire and gestational age and birth weight was explored in extremely preterm infants without severe ultrasound abnormalities. In a multicentre study, the early motor repertoire of 82 infants born extremely preterm (ELGAN:<28 weeks) and/or with extremely low birth weight (ELBW:<1000 g) and 87 term-born infants were assessed by the "Assessment of Motor Repertoire - 2 to 5 Months" (AMR) which is part of Prechtl's "General Movement Assessment", at 12 weeks post-term age. Fidgety movements were classified as normal if present and abnormal if absent, sporadic or exaggerated. Concurrent motor repertoire was classified as normal if smooth and fluent and abnormal if monotonous, stiff, jerky and/or predominantly fast or slow. Eight-teen ELBW/ELGAN infants had abnormal fidgety movements (8 absent, 7 sporadic and 3 exaggerated fidgety movements) compared with 2 control infants (OR:12.0; 95%CI:2.7-53.4) and 46 ELBW/ELGAN infants had abnormal concurrent motor repertoire compared with 17 control infants (OR:5.3; 95%CI:2.6-10.5). Almost all detailed aspects of the AMR differed between the groups. Results were the same when three infants with severe ultrasound abnormalities were excluded. In the remaining ELBW/ELGAN infants, there was no association between motor repertoire and gestational age or birth weight. ELBW/ELGAN infants had poorer quality of early motor repertoire than term-born infants.The findings were not explained by severe abnormalities on neonatal ultrasound scans and were not correlated to the degree of prematurity. The consequences of these abnormal movement patterns remain to be seen in future follow-up studies. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prenatal Diagnosis of Transient Abnormal Myelopoiesis in a Down Syndrome Fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwang Jun; Lee, Eun Sil [Chung-Ang University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    We report a case of transient abnormal myelopoiesis in a Down syndrome fetus diagnosed at 28{sup +3} weeks of gestation that rapidly progressed to intrauterine death 10 days later. Fetal hepatosplenomegaly with cerebral ventriculomegaly, although not specific, may be a suggestive finding of Down syndrome with transient abnormal myelopoiesis. Prompt fetal blood sampling for liver function test and chromosomal analysis are mandatory for early detection and management.

  2. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Amarenco, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high......-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and (ii) to advise on therapeutic strategies for management. Current evidence supports a causal association between elevated TRL and their remnants, low HDL-C, and cardiovascular risk. This interpretation is based on mechanistic and genetic...

  3. [Glycemic targets and cardiovascular morbi-mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordier, Lyse; Bauduceau, Bernard

    2013-05-01

    The 2008-year was full of learning experience and suspense in diabetologia. The past studies, UKPDS in type 2 diabetic patients and DCCT in type 1 diabetic patients have shown that intensive treatment during a short period did reduce the incidence of microvascular events and in the long term, the incidence of macrovascular events linked to diabetes. The conclusions of recent studies quote, from ACCORD, an increased mortality in the type 2 diabetic patients using intensive therapy, from ADVANCE, a reduction of microvascular complications and from VADT, no effect. The analysis of studies published since 2008 brings lessons for the clinical practice: presence of glycemic memory, absence of tensional memory, usefulness of control of every cardiovascular risk factors, need of early treatment of diabetes. Moreover, to define HbA1c objective, age, duration of diabetes, presence of cardiovascular risk factors, former HbA1c level and potential undesirable effects, such hypoglycaemia, must be considered. The management of type 2 diabetic patients requires an early, not to quick intensive treatment, which avoids hypoglycaemia and is combined with a strict control of cardiovascular risk factors. So, the recent position statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) consideres needs and preferences of each patient and individualizes glycemic targets and treatments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Neural mechanisms of oculomotor abnormalities in the infantile strabismus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Mark M G; Pallus, Adam; Fleuriet, Jérome; Mustari, Michael J; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina

    2017-07-01

    Infantile strabismus is characterized by numerous visual and oculomotor abnormalities. Recently nonhuman primate models of infantile strabismus have been established, with characteristics that closely match those observed in human patients. This has made it possible to study the neural basis for visual and oculomotor symptoms in infantile strabismus. In this review, we consider the available evidence for neural abnormalities in structures related to oculomotor pathways ranging from visual cortex to oculomotor nuclei. These studies provide compelling evidence that a disturbance of binocular vision during a sensitive period early in life, whatever the cause, results in a cascade of abnormalities through numerous brain areas involved in visual functions and eye movements. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder Predispose Youth to Accelerated Atherosclerosis and Early Cardiovascular Disease: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Matthews, Karen A; McIntyre, Roger S; Miller, Gregory E; Raghuveer, Geetha; Stoney, Catherine M; Wasiak, Hank; McCrindle, Brian W

    2015-09-08

    In the 2011 "Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents," several medical conditions among youth were identified that predispose to accelerated atherosclerosis and early cardiovascular disease (CVD), and risk stratification and management strategies for youth with these conditions were elaborated. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) among youth satisfy the criteria set for, and therefore merit inclusion among, Expert Panel tier II moderate-risk conditions. The combined prevalence of MDD and BD among adolescents in the United States is ≈10%, at least 10 times greater than the prevalence of the existing moderate-risk conditions combined. The high prevalence of MDD and BD underscores the importance of positioning these diseases alongside other pediatric diseases previously identified as moderate risk for CVD. The overall objective of this statement is to increase awareness and recognition of MDD and BD among youth as moderate-risk conditions for early CVD. To achieve this objective, the primary specific aims of this statement are to (1) summarize evidence that MDD and BD are tier II moderate-risk conditions associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and early CVD and (2) position MDD and BD as tier II moderate-risk conditions that require the application of risk stratification and management strategies in accordance with Expert Panel recommendations. In this scientific statement, there is an integration of the various factors that putatively underlie the association of MDD and BD with CVD, including pathophysiological mechanisms, traditional CVD risk factors, behavioral and environmental factors, and psychiatric medications. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Early functional and morphological brain disturbances in late-onset intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starčević, Mirta; Predojević, Maja; Butorac, Dražan; Tumbri, Jasna; Konjevoda, Paško; Kadić, Aida Salihagić

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether the brain disturbances develop in late-onset intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) before blood flow redistribution towards the fetal brain (detected by Doppler measurements in the middle cerebral artery and umbilical artery). Further, to evaluate predictive values of Doppler arterial indices and umbilical cord blood gases and pH for early functional and/or morphological brain disturbances in late-onset IUGR. This cohort study included 60 singleton term pregnancies with placental insufficiency caused late-onset IUGR (IUGR occurring after 34 gestational weeks). Umbilical artery resistance index (URI), middle cerebral artery resistance index (CRI), and cerebroumbilical (C/U) ratio (CRI/URI) were monitored once weekly. Umbilical blood cord samples (arterial and venous) were collected for the analysis of pO2, pCO2 and pH. Morphological neurological outcome was evaluated by cranial ultrasound (cUS), whereas functional neurological outcome by Amiel-Tison Neurological Assessment at Term (ATNAT). 50 fetuses had C/U ratio>1, and 10 had C/U ratio≤1; among these 10 fetuses, 9 had abnormal neonatal cUS findings and all 10 had non-optimal ATNAT. However, the total number of abnormal neurological findings was much higher. 32 neonates had abnormal cUS (53.37%), and 42 (70.00%) had non-optimal ATNAT. Furthermore, Doppler indices had higher predictive validity for early brain disturbances than umbilical cord blood gases and pH. C/U ratio had the highest predictive validity with threshold for adverse neurological outcome at value 1.13 (ROC analysis), i.e., 1.18 (party machine learning algorithm). Adverse neurological outcome at average values of C/U ratios>1 confirmed that early functional and/or structural brain disturbances in late-onset IUGR develop even before activation of fetal cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms, i.e., before Doppler signs of blood flow redistribution between the fetal brain and the placenta. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  7. Apolipoprotein E4 causes early olfactory network abnormalities and short-term olfactory memory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Katherine Y; Mathews, Paul M; Levy, Efrat; Wilson, Donald A

    2017-02-20

    While apolipoprotein (Apo) E4 is linked to increased incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is growing evidence that it plays a role in functional brain irregularities that are independent of AD pathology. However, ApoE4-driven functional differences within olfactory processing regions have yet to be examined. Utilizing knock-in mice humanized to ApoE4 versus the more common ApoE3, we examined a simple olfactory perceptual memory that relies on the transfer of information from the olfactory bulb (OB) to the piriform cortex (PCX), the primary cortical region involved in higher order olfaction. In addition, we have recorded in vivo resting and odor-evoked local field potentials (LPF) from both brain regions and measured corresponding odor response magnitudes in anesthetized young (6-month-old) and middle-aged (12-month-old) ApoE mice. Young ApoE4 compared to ApoE3 mice exhibited a behavioral olfactory deficit coinciding with hyperactive odor-evoked response magnitudes within the OB that were not observed in older ApoE4 mice. Meanwhile, middle-aged ApoE4 compared to ApoE3 mice exhibited heightened response magnitudes in the PCX without a corresponding olfactory deficit, suggesting a shift with aging in ApoE4-driven effects from OB to PCX. Interestingly, the increased ApoE4-specific response in the PCX at middle-age was primarily due to a dampening of baseline spontaneous activity rather than an increase in evoked response power. Our findings indicate that early ApoE4-driven olfactory memory impairments and OB network abnormalities may be a precursor to later network dysfunction in the PCX, a region that not only is targeted early in AD, but may be selectively vulnerable to ApoE4 genotype. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Microalbuminuria and its relation to cardiovascular disease and risk factors. A population-based study of 1254 hypertensive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1997-01-01

    subjects. The frequency of cardiovascular disease was similar in the two groups. In contrast, when analysed as a continuous variable, a one unit increase in the logarithmically transformed urinary albumin excretion significantly increased the likelihood of cardiovascular disease (odds ratio [95% confidence....... It is concluded that slightly elevated albumin excretion in the urine is not only a pressure-dependent functional phenomenon in the glomerular vessel walls, but associated with permanent atherosclerotic abnormalities in the entire vascular system....

  9. Predictive value of quantitative dipyridamole-thallium scintigraphy in assessing cardiovascular risk after vascular surgery in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, S.E.; Lewis, S.M.; Pippin, J.J.; Kosinski, E.J.; Campbell, D.; Nesto, R.W.; Hill, T.

    1989-01-01

    Cardiac complications represent a major risk to patients undergoing vascular surgery. Diabetic patients may be particularly prone to such complications due to the high incidence of concomitant coronary artery disease, the severity of which may be clinically unrecognized. Attempts to stratify groups by clinical criteria have been useful but lack the predictive value of currently used noninvasive techniques such as dipyridamole-thallium scintigraphy. One hundred one diabetic patients were evaluated with dipyridamole-thallium scintigraphy before undergoing vascular surgery. The incidence of thallium abnormalities was high (80%) and did not correlate with clinical markers of coronary disease. Even in a subgroup of patients with no overt clinical evidence of underlying heart disease, thallium abnormalities were present in 59%. Cardiovascular complications, however, occurred in only 11% of all patients. Statistically significant prediction of risk was not achieved with simple assessment of thallium results as normal or abnormal. Quantification of total number of reversible defects, as well as assessment of ischemia in the distribution of the left anterior descending coronary artery was required for optimum predictive accuracy. The prevalence of dipyridamole-thallium abnormalities in a diabetic population is much higher than that reported in nondiabetic patients and cannot be predicted by usual clinical indicators of heart disease. In addition, cardiovascular risk of vascular surgery can be optimally assessed by quantitative analysis of dipyridamole-thallium scintigraphy and identification of high- and low-risk subgroups

  10. Playing it safe: exercise and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhutia, Harshil; Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-10-01

    Regular physical activity controls acquired cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. Exercise is generally associated with a 50% reduction in adverse events from coronary artery disease (CAD). The benefits of exercise extend well beyond the cardiovascular system. Recent evidence suggests that exercise prevents cell senescence, and active individuals are at lower risk of developing certain malignancies including cancer of the prostate and the colon, osteoporosis, depression and dementia. Individuals who exercise regularly extend their life expectancy by three to seven years. Healthy individuals should engage in 150 minutes of moderate-intensity, aerobic exercise per week. Recent studies have demonstrated that even lower volumes of exercise below these recommendations confer health benefits, which is highly relevant to individuals with established cardiac disease including heart failure. Sudden cardiac death in athletes under 35 is rare with.estimates ranging from 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 200,000. Hereditary and congenital abnormalities of the heart are the most common cause of nontraumatic death during sport in young athletes. In middle-aged recreational athletes more than 90% of sudden cardiac deaths occur in males and more than 90% are caused by atherosclerotic CAD. The AHA and the ESC advocate pre-participation screening of young athletes. The ECG has the ability to detect congenital accessory pathways and ion channelopathies, and is frequently abnormal in individuals with cardiomyopathy. Screening with a 12-lead ECG in older athletes is of limited value given the overwhelming contribution of atherosclerotic CAD to sudden cardiac death.

  11. Early detection of interstitial pneumonia by WXGa-citrate scintigraphy. Cases of abnormal pulmonary WXGa uptake with normal chest radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Shinsaku; Mikami, Riichiro; Ryujin, Yoshitada

    1985-04-01

    In this paper we report our recent experience indicating usefulness of WXGa-citrate scintigraphy in 4 cases with inflammatory pulmonary diseases. These cases showed abnormal pulmonary WXGa uptake with normal chest radiographs. The first case with malignant lymphoma and the second one with lung cancer suffered from pulmonary infection following secondary immuno-insufficiency due to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Pneumocystis carinii was suspected as causative agent in the first case, and gram negative bacilli in the second case. The third case with lung cancer developed radiation pneumonia after radiotherapy. The fourth case with acute bronchitis developed drug induced interstitial pneumonia presumably due to minocycline administration. It is concluded that WXGa-citrate scintigraphy is more sensitive for early detection of interstitial pneumonia than routine chest radiography.

  12. Cardiovascular events in Japanese asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes: a 1-year interim report of a J-ACCESS 2 investigation using myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Kenichi [Kanazawa University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kanazawa (Japan); Yamasaki, Yoshimitsu [Osaka University, Center for Advanced Science and Innovation, Osaka (Japan); Kusuoka, Hideo [National Hospital Organization Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Izumi, Tohru [Kitasato University, Department of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Sagamihara (Japan); Kashiwagi, Atsunori [Shiga University of Medical Science, Department of Medicine, Ohtsu (Japan); Kawamori, Ryuzo [Juntendo University, Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Shimamoto, Kazuaki [Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Second Department of Internal Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Yamada, Nobuhiro [University of Tsukuba, Division of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tsukuba (Japan); Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, 465 Kajii-cho, Kawara-machi, Hirokoji, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    Diabetic patients have a high risk for cardiovascular events. The role of myocardial perfusion imaging was investigated in asymptomatic diabetic patients to evaluate short-term prognosis in a Japanese population. A total of 506 asymptomatic patients {>=}50 years of age who had carotid artery maximum intima-media thickness {>=}1.1 mm, urinary albumin excretion of {>=}30 mg/g creatinine, with additional criteria of abdominal obesity, low HDL cholesterol, high triglyceride level, and hypertension were enrolled and followed up over a 3-year period. Gated SPECT with stress-rest protocol was performed and analyzed by summed defect scores and QGS software. One-year cardiovascular events were analyzed. Myocardial ischemia was observed in 17% of patients, and abnormal perfusion findings of ischemia and/or scar were observed in 32% of patients. By the end of the 1-year follow-up, 33 (6.5%) cardiovascular events occurred including 6 all-cause deaths. Patients with summed stress score (SSS) >8 had a higher incidence of either death or cardiovascular events. Event-free survival rates for SSS 0-3, 4-8, 9-13, and {>=}14 were 0.96, 0.95, 0.82, and 0.76, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that significant variables were SSS, history of cerebrovascular accident, and electrocardiographic abnormality at rest. The 1-year interim summary showed that cardiovascular events were significantly higher in patients with SPECT abnormality, although hard cardiac event rate was relatively low. Targeted treatment strategy is required for asymptomatic but potentially high-risk diabetic patients. (orig.)

  13. Cardiovascular events in Japanese asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes: a 1-year interim report of a J-ACCESS 2 investigation using myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Yamasaki, Yoshimitsu; Kusuoka, Hideo; Izumi, Tohru; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2009-01-01

    Diabetic patients have a high risk for cardiovascular events. The role of myocardial perfusion imaging was investigated in asymptomatic diabetic patients to evaluate short-term prognosis in a Japanese population. A total of 506 asymptomatic patients ≥50 years of age who had carotid artery maximum intima-media thickness ≥1.1 mm, urinary albumin excretion of ≥30 mg/g creatinine, with additional criteria of abdominal obesity, low HDL cholesterol, high triglyceride level, and hypertension were enrolled and followed up over a 3-year period. Gated SPECT with stress-rest protocol was performed and analyzed by summed defect scores and QGS software. One-year cardiovascular events were analyzed. Myocardial ischemia was observed in 17% of patients, and abnormal perfusion findings of ischemia and/or scar were observed in 32% of patients. By the end of the 1-year follow-up, 33 (6.5%) cardiovascular events occurred including 6 all-cause deaths. Patients with summed stress score (SSS) >8 had a higher incidence of either death or cardiovascular events. Event-free survival rates for SSS 0-3, 4-8, 9-13, and ≥14 were 0.96, 0.95, 0.82, and 0.76, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that significant variables were SSS, history of cerebrovascular accident, and electrocardiographic abnormality at rest. The 1-year interim summary showed that cardiovascular events were significantly higher in patients with SPECT abnormality, although hard cardiac event rate was relatively low. Targeted treatment strategy is required for asymptomatic but potentially high-risk diabetic patients. (orig.)

  14. Estrogen in cardiovascular disease during systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Emily L; Ryan, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that disproportionately affects women during their childbearing years. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in this patient population at an age when women often have low cardiovascular risk. Hypertension is a major cardiovascular disease risk factor, and its prevalence is markedly increased in women with SLE. Estrogen has traditionally been implicated in SLE disease progression because of the prevalence of the disease in women; however, its role in cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension is unclear. The objective of this review is to discuss evidence for the role of estrogen in both human and murine SLE with emphasis on the effect of estrogen on cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension. PubMed was used to search for articles with terms related to estradiol and SLE. The references of retrieved publications were also reviewed. The potential permissive role of estrogen in SLE development is supported by studies from experimental animal models of lupus in which early removal of estrogen or its effects leads to attenuation of SLE disease parameters, including autoantibody production and renal injury. However, data about the role of estrogens in human SLE are much less clear, with most studies not reaching firm conclusions about positive or negative outcomes after hormonal manipulations involving estrogen during SLE (ie, oral contraceptives, hormone therapy). Significant gaps in knowledge remain about the effect of estrogen on cardiovascular risk factors during SLE. Studies in women with SLE were not designed to determine the effect of estrogen or hormone therapy on blood pressure even though hypertension is highly prevalent, and risk of premature ovarian failure could necessitate use of hormone therapy in women with SLE. Recent evidence from an experimental animal model of lupus found that estrogen may protect against cardiovascular risk factors in

  15. Estrogen in Cardiovascular Disease during Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Emily L.; Ryan, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that disproportionately affects women during their childbearing years. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in this patient population at an age when women often have low cardiovascular risk. Hypertension is a major cardiovascular disease risk factor, and its prevalence is markedly increased in women with SLE. Estrogen has traditionally been implicated in SLE disease progression because of the prevalence of the disease in women; however, its role in cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension is unclear. The objective of this review is to discuss evidence for the role of estrogen in both human and murine SLE with emphasis on the effect of estrogen on cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension. Methods PubMed was used to search for articles with terms related to estradiol and SLE. The references of retrieved publications were also reviewed. Findings The potential permissive role of estrogen in SLE development is supported by studies from experimental animal models of lupus in which early removal of estrogen or its effects leads to attenuation of SLE disease parameters, including autoantibody production and renal injury. However, data about the role of estrogens in human SLE are much less clear, with most studies not reaching firm conclusions about positive or negative outcomes after hormonal manipulations involving estrogen during SLE (ie, oral contraceptives, hormone therapy). Significant gaps in knowledge remain about the effect of estrogen on cardiovascular risk factors during SLE. Studies in women with SLE were not designed to determine the effect of estrogen or hormone therapy on blood pressure even though hypertension is highly prevalent, and risk of premature ovarian failure could necessitate use of hormone therapy in women with SLE. Recent evidence from an experimental animal model of lupus found that estrogen may protect against

  16. Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Cardiovascular Remodeling Is Reversed by Normoxia in a Mouse Model of Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Grattoni, Anabel L; Alvarez-Buvé, Roger; Torres, Marta; Farré, Ramon; Montserrat, Josep M; Dalmases, Mireia; Almendros, Isaac; Barbé, Ferran; Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) is the principal injurious factor involved in the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with OSA. The gold standard for treatment is CPAP, which eliminates IH and appears to reduce cardiovascular risk. There is no experimental evidence on the reversibility of cardiovascular remodeling after IH withdrawal. The objective of the present study is to assess the reversibility of early cardiovascular structural remodeling induced by IH after resumption of normoxic breathing in a novel recovery animal model mimicking OSA treatment. We investigated cardiovascular remodeling in C57BL/6 mice exposed to IH for 6 weeks vs the normoxia group and its spontaneous recovery after 6 subsequent weeks under normoxia. Aortic expansive remodeling was induced by IH, with intima-media thickening and without lumen perimeter changes. Elastic fiber network disorganization, fragmentation, and estrangement between the end points of disrupted fibers were increased by IH. Extracellular matrix turnover was altered, as visualized by collagen and mucoid interlaminar accumulation. Furthermore, left ventricular perivascular fibrosis was increased by IH, whereas cardiomyocytes size was unaffected. These cardiovascular remodeling events induced by IH were normalized after recovery in normoxia, mimicking CPAP treatment. The early structural cardiovascular remodeling induced by IH was normalized after IH removal, revealing a novel recovery model for studying the effects of OSA treatment. Our findings suggest the clinical relevance of early detection and effective treatment of OSA in patients to prevent the natural course of cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Progression and Early detection of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (PESA) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Jiménez-Borreguero, L Jesús; Peñalvo, José L

    2013-01-01

    The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined.......The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined....

  18. Data on copper level in the blood of patients with normal and abnormal angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Amiri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, we measured the levels of copper in the blood of patients undergoing coronary angiography. The samples were taken from patients with cardiovascular disease in Bushehr׳s university hospital, Iran. Patients were divided in two groups: normal angiography and abnormal angiography. After the chemical digestion of samples, the concentration levels of Cu in both groups were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry (ICP-OES.

  19. Blood pressure and control of cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Judith A Whitworth

    2005-01-01

    Judith A WhitworthJohn Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Two key early 20th century notions, the first the primacy of diastolic pressure in determining risk, and the second that hypertension is a discrete disorder, have proved to be incorrect. We now recognize the primacy of systolic pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and that hypertension is an arbitrary definition. In the early 21st century, we are moving a...

  20. Subtle abnormalities of gait detected early in vitamin B6 deficiency in aged and weanling rats with hind leg gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, M C; Cochary, E F; Sadowski, J A

    1990-04-01

    Motor abnormalities have been observed in every species made vitamin B6 deficient, and have been detected and quantified early in vitamin B6 deficiency in young adult female Long-Evans rats with hind leg gait analysis. Our objective was to determine if hind leg gait analysis could be used to detect vitamin B6 deficiency in weanling (3 weeks) and aged (23 months) Fischer 344 male rats. Rats (n = 10 per group) were fed: the control diet ad libitum (AL-CON); the control diet devoid of added pyridoxine hydrochloride (DEF); or the control diet pair-fed to DEF (PF-CON). At 10 weeks, plasma pyridoxal phosphate concentration confirmed deficiency in both age groups. Gait abnormalities were detected in the absence of gross motor disturbances in both aged and weanling DEF rats at 2-3 weeks. Width of step was significantly reduced (16%, p less than 0.003) in DEF aged rats compared to AL- and PF-CON. This pattern of response was similar to that reported previously in young adult rats. In weanling rats, pair feeding alone reduced mean width of step (+/- SEM) by 25% compared to ad libitum feeding (2.7 +/- 0.1 vs 3.6 +/- 0.1 cm for PF- vs AL-CON, respectively, p less than 0.05). In DEF weanling rats, width (3.0 +/- 0.1 cm) was increased compared to PF-CON (11%, p less than 0.05) but decreased compared to AL-CON (16%, p less than 0.05). Width of step was significantly altered early in B6 deficiency in rats of different ages and strains and in both sexes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. CORRELATION OF LIPID PARAMETERS AND CARDIOVASCULAR MANIFESTATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE OF NORTH EAST INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubedul Islam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown aetiology marked by a symmetric and peripheral polyarthritis, which often results in joint damage and physical disability. Rheumatoid arthritis is not just only a disease affecting joints, but it goes well beyond the barricade of arthritis into systemic inflammatory manifestations. Various factors play an important role in the morbidity and mortality of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical spectrum of rheumatoid arthritis with special reference to dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular manifestations. MATERIALS AND METHODS We conducted a hospital-based observational study comprising of 72 patients of rheumatoid arthritis who had been diagnosed, based on criteria laid down by 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria, admitted in Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, Assam (India and fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad InStat version 3.00 for Windows 7, GraphPad Software, San Diego, California, USA (www.graphpad.com. P value <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. RESULTS In this study, out of 72 patients, 16 patients were male and 56 patients were female, 31.94% cases were in the 5th decade of life followed by the 4th decade (30.56% with a mean age of 43.63 years. Our study found that the most common derangement of lipid parameter was being attributed to low HDL level (31% followed by a high triglyceride level (20.83%. The prevalence of dyslipidaemia was 41.67%. Atherogenic index was high in 23.6% of the cases with a mean of 4.52 of borderline range. In this study, ECG abnormalities were present in 12.5% of study subjects, abnormal echocardiography findings were present in 11.11% of patients and abnormal carotid Doppler findings were present in 18%. The most common ECG abnormality was nonspecific ST-T changes, most common echocardiographic abnormality was pericardial

  2. An anatomical and physiological basis for the cardiovascular autonomic nervous system consequences of sport-related brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fountaine, Michael F

    2017-11-29

    Concussion is defined as a complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain that is induced by the application or transmission of traumatic biomechanical forces to the head. The result of the impact is the onset of transient symptoms that may be experienced for approximately 2weeks in most individuals. However, in some individuals, symptoms may not resolve and persist for a protracted period and a chronic injury ensues. Concussion symptoms are generally characterized by their emergence through changes in affect, cognition, or multi-sensory processes including the visual and vestibular systems. An emerging consequence of concussion is the presence of cardiovascular autonomic nervous system dysfunction that is most apparent through hemodynamic perturbations and provocations. Further interrogation of data that are derived from continuous digital electrocardiograms and/or beat-to-beat blood pressure monitoring often reveal an imbalance of parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous system activity during a provocation after an injury. The disturbance is often greatest early after injury and a resolution of the dysfunction occurs in parallel with other symptoms. The possibility exists that the disturbance may remain if the concussion does not resolve. Unfortunately, there is little evidence in humans to support the etiology for the emergence of this post-injury dysfunction. As such, evidence from experimental models of traumatic brain injury and casual observations from human studies of concussion implicate a transient abnormality of the anatomical structures and functions of the cardiovascular autonomic nervous system. The purpose of this review article is to provide a mechanistic narrative of multi-disciplinary evidence to support the anatomical and physiological basis of cardiovascular autonomic nervous system dysfunction after concussion. The review article will identify the anatomical structures of the autonomic nervous system and propose a theoretical framework

  3. Anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder are associated with abnormalities in processing visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Lai, T M; Bohon, C; Loo, S K; McCurdy, D; Strober, M; Bookheimer, S; Feusner, J

    2015-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are characterized by distorted body image and are frequently co-morbid with each other, although their relationship remains little studied. While there is evidence of abnormalities in visual and visuospatial processing in both disorders, no study has directly compared the two. We used two complementary modalities--event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)--to test for abnormal activity associated with early visual signaling. We acquired fMRI and ERP data in separate sessions from 15 unmedicated individuals in each of three groups (weight-restored AN, BDD, and healthy controls) while they viewed images of faces and houses of different spatial frequencies. We used joint independent component analyses to compare activity in visual systems. AN and BDD groups demonstrated similar hypoactivity in early secondary visual processing regions and the dorsal visual stream when viewing low spatial frequency faces, linked to the N170 component, as well as in early secondary visual processing regions when viewing low spatial frequency houses, linked to the P100 component. Additionally, the BDD group exhibited hyperactivity in fusiform cortex when viewing high spatial frequency houses, linked to the N170 component. Greater activity in this component was associated with lower attractiveness ratings of faces. Results provide preliminary evidence of similar abnormal spatiotemporal activation in AN and BDD for configural/holistic information for appearance- and non-appearance-related stimuli. This suggests a common phenotype of abnormal early visual system functioning, which may contribute to perceptual distortions.

  4. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Matthew M; Soufer, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling condition that develops consequent to trauma exposure such as natural disasters, sexual assault, automobile accidents, and combat that independently increases risk for early incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular (CV) mortality by over 50 % and incident hypertension risk by over 30 %. While the majority of research on PTSD and CVD has concerned initially healthy civilian and military veteran samples, emerging research is also demonstrating that PTSD consequent to the trauma of an acute cardiac event significantly increases risk for early recurrence and mortality and that patient experiences in the clinical pathway that are related to the emergency department environment may provide an opportunity to prevent PTSD onset and thus improve outcomes. Future directions for clinical and implementation science concern broad PTSD and trauma screening in the context of primary care medical environments and the testing of PTSD treatments with CVD-related surrogates and endpoints.

  5. Coronary fluorine-18-sodium fluoride uptake is increased in healthy adults with an unfavorable cardiovascular risk profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn A; Thomassen, Anders; de Jong, Pim A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery fluorine-18-sodium fluoride (F-NaF) uptake reflects coronary artery calcification metabolism and is considered to be an early prognostic marker of coronary heart disease. This study evaluated the relationship between coronary artery F-NaF uptake and cardiovascular risk ...... adults at low cardiovascular risk and that an unfavorable cardiovascular risk profile is associated with a marked increase in coronary artery F-NaF uptake.......OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery fluorine-18-sodium fluoride (F-NaF) uptake reflects coronary artery calcification metabolism and is considered to be an early prognostic marker of coronary heart disease. This study evaluated the relationship between coronary artery F-NaF uptake and cardiovascular risk...... in healthy adults at low cardiovascular risk. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Study participants underwent blood pressure measurements, blood analyses, and coronary artery F-NaF PET/CT imaging. In addition, the 10-year risk for the development of cardiovascular disease, on the basis of the Framingham Risk Score...

  6. Thallium stress testing does not predict cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing cadaveric renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holley, J.L.; Fenton, R.A.; Arthur, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    This study assessed the usefulness of thallium stress testing as a predictor of perioperative cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing cadaveric renal transplantation. Demographic factors influencing the exercise performance in these patients were also examined. The medical records of 189 consecutive patients with diabetic nephropathy who were evaluated for cadaveric renal transplantation were reviewed. Thallium stress testing was the initial examination of cardiovascular status in 141 patients. An adequate examination was one in which at least 70% of maximum heart rate was achieved. A thallium stress test was normal if there were no ST segment depressions on the electrocardiogram and no perfusion abnormalities on the thallium scan. Forty-four patients underwent cardiac catheterization as the initial evaluation (Group C) and four patients underwent transplantation without a formal cardiovascular evaluation (Group D). Sixty-four of the 141 patients undergoing thallium stress testing had an adequate and normal examination (Group A). The incidence of perioperative cardiac events in this group was 2%. Seventy-seven patients (Group B) had an abnormal (n = 41) or an inadequate (n = 36) thallium stress test and most (n = 61) then underwent coronary angiography. The use of beta-blockers was the only predictor of an abnormal or inadequate thallium stress test. Forty-three percent of patients with inadequate or abnormal thallium stress tests had significant coronary artery disease on cardiac catheterization. The perioperative risk of cardiac events was not different in Group A versus Groups B, C, and D combined. Survival of Group A and B patients was not different but was significantly longer than that of Group C patients

  7. Abnormal innominate vein and right aortic arch, an uncommon association that should be taken into account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catala, J.; Martin, C.

    2000-01-01

    A case of abnormal innominate vein associated with right aortic arch and aberrant left subclavian artery is presented. It was an incidental finding during the radiological study of an 8-year old boy suspected of having tuberculosis. The authors review the different etiological theories, radiological features and diagnostic impact of this uncommon venous malformation, as well as its relationship to other cardiovascular anomalies. (Author) 9 refs

  8. Relationships among smoking habits, airflow limitations, and metabolic abnormalities in school workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masafumi; Noguchi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Wakae; Goto, Yasushi; Yoshihara, Hisanao; Kawakami, Masaki; Suzuki, Masaru; Sakamoto, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is caused mainly by habitual smoking and is common among elderly individuals. It involves not only airflow limitation but also metabolic disorders, leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We evaluated relationships among smoking habits, airflow limitation, and metabolic abnormalities. Between 2001 and 2008, 15,324 school workers (9700 males, 5624 females; age: ≥ 30 years) underwent medical checkups, including blood tests and spirometry. They also responded to a questionnaire on smoking habits and medical history. Airflow limitation was more prevalent in current smokers than in ex-smokers and never-smokers in men and women. The frequency of hypertriglyceridemia was higher in current smokers in all age groups, and those of low high-density-lipoprotein cholesterolemia and diabetes mellitus were higher in current smokers in age groups ≥ 40 s in men, but not in women. There were significant differences in the frequencies of metabolic abnormalities between subjects with airflow limitations and those without in women, but not in men. Smoking index was an independent factor associated with increased frequencies of hypertriglyceridemia (OR 1.015; 95% CI: 1.012-1.018; psmoking cessation was an independent factor associated with a decreased frequency of hypertriglyceridemia (0.984; 0.975-0.994; p = 0.007). Habitual smoking causes high incidences of airflow limitation and metabolic abnormalities. Women, but not men, with airflow limitation had higher frequencies of metabolic abnormalities.

  9. Evaluation of cardiovascular autonomic nervous functions in diabetics: Study in a rural teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Pathak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN is a least understood complication of diabetes which is often underdiagnosed. It causes resting tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension, and exercise intolerance and is associated with higher cardiovascular mortality in diabetic patients. This stresses the need of early diagnosis of CAN to prevent higher mortality rates. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of diabetes mellitus with no clinical evidence of cardiac disease were subjected to cardiac autonomic function (CAF tests according to Ewing's criteria which included heart rate (HR variability during deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver ratio, HR response on standing, blood pressure (BP response to standing, and BP response to sustained handgrip to find the prevalence of CAN. Results: In this study, among 100 patients (50 case and 50 control, we found CAN in 52%. Out of which, parasympathetic neuropathy was seen in 52% of cases, and sympathetic neuropathy was seen in 26% of cases. CAF tests of HR variability during deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver ratio, HR response to standing, BP response to standing, and BP response to sustained handgrip found abnormal response in 68%, 40%, 52%, 12%, and 14%, respectively. Diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy were significantly associated with CAN (P = 0.0001, S. Conclusion: Prevalence of CAN among diabetics was 52%, and parasympathetic CAF tests are more sensitive for the detection of CAN than sympathetic CAF tests. Development of CAN in diabetic patients may lead to increased morbidity; thence, they should be routinely evaluated for CAN using these bedside tests.

  10. A Rare Case of Acute Coronary Syndrome in a Patient With Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemaloglu, Tugba; Ozer, Nihat; Fikri Yapici, Mehmet

    2016-05-01

    In Turner syndrome, cardiovascular complications are the most important causes of early mortality. Congenital cardiovascular abnormalities are found in approximately one third of Turner syndrome patients. Developments in diagnosis and treatment have decreased the rate of mortality related to these abnormalities. In recent years, many papers have mentioned that coronary artery disease developing at early ages in patients with Turner syndrome causes sudden deaths. The patient, a 27-year-old female was admitted to the emergency room with chest pain at rest. She was diagnosed with Turner Syndrome in her teenage years due to amenorrhea. Patients with ECG changes and cardiac enzyme elevations were treated with acute coronary syndrome. The young woman with Turner Syndrome have several risk factors for early Coronary Artery Disease development. In such cases, dramatic results like sudden death or heart attack at an early age may occur in cases of insufficient follow-up and treatment.

  11. Similar nature of ionic imbalances in cardiovascular and renal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, S.M.; Jawed, M.; Akram, H.; Mahboob, T.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Several studies have reported improper ionic environment in cardiovascular and renal patients but how the diseases are associated on ionic basis is still not clear. Objective: The present study was aimed to investigate sodium and potassium concentrations and their transport abnormalities in cardiovascular and renal patients. Patients and Methods: Thirty patients of various cardiovascular and thirty patients of various renal disorders (53.33% males, 46.67% females) were selected. Erythrocytes were isolated from freshly drawn blood samples, washed and used for the estimation of sodium and potassium levels using flame photometer (Corning 410). Serum sodium and potassium were measured by flame photometer. RBC membranes were prepared for the estimation of Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-ATPase activity in terms of inorganic phosphate released/mg protein/hour. Results: Intra-erythrocyte and serum sodium and potassium concentrations and Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-ATPase activity were different in cardiovascular and renal patients from controls. Intra-erythrocyte sodium level was increased significantly (P<0.01) in cardiovascular patients and non-significantly in renal patients as compared to controls. Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-ATPase activity and serum sodium level were decreased significantly (P<0.01) in both the groups as compared to controls. Serum potassium was found to be decreased significantly (P<0.01) in cardiovascular patients whereas it was raised significantly (P<0.01) in renal patients as compared to control subjects. Conclusion: The results indicated similar nature of ionic and electrolyte imbalances in cardiovascular and renal disorders resulting from impaired Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-ATPase system. Further investigations in the same area, may be of help to establish an understanding of the progression of diseases, associated complications and the preventive steps that should-be taken to arrest the progression of these disorders. (author)

  12. Impact of early, late, and no ST-segment resolution measured by continuous ST Holter monitoring on left ventricular ejection fraction and infarct size as determined by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeck, Joost D. E.; Verouden, Niels J. W.; Kuijt, Wichert J.; Koch, Karel T.; Majidi, Mohamed; Hirsch, Alexander; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Krucoff, Mitchell W.; de Winter, Robbert J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study is to determine the predictive value of ST-segment resolution (STR) early after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), late STR, and no STR for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and infarct size (IS) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) at

  13. Calcium as a cardiovascular toxin in CKD-MBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Sharon M

    2017-07-01

    Disordered calcium balance and homeostasis are common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Such alterations are commonly associated with abnormal bone remodeling, directly and indirectly. Similarly, positive calcium balance may also be a factor in the pathogenesis of extra skeletal soft tissue and arterial calcification. Calcium may directly affect cardiac structure and function through direct effects to alter cell signaling due to abnormal intracellular calcium homeostasis 2) extra-skeletal deposition of calcium and phosphate in the myocardium and small cardiac arterioles, 3) inducing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through calcium and hormone activation of NFAT signaling mechanisms, and 4) increased aorta calcification resulting in chronic increased afterload leading to hypertrophy. Similarly, calcium may alter vascular smooth muscle cell function and affect cell signaling which may predispose to a proliferative phenotype important in arteriosclerosis and arterial calcification. Thus, disorders of calcium balance and homeostasis due to CKD-MBD may play a role in the high cardiovascular burden observed in patients with CKD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Cognitive correlates of neuroimaging abnormalities in the onset of schizophrenia: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Grassi, Silvia; Orsenigo, Giulia; Serati, Marta; Caletti, Elisabetta; Altamura, Alfredo Carlo; Buoli, Massimiliano

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that cognitive impairment and brain abnormalities can appear early in the first episodes of schizophrenia, but it is currently debated how brain changes can correlate with clinical presentation of schizophrenic patients. Of note, this report describes the case of a young schizophrenic male presenting parietal magnetic resonance/positron emission tomography abnormalities and cognitive impairment, documented by specific neuropsychological tests. In our knowledge only f...

  15. Human prenatal progenitors for pediatric cardiovascular tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, D.

    2007-01-01

    Pediatric cardiovascular tissue engineering is a promising strategy to overcome the lack of autologous, growing replacements for the early repair of congenital malformations in order to prevent secondary damage to the immature heart. Therefore, cells should be harvested during pregnancy as soon as

  16. Cardiovascular oscillations at the bedside: early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis using heart rate characteristics monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorman, J Randall; Lake, Douglas E; Delos, John B; Flower, Abigail A; Cao, Hanqing; Kovatchev, Boris P; Richman, Joshua S

    2011-01-01

    We have applied principles of statistical signal processing and nonlinear dynamics to analyze heart rate time series from premature newborn infants in order to assist in the early diagnosis of sepsis, a common and potentially deadly bacterial infection of the bloodstream. We began with the observation of reduced variability and transient decelerations in heart rate interval time series for hours up to days prior to clinical signs of illness. We find that measurements of standard deviation, sample asymmetry and sample entropy are highly related to imminent clinical illness. We developed multivariable statistical predictive models, and an interface to display the real-time results to clinicians. Using this approach, we have observed numerous cases in which incipient neonatal sepsis was diagnosed and treated without any clinical illness at all. This review focuses on the mathematical and statistical time series approaches used to detect these abnormal heart rate characteristics and present predictive monitoring information to the clinician

  17. SQL based cardiovascular ultrasound image classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandagopalan, S; Suryanarayana, Adiga B; Sudarshan, T S B; Chandrashekar, Dhanalakshmi; Manjunath, C N

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method to analyze and classify the cardiovascular ultrasound echocardiographic images using Naïve-Bayesian model via database OLAP-SQL. Efficient data mining algorithms based on tightly-coupled model is used to extract features. Three algorithms are proposed for classification namely Naïve-Bayesian Classifier for Discrete variables (NBCD) with SQL, NBCD with OLAP-SQL, and Naïve-Bayesian Classifier for Continuous variables (NBCC) using OLAP-SQL. The proposed model is trained with 207 patient images containing normal and abnormal categories. Out of the three proposed algorithms, a high classification accuracy of 96.59% was achieved from NBCC which is better than the earlier methods.

  18. The phrenic nerve with accompanying vessels: a silent cause of cardiovascular border obliteration on chest radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana, Shiri; Ashizawa, Kazuto; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Ogihara, Yukihiro; Aso, Nobuya; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Uetani, Masataka

    2015-12-01

    Our aim was to clarify the frequency of cardiovascular border obliteration on frontal chest radiography and to prove that the phrenic nerve with accompanying vessels can be considered as a cause of obliteration of cardiovascular border on an otherwise normal chest radiography. Two radiologists reviewed chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) images of 100 individuals. CT confirmed the absence of intrapulmonary or extrapulmonary abnormalities in all of them. We examined the frequency of cardiovascular border obliteration on frontal chest radiography and summarized the causes of obliteration as pericardial fat pad, phrenic nerve, intrafissure fat, pulmonary vessels, and others, comparing them with CT in each case. Cardiovascular border was obliterated on frontal chest radiography in 46 cases on the right and in 61 on the left. The phrenic nerve with accompanying vessels was found to be a cause of obliteration in 34 of 46 cases (74%) on the right and 29 of 61 (48%) cases on the left. The phrenic nerve was the most frequent cause of cardiovascular border obliteration on both sides. The phrenic nerve with accompanying vessels, forming a prominent fold of parietal pleura, can be attributed as a cause of cardiovascular border obliteration on frontal chest radiography.

  19. Expanding the definition and classification of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Thomas D; Berk, Bradford C; Black, Henry R; Cohn, Jay N; Kostis, John B; Izzo, Joseph L; Weber, Michael A

    2005-09-01

    Cardiovascular abnormalities are frequently the cause, as well as the effect, of elevated blood pressure. As such, early cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be established before identifiable blood pressure thresholds are crossed. To identify individuals at risk for CVD at an earlier point in the disease process, as well as to avoid labeling persons as hypertensive who are at low risk for CVD, the Hypertension Writing Group proposes incorporating the presence or absence of cardiovascular risk factors, early disease markers, and target organ damage into the definition and classification scheme of hypertension. To describe both the complexity and progressive nature of hypertension, the following definition is proposed: "Hypertension is a progressive cardiovascular syndrome arising from complex and interrelated etiologies. Early markers of the syndrome are often present before blood pressure elevation is observed; therefore, hypertension cannot be classified solely by discrete blood pressure thresholds. Progression is strongly associated with functional and structural cardiac and vascular abnormalities that damage the heart, kidneys, brain, vasculature, and other organs and lead to premature morbidity and death." Classification of hypertension must involve assessing global cardiovascular risk to situate an individual's risk for CVD and events along a continuum. As knowledge of early CVD continues to evolve, the approach to classifying individuals along that continuum can be expected to evolve accordingly. The four categories currently used to classify hypertension are normal, prehypertension, and stages 1 and 2 hypertension. The population identified with prehypertension includes a subgroup with early CVD. We believe it would be preferable to classify all individuals as either normal or hypertensive, based on their cardiovascular evaluation, using the four categories of normal and stages 1, 2, and 3 hypertension.

  20. Imaging of sacroiliitis in early seronegative spondylarthropathy. Assessment of abnormalities by MR in comparison with radiography and CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puhakka, K Bøcker; Jurik, A G; Egund, N

    2003-01-01

    . MATERIAL AND METHODS: The SIJs of 41 patients with early SpA (median duration of inflammatory low back pain of 19 months) were evaluated by MR imaging using STIR, T1, T2, and T1 fat saturated (FS) sequences before and after i.v. Gd contrast medium followed by staging of abnormalities. The findings were...... compared with those obtained by CT and radiography. RESULTS: MR and CT had equal efficacy superior to radiography in staging of erosions and osseous sclerosis. Only MR allowed visualization and grading of active inflammatory changes in the subchondral bone and surrounding ligaments in addition to bone......: semicoronal T1 and both semicoronal and semiaxial STIR. If these images are normal, the examination can be finished; otherwise additional semicoronal T1 FS before and after i.v. contrast has to be performed as well as semiaxial post-contrast T1 FS....

  1. Cortical gyrification is abnormal in children with prenatal alcohol exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Hendrickson

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Abnormalities in cortical development were seen across the brain in children with PAE compared to controls. Cortical gyrification and IQ were strongly correlated, suggesting that examining mechanisms by which alcohol disrupts cortical formation may yield clinically relevant insights and potential directions for early intervention.

  2. The Impact of Early Life Stress on Growth and Cardiovascular Risk: A Possible Example for Autonomic Imprinting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchhorn, Reiner; Meint, Sebastian; Willaschek, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress is imprinting regulatory properties with life-long consequences. We investigated heart rate variability in a group of small children with height below the third percentile, who experienced an episode of early life stress due to heart failure or intra uterine growth retardation. These children appear to develop autonomic dysfunction in later life. Compared to the healthy control group heart rate variability (HRV) is reduced on average in a group of 101 children with short stature. Low HRV correlates to groups of children born small for gestational age (SGA), children with cardiac growth failure and children with congenital syndromes, but not to those with constitutional growth delay (CGD), who had normal HRV. Reduced HRV indicated by lower RMSSD and High Frequency (HF)-Power is indicating reduced vagal activity as a sign of autonomic imbalance. It is not short stature itself, but rather the underlying diseases that are the cause for reduced HRV in children with height below the third percentile. These high risk children-allocated in the groups with an adverse autonomic imprinting in utero or infancy (SGA, congenital heart disease and congenital syndromes)-have the highest risk for 'stress diseases' such as cardiovascular disease in later life. The incidence of attention deficit disorder is remarkably high in our group of short children.

  3. Design and baseline characteristics of the CARdiovascular Outcome Trial of LINAgliptin Versus Glimepiride in Type 2 Diabetes (CAROLINA (R))

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marx, Nikolaus; Rosenstock, Julio; Kahn, Steven E.; Zinman, Bernard; Kastelein, John J.; Lachin, John M.; Espeland, Mark A.; Bluhmki, Erich; Mattheus, Michaela; Ryckaert, Bart; Patel, Sanjay; Johansen, Odd Erik; Woerle, Hans-Juergen

    2015-01-01

    CARdiovascular Outcome Trial of LINAgliptin Versus Glimepiride in Type 2 Diabetes (NCT01243424) is an ongoing, randomized trial in subjects with early type 2 diabetes and increased cardiovascular risk or established complications that will determine the long-term cardiovascular impact of linagliptin

  4. Clustered metabolic abnormalities blunt regression of hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Simone, G; Okin, P M; Gerdts, E

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Clusters of metabolic abnormalities resembling phenotypes of metabolic syndrome predicted outcome in the LIFE study, independently of single risk markers, including obesity, diabetes and baseline ECG left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We examined whether clusters of two......-duration product (CP) over 5 years was assessed using a quadratic polynomial contrast, adjusting for age, sex, prevalent cardiovascular disease and treatment arm (losartan or atenolol). At baseline, despite similar blood pressures, CP was greater in the presence than in the absence of MetAb (p

  5. Prevalence of macular abnormalities assessed by optical coherence tomography in patients with Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Francesco; Melillo, Paolo; Rossi, Settimio; Marcelli, Vincenzo; de Benedictis, Antonella; Colucci, Raffaella; Gallo, Beatrice; Brunetti-Pierri, Raffaella; Donati, Simone; Azzolini, Claudio; Marciano, Elio; Simonelli, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of macular abnormalities in patients affected by Usher syndrome (USH), by comparing the clinical findings between two types (i.e., USH1 and USH2). A retrospective study was performed by reviewing optical coherence tomography (OCT) in 134 USH patients to determine the presence of macular abnormalities, including cystoid macular edema (CME), epiretinal membrane (ERM), vitreo-macular traction syndrome (VMT), and macular hole (MH). Macular abnormalities were observed in 126/268 (47.0%) examined eyes. The most frequent abnormality was ERM observed in 51 eyes (19%), followed by CME observed in 42 eyes (15.7%). Moreover, CME was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with younger age (CME: 30.1 ± 11.1 years; without CME: 36.9 ± 14.9 years), whereas VMT and full thickness MH were associated with older age (p < 0.05). Moreover, a significantly (p < 0.05) decreased best-corrected visual acuity was associated with MH compared to eyes without MH. Finally, CME was more frequent in USH1 compared to USH2. Our study, for the first time in the literature, showed the distribution of all macular abnormalities assessed by SD-OCT in a large USH cohort, comparing USH1 and USH2 patients. We observed that ocular abnormalities are highly prevalent in USH patients compared to general population, with ERM and CME being the most common alterations. Based on these findings, OCT screening in USH patients is recommended for early detection of macular changes and early treatment.

  6. A Brief History of the Development of Abnormal Psychology: A Training Guide. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, William R.

    Presented for practitioners is a history of the development of abnormal psychology. Areas covered include the following: Early medical concepts, ideas carried over from literature, early treatment of the mentally ill, development of the psychological viewpoint, Freud's psychoanalytic theory, Jung's analytic theory, the individual psychology of…

  7. Association Between Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Pooled Occupational Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegmann, Kurt T; Thiese, Matthew Steven; Kapellusch, Jay; Merryweather, Andrew S; Bao, Stephen; Silverstein, Barbara; Wood, Eric M; Kendall, Richard; Wertsch, Jacqueline; Foster, James; Garg, Arun; Drury, David L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain if cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors are carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) risk factors. Analysis of pooled baseline data from two large prospective cohort studies (n = 1824) assessed the relationships between a modified Framingham Heart Study CVD risk score both CTS and abnormal nerve conduction study prevalence. Quantified job exposures, personal and psychosocial confounders were statistically controlled. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for individual risk scores. There was a strong relationship between CVD risk score and both CTS and abnormal nerve conduction study after adjustment for confounders, with odds ratios as high as 4.16 and 7.35, respectively. Dose responses were also observed. In this workplace population, there is a strong association between CVD risk scores and both CTS and abnormal nerve conduction study that persisted after controlling for confounders. These data suggest a potentially modifiable disease mechanism.

  8. Enjoying hobbies is related to desirable cardiovascular effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saihara, Keishi; Hamasaki, Shuichi; Ishida, Sanemasa; Kataoka, Tetsuro; Yoshikawa, Akiko; Orihara, Koji; Ogawa, Masakazu; Oketani, Naoya; Fukudome, Tsuyoshi; Atsuchi, Nobuhiko; Shinsato, Takuro; Okui, Hideki; Kubozono, Takuro; Ichiki, Hitoshi; Kuwahata, So; Mizoguchi, Etsuko; Fujita, Shoji; Takumi, Takuro; Ninomiya, Yuichi; Tomita, Kaai; Tei, Chuwa

    2010-03-01

    An unhealthy lifestyle can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanism by which lifestyle influences the development of cardiovascular disease remains unclear. Since coronary endothelial function is a predictor of cardiovascular prognosis, the goal of this study was to characterize the effect of enjoying hobbies on coronary endothelial function and cardiovascular outcomes. A total of 121 consecutive patients (76 men, 45 women) with almost normal coronary arteries underwent Doppler flow study of the left anterior descending coronary artery following sequential administration of papaverine, acetylcholine, and nitroglycerin. On the basis of responses to questionnaires, patients were divided into two groups; the Hobby group (n = 71) who enjoyed hobbies, and the Non-hobby group (n = 50) who had no hobbies. Cardiovascular outcomes were assessed at long-term follow-up using medical records or questionnaire surveys for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE).The average follow-up period was 916 +/- 515 days. There were no significant differences in demographics when comparing the two groups. The percent change in coronary blood flow and coronary artery diameter induced by acetylcholine was significantly greater in the Hobby group than in the Non-hobby group (49% +/- 77% vs 25% +/- 37%, P hobbies was the only independent predictor of MACE (odds ratio 8.1 [95% confidence interval 1.60, 41.90], P = 0.01) among the variables tested. In the early stages of arteriosclerosis, enjoying hobbies may improve cardiovascular outcomes via its favorable effects on coronary endothelial function.

  9. BMI or BIA: Is Body Mass Index or Body Fat Mass a Better Predictor of Cardiovascular Risk in Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Barbara; Müller, Manfred James; Simic-Schleicher, Gunter; Kiess, Wieland; Siegfried, Wolfgang; Oelert, Monika; Tuschy, Sabine; Berghem, Stefan; Holl, Reinhard W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Body fat (BF) percentiles for German children and adolescents have recently been published. This study aims to evaluate the association between bioelectrical impedance analysis(BIA)-derived BF and cardiovascular risk factors and to investigate whether BF is better suited than BMI in children and adolescents. Methods Data of 3,327 children and adolescents (BMI > 90th percentile) were included. Spearman's correlation and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) were applied determining the associations between BMI or BF and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, elevated liver enzymes, abnormal carbohydrate metabolism). Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to predict cardiovascular risk factors. Results A significant association between both obesity indices and hypertension was present (all p correlation with BMI was stronger (r = 0.22) compared to BF (r = 0.13). There were no differences between BMI and BF regarding their correlation with other cardiovascular risk factors. BF significantly predicted hypertension (AUC = 0.61), decreased HDL-cholesterol (AUC = 0.58), elevated LDL-cholesterol (AUC = 0.59), elevated liver enzymes (AUC = 0.61) (all p < 0.0001), and elevated triglycerides (AUC = 0.57, p < 0.05), but not abnormal carbohydrate metabolism (AUC = 0.54, p = 0.15). For the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors, no significant differences between BMI and BF were observed. Conclusion BIA-derived BF was not superior to BMI to predict cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese children and adolescents. PMID:26087841

  10. Early menopause predicts future coronary heart disease and stroke: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellons, Melissa; Ouyang, Pamela; Schreiner, Pamela J; Herrington, David M; Vaidya, Dhananjay

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer of women. Identifying women at risk of cardiovascular disease has tremendous public health importance. Early menopause is associated with increased cardiovascular disease events in some predominantly white populations, but not consistently. Our objective was to determine if self-reported early menopause (menopause at an age menopause (either natural menopause or surgical removal of ovaries at an age menopause. In survival curves, women with early menopause had worse coronary heart disease and stroke-free survival (log rank P = 0.008 and P = 0.0158). In models adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, Multi-ethnic Study Atherosclerosis site, and traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, this risk for coronary heart disease and stroke remained (hazard ratio, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.17-3.70; and hazard ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.11-4.32, respectively). Early menopause is positively associated with coronary heart disease and stroke in a multiethnic cohort, independent of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors.

  11. An OMERACT reliability exercise of inflammatory and structural abnormalities in patients with knee osteoarthritis using ultrasound assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruyn, George Aw; Naredo, Esperanza; Damjanov, Nemanja

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether ultrasonography (US) is reliable for the evaluation of inflammatory and structural abnormalities in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Thirteen patients with early knee OA were examined by 11 experienced sonographers during 2 days. Dichotomous and semiqu......OBJECTIVE: To assess whether ultrasonography (US) is reliable for the evaluation of inflammatory and structural abnormalities in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Thirteen patients with early knee OA were examined by 11 experienced sonographers during 2 days. Dichotomous...

  12. Redundant roles of Sox17 and Sox18 in early cardiovascular development of mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Youhei; Hara, Kenshiro; Kanai-Azuma, Masami; Matsui, Toshiyasu; Miura, Yutaroh; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Saijoh, Yukio; Koopman, Peter; Kanai, Yoshiakira

    2007-01-01

    Sox7, -17 and -18 constitute the Sox subgroup F (SoxF) of HMG box transcription factor genes, which all are co-expressed in developing vascular endothelial cells in mice. Here we characterized cardiovascular phenotypes of Sox17/Sox18-double and Sox17-single null embryos during early-somite stages. Whole-mount PECAM staining demonstrated the aberrant heart looping, enlarged cardinal vein and mild defects in anterior dorsal aorta formation in Sox17 single-null embryos. The Sox17/Sox18 double-null embryos showed more severe defects in formation of anterior dorsal aorta and head/cervical microvasculature, and in some cases, aberrant differentiation of endocardial cells and defective fusion of the endocardial tube. However, the posterior dorsal aorta and allantoic microvasculature was properly formed in all of the Sox17/Sox18 double-null embryos. The anomalies in both anterior dorsal aorta and head/cervical vasculature corresponded with the weak Sox7 expression sites. This suggests the region-specific redundant activities of three SoxF members along the anteroposterior axis of embryonic vascular network

  13. Inhibition of Endothelial p53 Improves Metabolic Abnormalities Related to Dietary Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Yokoyama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has suggested a role for p53 activation in various age-associated conditions. Here, we identified a crucial role of endothelial p53 activation in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. Endothelial expression of p53 was markedly upregulated when mice were fed a high-calorie diet. Disruption of endothelial p53 activation improved dietary inactivation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase that upregulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α in skeletal muscle, thereby increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and oxygen consumption. Mice with endothelial cell-specific p53 deficiency fed a high-calorie diet showed improvement of insulin sensitivity and less fat accumulation, compared with control littermates. Conversely, upregulation of endothelial p53 caused metabolic abnormalities. These results indicate that inhibition of endothelial p53 could be a novel therapeutic target to block the vicious cycle of cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity.

  14. Cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and new diagnostic imaging techniques: the role of noninvasive image methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa JA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available José Augusto A Barbosa¹, Alexandre B Rodrigues¹, Cleonice Carvalho C Mota¹, Márcia M Barbosa², Ana C Simões e Silva¹¹Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; ²Ecocenter, Socor Hospital, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, BrazilAbstract: Obesity is a major public health problem affecting adults and children in both developed and developing countries. This condition often leads to metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A large number of studies have been carried out to understand the pathogenesis of cardiovascular dysfunction in obese patients. Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the progression of atherosclerosis and the development of coronary artery disease, hypertension and congestive heart failure. Noninvasive methods in the field of cardiovascular imaging, such as measuring intima-media thickness, flow-mediated dilatation, tissue Doppler, and strain, and strain rate, constitute new tools for the early detection of cardiac and vascular dysfunction. These techniques will certainly enable a better evaluation of initial cardiovascular injury and allow the correct, timely management of obese patients. The present review summarizes the main aspects of cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and discusses the application of recent noninvasive imaging methods for the early detection of cardiovascular alterations.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, endothelium dysfunction, obesity, strain and strain rate, tissue Doppler

  15. Are women with polycystic ovary syndrome at increased cardiovascular disease risk later in life?

    OpenAIRE

    Gunning, M. N.; Fauser, B. C.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    To date, the world’s leading cause of death amongst women is cardiovascular disease. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with an unfavorable cardiometabolic profile in early life. Apart from dyslipidemia, obesity and onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, androgens are thought to influence cardiovascular health. The question rises whether women with PCOS are truly at risk for cardiovascular disease in later life. In this review paper, we aim to reflect on this assumed relation based on...

  16. Metabolic profile and cardiovascular risk factors in adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Feki Mnif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, long-term glucocorticoid treatment coupled with increased androgens may lead to undesirable metabolic effects. The aim of our report was to determine the prevalence of metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular risk factors in a population of adult patients with CAH due to 21 hydroxylase deficiency. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six patients (11 males and 15 females, mean age ± SD=27.4±8.2 years were recruited. Anthropometry, body composition, metabolic parameters and cardiovascular risk factors were studied. Results: Obesity (overweight included was noted in 16 patients (61.5%, with android distribution in all cases. Bioelectrical impedance showed increased body fat mass in 12 patients (46.1%. Lipid profile alterations and carbohydrate metabolism disorders were detected in seven (26.9% and five (19.2% patients respectively. Moderate hepatic cytolysis, associated with hepatic steatosis, was found in one patient. Seven patients (27% had insulin resistance. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring showed abnormalities in six patients (23%. Increased carotid intima media thickness was found in 14 patients (53.8%. Conclusion: Adult CAH patients tend to have altered metabolic parameters and a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Lifelong follow-up, lifestyle modifications, and attempts to adjust and reduce the glucocorticoid doses seem important.

  17. Results of voluntary cardiovascular examination of elite athletes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tischer, Susanne Glasius; Mattsson, N; Storgaard, M

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the cardiovascular status of elite athletes in Denmark, the extent of abnormal cardiac findings--both training related and pathologic--and how participating in cardiac examination was perceived by the athletes. A standardized protocol of questionnaires, physical examination, resting...... a cardiac diagnosis; one athlete (0.2%) diagnosed with long QT syndrome was advised against competition level sports. In total, 60 athletes (11.6%) were referred for additional testing. The athletes presented a very low level of psychological stress before and a slight decrease immediately after...

  18. Improving clinical trials for cardiovascular diseases: a position paper from the Cardiovascular Round Table of the European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Neville; Atar, Dan; Borentain, Maria; Breithardt, Günter; van Eickels, Martin; Endres, Matthias; Fraass, Uwe; Friede, Tim; Hannachi, Hakima; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, Jörg; Landray, Martin; Lautsch, Dominik; Le Floch, Chantal; Mol, Peter; Naci, Huseyin; Samani, Nilesh J; Svensson, Anders; Thorstensen, Cathrine; Tijssen, Jan; Vandzhura, Victoria; Zalewski, Andrew; Kirchhof, Paulus

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality and morbidity in the world, but the pharmaceutical industry's willingness to invest in this field has declined because of the many challenges involved with bringing new cardiovascular drugs to market, including late-stage failures, escalating regulatory requirements, bureaucracy of the clinical trial business enterprise, and limited patient access after approval. This contrasts with the remaining burden of cardiovascular disease in Europe and in the world. Thus, clinical cardiovascular research needs to adapt to address the impact of these challenges in order to ensure development of new cardiovascular medicines. The present paper is the outcome of a two-day workshop held by the Cardiovascular Round Table of the European Society of Cardiology. We propose strategies to improve development of effective new cardiovascular therapies. These can include (i) the use of biomarkers to describe patients who will benefit from new therapies more precisely, achieving better human target validation; (ii) targeted, mechanism-based approaches to drug development for defined populations; (iii) the use of information technology to simplify data collection and follow-up in clinical trials; (iv) streamlining adverse event collection and reducing monitoring; (v) extended patent protection or limited rapid approval of new agents to motivate investment in early phase development; and (vi) collecting data needed for health technology assessment continuously throughout the drug development process (before and after approval) to minimize delays in patient access. Collaboration across industry, academia, regulators, and payers will be necessary to enact change and to unlock the existing potential for cardiovascular clinical drug development. A coordinated effort involving academia, regulators, industry, and payors will help to foster better and more effective conduct of clinical cardiovascular trials, supporting earlier

  19. Early Menopause Predicts Future Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellons, Melissa; Ouyang, Pamela; Schreiner, Pamela J; Herrington, David M; Vaidya, Dhananjay

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer of women. Identifying women at risk of cardiovascular disease has tremendous public health importance. Early menopause is associated with increased cardiovascular disease events in some predominantly white populations, but not consistently. Our objective was to determine if a self-reported early menopause (menopause at an age menopause (either natural menopause or surgical removal of ovaries at an age menopause. In survival curves, women with early menopause had worse coronary heart disease and stroke-free survival (log rank p=menopause is positively associated with coronary heart disease and stroke in a multiethnic cohort, independent of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:22692332

  20. Movement Disorders and Other Motor Abnormalities in Adults With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Erik; Butcher, Nancy J; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse AMJ; Lang, Anthony E; Marras, Connie; Pondal, Margarita; Andrade, Danielle M; Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Bassett, Anne S

    2015-01-01

    Movement abnormalities are frequently reported in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), but knowledge in this area is scarce in the increasing adult population. We report on five individuals illustrative of movement disorders and other motor abnormalities in adults with 22q11.2DS. In addition to an increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders, seizures, and early-onset Parkinson disease, the underlying brain dysfunction associated with 22q11.2DS may give rise to an increased vulnerability to multiple movement abnormalities, including those influenced by medications. Movement abnormalities may also be secondary to treatable endocrine diseases and congenital musculoskeletal abnormalities. We propose that movement abnormalities may be common in adults with 22q11.2DS and discuss the implications and challenges important to clinical practice. PMID:25684639

  1. Prevalence of stroke/cardiovascular risk factors in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, M.; Sipos, K.; Thuroczy, G.; Panczel, G.; Ilias, L.; Szonyi, P.; Bodo, M., Jr.; Nebella, T.; Banyasz, A.; Nagy, Z.

    2010-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hungary using the Cerberus system which includes: 1) a questionnaire addressing the risk factors for stroke/cardiovascular disease; 2) amplifiers to record the pulse waves of cerebral arteries (rheoencephalography) and peripheral arteries, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Additionally, subjects were measured for carotid stenosis by Doppler ultrasound and 12-lead electrocardiogram; subjects were also screened for blood cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels. Prevalence of the following stroke risk factors was identified: overweight, 63.25%; sclerotic brain arteries (by rheoencephalogram), 54.29%; heart disease, 37.92%; pathologic carotid flow, 34.24%; smoking, 30.55%; high blood cholesterol, 28.70%; hypertension, 27.83%; high triglyceride, 24.35%; abnormality in electrocardiogram, 20%; high glucose, 15.95%; symptoms of transient ischemic attack, 16.07%; alcohol abuse, 6.74%; and diabetes, 4.53%. The study demonstrates a possible model for primary cardiovascular disease/stroke prevention. This method offers a standardizable, cost effective, practical technique for mass screenings by identifying the population at high risk for cardiovascular disturbances, especially cerebrovascular disease (primary prevention). In this model, the rheoencephalogram can detect cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis in the susceptibility/presymptomatic phase, earlier than the Doppler ultrasound technique. The method also provides a model for storing analog physiological signals in a computer-based medical record and is a first step in applying an expert system to stroke prevention.

  2. [Sudden death and cardiovascular complications in Marfan syndrome: impact of surgical intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsubo, Satoshi; Itoh, Tsuyoshi

    2005-07-01

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue characterized by abnormalities involving the skeletal, ocular, and cardiovascular systems. The cardiovascular complications of the syndrome lead to a reduced life expectancy for affected individuals if left untreated. Major cause of death include acute aortic dissection, aortic rupture, and sudden death, which resulted from congenital vascular fragility. Such life-threatening complications in Marfan syndrome can be managed effectively, by routine aortic imaging, beta-adrenergic blockade, and prophylactic replacement of the aortic root before the diameter exceeds 5.0 to 5.5 mm. Valve preserving aortic root reconstruction yielded improved postoperative quality of life compared with Bentall operation, by reducing late complications related to anticoagulants. It should be carried out before onset of aortic regurgitation for long-term native valve durability.

  3. Cardiovascular diseases, depression disorders and potential effects of omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebatická, J; Dukát, A; Ďuračková, Z; Muchová, J

    2017-07-18

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and depressive disorders (DD) are two of the most prevalent health problems in the world. Although CVD and depression have different origin, they share some common pathophysiological characteristics and risk factors, such as the increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, endothelial dysfunction, blood flow abnormalities, decreased glucose metabolism, elevated plasma homocysteine levels, oxidative stress and disorder in vitamin D metabolism. Current findings confirm the common underlying factors for both pathologies, which are related to dramatic dietary changes in the mid-19th century. By changing dietary ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids from 1:1 to 15-20:1 some changes in metabolism were induced, such as increased pro-inflammatory mediators and modulations of different signaling pathways following pathophysiological response related to both, cardiovascular diseases and depressive disorders.

  4. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  5. Lipid and Some Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors Assessment in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cardiovascular diseases [CVDs]) in developing nations is imperative as it lays foundation for early preventive/intervention measures at grass root level to improve/prevent CVD morbidity and mortality in those nations where health indices still ...

  6. Improved detection rate of structural abnormalities in the first trimester using an extended examination protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, D; Tudorache, S; Comanescu, A; Antsaklis, P; Cotarcea, S; Novac, L; Cernea, N; Antsaklis, A

    2013-09-01

    To assess the potential of first-trimester sonography in the detection of fetal abnormalities using an extended protocol that is achievable with reasonable resources of time, personnel and ultrasound equipment. This was a prospective two-center 2-year study of 5472 consecutive unselected pregnant women examined at 12 to 13 + 6 gestational weeks. Women were examined using an extended morphogenetic ultrasound protocol that, in addition to the basic evaluation, involved a color Doppler cardiac sweep and identification of early contingent markers for major abnormalities. The prevalence of lethal and severe malformations was 1.39%. The first-trimester scan identified 40.6% of the cases detected overall and 76.3% of major structural defects. The first-trimester detection rate (DR) for major congenital heart disease (either isolated or associated with extracardiac abnormalities) was 90% and that for major central nervous system anomalies was 69.5%. In fetuses with increased nuchal translucency (NT), the first-trimester DR for major anomalies was 96%, and in fetuses with normal NT it was 66.7%. Most (67.1%) cases with major abnormalities presented with normal NT. A detailed first-trimester anomaly scan using an extended protocol is an efficient screening method to detect major fetal structural abnormalities in low-risk pregnancies. It is feasible at 12 to 13 + 6 weeks with ultrasound equipment and personnel already used for routine first-trimester screening. Rate of detection of severe malformations is greater in early- than in mid-pregnancy and on postnatal evaluation. Early heart investigation could be improved by an extended protocol involving use of color Doppler. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Intraspinal anomalies in early-onset idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, E A C; Oxenham, M; Lam, K S

    2017-06-01

    In the United Kingdom, lower incidences of intraspinal abnormalities in patients with early onset idiopathic scoliosis have been observed than in studies in other countries. We aimed to determine the rates of these abnormalities in United Kingdom patients diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis before the age of 11 years. This retrospective study of patients attending an urban scoliosis clinic identified 71 patients satisfying a criteria of: clinical diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis; age of onset ten years and 11 months or less; MRI screening for intraspinal abnormalities. United Kingdom census data combined with patient referral data was used to calculate incidence. Mean age at diagnosis was six years with 39 right-sided and 32 left-sided curves. Four patients (5.6%) were found to have intraspinal abnormalities on MRI. These consisted of: two combined Arnold-Chiari type 1 malformations with syrinx; one syrinx with a low lying conus; and one isolated syrinx. Overall annual incidence of early onset idiopathic scoliosis was one out of 182 000 (0.0006%). This study reports the lowest rates to date of intraspinal anomalies in patients with early onset idiopathic scoliosis, adding to knowledge regarding current incidences of these abnormalities as well as any geographical variation in the nature of the disease. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:829-33. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  8. Complications of acromegaly: cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivonello, Rosario; Auriemma, Renata S; Grasso, Ludovica F S; Pivonello, Claudia; Simeoli, Chiara; Patalano, Roberta; Galdiero, Mariano; Colao, Annamaria

    2017-02-01

    Acromegaly is associated with an enhanced mortality, with cardiovascular and respiratory complications representing not only the most frequent comorbidities but also two of the main causes of deaths, whereas a minor role is played by metabolic complications, and particularly diabetes mellitus. The most prevalent cardiovascular complications of acromegaly include a cardiomyopathy, characterized by cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic and systolic dysfunction together with arterial hypertension, cardiac rhythm disorders and valve diseases, as well as vascular endothelial dysfunction. Biochemical control of acromegaly significantly improves cardiovascular disease, albeit completely recovering to normal mainly in young patients with short disease duration. Respiratory complications, represented mainly by sleep-breathing disorders, particularly sleep apnea, and respiratory insufficiency, frequently occur at the early stage of the disease and, although their severity decreases with disease control, this improvement does not often change the indication for a specific therapy directed to improve respiratory function. Metabolic complications, including glucose and lipid disorders, are variably reported in acromegaly. Treatments of acromegaly may influence glucose metabolism, and the presence of diabetes mellitus in acromegaly may affect the choice of treatments, so that glucose homeostasis is worth being monitored during the entire course of the disease. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of acromegaly, aimed at obtaining a strict control of hormone excess, are the best strategy to limit the development or reverse the complications and prevent the premature mortality.

  9. Practice points in gynecardiology: Abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women taking oral anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Angela H E M; Euler, Mia von; Bongers, Marlies Y; Rolden, Herbert J A; Grutters, Janneke P C; Ulrich, Lian; Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin

    2015-12-01

    A growing number of premenopausal women are currently using antithrombotic and/or (dual) antiplatelet therapy for various cardiovascular indications. These may induce or exacerbate abnormal uterine bleeding and more awareness and knowledge among prescribers is required. Heavy and irregular menstrual bleeding is common in women in their forties and may have a variety of underlying causes that require different treatment options. Thus using anticoagulants in premenopausal women demands specific expertise and close collaboration between cardiovascular physicians and gynecologists. In this article we summarize the scope of the problem and provide practical recommendations for the care for young women taking anticoagulants and/or (dual) antiplatelet therapy. We also recommend that more safety data on uterine bleeding with novel anticoagulants in premenopausal women should be obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Presurgical evaluation of cerebral perfusion reserve in patients for cardiovascular surgery using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT with diamox enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Kaname; Nakashima, Hiromichi; Tanaka, Kuniyoshi; Kitano, Tokio; Murashima, Shuichi; Takeda, Kan; Yuasa, Hiroshi; Yada, Isao; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-03-01

    Cerebrovascular stroke is one of the major complications in cardiovascular surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of preoperative {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT and acetazolamide (diamox) enhancement to predict neurological complications in cardiovascular surgery. Eighteen patients with coronary disease, valvular disease or aortic aneurysm were studied before the operations. Regional cerebral blood flow and perfusion reserve were evaluated using ECD SPECT before and after the intravenous administration of diamox (1 g). Three cases with moderate to severe baseline abnormalities and poor perfusion reserve had cerebral infarction postoperatively. Twelve cases with good to fair perfusion reserve had no neurological complication. Three cases having poor perfusion reserve had the operations with more intensive brain protection, in which higher perfusion pressure to the brain was maintained during cardiopulmonary bypass, and no neurological complication was observed. In conclusion, patients who have moderately or markedly abnormal baseline flow with poor perfusion reserve may have some risk of neurological complications in cardiovascular surgery. ECD SPECT with diamox enhancement may give information useful for selection of operation procedures. (author).

  11. Posterior fossa abnormalities in high-risk term infants: comparison of ultrasound and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steggerda, S.J.; Smits-Wintjens, V.E.H.J.; Verbon, P.; Walther, F.J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Neonatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Bruine, F.T. de [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Wezel-Meijler, G. van [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Isala Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    2015-09-15

    We aimed to assess the characteristics of posterior fossa (PF) abnormalities in a cohort of high-risk term neonates, as well as the diagnostic performance of cranial ultrasound (CUS) with additional mastoid fontanelle (MF) views for the detection of these abnormalities, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) being the reference standard. In this retrospective study, 113 term neonates with CUS and subsequent MRI were included. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of routine CUS and CUS with MF views were calculated. Posterior fossa abnormalities were diagnosed on CUS in 46 of 113 infants. MRI confirmed these findings in 43 and showed additional abnormalities in 32 infants. The sensitivity and specificity of anterior fontanelle views for major PF abnormalities as seen on MRI were 16 % and 99 %. Adding MF views increased the sensitivity of US to 82 %. The sensitivity and specificity of MF views for the detection of any (major or minor) PF abnormality were 57 % and 95 %. Especially acute hypoxic-ischemic injury and small subdural and punctate cerebellar haemorrhage remained undetected by CUS. PF abnormalities are frequent in high-risk term infants. MF-CUS enables early diagnosis of major PF abnormalities. We therefore advocate to perform MF-CUS in high-risk term neonates. (orig.)

  12. Posterior fossa abnormalities in high-risk term infants: comparison of ultrasound and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steggerda, S.J.; Smits-Wintjens, V.E.H.J.; Verbon, P.; Walther, F.J.; Bruine, F.T. de; Wezel-Meijler, G. van

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the characteristics of posterior fossa (PF) abnormalities in a cohort of high-risk term neonates, as well as the diagnostic performance of cranial ultrasound (CUS) with additional mastoid fontanelle (MF) views for the detection of these abnormalities, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) being the reference standard. In this retrospective study, 113 term neonates with CUS and subsequent MRI were included. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of routine CUS and CUS with MF views were calculated. Posterior fossa abnormalities were diagnosed on CUS in 46 of 113 infants. MRI confirmed these findings in 43 and showed additional abnormalities in 32 infants. The sensitivity and specificity of anterior fontanelle views for major PF abnormalities as seen on MRI were 16 % and 99 %. Adding MF views increased the sensitivity of US to 82 %. The sensitivity and specificity of MF views for the detection of any (major or minor) PF abnormality were 57 % and 95 %. Especially acute hypoxic-ischemic injury and small subdural and punctate cerebellar haemorrhage remained undetected by CUS. PF abnormalities are frequent in high-risk term infants. MF-CUS enables early diagnosis of major PF abnormalities. We therefore advocate to perform MF-CUS in high-risk term neonates. (orig.)

  13. The concept of Maslow's pyramid for cardiovascular health and its impact on "change cycle".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behjati, Mohaddeseh

    2014-01-01

    Since the leading cause of morbidity and mortality is cardiovascular diseases, every individual should think regularly about possessing and maintaining cardiovascular health. In reality, this self-processing is delayed until the occurrence of complications related to cardiovascular inefficiency manifested as chest pain and/or dyspnea. However, people should be trained to think about their cardiovascular health issues as a vital need from early childhood. This goal is achievable by understanding it as a "true human derive" and its consecutive "behaviors". Most people are unaware of their real needs, and even if they know all of their cardiovascular needs, this knowledge is not projected in their behaviors. In the present paper, I try to outline the Herzberg two-factor hypothesis and Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

  14. In a Heartbeat: Light and Cardiovascular Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Chellappa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Light impinging on the retina fulfils a dual function: it serves for vision and it is required for proper entrainment of the endogenous circadian timing system to the 24-h day, thus influencing behaviors that promote health and optimal quality of life but are independent of image formation. The circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei modulates the cardiovascular system with an intrinsic ability to anticipate morning solar time and with a circadian nature of adverse cardiovascular events. Here, we infer that light exposure might affect cardiovascular function and provide evidence from existing research. Findings show a time-of-day dependent increase in relative sympathetic tone associated with bright light in the morning but not in the evening hours. Furthermore, dynamic light in the early morning hours can reduce the deleterious sleep-to-wake evoked transition on cardiac modulation. On the contrary, effects of numerous light parameters, such as illuminance level and wavelength of monochromatic light, on cardiac function are mixed. Therefore, in future research studies, light modalities, such as timing, duration, and its wavelength composition, should be taken in to account when testing the potential of light as a non-invasive countermeasure for adverse cardiovascular events.

  15. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Amarenco, Pierre; Andreotti, Felicita; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L.; Descamps, Olivier S.; Fisher, Edward; Kovanen, Petri T.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Lesnik, Philippe; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Ray, Kausik K.; Reiner, Zeljko; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F.

    2011-01-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density

  16. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Amarenco, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipop...

  17. Computational medical imaging and hemodynamics framework for functional analysis and assessment of cardiovascular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kelvin K L; Wang, Defeng; Ko, Jacky K L; Mazumdar, Jagannath; Le, Thu-Thao; Ghista, Dhanjoo

    2017-03-21

    Cardiac dysfunction constitutes common cardiovascular health issues in the society, and has been an investigation topic of strong focus by researchers in the medical imaging community. Diagnostic modalities based on echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, chest radiography and computed tomography are common techniques that provide cardiovascular structural information to diagnose heart defects. However, functional information of cardiovascular flow, which can in fact be used to support the diagnosis of many cardiovascular diseases with a myriad of hemodynamics performance indicators, remains unexplored to its full potential. Some of these indicators constitute important cardiac functional parameters affecting the cardiovascular abnormalities. With the advancement of computer technology that facilitates high speed computational fluid dynamics, the realization of a support diagnostic platform of hemodynamics quantification and analysis can be achieved. This article reviews the state-of-the-art medical imaging and high fidelity multi-physics computational analyses that together enable reconstruction of cardiovascular structures and hemodynamic flow patterns within them, such as of the left ventricle (LV) and carotid bifurcations. The combined medical imaging and hemodynamic analysis enables us to study the mechanisms of cardiovascular disease-causing dysfunctions, such as how (1) cardiomyopathy causes left ventricular remodeling and loss of contractility leading to heart failure, and (2) modeling of LV construction and simulation of intra-LV hemodynamics can enable us to determine the optimum procedure of surgical ventriculation to restore its contractility and health This combined medical imaging and hemodynamics framework can potentially extend medical knowledge of cardiovascular defects and associated hemodynamic behavior and their surgical restoration, by means of an integrated medical image diagnostics and hemodynamic performance analysis framework.

  18. A null mutation of Hhex results in abnormal cardiac development, defective vasculogenesis and elevated Vegfa levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallaq, Haifa; Pinter, Emese; Enciso, Josephine; McGrath, James; Zeiss, Caroline; Brueckner, Martina; Madri, Joseph; Jacobs, Harris C; Wilson, Christine M; Vasavada, Hemaxi; Jiang, Xiaobing; Bogue, Clifford W

    2004-10-01

    The homeobox gene Hhex has recently been shown to be essential for normal liver, thyroid and forebrain development. Hhex(-/-) mice die by mid-gestation (E14.5) and the cause of their early demise remains unclear. Because Hhex is expressed in the developing blood islands at E7.0 in the endothelium of the developing vasculature and heart at E9.0-9.5, and in the ventral foregut endoderm at E8.5-9.0, it has been postulated to play a critical role in heart and vascular development. We show here, for the first time, that a null mutation of Hhex results in striking abnormalities of cardiac and vascular development which include: (1) defective vasculogenesis, (2) hypoplasia of the right ventricle, (3) overabundant endocardial cushions accompanied by ventricular septal defects, outflow tract abnormalities and atrio-ventricular (AV) valve dysplasia and (4) aberrant development of the compact myocardium. The dramatic enlargement of the endocardial cushions in the absence of Hhex is due to decreased apoptosis and dysregulated epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT). Interestingly, vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) levels in the hearts of Hhex(-/-) mice were elevated as much as three-fold between E9.5 and E11.5, and treatment of cultured Hhex(-/-) AV explants with truncated soluble Vegfa receptor 1, sFlt-1, an inhibitor of Vegf signaling, completely abolished the excessive epithelial-mesenchymal transformation seen in the absence of Hhex. Therefore, Hhex expression in the ventral foregut endoderm and/or the endothelium is necessary for normal cardiovascular development in vivo, and one function of Hhex is to repress Vegfa levels during development.

  19. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Amarenco, Pierre; Andreotti, Felicita; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L.; Descamps, Olivier S.; Fisher, Edward; Kovanen, Petri T.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Lesnik, Philippe; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Ray, Kausik K.; Reiner, Zeljko; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F.

    2011-01-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and (ii) to advise on therapeutic strategies for management. Current evidence supports a causal association between elevated TRL and their remnants, low HDL-C, and cardiovascular risk. This interpretation is based on mechanistic and genetic studies for TRL and remnants, together with the epidemiological data suggestive of the association for circulating triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. For HDL, epidemiological, mechanistic, and clinical intervention data are consistent with the view that low HDL-C contributes to elevated cardiovascular risk; genetic evidence is unclear however, potentially reflecting the complexity of HDL metabolism. The Panel believes that therapeutic targeting of elevated triglycerides (≥1.7 mmol/L or 150 mg/dL), a marker of TRL and their remnants, and/or low HDL-C (<1.0 mmol/L or 40 mg/dL) may provide further benefit. The first step should be lifestyle interventions together with consideration of compliance with pharmacotherapy and secondary causes of dyslipidaemia. If inadequately corrected, adding niacin or a fibrate, or intensifying LDL-C lowering therapy may be considered. Treatment decisions regarding statin combination therapy should take into account relevant safety concerns, i.e. the risk of elevation of blood glucose, uric acid or liver enzymes with niacin, and myopathy, increased serum creatinine and cholelithiasis with fibrates. These recommendations will facilitate reduction in the substantial cardiovascular risk that persists in patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities at LDL-C goal. PMID:21531743

  20. Abnormality diagnostic technology for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Satoshi

    1986-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, it is feared that the failure of the installations containing radioactive substances may inflict serious damage on public and workers. Therefore in nuclear power plants, the ensuring of safety is planned by supposing hypothetical accidents which are not likely to occur from engineering viewpoint, and multiple protection measures are taken in the plant constitution. In addition to the safety measures from such hardware aspect, recently in order to prevent the occurrence of accidents by using various safety-confirming means, and to detect early when any accident occurred, the development and putting in practical use of many monitoring equipments have been promoted. In such background, the development of nuclear power generation supporting system was carried out for five years since fiscal year 1980, subsidized by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and in this report, the technology of equipment abnormality diagnosis developed as a part of that project and the diagnostic techniques for actual plants are described. The technology of diagnosing nuclear reactor abnormality includes the diagnosis of loose metal pieces and the abnormal vibration of in-core structures. The detection and diagnosis of valve leak and the diagnosis of the deterioration of detectors are also explained. (Kako, I.)

  1. Abnormal lung function at preschool age asthma in adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajunen, Katariina; Kalliola, Satu; Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Anne; Sarna, Seppo; Malmberg, L Pekka; Pelkonen, Anna S; Mäkelä, Mika J

    2018-05-01

    Asthma often begins early in childhood. However, the risk for persistence is challenging to evaluate. This longitudinal study relates lung function assessed with impulse oscillometry (IOS) in preschool children to asthma in adolescence. Lung function was measured with IOS in 255 children with asthma-like symptoms aged 4-7 years. Baseline measurements were followed by exercise challenge and bronchodilation tests. At age 12-16 years, 121 children participated in the follow-up visit, when lung function was assessed with spirometry, followed by a bronchodilation test. Asthma symptoms and medication were recorded by a questionnaire and atopy defined by skin prick tests. Abnormal baseline values in preschool IOS were significantly associated with low lung function, the need for asthma medication, and asthma symptoms in adolescence. Preschool abnormal R5 at baseline (z-score ≥1.645 SD) showed 9.2 odds ratio (95%CI 2.7;31.7) for abnormal FEV1/FVC, use of asthma medication in adolescence, and 9.9 odds ratio (95%CI 2.9;34.4) for asthma symptoms. Positive exercise challenge and modified asthma-predictive index at preschool age predicted asthma symptoms and the need for asthma medication, but not abnormal lung function at teenage. Abnormal preschool IOS is associated with asthma and poor lung function in adolescence and might be utilised for identification of asthma persistence. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A case of linear nevus sebaceous syndrome showing abnormalities by head CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoshio; Kuraya, Kazue; Sumiyoshi, Minoru; Seki, Shuichiro; Murakami, Naoki

    1982-01-01

    A female baby weighing 2,702 g, who was delivered spontaneously after 37 weeks of gestation, showed linear nevus sebaceous syndrome with abnormalities on EEG and head CT scan. Immediately after birth, the baby showed abnormalities of the skin in the left half of the body, especially from the head to the face. At the same time, EEG showed a low voltage on the affected side, and head CT scan showed expansion of the lateral ventricle. Funduscopic findings showed retinochoroidal toxoplasmosis-like degeneration. This disease has been rarely reported. An early diagnosis is seemed to be important since the skin lesion per se was premalignant, and generalized abnormalities including those of the central nervous system occurred concurrently. (Chiba, N.)

  3. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease: links and prevention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Kristen J.; Maahs, David M.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Eckel, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of pediatric obesity have dramatically increased since the late 1980s, raising concerns about a subsequent increase in cardiovascular outcomes. Strong evidence, particularly from autopsy studies, supports the concept that precursors of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) begin in childhood, and that pediatric obesity has an important influence on overall CVD risk. Lifestyle patterns also begin early and impact CVD risk. In addition, obesity and other CVD risk factors tend to persist over time. However, whether childhood obesity causes adult CVD directly, or does so by persisting as adult obesity, or both, is less clear. Regardless, sufficient data exist to warrant early implementation of both obesity prevention and treatment in youth and adults. In this Review, we examine the evidence supporting the impact of childhood obesity on adult obesity, surrogate markers of CVD, components of the metabolic syndrome, and the development of CVD. We also evaluate how obesity treatment strategies can improve risk factors and, ultimately, adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:21670745

  4. Riesgo cardiovascular, una herramienta útil para la prevención de las enfermedades cardiovasculares Cardiovascular risk, a useful tool for prevention of cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Vega Abascal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El riesgo cardiovascular se define como la probabilidad de padecer un evento cardiovascular en un determinado período. Mejorar la exactitud en la predicción del riesgo requiere la evaluación y el tratamiento de múltiples factores de riesgo cardiovascular, los que tienen un efecto sinérgico, más que aditivo, sobre el riesgo cardiovascular total. El cálculo utilizando métodos cuantitativos es más preciso que el obtenido con métodos cualitativos. La predicción del riesgo cardiovascular ha constituido, en los últimos años, la piedra angular en las guías clínicas de prevención cardiovascular, y deviene una herramienta útil del Médico de Familia para establecer prioridades en la atención primaria, mejorando la atención a los pacientes y eligiendo más eficazmente la terapéutica a seguir, con el objetivo de acercarnos más a la realidad multifactorial de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y a su prevención.The cardiovascular risk is defined like a probability of suffering a cardiovascular event in a determined period. To improve the accuracy in risk prediction requires the assessment and treatment of different cardiovascular risk factors, which have a synergistic effect more than additive on the total cardiovascular risk. The calculus using quantitative methods is more accurate than that obtained with qualitative methods. The prediction of cardiovascular risk has been in past years the cornerstone in clinical guidances of cardiovascular prevention and becomes an useful tool for Family Physician to establish priorities in the primary care, improving the patients care and selecting in a more effective way the therapy to be followed to bring closer more to multifactor reality of cardiovascular diseases and its prevention.

  5. Cardiovascular Risk Factors among First Year Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Krishna Dangol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Detection of cardiovascular risk in young age is important to motivate them to modify life styles and seek health care early to lower the chances of acquiring cardiovascular disease in later age. This study was done to assess cardiovascular risk factors among first year medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted throughout September and October 2017 in which all first year medical students from a medical college were assessed for the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Participants’ demography, family history of illness, anthropometric measurements, and blood reports of lipid profile and fasting glucose were acquired. Data were analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS-21. Result: There were 99 participants; 55 males and 44 females. One or more risk factors were present in 87 (87.9% participants. Moreover, 67.7% (n = 67 participants had more than one risk factors. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most common (n = 55, 55.6% risk factor followed by elevated triacylglycerol (n = 47, 47.5% and family history of hypertension (n = 45, 45.5%. There was no significant difference in presence of various risk factors between genders. Conclusion: There was higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among first year medical students. Majority of them had more than one risk factors. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most common risk factor. The risk factors were comparable in males and females.

  6. Radiation-induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities in breast cancer patients following external beam radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Mohammad; Anbiaei, Robabeh; Zamani, Hanie; Fallahi, Babak; Beiki, Davood; Ameri, Ahmad; Emami-Ardekani, Alireza; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Gholamrezanezhad, Ali; Seid Ratki, Kazem Razavi; Roknabadi, Alireza Momen

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy for breast cancer can induce myocardial capillary injury and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A prospective cohort was conducted to study the prevalence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities following radiation therapy of left-sided breast cancer patients as compared to those with right-sided cancer. To minimize potential confounding factors, only those patients with low 10-year risk of coronary artery disease (based on Framingham risk scoring) were included. All patients were initially treated by modified radical mastectomy and then were managed by postoperative 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy (CRT) to the surgical bed with an additional 1-cm margin, delivered by 46-50 Gy (in 2 Gy daily fractions) over a 5-week course. The same dose-adjusted chemotherapy regimen (including anthracyclines, cyclophosphamide and taxol) was given to all patients. Six months after radiation therapy, all patients underwent cardiac SPECT for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion. A total of 71 patients with a mean age of 45.3±7.2 years [35 patients with leftsided breast cancer (exposed) and 36 patients with right-sided cancer (controls)] were enrolled. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) [showing the percentage of the heart exposed to >50% of radiation] was significantly higher in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Visual interpretation detected perfusion abnormalities in 42.9% of cases and 16.7% of controls (P=0.02, Odds ratio=1.46). In semiquantitative segmental analysis, only apical (28.6% versus 8.3%, P=0.03) and anterolateral (17.1% versus 2.8%, P=0.049) walls showed significantly reduced myocardial perfusion in the exposed group. Summed Stress Score (SSS) of>3 was observed in twelve cases (34.3%), while in five of the controls (13.9%),(Odds ratio=1.3). There was no significant difference between the groups regarding left ventricular ejection fraction. The risk of radiation induced myocardial perfusion abnormality in patients treated with CRT on the

  7. Advances in gene therapy and early imaging monitoring for avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Lan Xiaoli; Zhang Yongxue; Qi Hongyan

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy is a method that transfers foreign gene to target cells, so as to correct or compensate the disease which is caused by the gene defects and abnormalities. As a new technology, gene therapy has been used in many fields, such as cancer, cardiovascular and nervous system disease, and it brings some hope for patients with difficult and complicated disease. Avascular necrosis of femoral head is a refractory and common disease in clinical, but the traditional surgery therapy and conservative treatment both have many shortcomings,and the effect is unsatisfactory. As a new technology,gene therapy showed bright future in orthopedics ischemic disease, and its potential feasibility has been confirmed by many animal experiments. This article focuses on the research progress of gene therapy and early monitoring in the avascular necrosis of the femoral head. (authors)

  8. DEFEAT OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM IN VIRAL INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sharipova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to studying of the submitted epidemiological, clinical, tool, laboratory data on pathology of cardiovascular system at various viral infections. The review is based on results of domestic and foreign researches. At viral infections damage of heart and his carrying-out system perhaps as during the sharp period of a disease, and the period of a convalescence or at the chronic course of virus process. The greatest cardiothrogenism is possessed by enteroviruses, which affect the myocardium in 5–15% of cases. Much attention is paid to herpesviruses, widespread, persistently persistent in the body, as one of the reasons for the development of dilated cardiomyopathy, coronary vasculitis, early atherosclerosis, cardiac rhythm disturbance. Other infections that may affect the cardiovascular system include influenza viruses, adenovirus, poliovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis, mumps, rubella, herpes simplex, varicella, arbovirus, respiratory-syntial virus, yellow fever virus et al. Complications from cardiovascular system can come to light at various age.

  9. Early White-Matter Abnormalities of the Ventral Frontostriatal Pathway in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Brian W.; Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Lightbody, Amy A.; Patnaik, Swetapadma S.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Hazlett, Heather; Piven, Joseph; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Fragile X syndrome is associated with cognitive deficits in inhibitory control and with abnormal neuronal morphology and development. Method: In this study, we used a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography approach to reconstruct white-matter fibers in the ventral frontostriatal pathway in young males with fragile X syndrome (n = 17;…

  10. Abnormal Grief: Should We Consider a More Patient-Centered Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayedoddin, Babak; Markowitz, John C

    2015-01-01

    Grief, the psychological reaction to the loss of a significant other, varies complexly in its cause, experience, evolution, and prognosis. Although most bereaved individuals experience a normal grieving process, some develop complicated grief (CG) or major depressive disorder (MDD). The DSM-5, which controversially altered the nosology, recognizes grief-related major depression (GRMD) as a diagnostic subtype if a patient meets MDD criteria two weeks post bereavement. The (DSM-5) tries to distinguish between grief and MDD, but remains a symptom-based, centered approach to grief that is not patient centered. This article reviews grief in its normal and abnormal dimensions. Using an illustrative clinical case in which interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) was employed, we discuss the need for a more patient-centered approach to treating abnormal grief, considering the patient's personal history, perceptions, experiences of bereavement, and interpersonal environment. Clinical studies need to better identify subgroups of individuals susceptible to abnormal grief and to evaluate their response to early interventions.

  11. Homeostatic effect of laughter on diabetic cardiovascular complications: The myth turned to fact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureldein, Mohamed H; Eid, Assaad A

    2018-01-01

    Laughter has been used for centuries to alleviate pain in morbid conditions. It was not until 1976 that scientists thought about laughter as a form of therapy that can modulate hormonal and immunological parameters that affect the outcome of many serious diseases. Moreover, laughter therapy was shown to be beneficial in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by delaying the onset of many diabetic complications. Laughter is also described to influence the cardiovascular and endothelial functions and thus may protect against diabetic cardiovascular complications. In this review, we outline the different biochemical, physiological and immunological mechanisms by which laughter may influence the overall state of wellbeing and enhance disease prognosis. We also focus on the biological link between laughter therapy and diabetic cardiovascular complications as well as the underlying mechanisms involved in T2DM. Reviewing all the essential databases for "laughter" and "type 2 diabetes mellitus". Although laughter therapy is still poorly investigated, recent studies show that laughter may retard the onset of diabetic complications, enhance cardiovascular functions and rectify homeostatic abnormalities associated with T2DM. Laughter therapy is effective in delaying diabetic complications and should be used as an adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance for the detection of myocardial ischemia with the use of myocardial tagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Dirkjan; Ho, Kai Yiu J A M; van Dijkman, Paul R M; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of high-dose dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) with myocardial tagging for the detection of wall motion abnormalities as a measure of myocardial ischemia in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. Two hundred eleven consecutive patients with chest pain underwent dobutamine-CMR 4 days after antianginal medication was stopped. Dobutamine-CMR was performed at rest and during increasing doses of dobutamine. Cine-images were acquired during breath-hold with and without myocardial tagging at 3 short-axis levels. Regional wall motion was assessed in a 16-segment short-axis model. Patients with new wall motion abnormalities (NWMA) were examined by coronary angiography. Dobutamine-CMR was successfully performed in 194 patients. Dobutamine-CMR without tagging detected NWMA in 58 patients, whereas NWMA were detected in 68 patients with tagging (P=0.002, McNemar). Coronary angiography showed coronary artery disease in 65 (96%) of these 68 patients. All but 3 of the 65 patients needed revascularization. In the 112 patients with a negative dobutamine-CMR study, without baseline wall motion abnormalities, the cardiovascular occurrence-free survival rate was 98.2% during the mean follow-up period of 17.3 months (range, 7 to 31). Dobutamine-CMR with myocardial tagging detected more NWMA compared with dobutamine-CMR without tagging and reliably separated patients with a normal life expectancy from those at increased risk of major adverse cardiac events.

  13. Early versus late tracheostomy in cardiovascular intensive care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Wilfredo; Jerath, Angela; Djaiani, George; Cabrerizo Sanchez, Rosa; Wąsowicz, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Benefits of tracheostomy have been well established. Most of the literature, refers these benefits to general intensive care population, excluding cardiac surgery or including only small number of these patients. On the other hand, there is no clear definition describing the proper time to perform the procedure and defining what are potential benefits of early compared to late tracheostomy. This retrospective cohort aims to assess the potential benefits of early tracheostomy on post-operative outcomes, length of stay and post-tracheostomy complications within cardiac surgical population. After obtaining REB approval, we conducted a retrospective chart review in a single, tertiary care institution, identifying patients who underwent tracheostomy after cardiac surgery from 1999 to 2006. Time-to-tracheostomy was defined as "early" if tracheostomy. 32 (22%) patients underwent early tracheostomy and 115 (78%) late tracheostomy. Incidence of atrial fibrillation (31.2% vs 61.7%; P = 0.003), kidney dysfunction (6.3% vs 27.2%; P=0.015) and kidney failure 18.8% vs 43.5%; P = 0.013) were lower in the early tracheostomy group. There were no differences on post tracheostomy infection or presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Both the ICU and hospital length of stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy group, 21.5 (ET) vs 36.9 (LT) days and 37.5 (ET) vs 57.6 (LT) days respectively. There were no differences in mortality between groups. There are significant benefits in reduction of postoperative morbidities with overall shorter ICU and hospital stay. These benefits may promote faster patient rehabilitation with reduced healthcare costs.

  14. Multi-modality imaging review of congenital abnormalities of kidney and upper urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Subramaniyan; Kumar, Devendra; Khanna, Maneesh; Al Heidous, Mahmoud; Sheikh, Adnan; Virmani, Vivek; Palaniappan, Yegu

    2016-02-28

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) include a wide range of abnormalities ranging from asymptomatic ectopic kidneys to life threatening renal agenesis (bilateral). Many of them are detected in the antenatal or immediate postnatal with a significant proportion identified in the adult population with varying degree of severity. CAKUT can be classified on embryological basis in to abnormalities in the renal parenchymal development, aberrant embryonic migration and abnormalities of the collecting system. Renal parenchymal abnormalities include multi cystic dysplastic kidneys, renal hypoplasia, number (agenesis or supernumerary), shape and cystic renal diseases. Aberrant embryonic migration encompasses abnormal location and fusion anomalies. Collecting system abnormalities include duplex kidneys and Pelvi ureteric junction obstruction. Ultrasonography (US) is typically the first imaging performed as it is easily available, non-invasive and radiation free used both antenatally and postnatally. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful to confirm the ultrasound detected abnormality, detection of complex malformations, demonstration of collecting system and vascular anatomy and more importantly for early detection of complications like renal calculi, infection and malignancies. As CAKUT are one of the leading causes of end stage renal disease, it is important for the radiologists to be familiar with the varying imaging appearances of CAKUT on US, CT and MRI, thereby helping in prompt diagnosis and optimal management.

  15. Abnormal compression wood in Pinus taeda : a review of current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abnormal compression wood in P. taeda stands was first discovered in the early 1980s. Since then several research projects and surveys have been carried out in order to develop a better understanding of the problem and to try to find a solution. Currently a large proportion of the sawmill intake of logs in the Mpumalanga ...

  16. Abnormal Eye Movements in Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Michael P.; Cohen, Mark; Petersen, Robert B.; Halmagyi, G. Michael; McDougall, Alan; Tusa, Ronald J.; Leigh, R. John

    1993-01-01

    We report 3 patients with autopsy-proven Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease who, early in their course, developed abnormal eye movements that included periodic alternating nystagmus and slow vertical saccades. These findings suggested involvement of the cerebellar nodulus and uvula, and the brainstem reticular formation, respectively. Cerebellar ataxia was also an early manifestation and, in one patient, a frontal lobe brain biopsy was normal at a time when ocular motor and cerebellar signs were conspicuous. As the disease progressed, all saccades and quick phases of nystagmus were lost, but periodic alternating gaze deviation persisted. At autopsy, 2 of the 3 patients had pronounced involvement of the cerebellum, especially of the midline structures. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease should be considered in patients with subacute progressive neurological disease when cognitive changes are overshadowed by ocular motor findings or ataxia.

  17. The concept of Maslow's pyramid for cardiovascular health and its impact on “change cycle”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behjati, Mohaddeseh

    2014-01-01

    Since the leading cause of morbidity and mortality is cardiovascular diseases, every individual should think regularly about possessing and maintaining cardiovascular health. In reality, this self-processing is delayed until the occurrence of complications related to cardiovascular inefficiency manifested as chest pain and/or dyspnea. However, people should be trained to think about their cardiovascular health issues as a vital need from early childhood. This goal is achievable by understanding it as a "true human derive" and its consecutive "behaviors". Most people are unaware of their real needs, and even if they know all of their cardiovascular needs, this knowledge is not projected in their behaviors. In the present paper, I try to outline the Herzberg two-factor hypothesis and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. PMID:24963317

  18. Global Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes of Reduced GFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bernadette; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Ärnlöv, Johan; Asayama, Kei; Atkins, Robert; Badawi, Alaa; Ballew, Shoshana H; Banerjee, Amitava; Barregård, Lars; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Basu, Sanjay; Bello, Aminu K; Bensenor, Isabela; Bergstrom, Jaclyn; Bikbov, Boris; Blosser, Christopher; Brenner, Hermann; Carrero, Juan-Jesus; Chadban, Steve; Cirillo, Massimo; Cortinovis, Monica; Courville, Karen; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Estep, Kara; Fernandes, João; Fischer, Florian; Fox, Caroline; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gona, Philimon N; Gutierrez, Orlando M; Hamidi, Samer; Hanson, Sarah Wulf; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Jassal, Simerjot K; Jee, Sun Ha; Jha, Vivekanand; Jimenez-Corona, Aida; Jonas, Jost B; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Khader, Yousef; Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Yun Jin; Klein, Barbara; Klein, Ronald; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kolte, Dhaval; Lee, Kristine; Levey, Andrew S; Li, Yongmei; Lotufo, Paulo; El Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd; Mendoza, Walter; Metoki, Hirohito; Mok, Yejin; Muraki, Isao; Muntner, Paul M; Noda, Hiroyuki; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ortiz, Alberto; Perico, Norberto; Polkinghorne, Kevan; Al-Radaddi, Rajaa; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Roth, Gregory; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Satoh, Michihiro; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Sawhney, Monika; Schöttker, Ben; Shankar, Anoop; Shlipak, Michael; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Ukwaja, Kingsley; Umesawa, Mitsumasa; Vollset, Stein Emil; Warnock, David G; Werdecker, Andrea; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Yano, Yuichiro; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Naghavi, Mohsen; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Murray, Christopher J L; Coresh, Josef; Vos, Theo

    2017-07-01

    The burden of premature death and health loss from ESRD is well described. Less is known regarding the burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to reduced GFR. We estimated the prevalence of reduced GFR categories 3, 4, and 5 (not on RRT) for 188 countries at six time points from 1990 to 2013. Relative risks of cardiovascular outcomes by three categories of reduced GFR were calculated by pooled random effects meta-analysis. Results are presented as deaths for outcomes of cardiovascular disease and ESRD and as disability-adjusted life years for outcomes of cardiovascular disease, GFR categories 3, 4, and 5, and ESRD. In 2013, reduced GFR was associated with 4% of deaths worldwide, or 2.2 million deaths (95% uncertainty interval [95% UI], 2.0 to 2.4 million). More than half of these attributable deaths were cardiovascular deaths (1.2 million; 95% UI, 1.1 to 1.4 million), whereas 0.96 million (95% UI, 0.81 to 1.0 million) were ESRD-related deaths. Compared with metabolic risk factors, reduced GFR ranked below high systolic BP, high body mass index, and high fasting plasma glucose, and similarly with high total cholesterol as a risk factor for disability-adjusted life years in both developed and developing world regions. In conclusion, by 2013, cardiovascular deaths attributed to reduced GFR outnumbered ESRD deaths throughout the world. Studies are needed to evaluate the benefit of early detection of CKD and treatment to decrease these deaths. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  19. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and early exit from paid employment in Europe; the impact of work-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenhoven-Pasmooij, T A; Burdorf, A; Roos-Hesselink, J W; Hunink, M G M; Robroek, S J W

    2016-07-15

    The aims of the study were to examine (i) the association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes and exit from paid employment via disability benefits, unemployment, early retirement or other exit routes; and (ii) the impact of work-related factors on exit from paid employment among individuals with CVD or diabetes. Respondents of the longitudinal Survey of Health and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) were included if they were aged >50years, had paid employment at baseline, and a known employment status after 2 or 6years (n=5182). A baseline-interview provided information on the presence of diagnosed CVD and diabetes, and physical and psychosocial work-related factors. During follow-up interviews information on work status was collected. Multinomial regression analyses were used to investigate the association between CVD, diabetes and exit from paid employment, and the impact of work-related factors. Workers with CVD or diabetes had significantly increased probabilities of disability benefits (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.69-3.70) and early retirement (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.05-1.74), but a comparable probability of unemployment (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.71-1.71). Regarding disability benefits, individuals who had a stroke had the highest probability (OR 3.48, 95% CI 1.31-9.23). Perceived high job demands with low rewards or with low control at work further increased the probability of early exit among individuals with CVD or diabetes. Our study shows a prominent role of CVD and diabetes in premature losses to the workforce, and it shows that optimizing psychosocial work-related factors could be beneficial in people with CVD or diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Abnormal speech spectrum and increased pitch variability in young autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoram S Bonneh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD who can speak often exhibit abnormal voice quality and speech prosody, but the exact nature and underlying mechanisms of these abnormalities, as well as their diagnostic power are currently unknown. Here we quantified speech abnormalities in terms of the properties of the long-term average spectrum (LTAS and pitch variability in speech samples of 83 children (41 with ASD, 42 controls ages 4-6.5 years, recorded while they named a sequence of daily-life pictures for 60 sec. We found a significant difference in the group’s average spectra, with ASD spectra being shallower and exhibiting less harmonic structure. Contrary to the common impression of monotonic speech in autism, the ASD children had a significantly larger pitch range and variability across time. A measure of this variability, optimally tuned for the sample, yielded 86% success (90% specificity, 80% sensitivity in classifying ASD in the sample. These results indicate that speech abnormalities in ASD are reflected in its spectral content and pitch variability. This variability could imply abnormal processing of auditory feedback or elevated noise and instability in the mechanisms that control pitch. The current results are a first step towards developing speech-spectrum-based bio-markers for early diagnosis of ASD.

  1. Gender/Sex as a Social Determinant of Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Adrienne; Scovelle, Anna J; Milner, Allison J; Kavanagh, Anne

    2018-02-20

    The social gradient for cardiovascular disease (CVD) onset and outcomes is well established. The American Heart Association's Social Determinants of Risk and Outcomes of Cardiovascular Disease Scientific Statement advocates looking beyond breakthroughs in biological science toward a social determinants approach that focuses on socioeconomic position, race and ethnicity, social support, culture and access to medical care, and residential environments to curb the burden of CVD going forward. Indeed, the benefits of this approach are likely to be far reaching, enhancing the positive effects of advances in CVD related to prevention and treatment while reducing health inequities that contribute to CVD onset and outcomes. It is disappointing that the role of gender has been largely neglected despite being a critical determinant of cardiovascular health. It is clear that trajectories and outcomes of CVD differ by biological sex, yet the tendency for sex and gender to be conflated has contributed to the idea that both are constant or fixed with little room for intervention. Rather, as distinct from biological sex, gender is socially produced. Overlaid on biological sex, gender is a broad term that shapes and interacts with one's cognition to guide norms, roles, behaviors, and social relations. It is a fluid construct that varies across time, place, and life stage. Gender can interact with biological sex and, indeed, other social determinants, such as ethnicity and socioeconomic position, to shape cardiovascular health from conception, through early life when health behaviors and risk factors are shaped, into adolescence and adulthood. This article will illustrate how gender shapes the early adoption of health behaviors in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood by focusing on physical activity, drinking, and smoking behaviors (including the influence of role modeling). We will also discuss the role of gender in psychosocial stress with a focus on trauma from life

  2. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Burden in the United Arab Emirates (UAE: The Africa Middle East (AfME Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE Study Sub-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Radaideh

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors are prevalent among relatively young adult, clinically stable outpatients attending clinics across the UAE. These findings support targeted screening of outpatients visiting a general practitioner, which may provide opportunity for early discovery and ongoing management of risk factors, including recommending lifestyle changes. The ACE trial is registered under NCT01243138.

  3. Cardiovascular RiskprofilE - IMaging and gender-specific disOrders (CREw-IMAGO): rationale and design of a multicenter cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoet, G.A.; Meun, C.; Benschop, L.; Boersma, E.; Budde, R.P.; Fauser, B.; Groot, C.J. de; Lugt, A. van der; Maas, A.H.E.M.; Moons, K.G.; Lennep, J.E. Roeters van; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.; Steegers, E.A.; Rijn, B.B. van; Laven, J.S.; Franx, A.; Velthuis, B.K.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) and hypertensive pregnancy disorders (HPD) like pre-eclampsia (PE), are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Detection of early signs of cardiovascular

  4. Cardiovascular RiskprofilE - IMaging and gender-specific disOrders (CREw-IMAGO) : Rationale and design of a multicenter cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoet, Gerbrand A.; Meun, Cindy; Benschop, Laura; Boersma, Eric; Budde, Ricardo P.J.; Fauser, Bart C.J.M.; de Groot, Christianne J. M.; van der Lugt, Aad; Maas, Angela H E M; Moons, Karl G.M.; Roeters Van Lennep, Jeanine E.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Steegers, Eric A. P.; van Rijn, Bas B.; Laven, Joop S E; Franx, Arie; Velthuis, Birgitta K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) and hypertensive pregnancy disorders (HPD) like pre-eclampsia (PE), are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Detection of early signs of cardiovascular

  5. Abnormal Cardiovascular Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Responses to Physical and Emotional Stimuli in Depersonalization Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Paul Owens

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Depersonalization disorder (DPD is characterized by subjective unreality, disembodiment, emotional numbing and reduced psychogenic sympathoexcitation. 3 related experiments used physical and emotional challenges in 14 DPD participants and 16 controls to elucidate whether the cardiovascular sympathetic (SNS and parasympathetic (PNS nervous systems are implicated in DPD and if blunted DPD sympathoexcitation is peripherally or centrally mediated. Participants completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Dissociative Experience Scale (DES and Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS. Study I recorded heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP during 5mins supine baseline, 3mins handgrip (HG, 3mins cold pressor (CP and 5mins 60°head-up tilt (HUT. Study II recorded HR, BP and heart rate variability (HRV during 5mins HUT and unpleasant images. Study III examined HR and BP orienting responses (ORs to HUT and unpleasant, neutral and pleasant images. DPD BAI (p=0.0004, DES (p=.0002 and CDS (p=< 0.0001 scores were higher than controls. The DPD group produced diminished diastolic BP (DBP (p=0.045 increases to HG. Other indices were comparable between groups. DPD participants produced diminished systolic BP (SBP (p=0.003 and DBP (p=0.002 increases, but greater (p=0.004 HR increases to CP. In study II, DPD high frequency HRV (HF-HRV – indicating parasympathetic vagal activity - was reduced (p=0.029. In study III, DPD DBP was higher throughout the 5s duration of HUT/pseudorandom unpleasant image presentation (1s [p=0.002], 2s [p=0.033], 3s [p=0.001], 4s [p=0.009], 5s [p=0.029]. Study I’s BP pressor data supports previous findings of suppressed sympathoexcitatioin DPD. The greater HR increases to CP, decreased HF-HRV in study II, and increased DBP during unpleasant ORs in study III implicates the SNS and PNS in DPD pathophysiology. These studies suggest the cardiovascular autonomic dysregulation in DPD is likely to be centrally-mediated

  6. Bile acids and cardiovascular function in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voiosu, Andrei; Wiese, Signe; Voiosu, Theodor

    2017-01-01

    Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy and the hyperdynamic syndrome are clinically important complications of cirrhosis, but their exact pathogenesis is still partly unknown. Experimental models have proven the cardiotoxic effects of bile acids and recent studies of their varied receptor-mediated functions...... offer new insight into their involvement in cardiovascular dysfunction in cirrhosis. Bile acid receptors such as farnesoid X-activated receptor and TGR5 are currently under investigation as potential therapeutic targets in a variety of pathological conditions. These receptors have also recently been...... identified in cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells where they seem to play an important role in cellular metabolism. Chronic cholestasis leading to abnormal levels of circulating bile acids alters the normal signalling pathways and contributes to the development of profound...

  7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTAL AND CHILD CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Fesharak Nia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract INTRODUCTION: Adult cardiovascular disease has its root in childhood. Cardiovascular disease aggregates in families, so identification of high-risk families and early screening and control of cardiovascular risk factors in offspring will help prevent cardiovascular disease. This study was performed to determine the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors in parents having a positive history of premature myocardial infarction and their offspring. methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2004 on 91 parents and their offspring (91 children. The parents were randomly selected from among patients hospitalized in the critical care unit of Vali-e-Asr hospital with premature myocardial infarction. Important indicators such as systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, body mass index (BMI, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C were measured in both groups. results: There was no significant relation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure between parents and their offspring. Thirty-three percent of the parents were hypertensive. No cases of hypertension were found in children. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in the children of hypertensive parents. Significant relations were seen between BMI and obesity in parents and their children. There was no significant relation between serum lipids, high TC, high LDL-C and low HDL-C levels in parents and their children. The commonest lipid disorder in parents and their offspring was low HDL-C. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show a significant relation between hypertension, obesity and blood lipid disorders between parents with positive history of premature myocardial infraction and their children. Hence, screening programs in these children for detection of cardiovascular risk factors are recommended.     Keywords

  8. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ... MRI an invaluable tool in early diagnosis and evaluation of cardiovascular conditions. MRI has proven valuable in ...

  9. FORECASTING OF SURVIVAL OF CHILDREN WITH THE PRENATALLY DIAGNOSED PATHOLOGY OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Валериевна Дубовая

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of effective methods for the analysis and prognosis of the survival of newborns with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system are the urgent task of modern medicine. Objective – a neural network model for predicting the survival of children with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system was developed. Materials and methods. To create the artificial neural networks, the method of constructing multifactor mathematical prediction models in the software package Statistica 6.0 was used. The significance level of the factors influencing the survival of children with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system was determined using Wald statistics. When checking statistical hypotheses, the critical level of significance was assumed to be 0,05. Results. A neural network model for the determination of the probability of survival of a child with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system, which has a high prognostic ability of 0,88, sensitivity of the model was 77,6 %, specificity 86,4 %. The value of prognostic survival probability is in the range from 0 to 100 %. With an indicator value of more than 80 %, the probability of survival of a child with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system is estimated as high, ranging from 20 % to 80 % – as an average and less than 20 % – as low. Conclusion. In the algorithm for predicting the survival of children with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system it is necessary to include a combination with other pathology of cardiovascular system, with other organs and systems, with chromosomal abnormalities, with microdeletion and monogenic syndromes.

  10. Mice long-term high-fat diet feeding recapitulates human cardiovascular alterations: an animal model to study the early phases of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián D Calligaris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Hypercaloric diet ingestion and sedentary lifestyle result in obesity. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of clinical features secondary to obesity, considered as a pre-diabetic condition and recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. To better understand the relationship between obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease as well as for the development of novel therapeutic strategies, animal models that reproduce the etiology, course and outcomes of these pathologies are required. The aim of this work was to characterize the long-term effects of high-fat diet-induced obesity on the mice cardiovascular system, in order to make available a new animal model for diabetic cardiomyopathy. METHODS/RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with a standardized high-fat diet (obese or regular diet (normal for 16 months. Metabolic syndrome was evaluated testing plasma glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Arterial pressure was measured using a sphygmomanometer (non invasive method and by hemodynamic parameters (invasive method. Cardiac anatomy was described based on echocardiography and histological studies. Cardiac function was assessed by cardiac catheterization under a stress test. Cardiac remodelling and metabolic biomarkers were assessed by RT-qPCR and immunoblotting. As of month eight, the obese mice were overweight, hyperglycaemic, insulin resistant, hyperinsulinemic and hypercholesterolemic. At month 16, they also presented normal arterial pressure but altered vascular reactivity (vasoconstriction, and cardiac contractility reserve reduction, heart mass increase, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, and heart metabolic compensations. By contrast, the normal mice remained healthy throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: Mice fed with a high-fat diet for prolonged time recapitulates the etiology, course and outcomes of the early phases of human diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  11. State of cardiovascular system during exercise in sportsmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usanov D.A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to study the state of cardiovascular system of sportsmen involved in rowing and canoeing, both before and after training. Material et methods: The research has been performed by means of the developed mobile devices that allow non-invasive screening assessment of the potential risk of collapse complications. Results: The article outlines the results of the survey carried out to determine the presence of vagotonic tone with deficient activity supply and abnormal pulse wave that may lead to circulatory collapse in exercise. Conclusion: The technique of pulse wave and vegetative regulation assessment before and after training enables to prevent the circulatory collapse development in stressful physical exertion in sportsmen.

  12. Cardiovascular, hormonal and metabolic responses to graded exercise in juvenile diabetics with and without autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Galbo, H; Christensen, N J

    1980-01-01

    Thirteen juvenile diabetics were studied in order to determine if decreased beat-to-beat variation during deep respiration, indicating abnormal autonomic nerve function, imply that cardiovascular, hormonal and metabolic responses are impaired. Patients with decreased beat-to-beat variation had to...... to be more heavily stressed during exercise to reach a certain heart rate or catecholamine level. The relation between other metabolic and hormonal response is discussed....

  13. Are women with polycystic ovary syndrome at increased cardiovascular disease risk later in life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, M N; Fauser, B C J M

    2017-06-01

    To date, the world's leading cause of death amongst women is cardiovascular disease. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with an unfavorable cardiometabolic profile in early life. Apart from dyslipidemia, obesity and onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, androgens are thought to influence cardiovascular health. The question rises whether women with PCOS are truly at risk for cardiovascular disease in later life. In this review paper, we aim to reflect on this assumed relation based on studies in different stages of life in women with PCOS. Cardiovascular risk factors (type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity and metabolic syndrome), surrogate outcomes (flow-mediated dilation, carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery calcium) and clinical long-term outcomes (cardiovascular disease and mortality) will be summarized. Data on cardiovascular disease and mortality in peri- and postmenopausal women with PCOS appear to be controversial. Whether androgens have a protective or unfavorable influence on the manifestation of cardiovascular disease remains uncertain. The need for large, prospective, well-phenotyped cohort studies of women with PCOS is high. Only then will we be able to answer this research question.

  14. Clinical, Diagnostic, and Therapeutic Implications in Psoriasis Associated With Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanad, C; González-Parra, E; Rivera, R; Carrascosa, J M; Daudén, E; Olveira, A; Botella-Estrada, R

    2017-11-01

    In recent years the concept of psoriasis as a systemic disease has gained acceptance due to its association with numerous comorbid conditions, particularly atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Several studies have shown that patients with psoriasis, especially younger patients and those with more severe forms of psoriasis or with psoriatic arthritis, have a higher prevalence of risk factors and metabolic syndrome, as well as an increased risk of major cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral arterial disease. Furthermore, it remains unclear which of the current treatments might be more effective in reducing cardiovascular risk in these patients. It is therefore important for dermatologists to be aware of this increased risk, to be able to detect modifiable risk factors early and, when appropriate, refer patients to other specialists for the prevention of major cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Intensive Statin Therapy on Left Ventricular Function in Patients with Myocardial Infarction and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auscher, Søren; Løgstrup, Brian Bridal; Møller, Jacob Eifer

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Abnormal glucose tolerance in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with greater mortality and adverse cardiovascular effects. As statins possess a range of beneficial pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular system, we sought to assess the cardioprotective...... effects of statins on left ventricular function in patients with AMI in relation to glycometabolic state. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized trial, 140 patients with AMI were randomized to intensive statin therapy receiving statin loading with 80 mg of rosuvastatin followed by 40 mg daily or standard...... statin therapy. Patients were assessed with an oral glucose tolerance test and their left ventricular (LV) function was assessed with speckle-tracking echocardiography measuring regional longitudinal systolic strain (RLSS) in the infarct area. RESULTS: Overall RLSS in the infarct area improved by a mean...

  16. Visual assessment of early emphysema and interstitial abnormalities on CT is useful in lung cancer risk analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Mathilde M. W.; Thomsen, Laura H.; Petersen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Screening for lung cancer should be limited to a high-risk-population, and abnormalities in low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening images may be relevant for predicting the risk of lung cancer. Our aims were to compare the occurrence of visually detected emphysema and interstitial...... abnormalities in subjects with and without lung cancer in a screening population of smokers. Methods: Low-dose chest CT examinations (baseline and latest possible) of 1990 participants from The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial were independently evaluated by two observers who scored emphysema and interstitial...... abnormalities. Emphysema (lung density) was also measured quantitatively. Results: Emphysema was seen more frequently and its extent was greater among participants with lung cancer on baseline (odds ratio (OR), 1.8, p = 0.017 and p = 0.002) and late examinations (OR 2.6, p

  17. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-02

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions.

  18. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... invaluable tool in early diagnosis and evaluation of cardiovascular conditions. MRI has proven valuable in diagnosing a broad range of conditions, including cancer, heart and vascular disease, heart valve abnormalities, bone and other soft tissue ...

  19. Set-membership fault detection under noisy environment with application to the detection of abnormal aircraft control surface positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Houda Thabet, Rihab; Combastel, Christophe; Raïssi, Tarek; Zolghadri, Ali

    2015-09-01

    The paper develops a set membership detection methodology which is applied to the detection of abnormal positions of aircraft control surfaces. Robust and early detection of such abnormal positions is an important issue for early system reconfiguration and overall optimisation of aircraft design. In order to improve fault sensitivity while ensuring a high level of robustness, the method combines a data-driven characterisation of noise and a model-driven approach based on interval prediction. The efficiency of the proposed methodology is illustrated through simulation results obtained based on data recorded in several flight scenarios of a highly representative aircraft benchmark.

  20. ECG gated NMR-CT for cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, J.; Machida, K.; Iio, M.; Yoshimoto, N.; Sugimoto, T.; Kawaguchi, H.; Mano, H.

    1984-01-01

    The authors applied NMR-CT to cardiac study with ECG gated technique to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) function and compared it with cardiovascular nuclear medicine study (NM). The NMR-CT machine has resistive air-core magnet with 0.15 Tesla. The saturation recovery image or inversion recovery image were obtained as 256 x 256 matrix and 15 mm in thickness. The study population was ten patients who were evaluated both by NMR image and by NM performed within one week interval. The heart muscle was able to be visualized without any contrast material nor radioisotopes in inversion recovery images, whereas saturation recovery images failed to separate heart muscle from blood pool. The wall motions of LV in both methods were well correlated except for inferior wall. The values of ejection fraction in NMR image were moderately low, but two modalities showed satisfactory correlation (r=0.85). The region of myocardial infarction was revealed as wall thinning and/or wall motion abnormality. It is still preliminary to draw a conclusion, however, it can be said that in the evaluation of LV function, method by NMR might be of equal value to those of NM. It can be certain that eventually gated NMR-CT will become more effective method for various aspects of cardiovascular evaluation

  1. Educational differences in cardiovascular mortality: The role of shared family factors and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjøllesdal, M K R; Ariansen, I; Mortensen, L H; Davey Smith, G; Næss, Ø

    2016-12-01

    To explore the confounding effects of early family factors shared by siblings and cardiovascular risk factors in midlife on the educational differences in mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Data from national and regional health surveys in Norway (1974-2003) were linked with data from the Norwegian Family Based Life Course Study, the National Educational Registry and the Cause of Death Registry. The study population consisted of participants with at least one full sibling among the health survey participants ( n=271,310). Data were available on CVD risk factors, including weight, height, blood pressure, total cholesterol and smoking. The hazards ratio (HR) of CVD mortality was 3.44 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.98-3.96) in the lowest educational group relative to the highest. The HRs were little altered in the within-sibship analyses. Adjusted for risk factors, the HR for CVD mortality in the cohort analyses was 2.05 (CI 1.77-2.37) in the lowest educational group relative to the highest. The respective HR in the within-sibship analyses was 2.46 (CI 1.48-2.24). Using a sibling design, we did not find that the association between education and CVD mortality was confounded by early life factors shared by siblings, but it was explained to a large extent by CVD risk factors. These results suggest that reducing levels of CVD risk factors could have the greatest effect on mortality in less well-educated people.

  2. Type I Diabetic Akita Mouse Model is Characterized by Abnormal Cardiac Deformation During Early Stages of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy with Speckle-Tracking Based Strain Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingchao; Xiao, Hong; Wu, Jianfei; Zha, Lingfeng; Zhou, Mengchen; Li, Qianqian; Wang, Mengru; Shi, Shumei; Li, Yanze; Lyu, Liangkun; Wang, Qing; Tu, Xin; Lu, Qiulun

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been demonstrated to have a strong association with heart failure. Conventional echocardiographic analysis cannot sensitively monitor cardiac dysfunction in type I diabetic Akita hearts, but the phenotype of heart failure is observed in molecular levels during the early stages. Male Akita (Ins2WT/C96Y) mice were monitored with echocardiographic imaging at various ages, and then with conventional echocardiographic analysis and speckle-tracking based strain analyses. With speckle-tracking based strain analyses, diabetic Akita mice showed changes in average global radial strain at the age of 12 weeks, as well as decreased longitudinal strain. These changes occurred in the early stage and remained throughout the progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy in Akita mice. Speckle-tracking showed that the detailed and precise changes of cardiac deformation in the progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy in the genetic type I diabetic Akita mice were uncoupled. We monitored early-stage changes in the heart of diabetic Akita mice. We utilize this technique to elucidate the underlying mechanism for heart failure in Akita genetic type I diabetic mice. It will further advance the assessment of cardiac abnormalities, as well as the discovery of new drug treatments using Akita genetic type I diabetic mice. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Aldosterone dysregulation with aging predicts renal vascular function and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jenifer M; Underwood, Patricia C; Ferri, Claudio; Hopkins, Paul N; Williams, Gordon H; Adler, Gail K; Vaidya, Anand

    2014-06-01

    Aging and abnormal aldosterone regulation are both associated with vascular disease. We hypothesized that aldosterone dysregulation influences the age-related risk of renal vascular and cardiovascular disease. We conducted an analysis of 562 subjects who underwent detailed investigations under conditions of liberal and restricted dietary sodium intake (1124 visits) in the General Clinical Research Center. Aldosterone regulation was characterized by the ratio of maximal suppression to stimulation (supine serum aldosterone on a liberal sodium diet divided by the same measure on a restricted sodium diet). We previously demonstrated that higher levels of this Sodium-modulated Aldosterone Suppression-Stimulation Index (SASSI) indicate greater aldosterone dysregulation. Renal plasma flow (RPF) was determined via p-aminohippurate clearance to assess basal renal hemodynamics and the renal vascular responses to dietary sodium manipulation and angiotensin II infusion. Cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score. In univariate linear regression, older age (β=-4.60; Page and SASSI, where the inverse relationship between SASSI and RPF was most apparent with older age (Page may interact to mediate renal vascular disease. Our findings suggest that the combination of aldosterone dysregulation and renal vascular dysfunction could additively increase the risk of future cardiovascular outcomes; therefore, aldosterone dysregulation may represent a modifiable mechanism of age-related vascular disease.

  4. Polycystic ovary syndrome and early-onset preeclampsia : reproductive manifestations of increased cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman-Verhulst, Susanne M.; van Rijn, Bas B.; Westerveld, H. Egbertine; Franx, Arie; Bruinse, Hein W.; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Goverde, Angelique J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women is a major healthcare issue. Detection of premenopausal women with increased risk of CVD could enhance prevention strategies and reduce first event-related morbidity and mortality. In this study, we argue that an unfavorable

  5. The early life origin theory in the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Runa; Ververis, Katherine; Tortorella, Stephanie M; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2015-04-01

    Life expectancy has been examined from a variety of perspectives in recent history. Epidemiology is one perspective which examines causes of morbidity and mortality at the population level. Over the past few 100 years there have been dramatic shifts in the major causes of death and expected life length. This change has suffered from inconsistency across time and space with vast inequalities observed between population groups. In current focus is the challenge of rising non-communicable diseases (NCD), such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the search to discover methods to combat the rising incidence of these diseases, a number of new theories on the development of morbidity have arisen. A pertinent example is the hypothesis published by David Barker in 1995 which postulates the prenatal and early developmental origin of adult onset disease, and highlights the importance of the maternal environment. This theory has been subject to criticism however it has gradually gained acceptance. In addition, the relatively new field of epigenetics is contributing evidence in support of the theory. This review aims to explore the implication and limitations of the developmental origin hypothesis, via an historical perspective, in order to enhance understanding of the increasing incidence of NCDs, and facilitate an improvement in planning public health policy.

  6. Non-cardiovascular findings in clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghadimi Mahani, Maryam; Morani, Ajaykumar C.; Lu, Jimmy C.; Dorfman, Adam L.; Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh; Jeph, Sunil; Agarwal, Prachi P.

    2016-01-01

    With increasing use of pediatric cardiovascular MRI, it is important for all imagers to become familiar with the spectrum of non-cardiovascular imaging findings that can be encountered. This study aims to ascertain the prevalence and nature of these findings in pediatric cardiovascular MRIs performed at our institution. We retrospectively evaluated reports of all cardiovascular MRI studies performed at our institute from January 2008 to October 2012 in patients younger than18 years. Most studies (98%) were jointly interpreted by a pediatric cardiologist and a radiologist. We reviewed the electronic medical records of all cases with non-cardiovascular findings, defined as any imaging finding outside the cardiovascular system. Non-cardiovascular findings were classified into significant and non-significant, based on whether they were known at the time of imaging or they required additional workup or a change in management. In 849 consecutive studies (mean age 9.7 ± 6.3 years), 145 non-cardiovascular findings were found in 140 studies (16.5% of total studies). Overall, 51.0% (74/145) of non-cardiovascular findings were in the abdomen, 30.3% (44/145) were in the chest, and 18.6% (27/145) were in the spine. A total of 19 significant non-cardiovascular findings were observed in 19 studies in individual patients (2.2% of total studies, 47% male, mean age 5.9 ± 6.7 years). Significant non-cardiovascular findings included hepatic adenoma, arterially enhancing focal liver lesions, asplenia, solitary kidney, pelvicaliectasis, renal cystic diseases, gastric distention, adrenal hemorrhage, lung hypoplasia, air space disease, bronchial narrowing, pneumomediastinum and retained surgical sponge. Non-cardiovascular findings were seen in 16.5% of cardiovascular MRI studies in children, of which 2.2% were clinically significant findings. Prevalence and nature of these non-cardiovascular findings are different from those reported in adults. Attention to these findings is important

  7. Non-cardiovascular findings in clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadimi Mahani, Maryam [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Morani, Ajaykumar C. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Lu, Jimmy C.; Dorfman, Adam L. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Providence Hospital and Medical Centers, Department of Graduate Medical Education, Southfield, MI (United States); Jeph, Sunil [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Geisinger Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Danville, PA (United States); Agarwal, Prachi P. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-04-15

    With increasing use of pediatric cardiovascular MRI, it is important for all imagers to become familiar with the spectrum of non-cardiovascular imaging findings that can be encountered. This study aims to ascertain the prevalence and nature of these findings in pediatric cardiovascular MRIs performed at our institution. We retrospectively evaluated reports of all cardiovascular MRI studies performed at our institute from January 2008 to October 2012 in patients younger than18 years. Most studies (98%) were jointly interpreted by a pediatric cardiologist and a radiologist. We reviewed the electronic medical records of all cases with non-cardiovascular findings, defined as any imaging finding outside the cardiovascular system. Non-cardiovascular findings were classified into significant and non-significant, based on whether they were known at the time of imaging or they required additional workup or a change in management. In 849 consecutive studies (mean age 9.7 ± 6.3 years), 145 non-cardiovascular findings were found in 140 studies (16.5% of total studies). Overall, 51.0% (74/145) of non-cardiovascular findings were in the abdomen, 30.3% (44/145) were in the chest, and 18.6% (27/145) were in the spine. A total of 19 significant non-cardiovascular findings were observed in 19 studies in individual patients (2.2% of total studies, 47% male, mean age 5.9 ± 6.7 years). Significant non-cardiovascular findings included hepatic adenoma, arterially enhancing focal liver lesions, asplenia, solitary kidney, pelvicaliectasis, renal cystic diseases, gastric distention, adrenal hemorrhage, lung hypoplasia, air space disease, bronchial narrowing, pneumomediastinum and retained surgical sponge. Non-cardiovascular findings were seen in 16.5% of cardiovascular MRI studies in children, of which 2.2% were clinically significant findings. Prevalence and nature of these non-cardiovascular findings are different from those reported in adults. Attention to these findings is important

  8. Fasting serum blood measures of bone and lipid metabolism in children with myelomeningocele for early detection of cardiovascular and bone fragility risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Speybroeck, Alexander; Mueske, Nicole M; Mittelman, Steven D; Kremer, Richard K; Ryan, Deirdre D; Wren, Tishya A L

    2017-03-01

    This study examined serum levels in children with myelomeningocele to identify the prevalence of pre-clinical signs of disease. A prospective, cross-sectional study. Patients were actively recruited from multidisciplinary care clinics at tertiary children's hospitals from 2010-2012. The control comparison group was recruited by word-of-mouth. Twenty-eight children with myelomeningocele (93% Hispanic; 17 males; 10.0 ± 2.1 years) and 58 controls (84% Hispanic; 30 males; 10.4 ± 2.4 years) provided ≥ 8-hour fasting blood samples with concomitant dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of body fat. Not applicable. The serum analysis included a lipid panel (cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein), insulin, glucose, leptin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, creatinine, calcium, phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D. Children with myelomeningocele had higher body fat (35.2% versus 29.9%, p=0.01) and altered lipid profiles (lower high-density lipoprotein levels, 43.9 mg/dL versus 51.6 mg/dL, P = 0.03) suggesting elevated risk of metabolic syndrome. They also had a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (43% versus 17%, p=0.02) and significantly lower levels of calcium (9.4 mg/dL versus 9.7 mg/dL, P = 0.003) and alkaline phosphatase (187.0 U/L versus 237.0 U/L, P = 0.003). Unexpectedly children with myelomeningocele had lower parathyroid hormone levels (14.5 pg/mL versus 18.4 pg/mL, P = 0.02) than controls despite lower calcium, vitamin D and alkaline phosphatase levels. This suggests an alteration in the sensing mechanism or response of the parathyroid gland to normal physiological stimuli in patients with myelomeningocele. Children with myelomeningocele have abnormal biochemical markers for cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and bone and mineral metabolism. Early recognition and monitoring of these risk factors in patients with

  9. Prevalence of non-cardiovascular findings on CT angiography in children with congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Archana [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); St. Christopher' s Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hellinger, Jeffrey C. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); New York Cardiovascular Institute at Lenox Hill Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Servaes, Sabah; Keller, Marc S. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schwartz, Mathew C. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Levine Children' s Hospital, Sanger Heart and Vascular Institute, Charlotte, NC (United States); Epelman, Monica [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging/Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2017-03-15

    CT angiography is gaining broader acceptance in the evaluation of children with known or suspected congenital heart disease. These studies include non-cardiovascular structures such as the mediastinum, lung parenchyma and upper abdominal organs. It is important to inspect all these structures for potential abnormalities that might be clinically important and, in some cases, may impact care plans. To determine the prevalence of non-cardiovascular findings in CT angiography of children with congenital heart disease. During 28 months, 300 consecutive children (170 males; mean age: 7.1 years, age range: 6 h-26 years), referred from a tertiary pediatric cardiology center, underwent clinically indicated CT angiography to evaluate known or suspected congenital heart disease. Slightly more than half (n = 169) of the patients were postoperative or post-intervention. Examinations were retrospectively reviewed, and non-cardiovascular findings were recorded and tabulated by organ system, congenital heart disease and operative procedure in conjunction with outcomes from medical charts. Non-cardiovascular findings were identified in 83% (n = 250 / 300) of the studies for a total of 857 findings. In 221 patients (n = 73.7% of 300) a total of 813 non-cardiovascular findings were clinically significant, while in 9.7% (n = 29 / 300) of patients, 5.1% (n = 44 / 857) of the findings were nonsignificant. In 38.3% (n = 115 / 300) of patients with significant non-cardiovascular pathology, the findings were unexpected and directly impacted patient care plans. Commonly involved organs with non-cardiovascular findings were the lungs with 280 non-cardiovascular findings in 176 / 300 (58.7%) of patients, the airway with 139 non-cardiovascular findings in 103 / 300 (34.3%) of patients and the liver with 108 non-cardiovascular findings in 72 / 300 (24.0%) of patients. Syndromic associations were noted in 22% (n = 66 / 300) of the patients. Non-cardiovascular findings are common in children with

  10. Prevalence of non-cardiovascular findings on CT angiography in children with congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Archana; Hellinger, Jeffrey C.; Servaes, Sabah; Keller, Marc S.; Schwartz, Mathew C.; Epelman, Monica

    2017-01-01

    CT angiography is gaining broader acceptance in the evaluation of children with known or suspected congenital heart disease. These studies include non-cardiovascular structures such as the mediastinum, lung parenchyma and upper abdominal organs. It is important to inspect all these structures for potential abnormalities that might be clinically important and, in some cases, may impact care plans. To determine the prevalence of non-cardiovascular findings in CT angiography of children with congenital heart disease. During 28 months, 300 consecutive children (170 males; mean age: 7.1 years, age range: 6 h-26 years), referred from a tertiary pediatric cardiology center, underwent clinically indicated CT angiography to evaluate known or suspected congenital heart disease. Slightly more than half (n = 169) of the patients were postoperative or post-intervention. Examinations were retrospectively reviewed, and non-cardiovascular findings were recorded and tabulated by organ system, congenital heart disease and operative procedure in conjunction with outcomes from medical charts. Non-cardiovascular findings were identified in 83% (n = 250 / 300) of the studies for a total of 857 findings. In 221 patients (n = 73.7% of 300) a total of 813 non-cardiovascular findings were clinically significant, while in 9.7% (n = 29 / 300) of patients, 5.1% (n = 44 / 857) of the findings were nonsignificant. In 38.3% (n = 115 / 300) of patients with significant non-cardiovascular pathology, the findings were unexpected and directly impacted patient care plans. Commonly involved organs with non-cardiovascular findings were the lungs with 280 non-cardiovascular findings in 176 / 300 (58.7%) of patients, the airway with 139 non-cardiovascular findings in 103 / 300 (34.3%) of patients and the liver with 108 non-cardiovascular findings in 72 / 300 (24.0%) of patients. Syndromic associations were noted in 22% (n = 66 / 300) of the patients. Non-cardiovascular findings are common in children with

  11. Neurodevelopmental origins of abnormal cortical morphology in dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinders, A A T S; Chalavi, S; Schlumpf, Y R; Vissia, E M; Nijenhuis, E R S; Jäncke, L; Veltman, D J; Ecker, C

    2018-02-01

    To examine the two constitutes of cortical volume (CV), that is, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), in individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) with the view of gaining important novel insights into the underlying neurobiological mechanisms mediating DID. This study included 32 female patients with DID and 43 matched healthy controls. Between-group differences in CV, thickness, and SA, the degree of spatial overlap between differences in CT and SA, and their relative contribution to differences in regional CV were assessed using a novel spatially unbiased vertex-wise approach. Whole-brain correlation analyses were performed between measures of cortical anatomy and dissociative symptoms and traumatization. Individuals with DID differed from controls in CV, CT, and SA, with significantly decreased CT in the insula, anterior cingulate, and parietal regions and reduced cortical SA in temporal and orbitofrontal cortices. Abnormalities in CT and SA shared only about 3% of all significantly different cerebral surface locations and involved distinct contributions to the abnormality of CV in DID. Significant negative associations between abnormal brain morphology (SA and CV) and dissociative symptoms and early childhood traumatization (0 and 3 years of age) were found. In DID, neuroanatomical areas with decreased CT and SA are in different locations in the brain. As CT and SA have distinct genetic and developmental origins, our findings may indicate that different neurobiological mechanisms and environmental factors impact on cortical morphology in DID, such as early childhood traumatization. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The influence of brain abnormalities on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briken, Peer; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the number and type of brain abnormalities and their influence on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers. We analyzed psychiatric court reports of 166 sexual murderers and compared a group with notable signs of brain abnormalities (N = 50) with those without any signs (N = 116). Sexual murderers with brain abnormalities suffered more from early behavior problems. They were less likely to cohabitate with the victim at the time of the homicide and had more victims at the age of six years or younger. Psychiatric diagnoses revealed a higher total number of paraphilias: Transvestic fetishism and paraphilias not otherwise specified were more frequent in offenders with brain abnormalities. A binary logistic regression identified five predictors that accounted for 46.8% of the variance explaining the presence of brain abnormalities. Our results suggest the importance of a comprehensive neurological and psychological examination of this special offender group.

  13. PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS AND SCREENING OF GENETIC ABNORMALITIES IN EARLY PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Kiran Kohli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Genetic diseases are one of the major causes of hospital admissions due to disability and mortality particularly among children (1:5 children of hospital admission either partially/completely as distribution of genetic diseases is not related to socioeconomic background, which implies that developing world has a large number of genetic diseases largely left uncared for, i.e. overall incidence of foetal/neonatal loss due to genetic/genetic environmental causes are as follows: 1:50 newborns have major congenital abnormality, 1:100 have a unifactorial disorder, 1:200 have a major chromosomal abnormality before birth. Diagnosis of chromosomal anomalies in foetus is one of the most important challenges in modern perinatology as invasive or noninvasive methods. The aim of the study is to review on cytogenetic evaluation of CVS obtained (transcervically during first trimester of pregnancy by direct karyotyping of tissue. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted in 2001 in Department of Anatomy along with Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, LNJP Hospital. 37 healthy cases with 6-12 weeks of gestational age coming for medical termination of pregnancy were included in the study. After written informed consent for procedure, ultrasound-guided transcervical chorionic villus sampling was done (Brambati’s method. Tissue procured was then processed for direct karyotyping and studied. Metaphase spreads were photographed and karyotypes prepared and studied. RESULTS Out of 37 pregnant females, 30 samples were successfully prepared and processed by Direct method out of which 23 were normal female (46, XX and 7 were normal male (46, XY. No normal anomaly was detected. Best biopsies were obtained with 8-12 weeks gestation. G Banding could not be performed as chromosome obtained were found to be resistant to banding. CONCLUSIONS To summarise chromosome preparations obtained from CVS by Direct method has advantage of providing sufficient number

  14. Cardiovascular Complications of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Maria Carolina; Wenger, Nanette K.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy causes significant metabolic and hemodynamic changes in a woman’s physiology to allow for fetal growth. The inability to adapt to these changes might result in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (hypertension, preeclampsia or eclampsia), gestational diabetes and preterm birth. Contrary to previous beliefs these complications are not limited to the pregnancy period and may leave permanent vascular and metabolic damage. There is in addition, a direct association between these disorders and increased risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke) and diabetes mellitus. Despite abundant evidence of this association, women who present with these complications of pregnancy do not receive adequate postpartum follow up and counseling regarding their increased risk of future CVD. The postpartum period in these women represents a unique opportunity to intervene with lifestyle modifications designed to reduce the development of premature cardiovascular complications. In some cases it allows early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The awareness of this relationship is growing in the medical community, especially among obstetricians and primary care physicians, who play a pivotal role in detecting these complications and assuring appropriate follow up. PMID:26473833

  15. Cardiovascular Complications of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Gongora

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy causes significant metabolic and hemodynamic changes in a woman’s physiology to allow for fetal growth. The inability to adapt to these changes might result in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (hypertension, preeclampsia or eclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm birth. Contrary to previous beliefs these complications are not limited to the pregnancy period and may leave permanent vascular and metabolic damage. There is in addition, a direct association between these disorders and increased risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke and diabetes mellitus. Despite abundant evidence of this association, women who present with these complications of pregnancy do not receive adequate postpartum follow up and counseling regarding their increased risk of future CVD. The postpartum period in these women represents a unique opportunity to intervene with lifestyle modifications designed to reduce the development of premature cardiovascular complications. In some cases it allows early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The awareness of this relationship is growing in the medical community, especially among obstetricians and primary care physicians, who play a pivotal role in detecting these complications and assuring appropriate follow up.

  16. BDNF - A key player in cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pius-Sadowska, Ewa; Machaliński, Bogusław

    2017-09-01

    Neurotrophins (NTs) were first identified as target-derived survival factors for neurons of the central and peripheral nervous system (PNS). They are known to control neural cell fate, development and function. Independently of their neuronal properties, NTs exert unique cardiovascular activity. The heart is innervated by sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons, which require NTs during early development and in the establishment of mature properties, contributing to the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. The identification of molecular mechanisms regulated by NTs and involved in the crosstalk between cardiac sympathetic nerves, cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, and vascular cells, has a fundamental importance in both normal heart function and disease. The article aims to review the recent data on the effects of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) on various cardiovascular neuronal and non-neuronal functions such as the modulation of synaptic properties of autonomic neurons, axonal outgrowth and sprouting, formation of the vascular and neural networks, smooth muscle migration, and control of endothelial cell survival and cardiomyocytes. Understanding these mechanisms may be crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies, including stem cell-based therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PRIMARY PREVENTION OF DIABETES MELLITUS: CORRECTION OF EARLY DISORDERS OF GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN CARDIOLOGY PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Mamedov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Early glucose metabolism disorders (GMD are of interest in development of effective approaches to prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Data of international clinical trials shows that early GMD are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The possibilities of GMD prevention and early treatment are discussed. Antihyperglycemic medications classification, their mode of action and efficacy are presented from evidence-based medicine point of view. This data confirms that successful DM primary prevention at early stage of GMD reduces the risk of cardiovascular complications.

  18. Abnormal uterine bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovulatory bleeding; Abnormal uterine bleeding - hormonal; Polymenorrhea - dysfunctional uterine bleeding ... ACOG committee opinion no. 557: Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Reaffirmed 2015. www. ...

  19. Lung findings on high resolution CT in early ankylosing spondylitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiris, Adem; Ozgocmen, Salih; Kocakoc, Ercan; Ardicoglu, Ozge; Ogur, Erkin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease mainly affecting the axial skeleton and pulmonary involvement is a well known feature of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the pulmonary high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of patients with early AS. The relationship between pulmonary function tests (PFT) and HRCT findings was also determined. Subjects and methods: Twenty-eight patients with AS (mean age 30.8±7.4 and disease duration 7.0±2.6) were included in the study. Patients with a disease duration of >10 years or had other pulmonary diseases were excluded. All patients underwent plain chest radiography (posteroanterior and lateral views), thoracic HRCT and PFT. Results: All chest radiographs were normal and HRCT revealed abnormalities in 18 patients. The most common abnormalities seen on HRCT were mosaic pattern (ten of 28), subpleural nodule (seven of 28) and parenchymal bands (five of 28). Seven of ten patients with mosaic pattern revealed air trapping areas on end expiratory scans. Twelve patients had abnormal PFT and all had restrictive type of involvement. Ten of these 12 patients had abnormal HRCT and the remaining two patients had normal HRCT. On the other hand, eight patients with normal PFT had abnormalities on HRCT. Conclusion: Patients with early AS frequently have abnormalities on HRCT, even though they have normal PFT and chest X-ray. Small airway involvement was found as frequent as interstitial lung disease in early AS

  20. Lung findings on high resolution CT in early ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiris, Adem E-mail: ademkiris@hotmail.com; Ozgocmen, Salih; Kocakoc, Ercan; Ardicoglu, Ozge; Ogur, Erkin

    2003-07-01

    Objective: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease mainly affecting the axial skeleton and pulmonary involvement is a well known feature of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the pulmonary high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of patients with early AS. The relationship between pulmonary function tests (PFT) and HRCT findings was also determined. Subjects and methods: Twenty-eight patients with AS (mean age 30.8{+-}7.4 and disease duration 7.0{+-}2.6) were included in the study. Patients with a disease duration of >10 years or had other pulmonary diseases were excluded. All patients underwent plain chest radiography (posteroanterior and lateral views), thoracic HRCT and PFT. Results: All chest radiographs were normal and HRCT revealed abnormalities in 18 patients. The most common abnormalities seen on HRCT were mosaic pattern (ten of 28), subpleural nodule (seven of 28) and parenchymal bands (five of 28). Seven of ten patients with mosaic pattern revealed air trapping areas on end expiratory scans. Twelve patients had abnormal PFT and all had restrictive type of involvement. Ten of these 12 patients had abnormal HRCT and the remaining two patients had normal HRCT. On the other hand, eight patients with normal PFT had abnormalities on HRCT. Conclusion: Patients with early AS frequently have abnormalities on HRCT, even though they have normal PFT and chest X-ray. Small airway involvement was found as frequent as interstitial lung disease in early AS.

  1. New trends in chromosomal investigation in children with cardiovascular malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellberg, Ruth; Schwanitz, Gesa; Grävinghoff, Lutz; Kallenberg, Rolf; Trost, Detlef; Raff, Ruth; Wiebe, Walter

    2004-12-01

    We investigated a group of 376 children, seen over a period of 7 years with different types of congenital cardiovascular defects, to assess the presence of chromosomal aberrations. The diagnostic approach, achieved in 3 consecutive steps, revealed conventional chromosomal aberrations in 30 of the patients (8%) excluding trisomies 13, 18, 21. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation for microdeletions showed 51 microdeletions (15%), with 43 patients having deletions of 22q11.2, 7 patients with deletion of 7q11.23, and 1 patient with deletion of 4p16.3. In 23 patients with additional clinical abnormalities, we carried out a subtelomeric screening. This revealed, in two cases (9%), different subtelomeric aberrations, namely deletions of 1p and of 1q. Thus, subtelomeric screening proved to be a very valuable as a new diagnostic approach. Our approach to genetic investigation in three phases makes it possible to detect a high rate of pathologic karyotypes in patients with congenital cardiovascular malformations, thus guaranteeing more effective genetic counselling of the families, and a more precise prognosis for the patient.

  2. IgG4-related cardiovascular disease. The emerging role of cardiovascular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogeni, Sophie; Markousis-Mavrogenis, George; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2017-01-01

    Immunoglobulin 4-related disease (IgG4-related disease) is a systemic inflammatory disease that presents with increases of serum IgG4. It may affect various systems, including the cardiovascular (CV) system. Assessment of serum IgG4 levels and involved organ biopsy are necessary for diagnosis. IgG4-related disease is characterized by fibrosclerosis, lymphocytic infiltration and presence of IgG4-positive plasma cells. The disease usually responds to treatment with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive medication. CV involvement may manifest as cardiac pseudotumors, inflammatory periaortitis, coronary arteritis and/or pericarditis. IgG4-related cardiovascular disorders can severely affect patient prognosis. Various imaging techniques, including echocardiography, Computed Tomography (CT), 18FDG-PET, Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) and cardiac catheterisation, have been successfully used for early disease detection and follow-up. Echocardiography and vascular ultrasound are the most commonly used non-invasive, non-radiating imaging techniques for the evaluation of IgG4-related CV disease. Periaortitis/periarteritis can be also assessed by CT, showing a soft tissue thickening around arteries. Coronary artery aneurysms can be easily diagnosed by coronary CT. In case of active periarterial or coronary artery inflammation, 18FDG-PET will show FDG uptake at the area of the lesion. CMR, due to its capability to perform function and tissue characterisation, can offer an integrated imaging of aorta, coronary arteries and the heart, assessment of disease acuity, extent of fibrosis and guide further treatment. However, multimodality imaging may be necessary for assessment of disease activity and fibrosis extent in those cases with multifocal CV involvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of computed tomography to investigate cheek tooth abnormalities in chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, D.A.; Jackson, A.; Yates, J.; Boydell, I.P.

    1998-01-01

    Computerised tomographic scanning was used to investigate tooth structure in chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger), both cheek tooth crown and root abnormalities being common in this species. This paper describes a common form of dental disease affecting species with continuously growing teeth, with particular reference to the chinchilla, and confirms the potential role of computed tomography (CT) in its early diagnosis. CT imaging is compared with previously available methods of investigation which frequently fail to detect early pathological changes

  4. Stressing on the nucleolus in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Nirmala; Sussman, Mark A

    2014-06-01

    The nucleolus is a multifunctional organelle with multiple roles involving cell proliferation, growth, survival, ribosome biogenesis and stress response signaling. Alteration of nucleolar morphology and architecture signifies an early response to increased cellular stress. This review briefly summarizes nucleolar response to cardiac stress signals and details the role played by nucleolar proteins in cardiovascular pathophysiology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Role of the Nucleolus in Human Disease. © 2013.

  5. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  6. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  7. Impact of Early Sport Specialization: A Physiological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleth, Anthony S.; Mikesky, Alan E.

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the question of whether early sport specialization provides a "physiological" advantage for future athletic success. It examines the limited literature related to the effects of early specialization on the body's organ systems: the endocrine system, the muscular system, the nervous system, and the cardiovascular system. The…

  8. Stem Cell Therapy and Breast Cancer Treatment: Review of Stem Cell Research and Potential Therapeutic Impact Against Cardiotoxicities Due to Breast Cancer Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, Thomas E.; George, Jon C.

    2014-01-01

    A new problem has emerged with the ever-increasing number of breast cancer survivors. While early screening and advances in treatment have allowed these patients to overcome their cancer, these treatments often have adverse cardiovascular side effects that can produce abnormal cardiovascular function. Chemotherapeutic and radiation therapy have both been linked to cardiotoxicity; these therapeutics can cause a loss of cardiac muscle and deterioration of vascular structure that can eventually ...

  9. Higher protein diets consumed ad libitum improve cardiovascular risk markers in children of overweight parents from eight European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Papadaki, Angeliki; Jensen, Signe Marie

    2013-01-01

    Dietary strategies to improve early cardiovascular markers in overweight children are needed. We investigated the effect of dietary protein and glycemic index (GI) on cardiovascular markers and metabolic syndrome (MetS) scores in 5- to 18-y-old children of overweight/obese parents from 8 European...

  10. Sleep characteristics and cardiovascular events in a large Swedish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Anna; Bellocco, Rino; Sundström, Johan; Adami, Hans-Olov; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva

    2013-06-01

    Limited evidence suggests that the association between sleep duration and cardiovascular events is strongest in individuals who also report sleep disturbances. We investigated sleep duration and insomnia symptoms in relation to incident cardiovascular events in the Swedish National March Cohort comprising 41,192 adults. Habitual sleep duration and difficulty falling asleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, early morning awakening, and nonrestorative sleep were self-reported in 1997. During 13.2 years of follow-up, we identified 4,031 events (myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, or death from cardiovascular disease) in the Swedish National Patient Register and the Cause of Death Register. After adjustment for potential confounders, short sleep duration (≤5 h) was associated with slightly increased risks of overall cardiovascular events and, specifically, myocardial infarction: hazard ratio, HR (95% confidence interval) 1.24 (1.06-1.44) and 1.42 (1.15-1.76), respectively. These HRs were attenuated as we included BMI, depressive symptoms and other relevant covariates in our analysis. Insomnia symptoms per se were unrelated to risk. However, in a joint analysis, there was some evidence that short sleepers who reported frequent insomnia symptoms had the highest HRs (1.26-1.39) of overall cardiovascular events. Short sleep or insomnia symptoms without the other conferred no increased risk. Our results suggest that symptoms of sleep disturbance should be taken into account when assessing the association between short sleep and cardiovascular disease.

  11. Binocular combination in abnormal binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Klein, Stanley A; Levi, Dennis M

    2013-02-08

    We investigated suprathreshold binocular combination in humans with abnormal binocular visual experience early in life. In the first experiment we presented the two eyes with equal but opposite phase shifted sine waves and measured the perceived phase of the cyclopean sine wave. Normal observers have balanced vision between the two eyes when the two eyes' images have equal contrast (i.e., both eyes contribute equally to the perceived image and perceived phase = 0°). However, in observers with strabismus and/or amblyopia, balanced vision requires a higher contrast image in the nondominant eye (NDE) than the dominant eye (DE). This asymmetry between the two eyes is larger than predicted from the contrast sensitivities or monocular perceived contrast of the two eyes and is dependent on contrast and spatial frequency: more asymmetric with higher contrast and/or spatial frequency. Our results also revealed a surprising NDE-to-DE enhancement in some of our abnormal observers. This enhancement is not evident in normal vision because it is normally masked by interocular suppression. However, in these abnormal observers the NDE-to-DE suppression was weak or absent. In the second experiment, we used the identical stimuli to measure the perceived contrast of a cyclopean grating by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to the DE. These measures provide strong constraints for model fitting. We found asymmetric interocular interactions in binocular contrast perception, which was dependent on both contrast and spatial frequency in the same way as in phase perception. By introducing asymmetric parameters to the modified Ding-Sperling model including interocular contrast gain enhancement, we succeeded in accounting for both binocular combined phase and contrast simultaneously. Adding binocular contrast gain control to the modified Ding-Sperling model enabled us to predict the results of dichoptic and binocular contrast discrimination experiments

  12. [Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation on cardiovascular system of workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Long-yu; Song, Chun-xiao; Yu, Duo; Liu, Xiao-liang; Guo, Jian-qiu; Wang, Chuan; Ding, Yuan-wei; Zhou, Hong-xia; Ma, Shu-mei; Liu, Xiao-dong; Liu, Xin

    2012-03-01

    To observe the exposure levels of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields in workplaces and to analyze the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation on cardiovascular system of occupationally exposed people. Intensity of electromagnetic fields in two workplaces (control and exposure groups) was detected with EFA-300 frequency electromagnetic field strength tester, and intensity of the noise was detected with AWA5610D integral sound level. The information of health physical indicators of 188 controls and 642 occupationally exposed workers was collected. Data were analyzed by SPSS17.0 statistic software. The intensity of electric fields and the magnetic fields in exposure groups was significantly higher than that in control group (P 0.05). The results of physical examination showed that the abnormal rates of HCY, ALT, AST, GGT, ECG in the exposure group were significantly higher than those in control group (P 0.05). Exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation may have some effects on the cardiovascular system of workers.

  13. BMI or BIA: Is Body Mass Index or Body Fat Mass a Better Predictor of Cardiovascular Risk in Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bohn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body fat (BF percentiles for German children and adolescents have recently been published. This study aims to evaluate the association between bioelectrical impedance analysis(BIA-derived BF and cardiovascular risk factors and to investigate whether BF is better suited than BMI in children and adolescents. Methods: Data of 3,327 children and adolescents (BMI > 90th percentile were included. Spearman's correlation and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs were applied determining the associations between BMI or BF and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, elevated liver enzymes, abnormal carbohydrate metabolism. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated to predict cardiovascular risk factors. Results: A significant association between both obesity indices and hypertension was present (all p Conclusion: BIA-derived BF was not superior to BMI to predict cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese children and adolescents.

  14. Alterações metabólicas, terapia antirretroviral e doença cardiovascular em idosos portadores de HIV Alteraciones metabólicas, terapia antirretroviral y enfermedad cardiovascular en adultos mayores portadores de VIH Metabolic abnormalities, antiretroviral therapy and cardiovascular disease in elderly patients with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Sebben Kramer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Um dos fenômenos mais atuais da síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS é o surgimento de uma nova população vulnerável: os idosos. Um dos fatores responsáveis por este aumento é o desenvolvimento da terapia antirretroviral combinada (TARV, que tem proporcionado uma melhor qualidade e expectativa de vida do portador de HIV. Entretanto, a TARV está associada a efeitos adversos como dislipidemia, diabete melito e resistência à insulina, os quais se constituem como fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular. Com o impacto da TARV no metabolismo glicídico e lipídico, surgiram muitos estudos associando a infecção pelo HIV e a doença cardiovascular, assim como, os seus fatores de risco e a utilização da TARV, porém, poucos deles relatam sobre a cardiotoxicidade desta Terapia em idosos. Este artigo tem o objetivo de revisar as principais alterações metabólicas causadas pelo uso da terapia antirretroviral e o seu impacto no aumento do risco de doenças cardiovasculares nos idosos portadores de HIV.Uno de los fenómenos más actuales del síndrome de la inmunodeficiencia adquirida (SIDA es el surgimiento de una nueva población vulnerable: los adultos mayores. Uno de los factores responsables de este incremento es el desarrollo de la terapia antirretroviral combinada (TARV, que ha proporcionado una mejor calidad y expectativa de vida del portador de VIH. Sin embargo, la TARV está asociada a efectos adversos como dislipidemia, diabetes melito y resistencia a la insulina, los que se constituyen como factores de enfermedad para riesgo cardiovascular. Con el impacto de la TARV en el metabolismo glucídico y lipídico, surgieron muchos estudios asociando la infección por el riesgo y la enfermedad cardiovascular, así como, sus factores de VIH y la utilización de la TARV, sin embargo, pocos de ellos relatan sobre la cardiotoxicidad de esta terapia en adultos mayores. Este artículo tiene por objeto revisar las principales

  15. Plant abnormality inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Toshio.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a plant abnormality inspection device for conducting remote or automatic patrolling inspection in a plant and, more particularly, relates to such a device as capable of detecting abnormal odors. That is, the device comprises a moving device for moving to a predetermined position in the plant, a plurality of gas sensors for different kind of gases to be inspected mounted thereon, a comparator for comparing the concentration of a gas detected by the gas sensor with the normal gas concentration at the predetermined position and a judging means for judging the absence or presence of abnormality depending on the combination of the result of the comparison and deliverying a signal if the state is abnormal. As a result, a slight amount of gas responsible to odors released upon abnormality of the plant can be detected by a plurality of gas sensors for different kinds gases to rapidly and easily find abnormal portions in the plant. (I.S.)

  16. Abnormal norepinephrine clearance and adrenergic receptor sensitivity in idiopathic orthostatic intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, G.; Shannon, J. R.; Costa, F.; Furlan, R.; Biaggioni, I.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic orthostatic intolerance (OI) is characterized by symptoms of inadequate cerebral perfusion with standing, in the absence of significant orthostatic hypotension. A heart rate increase of >/=30 bpm is typical. Possible underlying pathophysiologies include hypovolemia, partial dysautonomia, or a primary hyperadrenergic state. We tested the hypothesis that patients with OI have functional abnormalities in autonomic neurons regulating cardiovascular responses. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirteen patients with chronic OI and 10 control subjects underwent a battery of autonomic tests. Systemic norepinephrine (NE) kinetics were determined with the patients supine and standing before and after tyramine administration. In addition, baroreflex sensitivity, hemodynamic responses to bolus injections of adrenergic agonists, and intrinsic heart rate were determined. Resting supine NE spillover and clearance were similar in both groups. With standing, patients had a greater decrease in NE clearance than control subjects (55+/-5% versus 30+/-7%, Pheart rate 25 bpm was lower in patients than in control subjects (0.5+/-0.05 versus 1.0+/-0.1 microg, Pheart rate was similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The decreased NE clearance with standing, resistance to the NE-releasing effect of tyramine, and increased sensitivity to adrenergic agonists demonstrate dramatically disordered sympathetic cardiovascular regulation in patients with chronic OI.

  17. The role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in assessment of patients after radical surgical correction of tetralogy of Fallot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genova, K.; Dasheva, A.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical management of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) results in residual anatomic and functional abnormalities in majority of patients. Primarily considered as a benign pulmonary regurgitation with the time results in right ventricular overload, loses the compensatory mechanisms and irreversible right ventricular dilatation and dysfunction. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has evolved during the last two decades as the reference standard imaging modality to assess the anatomic and functional changes in patients with repaired TOF. This article reviews the role of CMR to assess the right ventricular function and to evaluate the degree of pulmonary regurgitation and comments some technical aspects, based to our experience. Key words: Tetralogy of Fallot. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. Pulmonary regurgitation. Right ventricular assessment

  18. Application of acoustic microscopy to assessment of cardiovascular biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Yoshifumi; Sasaki, Hidehiko; Nitta, Shin-ichi; Tanaka, Motonao; Joergensen, Claus S.; Falk, Erling

    2002-11-01

    Acoustic microscopy provides information on physical and mechanical properties of biological tissues, while optical microscopy with various staining techniques provides chemical properties. The biomechanics of tissues is especially important in cardiovascular system because its pathophysiology is closely related with mechanical stresses such as blood pressure or blood flow. A scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) system with tone-burst ultrasound in the frequency range of 100-200 MHz has been developed, and attenuation and sound speed of tissues have been measured. In human coronary arteries, attenuation and sound speed were high in calcification and collagen, while both values were low in smooth muscle and lipid. Another SAM system with 800-MHz-1.3-GHz ultrasound was applied for aortas of Apo-E deficient mouse, which is known to develop atherosclerosis. Attenuation of ultrasound was significantly higher in type 1 collagen compared to type 3 collagen. Recently, a new type FFT-SAM using a single-pulse, broadband frequency range ultrasound (20-150 MHz) has been developed. Cardiac allograft was observed by FFT-SAM and the acoustic properties were able to grade allograft rejection. SAM provides very useful information for assessing cardiovascular biomechanics and for understanding normal and abnormal images of clinical ultrasound.

  19. Early life seizures in female rats lead to anxiety-related behavior and abnormal social behavior characterized by reduced motivation to novelty and deficit in social discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelhano, Adelisandra Silva Santos; Ramos, Fabiane Ochai; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that male Wistar rats submitted to neonatal status epilepticus showed abnormal social behavior characterized by deficit in social discrimination and enhanced emotionality. Taking into account that early insult can produce different biological manifestations in a gender-dependent manner, we aimed to investigate the social behavior and anxiety-like behavior in female Wistar rats following early life seizures. Neonate female Wistar rats at 9 days postnatal were subject to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and the control received saline. Behavioral tests started from 60 days postnatal and were carried out only during the diestrus phase of the reproductive cycle. In sociability test experimental animals exhibited reduced motivation for social encounter and deficit in social discrimination. In open field and the elevated plus maze, experimental animals showed enhanced emotionality with no changes in basal locomotor activity. The results showed that female rats submitted to neonatal status epipepticus showed impaired social behavior, characterized by reduced motivation to novelty and deficit in social discrimination in addition to enhanced emotionality.

  20. Fluorescence photodiagnosis of early stage lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.; Sakai, H.; Konaka, C.; Okunaka, T.; Furukawa, K.; Saito, Y.; Aizawa, K.; Hayata, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Sputum cytology examination is the most effective method to detect early stage central type squamous cell carcinoma. As sputum-positive early stage lung cancer usually does not show any abnormal findings on chest X-ray film, fiberoptic bronchoscopy is subsequently performed for localization. However, sometimes cases do not show any abnormal findings of cancer endoscopically because they are very early stage cases. For the purpose of localization of invisible lesions the photodynamic reaction was employed in this study. Photodynamic reaction is achieved by transfer of energy of an excited photo-sensitizer induced by photoradiation of light. This phenomenon was already recognized in the beginning of this century. Study of tumor localization of the bronchial tree using hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) and a mercury arc lamp was first performed in the Mayo Clinic in 1960s. In 1978, krypton laser was used first as a light source by Profio and Doiron. Authors have been doing research on early localization of such endoscopically occult early lung cancer since 1978. They recently developed an image processing system using an excimer dye laser for early localization of lung cancer. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Evolution of DWI signal abnormalities after transient ischemic attack and minor ischaemic stroke

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Merwick, A

    2011-05-01

    Background: Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) signal abnormality after transient ischaemic attack (TIA) predicts early stroke, independently of other risk markers included in the ABCD3-I score. Early stroke recurrence detected on follow-up DWI after the acute-phase DWI may identify patients at high risk for subsequent clinicalstrokesstroke, cognitive impairment, and seizures. We aimed to determine the evolution of acute DWI lesions and rate of new ischaemic lesion (NIL) occurrence on follow-up DWI after TIA and minor stroke.\\r\

  2. Abnormal maternal echocardiographic findings in triplet pregnancies presenting with dyspnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhenicky, Marie; Distelmaier, Klaus; Mailath-Pokorny, Mariella; Worda, Christof; Langer, Martin; Worda, Katharina

    2016-03-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of abnormal maternal echocardiographic findings in triplet pregnancies presenting with dyspnoea. Between 2003 and 2013, patients' records of 96 triplet pregnancies at our department were analysed including maternal and fetal outcome, echocardiographic parameters and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels. After exclusion of triplet pregnancies with fetal demise before 23 + 0 weeks, selective feticide or missing outcome data, the study population consisted of 60 triplet pregnancies. All women with dyspnoea underwent echocardiography and measurement of NT-proBNP. Dyspnoea towards the end of pregnancy was observed in 13.3% (8/60) of all women with triplet pregnancies, and all of these women underwent echocardiography. The prevalence of abnormal echocardiographic findings in women with dyspnoea was 37.5% (3/8) with peripartum cardiomyopathy in one woman. Median serum NT-proBNP was significantly higher in women with abnormal echocardiographic findings compared with those without (1779 ng/ml, range 1045-6076 ng/ml vs 172 ng/ml, range 50-311 ng/ml; p presenting with dyspnoea show a high prevalence of abnormal echocardiographic findings. Since dyspnoea is a common sign in triplet pregnancies and is associated with a high rate of cardiac involvement, echocardiography and evaluation of maternal NT-proBNP could be considered to improve early diagnosis and perinatal management.

  3. Synergistic effect of polymorphisms of paraoxonase gene cluster and arsenic exposure on electrocardiogram abnormality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Y.-T.; Li, W.-F.; Chen, C.-J.; Prineas, Ronald J.; Chen, Wei J.; Zhang Zhuming; Sun, C.-W.; Wang, S.-L.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic has been linked to increased prevalence of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the long-term impact of arsenic exposure remains unclear. Human paraoxonase (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein-associated antioxidant enzyme which hydrolyzes oxidized lipids and is thought to be protective against atherosclerosis, but evidence remains limited to case-control studies. Only recently have genes encoding enzymes responsible for arsenic metabolism, such as AS3MT and GSTO, been cloned and characterized. This study was designed to evaluate the synergistic interaction of genetic factors and arsenic exposure on electrocardiogram abnormality. A total of 216 residents from three tap water implemented villages of previous arseniasis-hyperendemic regions in Taiwan were prospectively followed for an average of 8 years. For each resident, a 12-lead conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded and coded by Minnesota Code standard criteria. Eight functional polymorphisms of PON1, PON2, AS3MT, GSTO1, and GSTO2 were examined for genetic susceptibility to ECG abnormality. Among 42 incident cases with ECG deterioration identified among 121 baseline-normal subjects, arsenic exposure was significantly correlated with incidence of ECG abnormality. In addition, polymorphisms in two paraoxonase genes were also found associated with the incidence of ECG abnormality. A haplotype R-C-S constituted by polymorphisms of PON1 Q192R, -108C/T and PON2 C311S was linked to the increased risk. Subjects exposed to high levels of As (cumulative As exposure > 14.7 ppm-year or drinking artesian well water > 21 years) and carrying the R-C-S haplotype had significantly increased risks for ECG abnormality over those with only one risk factor. Results of this study showed a long-term arsenic effect on ECG abnormality and significant gene-gene and gene-environment interactions linked to the incidence of CVD. This finding might have important implications for a novel and potentially useful

  4. The link between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Sarmad; Hernandez, German T

    2014-07-01

    It is well known that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a strong risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the excess risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with CKD is only partially explained by the presence of traditional risk factors, such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO and Web of Science has been searched. Chronic kidney disease even in its early stages can cause hypertension and potentiate the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, the practice of intensive blood pressure lowering was criticized in recent systematic reviews. Available evidence is inconclusive but does not prove that a blood pressure target of less than 130/80 mmHg as recommended in the guidelines improves clinical outcomes more than a target of less than 140/90 mmHg in adults with CKD. The association between CKD and CVD has been extensively documented in the literature. Both CKD and CVD share common traditional risk factors, such as smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. However, cardiovascular disease remains often underdiagnosed und undertreated in patients with CKD. It is imperative that as clinicians, we recognize that patients with CKD are a group at high risk for developing CVD and cardiovascular events. Additional studies devoted to further understand the risk factors for CVD in patients with CKD are necessary to develop and institute preventative and treatment strategies to reduce the high morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD.

  5. Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Erica S; Jiang, Xianyan; Lu, Jiapeng; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Wang, Yongfei; Li, Xi; Downing, Nicholas S; Nasir, Khurram; Du, Xue; Li, Jing; Krumholz, Harlan M; Liu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Lixin

    2015-12-09

    In China, efforts are underway to respond to rapidly increasing rates of heart disease and stroke. Yet the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in China may be different from that of other populations. Thus, there is a critical need for population-based studies that provide insight into the risk factors, incidence and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China. The Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study is designed to investigate the burden of cardiovascular disease and the sociodemographic, biological, environmental and clinical risk factors associated with disease onset and outcomes. For this study, from 2000 through 2013, 32,404 employees aged 18 years or older were recruited from the Qingdao Port Group in China, contributing 221,923 annual health assessments. The mean age at recruitment was 43.4 (SD=12.9); 79% were male. In this ongoing study, annual health assessments, governed by extensive quality control mechanisms, include a questionnaire (capturing demographic and employment information, medical history, medication use, health behaviours and health outcomes), physical examination, ECG, and blood and urine analysis. Additional non-annual assessments include an X-ray, echocardiogram and carotid ultrasound; bio-samples will be collected for future genetic and proteomic analyses. Cardiovascular outcomes are accessed via self-report and are actively being verified with medical insurance claims; efforts are underway to adjudicate outcomes with hospital medical records. Early findings reveal a significant increase in cardiovascular risk factors from 2000 to 2010 (hypertension: 26.4-39.4%; diabetes: 3.3-8.9%; hyperlipidaemia: 5.0-33.6%; body mass index >28 m/kg(2): 14.1-18.6%). We aim to generate novel insights about the epidemiology and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China, with specific emphasis on the potentially unique risk factor profiles of this Chinese population. Knowledge generated will be disseminated in the peer-reviewed literature, and will

  6. Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Erica S; Jiang, Xianyan; Lu, Jiapeng; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Wang, Yongfei; Li, Xi; Downing, Nicholas S; Nasir, Khurram; Du, Xue; Li, Jing; Krumholz, Harlan M; Liu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In China, efforts are underway to respond to rapidly increasing rates of heart disease and stroke. Yet the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in China may be different from that of other populations. Thus, there is a critical need for population-based studies that provide insight into the risk factors, incidence and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China. The Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study is designed to investigate the burden of cardiovascular disease and the sociodemographic, biological, environmental and clinical risk factors associated with disease onset and outcomes. Participants For this study, from 2000 through 2013, 32 404 employees aged 18 years or older were recruited from the Qingdao Port Group in China, contributing 221 923 annual health assessments. The mean age at recruitment was 43.4 (SD=12.9); 79% were male. In this ongoing study, annual health assessments, governed by extensive quality control mechanisms, include a questionnaire (capturing demographic and employment information, medical history, medication use, health behaviours and health outcomes), physical examination, ECG, and blood and urine analysis. Additional non-annual assessments include an X-ray, echocardiogram and carotid ultrasound; bio-samples will be collected for future genetic and proteomic analyses. Cardiovascular outcomes are accessed via self-report and are actively being verified with medical insurance claims; efforts are underway to adjudicate outcomes with hospital medical records. Findings to date Early findings reveal a significant increase in cardiovascular risk factors from 2000 to 2010 (hypertension: 26.4–39.4%; diabetes: 3.3–8.9%; hyperlipidaemia: 5.0–33.6%; body mass index >28 m/kg2: 14.1–18.6%). Future Plans We aim to generate novel insights about the epidemiology and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China, with specific emphasis on the potentially unique risk factor profiles of this Chinese population. Knowledge

  7. Impact of cardiovascular risk factors on medical expenditure: evidence from epidemiological studies analysing data on health checkups and medical insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koshi

    2014-01-01

    Concerns have increasingly been raised about the medical economic burden in Japan, of which approximately 20% is attributable to cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Because the management of risk factors is essential for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, it is important to understand the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and medical expenditure in the Japanese population. However, only a few Japanese epidemiological studies analysing data on health checkups and medical insurance have provided evidence on this topic. Patients with cardiovascular risk factors, including obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, may incur medical expenditures through treatment of the risk factors themselves and through procedures for associated diseases that usually require hospitalization and sometimes result in death. Untreated risk factors may cause medical expenditure surges, mainly due to long-term hospitalization, more often than risk factors preventively treated by medication. On an individual patient level, medical expenditures increase with the number of concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. For single risk factors, personal medical expenditure may increase with the severity of that factor. However, on a population level, the medical economic burden attributable to cardiovascular risk factors results largely from a single, particularly prevalent risk factor, especially from mildly-to-moderately abnormal levels of the factor. Therefore, cardiovascular risk factors require management on the basis of both a cost-effective strategy of treating high-risk patients and a population strategy for reducing both the ill health and medical economic burdens that result from cardiovascular disease.

  8. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  9. Imaging CT findings in cases of subdural hematoma after cardiovascular surgery. Initial signs of SDH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Michiyuki; Kuriyama, Yoshihiro; Sawada, Tohru; Ogawa, Makoto; Kaneko, Takaji; Sakamoto, Akira; Kawazoe, Kouhei; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Omae, Teruo

    1987-12-01

    A characteristic initial sign of CT findings, as seen in cases of subdural hematoma (SDH) after cardiovascular surgery, was reported. Central-nervous-system (CNS) complications after cardiovascular surgery have been thought to be due mainly to the ischemic brain damage caused by both reduced cerebral perfusion pressure and microembolism during extracorporeal circulation. However, we observed 8 cases of SDH in 39 patients suffering from major CNS complications after cardiovascular surgery. In view of these experiences, SDH was thought to be one of the most significant factors causing CNS complications after cardiovascular surgery. In the sequential CT scans of 8 cases of SDH, four exhibited a typical, small, spotty high-density area in the early period of SDH. The clinical courses of these four patients were relatively acute or subacute, and the initial small high-density area progressed to definite SDH findings in that region in the follow-up CT. These initial findings of CT scans were regarded as ''initial signs of SDH-ISS-''. Although there have been many reports concerning the sequential CT changes in SDH, there has been no report describing the above-mentioned finding. It was emphasized that ''ISS'' is of great importance in the early management for SDH.

  10. Metabolic syndrome in an Hispanic population–cardiovascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo I. Altieri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MetS is presently one of the main medical problems in developing countries. This syndrome was studied in Puerto Rico at the Cardiovascular Center of Puerto Rico and the Caribbean with emphasis on understanding the cardiovascular complications. The medical records of patients admitted between 1999 to 2005 were evaluated for three or more MetS diagnostic criteria. One hundred and seventy-three patients met the consensus criteria of metabolic syndrome (MetS. The mean age of those diagnosed with MetS was 60 years of age. Fifty-seven percent were males and 42 percent females. The mean body mass was 30 kg/m. The ejection fraction was found to be subnormal (49±8% and the end systolic dimension of the left atrium was increased ( 45±10 mm in comparison to a group of diabetic patients without MetS used for comparison. The incidence of atrial fibrillation was found to be 16% higher in the MetS group than in the comparison group. The number of cases of metabolic syndrome recorded within the Hispanic population of Puerto Rico showed a higher incidence of atrial fibrillation without ventricular tachycardia. This is thought to be as a result of the abnormal left ventricular and atrial function.

  11. Radiation-induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities in breast cancer patients following external beam radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Eftekhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Radiation therapy for breast cancer can induce myocardial capillary injury and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A prospective cohort was conducted to study the prevalence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities following radiation therapy of left-sided breast cancer patients as compared to those with right–sided cancer. Methods: To minimize potential confounding factors, only those patients with low 10-year risk of coronary artery disease (based on Framingham risk scoring were included. All patients were initially treated by modified radical mastectomy and then were managed by postoperative 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy (CRT to the surgical bed with an additional 1-cm margin, delivered by 46-50 Gy (in 2 Gy daily fractions over a 5-week course. The same dose-adjusted chemotherapy regimen (including anthracyclines, cyclophosphamide and taxol was given to all patients. Six months after radiation therapy, all patients underwent cardiac SPECT for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion. Results: A total of 71 patients with a mean age of 45.3±7.2 years [35 patients with leftsided breast cancer (exposed and 36 patients with right-sided cancer (controls] were enrolled. Dose-volume histogram (DVH [showing the percentage of the heart exposed to >50% of radiation] was significantly higher in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Visual interpretation detected perfusion abnormalities in 42.9% of cases and 16.7% of controls (P=0.02, Odds ratio=1.46. In semiquantitative segmental analysis, only apical (28.6% versus 8.3%, P=0.03 and anterolateral (17.1% versus 2.8%, P=0.049 walls showed significantly reduced myocardial perfusion in the exposed group. Summed Stress Score (SSS of>3 was observed in twelve cases (34.3%, while in five of the controls (13.9%,(Odds ratio=1.3. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding left ventricular ejection fraction. Conclusion: The risk of radiation induced myocardial

  12. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2014-03-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile non-invasive imaging modality that serves a broad spectrum of indications in clinical cardiology and has proven evidence. Most of the numerous applications are appropriate in patients with previous cardiovascular surgery in the same manner as in non-surgical subjects. However, some specifics have to be considered. This review article is intended to provide information about the application of CMR in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery. In particular, the two main scenarios, i.e. following coronary artery bypass surgery and following heart valve surgery, are highlighted. Furthermore, several pictorial descriptions of other potential indications for CMR after cardiovascular surgery are given.

  13. Adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance with variable-density spiral pulse sequences accurately detects coronary artery disease: initial clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Michael; Taylor, Angela; Yang, Yang; Kuruvilla, Sujith; Ragosta, Michael; Meyer, Craig H; Kramer, Christopher M

    2014-07-01

    Adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance perfusion imaging can be limited by motion-induced dark-rim artifacts, which may be mistaken for true perfusion abnormalities. A high-resolution variable-density spiral pulse sequence with a novel density compensation strategy has been shown to reduce dark-rim artifacts in first-pass perfusion imaging. We aimed to assess the clinical performance of adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance using this new perfusion sequence to detect obstructive coronary artery disease. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance perfusion imaging was performed during adenosine stress (140 μg/kg per minute) and at rest on a Siemens 1.5-T Avanto scanner in 41 subjects with chest pain scheduled for coronary angiography. Perfusion images were acquired during injection of 0.1 mmol/kg Gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentacetate at 3 short-axis locations using a saturation recovery interleaved variable-density spiral pulse sequence. Significant stenosis was defined as >50% by quantitative coronary angiography. Two blinded reviewers evaluated the perfusion images for the presence of adenosine-induced perfusion abnormalities and assessed image quality using a 5-point scale (1 [poor] to 5 [excellent]). The prevalence of obstructive coronary artery disease by quantitative coronary angiography was 68%. The average sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 89%, 85%, and 88%, respectively, with a positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 93% and 79%, respectively. The average image quality score was 4.4±0.7, with only 1 study with more than mild dark-rim artifacts. There was good inter-reader reliability with a κ statistic of 0.67. Spiral adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance results in high diagnostic accuracy for the detection of obstructive coronary artery disease with excellent image quality and minimal dark-rim artifacts. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Lysosomal abnormalities in hereditary spastic paraplegia types SPG15 and SPG11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renvoisé, Benoît; Chang, Jaerak; Singh, Rajat; Yonekawa, Sayuri; FitzGibbon, Edmond J; Mankodi, Ami; Vanderver, Adeline; Schindler, Alice B; Toro, Camilo; Gahl, William A; Mahuran, Don J; Blackstone, Craig; Pierson, Tyler Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objective Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are among the most genetically diverse inherited neurological disorders, with over 70 disease loci identified (SPG1-71) to date. SPG15 and SPG11 are clinically similar, autosomal recessive disorders characterized by progressive spastic paraplegia along with thin corpus callosum, white matter abnormalities, cognitive impairment, and ophthalmologic abnormalities. Furthermore, both have been linked to early-onset parkinsonism. Methods We describe two new cases of SPG15 and investigate cellular changes in SPG15 and SPG11 patient-derived fibroblasts, seeking to identify shared pathogenic themes. Cells were evaluated for any abnormalities in cell division, DNA repair, endoplasmic reticulum, endosomes, and lysosomes. Results Fibroblasts prepared from patients with SPG15 have selective enlargement of LAMP1-positive structures, and they consistently exhibited abnormal lysosomal storage by electron microscopy. A similar enlargement of LAMP1-positive structures was also observed in cells from multiple SPG11 patients, though prominent abnormal lysosomal storage was not evident. The stabilities of the SPG15 protein spastizin/ZFYVE26 and the SPG11 protein spatacsin were interdependent. Interpretation Emerging studies implicating these two proteins in interactions with the late endosomal/lysosomal adaptor protein complex AP-5 are consistent with shared abnormalities in lysosomes, supporting a converging mechanism for these two disorders. Recent work with Zfyve26−/− mice revealed a similar phenotype to human SPG15, and cells in these mice had endolysosomal abnormalities. SPG15 and SPG11 are particularly notable among HSPs because they can also present with juvenile parkinsonism, and this lysosomal trafficking or storage defect may be relevant for other forms of parkinsonism associated with lysosomal dysfunction. PMID:24999486

  15. Risk of cardiovascular events in mothers of women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheang, Kai I; Nestler, John E; Futterweit, Walter

    2008-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular events in an older population of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We took advantage of the high heritability of PCOS and determined the probable PCOS status of mothers of women with PCOS. The prevalence of cardiovascular events was then determined in these mothers with and without PCOS. In a single endocrine clinic, 308 women with PCOS were interviewed about their mothers' medical history, and the mothers themselves were interviewed if available. The interview addressed menstrual history, fertility, clinical signs of hyperandrogenism, age at incident cardiovascular event, and age at death as reported by daughters. Presence of PCOS in the mothers was defined as a history of infertility, irregular menses, or clinical signs of hyperandrogenism. A cardiovascular event was defined as fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction, any coronary intervention, angina necessitating emergency department visits, or a cerebrovascular event. The mothers were predominantly post-menopausal. Among 182 interviewed (n = 157) or deceased (n = 25) mothers, 59 had probable PCOS. Cardiovascular events were more common (P = .011) among mothers with PCOS (11 of 59 or 18.6%) than among non-PCOS mothers (5 of 123 or 4.1%). After adjustments were made for age and race, probable PCOS was an independent predictor of cardiovascular events (odds ratio, 5.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.78 to 16.40). Cardiovascular events occurred at an early age in mothers of women with PCOS, particularly mothers with probable PCOS themselves. PCOS-affected mothers of women with PCOS have a higher risk for cardiovascular events in comparison with non-PCOS mothers, and cardiovascular events appear to occur at an earlier than expected age in mothers with PCOS.

  16. Cardiovascular function in women with recurrent miscarriage, pre-eclampsia and/or intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendru, Amita A; Everett, Thomas R; McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B; Lees, Christoph C

    2013-03-01

    To investigate prepregnancy cardiovascular function and risk factors in women with previous pregnancy complications. Thirty-four women with previous normal pregnancy (controls), 26 with unexplained recurrent miscarriage (RM) and 14 with pre-eclampsia (PE) and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), planning to conceive were recruited. Brachial and central blood pressures (BP), cardiac output (CO), peripheral vascular resistance (PVR), aortic stiffness, blood biochemistry and platelet aggregation were assessed. Women with previous PE/IUGR had higher brachial diastolic BP (78 ± 9 vs 71 ± 7 mmHg; p = 0.03), central systolic BP (107 ± 10 vs 99 ± 8 mmHg; p = 0.03), mean arterial pressure (92 ± 10 vs 84 ± 8 mmHg; p = 0.01) and PVR (1499 ± 300 vs 1250 ± 220 dynes.s(-1) cm(-5); p = 0.005), than the controls. No differences were observed in either cardiovascular function or blood biochemistry in women with unexplained RM compared with the controls. Women with previous PE/IUGR though not with RM had a stronger family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than controls. Women with previous PE and/or IUGR had higher BP and PVR compared with controls, which may predispose them to CVD later in life. However, in the absence of underlying vascular pathology, women with unexplained RM did not have abnormal cardiovascular function. Prepregnancy period provides an opportunity to identify cardiovascular risks in relation to previous obstetric history.

  17. [Study of echocardiographic parameters of rheumatoid arthritis black African without clinically evident cardiovascular manifestations: A cross-sectional study of 73 cases in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodo-Siddo, M N; Diao, M; Ndiaye, M B; Ndongo, S; Kane, A; Mbaye, A; Bodian, M; Sarr, S A; Sarr, M; Ba, S; Diop, T M

    2016-04-01

    Research of cardiac involvement in patients with rheumatoid arthritis can prevent complications and place in a logical secondary prevention. The objective of this study was to investigate the echocardiographic parameters in a population of Senegalese patients with rheumatoid arthritis without clinically evident cardiovascular manifestations. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study, which included prospectively from outpatients in the internal medicine department of university hospital center Aristide Le Dantec in Dakar, Senegal, with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis without clinically evident cardiovascular disease. It focused on a sample of 73 patients of both sexes aged at least 18 years. Following clinical examination, we conducted laboratory tests (CRP, fibrinogen, ESR, rheumatoid factors: Latex and Waaler-Rose, anti-CCP, antinuclear factors and anti-ENA antibodies), ECG, echocardiography standard. Data were analyzed using a descriptive study of the different variables with the calculation of proportions for categorical variables, and the positional parameters and dispersion for quantitative variables. A total of 73 patients with rheumatoid arthritis without obvious cardiac events and meeting the criteria of definition of the ACR 1987 were included in the study. The mean age was 44.17±14.43 years with extremes of 18 and 75 years. The mean duration of RA was 5.93±4.78 years. The concept of family inflammatory arthritis was reported in 35.60% of cases and almost one in six patients had at least a factor of cardiovascular risk (16.96%). The abnormalities found in Doppler echocardiography were dominated by diastolic LV dysfunction (42.46%), increased left ventricular mass in 35.61%. Valvular leaks of variable grades were highlighted regarding all orifices but were rarely significant. The realization of echocardiography in patients with rheumatoid arthritis without clinically evident cardiovascular manifestations helps to highlight cardiovascular

  18. Prognostic implications of fasting plasma glucose in subjects with echocardiographic abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To examine whether baseline fasting plasma glucose (FPG) modifies the prognostic role of left ventricular (LV) mass, geometric pattern, and diastolic function, for prediction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Population-based cohort study comprising of 1047 men and 456 women...... proportional-hazards regression with interaction analysis was used to evaluate the risk associated with FPG and LV structure and function. RESULTS: Median age was 67years, and 31% had impaired fasting glucose, 31% diabetes, 17% LV hypertrophy, and 40% diastolic dysfunction. During a median follow-up duration.......001), and with the association between diastolic dysfunction and event risk (P=0.02), including grade 2 or 3 dysfunction (P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiographic abnormalities were more strongly associated with an adverse prognosis among subjects with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes....

  19. NIGHT HEMODYNAMIC DISORDER RISK FACTORS AND MARKERS FOR PATIENT-SPECIFIC APPROACH TO CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE PREVENTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Kozhevnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:  High mortality rates of cardiovascular disease request research revealing risk factors and early markers of cardiovascular dysfunction in children with chronic pathology.Objective:  to reveal the risk factors and early markers of night hemodynamic disorders for the development of personalized cardiovascular disease prevention in children based on the results of the combined daily monitoring of arterial pressure, ECG examination, and analysis of night sleep. Patients and methods:  Parents filled screeningquestionnaire of night sleep before the study onset. Combined monitoring and examination was performed  in 232  children aged 6–17 with different blood pressure disorders using Astrocard НS E2bp (Russia equipment in the outpatient setting.Results: 24-hour BP monitoring identified arterial hypotension 3.8 times more often than routine ambulance method. 21% of children or every fifth child with hypotension  had night hypertension  associated  with maximum (93% pathology  of ENT organs  with nasal obstruction. Differentiation of investigated groups by night PP and DBP show these marks of hemodynamics to be really important at the early period of pathology development in children. 62% of children had QT interval with bad adaptation to RR-interval at night. In the group with high BMI we found 1.6 times more often children with height more than 85th percentile of the norm. These children had night diastolic hypotension  5 times more often, children with obesity didn’t have normal 24-hour  BP dynamics, children with high BMI had longer QT-interval at night.Conclusions: We demonstrate the necessity of night sleep hemodynamics investigation in children for personalized cardiovascular disorder prevention. Children of early school age suffering from chronic ENT-pathology with nasal obstruction and/or high BMI, with high BMI, and with height ≥85th percentile of gender-age norm have risk of development of cardiovascular

  20. Deficits in Neurite Density Underlie White Matter Structure Abnormalities in First-Episode Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Charlotte L; Davies, Geoff; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Gabel, Matt C; Dowell, Nicholas G; Cercignani, Mara; Seth, Anil K; Greenwood, Kathryn E; Medford, Nick; Critchley, Hugo D

    2017-11-15

    Structural abnormalities across multiple white matter tracts are recognized in people with early psychosis, consistent with dysconnectivity as a neuropathological account of symptom expression. We applied advanced neuroimaging techniques to characterize microstructural white matter abnormalities for a deeper understanding of the developmental etiology of psychosis. Thirty-five first-episode psychosis patients, and 19 healthy controls, participated in a quantitative neuroimaging study using neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, a multishell diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging technique that distinguishes white matter fiber arrangement and geometry from changes in neurite density. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity images were also derived. Tract-based spatial statistics compared white matter structure between patients and control subjects and tested associations with age, symptom severity, and medication. Patients with first-episode psychosis had lower regional FA in multiple commissural, corticospinal, and association tracts. These abnormalities predominantly colocalized with regions of reduced neurite density, rather than aberrant fiber bundle arrangement (orientation dispersion index). There was no direct relationship with active symptoms. FA decreased and orientation dispersion index increased with age in patients, but not control subjects, suggesting accelerated effects of white matter geometry change. Deficits in neurite density appear fundamental to abnormalities in white matter integrity in early psychosis. In the first application of neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging in psychosis, we found that processes compromising axonal fiber number, density, and myelination, rather than processes leading to spatial disruption of fiber organization, are implicated in the etiology of psychosis. This accords with a neurodevelopmental origin of aberrant brain-wide structural connectivity predisposing individuals to

  1. Positive predictive value of abnormal mammographic findings and role of assessment procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menna, S.; Marra, V.; Di Virgilio, M.R.; Macchia, G.; Frigerio, A.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the positive predictive value for cancer of abnormal mammographic findings and the role of assessment, the authors reviewed a series of 962 patients recalled and examined in the first breast screening center of Turin (Italy), out of 18996 women aged 50-59 from 1991 to 1995, within a population-based mammography program. The results of this study confirm the accuracy of mammography in the early detection of breast cancer and the different role of assessment procedures in the various abnormal mammographic findings. The improvement in positive predictive value for screening demonstrates the importance of the learning curve within the screening team. Most of this improvement could be referred to refined diagnostic criteria for calcifications [it

  2. Malformations and abnormalities of the petrous portion of the temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, W.; Yilmaz, U.; Heumueller, I.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the procedure of choice in the diagnostics of abnormalities of the middle and inner ear. It allows a detailed presentation of anatomical features and achieves the prerequisites for selection of the various therapeutic options. The highly diverse abnormalities can be described using detailed imaging analyses. Malformations with an abnormally developed modiolus are assumed to be early embryological defects, such as the classical Mondini dysplasia. The essential therapeutic option for middle ear deformities is still a cochlear implant. The domain of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not only in the analysis of the cochlear nerve and for exclusion of fibrosis or ossification of the labyrinth but is also able to visualize details of isolated malformations, such as an extended vestibular aqueduct or subtle alterations to the vestibule or can visualize them better in comparison to CT. Radiological diagnostics are used not only for classification but also to recognize typical clinical problem situations and play a key role in the diagnostics of hearing disorders and selection of the optimal therapeutic procedure. (orig.) [de

  3. Investigation on Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Using Physiological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Hua Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide. Early prediction of CVD is urgently important for timely prevention and treatment. Incorporation or modification of new risk factors that have an additional independent prognostic value of existing prediction models is widely used for improving the performance of the prediction models. This paper is to investigate the physiological parameters that are used as risk factors for the prediction of cardiovascular events, as well as summarizing the current status on the medical devices for physiological tests and discuss the potential implications for promoting CVD prevention and treatment in the future. The results show that measures extracted from blood pressure, electrocardiogram, arterial stiffness, ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI, and blood glucose carry valuable information for the prediction of both long-term and near-term cardiovascular risk. However, the predictive values should be further validated by more comprehensive measures. Meanwhile, advancing unobtrusive technologies and wireless communication technologies allow on-site detection of the physiological information remotely in an out-of-hospital setting in real-time. In addition with computer modeling technologies and information fusion. It may allow for personalized, quantitative, and real-time assessment of sudden CVD events.

  4. Educational inequality in cardiovascular diseases: a sibling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Grethe; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Osler, Merete

    2018-02-01

    Educational inequality in diseases in the circulatory system (here termed cardiovascular disease) is well documented but may be confounded by early life factors. The aim of this observational study was to examine whether the associations between education and all cardiovascular diseases, ischaemic heart disease and stroke, respectively, were explained by family factors shared by siblings. The study population included all individuals born in Denmark between 1950 and 1979 who had at least one full sibling born in the same period. Using Cox regression, data were analysed in conventional cohort and within-sibship analyses in which the association was examined within siblings discordant on education. Assuming that attenuation of associations in the within-sibship as compared with the cohort analyses would indicate confounding from factors shared within families. A lower educational status was associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease and stroke. All associations attenuated in the within-sibship analyses, in particular in the analyses on ischaemic heart disease before age 45 years. For instance, in the cohort analyses, the hazard rate of ischaemic heart disease among women less than 45 years who had a primary school education was 94% (hazard ratio 1.94 (1.78-2.12) higher than among those with a vocational education, while it attenuated to 51% (hazard ratio 1.51 (1.34-1.71)) in the within-sibship analysis. Confounding from factors shared by siblings explained the associations between education and the cardiovascular disease outcomes but to varying degrees. This should be taken into account when planning interventions aimed at reducing educational inequalities in the development of cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease and stroke.

  5. Alteraciones electrocardiográficas y factores de riesgo cardiovascular en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 Electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Rodríguez-Morán

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar cuáles son las alteraciones del ritmo y la conducción cardiaca más frecuentes en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 sin cardiopatía previa y establecer su asociación con los factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Material y métodos. Se incluyeron pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 sin presencia o antecedentes de cardiopatía. Se determinaron los factores de riesgo cardiovascular, el índice de masa corporal y los niveles séricos de glucosa, colesterol y triglicéridos. Se registró electrocardiograma convencional en reposo. La asociación de las variables en estudio con la ocurrencia de arritmias se calculó con un modelo de análisis multivariado ajustado por sexo. Resultados. Se integraron 199 pacientes: 113 mujeres (56.8% y 86 hombres (43.2%, y se identificó algún tipo de alteración electrocardiográfica en 29.1% de los sujetos. El hemibloqueo fascicular anterior (HFA y el bloqueo completo de rama derecha del Haz de His (BRDHH, constituyeron 75.9% de las alteraciones identificadas. Los pacientes con trastornos del ritmo y la conducción tienen niveles más elevados de colesterol y triglicéridos. La aparición de arritmias se relaciona directamente con el incremento de la edad (r= 0.75, p= 0.01. En el análisis multivariado ajustado por sexo la hipercolesterolemia y la edad se asociaron significativamente con las alteraciones del ritmo y la conducción: RM 1.5, IC95% 1.1-4.6, pObjective. To determine the most frequent alterations in rhythm and cardiac conduction in patients with type 2 diabetes without previous cardiopathy, and to establish the association of this disease with cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods. Subjects with type 2 diabetes, without cardiopathy antecedents were included in the study. Cardiovascular risk factors, body mass index and serum glucose, cholesterol and trygliceride levels were determined. A resting electrocardiogram was recorded. The association between the variables under study and

  6. Cerebral FDG-PET scanning abnormalities in optimally treated HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ase B; Law, Ian; Krabbe, Karen S

    2010-01-01

    with no history of virological failure, a CD4 count above 200 x 106 cells/l and no other co-morbidities. The distribution of the regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose metabolism was measured using fluorine-18-flourodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scanning. The PET scans were evaluated...... in the relative metabolic rate of glucose. Compared to healthy subjects, the patients with abnormal FDG-PET scanning results had a shorter history of known HIV infection, fewer years on antiretroviral therapy and higher levels of circulating TNF alpha and IL-6 (p = 0.08). CONCLUSION: A large proportion...... of optimally treated HIV patients exhibit cerebral FDG-PET scanning abnormalities and elevated TNF alpha and IL-6 levels, which may indicate imminent neuronal damage. The neuroprotective effect of early ARV treatment should be considered in future prospective follow-up studies....

  7. SPECT brain perfusion abnormalities in mild or moderate traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Dayem, H M; Abu-Judeh, H; Kumar, M; Atay, S; Naddaf, S; El-Zeftawy, H; Luo, J Q

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this atlas is to present a review of the literature showing the advantages of SPECT brain perfusion imaging (BPI) in mild or moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) over other morphologic imaging modalities such as x-ray CT or MRI. The authors also present the technical recommendations for SPECT brain perfusion currently practiced at their center. For the radiopharmaceutical of choice, a comparison between early and delayed images using Tc-99m HMPAO and Tc-99m ECD showed that Tc-99m HMPAO is more stable in the brain with no washout over time. Therefore, the authors feel that Tc-99m HMPAO is preferable to Tc-99m ECD. Recommendations regarding standardizing intravenous injection, the acquisition, processing parameters, and interpretation of scans using a ten grade color scale, and use of the cerebellum as the reference organ are presented. SPECT images of 228 patients (age range, 11 to 88; mean, 40.8 years) with mild or moderate TBI and no significant medical history that interfered with the results of the SPECT BP were reviewed. The etiology of the trauma was in the following order of frequency: motor vehicle accidents (45%) followed by blow to the head (36%) and a fall (19%). Frequency of the symptoms was headache (60.9%), memory problems (27.6%), dizziness (26.7%), and sleep disorders (8.7%). Comparison between patients imaged early (3 months) from the time of the accident, showed that early imaging detected more lesions (4.2 abnormal lesions per study compared to 2.7 in those imaged more than 3 months after the accident). Of 41 patients who had mild traumatic injury without loss of consciousness and had normal CT, 28 studies were abnormal. Focal areas of hypoperfusion were seen in 77% (176 patients, 612 lesions) of the group of 228 patients. The sites of abnormalities were in the following order: basal ganglia and thalami, 55.2%, frontal lobes, 23.8%, temporal lobes, 13%, parietal, 3.7%, insular and occipital lobes together, 4.6%.

  8. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  9. Peripheral inflammation during abnormal mood states in bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Prossin, Alan R; Johnson, Casey P; Christensen, Gary E; Magnotta, Vincent A; Wemmie, John A

    2015-11-15

    Bipolar disorder carries a substantive morbidity and mortality burden, particularly related to cardiovascular disease. Abnormalities in peripheral inflammatory markers, which have been commonly reported in case-control studies, potentially link these co-morbidities. However, it is not clear whether inflammatory markers change episodically in response to mood states or are indicative of chronic pro-inflammatory activity, regardless of mood, in bipolar disorder. Investigations focused on comparing concentrations of specific inflammatory cytokines associated with immune activation status (primary outcome=tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)) in 37 participants with bipolar disorder across 3 mood states (mania N=15, depression N=9, normal mood N=13) and 29 controls without a psychiatric disorder (total N=66). Cytokine levels were also compared to T1ρ, a potential neuroimaging marker for inflammation, in select brain regions in a subsample (N=39). Participants with bipolar disorder and healthy controls did not differ significantly in inflammatory cytokine concentrations. However, compared to cases with normal mood, cases with abnormal mood states (mania and depression) had significantly elevated levels of TNF-α, its soluble receptors (sTNFR1/sTNFR2), other macrophage-derived cytokines (interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18) in addition to IL-4, interferon-γ, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, fibroblast growth factor β, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Cytokine levels were not correlated with signals from T1ρ imaging in selected structures (amygdalae, hippocampi, hypothalamus, anterior cingulate gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus). Participants were not followed prospectively across mood states. Activation of inflammatory markers was found in abnormal mood states of bipolar disorder. Longitudinal study of individuals with mood disorders is needed to confirm these findings and to elucidate the time course of any such changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  10. Abnormalities of cortical structures in adolescent-onset conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Guo, X; Zhang, J; Gao, J; Wang, X; Situ, W; Yi, J; Zhang, X; Zhu, X; Yao, S; Huang, B

    2015-12-01

    Converging evidence has revealed both functional and structural abnormalities in adolescents with early-onset conduct disorder (EO-CD). The neurological abnormalities underlying EO-CD may be different from that of adolescent-onset conduct disorder (AO-CD) patients. However, the cortical structure in AO-CD patients remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cortical alterations in AO-CD patients. We investigated T1-weighted brain images from AO-CD patients and age-, gender- and intelligence quotient-matched controls. Cortical structures including thickness, folding and surface area were measured using the surface-based morphometric method. Furthermore, we assessed impulsivity and antisocial symptoms using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD). Compared with the controls, we found significant cortical thinning in the paralimbic system in AO-CD patients. For the first time, we observed cortical thinning in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in AO-CD patients which has not been reported in EO-CD patients. Prominent folding abnormalities were found in the paralimbic structures and frontal cortex while diminished surface areas were shown in the precentral and inferior temporal cortex. Furthermore, cortical thickness of the paralimbic structures was found to be negatively correlated with impulsivity and antisocial behaviors measured by the BIS and APSD, respectively. The present study indicates that AO-CD is characterized by cortical structural abnormalities in the paralimbic system, and, in particular, we highlight the potential role of deficient structures including the precuneus and PCC in the etiology of AO-CD.

  11. Cardiometabolic features of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Leslie K; Ehrmann, David A

    2008-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex disorder comprising both hormonal and metabolic abnormalities that include impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes, vascular disease, dyslipidemia, and obstructive sleep apnea. Insulin resistance is a central pathogenetic factor in PCOS that seems to result from a post-receptor-binding defect in insulin action. Insulin resistance and the consequent development of hyperinsulinemia contribute to the constellation of cardiometabolic abnormalities noted above. Although there is a paucity of data in regard to cardiovascular event rates and mortality in PCOS, an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors has been well documented. Attention to the metabolic risks associated with PCOS, starting as early as adolescence, is essential to the medical care of these patients.

  12. Role of MicroRNAs in Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System-Mediated Cardiovascular Inflammation and Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricica Pacurari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are endogenous regulators of gene expression either by inhibiting translation or protein degradation. Recent studies indicate that microRNAs play a role in cardiovascular disease and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system- (RAAS- mediated cardiovascular inflammation, either as mediators or being targeted by RAAS pharmacological inhibitors. The exact role(s of microRNAs in RAAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling is/are still in early stage of investigation. However, few microRNAs have been shown to play a role in RAAS signaling, particularly miR-155, miR-146a/b, miR-132/122, and miR-483-3p. Identification of specific microRNAs and their targets and elucidating microRNA-regulated mechanisms associated RAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling might lead to the development of novel pharmacological strategies to target RAAS-mediated vascular pathologies. This paper reviews microRNAs role in inflammatory factors mediating cardiovascular inflammation and RAAS genes and the effect of RAAS pharmacological inhibition on microRNAs and the resolution of RAAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling. Also, this paper discusses the advances on microRNAs-based therapeutic approaches that may be important in targeting RAAS signaling.

  13. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 652 HIV and Cardiovascular Disease HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT CVD? ... OF CVD? WHAT ABOUT CHANGING MEDICATIONS? HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes a group of problems ...

  14. Epidemiology of comorbidities in early rheumatoid arthritis: with emphasis on cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kerola, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with a substantially increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Along with their CV burden, RA patients are at increased risk for other comorbidities such as hypothyroidism and depressive symptoms. The aim of this work was to evaluate the prevalence of CV comorbidities and hypothyroidism among RA patients in comparison to those of the general population at the time of RA diagnosis. We also aimed to determine, among patients wit...

  15. Fetal Programming and Cardiovascular Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T.; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25880521

  16. Fetal programming and cardiovascular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2015-04-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption, or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes, and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology, and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress, and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. © 2015 American Physiological Society.

  17. Prevention of cardiovascular disease guided by total risk estimations - challenges and opportunities for practical implementation: highlights of a CardioVascular Clinical Trialists (CVCT) Workshop of the ESC Working Group on CardioVascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zannad, Faiez

    2011-11-03

    This paper presents a summary of the potential practical and economic barriers to implementation of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease guided by total cardiovascular risk estimations in the general population. It also reviews various possible solutions to overcome these barriers. The report is based on discussion among experts in the area at a special CardioVascular Clinical Trialists workshop organized by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy that took place in September 2009. It includes a review of the evidence in favour of the \\'treat-to-target\\' paradigm, as well as potential difficulties with this approach, including the multiple pathological processes present in high-risk patients that may not be adequately addressed by this strategy. The risk-guided therapy approach requires careful definitions of cardiovascular risk and consideration of clinical endpoints as well as the differences between trial and \\'real-world\\' populations. Cost-effectiveness presents another issue in scenarios of finite healthcare resources, as does the difficulty of documenting guideline uptake and effectiveness in the primary care setting, where early modification of risk factors may be more beneficial than later attempts to manage established disease. The key to guideline implementation is to improve the quality of risk assessment and demonstrate the association between risk factors, intervention, and reduced event rates. In the future, this may be made possible by means of automated data entry and various other measures. In conclusion, opportunities exist to increase guideline implementation in the primary care setting, with potential benefits for both the general population and healthcare resources.

  18. Study for the design method of multi-agent diagnostic system to improve diagnostic performance for similar abnormality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minowa, Hirotsugu; Gofuku, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Accidents on industrial plants cause large loss on human, economic, social credibility. In recent, studies of diagnostic methods using techniques of machine learning such as support vector machine is expected to detect the occurrence of abnormality in a plant early and correctly. There were reported that these diagnostic machines has high accuracy to diagnose the operating state of industrial plant under mono abnormality occurrence. But the each diagnostic machine on the multi-agent diagnostic system may misdiagnose similar abnormalities as a same abnormality if abnormalities to diagnose increases. That causes that a single diagnostic machine may show higher diagnostic performance than one of multi-agent diagnostic system because decision-making considering with misdiagnosis is difficult. Therefore, we study the design method for multi-agent diagnostic system to diagnose similar abnormality correctly. This method aimed to realize automatic generation of diagnostic system where the generation process and location of diagnostic machines are optimized to diagnose correctly the similar abnormalities which are evaluated from the similarity of process signals by statistical method. This paper explains our design method and reports the result evaluated our method applied to the process data of the fast-breeder reactor Monju

  19. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called a syndrome. If glaucoma appears before the age of 5 without other associated abnormalities, it is called primary congenital glaucoma. Other individuals experience early onset of primary open-angle glaucoma, the most ...

  20. Flow imaging of the cardiovascular system using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Hitoshi; Sakakibara, Makoto; Sunami, Yuko

    1988-01-01

    Blood flow images by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 0.25 T unit were evaluated for nine normal volunteers and 108 subjects with a variety of cardiovascular abnormalities. Using the non-gated short-spin echo (SE) technique, blood flow in the cardiovascular systems was not imaged in the normal volunteers. Using end-systolic and end-diastolic SE techniques for the normal subjects, blood flow in the cardiac chambers was not clearly imaged. Blood flow in the ascending aorta and aortic arch often did not appear in the gated SE images of the normal subjects. However, blood flow in the descending aorta was often observed in the gated SE images. Blood flow imaging was demonstrated by both non-gated and gated SE techniques in regions where blood flow was relatively slow; for example, in the left atrium of mitral stenosis, in an aortic aneurysm, in a false lumen of an aortic dissection, and in the left ventricle having old myocardial infarction. Using the non-gated inversion recovery (IR) technique, no blood flow was imaged in the cardiovascular system except in the left atrium of one case with mitral stenosis. Using the non-gated short SE technique, there was good correlation between the thrombus formation and the presence of blood flow images in the left atria of 17 patients with mitral stenosis, and in the aneurysmal portions of the aorta or in the false lumens of aortic dissection of 18 patients. It was suggested that mural thrombi in such diseases were related to the relatively slow blood flow. Blood flow imaging easily distinguished stagnant blood flow from mural thrombi using non-gated short SE, end-systolic SE, and IR techniques. Thus, blood flow imaging using MRI should become an important means of evaluating the cardiovascular system. (author)

  1. Postirradiation cardiovascular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, R.N.; Cockerham, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    Cardiovascular dysfunction may be defined as the inability of any element of the cardiovascular system to perform adequately upon demand, leading to inadequate performance and nutritive insufficiency of various parts of the body. Exposure to supralethal doses of radiation (accidental and therapeutic) has been show to induce significant alterations in cardiovascular function in man. These findings indicate that, after irradiation, cardiovascular function is a major determinant of continued performance and even survival. For the two persons who received massive radiation doses (45 and 88 Gy, respectively) in criticality accidents, the inability to maintain systematic arterial blood pressure (AP) was the immediate cause of death. In a study of cancer patients given partial-body irradiation, two acute lethalities were attributed to myocardial infarction after an acute hypotensive episode during the first few hours postexposure. Although radiation-induced cardiovascular dysfunction has been observed in many species, its severity, duration, and even etiology may vary with the species, level of exposure, and dose rate. For this reason, our consideration of the effects of radiation on cardiovascular performance is limited to the circulatory derangements that occur in rat, dog, and monkey after supralethal doses and lead to radiation-induced cardiovascular dysfunction in these experimental models. The authors consider other recent data as they pertain to the etiology of cardiovascular dysfunction in irradiated animals

  2. An efficient protocol for the detection of chromosomal abnormalities in spontaneous miscarriages or foetal deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dória, Sofia; Carvalho, Filipa; Ramalho, Carla; Lima, Vera; Francisco, Tânia; Machado, Ana Paula; Brandão, Otília; Sousa, Mário; Matias, Alexandra; Barros, Alberto

    2009-12-01

    Characterization of chromosomal abnormalities in 232 spontaneous miscarriages or foetal deaths using both classical and molecular cytogenetics. Chromosomal abnormalities are responsible for 40-50% of all early pregnancy losses. Conventional cytogenetics is associated with 10-40% of culture failure. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a DNA-based technique that screens chromosome imbalances in the whole genome and may overcome this problem, although additional methods are required to distinguish between different ploidies, mosaicisms and maternal cell contamination. For a full characterization of chromosomal aberrations in 232 spontaneous miscarriages or foetal deaths we applied a sequential protocol that uses conventional cytogenetics, plus CGH and touch fluorescence in situ hybridization (Touch FISH). Successful karyotyping was obtained in 173/232 (74.6%) of the cases, 66/173 (38.2%) of which had an abnormal chromosomal complement. CGH and Touch FISH analyses revealed another 19 abnormal cases in the 63 failures of culture. Overall there were 85/233 (36.6%) cases with an abnormal chromosomal complement, with examples from all three trimesters. Comparing cases, with or without chromosomal abnormalities, no statistical differences were found between women with one or recurrent miscarriages. On the contrary, significant differences were found comparing mean maternal ages or mean gestational ages, in cases with or without chromosomes abnormalities. Adopting this sequential protocol, chromosomal complement information was available even in cases with culture failure.

  3. Radiological and orthopedic abnormalities in Satoyoshi syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haymon, M.L. [Children`s Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Willis, R.B. [Children`s Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Orthopedics; Ehlayel, M.S. [Div. of Genetics, Dept. of Pediatrics, Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, Orleans, LA (United States)]|[Louisiana State Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Center for Molecular and Human Genetics; Lacassie, Y. [Div. of Genetics, Dept. of Pediatrics, Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, Orleans, LA (United States)]|[Louisiana State Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Center for Molecular and Human Genetics]|[Children`s Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics

    1997-05-01

    Satoyoshi syndrome is a are disorder on unknown etiology characterized by progressive, painful intermittent muscle spasms, serve skeletal abnormalities mimicking a skeletal dyplasia, malabsorption, alopecia, and amenorrhea. We further report on a 20{sup 1}/{sub 2}-year-old Caucasian woman whith characteristic manifestation of the syndrome. Since the establishment of the diagnostic 1 year ago, she has been treated with prednisone with good response. However, treatment of the multiple deformities and fractures has been difficult and challenging. The early recognition and treatment of this disorder is of utmost importance, as the skeletal deformities and fractures seem to be secondary to the muscular spasms, as suggested by Satoyoshi.

  4. Radiological and orthopedic abnormalities in Satoyoshi syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haymon, M.L.; Willis, R.B.; Ehlayel, M.S.; Louisiana State Medical Center, New Orleans, LA; Lacassie, Y.; Louisiana State Medical Center, New Orleans, LA; Children's Hospital, New Orleans, LA

    1997-01-01

    Satoyoshi syndrome is a are disorder on unknown etiology characterized by progressive, painful intermittent muscle spasms, serve skeletal abnormalities mimicking a skeletal dyplasia, malabsorption, alopecia, and amenorrhea. We further report on a 20 1 / 2 -year-old Caucasian woman whith characteristic manifestation of the syndrome. Since the establishment of the diagnostic 1 year ago, she has been treated with prednisone with good response. However, treatment of the multiple deformities and fractures has been difficult and challenging. The early recognition and treatment of this disorder is of utmost importance, as the skeletal deformities and fractures seem to be secondary to the muscular spasms, as suggested by Satoyoshi

  5. Cardiovascular and systemic effects of gastric dilatation and volvulus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Claire R; Rozanski, Elizabeth A

    2014-09-01

    Gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) is a common emergency condition in large and giant breed dogs that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Dogs with GDV classically fulfill the criteria for the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and can go on to develop multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Previously reported organ dysfunctions in dogs with GDV include cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, coagulation and renal dysfunction. Cardiovascular manifestations of GDV include shock, cardiac arrhythmias and myocardial dysfunction. Respiratory dysfunction is also multifactorial, with contributory factors including decreased respiratory excursion due to gastric dilatation, decreased pulmonary perfusion and aspiration pneumonia. Gastrointestinal dysfunction includes gastric necrosis and post-operative gastrointestinal upset such as regurgitation, vomiting, and ileus. Coagulation dysfunction is another common feature of MODS in dogs with GDV. Disseminated intravascular coagulation can occur, putting them at risk of complications associated with thrombosis in the early hypercoagulable state and hemorrhage in the subsequent hypocoagulable state. Acute kidney injury, acid-base and electrolyte disturbances are also reported in dogs with GDV. Understanding the potential for systemic effects of GDV allows the clinician to monitor patients astutely and detect such complications early, facilitating early intervention to maximize the chance of successful management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Early Detection System of Vascular Disease and Its Application Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Markers of imaging, structure, and function reflecting vascular damage, integrating a long time accumulation effect of traditional and unrecognized cardiovascular risk factors, can be regarded as surrogate endpoints of target organ damage before the occurrence of clinical events. Prevention of cardiovascular disease requires risk stratification and treatment of traditional risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. However, traditional risk stratification is not sufficient to provide accurate assessment of future cardiovascular events. Therefore, vascular injury related parameters obtained by ultrasound or other noninvasive devices, as a surrogate parameter of subclinical cardiovascular disease, can improve cardiovascular risk assessment and optimize the preventive treatment strategy. Thus, we will summarize the research progress and clinical application of early assessment technology of vascular diseases in the present review.

  7. Relationship of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome with Cardiovascular Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Haseeb, Abdul; Rehman, Abdur

    2018-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. The two main documented pathogenic mechanisms are hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenemia but there is growing evidence for increased predisposition to cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our study aims to analyze the association of PCOS with cardiovascular risk factors. This is a prospective study which targeted 100 PCOS patients from Civil Hospital Karachi over a period of one year (July 2016 to July 2017). An equal number of age-matched healthy control participants were also included in the study. The student's t-test was used to assess the significance of differences using SPSS version (19). The statistical significance was set at a p-value of PCOS was primary infertility seen in 72% of the patients. Mean arterial pressure, fasting glucose and insulin levels and insulin resistance was found to be significantly different in PCOS patients as compared to their controls. A classic atherosclerotic lipid profile demonstrating elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-C (LDL-C) levels and decreased serum high density lipoprotein-C(HDL-C) was observed in our study. This study established a significant yet independent association of PCOS with major cardiovascular risk factors. This association can effectively progress into CVD outcomes which necessitates early intervention programs and preventative strategies to reduce mortality from cardiovascular events. This study lays out the framework for conducting further researches on the PCOS women while exploring novel cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2018 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk stratification in secondary cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeroni, Davide; Coruzzi, Paolo

    2018-02-19

    Worldwide, more than 7 million people experience acute myocardial infarction (AMI) every year (1), and although substantial reduction in mortality has been obtained in recent decades, one-year mortality rates are still in the range of 10%. Among patients who survive AMI, 20% suffer a second cardiovascular event in the first year and approximately 50% of major coronary events occur in those with a previous hospital discharge diagnosis of AMI (2). Despite the evidence that lifestyle changes and risk factors management strongly improve long-term prognosis, preventive care post-AMI remains sub-optimal. Cross-sectional data from the serially conducted EUROASPIRE surveys in patients with established ischemic heart disease (IHD) and people at high cardiovascular risk have demonstrated a high prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle, modifiable risk factors and inadequate use of drug therapies to achieve blood pressure and lipid goals (3). Secondary prevention programmes, defined as the level of preventive care focusing on early risk stratification, are highly recommended in all IHD patients, to restore quality of life, maintain or improve functional capacity and prevent recurrence.

  9. Abnormal glucose metabolism in acute myocardial infarction: influence on left ventricular function and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høfsten, Dan E; Løgstrup, Brian B; Møller, Jacob E

    2009-01-01

    tolerance test before discharge. LV function was assessed using echocardiographic measurements (LV end-diastolic volume, LV end-systolic volume, LV ejection fraction, restrictive diastolic filling pattern, early transmitral flow velocity to early diastolic mitral annular velocity ratio [E/e'], and left...... atrial volume index) and by measuring plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and gender, a linear relationship between the degree of abnormal glucose metabolism was observed for each marker of LV dysfunction (p(trend)

  10. Craniometaphyseal dysplasia with obvious biochemical abnormality and rickets-like features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Ou; Li, Mei; Xing, Xiao-Ping; Xia, Wei-Bo

    2016-05-01

    Craniometaphyseal dysplasia (CMD) is a rare genetic disorder that is characterized by progressive sclerosis of the craniofacial bones and metaphyseal widening of long bones, and biochemical indexes were mostly normal. To further the understanding of the disease from a biochemical perspective, we reported a CMD case with obviously abnormal biochemical indexes. A 1-year-old boy was referred to our clinic. Biochemical test showed obviously increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and parathyroid hormone (PTH), mild hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia. Moreover, significant elevated receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) level, but normal β-C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX) concentration were revealed. He was initially suspected of rickets, because the radiological examination also showed broadened epiphysis in his long bones. Supplementation with calcium and calcitriol alleviated biochemical abnormality. However, the patient gradually developed osteosclerosis which was inconformity with rickets. Considering that he was also presented with facial paralysis and nasal obstruction symptom, the diagnosis of craniometaphyseal dysplasia was suspected, and then was confirmed by the mutation analysis of ANKH of the proband and his family, which showed a de novo heterozygous mutation (C1124-1126delCCT) on exon 9. Our study revealed that obvious biochemical abnormality and rickets-like features might present as uncommon characteristics in CMD patients, and the calcium and calcitriol supplementation could alleviate biochemical abnormalities. Furthermore, although early osteoclast differentiation factor was excited in CMD patient, activity of osteoclast was still inert. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Early brain vulnerability in Wolfram syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Hershey

    Full Text Available Wolfram Syndrome (WFS is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic nerve atrophy, diabetes insipidus, deafness, and neurological dysfunction leading to death in mid-adulthood. WFS is caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene, which lead to endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-mediated cell death. Case studies have found widespread brain atrophy in late stage WFS. However, it is not known when in the disease course these brain abnormalities arise, and whether there is differential vulnerability across brain regions and tissue classes. To address this limitation, we quantified regional brain abnormalities across multiple imaging modalities in a cohort of young patients in relatively early stages of WFS. Children and young adults with WFS were evaluated with neurological, cognitive and structural magnetic resonance imaging measures. Compared to normative data, the WFS group had intact cognition, significant anxiety and depression, and gait abnormalities. Compared to healthy and type 1 diabetic control groups, the WFS group had smaller intracranial volume and preferentially affected gray matter volume and white matter microstructural integrity in the brainstem, cerebellum and optic radiations. Abnormalities were detected in even the youngest patients with mildest symptoms, and some measures did not follow the typical age-dependent developmental trajectory. These results establish that WFS is associated with smaller intracranial volume with specific abnormalities in the brainstem and cerebellum, even at the earliest stage of clinical symptoms. This pattern of abnormalities suggests that WFS has a pronounced impact on early brain development in addition to later neurodegenerative effects, representing a significant new insight into the WFS disease process. Longitudinal studies will be critical for confirming and expanding our understanding of the impact of ER stress dysregulation on brain development.

  12. Early Brain Vulnerability in Wolfram Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, Tamara; Lugar, Heather M.; Shimony, Joshua S.; Rutlin, Jerrel; Koller, Jonathan M.; Perantie, Dana C.; Paciorkowski, Alex R.; Eisenstein, Sarah A.; Permutt, M. Alan

    2012-01-01

    Wolfram Syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic nerve atrophy, diabetes insipidus, deafness, and neurological dysfunction leading to death in mid-adulthood. WFS is caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene, which lead to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated cell death. Case studies have found widespread brain atrophy in late stage WFS. However, it is not known when in the disease course these brain abnormalities arise, and whether there is differential vulnerability across brain regions and tissue classes. To address this limitation, we quantified regional brain abnormalities across multiple imaging modalities in a cohort of young patients in relatively early stages of WFS. Children and young adults with WFS were evaluated with neurological, cognitive and structural magnetic resonance imaging measures. Compared to normative data, the WFS group had intact cognition, significant anxiety and depression, and gait abnormalities. Compared to healthy and type 1 diabetic control groups, the WFS group had smaller intracranial volume and preferentially affected gray matter volume and white matter microstructural integrity in the brainstem, cerebellum and optic radiations. Abnormalities were detected in even the youngest patients with mildest symptoms, and some measures did not follow the typical age-dependent developmental trajectory. These results establish that WFS is associated with smaller intracranial volume with specific abnormalities in the brainstem and cerebellum, even at the earliest stage of clinical symptoms. This pattern of abnormalities suggests that WFS has a pronounced impact on early brain development in addition to later neurodegenerative effects, representing a significant new insight into the WFS disease process. Longitudinal studies will be critical for confirming and expanding our understanding of the impact of ER stress dysregulation on brain development. PMID:22792385

  13. Abnormal placental development and early embryonic lethality in EpCAM-null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Nagao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: EpCAM (CD326 is encoded by the tacstd1 gene and expressed by a variety of normal and malignant epithelial cells and some leukocytes. Results of previous in vitro experiments suggested that EpCAM is an intercellular adhesion molecule. EpCAM has been extensively studied as a potential tumor marker and immunotherapy target, and more recent studies suggest that EpCAM expression may be characteristic of cancer stem cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain insights into EpCAM function in vivo, we generated EpCAM -/- mice utilizing an embryonic stem cell line with a tacstd1 allele that had been disrupted. Gene trapping resulted in a protein comprised of the N-terminus of EpCAM encoded by 2 exons of the tacstd1 gene fused in frame to betageo. EpCAM +/- mice were viable and fertile and exhibited no obvious abnormalities. Examination of EpCAM +/- embryos revealed that betageo was expressed in several epithelial structures including developing ears (otocysts, eyes, branchial arches, gut, apical ectodermal ridges, lungs, pancreas, hair follicles and others. All EpCAM -/- mice died in utero by E12.5, and were small, developmentally delayed, and displayed prominent placental abnormalities. In developing placentas, EpCAM was expressed throughout the labyrinthine layer and by spongiotrophoblasts as well. Placentas of EpCAM -/- embryos were compact, with thin labyrinthine layers lacking prominent vascularity. Parietal trophoblast giant cells were also dramatically reduced in EpCAM -/- placentas. CONCLUSION: EpCAM was required for differentiation or survival of parietal trophoblast giant cells, normal development of the placental labyrinth and establishment of a competent maternal-fetal circulation. The findings in EpCAM-reporter mice suggest involvement of this molecule in development of vital organs including the gut, kidneys, pancreas, lungs, eyes, and limbs.

  14. Abnormal placental development and early embryonic lethality in EpCAM-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Keisuke; Zhu, Jianjian; Heneghan, Mallorie B; Hanson, Jeffrey C; Morasso, Maria I; Tessarollo, Lino; Mackem, Susan; Udey, Mark C

    2009-12-31

    EpCAM (CD326) is encoded by the tacstd1 gene and expressed by a variety of normal and malignant epithelial cells and some leukocytes. Results of previous in vitro experiments suggested that EpCAM is an intercellular adhesion molecule. EpCAM has been extensively studied as a potential tumor marker and immunotherapy target, and more recent studies suggest that EpCAM expression may be characteristic of cancer stem cells. To gain insights into EpCAM function in vivo, we generated EpCAM -/- mice utilizing an embryonic stem cell line with a tacstd1 allele that had been disrupted. Gene trapping resulted in a protein comprised of the N-terminus of EpCAM encoded by 2 exons of the tacstd1 gene fused in frame to betageo. EpCAM +/- mice were viable and fertile and exhibited no obvious abnormalities. Examination of EpCAM +/- embryos revealed that betageo was expressed in several epithelial structures including developing ears (otocysts), eyes, branchial arches, gut, apical ectodermal ridges, lungs, pancreas, hair follicles and others. All EpCAM -/- mice died in utero by E12.5, and were small, developmentally delayed, and displayed prominent placental abnormalities. In developing placentas, EpCAM was expressed throughout the labyrinthine layer and by spongiotrophoblasts as well. Placentas of EpCAM -/- embryos were compact, with thin labyrinthine layers lacking prominent vascularity. Parietal trophoblast giant cells were also dramatically reduced in EpCAM -/- placentas. EpCAM was required for differentiation or survival of parietal trophoblast giant cells, normal development of the placental labyrinth and establishment of a competent maternal-fetal circulation. The findings in EpCAM-reporter mice suggest involvement of this molecule in development of vital organs including the gut, kidneys, pancreas, lungs, eyes, and limbs.

  15. Early initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy fails to reverse immunovirological abnormalities in gut-associated lymphoid tissue induced by acute HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincati, Camilla; Biasin, Mara; Bandera, Alessandra; Violin, Michela; Marchetti, Giulia; Piacentini, Luca; Vago, Gian Luca; Balotta, Claudia; Moroni, Mauro; Franzetti, Fabio; Clerici, Mario; Gori, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    During the acute phase of HIV infection, large CD4+ T-cell depletion occurs in the gastrointestinal tract. The kinetics of CD4+ T-cell decrease and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-mediated immune reconstitution were evaluated. Rectosigmoid colonic (RSC) biopsies and blood samples of nine patients with acute HIV infection were collected. CD4+ T-cell count, HIV RNA, intracellular HIV DNA and messenger RNA cytokine expression were evaluated before and after 6 months of HAART. All nine patients presented symptomatic retroviral infection. Early HAART was associated with a sustained and comparable reduction of HIV RNA in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and RSC biopsies. HIV DNA decreased in PBMCs, but was only marginally reduced in RSC biopsies. Comparisons between reduction rates of HIV DNA in these two compartments confirmed that HIV DNA clearance was less efficient in RSC biopsies compared with PBMCs. Assessment of immunological profiles in PBMCs and RSC biopsies showed that the T-helper (Th)1-like/Th2-like ratio was sharply decreased in RSC biopsies and increased in PBMCs throughout the study period. A persistent Th2-like profile was detected in RSC biopsies. Efficient clearing of HIV DNA observed in PBMCs correlated with the establishment of a more favourable Th1-like profile. A less efficient clearance of intracellular HIV DNA following early introduction of HAART is associated with persistent immunological impairment in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), which is reflected by the skewed expression of cytokines in this reservoir. The present study shows that early initiation of HAART, in the short-term, is not effective in containing the establishment of HIV infection and in reversing associated immunological GALT abnormalities.

  16. Prematurity and low weight at birth as new conditions predisposing to an increased cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuro, Giuseppe; Bassareo, Pier Paolo; Flore, Giovanna; Fanos, Vassilios; Dentamaro, Ilaria; Scicchitano, Pietro; Laforgia, Nicola; Ciccone, Marco Matteo

    2013-04-01

    Although the survival rate for preterm subjects has improved considerably, due to the progress in the field of perinatal medicine, preterm birth is frequently the cause underlying a series of notorious complications: morphological, neurological, ophthalmological, and renal alterations. In addition, it has recently been demonstrated how low gestational age and reduced foetal growth contribute towards an increased cardiovascular risk in preterm neonates. In fact, cardiovascular mortality is higher among former preterm adults than those born at term. This condition is referred to as cardiovascular perinatal programming. In the light of the above, an early, constant, and prolonged cardiological followup programme should be implemented in former preterm individuals. The aim of this paper was to perform a comprehensive literature review about two new emerging conditions predisposing to an increased cardiovascular risk: prematurity and low weight at birth.

  17. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in opiate addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Christina; Stöllberger, Claudia; Hlavin, Anton; Finsterer, Josef; Hager, Isabella; Hermann, Peter

    2008-12-01

    To determine in a cross-sectional study the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in opiate addicts who were therapy-seeking and its association with demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters. In consecutive therapy-seeking opiate addicts, a 12-lead ECG was registered within 24 hours after admission and evaluated according to a pre-set protocol between October 2004 and August 2006. Additionally