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Sample records for early bronchopulmonary involvement

  1. Bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strepetova, T.N.; Solov'eva, T.N.

    1993-01-01

    Case histories of 510 patients operated on for chronic destructive puimonary tuberculosis and mycetoma are analyzed, as are the findings of examinations of 56 patients with cavitary forms of lung involvement. X-ray and tomographic examinations were carried out according to the routine methods. Blood serum IgC antibodies to aspergillosis antigen were determined in the enzyme immunoassay. An X-ray symptom of the foamy nuclear (septal) structure of pulmonary shifts was revealed, that represents a sort of a pathologic tissue response in one of bronchopulmonary aspergillosis forms

  2. CYTOMORPHOLOGICAL EVALUATION AND PROGNOSIS OF BRONCHOPULMONARY COMPLICATIONS IN ACUTE AND EARLY PERIODS OF SPINAL CORD TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Norkin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There were investigated 50 cytological preparations after fibro-optic bronchoscopy of 10 patients with cervical spinal cord injuries. The dynamics of broncho-pulmonary complications of spinal cord injuries was estimated on the basis of cytological broncho-alveolar lavage fluid investigations. In the work there were used clinico-neurologic methods, radiological (computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic (fibro-optic bronchoscopy and cytomorphological investigations. Cytomorphological investigations of broncho-alveolar lavage fluid were carried out on the 3-4, 7, 14, 30th days. Cellular composition of the broncho-alveolar wash-out (endopulmonary cytogramme was estimated by calculation of more than 100 cells in 3 fields of the immersion microscope coverage. Quantitative changes of cellular elements were taken into account with respect to normal cell amount. The results were analyzed according to the average out method. Quantitative changes of inflammatory elements in endopulmonary cytogramme were determined by the degree of endobronchitic manifestations and were corresponding to clinico-radiological picture of development of broncho-pulmonary complications in different periods of spinal cord injury

  3. Managing Children with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

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    A. A. Baranov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is one of the most significant early childhood chronic respiratory diseases. The article features modern approaches to preventing, diagnosing and treating broncho-pulmonary dysplasia, as well as ways of preventing complications and undesirable disease outcomes in patients older than 3 years. Members of professional associations — Union of Pediatricians of Russia and Russian Association of Perinatal Medicine Specialists — have summarized the experience of managing this category of patients at leading Russian pediatric centers according to the principles of evidence-based medicine and have provided scientific and practical data corresponding to the world level of knowledge with regard to the present problem.

  4. Epidemiological factors involved in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very low birth-weight preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardón-Fernández, Marita; Uberos, José; Molina-Oya, Manuel; Narbona-López, Eduardo

    2017-02-01

    In spite of the advances made in perinatal medicine, the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has not decreased and the aetiopathogenesis of the "new" BPD is still a matter for debate. The objectives of the present study were to analyse the epidemiological factors and morbidity associated with the development of BPD in a cohort of very low birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants. This retrospective observational study included all the preterm infants with birth weight ≤1500 g who were admitted to a tertiary-level hospital NICU from 2008 to 2011. A neurological follow-up was also carried out during the first two years of life. A total of 140 VLBW infants were analyzed: 28.4% presented oxygen dependence at 28 days, and 17.2% at 36 weeks adjusted gestational age. Predictive factors for the development of BPD were gestational age, birth weight, number of days of parenteral nutrition, number of days to achieve full enteral feeding, number of transfusions, duration of respiratory support and insulin administration, vasoactive drugs, diuretics, sedoanalgesia and postnatal corticosteroids. The neonatal morbidity associated with the development of BPD was late neonatal sepsis, patent ductus arteriosus, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and intraventricular hemorrhage. Non-significant associations with neurodevelopmental impairment were observed. Predictive factors for the development of BPD were respiratory support, feeding and different types of medication. Moreover, patients with BPD had a higher associated morbidity than those who did not develop BPD.

  5. Displasia broncopulmonar Bronchopulmonary dysplasia

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    Luciana F. Velloso Monte

    2005-04-01

    described in 1967 were selected from MEDLINE search results. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is considered one of the primary causes of chronic lung disease among infants. It is associated with frequent and prolonged hospital admissions, in particular for pulmonary diseases, with high rates of mortality and alterations to neuropsychomotor development and pondero-statural growth. Pathogenesis is complex, being primarily influenced by prematurity, infection, supplementary oxygen and mechanical ventilation. Prevention involves appropriate prenatal care, the prevention of premature delivery, prenatal corticosteroids, surfactant replacement therapy and "protective" ventilatory strategies. Treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia patients demands a multidisciplinary team. When indicated, oxygen supplementation is extremely important. Despite increased risk of morbidity and mortality during the first years of life, long term progress is favorable in the majority of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia has been and continues to be studied in great depth with the objective of identifying its causes and possible prevention and treatment strategies. Controversies remain with respect of these issues and also about the prognosis of these patients, in particular when the subject is long-term progress of "new" bronchopulmonary dysplasia patients.

  6. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

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    Juan Carlos Fernández de Córdova-Aguirre

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a slowly progressive disease, caused by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus hypersensitivity when it is found in the airway. It usually affects asthmatics and patients with cystic brosis. We report the case of a 20-year-old male patient, student, farmer and rancher with chronic respiratory disease. The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis was made on the basis of the clinical symptoms and complementary studies.

  7. Ureaplasma and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancia, Paolo; Delogu, Antonio; Pomero, Giulia

    2014-03-01

    Advances in neonatal intensive care have greatly improved survival rates for children born in a very early stage of lung development (i.e. less than 26 weeks of gestation). In these premature babies, even low levels of oxygen and methods of minimally invasive ventilation may disrupt the growth of the distal airways, a condition described as "new" bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Ureaplasma infection can occur in utero or in the perinatal period in premature infants, in some of which the infection with these organisms triggers an important lung pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic response, and may increase the risk of developing BPD. The inflammation may be worsened by exposure to oxygen and mechanical ventilation. At present, clinical studies have not clarified the role of Ureaplasma in the pathogenesis of BPD and there is insufficient evidence to determine whether antibiotic treatment of Ureaplasma has influence on the development of BPD and its comorbidities. Future research in the context of well-designed and controlled clinical trials of adequate statistical power should focus on how to determine whether the treatment of Ureaplasma decreases lung inflammation, reduces rates of BPD, and improves long-term neurodevelopment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bubble nasal CPAP, early surfactant treatment, and rapid extubation are associated with decreased incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very-low-birth-weight newborns: efficacy and safety considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Charles A; Menchaca, Robert C; Baker, Mary C; Rivas, Clarissa K; Laberge, Raymond N; Rios, Enrique H; Haider, Syed H; Romero, Edgar J; Eason, Elizabeth B; Fraley, J Kennard; Woldesenbet, Mesfin

    2013-07-01

    Current literature has been inconsistent in demonstrating that minimizing the duration of mechanical ventilation in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) newborns reduces lung damage. To determine if introduction of bubble nasal CPAP (bnCPAP), early surfactant treatment, and rapid extubation (combined bnCPAP strategy) in our community-based neonatal ICU reduced bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This was a 7-year retrospective,single-institution review of respiratory outcomes in 633 VLBW babies before and after introduction of the combined bnCPAP strategy. Coincident changes in newborn care were taken into account with a logistic regression model. The average percentage of VLBW newborns with BPD decreased to 25.8% from 35.4% (P = .02), reaching a minimum in the last post-bnCPAP year of22.1% (P = .02). When other coincident changes in newborn care during the study years were taken into account, VLBW babies in the post-bnCPAP years had a 43% lower chance of developing BPD(P = .003, odds ratio 0.43, 95% CI 0.25– 0.75). Decreases occurred in mechanical ventilation and the percentage of infants discharged on diuretics and on supplemental oxygen. Among the subset of extremely-low-birth-weight newborns, improved respiratory outcomes in the post-bnCPAP years,as compared to outcomes in the pre-bnCPAP years, included an increase in the percentage alive and off mechanical ventilation at 1 week postnatal age (P < .001), a more rapid extubation rate(P < .03), a decrease in the median days on mechanical ventilation (P = .002), and a decrease in the percentage with BPD plus died (P = .01). Post-bnCPAP extremely-low-birth-weight babies had a statistically significant decrease in retinopathy of prematurity, an increase in low-grade intraventricular hemorrhage, and a decrease in ductal ligations. A combined BnCPAP strategy may contribute to a reduction of BPD, after adjusting for concurrent treatments.

  9. Endosonography in bronchopulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, Peter; Annema, Jouke; Clementsen, Paul

    2009-01-01

    via the esophagus, trachea and main bronchi. The concept of complete echo-endoscopic staging of lung cancer is postulated as virtually all mediastinal nodes as well as regions relevant to pulmonal medicine (liver and adrenal glands) can be reached by these two methods in combination....... a major impact of EUSFNA as well as EBUS-TBNA on management of patients with lung cancer as well as in patients with unknown lesions in the mediastinum. The aim of the present review is to discuss the current role of endosonography in bronchopulmonary diseases focusing on endosonographically guided biopsy...

  10. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Tracy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA, a progressive fungal allergic lung disease, is a common complication of asthma or cystic fibrosis. Although ABPA has been recognized since the 1950s, recent research has underscored the importance of Th2 immune deviation and granulocyte activation in its pathogenesis. There is also strong evidence of widespread under-diagnosis due to the complexity and lack of standardization of diagnostic criteria. Treatment has long focused on downregulation of the inflammatory response with prolonged courses of oral glucocorticosteroids, but more recently concerns with steroid toxicity and availability of new treatment modalities has led to trials of oral azoles, inhaled amphotericin, pulse intravenous steroids, and subcutaneously-injected anti-IgE monoclonal antibody omalizumab, all of which show evidence of efficacy and reduced toxicity.

  11. Pictorial essay: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Ritesh; Khan, Ajmal; Garg, Mandeep; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Gupta, Dheeraj

    2011-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is the best-known allergic manifestation of Aspergillus-related hypersensitivity pulmonary disorders. Most patients present with poorly controlled asthma, and the diagnosis can be made on the basis of a combination of clinical, immunological, and radiological findings. The chest radiographic findings are generally nonspecific, although the manifestations of mucoid impaction of the bronchi suggest a diagnosis of ABPA. High-resolution CT scan (HRCT) of the chest has replaced bronchography as the initial investigation of choice in ABPA. HRCT of the chest can be normal in almost one-third of the patients, and at this stage it is referred to as serologic ABPA (ABPA-S). The importance of central bronchiectasis (CB) as a specific finding in ABPA is debatable, as almost 40% of the lobes are involved by peripheral bronchiectasis. High-attenuation mucus (HAM), encountered in 20% of patients with ABPA, is pathognomonic of ABPA. ABPA should be classified based on the presence or absence of HAM as ABPA-S (mild), ABPA-CB (moderate), and ABPA-CB-HAM (severe), as this classification not only reflects immunological severity but also predicts the risk of recurrent relapses

  12. Pictorial essay: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

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    Ritesh Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA is the best-known allergic manifestation of Aspergillus-related hypersensitivity pulmonary disorders. Most patients present with poorly controlled asthma, and the diagnosis can be made on the basis of a combination of clinical, immunological, and radiological findings. The chest radiographic findings are generally nonspecific, although the manifestations of mucoid impaction of the bronchi suggest a diagnosis of ABPA. High-resolution CT scan (HRCT of the chest has replaced bronchography as the initial investigation of choice in ABPA. HRCT of the chest can be normal in almost one-third of the patients, and at this stage it is referred to as serologic ABPA (ABPA-S. The importance of central bronchiectasis (CB as a specific finding in ABPA is debatable, as almost 40% of the lobes are involved by peripheral bronchiectasis. High-attenuation mucus (HAM, encountered in 20% of patients with ABPA, is pathognomonic of ABPA. ABPA should be classified based on the presence or absence of HAM as ABPA-S (mild, ABPA-CB (moderate, and ABPA-CB-HAM (severe, as this classification not only reflects immunological severity but also predicts the risk of recurrent relapses.

  13. CT in childhood allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.; Bhagat, R.; Panchal, N.; Pant, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    CT of the thorax done during acute severe asthma in two paediatric patients demonstrated central bronchiectasis, a sine qua non for the diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Bronchography, regarded as the gold standard, was done subsequently on recovery. A comparative segmental analysis revealed that CT was able to identify immediately 24 of 27 segments which showed central bronchiectasis on bronchography. Early diagnosis with the aid of CT enabled immediate intervention which may have helped to prevent further lung damage in the paediatric patients. (orig.)

  14. [Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: definitions and classifications].

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    Sánchez Luna, M; Moreno Hernando, J; Botet Mussons, F; Fernández Lorenzo, J R; Herranz Carrillo, G; Rite Gracia, S; Salguero García, E; Echaniz Urcelay, I

    2013-10-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most common sequelae related to very low birth weight infants, mostly with those of extremely low birth weight. Even with advances in prevention and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome associated with prematurity, there is still no decrease in the incidence in this population, although a change in its clinical expression and severity has been observed. There are, however, differences in its frequency between health centres, probably due to a non-homogeneously used clinical definition. In this article, the Committee of Standards of the Spanish Society of Neonatology wishes to review the current diagnosis criteria of bronchopulmonary dysplasia to reduce, as much as possible, these inter-centre differences. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanical Ventilation and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

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    Keszler, Martin; Sant'Anna, Guilherme

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical ventilation is an important potentially modifiable risk factor for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Effective use of noninvasive respiratory support reduces the risk of lung injury. Lung volume recruitment and avoidance of excessive tidal volume are key elements of lung-protective ventilation strategies. Avoidance of oxidative stress, less invasive methods of surfactant administration, and high-frequency ventilation are also important factors in lung injury prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical Characteristics of 118 Cases of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Complicated with Primary Bronchopulmonary Carcinoma

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    Songlin ZHAO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with primary bronchopulmonary carcinoma complicated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and to optimize the early diagnoses in the coexistence of COPD and primary bronchopulmonary carcinoma. Methods The clinical data of 118 patients with COPD complicated with primary bronchopulmonary carcinoma were analyzed retrospectively, including age, sex, smoking history, smoking index, clinical symptoms and signs, pathological type, staging, metastasis site and lung function index. 120 patients with simple COPD were selected as control. Results The smoking rate (55.1% and smoking index ≥400 branch /year (90.8% of the patients with COPD complicated with primary bronchopulmonary carcinoma were higher than the simple COPD group (20.8%, 48.0%. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P0.05, while the incidence of hemoptysis, weight loss, chest pain, hoarseness, pleural effusion and atelectasis were significantly higher than those in simple COPD group (P0.05, but the diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO of COPD patients complicated with primary bronchopulmonary carcinoma was lower than that of simple COPD patients (P<0.05 . In the COPD patients with primary bronchopulmonary carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common pathological type (51.7%. Male patients were mainly squamous cell carcinoma (60.7%, while female patients with adenocarcinoma (69.0%. Conclusion COPD combined with primary bronchopulmonary carcinoma occurs in male smokers more. There is higher incidence of squamous cell carcinoma. When they are first diagnosed, most of them are advanced or located late, due to no specific clinical symptoms at the early stages. Periodic chest CT examination for COPD patients can help early diagnoses of primary bronchopulmonary carcinoma.

  17. A Clinical Evaluation of Definitive and Clinical Allergic Bronchopulmonary Mycosis

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuse, Hiroto; Nakata, Hiroko; Fukahori, Susumu; Tsuchida, Tomoko; Kawano, Tetsuya; Tomari, Shinya; Fukushima, Chizu; Matsuo, Nobuko; Asai, Sadahiro; Kohno, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The present study aims to overcome problems associated with the early diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) using the current criteria. Patients and Methods: Clinical features including radiographic findings from 10 patients with definitive ABPM based on the diagnostic criteria of Rosenberg-Patterson were compared with those from 9 patients with ABPM clinically diagnosed by respiratory allergy specialists. Results: ABPM should be considered in patients with peripher...

  18. Hypoxic Episodes in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard J; Di Fiore, Juliann M; Walsh, Michele C

    2015-12-01

    Hypoxic episodes are troublesome components of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. Immature respiratory control seems to be the major contributor, superimposed on abnormal respiratory function. Relatively short respiratory pauses may precipitate desaturation and bradycardia. This population is predisposed to pulmonary hypertension; it is likely that pulmonary vasoconstriction also plays a role. The natural history has been well-characterized in the preterm population at risk for BPD; however, the consequences are less clear. Proposed associations of intermittent hypoxia include retinopathy of prematurity, sleep disordered breathing, and neurodevelopmental delay. Future study should address whether these associations are causal relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Appropriate fluid regimens to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammela, O K

    1995-01-01

    Pulmonary oedema is an important problem in premature neonates with surfactant deficiency because of fluid accumulation in the lung interstitium and reduced urine output. Some retrospective reports suggest that excessive early hydration might increase the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Only three prospective studies evaluating low or conventional fluid administration regimens to very low birth weight infants have been published. According to their results no significant differences in the incidence of BPD have been shown. However, fluid restriction seems to improve the outcome of the infants because of decreased incidence of haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, pulmonary air leaks and decreased mortality. The appropriate amount of sodium in the intravenous fluids during the first days of life needs further evaluation. In tiny infants with birth weights from 500 to 800g intensive monitoring of fluid balance is essential to control the extremely high fluid losses due to evaporation. Undernutrition is a risk factor of BPD and therefore it is important to start parenteral nutrition early. The benefit of the use of colloids as volume expanders is controversial. According to some retrospective reports there might be an association with increased use of colloidal fluids during the first days of life and the development of BPD. Early excessive fluid administration might constitute a potential risk for low birth weight infants with hyaline membrane disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Transglutaminase (TG) involvement in early embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccioni, R.B.; Arechaga, J.

    1986-01-01

    Transglutaminase (TG) has been examined in different stages of preimplantation mouse embryogenesis. The specific activity of this enzyme in the soluble cellular fraction increases 2-fold from 2-cell embryos to 8-cell morulae and 4-fold from 2-cell embryos to blastocyst. The same developmental profile was seen when either N,N-dimethylcasein or endogenous substrates were used in the TG assay. Using high-speed supernatants from different stage embryos as a source of enzyme and [ 3 H]putrescine as acyl acceptor, the major acyl donor components were tubulin and a high molecular weight (HMW) cross-linkage product, as assessed by electrophoresis and immunoblotting. When either assembled or monomeric cytoskeleton proteins were compared as subtrates, microtubules were the best acyl donors. These studies indicate that TG activity is modulated during the changing demands of blastomeres for microtubule cytoskeleton in early embryogenesis

  1. Early Father's and Mother's Involvement and Child's Later Educational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, E.; Buchanan, A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated the individual long-term contributions that mothers and fathers make to their children's schooling. Aims: (1) To explore the role of early father involvement in children's later educational attainment independently of the role of early mother involvement and other confounds, (2) to investigate whether…

  2. Early father's and mother's involvement and child's later educational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann

    2004-06-01

    Few studies have investigated the individual long-term contributions that mothers and fathers make to their children's schooling. (1) To explore the role of early father involvement in children's later educational attainment independently of the role of early mother involvement and other confounds, (2) to investigate whether gender and family structure moderate the relationship between father's and mother's involvement and child's educational attainment, and (3) to explore whether the impact of father's involvement depends on the level of mother's involvement. The study used longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study. The initial sample were those 7,259 cohort members with valid data on mother involvement at age 7, father involvement at age 7, and school-leaving qualification by age 20. Of those, 3,303 were included in the final analysis. The measures were control variables, structural factors (family structure, sibship size and residential mobility), child factors (emotional/behavioural problems, cognitive ability and academic motivation), and father's and mother's involvement. Father involvement and mother involvement at age 7 independently predicted educational attainment by age 20. The association between parents' involvement and educational attainment was not stronger for sons than for daughters. Father involvement was not more important for educational attainment when mother involvement was low rather than high. Not growing up in intact two-parent family did not weaken the association between father's or mother's involvement and educational outcomes. Early father involvement can be another protective factor in counteracting risk conditions that might lead to later low attainment levels.

  3. influence of early literacy parental involvement on science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    were highly involved in their children's early literacy acquisition; parental ... in literacy acquisition of boys was more than that of girls, though this difference was not .... method. Procedure for Data Collection. The students (with the help of their.

  4. The Importance of Father Involvement in Early Childhood Programs

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    Ancell, Katherine S.; Bruns, Deborah A.; Chitiyo, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Active family involvement in Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) is regarded as a beneficial factor in young children's learning and development. One definition of family involvement is the active role parents take in their child's development and the knowledge and participation they share with professionals who are part of the child's daily…

  5. Clinical prediction models for bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a systematic review and external validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onland, Wes; Debray, Thomas P.; Laughon, Matthew M.; Miedema, Martijn; Cools, Filip; Askie, Lisa M.; Asselin, Jeanette M.; Calvert, Sandra A.; Courtney, Sherry E.; Dani, Carlo; Durand, David J.; Marlow, Neil; Peacock, Janet L.; Pillow, J. Jane; Soll, Roger F.; Thome, Ulrich H.; Truffert, Patrick; Schreiber, Michael D.; van Reempts, Patrick; Vendettuoli, Valentina; Vento, Giovanni; van Kaam, Anton H.; Moons, Karel G.; Offringa, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common complication of preterm birth. Very different models using clinical parameters at an early postnatal age to predict BPD have been developed with little extensive quantitative validation. The objective of this study is to review and validate clinical

  6. Lung volume reduction surgery in bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaplaouras, J; Heckmann, M; Reiss, I; Schaible, T; Waag, K L; Gortner, L

    2003-06-01

    We report on a female preterm infant of 29 wk gestational age, who developed acquired lobar emphysema after prolonged artificial ventilation secondary to respiratory disease syndrome and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The infant underwent atypical segmentectomy at the age of 12 mo because of life-threatening hypoxaemia with pulmonary hypertension and failure of conservative treatment. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) dramatically improved the respiratory function and resulted in adequate weight gain and psychomotor development. In selected cases LVRS can be an option for lobar emphysema in premature infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

  7. Markers of Airway Remodeling in Bronchopulmonary Diseases

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    O.Ye. Chernyshova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents information about markers of airway remodeling in bronchopulmonary diseases. There is described the influence of matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase, transforming growth factor, collagen autoantibodies III type, endothelin-1 on the processes of morphological airway reconstruction as smooth muscle hypertrophy, enhanced neovascularization, epithelial cell hyperplasia, collagen deposition, compaction of the basal membrane, observed in bronchial asthma.

  8. Ureaplasma urealyticum colonization, prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanWaarde, WM; Brus, F; Okken, A; Kimpen, JLL

    The aim of the present study was to determine the association between the presence of Ureaplasma urealyticum in endotracheal aspirates and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). In addition, a review of similar studies from the English literature is presented. During the period February 1990 until March

  9. Cultural Expectations and Parental Involvement in Early Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Meredith, Stephens; Richard, Blight

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the involvement of parents in early literacy in Japanese and Australian primary schools. While both schools valued support from parents in the education process, different cultural expectations are evident in each system. A number of significant areas are discussed, including traditional domestic situations in Japan, changing work cultures in Australia, education and maternal duties, higher expectations in Japan, parents supporting homework activities, parents supporti...

  10. Bronchopulmonary allergic aspergillosis Aspergilosis broncopulmonar alérgica

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    Rodrigo Ramírez

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A series of well defined entitles associated with colonization or invasion by fungi of the genus Aspergillus are grouped under the term Aspergillosis; there are various modalities of pulmonary involvement, namely, extrinsec asthma, extrinsec allergic alveolitis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, aspergilloma and an invasive form in debilitated terminal patients; besldes there exists a form of food poisoning. We report on the case of a 45 year-old asthmatic woman suffering from allerglc bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and sum. maryze the clinical and laboratory features of the different pulmonary forms of aspergillosis.

    El término Aspergllosis reúne una serle de entidades bien definidas, causadas por hongos del género Aspergillus. En este artículo se presenta el caso de una mujer de 45 años con aspergllosis broncopulmonar alérgica, atendida en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín y se hace una somera revisión clínico-patológica de las diferentes formas de aspergllosis pulmonar.

  11. Fluid and electrolyte balance during the first week of life and risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in the preterm neonate

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    Gustavo Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early fluid and electrolyte imbalances may be associated with an increased risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. OBJECTIVE: We sought to establish an association between fluid and electrolyte balance in the first week of life and the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. METHODS: Clinical charts of 205 neonates <32 weeks gestational age and/or <1,250 g birth weight (admitted to our NICU between 1997 and 2008 were analyzed. Clinical features, fluid and electrolyte balance were analyzed for the first 7 days of life using multivariate models of generalized estimation equations. A p value <0.05 was considered significant in all of the hypothesis tests. RESULTS: The prevalence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia was 22%. Lower gestational age and birth weight, male gender, less frequent use of antenatal steroids, respiratory distress syndrome, use of surfactant, patent ductus arteriosus, duration of invasive ventilation and NICU stay were significantly associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The variation in serum values of potassium, phosphorus and creatinine during the first week of life also revealed an association with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Higher mean plasma calcium values were associated with spontaneous closure of the patent ductus arteriosus. The use of indomethacin to induce patent ductus arteriosus closure was significantly higher in bronchopulmonary dysplasia patients. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in renal function and tubular handling of potassium and phosphorus are present during the first week of life among preterm neonates who will develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The higher rate of patent ductus arteriosus and indomethacin use may influence these differences. Serum levels of calcium also appear to play a role in spontaneous ductus arteriosus closure.

  12. Congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations: concepts and controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, Beverley

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the scope, etiology, important associations and imaging features of congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations. Etiologic concepts, including airway obstruction and vascular anomalies, are highlighted. Technical imaging advances, especially CT and MR, have greatly enhanced our diagnostic abilities in evaluating these lesions; however, thorough and careful assessment of all aspects of the malformation is still necessary. Several specific lesions are discussed in more detail, particularly regarding controversial issues in classification, understanding, imaging and management. (orig.)

  13. Congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations: concepts and controversies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Beverley [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2006-08-15

    This article addresses the scope, etiology, important associations and imaging features of congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations. Etiologic concepts, including airway obstruction and vascular anomalies, are highlighted. Technical imaging advances, especially CT and MR, have greatly enhanced our diagnostic abilities in evaluating these lesions; however, thorough and careful assessment of all aspects of the malformation is still necessary. Several specific lesions are discussed in more detail, particularly regarding controversial issues in classification, understanding, imaging and management. (orig.)

  14. Putative bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa in immunosuppressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilimcioglu, Ali Ahmet; Havlucu, Yavuz; Girginkardesler, Nogay; Celik, Pınar; Yereli, Kor; Özbilgin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Flagellated protozoa that cause bronchopulmonary symptoms in humans are commonly neglected. These protozoal forms which were presumed to be "flagellated protozoa" have been previously identified in immunosuppressed patients in a number of studies, but have not been certainly classified so far. Since no human cases of bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa were reported from Turkey, we aimed to investigate these putative protozoa in immunosuppressed patients who are particularly at risk of infectious diseases. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples of 110 immunosuppressed adult patients who were admitted to the Department of Chest Diseases, Hafsa Sultan Hospital of Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey, were examined in terms of parasites by light microscopy. Flagellated protozoal forms were detected in nine (8.2%) of 110 cases. Metronidazole (500 mg b.i.d. for 30 days) was given to all positive cases and a second bronchoscopy was performed at the end of the treatment, which revealed no parasites. In conclusion, immunosuppressed patients with bronchopulmonary symptoms should attentively be examined with regard to flagellated protozoa which can easily be misidentified as epithelial cells.

  15. Early Renal Involvement in a Girl with Classic Fabry Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perretta, Fernando; Antongiovanni, Norberto; Jaurretche, Sebastián

    2017-01-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder resulting from the deficiency or absence of the enzyme alpha galactosidase A; this defect leads to the systemic accumulation of globotriaosylceramide and its metabolites. Organic involvement in men is well known, but in women it is controversial, mainly due to the random X-chromosome inactivation in each of their cells (Lyon hypothesis). This would explain why women (heterozygotes) present a wide variability in the severity of their phenotype. The manifestations are multisystemic and begin in early childhood, reaching a severe compromise in adulthood. Typical acroparesthesia in hands and feet, gastrointestinal symptoms, angiokeratomas, dyshidrosis, hearing loss, arrhythmias, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cerebrovascular accidents, and renal failure can be observed. Nephropathy is one of the major complications of Fabry disease. Glomerular and vascular changes are present before progression to overt proteinuria and decreased glomerular filtration rate, even in pediatric patients. A case of incipient renal involvement in a girl with classic Fabry disease is reported.

  16. Longitudinal evaluation of bronchopulmonary disease in children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Philip M; Li, Zhanhai; Kosorok, Michael R; Laxova, Anita; Green, Christopher G; Collins, Jannette; Lai, Hui-Chuan; Makholm, Linda M; Rock, Michael J; Splaingard, Mark L

    2003-09-01

    Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) develop bronchopulmonary disease at variable ages. Determining the epidemiology of chronic lung disease and quantifying its severity, however, have been difficult in infants and young children. As part of the Wisconsin CF Neonatal Screening Project, we were presented with an ideal opportunity to assess longitudinally the evolution of symptoms, signs, and quantitative measures of CF respiratory disease. After newborn screening test results led to early recognition, 64 patients diagnosed at a median age of 6.71 weeks were enrolled and studied systematically at a median age of 11.3 years to obtain clinical information, chest radiographs, and pulmonary function tests. Our observations revealed that a frequent cough by history is evident by 10.5 months of age in half the patients. Quantitative chest radiology (CXR scoring) demonstrated that potentially irreversible abnormalities are present in half the children by 2 years. The severity of Wisconsin and Brasfield CXR scores increased in association with respiratory infections. Longitudinal progression of Wisconsin CXR scores was related to age (P < 0.001), pancreatic insufficiency (P = 0.005), and respiratory secretion cultures positive for Staphylococus aureas (P = 0.039). In contrast, serial spirometry showed limited sensitivity, as did lung volume determinations; neither was satisfactory as repeated measures with acceptable quality control until after 7 years of age. Time to event analyses revealed that half the patients had % predicted FEF(25-75) and FEV(1)/FVC values greater than 80% until 10.7 and 9.9 years, respectively. We conclude that of the methods evaluated, quantitative chest radiology is currently the best procedure for frequent assessment of bronchopulmonary disease in CF, and that radiographic progression is evident in approximately 85% of patients by 5 years of age. Our results also suggest that bronchiectasis and other radiographic evidence of chronic infection are

  17. Involving people with early-stage dementia in qualitative research about their lifeworld perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft, Diana Schack

    Involving people with early-stage dementia in qualitative research about their lifeworld perspectives......Involving people with early-stage dementia in qualitative research about their lifeworld perspectives...

  18. EARLY READING ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS: ABILITIES AND PROCESSES INVOLVED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia de Souza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the following early reading assessment instruments: “Bateria de Recepção e Produção da Linguagem Verbal” (SCLIAR-CABRAL, 2003a and “Teste de Competência de Leitura de Palavras e Pseudopalavras” (SEABRA; CAPOVILLA, 2010. The main research goal is to analyze in each one of these reading assessment instruments some of the multiple cognitive processes and basic low-level abilities involved in reading. In this sense, decoding, word recognition, lexical access, syntactic and textual processing, and comprehension are the cognitive processes taken into account. With regard to the basic reading abilities, accuracy and fluency (rhythm, prosody and speed are considered. The results indicate that each one of the analyzed reading assessment instruments assesses different aspects of the reading processes and abilities, mainly through off-line measures. ScliarCabral’s assessment battery allows the researcher or the teacher to evaluate the following processes: perception of the grapheme opposition in minimal pairs of words and in sentences, difficulties in sentence processing, skills in decoding the graphemic-phonemic relationship, and textual comprehension. In its turn, the reading assessment instrument proposed by Seabra e Capovilla allows one to evaluate student’s reading development level, by classifying the kind of processing as logographic, alphabetic or orthographic.

  19. Early and extensive spinal white matter involvement in neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Shotaro; Masaki, Katsuhisa; Yonekawa, Tomomi; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Hiwatashi, Akio; Matsushita, Takuya; Watanabe, Mitsuru; Yamasaki, Ryo; Suenaga, Toshihiko; Iwaki, Toru; Murai, Hiroyuki; Kira, Jun-Ichi

    2017-05-01

    protein loss may emerge. Spinal white matter involvement may also appear in early NMO, similar to cerebral white matter lesions. © 2016 International Society of Neuropathology.

  20. Bronchopulmonary foregut malformations: embryology, radiology and quandary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, N.A.; Pilling, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary foregut malformations (BPFM) are a heterogeneous group of pulmonary developmental anomalies that present at varying ages and with overlapping symptoms, signs and radiology. This article discusses the embryology of these lesions with reference to possible common origins and the link between aetiology and radiological appearance. The radiology of each lesion, both antenatally and postnatally, is described and illustrated. A number of quandaries exist in the prediction of prognosis and subsequent treatment of BPFM. We discuss the radiological features that may help to elucidate an individual prognosis and aid in the planning of treatment. The treatment options available for BPFM are briefly discussed. Finally, the link between BPFM, in particular cystic adenomatoid malformations and malignancy, is discussed. We aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the embryology, radiology, prognosis and treatment highlighting contentious issues of BPFM. (orig.)

  1. Congenital bronchopulmonary malformation: CT histopathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyncl, Martin; Koci, Martin; Ptackova, Lea; Hornofova, Ludmila; Ondrej, Fabian; Snajdauf, Jiri; Pychova, Marcela

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of postnatal computed tomography (CT) imaging in the identification of congenital bronchopulmonary malformation (BPM) in comparison with histopathological analysis. CT scans of prenatally diagnosed BPMs from 24 patients with available histology were analysed retrospectively. The CT images were reviewed blinded to histological findings by two radiologists. Specific diagnosis was assigned based on predetermined criteria. The accuracy of CT was evaluated. The agreement rate in CT diagnosis between two radiologists was 100%. In 75% the lesions were located in the lower lobes. An overlap of 71% in CT and histopathological diagnoses was reached. The least matching diagnosis was type 2 CPAM. Contrast enhanced chest CT is very accurate in characterizing the BPM spectrum and provides important information on lesion type and structure.

  2. Nasal CPAP and surfactant for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome and prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verder, Henrik; Bohlin, Kajsa; Kamper, Jens

    2009-01-01

    The Scandinavian approach is an effective combined treatment for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). It is composed of many individual parts. Of significant importance is the early treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (n......CPAP) and surfactant treatment. The approach may be supplemented with caffeine citrate and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for apnoea. The low incidence of BPD seen as a consequence of the treatment strategy is mainly due to a reduced need for mechanical ventilation (MV). Conclusion: Early...

  3. CT identification of bronchopulmonary segments: 50 normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osbourne, D.; Vock, P.; Godwin, J.D.; Silverman, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    A systematic evaluation of the fissures, segmental bronchi and arteries, bronchopulmonary segments, and peripheral pulmonary parenchyma was made from computed tomographic (CT) scans of 50 patients with normal chest radiographs. Seventy percent of the segmental bronchi and 76% of the segmental arteries were identified. Arteries could be traced to their sixth- and seventh-order branches; their orientation to the plane of the CT section allowed gross identification and localization of bronchopulmonary segments

  4. Examining Understandings of Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, Aimee V.; Kallemeyn, Leanne; Phillips, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The importance of parent involvement in children's development and learning is increasingly recognized in the research literature and in federal and state policies; however, no unified definition of parent involvement exists. This study examined different understandings and definitions of parent involvement in a sample of administrators of…

  5. Family Involvement in Early Intervention Service Planning: Links to Parental Satisfaction and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Tierney K.; You, Hyun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The mediating role of parental satisfaction in the relation between family involvement in early intervention service planning and parental self-efficacy was explored. Participants included families of children with disability or delay involved in early intervention (n = 2586). Data were examined upon entry into early intervention (T1) and at…

  6. Prediction of exacerbation chronic bronchopulmonary diseases in children with influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Afanaseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective: To develop a method for predicting exacerbation of chronic illness in children with asthma and cystic fibrosis, patients with influenza, based on the study of the dynamics of cytokines. Materials and methods: Were examined 52 patients with bronchial asthma and 45 children with cystic fibrosis at the age from 1 year to 12 years, located in infectious pulmonary Department at the planned treatment of underlying pathology, in which influenza was in-hospital infection. Control group observations included 40 patients with the flu, without concomitant pulmonary disease. The etiology of viral infection was established by detection of viral RNA in nasopharyngeal swabs by PCR. Among the influenza viruses were identified influenza АH1N1, АH3N2, influenza B, and in 2009–2010 the predominant antigen was the pandemic influenza virus АH1N1pdm09. Determination of the concentration of serum interleukins IL-1β, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, ТNF-α, IFN-γ was performed in the 1st and 3rd day of hospitalization cytokines by the solid-phase immune-enzyme assay. Analysis of the results performed using statistical package SPSS 17.0 EN for Windows. Results: The flu caused the aggravation associated bronchopulmonary pathology in 2/3 of children, as MV patients, and patients with BA (65,4%-66,7%, respectively. With an increase of the ratio of IL-4 / IFN-γ and IL-10/IFN-γ, at least 5-6 times, influenza can be considered a trigger of exacerbation of chronic bronchopulmonary pathologies that require amplification of the therapy of bronchial asthma and of сystic fibrosis. The growth of prognostic coefficients in 2-3 times allows using for treatment of influenza in these patients only antiviral agents. Conclusion: The study has shown a method for predicting exacerbation of bronchial asthma and cystic fibrosis in children at an early stage of influenza by calculating the ratio of IL-4/IFN-γ and IL-10/IFN-γ in children aged from 1 year to 12 years. 

  7. Analyzing Parental Involvement Dimensions in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtulmus, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    The importance of parental involvement in children's academic and social development has been widely accepted. For children's later school success, the first years are crucial. Majority of the research focuses on enhancing and supporting parental involvement in educational settings. The purpose of this study was to analyze dimensions of parental…

  8. Biomarkers in neonatology: the new "omics" of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersigilli, Fiammetta; Bhandari, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a complex disorder resulting from gene-environmental interactions. An improved understanding of the pathogenesis of this most common chronic lung disease in infants has been made by utilizing animal models and correlating with human data. Currently, while some (vitamin A, caffeine) pharmacotherapeutic options are being utilized to ameliorate this condition, there is still no specific or effective treatment for BPD. It would be helpful for prognostication and targeted potential novel therapeutic strategies to identify those babies accurately who are at risk for developing this disease. A reliable biomarker would have the capacity to be detected in the initial phase of the disease, to allow early interventions to avoid or minimize the detrimental effects of the disease. This review will focus on human studies performed with the "omic" techniques, specifically genomics, epigenomics, microbiomics, transciptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, and summarize the information available in the literature, as it pertains to biomarker identification for BPD. Using "omics" technologies, investigators have reported markers that have the potential to be used as biomarkers of BPD: SPOCK2, VEGF -624C > G, VEGF -460T > C, mast cells specific markers, miR-219 pathway, miR-152, -30a-3p, -133b, -206, -7, lactate, taurine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, gluconate, myoinositol and alterations in surfactant lipid profile.

  9. Executive functioning deficits in young adult survivors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Aisling; Linden, Mark A; Spence, Dale; Halliday, Henry L; Patterson, Christopher C; McGarvey, Lorcan

    2015-01-01

    To assess long-term impairments of executive functioning in adult survivors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Participants were assessed on measures of executive functioning, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and social functioning. Survivors of BPD (n = 63; 34 males; mean age 24.2 years) were compared with groups comprising preterm (without BPD) (executive functioning relating to problem solving (OR: 5.1, CI: 1.4-19.3), awareness of behavior (OR: 12.7, CI: 1.5-106.4) and organization of their environment (OR: 13.0, CI: 1.6-107.1). Birth weight, HRQoL and social functioning were predictive of deficits in executive functioning. This study represents the largest sample of survivors into adulthood of BPD and is the first to show that deficits in executive functioning persist. Children with BPD should be assessed to identify cognitive impairments and allow early intervention aimed at ameliorating their effects. Implications for Rehabilitation Adults born preterm with very-low birth weight, and particularly those who develop BPD, are at increased risk of exhibiting defects in executive functioning. Clinicians and educators should be made aware of the impact that BPD can have on the long-term development of executive functions. Children and young adults identified as having BPD should be periodically monitored to identify the need for possible intervention.

  10. Acetaldehyde involvement in ethanol's postabsortive effects during early ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Samanta M; Abate, P; Molina, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and biomedical studies sustains the notion that early ontogeny is a vulnerable window to the impact of alcohol. Experiences with the drug during these stages increase latter disposition to prefer, use or abuse ethanol. This period of enhanced sensitivity to ethanol is accompanied by a high rate of activity in the central catalase system, which metabolizes ethanol in the brain. Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first oxidation product of ethanol, has been found to share many neurobehavioral effects with the drug. Cumulative evidence supports this notion in models employing adults. Nevertheless very few studies have been conducted to analyze the role of ACD in ethanol postabsorptive effects, in newborns or infant rats. In this work we review recent experimental literature that syndicates ACD as a mediator agent of reinforcing aspects of ethanol, during early ontogenetic stages. We also show a meta-analytical correlational approach that proposes how differences in the activity of brain catalase across ontogeny, could be modulating patterns of ethanol consumption.

  11. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ahmed Janahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA is a pulmonary disorder that often occurs in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis (CF and is characterized by a hypersensitivity response to the allergens of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. In patients with CF, growth of A. fumigatus hyphae within the bronchial lumen triggers an immunoglobulin E (IgE-mediated hypersensitivity response that results in airway inflammation, bronchospasm, and bronchiectasis. In most published studies, the prevalence of ABPA is about 8.9% in patients with CF. Since the clinical features of this condition overlap significantly with that of CF, ABPA is challenging to diagnose and remains underdiagnosed in many patients. Diagnosis of ABPA in CF patients should be sought in those with evidence of clinical and radiologic deterioration that is not attributable to another etiology, a markedly elevated total serum IgE level (while off steroid therapy and evidence of A. fumigatus sensitization. Management of ABPA involves the use of systemic steroids to reduce inflammation and modulate the immune response. In patients who do not respond to steroids or cannot tolerate them, antifungal agents should be used to reduce the burden of A. fumigatus allergens. Recent studies suggest that omalizumab may be an effective option to reduce the frequency of ABPA exacerbations in patients with CF. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to better establish the efficacy of omalizumab in managing patients with CF and ABPA.

  12. Excellent outcome of Aspergillous endophthalmitis in a case of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbir Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While invasive aspergillosis occurs typically in severely immunocompromised patients, cases of surgical site infections have been reported in immunocompetent individuals. The purpose is to report an eye with post-operative Aspergillus endophthalmitis, which achieved a good visual outcome following early and aggressive treatment. A young patient, known case of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis presented to us with post-cataract surgery endophthalmitis. He was treated with pars plana vitrectomy and intravitreal voriconazole and systemic itraconazole. The patient regained a vision of 20/30 with follow up of 2 years.

  13. Patient involvement in own rehabilitation after early discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørdam, Britta; Boolsen, Merete Watt

    2017-01-01

    _en.pdf). Recent research suggests that patient involvement after hip replacement is a very effective strategy in older adults with regard to improving walking ability and reducing pain and thereby lessening loss of physical, mental and social aspects of the quality of life. The growing number of older adults all...... hospital and home. Population: Empirical data were collected by carrying out three randomised clinical trials (RCT) focusing on self-rated health and involvement of patients undergoing total hip replacement in three Danish orthopaedic clinics. Based on power calculation, 260 patients (mean age 67.5 years...

  14. Early user involvement in designing intelligent products and environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt-Evers, L.; Steen, M.

    2008-01-01

    A literature review was conducted on user involvement in design. The focus of the review was on how researchers and designers attempt to cooperate with end-users, with the goal of making a better match with end-users’ needs and preferences. The main goal of the research was to get insight in which

  15. Mothers' Reports of Their Involvement in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Stephanie; des Rivieres-Pigeon, Catherine; Sabourin, Gabrielle; Forget, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies examine the effectiveness of intensive behavioral intervention programs (EIBI) for young children with autism, few focus on the family aspect of the program. In particular, involvement of mothers in the program, which is strongly recommended, is the subject of only a small number of studies. The goal of this research is…

  16. Morphological, clinical and radiological aspects in diagnostics of bronchopulmonary diseases and their complications in children with dysplasia of connective tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palchik S.M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of the literature devoted to study of radiological, morphological and clinical aspects of diagnostics of respiratory diseases and their complications in children with dysplasia of connective tissue nowadays. We made an analysis of the role of connective tissue disorders in pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary diseases. Theoretically was substantiated the importance of radiological methods in early diagnostics of this disease in children.

  17. Ratios of involved nodes in early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Royce, Melanie; Verschraegen, Claire; Promish, Donald I; Cserni, Gábor; Van de Steene, Jan; Tai, Patricia; Vlastos, Georges; Voordeckers, Mia; Storme, Guy

    2004-01-01

    The number of lymph nodes found to be involved in an axillary dissection is among the most powerful prognostic factors in breast cancer, but it is confounded by the number of lymph nodes that have been examined. We investigate an idea that has surfaced recently in the literature (since 1999), namely that the proportion of node-positive lymph nodes (or a function thereof) is a much better predictor of survival than the number of excised and node-positive lymph nodes, alone or together. The data were abstracted from 83,686 cases registered in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of women diagnosed with nonmetastatic T1–T2 primary breast carcinoma between 1988 and 1997, in whom axillary node dissection was performed. The end-point was death from breast cancer. Cox models based on different expressions of nodal involvement were compared using the Nagelkerke R 2 index (R 2 N ). Ratios were modeled as percentage and as log odds of involved nodes. Log odds were estimated in a way that avoids singularities (zero values) by using the empirical logistic transform. In node-negative cases both the number of nodes excised and the log odds were significant, with hazard ratios of 0.991 (95% confidence interval 0.986–0.997) and 1.150 (1.058–1.249), respectively, but without improving R 2 N . In node-positive cases the hazard ratios were 1.003–1.088 for the number of involved nodes, 0.966–1.005 for the number of excised nodes, 1.015–1.017 for the percentage, and 1.344–1.381 for the log odds. R 2 N improved from 0.067 (no nodal covariate) to 0.102 (models based on counts only) and to 0.108 (models based on ratios). Ratios are simple optimal predictors, in that they provide at least the same prognostic value as the more traditional staging based on counting of involved nodes, without replacing them with a needlessly complicated alternative. They can be viewed as a per patient standardization in which the number of involved nodes is standardized

  18. Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs towards Parent Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaçam, Nur; Olgan, Refika

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the parent involvement self-efficacy beliefs held by pre-service early childhood teachers and their self-reported skills in implementing parent involvement strategies. Another aim was to examine the impact made on parent involvement self-efficacy beliefs by taking a course on parent involvement and by self-reported…

  19. Fifty years later - still not enough early external involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lash, T.

    1992-01-01

    When it comes to nuclear issues, public participation is like the weather: We talk a lot but we do not do anything meaningful about it. This does not need to be the situation, however. If the program leaders were to make an open commitment to listening to the concerns and requests of the public and then changing their programs in response to what they hear, there would be improved programs and greater public support for them. This paper addresses one such nuclear issue: involving the public effectively in decision making about the transportation of spent nuclear fuel

  20. Prelamin A is involved in early steps of muscle differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capanni, Cristina; Del Coco, Rosalba; Squarzoni, Stefano; Columbaro, Marta; Mattioli, Elisabetta; Camozzi, Daria; Rocchi, Anna; Scotlandi, Katia; Maraldi, Nadir; Foisner, Roland; Lattanzi, Giovanna

    2008-01-01

    Lamin A is a nuclear lamina constituent implicated in a number of human disorders including Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. Since increasing evidence suggests a role of the lamin A precursor in nuclear functions, we investigated the processing of prelamin A during differentiation of C2C12 mouse myoblasts. We show that both protein levels and cellular localization of prelamin A are modulated during myoblast activation. Similar changes of lamin A-binding proteins emerin and LAP2α were observed. Furthermore, prelamin A was found in a complex with LAP2α in differentiating myoblasts. Prelamin A accumulation in cycling myoblasts by expressing unprocessable mutants affected LAP2α and PCNA amount and increased caveolin 3 mRNA and protein levels, while accumulation of prelamin A in differentiated muscle cells following treatment with a farnesyl transferase inhibitor appeared to inhibit caveolin 3 expression. Our data provide evidence for a critical role of the lamin A precursor in the early steps of muscle cell differentiation

  1. Early trigeminal nerve involvement in Listeria monocytogenes rhombencephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, William K; Harboe, Zitta Barrella; Roed, Casper

    2017-01-01

    dysfunction on that side. In addition, we identified another 120 cases of Listeria rhombencephalitis following a systematic review. Cranial nerves VII, V, IX, and X, respectively, medulla oblongata, cerebellum and pons, were the most frequently involved brain structures. The present clinical and radiological...... findings corroborate earlier data from animal experiments, indicating that L. monocytogenes may be capable of retrograde intra-axonal migration along the cranial nerves. We suggest that in a subset of patients with rhombencephalitis L. monocytogenes enters the cerebellopontine angle through the trigeminal......Listeria monocytogenes is associated with rhombencephalitis. However, the exact mechanisms of brainstem invasion remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate clinical and radiological data suggesting that Listeria may invade the brainstem via the trigeminal nerve. Three females (41, 64 and 70...

  2. Bronchoplasty for Primary Broncho-Pulmonary Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDEL RAHMAN, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Parenchyma-sparing procedures are widely used in patients with low-grade malignancies of the airway when anatomically suited lesions exist. This study was conducted to evaluate the short-term and the long-term results of bronchoplastic procedures for patients with centrally located primary bronchopulmonary tumors. Methods: Between 2000 and 2009, 36 patients with primary lung tumors required bronchoplasty were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative assessment included computed tomography (CT) of the chest, bronchoscopy, and spirometry. Pre operative diagnosis was achieved by bronchoscopy for all patients, mediastinoscopy was done for patients with primary lung cancer. Neo adjuvant chemotherapy was given for 6 patients with non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Results: We had 15 males and 21 female, the mean age was 37 years and the mean hospital stay was 7.2 days. Operative procedures performed were:Sleeve lobectomy in 30 patients (13 right, 17 left), partial sleeve right pneumonectomy in 3 and bronchial resection with re-anastomosis in 3 (2 left, 1 right). Twelve patients (33.3%) suffered post-operative problems. There was one operative related mortality. Post operative pathology revealed: 27 patients with typical carcinoid, 2 with atypical carcinoid, 4 with squamous cell carcinoma, 2 with adenocarcifioma and one with hamartoma. Pathological TNM staging revealed: 17 patients with stage 1A, 11 with IB, 5 with IIA and 2 with stage IIIA. Follow-up data were available for all patients except two. Two patients died with disseminated disease 1.5 year and 2 years after surgery. The patient with hamartoma developed local recurrence 5 years later and re-excision was done. One patient with lung cancer developed bone metastases and was alive with disease, while the remaining 30 patient's were alive and disease free. The overall 5 years survival was 83.3%. Conclusion: Bronchoplastic resections achieve local control and long-term survival comparable to the standard resections in

  3. Ventilator flow data predict bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely premature neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariann H. Bentsen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Early prediction of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD may facilitate tailored management for neonates at risk. We investigated whether easily accessible flow data from a mechanical ventilator can predict BPD in neonates born extremely premature (EP. In a prospective population-based study of EP-born neonates, flow data were obtained from the ventilator during the first 48 h of life. Data were logged for >10 min and then converted to flow–volume loops using custom-made software. Tidal breathing parameters were calculated and averaged from ≥200 breath cycles, and data were compared between those who later developed moderate/severe and no/mild BPD. Of 33 neonates, 18 developed moderate/severe and 15 no/mild BPD. The groups did not differ in gestational age, surfactant treatment or ventilator settings. The infants who developed moderate/severe BPD had evidence of less airflow obstruction, significantly so for tidal expiratory flow at 50% of tidal expiratory volume (TEF50 expressed as a ratio of peak tidal expiratory flow (PTEF (p=0.007. A compound model estimated by multiple logistic regression incorporating TEF50/PTEF, birthweight z-score and sex predicted moderate/severe BPD with good accuracy (area under the curve 0.893, 95% CI 0.735–0.973. This study suggests that flow data obtained from ventilators during the first hours of life may predict later BPD in premature neonates. Future and larger studies are needed to validate these findings and to determine their clinical usefulness.

  4. Supporting Parental Involvement in Children's Early Learning: Lessons from Community Childcare Centres in Dublin's Docklands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, Michelle; Kerrins, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Recently in Ireland attention has been placed on the importance of parental involvement in early childhood care and education settings as seen in the Síolta Quality Standards and Aistear Curriculum Framework. Yet there is little Irish empirical evidence on parental involvement in childcare settings; on the involvement models being used, or on the…

  5. Phrenic motor outputs in response to bronchopulmonary C-fibre activation following chronic cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun-Ze

    2016-10-15

    activity was robustly reduced after capsaicin treatment compared to uninjured animals. Single phrenic fibre recording experiments demonstrated that C2Hx animals had a higher proportion of late-inspiratory phrenic motoneurons that were relatively sensitive to capsaicin treatment compared to early-inspiratory phrenic motoneurons. Moreover, late-inspiratory phrenic motoneurons in C2Hx animals had a weaker discharge frequency and slower recovery time than uninjured animals. These results suggest bilateral phrenic nerves differentially respond to bronchopulmonary C-fibre activation following unilateral cervical hemisection, and the severe inhibition of phrenic bursting is due to a shift in the discharge pattern of phrenic motoneurons. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  6. Diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M; Koch, C; Reimert, C M

    2000-01-01

    The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients may be difficult to establish because ABPA shares many characteristics with coexisting atopy or other lung infections in these patients. This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity...

  7. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis as a cause of bronchial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) occurs in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis. When aspergillus fumigatus spores are inhaled they grow in bronchial mucous as hyphae. It occurs in non immunocompromised patients and belongs to the hypersensitivity disorders induced by Aspergillus.

  8. Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Ureaplasma : What Do We Know So Far?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De La Haye, Nicole; Hütten, Matthias C.; Kunzmann, Steffen; Kramer, Boris W.

    2017-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common morbidity of prematurity. BPD is a chronic respiratory disease related to lung-injury during the primary course of critical lung disease such as respiratory distress syndrome or when abnormal development of the preterm lung occurs. Abnormal lung

  9. High-resolution CT findings in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yoon Ho; Lee, Young Seok; Kim, Ji Hye; Han, Heon; Chung, Hyo Sun; Cha, Yoo Mi; Kim, Young Chae; Kim, Sang Hee

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate high resolution CT(HRCT) findings in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia(BPD). In 13 infants(age range, 1-12 months;11 premature babies, two full-term babies; birth weight, 0.97-3.88kg;mean 2,03kg) with clinico-radiologically suggested BPD, HRCT findings of the lung were reviewed retrospectively. Spiral CT using ultra high bone algorithm, 1mm collimation with 5-8mm interval, and 0.7sec scan time was performed without regard to breathing-control of infants. Three radiologists each analysed the HRCT findings twice. HRCT findings of BPD were as follows:parenchymal bands(n=13), interlobular septal thickenings (n=12), multifocal hyperaeration involving lobar or segmental distribution(n=7), and involving lobular distribution or small cyst-like lesion(n=4), centrilobular nodules(n=7), consolidation and/or atelectasis(n=7), and bronchovascular bundle thickening(n=6). Parenchymal bands, interlobular septal thickenings, and multifocal hyperaerations were the major findings in cases of bronchopulmonary dysplasia whereas, centrilobular nodules, consolidation and/or atelectasis, and bronchovascular bundle thickenings were the minor findings. These findings may be used as basic data in the evaluation of BPD in future studies

  10. Can Parents' Involvement in Children's Education Offset the Effects of Early Insensitivity on Academic Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Jennifer D.; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,312) were analyzed to examine whether the adverse effects of early insensitive parenting on children's academic functioning can be offset by parents' later involvement in children's education. Observations of mothers' early…

  11. Latino Parental Involvement in Kindergarten: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Tina M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement in children's schooling is an important component of children's early school success. Few studies have examined this construct exclusively among Latino families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), the present investigation (N = 2,051) explored relations between Latino parents' home and school…

  12. The Influence of an Early Childhood Program on Parental Involvement: Perceptions of Former Head Start Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Stacey

    2017-01-01

    A key component of effective early childhood programs is collaborative relationships between schools, families, and the community (Fiese, Eckert, & Spagnola, 2005). One of these early childhood programs, Head Start, stands out among the others in its efforts to work with children, families, and communities to promote parental involvement. Some…

  13. The removal of inhaled 239Pu from beagle dogs by bronchopulmonary lavage and chelation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Slauson, D.O.; Miglio, J.J.; Ruoff, L.; Mersch, S.; McClellan, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The efficacy of bronchopulmonary lavage and chelatan therapy for removing 239 Pu from beagle dogs after inhalation of 239 Pu aerosols having different solubilities has been investigated. The four aerosols used were nebulized from a solution of 239 PuCl 4 and heat treated at temperatures of 325, 600, 900 and 1150 0 C. Groups of six beagle dogs were exposed to each of the aerosols. Subsequently, three dogs in each group were treated by lavage and intravenous injections of DTPA. The remaining three dogs in each group served as untreated controls. It was found that bronchopulmonary lavage treatment was effective in removing nearly half of the 239 Pu activity from the lung regardless of the aerosol production temperature. This early removal of 239 Pu activity resulted in a significant reduction in daily dose rate and therefore cumulative α dose to lung. The effectiveness of DTPA treatment depended on aerosol production temperature, and was effective in reducing accumulation of 239 Pu in liver and skeleton of the dogs that inhaled aerosols produced at 325 0 and 600 0 C by enhancing urinary excretion of 239 Pu. (U.K.)

  14. Clinical features and early treatment response of central nervous system involvement in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Mette; Taskinen, Mervi; Abrahamsson, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains a therapeutic challenge. PROCEDURE: To explore leukemia characteristics of patients with CNS involvement at ALL diagnosis, we analyzed clinical features and early treatment response of 744...... leukemia and patients without such characteristics (0.50 vs. 0.61; P = 0.2). CONCLUSION: CNS involvement at diagnosis is associated with adverse prognostic features but does not indicate a less chemosensitive leukemia....

  15. Childhood allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis presenting as a middle lobe syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ashok; Gera, Kamal; Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is infrequently documented in children with asthma. Although collapse is not uncommon, middle lobe syndrome (MLS) as a presentation of ABPA is rather a rarity. A 9-year-old female child with asthma presented with increase in intensity of symptoms along with a right midzone patchy consolidation on a chest radiograph. In addition, an ill-defined opacity abutting the right cardiac border with loss of cardiac silhouette was noted. A right lateral vie...

  16. [Bronchopulmonary diseases in workers engaged in deep-mined extraction of copper-nickel ore].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siurin, S A; Derevoedov, A A; Nikanov, A N

    2008-01-01

    Examinations were made in 220 male workers exposed to dust-gas (low-silicon dioxide, nitric oxides, and carbon oxide) mixture, physical exercises, and cooling microclimate on deep-mined output of copper-nickel ore. Twenty-eight per cent of the workers were found to have evolving chronic bronchitis that did not substantially affect the patients' working capacity; 3.2% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 1.4% had asthma that had developed before the onset of professional activity. 32.3% of the examinees were ascertained to have individual clinicofunctional disorders that permit their identification as a bronchopulmonary disease risk group to carry out early preventive and rehabilitative measures.

  17. Occurrence of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis in patients with asthma: An Eastern India experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Anirban

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM is a clinical syndrome associated with immune sensitivity to various fungi notably Aspergillus spp. that colonize the airways of asthmatics. Early diagnosis and treatment with systemic corticosteroids is the key in preventing the progression of the disease to irreversible lung fibrosis. Aims: To study the occurrence of ABPM among asthma patients with fungal sensitization attending a chest clinic of a tertiary hospital of eastern India. The clinico-radiological and aetiological profiles are also described. Materials and Methods: All consecutive patients with asthma presenting to the chest clinic over a period of one year were screened for cutaneous hypersensitivity to 12 common fungal antigens. The skin test positive cases were further evaluated for ABPM using standard criteria. Results: One hundred and twenty-six asthma patients were screened using twelve common fungal antigens; forty patients (31.74% were found to be skin test positive, and ABPM was diagnosed in ten patients (7.93%. Of the 10 cases of ABPM, nine cases were those of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA and one case was identified as caused by sensitization to Penicillium spp. A majority of the cases of ABPM had advanced disease and had significantly lower FEV1 compared to non-ABPM skin test positive asthmatics. Central bronchiectasis on high resolution CT scan was the most sensitive and specific among the diagnostic parameters. Conclusion: There is a significant prevalence of ABPM in asthma patients attending our hospital and this reinforces the need to screen asthma patients for fungal sensitisation. This will help in early diagnosis and prevention of irreversible lung damage.

  18. [The relation of severe obstructive disorders to ventilation found in young patients with bronchitis and bronchopulmonary diseases in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duţu, S; Jienescu, Z; Bîscă, N; Bistriceanu, G

    1989-01-01

    Of the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COLD) and severe obstructive syndrome, 39 whose age was under 40 were selected. In 23 of them, the anamnesis revealed bronchopulmonary affections in childhood, that required admission into the hospital (19 were non-smokers). Of the rest of 16 patients, 14 were hard smokers that started to smoke before the age of 14. The functional picture was severely modified, similarly to that of the COLD patients in the 6th decade of life. This suggests that the degradation process started in the childhood, and that the chronic respiratory diseases and/or smoking at an early age had an important role.

  19. Going With the Flow: An Aid in Detecting and Differentiating Bronchopulmonary Sequestrations and Hybrid Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Edward R; DeBari, Suzanne E; Giannone, Mariann M; Pogoriler, Jennifer E; Johnson, Ann M; Horii, Steven C; Gebb, Juliana S; Howell, Lori J; Adzick, N Scott; Coleman, Beverly G

    2018-02-01

    To assess the ability of prenatal ultrasound (US) in identifying systemic feeding arteries in bronchopulmonary sequestrations and hybrid lesions and report the ability of US in classifying bronchopulmonary sequestrations as intralobar or extralobar. Institutional Review Board-approved radiology and clinical database searches from 2008 to 2015 were performed for prenatal lung lesions with final diagnoses of bronchopulmonary sequestrations or hybrid lesions. All patients had detailed US examinations, and most patients had ultrafast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Lesion location, size, and identification of systemic feeding arteries and draining veins were assessed with US. The study consisted of 102 bronchopulmonary sequestrations and 86 hybrid lesions. The median maternal age was 30 years. The median gestational age was 22 weeks 5 days. Of bronchopulmonary sequestrations, 66 had surgical pathologic confirmation, and 100 had postnatal imaging. Bronchopulmonary sequestration locations were intrathoracic (n = 77), intra-abdominal (n = 19), and transdiaphragmatic (n = 6). Of hybrid lesions, 84 had surgical pathologic confirmation, and 83 had postnatal imaging. Hybrid lesion locations were intrathoracic (n = 84) and transdiaphragmatic (n = 2). Ultrasound correctly identified systemic feeding arteries in 86 of 102 bronchopulmonary sequestrations and 79 of 86 hybrid lesions. Of patients who underwent MRI, systemic feeding arteries were reported in 62 of 92 bronchopulmonary sequestrations and 56 of 81 hybrid lesions. Ultrasound identified more systemic feeding arteries than MRI in both bronchopulmonary sequestrations and hybrid lesions (P < .01). Magnetic resonance imaging identified systemic feeding arteries that US did not in only 2 cases. In cases in which both systemic feeding arteries and draining veins were identified, US could correctly predict intrathoracic lesions as intralobar or extralobar in 44 of 49 bronchopulmonary sequestrations and

  20. PATIENT AND PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT IN EARLY AWARENESS AND ALERT ACTIVITIES: AN EXAMPLE FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Sue; Cook, Alison; Miles, Kathryn

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report on the experiences, benefits, and challenges of patient and public involvement and engagement (PPIE) from a publicly funded early awareness and alert (EAA) system in the United Kingdom. Using email, telephone, a Web site portal, Twitter and focus groups, patients and the public were involved and engaged in the recognized stages of an EAA system: identification, filtration, prioritization, early assessment, and dissemination. Approaches for PPIE were successfully integrated into all aspects of the National Institute for Health Research Horizon Scanning Research and Intelligence Centre's EAA system. Input into identification activities was not as beneficial as involvement in prioritization and early assessment. Patients gave useful insight into the Centre's Web site and engaging patients using Twitter has enabled the Centre to disseminate outputs to a wider audience. EAA systems should consider involving and engaging with patients and the public in identification, prioritization, and assessment of emerging health technologies where practicable. Further research is required to examine the value and impact of PPIE in EAA activities and in the early development of health technologies.

  1. Staff supported parental involvement in effective early interventions for at-risk children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Søgaard; Holm, Anders; Jensen, Bente

    The article presents a review of international research on the effect of early interventions with parental involvement. Ten international and national databases were searched. Hits were supplemented with references from the review group. The search process found 1933 unique references, which were...

  2. Power and Identity in Immigrant Parents' Involvement in Early Years Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki

    2018-01-01

    This study examined immigrant parents' involvement in early years mathematics learning, focusing on learning of multiplication in in- and out-of-school settings. Ethnographic interviews and workshops were conducted in an urban city in Japan, to examine out-of-school practices of immigrant families. Drawing from sociocultural theory of learning and…

  3. The Long-Term Effects of Early Parent Involvement and Parent Expectation in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Peterson, Aubrey; Davison, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Building on social-cognitive theory and the expectancy-value theory, this study indicated that early parent expectations for children’s post-secondary educational attainment have a stronger effect on 8th-grade achievement than home-based parental involvement. With a nationally representative sample of kindergarten students and their parents in the…

  4. Early surgical managment of penetrating ocular injuries involving the posterior segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, R G

    1976-09-01

    Pars plana vitrectomy technic can be used in the early management of certain penetrating ocular injuries involving the posterior segment, including selected intraocular foreign bodies. This study reports the results of ten consecutive cases of intraocular foreign bodies in the posterior segment treated by a combination of vitrectomy (including lensectomy when necessary) and foreign-body extraction with forceps. The foreign body was successfully removed in nine of ten eyes, and nine of ten eyes were salvaged. This favorable experience using early vitreous surgery suggests that the vitrectomy technic can be used in other penetrating injuries involving the posterior segment that are not associated with intraocular foreign bodies. Possible indications for early vitrectomy are presented, including cases with a poor prognosis when managed by conventional methods.

  5. Combined Churg-Strauss syndrome and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis - case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    A rare case of combined Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) was presented. A 41-year-old woman was diagnosed with CSS based upon asthma, eosinophilia (23%), chest radiographic findings, paranasal sinusitis, peripheral neuropathy and positive p- anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA). The diagnosis of ABPA was established on the pathological findings of allegic mucin impaction and fungal hyphae on lung biopsy. It was further proved by positive serum IgE and IgG antibodies specific to afumigatus. The clinical investigation features were reviewed in the patients with combined CSS and ABPA. All patients had the time sequence of the development of CSS after ABPA uniformly, suggesting immunopathogenesis involving the emergence of CSS. The role of lung biopsy in the diagnosis of the condition was emphasized. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Right pulmonary aplasia, aberrant left pulmonary artery, and bronchopulmonary sequestration with an esophageal bronchus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Peter; McCauley, Roy; Westra, Sjirk; Baba, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary aplasia and bronchopulmonary foregut malformations in which a patent communication between the foregut and the pulmonary system is present are rare congenital abnormalities. Pulmonary aplasia associated with a pulmonary sling is an even rarer abnormality. We report a unique case of right pulmonary aplasia, aberrant left pulmonary artery, and bronchopulmonary sequestration with an esophageal bronchus diagnosed by multidetector helical CT. (orig.)

  7. Intralobar bronchopulmonary sequestration with large aberrant vessel presenting as recurrent pneumonias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noomani, A.Z.; Toori, K.U.

    2014-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital malformation of the lower respiratory tract comprising of a nonfunctioning lung tissue mass that lacks normal communication with the tracheobronchial tree. The diagnosis may be easily missed as many of the symptoms of bronchopulmonary sequestration overlap with that of other pulmonary diseases. Bronchopulmonary sequestration can be complicated by recurrent infections, hemorrhage and malignant transformation and, therefore, needs to be timely diagnosed and resected to decrease both morbidity and mortality. A high degree of suspicion in the differential diagnosis helps diagnose the positive cases. The parenchymal abnormalities associated with bronchopulmonary sequestration are best visualized using computed tomography, although their appearance is variable. We report the case of a 14 years old boy with intralobar bronchopulmonary sequestration with the sole manifestation of recurrent pneumonias. (author)

  8. Spectrum of Misdiagnosis of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Mycosis: Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Rana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM is most commonly seen in cystic fibrosis and bronchial asthma. Most of patients are misdiagnosed at initial outpatient department visit due to low suspicion, lack of awareness of entity and similarity in clinical symptoms and radiological findings with other common pulmonary diseases. Pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common entity diagnosed, and anti-tubercular treatment is the most commonly abused chemotherapy. Careful history taking, astute initial examination and awareness may help in curbing wrong diagnosis and treatment. This article present two cases of ABPM who were initially misdiagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis and carcinoma lung, respectively.

  9. A complex communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformation: diagnostic imaging and pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, T.E.; Auringer, S.T.; Cox, T.D. [Department of Radiology, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1088 (United States)

    1997-10-01

    We report a newborn with an esophageal lung, a rare type of communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformation (CBPFM). Associated findings included esophageal atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) to the distal esophagus, duodenal stenosis with annular pancreas, imperforate anus, vertebral anomalies and ambiguous genitalia. Radiologic evaluation included chest radiographs, esophagrams, chest ultrasound and chest CT. After colostomy and surgical repair of duodenal stenosis and TEF, a right thoracotomy was performed to treat an esophageal lung. Radiologic features of this unusual variant of CBPFM are presented. Accurate preoperative imaging diagnosis is essential for planning surgical treatment of an esophageal lung. (orig.). With 1 fig.

  10. A complex communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformation: diagnostic imaging and pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumner, T.E.; Auringer, S.T.; Cox, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    We report a newborn with an esophageal lung, a rare type of communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformation (CBPFM). Associated findings included esophageal atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) to the distal esophagus, duodenal stenosis with annular pancreas, imperforate anus, vertebral anomalies and ambiguous genitalia. Radiologic evaluation included chest radiographs, esophagrams, chest ultrasound and chest CT. After colostomy and surgical repair of duodenal stenosis and TEF, a right thoracotomy was performed to treat an esophageal lung. Radiologic features of this unusual variant of CBPFM are presented. Accurate preoperative imaging diagnosis is essential for planning surgical treatment of an esophageal lung. (orig.). With 1 fig

  11. Miliary nodules in a patient of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N A; Sumon, S M; Rahman, A; Hossain, M A; Ferdous, J; Bari, M R

    2014-04-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergilosis (ABPA) is immunological pulmonary disease caused by hypersensitivity of aspergillus fumigatus usually occurs in patients with chronic asthma, cystic fibrosis and bronchiactasis. This disease may present with divers radiological presentation like; fleeting pulmonary opacities, bronchiactasis, mucoid impaction, perihilar opacity (hailer lymphadenopathy), and lung mass or pleural effusion. We describe the case of a 30 year old housewife who presented with progressive dysponea, low grade fever, dry cough, weight loss and miliary nodule in chest radiograph and high-resolution CT (HRCT) in a tertiary level hospital of Bangladesh. A diagnosis of ABPA was established on the basis of sputum routine microscopy and culture examination for fungus (Aspergillus).

  12. Involved-node radiotherapy (INRT) in patients with early Hodgkin lymphoma: concepts and guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girinsky, Theodore; van der Maazen, Richard; Specht, Lena

    2006-01-01

    are designed to irradiate the initially involved lymph nodes exclusively and to encompass their initial volume. In some cases, radiation fields are slightly modified to avoid unnecessary irradiation of muscles or organs at risk. CONCLUSIONS: The concept of involved-node radiotherapy (INRT) described here......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To describe new concepts for radiation fields in patients with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma treated with a combined modality. PATIENTS AND MATERIALS: Patients receiving combined modality therapy with at least 2 or 3 cycles of chemotherapy prior to radiotherapy. Pre...

  13. A Pilot Study on Factors Involved with Work Participation in the Early Stages of Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Hiele, Karin; Middelkoop, Huub A. M.; Ruimschotel, Rob; Kamminga, Noëlle G. A.; Visser, Leo H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Up to 30% of recently diagnosed MS patients lose their jobs in the first four years after diagnosis. Taking into account the personal and socio-economic importance of sustaining employment, it is of the utmost importance to examine factors involved with work participation. Objective To investigate differences in self-reported functioning in recently diagnosed MS patients with and without a paid job. Methods Self-reports of physical and cognitive functioning, depression, anxiety and fatigue were gathered from 44 relapsing-remitting MS patients diagnosed within 3 years. Results Patients with a paid job (57%) reported better physical functioning (pworking hours. Conclusion Better physical functioning is the primary factor involved with increased work participation in early MS. Better self-reported memory functioning and less social fatigue were associated with increased working hours. These findings highlight the importance of battling these symptoms in the early stages of MS. PMID:25153710

  14. Transfer of maternal immunity to piglets is involved in early protection against Mycoplasma hyosynoviae infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøl; Hagedorn-Olsen, Tine; Jungersen, Gregers

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyosynoviae causes arthritis in pigs older than 12 weeks. The role of colostrum in protection of piglets against M. hyosynoviae infection is not clear. Our objective was therefore to investigate whether transfer of maternal immunity to piglets was involved in early protection against...... immune response that complements the maternally transferred immune factors. Evident from this study is that the general absence of M. hyosynoviae arthritis in piglets can be ascribed mainly to their immunological status....

  15. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endedijk, H M; Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Cillessen, A H N; Hunnius, S

    2017-04-01

    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is therefore considered important for social interaction. Still, to date, it is unknown whether interindividual differences in neural mirroring play a role in interpersonal coordination during different instances of social interaction. A relation between neural mirroring and interpersonal coordination has particularly relevant implications for early childhood, since successful early interaction with peers is predictive of a more favorable social development. We examined the relation between neural mirroring and children's interpersonal coordination during peer interaction using EEG and longitudinal behavioral data. Results showed that 4-year-old children with higher levels of motor system involvement during action observation (as indicated by lower beta-power) were more successful in early peer cooperation. This is the first evidence for a relation between motor system involvement during action observation and interpersonal coordination during other instances of social interaction. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in neural mirroring are related to interpersonal coordination and thus successful social interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Early and delayed Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in SLE patients with CNS involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikukawa, Kaoru; Toyama, Hiroshi; Katayama, Masao

    2000-01-01

    We compared early and delayed Tc-99m ECD SPECT scans in 32 SLE patients (Group 1, definite neuropsychiatric disorders; Group 2, minor neurologic symptoms or normal) with those of normal controls by visual inspection and semi-quantitative evaluation. With visual interpretation, 13 out of 14 patients in Group 1 (93%) and 7 out of 18 patients in Group 2 (39%) had diffuse uneven decrease in early scans. Seven patients in Group 2 (39%) who had normal early scans demonstrated focal decrease in the medial frontal lobe in delayed scans. With cerebral region to cerebellar ratios, in early scans, the medial frontal lobe in Group 1 and Group 2 was significantly lower than in normal controls, and lateral frontal lobe and occipital lobes in Group 1 were significantly lower than in normal controls. Nevertheless, in delayed scans, every cortical region except for the parietal lode in Groups 1 and 2 was significantly lower than in normal controls. The retention rates in all regions in SLE patients were significantly lower than in normal controls. No case showed SPECT improvement on follow-up studies in either group in spite of clinical improvement. Delayed Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT of high sensitivity might be useful in detecting CNS involvement. Although the SPECT findings did not correlate with the neuropsychiatric symptoms, early and delayed Tc-99m ECD SPECT seems to provide useful objective diagnostic information in SLE patients. (author)

  17. Perfusion lung scintigraphy in primary broncho-pulmonary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapergue, Paul.

    1976-01-01

    Research on primary broncho-pulmonary cancer has called extensively on scintigraphy and it seemed interesting to weigh up the pros and cons of the technique in this particular case. Our intention is to sum up objectively from recent documents the applications of scintigraphy in the study of primary broncho-pulmonary cancers and to attempt, on the basis of the results compiled, to show what benefits have been gained from this technique and to find out whether it has any pre-surgical value and of what kind. The technique was invariable; the tracer consists of human albumin macro-aggregates labelled with technetium 99m which by its short half-life and slight penetration enables four exposures to be taken during the same examination (front, back, right and left profiles), thus reducing the risks of mistaken diagnoses due to the use of a single incidence. Similarly the detection method was always the scintillation camera which explores the whole organ at once, considerably shortening the examination time. Lung scintigraphy by perfusion of labelled human albumin macro-aggregates offers the great advantage of being simple to use and harmless. It is easy to understand the important place it has taken in the range of methods available for lung circulation exploration [fr

  18. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: a rare cause of pleural effusion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T M

    2012-02-03

    Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most ubiquitous of the airborne saprophytic fungi. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a syndrome seen in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis, and is characterized by hypersensitivity to chronic colonization of the airways with A. fumigatus. We report the case of a patient with ABPA presenting with pleural effusion. A 27-year-old male was referred with recurrent right pleural effusion. Past medical history was remarkable for asthma, allergic sinusitis, and recurrent pleurisy. Investigations revealed peripheral eosinophilia with elevated serum immunoglobulin E and bilateral pleural effusions with bilateral upper lobe proximal bronchiectasis. Precipitating serum antibodies to A. fumigatus were positive and the A. fumigatus immediate skin test yielded a positive reaction. A diagnosis of ABPA associated with bilateral pleural effusions was made and the patient was commenced on prednisolone. At review, the patient\\'s symptoms had considerably improved and his pleural effusions had resolved. ABPA may present with diverse atypical syndromes, including paratracheal and hilar adenopathy, obstructive lung collapse, pneumothorax and bronchopleural fistula, and allergic sinusitis. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a rare cause of pleural effusion and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with a pleural effusion, in particular those with a history of asthma.

  19. Patterns in early diffusion-weighted MRI in children with haemolytic uraemic syndrome and CNS involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnerstag, Frank; Ding, Xiaoqi; Bueltmann, Eva; Zajaczek, Jan; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Pape, Lars; Das, Anibh Martin; Ehrich, Jochen; Hartmann, Hans; Luecke, Thomas; Hoy, Ludwig

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in children with diarrhoea associated haemolytic uraemic syndrome (D+HUS) and cerebral involvement was evaluated retrospectively. DWI within 24 h of onset of neurological symptoms. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured in grey/white matter and correlated with clinical and laboratory findings. DWI was abnormal in all. Abnormal ADC was detected in the supratentorial white matter (6/12) and cortex (1/12), the basal ganglia (5/12), the thalami (4/12), and the cerebellum (1/12). ADC was reduced in 5/12, increased in 4/12, and both in 3/12. Mean serum sodium was lower in patients with DWI abnormalities affecting the white matter (6/12), than in those with basal ganglia/thalamic involvement (6/12). Neurological outcome was normal in 4/11 and abnormal in 7/11, and 1 patient died, outcome did not correlate to either localisation or type of DWI abnormality. In D+HUS with neurological symptoms, early DWI may reveal abnormal ADC not only in the basal ganglia/thalami, but also in the white matter/cortex. Besides thrombotic microangiopathy, toxic effects of shiga toxin, azotaemia and hyponatraemia / hypoosmolality may be involved in cerebral involvement in children with D+HUS. Findings on early MRI seem not to predict clinical course or outcome. (orig.)

  20. Involved-node radiotherapy (INRT) in patients with early Hodgkin lymphoma: Concepts and guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girinsky, Theodore; Maazen, Richard van der; Specht, Lena; Aleman, Berthe; Poortmans, Philip; Lievens, Yolande; Meijnders, Paul; Ghalibafian, Mithra; Meerwaldt, Jacobus; Noordijk, Evert

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: To describe new concepts for radiation fields in patients with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma treated with a combined modality. Patients and materials: Patients receiving combined modality therapy with at least 2 or 3 cycles of chemotherapy prior to radiotherapy. Pre- and postchemotherapy cervical and thoracic CT scans are mandatory and should be performed, whenever possible, in the treatment position with the use of image fusion capabilities. A pre-chemotherapy PET scan is strongly recommended to increase the detection of involved lymph nodes. Results: Radiation fields are designed to irradiate the initially involved lymph nodes exclusively and to encompass their initial volume. In some cases, radiation fields are slightly modified to avoid unnecessary irradiation of muscles or organs at risk. Conclusions: The concept of involved-node radiotherapy (INRT) described here is the first attempt to reduce the size of radiation fields compared to the classic involved fields used in adult patients. Proper implementation of INRT requires adequate training and an efficient prospective or early retrospective quality assurance program

  1. Patterns in early diffusion-weighted MRI in children with haemolytic uraemic syndrome and CNS involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnerstag, Frank; Ding, Xiaoqi; Bueltmann, Eva; Zajaczek, Jan; Lanfermann, Heinrich [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany); Pape, Lars; Das, Anibh Martin; Ehrich, Jochen; Hartmann, Hans [Hannover Medical School, Clinic for Pediatric Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases, Hannover (Germany); Luecke, Thomas [Hannover Medical School, Clinic for Pediatric Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases, Hannover (Germany); University of Bochum, Department of Neuropediatrics, Pediatric Hospital, Bochum (Germany); Hoy, Ludwig [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Biometrics, Hannover (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in children with diarrhoea associated haemolytic uraemic syndrome (D+HUS) and cerebral involvement was evaluated retrospectively. DWI within 24 h of onset of neurological symptoms. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured in grey/white matter and correlated with clinical and laboratory findings. DWI was abnormal in all. Abnormal ADC was detected in the supratentorial white matter (6/12) and cortex (1/12), the basal ganglia (5/12), the thalami (4/12), and the cerebellum (1/12). ADC was reduced in 5/12, increased in 4/12, and both in 3/12. Mean serum sodium was lower in patients with DWI abnormalities affecting the white matter (6/12), than in those with basal ganglia/thalamic involvement (6/12). Neurological outcome was normal in 4/11 and abnormal in 7/11, and 1 patient died, outcome did not correlate to either localisation or type of DWI abnormality. In D+HUS with neurological symptoms, early DWI may reveal abnormal ADC not only in the basal ganglia/thalami, but also in the white matter/cortex. Besides thrombotic microangiopathy, toxic effects of shiga toxin, azotaemia and hyponatraemia / hypoosmolality may be involved in cerebral involvement in children with D+HUS. Findings on early MRI seem not to predict clinical course or outcome. (orig.)

  2. Predictors of Early Community Involvement: Advancing the Self and Caring for Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, Heather L; Ramey, Heather L

    2017-03-01

    Recent research on community involvement points to the importance of both agentic (advancing the self) and communal motives (serving others) as key predictors, though few studies have examined both simultaneously. At the same time, research has identified generativity, defined as concern for future generations as a legacy of the self, as particularly relevant for community involvement. Moreover, generativity involves both agentic and communal motives, meaning that advancing personal goals and caring for others are integrated in this construct. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how individual differences in attributes pertaining to self and to others-specifically, self-esteem, initiative, and empathy-related to both generativity and community involvement. A sample of adolescents (N = 160; 64% female, M age  = 17) and a sample of young adults (N = 237; 84% female, M age  = 20) completed a survey including measures of community involvement and generativity. Generative concern fully mediated the associations between individual differences (self-esteem, initiative, and empathy) and community involvement, suggesting that the early generativity has a role in fostering capacities and contribution in youth. These developmental indicators pertaining to self and others link to actions that benefit the community through a desire to benefit future generations. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  3. The Longitudinal Association Between Early Childhood Obesity and Fathers' Involvement in Caregiving and Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michelle S; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Thorpe, Roland J; Bleich, Sara N; Chan, Kitty S

    2017-10-01

    Fathers have increased their involvement in child caregiving; however, their changing role in childhood obesity is understudied. This study assessed the longitudinal association between changes in obesity among children aged 2 to 4 years and changes in fathers' involvement with raising children. Longitudinal data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort were used to conduct child fixed-effects linear and logistic regression analyses to assess the association between changes in childhood obesity-related outcomes (sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, screen time, BMI z score, overweight/obesity, obesity) and fathers' involvement with raising children (caregiving and influencing child-related decisions). Fixed-effects models control for all time-invariant characteristics. Analyses were controlled for time-varying confounders, including child age, maternal and paternal employment, and family poverty status. Children whose fathers increased their frequency of taking children outside and involvement with physical childcare experienced a decrease in their odds of obesity from age 2 to age 4. Obesity-related outcomes were not associated with fathers' decision-making influence. Increases in fathers' involvement with some aspects of caregiving may be associated with lower odds of childhood obesity. Encouraging fathers to increase their involvement with raising children and including fathers in childhood obesity prevention efforts may help reduce obesity risk among young children. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  4. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Marina; Tiemeier, Henning; Veenstra, René; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Jansen, Wilma; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Jansen, Pauline W

    2014-02-12

    High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled "low", "mid-low", "mid-high" and "high". Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n=3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n=1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR=3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics.

  5. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n = 3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n = 1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

  6. Paternal involvement and early infant neurodevelopment: the mediation role of maternal parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjeong; Kang, Su-Kyoung; Yee, Bangsil; Shim, So-Yeon; Chung, Mira

    2016-12-12

    Father-child interactions are associated with improved developmental outcomes among infants. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has addressed the effects of paternal involvement on the neurodevelopment of infants who are less than 6 months of age, and no study has reported how maternal parenting stress mediates the relationship between paternal involvement and infant neurodevelopment during early infancy. This study investigates the direct and indirect relationship between paternal involvement and infant neurodevelopment at 3-4 months of age. The indirect relationship was assessed through the mediating factor of maternal parenting stress. The participants were recruited through the Sesalmaul Research Center's website from April to June 2014. The final data included 255 mothers and their healthy infants, who were aged 3-4 months. The mothers reported paternal involvement and maternal parenting stress by using Korean Parenting Alliance Inventory (K-PAI) and Parenting Stress Index (PSI), respectively. Experts visited the participants' homes to observe infant neurodevelopment, and completed a developmental examination using Korean version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire II (K-ASQ II). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used for data analysis. Infants' mean ages were 106 days and girls accounted for 46.3%. The mean total scores (reference range) of the K-PAI, PSI, and the K-ASQ II were 55.5 (17-68), 45.8 (25-100), and 243.2 (0-300), respectively. Paternal involvement had a positive relationship with K-ASQ II scores (β = 0.29, p parenting stress was negatively related with K-ASQ II scores (β = -0.32, p parenting stress mediated the relationship between paternal involvement and early infant neurodevelopment (Z = 3.24, p parenting stress (β = -0.25, p parenting stress partially mediates that association. This result emphasizes the importance of fathers' involvement and mothers' parenting stress on early infant

  7. Modeling of dengue occurrences early warning involving temperature and rainfall factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prama Setia Putra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand dengue transmission process and its vector dynamics and to develop early warning model of dengue occurrences based on mosquito population and host-vector threshold values considering temperature and rainfall. Methods: To obtain the early warning model, mosquito population and host-vector models are developed initially. Both are developed using differential equations. Basic offspring number (R0m and basic reproductive ratio (R0d which are the threshold values are derived from the models under constant parameters assumption. Temperature and rainfall effects on mosquito and dengue are performed in entomological and disease transmission parameters. Some of parameters are set as functions of temperature or rainfall while other parameters are set to be constant. Hereafter, both threshold values are computed using those parameters. Monthly dengue occurrences data are categorized as zero and one values which one means the outbreak does occur in that month. Logistics regression is chosen to bridge the threshold values and categorized data. Threshold values are considered as the input of early warning model. Semarang city is selected as the sample to develop this early waning model. Results: The derived threshold values which are R 0 m and R 0 d show to have relation that mosquito as dengue vector affects transmission of the disease. Result of the early warning model will be a value between zero and one. It is categorized as outbreak does occur when the value is larger than 0.5 while other is categorized as outbreak does not occur. By using single predictor, the model can perform 68% accuracy approximately. Conclusions: The extinction of mosquitoes will be followed by disease disappearance while mosquitoes existence can lead to disease free or endemic states. Model simulations show that mosquito population are more affected by weather factors than human. Involving weather factors implicitly in the threshold value and linking them

  8. Brain MRI and SPECT in the diagnosis of early neurological involvement in Wilson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piga, Mario; Satta, Loredana; Serra, Alessandra; Loi, Gianluigi; Murru, Alessandra; Demelia, Luigi; Sias, Alessandro; Marrosu, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of brain MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in early detection of central nervous system abnormalities in patients affected by Wilson's disease (WD) with or without neurological involvement. Out of 25 consecutive WD patients, 13 showed hepatic involvement, ten hepatic and neurological manifestations, and twp hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric symptoms, including mainly movement disorders, major depression, and psychosis. Twenty-four healthy, age-gender matched subjects served as controls. All patients underwent brain MRI and 99m Tc-ethyl-cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT before starting specific therapy. Voxel-by-voxel analyses were performed using statistical parametric mapping to compare differences in 99m Tc-ECD brain uptake between the two groups. Brain MRI showed T2-weighted hyperintensities in seven patients (28%), six of whom were affected by hepatic and neurological forms. Brain perfusion SPECT showed pathological data in 19 patients (76%), revealing diffuse or focal hypoperfusion in superior frontal (Brodmann area (BA) 6), prefrontal (BA 9), parietal (BA 40), and occipital (BA 18, BA 39) cortices in temporal gyri (BA 37, BA 21) and in caudatus and putamen. Moreover, hepatic involvement was detected in nine subjects; eight presented both hepatic and neurological signs, while two exhibited WD-correlated hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric alterations. All but one patient with abnormal MRI matched with abnormal ECD SPECT. Pathologic MRI findings were obtained in six out of ten patients with hepatic and neurological involvement while abnormal ECD SPECT was revealed in eight patients. Both patients with hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric involvement displayed abnormal ECD SPECT and one displayed an altered MRI. These findings suggest that ECD SPECT might be useful in detecting early brain damage in WD, not only in the perspective of assessing and treating motor impairment but also in evaluating better the

  9. Characteristic of muscle involvement evaluated by CT scans in early stages of progressive muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Yumi

    1993-01-01

    Muscle CT scans were performed in order to compare the characteristic distribution of progressive muscle involvement in the early stages of Duchenne type (DMD) and Fukuyama type muscular dystrophy (FCMD). Muscle images at the levels of the 3rd lumbar vertebra, thigh and calf were assessed by visual inspection, and mean CT numbers calculated for individual muscles were statistically analysed. On visual inspection, intramuscular low density areas and muscular atrophy were observed in the muscles of older patients with either disease. These changes were, however, more extensive at thigh level in DMD, and at calf level in FCMD. Nevertheless, the mean CT numbers of muscles in which only slight changes were grossly visible on CT scans displayed progressive decreases with increasing age. Moreover, a significant negative relationship was recognizable between age and mean CT number in almost all muscles examined. Comparison of the slopes of the regression lines revealed that the so-called selective pattern of muscle involvement characteristic of the symptomatic stage had already partially manifested in the preclinical or early stages of both diseases. In FCMD, the rates of decrease in CT numbers were extremely rapid for calf muscles as compared with those in DMD, indicating that this is one reason for FCMD patients never becoming ambulatory. However, for almost all of the other muscles, the CT numbers in FCMD decreased in parallel with the corresponding CT numbers in DMD; thus, these diseases displayed a similarity in the pattern of muscle involvement, despite their different pathogenetic mechanisms and inheritance patterns. (author)

  10. Submandibular Gland Involvement in Early Stage Oral Cavity Carcinomas: Can the Gland be left behind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, K.; Ashfaq, M.; Ahmed, A.; Khan, M.; Azhar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of submandibular gland involvement in early oral cavity tumors. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: ENT Department, CMH, Rawalpindi, from January 2008 to December 2011. Methodology: Data of 110 oral cavity tumors operated over 2008 - 2011 was retrieved from ENT OPD, tumor registry in AFIP and from Head and Neck Oncology Forum Registry. Cases of oral cavity tumors that had undergone elective neck dissections were retrospectively studied for invasion of the submandibular gland, TNM Staging, perineural, perivascular, lymphovascular invasion, site specific frequency of oral cavity tumors and frequency of lymph node metastasis. Results: Tumors of tongue were the most common constituting 42%, squamous cell carcinoma was the histological diagnosis in 90% cases. Sixty eight (61.8%) cases were node negative. Selective neck dissection was done in 55.5% of the cases. Submandibular gland was involved in 2 cases (1.8%). Conclusion: Submandibular gland metastasis from early oral cavity tumors is rare; any neoplastic involvement of the gland usually occurs via direct spread. (author)

  11. Children's early child care and their mothers' later involvement with schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Augustine, Jennifer March; Huston, Aletha C

    2012-01-01

    Theory and policy highlight the role of child care in preparing children for the transition into school. Approaching this issue in a different way, this study investigated whether children's care experiences before this transition promoted their mothers' school involvement after it, with the hypothesized mechanism for this link being the cultivation of children's social and academic skills. Analyses of 1,352 children (1 month-6 years) and parents in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that mothers were more involved at their children's schools when children had prior histories of high-quality nonparental care. This pattern, which was fairly stable across levels of maternal education and employment, was mediated by children's academic skills and home environments. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. Early print-tuned ERP response with minimal involvement of linguistic processing in Japanese Hiragana strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Yasuko; Kasai, Tetsuko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2014-04-16

    The act of reading leads to the development of specific neural responses for print, the most frequently reported of which is the left occipitotemporal N170 component of event-related potentials. However, it remains unclear whether this electrophysiological response solely involves print-tuned neural activities. The present study examined an early print-tuned event-related potential response with minimal involvement of linguistic processing in a nonalphabetic language. Japanese Hiragana words, nonwords, and alphanumeric symbol strings were presented rapidly and the task was to detect the change in color of a fixation cross to restrict linguistic processing. As a result, Hiragana words and nonwords elicited a larger posterior N1 than alphanumeric symbol strings bilaterally, irrespective of intercharacter spacing. The fact that this N1 was enhanced specifically for rapidly presented Hiragana strings suggests the existence of print-tuned neural processes that are relatively independent of the influence of linguistic processing.

  13. Types of parents’ involvement in early childhood development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Chojnacka-Synaszko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Depending on their involvement in assisting their child’s development, parents may have various chances of improving and refining their childcare, parenting, and therapeutic methods. The objective of this study was to learn the opinions of the parents of children covered by the early intervention/early assisted-development programme regarding their own involvement in the processes, and determining which types of involvement, whether active or passive, the parents seem to practice. The empirical material was acquired in a survey conducted in the form of a questionnaire in May 2015 and June 2016, covering a total of 143 parents. According to our results, the respondents not only follow the recommendations provided by the specialists based at a given support centre (96.5%, but also actively seek information and knowledge related to activities and measures aimed at assisting their child’s development, incorporating them in daily childcare and education routine (88.8%. Most respondents (65% actively seek the specialists’ advice and opinion related to  the child’s education and development as well as keep the child company at the appointments, sessions, and activities held at the centre (63.65%. A large majority (90.2% combine various types of “active” (self-inspired involvement with “passive” (specialist-inspired involvement of supportive character. Each of the parents covered by the study engages in assisting the child’s development at home according to the specialists’ recommendations, or we might say, as inspired by the specialist team. There is a need for enhancing the parents’ “active” (self-inspired involvement in the child’s situation at the centre (encouraging initiativetaking as well as the parents’ specialist-inspired involvement in the child’s situation at the centre.

  14. Delinquency, parental involvement, early adult criminality, and sex: Evidence of moderated mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2013-08-01

    One purpose of this study was to determine whether parental involvement, measured in late adolescence, mediates the relationship between delinquency in mid-adolescence and crime in early adulthood. This study's second purpose was to ascertain whether this relationship is moderated by sex, such that late adolescent parental involvement mediates the delinquency-crime relationship in females but not in males. A secondary analysis of data provided by 579 (272 males, 307 females) members of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child (NLSYC) was conducted in an effort to evaluate the possibility of moderated mediation in the relationship between delinquency at age 16, parental involvement at age 18, and criminality at age 24. Moderated mediation analysis, path analysis, and causal mediation analysis revealed the presence of a conditional indirect relationship between delinquency, parental involvement, and adult crime moderated by sex. These results are consistent with views on cumulative disadvantage and gendered pathways to crime. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding the impact of infection, inflammation and their persistence in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia

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    Jherna eBalany

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concerted interaction of genetic and environmental factors act on the preterm human immature lung with inflammation being the common denominator leading to the multifactorial origin of the most common chronic lung disease in infants – bronchopulmonary dysplasia or BPD. Adverse perinatal exposure to infection/inflammation with added insults like invasive mechanical ventilation, exposure to hyperoxia and sepsis causes persistent immune dysregulation. In this review article we have attempted to analyze and consolidate current knowledge about the role played by persistent prenatal and postnatal inflammation in the pathogenesis of BPD. While some parameters of the early inflammatory response (neutrophils, cytokines etc. may not be detectable after days to weeks of exposure to noxious stimuli, they have already initiated the signaling pathways of the inflammatory process / immune cascade and have affected permanent defects structurally and functionally in the BPD lungs. Hence translational research aimed at prevention / amelioration of BPD needs to focus on dampening the inflammatory response at an early stage to prevent the cascade of events leading to lung injury with impaired healing resulting in the pathologic pulmonary phenotype of alveolar simplification and dysregulated vascularization characteristic of BPD.

  16. Carboxyhemoglobin Formation in Preterm Infants Is Related to the Subsequent Development of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuriki, Shuko; Okuno, Takashi; Ohta, Genrei; Ohshima, Yusei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) levels as a biomarker to predict the development and severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Twenty-five infants born at <33 wk of gestational age or with a birth weight of <1,500 g were enrolled. CO-Hb levels were measured between postnatal days 5 and 8, 12 and 15, 19 and 22, and 26 and 29. Urinary levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), advanced oxidation protein products, and Nε-(hexanoyl) lysine were measured between postnatal days 5 and 8 and 26 and 29. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to compare the biomarkers' predictive values. Compared with infants in the no-or-mild BPD group, infants with moderate-to-severe BPD exhibited higher CO-Hb levels during the early postnatal period and higher 8-OHdG levels between postnatal days 5 and 8. Using ROC analysis to predict the development of moderate-to-severe BPD, the area under the curve (AUC) for CO-Hb levels between postnatal days 5 and 8 was higher than AUCs for the urinary markers. CO-Hb levels during the early postnatal period may serve as a practical marker for evaluating oxidative stress and the severity of subsequently developing BPD.

  17. Carboxyhemoglobin Formation in Preterm Infants Is Related to the Subsequent Development of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuko Tokuriki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the usefulness of carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb levels as a biomarker to predict the development and severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. Methods. Twenty-five infants born at <33 wk of gestational age or with a birth weight of <1,500 g were enrolled. CO-Hb levels were measured between postnatal days 5 and 8, 12 and 15, 19 and 22, and 26 and 29. Urinary levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, advanced oxidation protein products, and Nε-(hexanoyl lysine were measured between postnatal days 5 and 8 and 26 and 29. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was used to compare the biomarkers’ predictive values. Results. Compared with infants in the no-or-mild BPD group, infants with moderate-to-severe BPD exhibited higher CO-Hb levels during the early postnatal period and higher 8-OHdG levels between postnatal days 5 and 8. Using ROC analysis to predict the development of moderate-to-severe BPD, the area under the curve (AUC for CO-Hb levels between postnatal days 5 and 8 was higher than AUCs for the urinary markers. Conclusions. CO-Hb levels during the early postnatal period may serve as a practical marker for evaluating oxidative stress and the severity of subsequently developing BPD.

  18. Role of inhaled amphotericin in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

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    I S Sehgal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA is an immunological pulmonary disorder caused by immune reactions mounted against the ubiquitous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. The disease clinically manifests with poorly controlled asthma, hemoptysis, systemic manifestations like fever, anorexia and weight loss, fleeting pulmonary opacities and bronchiectasis. The natural course of the disease is characterized by repeated episodes of exacerbations. Almost 30-40% of the patients require prolonged therapy, which currently consists of corticosteroids and anti-fungal azoles; both these agents have significant adverse reactions. Amphotericin B administered via the inhaled route can achieve a high concentration in the small airways with minimal systemic side-effects. Nebulized amphotericin B has been used in the management of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The aim of this review is to study the utility of inhaled amphotericin in ABPA.

  19. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in an adult with Kartagener syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Inderpaul Singh; Dhooria, Sahajal; Bal, Amanjit; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-08-06

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a pulmonary disorder resulting from immune responses directed against inhaled Aspergillus fumigatus antigens. It manifests with poorly controlled asthma, fleeting pulmonary opacities and structural lung damage in the form of bronchiectasis. Initially defined in individuals suffering from bronchial asthma and cystic fibrosis, it has also been described in patients with other structural lung disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary tuberculosis, idiopathic bronchiectasis and others. Kartagener syndrome is a manifestation of primary ciliary dyskinesia characterised by the presence of dextrocardia, bronchiectasis and chronic sinusitis. We report a case of ABPA in an adult suffering from Kartagener syndrome. We also performed a systematic review of the literature on the association between Kartagener syndrome and ABPA. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging: early detection of central nervous system involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotot, P.M.; Sansonetti, P.J.; Levillain, R.; Cabanis, E.A.; Lavayssiere, R.; Sandoz-Tronca, C.

    1988-01-01

    Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement, whether primary by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV - itself, or secondary (toxoplasmosis or lymphoma) is remarkably frequent in AIDS, in 40 to 70% of cases, depending upon the author. In order to study the natural history of this illness, a cohort of 25 asymptomatic seropositive patients have been established. Every 6 months these patients undergo biological and clinical examinations, as well as Magnetic Resonance brain scans. After two examinations at a 6 month's interval, the first results are reported. Out of these 25 cases, 9 present anomalies: One patient with diffuse cerebral atrophy and 8 others with high signal intensity areas on T2 weighted sequences, like those of the Multiple Sclerosis. No relationship could be demonstrated between the existence of these lesions and various criteria such as age, sex, risk factors and T4 cells count. The nature of these lesions is not lear. They certainly indicate early involvement of the CNS after primary infection by the HIV virus. They may either represent scars of the primary infection or early alterations announcing developing encephalopathy [fr

  1. A pilot study on factors involved with work participation in the early stages of multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Van der Hiele

    Full Text Available Up to 30% of recently diagnosed MS patients lose their jobs in the first four years after diagnosis. Taking into account the personal and socio-economic importance of sustaining employment, it is of the utmost importance to examine factors involved with work participation.To investigate differences in self-reported functioning in recently diagnosed MS patients with and without a paid job.Self-reports of physical and cognitive functioning, depression, anxiety and fatigue were gathered from 44 relapsing-remitting MS patients diagnosed within 3 years.Patients with a paid job (57% reported better physical functioning (p<0.001, better memory functioning (p = 0.01 and a lower physical impact of fatigue (p = 0.018 than patients without a paid job. Physical functioning was the main predictor of employment status in a logistic regression model. In those with a paid job better memory functioning (r = 0.54, p = 0.005 and a lower social impact of fatigue (r =  -0.46, p = 0.029 correlated with an increased number of working hours.Better physical functioning is the primary factor involved with increased work participation in early MS. Better self-reported memory functioning and less social fatigue were associated with increased working hours. These findings highlight the importance of battling these symptoms in the early stages of MS.

  2. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis treated successfully for one year with omalizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Collins,1 Gabriele deVos,2 Golda Hudes,2 David Rosenstreich21New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, New York, NY, 2Albert Einstein College of Medicine/Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USABackground: Current therapy for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA uses oral corticosteroids, exposing patients to the adverse effects of these agents. There are reports of the steroid-sparing effect of anti-IgE therapy with omalizumab for ABPA in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF, but there is little information on its efficacy against ABPA in patients with bronchial asthma without CF.Objective: To examine the effects of omalizumab, measured by asthma control, blood eosinophilia, total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE, oral corticosteroid requirements, and forced expiratory volume spirometry in patients with ABPA and bronchial asthma.Methods: A retrospective review of charts from 2004–2006 of patients treated with omalizumab at an academic allergy and immunology practice in the Bronx, New York were examined for systemic steroid and rescue inhaler usage, serum immunoglobulin E levels, blood eosinophil counts, and asthma symptoms, as measured by the Asthma Control Test (ACT.Results: A total of 21 charts were screened for the diagnosis of ABPA and bronchial asthma. Four patients with ABPA were identified; two of these patients were male. The median monthly systemic corticosteroid use at 6 months and 12 months decreased from baseline usage. Total serum IgE decreased in all patients at 12 months of therapy. Pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory vital capacity at one second (FEV1 was variable at 1 year of treatment. There was an improvement in Asthma Control Test (ACT symptom scores for both daytime and nighttime symptoms.Conclusions: Treatment with omalizumab creates a steroid-sparing effect, reduces systemic inflammatory markers, and results in improvement in ACT scores in patients with ABPA.Keywords: allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

  3. Intralobar bronchopulmonary sequestration: A case and brief review

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    Majumdar U

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bronchopulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital abnormality of the lower respiratory tract, seen mostly in children but often in adults. The term implies a mass of lung tissue that has no function and lacks normal communication with the rest of the tracheobronchial tree. Case: A 40-year-old man presented with acute onset of left flank pain for 4 hours. He was born in Yemen and emigrated to the US in 1998; at that time, he had been tested for tuberculosis which was negative. In this admission, he met systemic inflammatory response (SIRS criteria and had basilar crackles in the left lower lobe of the lung. CT scan revealed a cavitary lesion with air-fluid level in the left lower lobe airspace. There was systemic arterial blood supply to this region arising off the celiac axis. He was diagnosed with an infected intralobar bronchopulmonary sequestration and underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection. On follow up 3 months later, he was doing well. Discussion: Pulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital anomaly of a mass of lung tissue, which can have cystic changes and is a very important differential diagnosis of cavities in the lung. Confirmation of diagnosis is by visualization of a systemic vessel supplying sequestrated pulmonary, and this is accomplished by contrast-enhanced CT scan, MRI or invasive angiography. Conclusion: The delay in diagnosis in our patient was due to falling prey to anchoring and availability biases and chasing the diagnosis of tuberculosis in a patient from Yemen with a lower lobe cavitation.

  4. A girl with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy associated with microdeletion involving CDKL5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitsu, Hirotomo; Osaka, Hitoshi; Nishiyama, Kiyomi; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Doi, Hiroshi; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that aberrations of CDKL5 in female patients cause early-onset intractable seizures, severe developmental delay or regression, and Rett syndrome-like features. We report on a Japanese girl with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy, hypotonia, developmental regression, and Rett syndrome-like features. The patient showed generalized tonic seizures, and later, massive myoclonus induced by phone and light stimuli. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no structural brain anomalies but cerebral atrophy. Electroencephalogram showed frontal dominant diffuse poly spikes and waves. Through copy number analysis by genomic microarray, we found a microdeletion at Xp22.13. A de novo 137-kb deletion, involving exons 5-21 of CDKL5, RS1, and part of PPEF1 gene, was confirmed by quantitative PCR and breakpoint specific PCR analyses. Our report suggests that the clinical features associated with CDKL5 deletions could be implicated in Japanese patients, and that genetic testing of CDKL5, including both sequencing and deletion analyses, should be considered in girls with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy and RTT-like features. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrasound diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension in children with chronic bronchopulmonary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, V.O.

    2000-01-01

    Ultrasound criteria of diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension and study this complication frequency in children with chronic bronchopulmonary diseases was determined. As diagnostic criteria of pulmonary hypertension Doppler echocardiographic indices of circulation in the pulmonary arteries are suggested

  6. Activation of Alveolar Macrophages after Plutonium Oxide Inhalation in Rats: Involvement in the Early Inflammatory Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meeren, A.; Tourdes, F.; Gremy, O.; Grillon, G.; Abram, M.C.; Poncy, J.L.; Griffiths, N. [CEA, DSV, DRR, SRCA, Centre DAM Ile de France, F-91297 Bruyeres Le Chatel, Arpajon (France)

    2008-07-01

    Alveolar macrophages play an important role in the distribution, clearance and inflammatory reactions after particle inhalation, which may influence long-term events such as fibrosis and tumorigenesis. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the early inflammatory events after plutonium oxide inhalation in rats and involvement of alveolar macrophages. Lung changes were studied from 3 days to 3 months after inhalation of PuO{sub 2} or different isotopic compositions (70% or 97% {sup 239}Pu) and initial lung deposits (range 2.1 to 43.4 kBq/rat). Analyses of bronchoalveolar lavages showed early increases in the numbers of granulocytes, lymphocytes and multi-nucleated macrophages. The activation of macrophages was evaluated ex vivo by measurement of inflammatory mediator levels in culture supernatants. TNF-alpha and chemokine MCP-1, MIP-2 and CINC-1 production was elevated from 7 days after inhalation and remained so up to 3 months. In contrast, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-10 production was unchanged. At 6 weeks, pulmonary macrophage numbers and activation state were increased as observed from an immunohistochemistry study of lung sections with anti-ED1. Similarly, histological analyses of lung sections also showed evidence of inflammatory responses. In conclusion, our results indicate early inflammatory changes in the lungs of PuO{sub 2}-contaminated animals and the involvement of macrophages in this process. A dose-effect relationship was observed between the amount of radionuclide inhaled or retained at the time of analysis and inflammatory mediator production by alveolar macrophages 14 days after exposure. For similar initial lung deposits, the inflammatory manifestation appears higher for 97% {sup 239}Pu than for 70% {sup 239}Pu. (authors)

  7. Respiratory Phenotypes for Preterm Infants, Children, and Adults: Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaco, Joseph M; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A

    2018-05-01

    Ongoing advancements in neonatal care since the late 1980s have led to increased numbers of premature infants surviving well beyond the neonatal period. As a result of increased survival, many individuals born preterm manifest chronic respiratory symptoms throughout infancy, childhood, and adult life. The archetypical respiratory disease of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, is the second most common chronic pediatric respiratory disease after asthma. However, there are several commonly held misconceptions. These misconceptions include that bronchopulmonary dysplasia is rare, that bronchopulmonary dysplasia resolves within the first few years of life, and that bronchopulmonary dysplasia does not impact respiratory health in adult life. This focused review describes a spectrum of respiratory conditions that individuals born prematurely may experience throughout their lifespan. Specifically, this review provides quantitative estimates of the number of individuals with alveolar, airway, and vascular phenotypes associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, as well as non-bronchopulmonary dysplasia respiratory phenotypes such as airway malacia, obstructive sleep apnea, and control of breathing issues. Furthermore, this review illustrates what is known about the potential for progression and/or lack of resolution of these respiratory phenotypes in childhood and adult life. Recognizing the spectrum of respiratory phenotypes associated with individuals born preterm and providing comprehensive and personalized care to these individuals may help to modulate adverse respiratory outcomes in later life.

  8. A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Learning Outcomes and Parental Involvement during Early Childhood Education and Early Elementary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.; Hu, Shanshan; Yuan, Jing

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the relationship between learning outcomes of children and educational involvement of parents during a unique period of early childhood education and early elementary education based on 100 independent effect sizes from 46 studies. Learning outcomes are academic achievement, and frameworks of parental involvement…

  9. Involvement of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 sigma factor K in early-stage sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, David G; Dahlsten, Elias; Zhang, Zhen; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia

    2012-07-01

    A key survival mechanism of Clostridium botulinum, the notorious neurotoxic food pathogen, is the ability to form heat-resistant spores. While the genetic mechanisms of sporulation are well understood in the model organism Bacillus subtilis, nothing is known about these mechanisms in C. botulinum. Using the ClosTron gene-knockout tool, sigK, encoding late-stage (stage IV) sporulation sigma factor K in B. subtilis, was disrupted in C. botulinum ATCC 3502 to produce two different mutants with distinct insertion sites and orientations. Both mutants were unable to form spores, and their elongated cell morphology suggested that the sporulation pathway was blocked at an early stage. In contrast, sigK-complemented mutants sporulated successfully. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of sigK in the parent strain revealed expression at the late log growth phase in the parent strain. Analysis of spo0A, encoding the sporulation master switch, in the sigK mutant and the parent showed significantly reduced relative levels of spo0A expression in the sigK mutant compared to the parent strain. Similarly, sigF showed significantly lower relative transcription levels in the sigK mutant than the parent strain, suggesting that the sporulation pathway was blocked in the sigK mutant at an early stage. We conclude that σ(K) is essential for early-stage sporulation in C. botulinum ATCC 3502, rather than being involved in late-stage sporulation, as reported for the sporulation model organism B. subtilis. Understanding the sporulation mechanism of C. botulinum provides keys to control the public health risks that the spores of this dangerous pathogen cause through foods.

  10. Gender and Race Variations in the Intersection of Religious Involvement, Early Trauma, and Adult Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Katia G; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Sharps, Phyllis; Lee, Jerry

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to determine gender and race variations in regards to the influence of religious involvement (RI) as a moderator of the effects of early traumatic stress (ETS) on health-related quality of life among adult survivors of child abuse. A cross-sectional predictive design was used to study Seventh-day Adventist adults in North America (N = 10,283). A secondary analysis of data collected via questionnaires was done using multiple regression. Data revealed that women had a significantly higher prevalence of any or all ETS subtypes, except for physical abuse prevalence, which was the same for both genders. Blacks reported a significantly higher prevalence of at least one ETS subtype than did Whites, except for neglect, where Whites had a higher prevalence. Exposure to at least one ETS subtype was associated with worse negative effect on mental health (B = -2.08, p gender-RI-ETS showed a significant buffering effect. Among those with high levels of negative religious coping (RC), women exposed to ETS had significantly worse physical health (B = -1.28) than men. Results give evidence of gender and racial differences on the magnitude of the ETS-health effect, as well as gender differences in ETS-health buffering by RC. Findings suggest gender and racial differences must be considered when devising holistic nursing interventions for improving health outcomes of early trauma survivors. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  11. Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: Chronic Lung Disease of Infancy and Long-Term Pulmonary Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M. Davidson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is a chronic lung disease most commonly seen in premature infants who required mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy for acute respiratory distress. While advances in neonatal care have resulted in improved survival rates of premature infants, limited progress has been made in reducing rates of BPD. Lack of progress may in part be attributed to the limited therapeutic options available for prevention and treatment of BPD. Several lung-protective strategies have been shown to reduce risks, including use of non-invasive support, as well as early extubation and volume ventilation when intubation is required. These approaches, along with optimal nutrition and medical therapy, decrease risk of BPD; however, impacts on long-term outcomes are poorly defined. Characterization of late outcomes remain a challenge as rapid advances in medical management result in current adult BPD survivors representing outdated neonatal care. While pulmonary disease improves with growth, long-term follow-up studies raise concerns for persistent pulmonary dysfunction; asthma-like symptoms and exercise intolerance in young adults after BPD. Abnormal ventilatory responses and pulmonary hypertension can further complicate disease. These pulmonary morbidities, combined with environmental and infectious exposures, may result in significant long-term pulmonary sequalae and represent a growing burden on health systems. Additional longitudinal studies are needed to determine outcomes beyond the second decade, and define risk factors and optimal treatment for late sequalae of disease.

  12. The Future of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: Emerging Pathophysiological Concepts and Potential New Avenues of Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. P. Collins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Yearly more than 15 million babies are born premature (<37 weeks gestational age, accounting for more than 1 in 10 births worldwide. Lung injury caused by maternal chorioamnionitis or preeclampsia, postnatal ventilation, hyperoxia, or inflammation can lead to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, one of the most common adverse outcomes in these preterm neonates. BPD patients have an arrest in alveolar and microvascular development and more frequently develop asthma and early-onset emphysema as they age. Understanding how the alveoli develop, and repair, and regenerate after injury is critical for the development of therapies, as unfortunately there is still no cure for BPD. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of emerging new concepts in the understanding of perinatal lung development and injury from a molecular and cellular point of view and how this is paving the way for new therapeutic options to prevent or treat BPD, as well as a reflection on current treatment procedures.

  13. Early CPAP versus surfactant in extremely preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Neil N; Carlo, Waldemar A; Walsh, Michele C; Rich, Wade; Gantz, Marie G; Laptook, Abbot R; Yoder, Bradley A; Faix, Roger G; Das, Abhik; Poole, W Kenneth; Donovan, Edward F; Newman, Nancy S; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Frantz, Ivan D; Buchter, Susie; Sánchez, Pablo J; Kennedy, Kathleen A; Laroia, Nirupama; Poindexter, Brenda B; Cotten, C Michael; Van Meurs, Krisa P; Duara, Shahnaz; Narendran, Vivek; Sood, Beena G; O'Shea, T Michael; Bell, Edward F; Bhandari, Vineet; Watterberg, Kristi L; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2010-05-27

    There are limited data to inform the choice between early treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and early surfactant treatment as the initial support for extremely-low-birth-weight infants. We performed a randomized, multicenter trial, with a 2-by-2 factorial design, involving infants who were born between 24 weeks 0 days and 27 weeks 6 days of gestation. Infants were randomly assigned to intubation and surfactant treatment (within 1 hour after birth) or to CPAP treatment initiated in the delivery room, with subsequent use of a protocol-driven limited ventilation strategy. Infants were also randomly assigned to one of two target ranges of oxygen saturation. The primary outcome was death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia as defined by the requirement for supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks (with an attempt at withdrawal of supplemental oxygen in neonates who were receiving less than 30% oxygen). A total of 1316 infants were enrolled in the study. The rates of the primary outcome did not differ significantly between the CPAP group and the surfactant group (47.8% and 51.0%, respectively; relative risk with CPAP, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.05) after adjustment for gestational age, center, and familial clustering. The results were similar when bronchopulmonary dysplasia was defined according to the need for any supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks (rates of primary outcome, 48.7% and 54.1%, respectively; relative risk with CPAP, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.01). Infants who received CPAP treatment, as compared with infants who received surfactant treatment, less frequently required intubation or postnatal corticosteroids for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (Pneonatal outcomes did not differ significantly between the two groups. The results of this study support consideration of CPAP as an alternative to intubation and surfactant in preterm infants. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00233324.) 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society

  14. Therapeutic Bronchoalveolar Lavage with Conventional Treatment in Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, K. F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish the role of therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage in addition to conventional treatment among two groups, with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, in terms of regression in serum IgE levels and clinical recurrence at 3 and 6 months of follow-up. Study Design: Aquasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pulmonology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, from July 2010 to December 2013. Methodology: The study was carried out on 132 patients who fulfilled the Greenberger and Patterson criteria and underwent a chest X-ray, an HRCT chest and classified radiologically as with Central Bronchiectasis (CB), High Attenuation Mucus (HAM) or Other Radiological Features (ORF). Baseline serum IgE levels were noted. All patients were given treatment including prednisolone and antifungal agent itraconazole for 4 months. Patients with ORF on HRCT chest and just received the medical treatment were labeled as conventional group. Those patients who had CB or HAM radiological features also underwent bronchoscopy with therapeutic Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL), labeled as BAL group. Clinical recurrence and serum IgE levels were noted at 3 and 6 months. Values were compared using chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests respectively. Results: Around 78 (59.1 percentage) of patients underwent bronchoscopy with therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage to remove the mucus plugs. The mean serum IgE levels at baseline were 3312.04 ± 2526.217 and 3486.15 ± 2528.324 IU/ml in the BAL and conventional groups respectively. There was a statistically significant reduction in the mean serum IgE levels at 3 (p < 0.00) and 6 months (p < 0.001) of follow-up in BALas compared to conventional group. There was no significant difference in the clinical recurrence rate in both the groups (p=0.078 at 3 and 0.343 at 6 months respectively). Conclusion: Therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage may be a useful adjunct to treatment in patients with allergic bronchopulmonary

  15. The economic impact of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Fuente, María; Arruza, Luis; Muro, Marta; Zozaya, Carlos; Avila, Alejandro; López-Ortego, Paloma; González-Armengod, Carmen; Torrent, Alba; Gavilán, Jose Luis; Del Cerro, María Jesús

    2017-12-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most serious chronic lung diseases in infancy and one of the most important sequels of premature birth (prevalence of 15-50%). Our objective was to estimate the cost of BPD of one preterm baby, with no other major prematurity-related complications, during the first 2 years of life in Spain. Data from the Spanish Ministry of Health regarding costs of diagnosis-related group of preterm birth, hospital admissions and visits, palivizumab administration, and oxygen therapy in the year 2013 were analyzed. In 2013, 2628 preterm babies were born with a weight under 1500 g; 50.9% were males. The need for respiratory support was 2.5% needed only oxygen therapy, 39.5% required conventional mechanical ventilation, and 14.9% required high-frequency ventilation. The incidence of BPD was of 34.9%. The cost of the first 2 years of life of a preterm baby with BPD and no other major prematurity-related complications ranged between 45,049.81 € and 118,760.43 €, in Spain, depending on birth weight and gestational age. If the baby required home oxygen therapy or developed pulmonary hypertension, this cost could add up to 181,742.43 €. Prematurity and BPD have an elevated cost, even for public health care systems. This cost will probably increase in the coming years if the incidence and survival of preterm babies keeps rising. The development of new therapies and preventive strategies to decrease the incidence of BPD and other morbidities associated with prematurity should be a priority. What is known: • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious chronic lung disease related with premature birth. • BPD is an increasing disease due to the up-rise in the number of premature births. What is new: • The economic cost of preterm birth and BPD has never before been estimated in Spain nor published with European data. • Preterm babies with BPD and a good clinical outcome carry also an important economic and social burden.

  16. Antenatal Determinants of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Late Respiratory Disease in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Lindsey A; Wagner, Brandie D; Ingram, David A; Poindexter, Brenda B; Schibler, Kurt; Cotten, C Michael; Dagle, John; Sontag, Marci K; Mourani, Peter M; Abman, Steven H

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms contributing to chronic lung disease after preterm birth are incompletely understood. To identify antenatal risk factors associated with increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and respiratory disease during early childhood after preterm birth, we performed a prospective, longitudinal study of 587 preterm infants with gestational age less than 34 weeks and birth weights between 500 and 1,250 g. Data collected included perinatal information and assessments during the neonatal intensive care unit admission and longitudinal follow-up by questionnaire until 2 years of age. After adjusting for covariates, we found that maternal smoking prior to preterm birth increased the odds of having an infant with BPD by twofold (P = 0.02). Maternal smoking was associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and respiratory support during the neonatal intensive care unit admission. Preexisting hypertension was associated with a twofold (P = 0.04) increase in odds for BPD. Lower gestational age and birth weight z-scores were associated with BPD. Preterm infants who were exposed to maternal smoking had higher rates of late respiratory disease during childhood. Twenty-two percent of infants diagnosed with BPD and 34% of preterm infants without BPD had no clinical signs of late respiratory disease during early childhood. We conclude that maternal smoking and hypertension increase the odds for developing BPD after preterm birth, and that maternal smoking is strongly associated with increased odds for late respiratory morbidities during early childhood. These findings suggest that in addition to the BPD diagnosis at 36 weeks, other factors modulate late respiratory outcomes during childhood. We speculate that measures to reduce maternal smoking not only will lower the risk for preterm birth but also will improve late respiratory morbidities after preterm birth.

  17. The conditional benefits of early user involvement at employee self-service applications in four Dutch ministries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, R.; Koopman, G.

    2010-01-01

    User participation and user involvement is generally accepted as one of the important factors for IS success. In this paper, several types of early end-user involvement are distinguished and empirically explored through four case studies. The cases concern four Dutch governmental organisations

  18. Early user involvement and participation in employee self-service application deployment: theory and evidence from four Dutch governmental cases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, G.; Batenburg, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper theoretically and empirically addresses the notion that user participation and involvement is one of the important factors for IS success. Different models and studies are reviewed to define and classify types of early end-user involvement and participation. Next, five case studies are

  19. Two year follow-up of a garbage collector with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmers, H; Huber, H; Baur, X

    2000-04-01

    Separate collection of biodegradable garbage and recyclable waste is expected to become mandatory in some western countries. A growing number of persons engaged in garbage collection and separation might become endangered by high loads of bacteria and fungi. Case history and examination A 29 year old garbage collector involved in emptying so-called biological garbage complained of dyspnea, fever, and flu-like symptoms during work beginning in the summer of 1992. Chest x-ray showed streaky shadows near both hili reaching into the upper regions. IgE- and IgG-antibodies (CAP, Pharmacia, Sweden) were strongly positive for Aspergillus fumigatus with 90.5 kU/L and 186%, respectively. Total-IgE was also strongly elevated with 5430 kU/L. Bronchial challenge testing with commercially available Aspergillus fumigatus extract resulted in an immediate-type asthmatic reaction. Two years later he was still symptomatic and antibodies persisted at lower levels. Our diagnosis was allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) including asthmatic responses as well as hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis) due to exposure to moldy household waste. A growing number of persons engaged in garbage collection and handling are exposed and at risk to develop sensitization to fungi due to exposure to dust of biodegradable waste. Further studies are necessary to show if separate collection of biodegradable waste increases the health risks due to exposure to bacteria and fungi in comparison to waste collection without separation. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles Highlight Early Involvement of the Choroid Plexus in Central Nervous System Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M. Millward

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation during multiple sclerosis involves immune cell infiltration and disruption of the BBB (blood–brain barrier. Both processes can be visualized by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging, in multiple sclerosis patients and in the animal model EAE (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We previously showed that VSOPs (very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles reveal CNS (central nervous system lesions in EAE which are not detectable by conventional contrast agents in MRI. We hypothesized that VSOP may help detect early, subtle inflammatory events that would otherwise remain imperceptible. To investigate the capacity of VSOP to reveal early events in CNS inflammation, we induced EAE in SJL mice using encephalitogenic T-cells, and administered VSOP prior to onset of clinical symptoms. In parallel, we administered VSOP to mice at peak disease, and to unmanipulated controls. We examined the distribution of VSOP in the CNS by MRI and histology. Prior to disease onset, in asymptomatic mice, VSOP accumulated in the choroid plexus and in spinal cord meninges in the absence of overt inflammation. However, VSOP was undetectable in the CNS of non-immunized control mice. At peak disease, VSOP was broadly distributed; we observed particles in perivascular inflammatory lesions with apparently preserved glia limitans. Moreover, at peak disease, VSOP was prominent in the choroid plexus and was seen in elongated endothelial structures, co-localized with phagocytes, and diffusely disseminated in the parenchyma, suggesting multiple entry mechanisms of VSOP into the CNS. Thus, using VSOP we were able to discriminate between inflammatory events occurring in established EAE and, importantly, we identified CNS alterations that appear to precede immune cell infiltration and clinical onset.

  1. Nutrition of preterm infants in relation to bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tschirch Edda

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is multifactorial. In addition to prenatal inflammation, postnatal malnutrition also affects lung development. Methods A retrospective study was performed to analyse during the first two weeks of life the total, enteral and parenteral nutrition of premature infants ( Results Ninety-five premature infants were analysed: 26 with BPD (27 ± 1 weeks and 69 without BPD (28 ± 1 weeks. There was no statistical significant difference in the total intake of fluids, calories, glucose or protein and weight gain per day in both groups. The risk of developing BPD was slightly increased in infants with cumulative caloric intake below the minimal requirement of 1230 kcal/kg and a cumulative protein intake below 43.5 g/kg. Furthermore, the risk of developing BPD was significantly higher when infants had a cumulative fluid intake above the recommended 1840 ml/kg. In infants who developed BPD, the enteral nutrition was significantly lower than in non-BPD infants [456 ml/kg (IQR 744, 235 vs. 685 (IQR 987, 511]. Infants who did not develop BPD reached 50% of total enteral feeding significantly faster [9.6 days vs. 11.5]. Conclusions Preterm infants developing BPD received less enteral feeding, even though it was well compensated by the parenteral nutrient supply. Data suggest that a critical minimal amount of enteral feeding is required to prevent development of BPD; however, a large prospective clinical study is needed to prove this assumption.

  2. Intralobar bronchopulmonary sequestration in the newborn - a congenital malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurin, S.; Haegerstrand, I.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Intralobar sequestration (ILS) has been suggested to be an acquired lesion. However, we have observed several young infants who had ILS. Objectives. Since this fact seems to indicate a congenital origin, we reviewed our experience. Material and methods. A retrospective review of bronchopulmonary sequestration from the Departments of Radiology and Pathology in Lund between 1964 and 1997. Results. We identified seven infants or young children with a diagnosis of intralobar sequestration. In each patient, the ILS was present before recurrent infection developed. Five had chest X-rays as neonates, one at 3 months and one at 11 months of age. All but one showed an abnormality on their first chest X-ray, consistent with sequestration. Six of the ILS were verified at angiography; all seven were surgically removed. Two of the children with ILS also had congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM). Three children had both ILS and scimitar syndrome. Conclusions. The fact that ILS was present in seven newborn and young infants indicates that this lesion is, at least in some patients, a congenital malformation. (orig.)

  3. [Guidelines for the follow up of patients with bronchopulmonary dysplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Tarazona, S; Rueda Esteban, S; Alfonso Diego, J; Barrio Gómez de Agüero, M I; Callejón Callejón, A; Cortell Aznar, I; de la Serna Blázquez, O; Domingo Miró, X; García García, M L; García Hernández, G; Luna Paredes, C; Mesa Medina, O; Moreno Galdó, A; Moreno Requena, L; Pérez Pérez, G; Salcedo Posadas, A; Sánchez Solís de Querol, M; Torrent Vernetta, A; Valdesoiro Navarrete, L; Vilella Sabaté, M

    2016-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common complication of preterm birth, and remains a major problem in pediatric pulmonology units. The decision of discharging from the Neonatal Unit should be based on a thorough assessment of the condition of the patient and compliance with certain requirements, including respiratory and nutritional stability, and caregiver education on disease management. For proper control of the disease, a schedule of visits and complementary tests should be established prior to discharge, and guidelines for prevention of exacerbations and appropriate treatment should be applied. In this paper, the Working Group in Perinatal Respiratory Diseases of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Pulmonology proposes a protocol to serve as a reference for the follow up of patients with BPD among different centers and health care settings. Key factors to consider when planning discharge from the Neonatal Unit and during follow up are reviewed. Recommendations on treatment and prevention of complications are then discussed. The final section of this guide aims to provide a specific schedule for follow-up and diagnostic interventions to be performed in patients with BPD. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimation of loci involved in non-shattering of seeds in early rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Nishimura, Akinori; Htun, Than Myint; Nishioka, Ryo; Oka, Yumi; Tsujimura, Yuki; Inoue, Chizuru; Ishii, Takashige

    2017-04-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is widely cultivated around the world and is known to be domesticated from its wild form, O. rufipogon. A loss of seed shattering is one of the most obvious phenotypic changes selected for during rice domestication. Previously, three seed-shattering loci, qSH1, sh4, and qSH3 were reported to be involved in non-shattering of seeds of Japonica-type cultivated rice, O. sativa cv. Nipponbare. In this study, we focused on non-shattering characteristics of O. sativa Indica cv. IR36 having functional allele at qSH1. We produced backcross recombinant inbred lines having chromosomal segments from IR36 in the genetic background of wild rice, O. rufipogon W630. Histological and quantitative trait loci analyses of abscission layer formation were conducted. In the analysis of quantitative trait loci, a strong peak was observed close to sh4. We, nevertheless, found that some lines showed complete abscission layer formation despite carrying the IR36 allele at sh4, implying that non-shattering of seeds of IR36 could be regulated by the combination of mutations at sh4 and other seed-shattering loci. We also genotyped qSH3, a recently identified seed-shattering locus. Lines that have the IR36 alleles at sh4 and qSH3 showed inhibition of abscission layer formation but the degree of seed shattering was different from that of IR36. On the basis of these results, we estimated that non-shattering of seeds in early rice domestication involved mutations in at least three loci, and these genetic materials produced in this study may help to identify novel seed-shattering loci.

  5. Brain MRI screening showing evidences of early central nervous system involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Reem Hamdy A; Sabry, Yousriah Y; Nasef, Amr A

    2011-05-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a multisystem autoimmune collagen disease where structural and functional abnormalities of small blood vessels prevail. Transient ischemic attacks, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhage have been reported as primary consequence of vascular central nervous system affection in systemic sclerosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered to be the most sensitive diagnostic technique for detecting symptomatic and asymptomatic lesions in the brain in cases of multifocal diseases. The objective of this study is to detect subclinical as well as clinically manifest cerebral vasculopathy in patients with systemic sclerosis using magnetic resonance imaging. As much as 30 female patients with systemic sclerosis aged 27-61 years old, with disease duration of 1-9 years and with no history of other systemic disease or cerebrovascular accidents, were enrolled. Age-matched female control group of 30 clinically normal subjects, underwent brain magnetic resonance examination. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the form of white matter hyperintense foci of variable sizes were found in significantly abundant forms in systemic sclerosis patients on magnetic resonance evaluation than in age-related control group, signifying a form of CNS vasculopathy. Such foci showed significant correlation to clinical features of organic CNS lesion including headaches, fainting attacks and organic depression as well as to the severity of peripheral vascular disease with insignificant correlation with disease duration. In conclusion, subclinical as well as clinically manifest CNS ischemic vasculopathy is not uncommon in systemic sclerosis patients and magnetic resonance imaging is considered a sensitive noninvasive screening tool for early detection of CNS involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis.

  6. 'Finding a balance' in involving patients in goal setting early after stroke: a physiotherapy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A; Roberts, A R; Freeman, J A

    2014-09-01

    Collaborative goal setting (between patient and professional) confers benefits within stroke and neurological rehabilitation, and is recommended in clinical guidelines. However, evidence suggests that patient participation in rehabilitation goal setting is not maximized, particularly within the hospital setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate physiotherapists' perceptions about their experiences of collaborative goal setting with patients in the sub-acute stages after stroke, in the hospital setting. This qualitative study employed constructivist grounded theory methodology. Nine physiotherapists, of varying experience, were selected using purposive then theoretical sampling from three National Health Service hospital stroke units in England. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded and analysed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory to find common themes. Three themes emerged from the data: 1) 'coming to terms with stroke' - the individual patient journey; 2) the evolution of goal setting skill - the individual physiotherapist journey; and 3) 'finding a balance' - managing expectations and negotiating interactions. A provisional grounded theory was constructed, which highlighted that, from the physiotherapists' perspective, collaboration with patients within goal setting early after stroke involved finding a balance between numerous different drivers, which have the potential to compete. Patient-directed and therapist-directed goal setting approaches could be viewed as opposite ends of a continuum, along which patient-centred goal setting is possible. Physiotherapists perceived that collaborating with patients in goal setting was important but challenging. Goal setting interactions with other professionals, patients and families were perceived as complex, difficult and requiring significant effort. The importance of individuality and temporality were recognized suggesting that

  7. FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF RESPIRATORY DISORDERS IN CHILDREN WITH BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA DURING FOLLOW-UP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Davydova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Capabilities of assessing functional condition of the respiratory system in young children, including patients with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, are extremely limited, as little children do not cooperate with doctors in the course of diagnostic procedures. Results of use of a modern instrumental diagnostic method in this group of patients is of doubtless interest. The study was aimed at tracking changes in functional condition of the respiratory system in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia during follow-up. Methods. Quite breathing flowmetry during natural sleep. Results. The article presents the authors’ data obtained by means of analyzing external respiratory function in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia using a modern method of quiet breathing flowmetry; it is also reasonable to use relative parameters of the external respiratory function as diagnostic criteria of bronchoobstructive syndrome at bronchopulmonary dysplasia and criteria of effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine mucolytic therapy. Conclusion. Quiet breathing flowmetry may be used to diagnose bronchoobstructive syndrome and assess effectiveness of the treatment thereof in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. 

  8. Bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy in bronchiectasis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A; Rowe, B H

    2000-01-01

    This study had two objectives: (1) to examine the effects of bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy on patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis; (2) to determine any differences between manual and mechanical techniques for bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy. The study design was a systematic review of the literature that used an exhaustive search for trials and review methods prescribed by the Cochrane Collaboration. Randomized controlled trials examined patient groups, interventions, and dependent variables. Patients included those with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (emphysema or chronic bronchitis) or bronchiectasis. Any of the following interventions or combinations thereof were included: manual interventions, such as postural drainage, chest percussion, vibration, chest shaking, directed coughing, or forced exhalation technique. Controls of the study were as follows: no intervention; placebo; coughing; and mechanical interventions, such as mechanical vibration. The search identified 99 potential trials; inclusion or exclusion analysis left 7, which examined a total of 126 patients. Mean score on trial quality was 1.4 (5 = greatest). Three separate trials (N = 51) found statistically significant effects for bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy on sputum production and radioaerosol clearance. No trials (N = 126) found statistically significant effects on pulmonary function variables or differences between manual and mechanical techniques. Considering the small sizes, low quality, and mixed results from the trials, the research on bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy is inconclusive. There is a need for adequately sized, high-quality, randomized controlled trials with uniform patient populations to examine the effects of bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy.

  9. Oxytocin is not involved in luteolysis and early maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP) in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Michela; Waqas, Muhammad Salman; Pru, James K; Tibary, Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Pregnancy maintenance depends on the maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP), a physiological process by which the lifespan of the corpus luteum is prolonged. This mechanism is not well characterized in camelids. The objectives of the present research were to determine if exogenous oxytocin prolongs the corpus luteum activity in alpacas and to evaluate expression and localization of oxytocin receptors within the endometrium at 9 and 14days post-mating. In the oxytocin studies, plasma progesterone profiles were determined after ovulation in the same alpacas on 2 cycles: one cycle without oxytocin treatment and one cycle with oxytocin treatment. Oxytocin was administered daily by intramuscular injections (IM) at a dose of 20IU (experiment 1, n=6) or 60IU (experiment 2, n=7 from day 3 through day 10 after induction of ovulation with GnRH IM. There was no significant difference in the length of the luteal phase (i.e. corpus luteum lifespan) between the treated and control cycles using either 20 or 60IU of oxytocin. In the final experiment, uteri from open and pregnant alpacas (n=4 per group) at 9 and 14days post-mating were evaluated for expressions of oxytocin receptors by immunohistochemistry. No significant difference (P≤0.05) in the expression of oxytocin receptors was observed between open and pregnant animals in either staining intensity or tissue localization. We conclude that oxytocin is not involved in luteolysis and early MRP in alpacas. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Procalcitonin for the early prediction of renal parenchymal involvement in children with UTI: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoula, Aggeliki; Gardikis, Stefanos; Tsalkidis, Aggelos; Mantadakis, Elpis; Zissimopoulos, Athanassios; Kambouri, Katerina; Deftereos, Savvas; Tripsianis, Gregorios; Manolas, Konstantinos; Chatzimichael, Athanassios; Vaos, George

    2009-01-01

    In order to establish the most reliable marker for distinguishing urinary tract infections (UTI) with and without renal parenchymal involvement (RPI), we recorded the clinical features and admission leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum procalcitonin (PCT) in 57 children (including 43 girls) aged 2-108 months admitted with a first episode of UTI. RPI was evaluated by Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy within 7 days of admission. To establish cut-off points for ESR, CRP, and PCT, we used receiver operating characteristics curves and compared the area under the curve for ESR, CRP, and PCT. Twenty-seven children were diagnosed as having RPI based on positive renal scintigraphy. A body temperature of >38 degrees C, a history of diarrhea, and poor oral intake were more common in patients with RPI. ESR, CRP, and PCT, but not leukocyte count, were significantly higher in patients with RPI (P UTI than ESR and CRP. Using a cut-off value of 0.85 ng/ml, PCT had the best performance, with sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 89%, 97%, 96%, and 91% respectively. Serum PCT is a better marker than ESR, CRP, and leukocyte count for the early prediction of RPI in children with a first episode of UTI.

  11. Episodic retrieval involves early and sustained effects of reactivating information from encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey D; Price, Mason H; Leiker, Emily K

    2015-02-01

    Several fMRI studies have shown a correspondence between the brain regions activated during encoding and retrieval, consistent with the view that memory retrieval involves hippocampally-mediated reinstatement of cortical activity. With the limited temporal resolution of fMRI, the precise timing of such reactivation is unclear, calling into question the functional significance of these effects. Whereas reactivation influencing retrieval should emerge with neural correlates of retrieval success, that signifying post-retrieval monitoring would trail retrieval. The present study employed EEG to provide a temporal landmark of retrieval success from which we could investigate the sub-trial time course of reactivation. Pattern-classification analyses revealed that early-onsetting reactivation differentiated the outcome of recognition-memory judgments and was associated with individual differences in behavioral accuracy, while reactivation was also evident in a sustained form later in the trial. The EEG findings suggest that, whereas prior fMRI findings could be interpreted as reflecting the contribution of reinstatement to retrieval success, they could also indicate the maintenance of episodic information in service of post-retrieval evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Early Involvement and Integration in Construction Projects: The Benefits of DfX in Elimination of Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Halttula

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Typical construction processes provide waste: material waste but especially process-related waste. The majority of this waste can be avoided with efficient planning in the front end of projects. The main aim is to describe how the concept of Design for Excellence (DfX can reduce the most severe waste in construction projects. Based on a literature review of waste and requirements that aid early involvement and integration, we created a survey for analyzing and prioritizing types of waste in the construction industry. We describe how DFX reduces this waste, especially through the use of early involvement and integration. When applied, DfX creates incentives for project stakeholders to eliminate waste automatically through early involvement and integration.

  13. Involvement of metabolites in early defense mechanism of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) against Ganoderma disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusaibah, S A; Siti Nor Akmar, A; Idris, A S; Sariah, M; Mohamad Pauzi, Z

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the mechanism of interaction between the oil palm and its key pathogen, Ganoderma spp. is crucial as the disease caused by this fungal pathogen leads to a major loss of revenue in leading palm oil producing countries in Southeast Asia. Here in this study, we assess the morphological and biochemical changes in Ganoderma disease infected oil palm seedling roots in both resistant and susceptible progenies. Rubber woodblocks fully colonized by G. boninense were applied as a source of inoculum to artificially infect the roots of resistant and susceptible oil palm progenies. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to measure an array of plant metabolites in 100 resistant and susceptible oil palm seedling roots treated with pathogenic Ganoderma boninense fungus. Statistical effects, univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify key-Ganoderma disease associated metabolic agitations in both resistant and susceptible oil palm root tissues. Ganoderma disease related defense shifts were characterized based on (i) increased antifungal activity in crude extracts, (ii) increased lipid levels, beta- and gamma-sitosterol particularly in the resistant progeny, (iii) detection of heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds, benzo [h] quinoline, pyridine, pyrimidine (iv) elevation in antioxidants, alpha- and beta-tocopherol (iv) degraded cortical cell wall layers, possibly resulting from fungal hydrolytic enzyme activity needed for initial penetration. The present study suggested that plant metabolites mainly lipids and heterocyclic aromatic organic metabolites could be potentially involved in early oil palm defense mechanism against G. boninense infection, which may also highlight biomarkers for disease detection, treatment, development of resistant variety and monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Differences and similarities between bronchopulmonary dysplasia and asthma in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, Björn; James, Anna; Ebersjö, Christina; Hedlin, Gunilla; Broström, Eva B

    2017-09-01

    The long-term respiratory characteristics of ex-preterm children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) are not established. The objective of this study was to describe hallmarks of BPD at school age in comparison to children with atopic asthma. This study was a cross-sectional descriptive comparative study in a hospital-based setting. Thirty schoolchildren diagnosed with BPD (10.4 years/born at 26.6 weeks' gestation) and 30 age- and sex-matched children with asthma and sensitized to airborne allergens (IgE >0.35 kU A /L) were analyzed. Measurements included fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO, ppb), dynamic and static lung function, and bronchial provocation with methacholine (PD:20) and mannitol (PD:15), as well as an evaluation of respiratory symptoms using the asthma control test (C-ACT). Lung function measures (FEV1% 77 vs 84, FEV1/FVC% 85 vs 91, FEF50% 61 vs 80) and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO%, 81 vs 88) were all reduced in children with BPD compared to asthma (P values asthma. However, less responsiveness towards mannitol (19% vs 61%, P = 0.007) and fewer self-reported symptoms (C-ACT, median 26 vs 24, P = 0.003) were found in the BPD group. Respiratory hallmarks of BPD at school-age were reduced lung function, limited responsiveness towards indirectly acting mannitol but hyper-responsiveness towards direct acting methacholine and impairment in diffusion capacity. Children with BPD displayed less evidence of airway inflammation compared with atopic asthma. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Impact of bronchopulmonary dysplasia on brain and retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Wing Hoi Poon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many premature newborns develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, a chronic lung disease resulting from prolonged mechanical ventilation and hyperoxia. BPD survivors typically suffer long-term injuries not only to the lungs, but also to the brain and retina. However, currently it is not clear whether the brain and retinal injuries in these newborns are related only to their prematurity, or also to BPD. We investigated whether the hyperoxia known to cause histologic changes in the lungs similar to BPD in an animal model also causes brain and retinal injuries. Sprague Dawley rat pups were exposed to hyperoxia (95% O2, ‘BPD’ group or room air (21% O2, ‘control’ group from postnatal day 4–14 (P4–14; the rat pups were housed in room air between P14 and P28. At P28, they were sacrificed, and their lungs, brain, and eyes were extracted. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed on lung and brain sections; retinas were stained with Toluidine Blue. Hyperoxia exposure resulted in an increased mean linear intercept in the lungs (P<0.0001. This increase was associated with a decrease in some brain structures [especially the whole-brain surface (P=0.02], as well as a decrease in the thickness of the retinal layers [especially the total retina (P=0.0008], compared to the room air control group. In addition, a significant negative relationship was observed between the lung structures and the brain (r=−0.49, P=0.02 and retina (r=−0.70, P=0.0008 structures. In conclusion, hyperoxia exposure impaired lung, brain, and retina structures. More severe lung injuries correlated with more severe brain and retinal injuries. This result suggests that the same animal model of chronic neonatal hyperoxia can be used to simultaneously study lung, brain and retinal injuries related to hyperoxia.

  16. Nutrition of preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia after hospital discharge – Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercília Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia often present with severe growth failure at discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. Catch-up growth accelerates after hospital discharge, nevertheless, feeding problems may need a specialized approach. Following the revision of the scientific literature on the most relevant aspects on nutrition of patients with bronchopulmonary dysplasia after hospital discharge in Part I, in this article the Authors present and discuss important issues such as catch up growth, swallow dysfunction, gastroesophageal reflux, and how to improve feeding competences.

  17. Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Premature Infants: Pathogenesis, Clinical Picture, Treatment and Prevention (Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Snysar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the current views on the pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Special attention is paid to the influence of ductus arteriosus on the occurrence and severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, to the mechanisms of the hemodynamic effects of patent ductus arteriosus on blood flow in the anterior cerebral artery, the vessels of the pulmonary circulation, the impact of patent duct on the development of pulmonary edema. Separately, the methods for closure of patent ductus arteriosus were considered. The advantages of pharmacologic ductal closure are noted.

  18. Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Premature Infants: Pathogenesis, Clinical Picture, Treatment and Prevention (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Snysar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the current views on the pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Special attention is paid to the influence of ductus arteriosus on the occurrence and severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, to the mechanisms of the hemodynamic effects of patent ductus arteriosus on blood flow in the anterior cerebral artery, the vessels of the pulmonary circulation, the impact of patent duct on the development of pulmonary edema. Separately, the methods for closure of patent ductus arteriosus were considered. The advantages of pharmacologic ductal closure are noted.

  19. Tsunami Early Warning System in Italy and involvement of local communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto; Zaniboni, Filippo

    2010-05-01

    Italy is characterized by a great coastal extension, and by a series of possible tsunamigenic sources: many active faults, onshore and offshore, also near the shoreline and in shallow water, active volcanoes (Etna, Stromboli, Campi Flegrei for example), continental margins where landslides can occur. All these threats justify the establishment of a tsunami early warning system (TEWS), especially in Southern Italy where most of the sources capable of large disastrous tsunamis are located. One of the main characteristics of such sources, that however is common to other countries in not only in the Mediterranean, is their vicinity to the coast, which means that the tsunami lead time for attacking the coastal system is expected to be within 10-15 minutes in several cases. This constraint of time imposes to conceive and adopt specific plans aiming at a quick tsunami detection and alert dissemination for the TEWS, since obviously the TEWS alert must precede and not follow the tsunami first arrival. The need to be quick introduces the specific problem of uncertainty that is though inherent to any forecast system, but it is a very big issue especially when time available is short, since crucial decisions have to be taken in presence of incomplete data and incomplete processing. This is just the big problem that has to be faced by a system like the a TEWS in Italy. Uncertainties can be reduced by increasing the capabilities of the tsunami monitoring system by densifying the traditional instrumental networks (e.g. by empowering seismic and especially coastal and offshore sea-level observation systems) in the identified tsunamigenic source areas. However, uncertainties, though are expected to have a decreasing trend as time passes after the tsunami initiation, cannot be eliminated and have to be appropriately dealt with: uncertainties lead to under- and overestimation of the tsunami size and arrival times, and to missing or to false alerts, or in other terms they degrade the

  20. The significance of parental involvement in early childhood learner development in Mafikeng rural school / Nicholas Maikanya Lebopa

    OpenAIRE

    Lebopa, Nicholas Maikanya

    2010-01-01

    The study aims at investigating the importance of parental involvement in the teaching and learning of learners in their early years of schooling, especially in rural areas. The researcher is of the opinion that many parents in rural areas are illiterate and poor. Their disadvantages are therefore vast to their counterparts who live in urban areas. Parents could become involved in several activities occurring at school which could provide opportunities for them to be familiar w...

  1. High Frequency of CD8 Positive Lymphocyte Infiltration Correlates with Lack of Lymph Node Involvement in Early Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Däster

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. A trend towards local excision of early rectal cancers has prompted us to investigate if immunoprofiling might help in predicting lymph node involvement in this subgroup. Methods. A tissue microarray of 126 biopsies of early rectal cancer (T1 and T2 was stained for several immunomarkers of the innate and the adaptive immune response. Patients’ survival and nodal status were analyzed and correlated with infiltration of the different immune cells. Results. Of all tested markers, only CD8 (P=0.005 and TIA-1 (P=0.05 were significantly more frequently detectable in early rectal cancer biopsies of node negative as compared to node positive patients. Although these two immunomarkers did not display prognostic effect “per se,” CD8+ and, marginally, TIA-1 T cell infiltration could predict nodal involvement in univariate logistic regression analysis (OR 0.994; 95% CI 0.992–0.996; P=0.009 and OR 0.988; 95% CI 0.984–0.994; P=0.05, resp.. An algorithm significantly predicting the nodal status in early rectal cancer based on CD8 together with vascular invasion and tumor border configuration could be calculated (P<0.00001. Conclusion. Our data indicate that in early rectal cancers absence of CD8+ T-cell infiltration helps in predicting patients’ nodal involvement.

  2. Ascorbylperoxide Contaminating Parenteral Nutrition Is Associated With Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia or Death in Extremely Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ibrahim; Elremaly, Wesam; Rouleau, Thérèse; Lavoie, Jean-Claude

    2017-08-01

    Ascorbylperoxide (AscOOH) is a hydrogen peroxide-dependent by-product of ascorbic acid that contaminates parenteral nutrition. In a guinea pig model, it caused oxidized redox potential, increased apoptosis, and decreased alveolarization. AscOOH detoxification is carried out by glutathione peroxidase (GPX). We hypothesize that extremely preterm infants have limited capacity for AscOOH detoxification. Our objective was to determine if there is an association between an early level of urinary AscOOH and later development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death. This prospective cohort study included 51 infants at <29 weeks of gestation. Baseline clinical characteristics and clinical outcomes data were collected. Urine samples were collected on days 3, 5, and 7 of life for urinary AscOOH. Blood samples on day 7 were collected for total plasma glutathione, GPX, and glutathione reductase. χ 2 , Student's t test, Spearman correlation ( r), linear regression (adjusted r 2 ), and repeated-measure analysis of variance were used as appropriate. P < .05 was considered significant. Urinary AscOOH increased over time ( P = .001) and was higher in infants who later developed BPD or died ( P = .037). Compared with adults and full-term infants, total plasma glutathione concentration was low (median, 1.02 µmol/L; 25th-75th percentiles, 0.49-1.76 µmol/L), whereas GPX and glutathione reductase activities were sufficient (3.98 ± 1.25 and 0.36 ± 0.01 nmol/min/mg of protein, respectively). Extremely preterm infants have low glutathione levels, which limit their capacity to detoxify AscOOH. Higher first-week urinary AscOOH levels are associated with an increased incidence of BPD or death.

  3. Bacillus subtilis Early Colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana Roots Involves Multiple Chemotaxis Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard-Massicotte, Rosalie; Tessier, Laurence; Lécuyer, Frédéric; Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Lucier, Jean-François; Garneau, Daniel; Caudwell, Larissa; Vlamakis, Hera; Bais, Harsh P; Beauregard, Pascale B

    2016-11-29

    Colonization of plant roots by Bacillus subtilis is mutually beneficial to plants and bacteria. Plants can secrete up to 30% of their fixed carbon via root exudates, thereby feeding the bacteria, and in return the associated B. subtilis bacteria provide the plant with many growth-promoting traits. Formation of a biofilm on the root by matrix-producing B. subtilis is a well-established requirement for long-term colonization. However, we observed that cells start forming a biofilm only several hours after motile cells first settle on the plant. We also found that intact chemotaxis machinery is required for early root colonization by B. subtilis and for plant protection. Arabidopsis thaliana root exudates attract B. subtilis in vitro, an activity mediated by the two characterized chemoreceptors, McpB and McpC, as well as by the orphan receptor TlpC. Nonetheless, bacteria lacking these chemoreceptors are still able to colonize the root, suggesting that other chemoreceptors might also play a role in this process. These observations suggest that A. thaliana actively recruits B. subtilis through root-secreted molecules, and our results stress the important roles of B. subtilis chemoreceptors for efficient colonization of plants in natural environments. These results demonstrate a remarkable strategy adapted by beneficial rhizobacteria to utilize carbon-rich root exudates, which may facilitate rhizobacterial colonization and a mutualistic association with the host. Bacillus subtilis is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that establishes robust interactions with roots. Many studies have now demonstrated that biofilm formation is required for long-term colonization. However, we observed that motile B. subtilis mediates the first contact with the roots. These cells differentiate into biofilm-producing cells only several hours after the bacteria first contact the root. Our study reveals that intact chemotaxis machinery is required for the bacteria to reach the

  4. The incidence of parametrial tumor involvement in select patients with early cervix cancer is too low to justify parametrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, M.; Louwen, M.; van der Velden, J.; ten Kate, F. J. W.; den Bakker, M. A.; Burger, C. W.; Ansink, A. C.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of parametrial involvement in a select group of patients with early cervical cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with cervical cancer and a maximum tumor diameter of 2 cm, infiltration depth <10 mm and negative pelvic lymph nodes

  5. Factors involved in early polarization of the anterior-posterior axis in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Neta; Cohen, Mira; Chipman, Ariel D

    2017-05-01

    The axes of insect embryos are defined early in the blastoderm stage. Genes involved in this polarization are well known in Drosophila, but less so in other insects, such as the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. Using quantitative PCR, we looked at differential expression of several candidate genes for early anterior-posterior patterning and found that none of them are expressed asymmetrically in the early blastoderm. We then used an RNA-Seq approach to identify novel candidate genes that might be involved in early polarization in Oncopeltus. We focused on transcription factors (TFs) as these are likely to be central players in developmental processes. Using both homology and domain based identification approaches, we were unable to find any TF encoding transcripts that are expressed asymmetrically along the anterior-posterior axis at early stages. Using a GO-term analysis of all asymmetrically expressed mRNAs, we found an enrichment of genes relating to mitochondrial function in the posterior at the earliest studied time-point. We also found a gradual enrichment of transcription related activities, giving us a putative time frame for the maternal to zygotic transition. Our dataset provides us with a list of new candidate genes in early development, which can be followed up experimentally. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Long-term results of PRRT in advanced bronchopulmonary carcinoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariniello, Annapaola; Bodei, Lisa; Baio, Silvia Melania; Gilardi, Laura; Colandrea, Marzia; Papi, Stefano; Grana, Chiara Maria [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Tinelli, Carmine [IRCCS Foundation Policlinico San Matteo, Epidemiology and Biometric Unit, Pavia (Italy); Valmadre, Giuseppe [Presidio Ospedaliero E. Morelli AOVV, Sondalo (Italy); Fazio, Nicola [European Institute of Oncology, Unit of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology and Neuroendocrine Tumors, Milan (Italy); Galetta, Domenico [European Institute of Oncology, Thoracic Surgery Division, Milan (Italy); Paganelli, Giovanni [Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Nuclear Medicine and Radiometabolic Units, Meldola (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours (NET) has been explored for almost two decades, but there are still few trials that have exclusively investigated well-differentiated and moderately differentiated NET arising from the respiratory tree. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the outcome in patients affected by bronchopulmonary carcinoid (BPC) following PRRT. We retrospectively analysed 114 patients with advanced stage BPC consecutively treated with PRRT at the European Institute of Oncology, Milan, from 1997 to 2012 and followed until October 2014. The objective responses, overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were rated, and three different PRRT protocols ({sup 90}Y-DOTATOC vs. {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE vs. {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC + {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE) were compared with regard to their efficacy and tolerability. The median OS (evaluated in 94 of the 114 patients) was 58.8 months. The median PFS was 28.0 months. The {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE protocol resulted in the highest 5-year OS (61.4 %). Morphological responses (partial responses + minor responses) were obtained in 26.5 % of the cohort and were associated with longer OS and PFS. The {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC + {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE protocol provided the highest response rate (38.1 %). Adverse events were mild in the majority of patients. However, haematological toxicity negatively affected survival. No severe (grade 3/4) serum creatinine increase was observed. Patients treated with {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC alone more frequently showed a mild/moderate decrease in renal function. In patients treated with chemotherapy before PRRT had a shorter OS and PFS, and a higher risk of developing nephrotoxicity. In a large cohort of patients with advanced BPC treated in a ''real-world'' scenario and followed up for a median of 45.1 months (range 2 - 191 months), PRRT proved to be promising in prolonging survival and delaying disease progression. Despite

  7. Omalizumab Treatment for Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiralioglu, Nagehan; Dogru, Deniz; Tugcu, Gokcen Dilsa; Yalcin, Ebru; Kiper, Nural; Ozcelik, Ugur

    2016-03-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by destructive changes in the airways. Long-term treatment with oral corticosteroids is often required for repeated exacerbations. Because elevated total IgE is a cardinal abnormality of ABPA, omalizumab has been used sporadically to decrease corticosteroid dose or totally replace corticosteroids. The aim of this report is to describe our experience with omalizumab treatment in patients with CF and ABPA. We conducted a review of 6 CF patients with ABPA receiving omalizumab. All patients were treated with oral prednisolone and itraconazole. Omalizumab was started if the patient was not responding to steroid treatment, which was determined according to serum IgE levels and/or clinical findings or depending on if there were side effects caused by steroid treatment. The mean age of patients at the beginning of omalizumab treatment was 16.1 years. One patient had a new diagnosis of ABPA; however, the others had the first to third exacerbation when treated with omalizumab. The mean duration of ABPA by the time that treatment with omalizumab started was 13 ± 12.4 months (range = 2-29 months). With omalizumab treatment, IgE levels were decreased in all patients, and Aspergillus-specific IgE levels were decreased in 4 patients; however, FEV1(% predicted) improved only in 2 patients who had mild disease. Corticosteroids were reduced in the first, second, and third months of omalizumab treatment in 2, 1, and 3 patients, respectively. In 2 patients, steroid treatment was stopped. None of the patients suffered from side effects of omalizumab. The mean duration of omalizumab treatment was 12.5 months (range = 6-18 months). This study showed steroid-sparing effect, decreasing IgE levels, and improvement in respiratory symptoms in 6 CF patients with omalizumab treatment. Although this is a small sample of the population, omalizumab may be an alternative therapy for ABPA in CF patients who fail

  8. Serum surfactant protein D as a marker for bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, Suja; Gow, Andrew; Weinberger, Barry; Potak, Debra; Hiatt, Mark; Chandra, Shaku; Hegyi, Thomas

    2017-10-26

    Lung epithelial cells express surfactant protein D (SP-D), a calcium-dependent lectin that plays an important role in antibody-independent pulmonary host defense. Previous studies have shown that it is found in the peripheral circulation in patients with pulmonary disease, likely because of translocation into the blood when lung epithelial barriers are disrupted by inflammation or acute injury. In adults, serum SP-D levels are biomarkers for the progression and severity of chronic lung disease. In neonates, elevated SP-D levels in cord blood and on day 1 have been associated with prenatal risk factors and with an increased risk of respiratory distress syndrome and infections. It is not known whether serum SP-D during the first week of life is a marker for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a form of chronic lung disease of prematurity that is associated with lung parenchymal maldevelopment and injury. The goal of this study is to determine whether serum SP-D on days 3 and 7 of life are associated with the development of BPD in preterm infants. Serum samples were obtained on postnatal days 3 and 7 from 106 preterm infants (500-2000 g birth weight, 23-32-week gestation). SP-D was quantified by Western blot. BPD was determined at 36 weeks PMA using NICHD criteria. The mean birth weight was 1145 ± 347 g and gestational age 29.2 ± 7.4 weeks. BPD was diagnosed in 7 and "BPD or death" in 16 infants. Days 3 and 7 values tracked significantly (r = 0.648), and did not correlate with birth weight or gestational age. Contrary to expectations, serum SP-D was not associated with BPD. Significant gender differences were noted, with SP-D dropping from day 3 to day 7 in males, while increasing in females (p D does not appear to be a useful marker for BPD. Decreasing serum SP-D levels in males, as compared to females, during the first week of life are likely related to gender differences in lung maturation, consistent with the higher incidence of BPD in males.

  9. A case of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis successfully treated with mepolizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Takeshi; Shinozaki, Taro; Iwami, Eri; Nakajima, Takahiro; Matsuzaki, Tatsu

    2018-03-27

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an allergic pulmonary disease comprising a complex hypersensitivity reaction to Aspergillus fumigatus. Clinical features of ABPA are wheezing, mucoid impaction, and pulmonary infiltrates. Oral corticosteroids and anti-fungal agents are standard therapy for ABPA, but long-term use of systemic corticosteroids often causes serious side effects. A 64-year-old woman was diagnosed with ABPA based on a history of bronchial asthma (from 40 years of age), elevated total IgE, the presence of serum precipitating antibodies and elevated specific IgE antibody to A. fumigatus, and pulmonary infiltration. Bronchoscopy showed eosinophilic mucoid impaction. Systemic corticosteroid therapy was initiated, and her symptoms disappeared. Peripheral eosinophilia and pulmonary infiltration recurred five months after cessation of corticosteroid treatment. Systemic corticosteroids were re-initiated and itraconazole was added as an anti-fungal agent. The patient was free of corticosteroids, aside from treatment with a short course of systemic corticosteroids for asthma exacerbation, and clinically stable with itraconazole and asthma treatments for 3 years. In 2017, she experienced significant deterioration. Laboratory examination revealed marked eosinophilia (3017/μL) and a chest computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated pulmonary infiltration in the left upper lobe and mucoid impaction in both lower lobes. The patient was treated with high-dose inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting beta-agonist, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, and theophylline; spirometry revealed a forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) of 1.01 L. An uncontrolled asthma state was indicated by an Asthma Control Test (ACT) score of 18. Mepolizumab, 100 mg every 4 weeks, was initiated for the treatment of severe bronchial asthma with ABPA exacerbation. Bronchial asthma symptoms dramatically improved, and ACT score increased to 24

  10. Bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A P; Rowe, B H

    2000-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy is a form of chest physical therapy including chest percussion and postural drainage to remove lung secretions. These are applied commonly to patients with both acute and chronic airway diseases. Despite controversies in the literature regarding its efficacy, it remains in use in a variety of clinical settings. The various forms of this therapy are labour intensive and need to be evaluated. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of bronchial hygiene physical therapy in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group trials register and reference lists of articles up to July 1997. We also wrote to study authors. Randomised trials in which postural drainage, chest percussion, vibration, chest shaking, directed coughing or forced exhalation technique was compared to other drainage or breathing techniques, placebo or no treatment. Two reviewers applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria on masked publications independently. They assessed the trial quality independently. Only data from the first arm of crossover trials were included. The seven included trials involved six comparisons and a total of 126 people. The trials were small and not generally of high quality. The results could not be combined as trials addressed different patient groups and outcomes. In most comparisons, bronchial hygiene physical therapy produced no significant effects on pulmonary function, apart from clearing sputum in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in bronchiectasis. There is not enough evidence to support or refute the use of bronchial hygiene physical therapy in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis.

  11. WITHDRAWN: Bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Arthur P; Rowe, Brian H

    2011-07-06

    Bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy is a form of chest physical therapy including chest percussion and postural drainage to remove lung secretions. These are applied commonly to patients with both acute and chronic airway diseases. Despite controversies in the literature regarding its efficacy, it remains in use in a variety of clinical settings. The various forms of this therapy are labour intensive and need to be evaluated. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of bronchial hygiene physical therapy in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group trials register and reference lists of articles up to January 2007. We also wrote to study authors. Randomised trials in which postural drainage, chest percussion, vibration, chest shaking, directed coughing or forced exhalation technique was compared to other drainage or breathing techniques, placebo or no treatment. Two reviewers applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria on masked publications independently. They assessed the trial quality independently. Only data from the first arm of crossover trials were included. The seven included trials involved six comparisons and a total of 126 people. The trials were small and not generally of high quality. The results could not be combined as trials addressed different patient groups and outcomes. In most comparisons, bronchial hygiene physical therapy produced no significant effects on pulmonary function, apart from clearing sputum in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in bronchiectasis. An update search carried out in January 2007 did not identify any new studies for inclusion. There is not enough evidence to support or refute the use of bronchial hygiene physical therapy in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis.

  12. Evaluation of Timing and Dosing of Caffeine Citrate in Preterm Neonates for the Prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Eleni E; Bondi, Deborah S; Pellerite, Matthew M; Sriram, Sudhir

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the timing and dosing of caffeine therapy in relation to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study comparing early (days of life 0-2) to late (day of life 3 or greater) caffeine initiation in extremely low birth weight neonates, with a secondary analysis of large (10 mg/kg/day) to small dose (5 mg/kg/day) caffeine. There were 138 patients in the primary timing analysis. The early caffeine group had a lower incidence and reduced odds of the composite outcome of BPD or all-cause mortality, compared with the late caffeine group (64% vs. 88%, respectively; adjusted p < 0.05; adjusted OR 0.36 [95% CI 0.13-0.98]). No statistically significant difference was found between dosing groups (p = 0.29) in the primary outcome; however, there was a lower rate of patent ductus arteriosus requiring treatment (p = 0.05) and decreased likelihood of discharging home on oxygen (p = 0.02) in the large-dose group compared with the small-dose group. Early caffeine initiation significantly decreased the incidence of BPD or all-cause mortality in extremely low birth weight neonates. Patients receiving large-dose caffeine had improved secondary outcomes, although no difference in BPD was noted. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal dosing of caffeine.

  13. Broncho-pulmonary toxicity in stage III non small cell lung cancer patients treated with taxol containing chemotherapy and concurrent preoperative or definitive radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, M. Maddie; Gupta-Burt, Shalina; Recine, Diane C.; Faber, L. Penfield; Warren, William H.; LaFollette, Suzanne; Lincoln, Sarah T.; Bonomi, Philip D.

    1997-01-01

    drop in diffusion capacity, without radiographic evidence of radiation pneumonitis. In Group 2, 1 pt. developed broncho-pleural fistula, 1 pt. developed pulmonary hypertension, and 1 pt. had a severe post-operative pneumonia in the non operated lung, requiring a 30 day hospitalization. In Group 3, 1 pt. developed broncho-pleural fistula, and 1 pt. had fatal ARDS (adult respiratory distress syndrome). Overall, there was 1 treatment related death. Major broncho-pulmonary toxicity occured in 9 of 33 patients (1 pt. had both radiation pneumonitis and then later developed pulmonary hypertension), or in 27%. Conclusion: The incidence of broncho-pulmonary complications in this taxol containing regimen appears to be higher than in our previous trials with concurrent chemo and radiation therapy. These findings were unpredictable and occured across the various regimens, therefore did not seem related to taxol dose or infusion time. Also radiation pneumonitis was not related to volume treated, and occured at both dose levels. Based on our observations, our future trials will involve sequential taxol containing chemotherapy followed by surgery in stage IIIa pts. and radiation in stage IIIb pts

  14. A rare case of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by Alternaria alternata.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhary, A.; Agarwal, K.; Randhawa, H.S.; Kathuria, S.; Gaur, S.N.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Roy, P.; Arora, N.; Khanna, G.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    A rare case of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM), caused by Alternaria alternata, is reported in an immunocompetent resident of Delhi. Her complaints included a generalized, urticarial skin rash and occasional pain in the right lower chest. Her differential count showed eosinophils, 22%;

  15. Congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformation initially diagnosed as esophageal atresia type C: challenging diagnosis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Doeke; Koot, Bart G.; van der Griendt, Erik Jonas; van Rijn, Rick R.; van der Steeg, Alida F.

    2012-01-01

    Communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformations are extremely rare congenital malformations, characterized by a communicating fistula between an isolated part of the respiratory system and the esophagus or the stomach. In this article, we present a case of esophageal atresia type C, later

  16. Early-Onset Alzheimer Disease and Candidate Risk Genes Involved in Endolysosomal Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkle, Brian W; Vardarajan, Badri N; Naj, Adam C; Whitehead, Patrice L; Rolati, Sophie; Slifer, Susan; Carney, Regina M; Cuccaro, Michael L; Vance, Jeffery M; Gilbert, John R; Wang, Li-San; Farrer, Lindsay A; Reitz, Christiane; Haines, Jonathan L; Beecham, Gary W; Martin, Eden R; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Mayeux, Richard P; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A

    2017-09-01

    Mutations in APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 lead to early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD) but account for only approximately 11% of EOAD overall, leaving most of the genetic risk for the most severe form of Alzheimer disease unexplained. This extreme phenotype likely harbors highly penetrant risk variants, making it primed for discovery of novel risk genes and pathways for AD. To search for rare variants contributing to the risk for EOAD. In this case-control study, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed in 51 non-Hispanic white (NHW) patients with EOAD (age at onset 65 years) from the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium. The study was conducted from January 21, 2013, to October 13, 2016. Alzheimer disease diagnosed according to standard National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria. Association between Alzheimer disease and genetic variants and genes was measured using logistic regression and sequence kernel association test-optimal gene tests, respectively. Of the 1524 NHW patients with EOAD, 765 (50.2%) were women and mean (SD) age was 60.0 (4.9) years; of the 7046 NHW patients with LOAD, 4171 (59.2%) were women and mean (SD) age was 77.4 (8.6) years; and of the 7001 NHW controls, 4215 (60.2%) were women and mean (SD) age was 77.4 (8.6) years. The gene PSD2, for which multiple unrelated NHW cases had rare missense variants, was significantly associated with EOAD (P = 2.05 × 10-6; Bonferroni-corrected P value [BP] = 1.3 × 10-3) and LOAD (P = 6.22 × 10-6; BP = 4.1 × 10-3). A missense variant in TCIRG1, present in a NHW patient and segregating in 3 cases of a Hispanic family, was more frequent in EOAD cases (odds ratio [OR], 2.13; 95% CI, 0.99-4.55; P = .06; BP = 0.413), and significantly associated with LOAD (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.37-3.62; P = 7.2 × 10-4; BP = 5.0 × 10-3). A missense variant in the LOAD risk

  17. Early Involvement of Immune/Inflammatory Response Genes in Retinal Degeneration in DBA/2J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Fan

    2010-01-01

    , representative of different functions/pathways, were validated with RT-PCR, and changes in glial responses were visualized in the retina with immunocytochemistry. Conclusions The results showed that the expression of genes related to the immune response and acute stress were altered independently of the development of elevated IOP, and indicated early involvement of the immune system in the onset of the disease. The later development of elevated IOP, observed in this animal model, was coincident with continued changes in expression of genes observed at earlier time points. Further studies are warranted to identify the roles of specific genes identified here with respect to the death of the RGCs.

  18. Early Involvement of Immune/Inflammatory Response Genes in Retinal Degeneration in DBA/2J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Fan

    2010-03-01

    , representative of different functions/pathways, were validated with RT-PCR, and changes in glial responses were visualized in the retina with immunocytochemistry. Conclusions: The results showed that the expression of genes related to the immune response and acute stress were altered independently of the development of elevated IOP, and indicated early involvement of the immune system in the onset of the disease. The later development of elevated IOP, observed in this animal model, was coincident with continued changes in expression of genes observed at earlier time points. Further studies are warranted to identify the roles of specific genes identified here with respect to the death of the RGCs.

  19. Transcriptomic profiling of bovine IVF embryos revealed candidate genes and pathways involved in early embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandell Brian S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early embryonic loss is a large contributor to infertility in cattle. Although genetic factors are known to affect early embryonic development, the discovery of such factors has been a serious challenge. The objective of this study was to identify genes differentially expressed between blastocysts and degenerative embryos at early stages of development. Results Using microarrays, genome-wide RNA expression was profiled and compared for in vitro fertilization (IVF - derived blastocysts and embryos undergoing degenerative development up to the same time point. Surprisingly similar transcriptomic profiles were found in degenerative embryos and blastocysts. Nonetheless, we identified 67 transcripts that significantly differed between these two groups of embryos at a 15% false discovery rate, including 33 transcripts showing at least a two-fold difference. Several signaling and metabolic pathways were found to be associated with the developmental status of embryos, among which were previously known important steroid biosynthesis and cell communication pathways in early embryonic development. Conclusions This study presents the first direct and comprehensive comparison of transcriptomes between IVF blastocysts and degenerative embryos, providing important information for potential genes and pathways associated with early embryonic development.

  20. Early onset of cannabis use: Does personality modify the relation with changes in perceived parental involvement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, H.E.; Buil, J.M.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Keijsers, L.; Meeus, W.; Koot, H.M.; Huizink, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study examined (1) the association between changes in perceived parental control and support from age 13 to 15 and early onset of cannabis use (before age 16), and (2) whether personality modifies the association between a decline in perceived parental control and support and

  1. Early onset of cannabis use: Does personality modify the relation with changes in perceived parental involvement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, Hanneke E.; Buil, J. Marieke; van Lier, Pot A. C.; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, W.H.J.; Koot, Hans M.; Huizink, Anja C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study examined (1) the association between changes in perceived parental control and support from age 13 to 15 and early onset of cannabis use (before age 16), and (2) whether personality modifies the association between a decline in perceived parental control and support and

  2. Obesity Prevention Interventions in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings with Parental Involvement: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie

    2015-01-01

    Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. A…

  3. Forming the face of green products : Mood boards and early consumer involvement in ship interior design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murto, P.; Ahola, M.; Person, F.E.O.K.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study mood boards and the process by which they can be used to understand consumer inferences about environmental sustainability in the early stages of green product development. As a component of a research project on sustainable ship design, we created mood boards showcasing

  4. 23 CFR 771.111 - Early coordination, public involvement, and project development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.111 Early coordination... applicant for incorporation into the environmental assessment (EA) or draft EIS. (f) In order to ensure... obtained from: Director, Office of Human and Natural Environment, Federal Transit Administration...

  5. Brain Network Involved in the Recognition of Facial Expressions of Emotion in the Early Blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Kitada

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest that the brain network responsible for the recognition of facial expressions of emotion (FEEs begins to emerge early in life. However, it has been unclear whether visual experience of faces is necessary for the development of this network. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI experiments to test the hypothesis that the brain network underlying the recognition of FEEs is not dependent on visual experience of faces. Early-blind, late-blind and sighted subjects participated in the psychophysical experiment. Regardless of group, subjects haptically identified basic FEEs at above-chance levels, without any feedback training. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, the early-blind and sighted subjects haptically identified facemasks portraying three different FEEs and casts of three different shoe types. The sighted subjects also completed a visual task that compared the same stimuli. Within the brain regions activated by the visually-identified FEEs (relative to shoes, haptic identification of FEEs (relative to shoes by the early-blind and sighted individuals activated the posterior middle temporal gyrus adjacent to the superior temporal sulcus, the inferior frontal gyrus, and the fusiform gyrus. Collectively, these results suggest that the brain network responsible for FEE recognition can develop without any visual experience of faces.

  6. Father's involvement and its effect on early breastfeeding practices in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bich, Tran Huu; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Ha, Nguyen Thanh; Vui, Le Thi; Nghia, Dang Thi; Målqvist, Mats

    2016-10-01

    Fathers have an important but often neglected role in the promotion of healthy breastfeeding practices in developing countries. A community-based education intervention was designed to mobilize fathers' support for early breastfeeding. This study aimed to evaluate an education intervention targeting fathers to increase the proportion of early breastfeeding initiation and to reduce prelacteal feeding. Quasi-experimental study design was used to compare intervention and control areas located in two non-adjacent rural districts that shared similar demographic and health service characteristics in northern Viet Nam. Fathers and expectant fathers with pregnant wives from 7 to 30 weeks gestational age were recruited. Fathers in the intervention area received breastfeeding education materials, counselling services at a commune health centre and household visits. They were also invited to participate in a breastfeeding promotion social event. After intervention, early breastfeeding initiation rate was 81.2% in the intervention area and 39.6% in the control area (P < 0.001). Babies in the intervention area were more likely to be breastfed within the first hour after birth [odds ratio (OR) 7.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.81-12.12] and not to receive any prelacteal feeding (OR 4.43, 95% CI 2.88-6.82) compared with those in the control area. Fathers may positively influence the breastfeeding practices of mothers, and as a resource for early childcare, they can be mobilized in programmes aimed at improving the early initiation of breastfeeding. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Aspergilose broncopulmonar alérgica com imagem radiológica em "dedo de luva" Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis presenting a glove-finger shadow in radiographic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Elizabeth Kalil

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A aspergilose broncopulmonar alérgica é uma doença pulmonar que ocorre em pacientes com asma ou fibrose cística, desencadeada pela reação de hipersensibilidade à presença do fungo Aspergilus fumigatus nas vias aéreas. Relatamos aqui um caso em que uma paciente com quadro clínico sugestivo de asma apresentou critérios clínicos, laboratoriais e radiológicos compatíveis com o diagnóstico de aspergilose broncopulmonar alérgica. A importância de tais achados deve-se ao fato de que quanto mais precocemente for feito o diagnóstico, menores serão os riscos de agravamento do quadro respiratório e de aparecimento de fibrose.Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a lung disease occurring in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis, triggered by a hypersensitivity reaction to the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus in the airways. We report herein the case of a patient presenting a clinical profile suggestive of asthma and meeting the clinical, laboratory testing and radiological criteria for a diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. The importance of such findings is that early diagnosis can reduce the risk of respiratory exacerbations and fibrosis.

  8. Anti-IgE therapy for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in people with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jat, Kana R; Walia, Dinesh K; Khairwa, Anju

    2018-03-18

    Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder with an approximate prevalence of 1 in 3500 live births. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a lung disease caused by aspergillus-induced hypersensitivity with a prevalence of 2% to 15% in people with cystic fibrosis. The mainstay of treatment includes corticosteroids and itraconazole. The treatment with corticosteroids for prolonged periods of time, or repeatedly for exacerbations of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, may lead to many adverse effects. The monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, omalizumab, has improved asthma control in severely allergic asthmatics. The drug is given as a subcutaneous injection every two to four weeks. Since allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is also a condition resulting from hypersensitivity to specific allergens, as in asthma, it may be a candidate for therapy using anti-IgE antibodies. Therefore, anti-IgE therapy, using agents like omalizumab, may be a potential therapy for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in people with cystic fibrosis. This is an updated version of the review. To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of anti-IgE therapy for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. Last search: 29 September 2017.We searched two ongoing trial registries (Clinicaltrials.gov and the WHO trials platform). Date of latest search: 24 January 2018. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing anti-IgE therapy to placebo or other therapies for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in people with cystic fibrosis. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in the included study. They planned to perform data analysis using Review Manager. Only one

  9. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.J.A. Verlinden (Vincent); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); R. Veenstra (René); C.L. Mieloo (Cathelijne); W. Jansen (Wilma); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H. Raat (Hein); A. Hofman (Albert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); P.W. Jansen (Pauline)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television

  10. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, Marina; Tiemeier, Henning; Veenstra, René; Mieloo, Cathelijne; Jansen, Wilma; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Jansen, Pauline W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time

  11. Parent Involvement in Early Childhood: A Comparison of English Language Learners and English First Language Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Sarah N.; Pelletier, Janette

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated parents' communication, involvement and knowledge of their children's abilities in reading and mathematics among parents who spoke English as a first language (EL1) and those who were English language learners (ELL). Forty-two kindergarten-aged children, their parents and their teachers participated in the study. Results…

  12. Children's Early Child Care and Their Mothers' Later Involvement with Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Augustine, Jennifer March; Huston, Aletha C.

    2012-01-01

    Theory and policy highlight the role of child care in preparing children for the transition into school. Approaching this issue in a different way, this study investigated whether children's care experiences before this transition promoted their mothers' school involvement after it, with the hypothesized mechanism for this link being the…

  13. Aspergillus fumigatus in cystic fibrosis: An update on immune interactions and molecular diagnostics in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsin, A; Romain, T; Ranque, S; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Dubus, J-C; Mège, J-L; Vitte, J

    2017-11-01

    A wide spectrum of pathological conditions may result from the interaction of Aspergillus fumigatus and the immune system of its human host. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is one of the most severe A. fumigatus-related diseases due to possible evolution toward pleuropulmonary fibrosis and respiratory failure. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis occurs almost exclusively in cystic fibrosis or asthmatic patients. An estimated 8%-10% of patients with cystic fibrosis experience this condition. The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis relies on criteria first established in 1977. Progress in the understanding of host-pathogen interactions in A. fumigatus and patients with cystic fibrosis and the ongoing validation of novel laboratory tools concur to update and improve the diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  14. Identification of early zygotic genes in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti and discovery of a motif involved in early zygotic genome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedler, James K; Hu, Wanqi; Tae, Hongseok; Tu, Zhijian

    2012-01-01

    During early embryogenesis the zygotic genome is transcriptionally silent and all mRNAs present are of maternal origin. The maternal-zygotic transition marks the time over which embryogenesis changes its dependence from maternal RNAs to zygotically transcribed RNAs. Here we present the first systematic investigation of early zygotic genes (EZGs) in a mosquito species and focus on genes involved in the onset of transcription during 2-4 hr. We used transcriptome sequencing to identify the "pure" (without maternal expression) EZGs by analyzing transcripts from four embryonic time ranges of 0-2, 2-4, 4-8, and 8-12 hr, which includes the time of cellular blastoderm formation and up to the start of gastrulation. Blast of 16,789 annotated transcripts vs. the transcriptome reads revealed evidence for 63 (P<0.001) and 143 (P<0.05) nonmaternally derived transcripts having a significant increase in expression at 2-4 hr. One third of the 63 EZG transcripts do not have predicted introns compared to 10% of all Ae. aegypti genes. We have confirmed by RT-PCR that zygotic transcription starts as early as 2-3 hours. A degenerate motif VBRGGTA was found to be overrepresented in the upstream sequences of the identified EZGs using a motif identification software called SCOPE. We find evidence for homology between this motif and the TAGteam motif found in Drosophila that has been implicated in EZG activation. A 38 bp sequence in the proximal upstream sequence of a kinesin light chain EZG (KLC2.1) contains two copies of the mosquito motif. This sequence was shown to support EZG transcription by luciferase reporter assays performed on injected early embryos, and confers early zygotic activity to a heterologous promoter from a divergent mosquito species. The results of these studies are consistent with the model of early zygotic genome activation via transcriptional activators, similar to what has been found recently in Drosophila.

  15. Identification of early zygotic genes in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti and discovery of a motif involved in early zygotic genome activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K Biedler

    Full Text Available During early embryogenesis the zygotic genome is transcriptionally silent and all mRNAs present are of maternal origin. The maternal-zygotic transition marks the time over which embryogenesis changes its dependence from maternal RNAs to zygotically transcribed RNAs. Here we present the first systematic investigation of early zygotic genes (EZGs in a mosquito species and focus on genes involved in the onset of transcription during 2-4 hr. We used transcriptome sequencing to identify the "pure" (without maternal expression EZGs by analyzing transcripts from four embryonic time ranges of 0-2, 2-4, 4-8, and 8-12 hr, which includes the time of cellular blastoderm formation and up to the start of gastrulation. Blast of 16,789 annotated transcripts vs. the transcriptome reads revealed evidence for 63 (P<0.001 and 143 (P<0.05 nonmaternally derived transcripts having a significant increase in expression at 2-4 hr. One third of the 63 EZG transcripts do not have predicted introns compared to 10% of all Ae. aegypti genes. We have confirmed by RT-PCR that zygotic transcription starts as early as 2-3 hours. A degenerate motif VBRGGTA was found to be overrepresented in the upstream sequences of the identified EZGs using a motif identification software called SCOPE. We find evidence for homology between this motif and the TAGteam motif found in Drosophila that has been implicated in EZG activation. A 38 bp sequence in the proximal upstream sequence of a kinesin light chain EZG (KLC2.1 contains two copies of the mosquito motif. This sequence was shown to support EZG transcription by luciferase reporter assays performed on injected early embryos, and confers early zygotic activity to a heterologous promoter from a divergent mosquito species. The results of these studies are consistent with the model of early zygotic genome activation via transcriptional activators, similar to what has been found recently in Drosophila.

  16. Early canine plaque biofilms: characterization of key bacterial interactions involved in initial colonization of enamel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy J Holcombe

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease (PD is a significant problem in dogs affecting between 44% and 63.6% of the population. The main etiological agent for PD is plaque, a microbial biofilm that colonizes teeth and causes inflammation of the gingiva. Understanding how this biofilm initiates on the tooth surface is of central importance in developing interventions against PD. Although the stages of plaque development on human teeth have been well characterized little is known about how canine plaque develops. Recent studies of the canine oral microbiome have revealed distinct differences between the canine and human oral environments and the bacterial communities they support, particularly with respect to healthy plaque. These differences mean knowledge about the nature of plaque formation in humans may not be directly translatable to dogs. The aim of this study was to identify the bacterial species important in the early stages of canine plaque formation in vivo and then use isolates of these species in a laboratory biofilm model to develop an understanding of the sequential processes which take place during the initial colonization of enamel. Supra-gingival plaque samples were collected from 12 dogs at 24 and 48 hour time points following a full mouth descale and polish. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA identified 134 operational taxonomic units after statistical analysis. The species with the highest relative abundance were Bergeyella zoohelcum, Neisseria shayeganii and a Moraxella species. Streptococcal species, which tend to dominate early human plaque biofilms, had very low relative abundance. In vitro testing of biofilm formation identified five primary colonizer species, three of which belonged to the genus Neisseria. Using these pioneer bacteria as a starting point, viable two and three species communities were developed. Combining in vivo and in vitro data has led us to construct novel models of how the early canine plaque biofilm develops.

  17. A case with atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis-related hypothyroidism causing multisystem involvement in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnaz, Erdal; Savaş-Erdeve, Şenay; Keskin, Melikşah; Doğan, Vehbi; Çetinkaya, Semra; Aycan, Zehra

    2016-01-01

    The most common reason of acquired hypothyroidism is autoimmune (Hashimoto) thyroiditis. Autoimmune thyroiditis can be atrophic or goitrogenic. Atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis (ATT) related acquired hypothyroidism causes interruption of growth, obesity, and bone age retardation in early ages while goitrogenic thyroiditis has a higher incidence rate and mostly presents with diffuse goiter. We discuss the effects of hypothyroidism on various systems through a case found to have pericardial effusion during the echocardiography performed after cardiac murmur was detected and later diagnosed with ATT related hypothyroidism.

  18. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Kochiyama, Takanori; Miyahara, Motohide; Lederman, Susan J; Sadato, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control). The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes) in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience.

  19. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko; Sasaki, Akihiro T.; Kochiyama, Takanori; Miyahara, Motohide; Lederman, Susan J.; Sadato, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control). The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes) in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience. PMID:23372547

  20. Acetaldehyde involvement in ethanol’s postabsortive effects during early ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Mabel March

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and biomedical studies sustains the notion that early ontogeny is a vulnerable window to the impact of alcohol. Experiences with the drug during these stages increase latter disposition to prefer, use or abuse ethanol. This period of enhanced sensitivity to ethanol is accompanied by a high rate of activity in the central catalase system, which metabolizes ethanol in the brain. Acetaldehyde (ACD, the first oxidation product of ethanol, has been found to share many neurobehavioral effects with the drug. Cumulative evidence supports this notion in models employing adults. Nevertheless very few studies have been conducted to analyze the role of acetaldehyde in ethanol postabsorptive effects, in newborns or infant rats. In this work we review recent experimental literature that syndicates ACD as a mediator agent of reinforcing aspects of ethanol, during early ontogenetic stages. We also show a meta-analytical correlational approach that propose how differential concentrations of central catalase across ontogeny, could be modulating patterns of ethanol affinity.

  1. Early cysteine-dependent inactivation of 26S proteasomes does not involve particle disassembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Hugo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Under oxidative stress 26S proteasomes suffer reversible disassembly into its 20S and 19S subunits, a process mediated by HSP70. This inhibits the degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins by the 26S proteasome and allows the degradation of oxidized proteins by a free 20S proteasome. Low fluxes of antimycin A-stimulated ROS production caused dimerization of mitochondrial peroxiredoxin 3 and cytosolic peroxiredoxin 2, but not peroxiredoxin overoxidation and overall oxidation of cellular protein thiols. This moderate redox imbalance was sufficient to inhibit the ATP stimulation of 26S proteasome activity. This process was dependent on reversible cysteine oxidation. Moreover, our results show that this early inhibition of ATP stimulation occurs previous to particle disassembly, indicating an intermediate step during the redox regulation of the 26S proteasome with special relevance under redox signaling rather than oxidative stress conditions.

  2. Early- and late-stage morphea subtypes with deep tissue involvement is treatable with Abatacept (Orencia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeeb, Fahd; Anjum, Shakeel; Hodnett, Philip; Kashif, Ahmad; Brady, Mary; Morrissey, Siobhan; Devlin, Joseph; Fraser, Alexander Duncan

    2017-06-01

    This case series explores the potential efficacy of Abatacept in patients presenting with morphea subtypes and deep tissue involvement. Three patients with established morphea subtypes and deep tissue involvement and with no contraindication to Abatacept were included in this prospective open-label study. The index patient was exceptionally severely affected with a mean Modified Rodnan Skin Score (MRSS) of 38/51. At baseline, whole-body MRI and skin biopsy were performed which confirmed classical deposition of dense fibrous tissue in the appropriate layer of the skin. MRSS was performed independently by three clinicians and VAS scores (10cm) were measured at baseline for Patient Global Disease Activity (PGDA), Patient Global Pain (PGP), Patient Day Pain (PDP), Patient Night Pain (PNP), and Physician Global Disease Activity (PhGDA). Patients 2 and 3 were similarly screened at baseline except for MRI. Patients were commenced on Abatacept as per body weight (10mg/kg) given intravenously with concomitant tapering dose of oral prednisolone. All three were re-assessed at 6 months and the index case was further re-assessed at 18 months. All patients tolerated the Abatacept well and showed dramatic improvement. The index patient's clinical signs and symptoms, whole-body MRI, and mean Modified Rodnan Skin Score improved dramatically from baseline by 37% at 6 months and by 74% at 18 months. There were no clinically significant adverse outcomes noted. We present three cases, one with exceptionally severe disease, which demonstrated excellent clinical response to Abatacept. Abatacept is a promising option for the treatment of severe or resistant morphea, especially in those with deep tissue involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional state of the bronchopulmonary system in Mayak nuclear workers inhaled plutonium-239 aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaeva, Z.; Grigoryeva, E.; Khokhryakov, V. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The current system of the individual and collective protection facilities for nuclear personnel permits decreasing the radiation dose from internal emitters at the most. At the same time, specific production conditions do not exclude possible inhalation of plutonium-239 aerosols. As the lung is the critical organ for this isotope, the study of respiratory function is aimed at detecting of pre-clinical lung pathology. Early detection of internal exposure effects on functional state of respiratory apparatus is difficult due to a number of confounding actors of non-radiation nature, one of which is smoking. Functional state of bronchopulmonary system was studied in 386 males, workers of the first Russian nuclear facility. 1198 examinations were carried out during medical inspection as well as hospitalization for routine preventive inspection. Most of males (39.4%) started working at the age of 21-26 years and 27.2% at the age of 20 years. The main factors of occupational exposure were exposure to plutonium-239 aerosols and the external gamma -rays. The absorbed dose to lungs from incorporated plutonium-239 was 0-435.8 c Gy. Whole-body external gamma dose varied from 0 to 382 c Gy at the examination. Individual dosimetry data were provided by the Mayak Radiation Safety Department and Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute. While studying respiratory function, the most informative indices characterizing the state of lung tissue and tracheobronchial system such as vital capacity inspiration, forced expiratory volume, forced inspiratory volume, test Tiffno, diffusion capacity, characteristics of the flow vs. volume of the forced vital capacity inspiration curve, and resistance were used. Analysis was done separately for smokers and nonsmokers. Smoking index, i.e. product of number of smoked cigarettes per day and number of years of smoking was considered an integral value. The study did not reveal the

  4. Functional state of the bronchopulmonary system in Mayak nuclear workers inhaled plutonium-239 aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaeva, Z.; Grigoryeva, E.; Khokhryakov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The current system of the individual and collective protection facilities for nuclear personnel permits decreasing the radiation dose from internal emitters at the most. At the same time, specific production conditions do not exclude possible inhalation of plutonium-239 aerosols. As the lung is the critical organ for this isotope, the study of respiratory function is aimed at detecting of pre-clinical lung pathology. Early detection of internal exposure effects on functional state of respiratory apparatus is difficult due to a number of confounding actors of non-radiation nature, one of which is smoking. Functional state of bronchopulmonary system was studied in 386 males, workers of the first Russian nuclear facility. 1198 examinations were carried out during medical inspection as well as hospitalization for routine preventive inspection. Most of males (39.4%) started working at the age of 21-26 years and 27.2% at the age of 20 years. The main factors of occupational exposure were exposure to plutonium-239 aerosols and the external gamma -rays. The absorbed dose to lungs from incorporated plutonium-239 was 0-435.8 c Gy. Whole-body external gamma dose varied from 0 to 382 c Gy at the examination. Individual dosimetry data were provided by the Mayak Radiation Safety Department and Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute. While studying respiratory function, the most informative indices characterizing the state of lung tissue and tracheobronchial system such as vital capacity inspiration, forced expiratory volume, forced inspiratory volume, test Tiffno, diffusion capacity, characteristics of the flow vs. volume of the forced vital capacity inspiration curve, and resistance were used. Analysis was done separately for smokers and nonsmokers. Smoking index, i.e. product of number of smoked cigarettes per day and number of years of smoking was considered an integral value. The study did not reveal the

  5. Brain MRI and SPECT in the diagnosis of early neurological involvement in Wilson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piga, Mario; Satta, Loredana; Serra, Alessandra; Loi, Gianluigi [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Murru, Alessandra; Demelia, Luigi [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Gastroenterology, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Sias, Alessandro [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Radiology, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Marrosu, Francesco [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Neurology, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy)

    2008-04-15

    To evaluate the impact of brain MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in early detection of central nervous system abnormalities in patients affected by Wilson's disease (WD) with or without neurological involvement. Out of 25 consecutive WD patients, 13 showed hepatic involvement, ten hepatic and neurological manifestations, and twp hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric symptoms, including mainly movement disorders, major depression, and psychosis. Twenty-four healthy, age-gender matched subjects served as controls. All patients underwent brain MRI and {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl-cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT before starting specific therapy. Voxel-by-voxel analyses were performed using statistical parametric mapping to compare differences in {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain uptake between the two groups. Brain MRI showed T2-weighted hyperintensities in seven patients (28%), six of whom were affected by hepatic and neurological forms. Brain perfusion SPECT showed pathological data in 19 patients (76%), revealing diffuse or focal hypoperfusion in superior frontal (Brodmann area (BA) 6), prefrontal (BA 9), parietal (BA 40), and occipital (BA 18, BA 39) cortices in temporal gyri (BA 37, BA 21) and in caudatus and putamen. Moreover, hepatic involvement was detected in nine subjects; eight presented both hepatic and neurological signs, while two exhibited WD-correlated hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric alterations. All but one patient with abnormal MRI matched with abnormal ECD SPECT. Pathologic MRI findings were obtained in six out of ten patients with hepatic and neurological involvement while abnormal ECD SPECT was revealed in eight patients. Both patients with hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric involvement displayed abnormal ECD SPECT and one displayed an altered MRI. These findings suggest that ECD SPECT might be useful in detecting early brain damage in WD, not only in the perspective of assessing and treating motor impairment but also in evaluating

  6. Aneuploidy involving chromosome 1 may be an early predictive marker of intestinal type gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L. [Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Ynysmaerdy, Llantrisant CF72 8XR (United Kingdom); Somasekar, A. [Institute of Life Science, Swansea School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea SA28PP (United Kingdom); Neath Port Talbot Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust, Baglan Way, Port Talbot SA12 7BX (United Kingdom); Davies, D.J.; Cronin, J.; Doak, S.H. [Institute of Life Science, Swansea School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea SA28PP (United Kingdom); Alcolado, R. [Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Ynysmaerdy, Llantrisant CF72 8XR (United Kingdom); Williams, J.G. [Neath Port Talbot Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust, Baglan Way, Port Talbot SA12 7BX (United Kingdom); Griffiths, A.P. [Department of Histopathology, Morriston Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust, Morriston, SA66NL (United Kingdom); Baxter, J.N. [Department of Surgery, Morriston Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust, Morriston, SA66NL (United Kingdom); Jenkins, G.J.S., E-mail: g.j.jenkins@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Life Science, Swansea School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea SA28PP (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-02

    Intestinal type gastric cancer is a significant cause of mortality, therefore a better understanding of its molecular basis is required. We assessed if either aneuploidy or activity of the oncogenic transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B), increased incrementally during pre-malignant gastric histological progression and also if they correlated with each other in patient samples, as they are both induced by oxygen free radicals. In a prospective study of 54 (aneuploidy) and 59 (NF-{kappa}B) consecutive patients, aneuploidy was assessed by interphase fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) for chromosome 1. NF-{kappa}B was assessed by expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), and in a subset, by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for active p65. Aneuploidy levels increased incrementally across the histological series. 2.76% of cells with normal histology (95% CI, 2.14-3.38%) showed background levels of aneuploidy, this increased to averages of 3.78% (95% CI, 3.21-4.35%), 5.89% (95% CI, 3.72-8.06%) and 7.29% (95% CI, 4.73-9.85%) of cells from patients with gastritis, Helicobacter pylori positive gastritis and atrophy/intestinal metaplasia (IM) respectively. IL-8 expression was only increased in patients with current H. pylori infection. NF-{kappa}B analysis showed some increased p65 activity in inflamed tissues. IL-8 expression and aneuploidy level were not linked in individual patients. Aneuploidy levels increased incrementally during histological progression; were significantly elevated at very early stages of neoplastic progression and could well be linked to cancer development and used to assess cancer risk. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced in early gastric cancer are presumably responsible for the stepwise accumulation of this particular mutation, i.e. aneuploidy. Hence, aneuploidy measured by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) coupled to brush cytology, would be worthy of consideration as a predictive marker in gastric cancer and could be

  7. Aneuploidy involving chromosome 1 may be an early predictive marker of intestinal type gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.; Somasekar, A.; Davies, D.J.; Cronin, J.; Doak, S.H.; Alcolado, R.; Williams, J.G.; Griffiths, A.P.; Baxter, J.N.; Jenkins, G.J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal type gastric cancer is a significant cause of mortality, therefore a better understanding of its molecular basis is required. We assessed if either aneuploidy or activity of the oncogenic transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), increased incrementally during pre-malignant gastric histological progression and also if they correlated with each other in patient samples, as they are both induced by oxygen free radicals. In a prospective study of 54 (aneuploidy) and 59 (NF-κB) consecutive patients, aneuploidy was assessed by interphase fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) for chromosome 1. NF-κB was assessed by expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), and in a subset, by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for active p65. Aneuploidy levels increased incrementally across the histological series. 2.76% of cells with normal histology (95% CI, 2.14-3.38%) showed background levels of aneuploidy, this increased to averages of 3.78% (95% CI, 3.21-4.35%), 5.89% (95% CI, 3.72-8.06%) and 7.29% (95% CI, 4.73-9.85%) of cells from patients with gastritis, Helicobacter pylori positive gastritis and atrophy/intestinal metaplasia (IM) respectively. IL-8 expression was only increased in patients with current H. pylori infection. NF-κB analysis showed some increased p65 activity in inflamed tissues. IL-8 expression and aneuploidy level were not linked in individual patients. Aneuploidy levels increased incrementally during histological progression; were significantly elevated at very early stages of neoplastic progression and could well be linked to cancer development and used to assess cancer risk. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced in early gastric cancer are presumably responsible for the stepwise accumulation of this particular mutation, i.e. aneuploidy. Hence, aneuploidy measured by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) coupled to brush cytology, would be worthy of consideration as a predictive marker in gastric cancer and could be clinically useful in pre

  8. Technology of physical rehabilitation of children with bronchopulmonary diseases in the conditions of hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Ivasyk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the development of technology of physical rehabilitation of children with bronchopulmonary diseases. Material & Methods: general scientific – analysis, conception and generalization, synthesis, comparison, abstraction. Results: technology of physical rehabilitation for children with bronchopulmonary diseases (BD, which is directed to the restoration and the development of physiological functions of a child, the prevention of synchronization of sharp processes, the elimination of negative changes in health of a child, the assistance in creation of conditions for adaptation to changes as a result of disease in life situations, is offered. Conclusions: the program and its activity including basic and variable components is the compound of the offered technology of physical rehabilitation for children with BD in the conditions of hospitalization.

  9. Early effects of gliadin on enterocyte intracellular signalling involved in intestinal barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, M G; De Virgiliis, S; Kang, J S; Macatagney, R; Musu, M P; Di Pierro, M R; Drago, S; Congia, M; Fasano, A

    2003-02-01

    Despite the progress made in understanding the immunological aspects of the pathogenesis of coeliac disease (CD), the early steps that allow gliadin to cross the intestinal barrier are still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to establish whether gliadin activates a zonulin dependent enterocyte intracellular signalling pathway(s) leading to increased intestinal permeability. The effect of gliadin on the enterocyte actin cytoskeleton was studied on rat intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cell cultures by fluorescence microscopy and spectrofluorimetry. Zonulin concentration was measured on cell culture supernatants by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Transepithelial intestinal resistance (Rt) was measured on ex vivo intestinal tissues mounted in Ussing chambers. Incubation of cells with gliadin led to a reversible protein kinase C (PKC) mediated actin polymerisation temporarily coincident with zonulin release. A significant reduction in Rt was observed after gliadin addition on rabbit intestinal mucosa mounted in Ussing chambers. Pretreatment with the zonulin inhibitor FZI/0 abolished the gliadin induced actin polymerisation and Rt reduction but not zonulin release. Gliadin induces zonulin release in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Activation of the zonulin pathway by PKC mediated cytoskeleton reorganisation and tight junction opening leads to a rapid increase in intestinal permeability.

  10. Reconceptualizing Indigenous Parent Involvement in Early Educational Settings: Lessons from Native Hawaiian Preschool Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Kaomea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous families are often perceived by teachers and school administrators as disinterested and uninvolved in their children’s education. This article aims to complicate that longstanding stereotype. A detailed, qualitative case study of two Native Hawaiian preschool families reveals compelling counterstories of Indigenous parents who are deeply concerned about their children’s education, but are limited in their family-school involvement by a range of (postcolonial, social, psychological, and economic challenges that make it difficult for them to engage with schools in conventional ways. The study raises awareness of the skillful resolve with which Indigenous families employ their limited resources to support their children’s education. It challenges educators and policy makers to imagine creative possibilities for drawing Indigenous families into collaborative activity with contemporary schools.

  11. Doses to head and neck normal tissues for early stage Hodgkin lymphoma after involved node radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraldo, M.V.; Brodin, N.P.; Aznar, M.C.; Vogelius, I.R.; Munck af Rosenschöld, P.; Petersen, P.M.; Specht, L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dose plans for head and neck organs at risk (OARs) for classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients using involved node radiotherapy (INRT) delivered as 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and intensity modulated proton therapy (PT), in comparison to the past mantle field (MF). Materials and methods: Data from 37 patients with cervical lymph node involvement were used. All patients originally received chemotherapy followed by 3DCRT–INRT (30.6 Gy). A VMAT–INRT, PT–INRT (both 30.6 Gy), and a MF plan (36 Gy) were simulated. Doses to head and neck OARs were compared with cumulative DVHs and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: The estimated median mean doses were 15.3, 19.3, 15.4, and 37.3 Gy (thyroid), 10.9, 12.0, 7.9, and 34.5 Gy (neck muscles), 2.3, 11.1, 1.8, and 37.1 Gy (larynx), 1.7, 5.1, 1.3, and 23.8 Gy (pharynx), 0.5, 0.8, 0.01, and 32.3 Gy (ipsilateral parotid), and 2.4, 3.8, 0.7, and 34.7 Gy (ipsilateral submandibular) with 3DCRT, VMAT, PT, and MF (all p < 0.0001), respectively. Conclusion: The use of INRT significantly lowered the estimated radiation dose to the head and neck OARs. VMAT appeared suboptimal compared to 3DCRT and PT, and for some patients, PT offered an additional gain

  12. Prevalence of bronchopulmonary pathology in the participants of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, N.S.; Yakushin, S.P.; Stulova, O.Yu.; Zajtseva, O.Yu.; Stroev, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiologic examination of the participants of the Chernobyl accident response is performed. Fact of acute effect of the Chernobyl aerosol inhalation on respiratory organs is found. Prevalence of bronchopulmonary diseases in participants of accident response is almost 2 times higher than that in reference group. Further program of investigations includes the hospital stage and the preventive measures at prehospital stage under ambulatory conditions. Assessments of the efficiency of performed treatment - prophylactic measures and their economic benefit are made [ru

  13. The mathematical pathogenetic factors analysis of acute inflammatory diseases development of bronchopulmonary system among infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Lezhenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose. To study the factor structure and to establish the associative interaction of pathogenetic links of acute diseases development of the bronchopulmonary system in infants.Materials and methods. The examination group consisted of 59 infants (average age 13.8 ± 1.4 months sick with acute inflammatory bronchopulmonary diseases. Also we tested the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(ОНD, vitamin D-binding protein, hBPI, cathelicidin LL-37, ß1-defensins, lactoferrin in blood serum with the help of immunoenzymometric analysis. Selection of prognostically important pathogenetic factors of acute bronchopulmonary disease among infants was conducted using ROC-analysis. The procedure for classifying objects was carried out using Hierarchical Cluster Analysis by the method of Centroid-based clustering. Results. Based on the results of the ROC-analysis were selected 15 potential predictors of the development of acute inflammatory diseases of the bronchopulmonary system among infants. The factor analysis made it possible to determine the 6 main components . The biggest influence in the development of the disease was made by "the anemia factor", "the factor of inflammation", "the maternal factor", "the vitamin D supply factor", "the immune factor" and "the phosphorus-calcium exchange factor” with a factor load of more than 0.6. The performed procedure of hierarchical cluster analysis confirmed the initial role of immuno-inflammatory components. The conclusions. The highlighted factors allowed to define a group of parameters, that must be influenced to achieve a maximum effect in carrying out preventive and therapeutic measures. First of all, it is necessary to influence the "the anemia factor" and "the calcium exchange factor", as well as the "the vitamin D supply factor". In other words, to correct vitamin D deficiency and carry out measures aimed at preventing the development of anemia. The prevention and treatment of the pathological course of

  14. Severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia improved by noninvasive positive pressure ventilation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Christian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This is the first report to describe the feasibility and effectiveness of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in the secondary treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Case presentation A former male preterm of Caucasian ethnicity delivered at 29 weeks gestation developed severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the age of six months he was in permanent tachypnea and dyspnea and in need of 100% oxygen with a flow of 2.0 L/minute via a nasal cannula. Intermittent nocturnal noninvasive positive pressure ventilation was then administered for seven hours daily. The ventilator was set at a positive end-expiratory pressure of 6 cmH2O, with pressure support of 4 cmH2O, trigger at 1.4 mL/second, and a maximum inspiratory time of 0.7 seconds. Over the course of seven weeks, the patient's maximum daytime fraction of inspired oxygen via nasal cannula decreased from 1.0 to 0.75, his respiratory rate from 64 breaths/minute to 50 breaths/minute and carbon dioxide from 58 mmHg to 44 mmHg. Conclusion Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation may be a novel therapeutic option for established severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. In the case presented, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation achieved sustained improvement in ventilation and thus prepared our patient for safe home oxygen therapy.

  15. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia in children: contemporary diagnosis, consequences and their treatment (update 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Gonchar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the modern principles of diagnosing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD in children based on the guidelines of the American Thoracic and European Respiratory Societies. The article have aim to provide an optimal patient management. In modern world literature, BPD is considered as a diffuse parenchymal lung disease of preterm infants that require artificial ventilation and oxygen therapy for acute respiratory failure in the neonatal period. The form and degree of bronchopulmonary dysplasia severity are determined by the overall duration of oxygen dependence and gestational age. In infants, the disease can run with respiratory dysfunction, respiratory failure, asthma-like syndrome, increased susceptibility to respiratory infections, tobacco smoke, and pollutants. Some children with BPD have low tolerance to physical activity with hypersensitivity to hypoxia. 25–37 % of patients have pulmonary arterial hypertension. The article is focused on which should be paid attention when specifying the anamnesis of life and disease in the parents of the child. Current monitoring of the disease includes examination, evaluation of laboratory and instrumental studies. Analysis of the fibrobronchoscopy and bodipletismography data has the weak recommendation. Eliminating hypoxia, optimizing the nutritive status, determining the presence of an open arterial duct, specific drug therapy, and the use of vasodilators should be paid attention when treating a child with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The article presents a chart for the monitoring of a child with BPD and indications for hospitalization of the patient, expediency and usefulness necessary for practicing pediatricians, family doctors, pediatric pulmonologists.

  16. [Role of PET/CT in primitive non-small cell bronchopulmonary cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumia, Fdil; Leila, Achachi; Mohamed, Raoufi; Laila, Herrak; Mustapha, Elftouh

    2017-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary cancer is a real public health problem. Morphological imaging plays a central role in its diagnosis, staging as well as post-therapeutic assessment but it has some limitations. Metabolic imaging is a more recent technique which allows to significantly improve the overall imagery performance. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive and analytical study at the Ibn Sina Hospital and at the Military Hospital of instruction Mohammed V in Rabat over a period of 18 months, between September 2014 and February 2016, in order to evaluate the role of Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT in the staging and restaging of non-small cell bronchopulmonary cancer. Initial staging showed a vast majority of locally advanced and metastatic stages: stage IV (40%), Stage IIIB (36%), Stage IIIA (16%), Stage II (8%). PET-CT allowed to detect new sites which were not initially seen on CT scan in 24 cases: 15 new ganglion sites, 8 new adrenal sites and 6 sites of bone lesions. PET/CT allowed to modify initial tumor stage in 60% of cases: upstaging in 23 patients (46%) and downstaging in 7 patients(14%). The initial stage remained unchanged in 40% of patients. Our study confirms the data from the literature concerning the superiority of PET-CT in comparison with CT scan, but only in the optimization of the non-small cell bronchopulmonary cancer management, in particular in locoregional and distant staging.

  17. Involvement of ethylene biosynthesis and signalling in fruit set and early fruit development in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Cecilia; Manzano, Susana; Megías, Zoraida; Garrido, Dolores; Picó, Belén; Jamilena, Manuel

    2013-09-22

    We have identified a kind of parthenocarpy in zucchini squash which is associated with an incomplete andromonoecy, i.e. a partial conversion of female into bisexual flowers. Given that andromonoecy in this and other cucurbit species is caused by a reduction of ethylene production in the female flower, the associated parthenocarpic development of the fruit suggested the involvement of ethylene in fruit set and early fruit development. We have compared the production of ethylene as well as the expression of 13 ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes in pollinated and unpollinated ovaries/fruits of two cultivars, one of which is parthenocarpic (Cavili), while the other is non-parthenocarpic (Tosca). In the latter, unpollinated ovaries show an induction of ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signal transduction pathway genes three days after anthesis, which is concomitant with the initiation of fruit abortion and senescence. Fruit set and early fruit development in pollinated flowers of both cultivars and unpollinated flowers of Cavili is coupled with low ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, which would also explain the partial andromonoecy in the parthenocarpic genotype. The reduction of ethylene production in the ovary cosegregates with parthenocarpy and partial andromonoecy in the selfing progeny of Cavili. Moreover, the induction of ethylene in anthesis (by ethephon treatments) reduced the percentage of bisexual parthenocarpic flowers in Cavili, while the inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis or response (by AVG and STS treatments) induces not only andromonoecy but also the parthenocarpic development of the fruit in both cultivars. Results demonstrate that a reduction of ethylene production or signalling in the zucchini flower is able to induce fruit set and early fruit development, and therefore that ethylene is actively involved in fruit set and early fruit development. Auxin and TIBA treatments, inducing fruit set and early fruit development in this species

  18. Involvement of two microRNAs in the early immune response to DNA vaccination against a fish rhabdovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bela-ong, Dennis Berbulla; Schyth, Brian Dall; Zou, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms that account for the high protective efficacy in teleost fish of a DNA vaccine expressing the glycoprotein (G) of Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) are thought to involve early innate immune responses mediated by interferons (IFNs). Microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are a diverse...... class of small (18–22 nucleotides) endogenous RNAs that potently mediate post-transcriptional silencing of a wide range of genes and are emerging as critical regulators of cellular processes, including immune responses. We have recently reported that miR-462 and miR-731 were strongly induced in rainbow......RNAs using anti-miRNA oligonucleotides was conducted in poly I:C-treated rainbow trout fingerlings. Following VHSV challenge, anti-miRNA-injected fish had faster development of disease and higher mortalities than control fish, indicating that miR-462/731 may be involved in IFN-mediated protection conferred...

  19. Adiponectin but not leptin is involved in early hepatic disease in morbidly obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Anna Katharine; Edwards, Claire; Mendonsa, Alisha; Rojkind, Marcos; McCaffrey, Tim; Fu, Sidney; Brody, Fred

    2010-07-01

    investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the progression of fatty liver to fibrosis and cirrhosis.

  20. Systemic hydrocortisone to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants (the SToP-BPD study; a multicenter randomized placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onland Wes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomized controlled trials have shown that treatment of chronically ventilated preterm infants after the first week of life with dexamethasone reduces the incidence of the combined outcome death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. However, there are concerns that dexamethasone may increase the risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Hydrocortisone has been suggested as an alternative therapy. So far no randomized controlled trial has investigated its efficacy when administered after the first week of life to ventilated preterm infants. Methods/Design The SToP-BPD trial is a randomized double blind placebo controlled multicenter study including 400 very low birth weight infants (gestational age Discussion This trial will determine the efficacy and safety of postnatal hydrocortisone administration at a moderately early postnatal onset compared to placebo for the reduction of the combined outcome mortality and BPD at 36 weeks postmenstrual age in ventilator dependent preterm infants. Trial registration number Netherlands Trial Register (NTR: NTR2768

  1. Deciphering early events involved in hyperosmotic stress-induced programmed cell death in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monetti, Emanuela; Kadono, Takashi; Tran, Daniel; Azzarello, Elisa; Arbelet-Bonnin, Delphine; Biligui, Bernadette; Briand, Joël; Kawano, Tomonori; Mancuso, Stefano; Bouteau, François

    2014-03-01

    Hyperosmotic stresses represent one of the major constraints that adversely affect plants growth, development, and productivity. In this study, the focus was on early responses to hyperosmotic stress- (NaCl and sorbitol) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt) increase, ion fluxes, and mitochondrial potential variations, and on their links in pathways leading to programmed cell death (PCD). By using BY-2 tobacco cells, it was shown that both NaCl- and sorbitol-induced PCD seemed to be dependent on superoxide anion (O2·(-)) generation by NADPH-oxidase. In the case of NaCl, an early influx of sodium through non-selective cation channels participates in the development of PCD through mitochondrial dysfunction and NADPH-oxidase-dependent O2·(-) generation. This supports the hypothesis of different pathways in NaCl- and sorbitol-induced cell death. Surprisingly, other shared early responses, such as [Ca(2+)]cyt increase and singlet oxygen production, do not seem to be involved in PCD.

  2. Glial alterations from early to late stages in a model of Alzheimer's disease: Evidence of autophagy involvement in Aβ internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomilio, Carlos; Pavia, Patricio; Gorojod, Roxana Mayra; Vinuesa, Angeles; Alaimo, Agustina; Galvan, Veronica; Kotler, Monica Lidia; Beauquis, Juan; Saravia, Flavia

    2016-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease without effective therapy. Brain amyloid deposits are classical histopathological hallmarks that generate an inflammatory reaction affecting neuronal and glial function. The identification of early cell responses and of brain areas involved could help to design new successful treatments. Hence, we studied early alterations of hippocampal glia and their progression during the neuropathology in PDAPP-J20 transgenic mice, AD model, at 3, 9, and 15 months (m) of age. At 3 m, before deposits formation, microglial Iba1+ cells from transgenic mice already exhibited signs of activation and larger soma size in the hilus, alterations appearing later on stratum radiatum. Iba1 immunohistochemistry revealed increased cell density and immunoreactive area in PDAPP mice from 9 m onward selectively in the hilus, in coincidence with prominent amyloid Congo red + deposition. At pre-plaque stages, GFAP+ astroglia showed density alterations while, at an advanced age, the presence of deposits was associated with important glial volume changes and apparently being intimately involved in amyloid degradation. Astrocytes around plaques were strongly labeled for LC3 until 15 m in Tg mice, suggestive of increased autophagic flux. Moreover, β-Amyloid fibrils internalization by astrocytes in in vitro conditions was dependent on autophagy. Co-localization of Iba1 with ubiquitin or p62 was exclusively found in microglia contacting deposits from 9 m onward, suggesting torpid autophagy. Our work characterizes glial changes at early stages of the disease in PDAPP-J20 mice, focusing on the hilus as an especially susceptible hippocampal subfield, and provides evidence that glial autophagy could play a role in amyloid processing at advanced stages. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Towards a better understanding of caregiver distress in early psychosis: a systematic review of the psychological factors involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Gleeson, John; Cotton, Sue

    2015-02-01

    We sought to review empirical studies of psychological factors accounting for distress in caregivers of young people with early psychosis. Following the PRISMA guidelines, we included studies that empirically tested psychological models of caregiver distress in early psychosis by searching the following databases up until March 2014: PsycINFO, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). This was followed by additional manual searches of reference lists and relevant journals. The search identified 15 papers describing 13 studies together comprising 1056 caregivers of persons with early psychosis. The mean age of caregivers was 47.2years (SD=9.8), of whom 71.5% were female and 74.4% were parents. Nine different psychological variables were examined in the included studies, which were categorised in the following non-mutually exclusive groups: coping, appraisal/attribution and interpersonal response. There was considerable data to support the link between distress and psychological factors such as avoidant coping, appraisal and emotional over-involvement. However, the possibilities of drawing conclusions were limited by a number of methodological issues, including cross-sectional data, small sample sizes, confounding variables not being accounted for, and a wide variation in outcome measures. The strengths of the review were the systematic approach, the exclusion of non-empirical papers and the rating of methodological quality by two independent raters. Limitations were that we excluded studies published in languages other than English, that data extraction forms were developed for this study and hence not tested for validity, and that there was a potential publication bias in favour of significant findings. A better grasp of the psychological factors accounting for caregiver distress early in the course of illness may help us understand the trajectory of distress. This is an important step in preventing long-term distress in caregivers and

  4. Involved-Site Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Versus 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy in Early Stage Supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo, E-mail: andreariccardo.filippi@unito.it [Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Ciammella, Patrizia [Radiation Therapy Unit, Department of Oncology and Advanced Technology, ASMN Hospital IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Piva, Cristina; Ragona, Riccardo [Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Botto, Barbara [Hematology, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Gavarotti, Paolo [Hematology, University of Torino and Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Merli, Francesco [Hematology Unit, ASMN Hospital IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Vitolo, Umberto [Hematology, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Iotti, Cinzia [Radiation Therapy Unit, Department of Oncology and Advanced Technology, ASMN Hospital IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Ricardi, Umberto [Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows for margin reduction and highly conformal dose distribution, with consistent advantages in sparing of normal tissues. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare involved-site IG-IMRT with involved-site 3D conformal RT (3D-CRT) in the treatment of early stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) involving the mediastinum, with efficacy and toxicity as primary clinical endpoints. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 90 stage IIA HL patients treated with either involved-site 3D-CRT or IG-IMRT between 2005 and 2012 in 2 different institutions. Inclusion criteria were favorable or unfavorable disease (according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria), complete response after 3 to 4 cycles of an adriamycin- bleomycin-vinblastine-dacarbazine (ABVD) regimen plus 30 Gy as total radiation dose. Exclusion criteria were chemotherapy other than ABVD, partial response after ABVD, total radiation dose other than 30 Gy. Clinical endpoints were relapse-free survival (RFS) and acute toxicity. Results: Forty-nine patients were treated with 3D-CRT (54.4%) and 41 with IG-IMRT (45.6%). Median follow-up time was 54.2 months for 3D-CRT and 24.1 months for IG-IMRT. No differences in RFS were observed between the 2 groups, with 1 relapse each. Three-year RFS was 98.7% for 3D-CRT and 100% for IG-IMRT. Grade 2 toxicity events, mainly mucositis, were recorded in 32.7% of 3D-CRT patients (16 of 49) and in 9.8% of IG-IMRT patients (4 of 41). IG-IMRT was significantly associated with a lower incidence of grade 2 acute toxicity (P=.043). Conclusions: RFS rates at 3 years were extremely high in both groups, albeit the median follow-up time is different. Acute tolerance profiles were better for IG-IMRT than for 3D-CRT. Our preliminary results support the clinical safety and efficacy of advanced RT planning and delivery techniques in patients affected with early stage HL, achieving complete

  5. Early molecular events involved in Pinus pinaster Ait. somatic embryo development under reduced water availability: transcriptomic and proteomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Alexandre; Teyssier, Caroline; Trontin, Jean-François; Eliášová, Kateřina; Pešek, Bedřich; Beaufour, Martine; Morabito, Domenico; Boizot, Nathalie; Le Metté, Claire; Belal-Bessai, Leila; Reymond, Isabelle; Harvengt, Luc; Cadene, Martine; Corbineau, Françoise; Vágner, Martin; Label, Philippe; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2014-09-01

    Maritime pine somatic embryos (SEs) require a reduction in water availability (high gellan gum concentration in the maturation medium) to reach the cotyledonary stage. This key switch, reported specifically for pine species, is not yet well understood. To facilitate the use of somatic embryogenesis for mass propagation of conifers, we need a better understanding of embryo development. Comparison of both transcriptome (Illumina RNA sequencing) and proteome [two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (MS) identification] of immature SEs, cultured on either high (9G) or low (4G) gellan gum concentration, was performed, together with analysis of water content, fresh and dry mass, endogenous abscisic acid (ABA; gas chromatography-MS), soluble sugars (high-pressure liquid chromatography), starch and confocal laser microscope observations. This multiscale, integrated analysis was used to unravel early molecular and physiological events involved in SE development. Under unfavorable conditions (4G), the glycolytic pathway was enhanced, possibly in relation to cell proliferation that may be antagonistic to SE development. Under favorable conditions (9G), SEs adapted to culture constraint by activating specific protective pathways, and ABA-mediated molecular and physiological responses promoting embryo development. Our results suggest that on 9G, germin-like protein and ubiquitin-protein ligase could be used as predictive markers of SE development, whereas protein phosphatase 2C could be a biomarker for culture adaptive responses. This is the first characterization of early molecular mechanisms involved in the development of pine SEs following an increase in gellan gum concentration in the maturation medium, and it is also the first report on somatic embryogenesis in conifers combining transcriptomic and proteomic datasets. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  6. HDAC up-regulation in early colon field carcinogenesis is involved in cell tumorigenicity through regulation of chromatin structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Stypula-Cyrus

    Full Text Available Normal cell function is dependent on the proper maintenance of chromatin structure. Regulation of chromatin structure is controlled by histone modifications that directly influence chromatin architecture and genome function. Specifically, the histone deacetylase (HDAC family of proteins modulate chromatin compaction and are commonly dysregulated in many tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC. However, the role of HDAC proteins in early colorectal carcinogenesis has not been previously reported. We found HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, HDAC5, and HDAC7 all to be up-regulated in the field of human CRC. Furthermore, we observed that HDAC2 up-regulation is one of the earliest events in CRC carcinogenesis and observed this in human field carcinogenesis, the azoxymethane-treated rat model, and in more aggressive colon cancer cell lines. The universality of HDAC2 up-regulation suggests that HDAC2 up-regulation is a novel and important early event in CRC, which may serve as a biomarker. HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs interfere with tumorigenic HDAC activity; however, the precise mechanisms involved in this process remain to be elucidated. We confirmed that HDAC inhibition by valproic acid (VPA targeted the more aggressive cell line. Using nuclease digestion assays and transmission electron microscopy imaging, we observed that VPA treatment induced greater changes in chromatin structure in the more aggressive cell line. Furthermore, we used the novel imaging technique partial wave spectroscopy (PWS to quantify nanoscale alterations in chromatin. We noted that the PWS results are consistent with the biological assays, indicating a greater effect of VPA treatment in the more aggressive cell type. Together, these results demonstrate the importance of HDAC activity in early carcinogenic events and the unique role of higher-order chromatin structure in determining cell tumorigenicity.

  7. Early peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma regulated genes involved in expansion of pancreatic beta cell mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivas Yurena

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression towards type 2 diabetes depends on the allostatic response of pancreatic beta cells to synthesise and secrete enough insulin to compensate for insulin resistance. The endocrine pancreas is a plastic tissue able to expand or regress in response to the requirements imposed by physiological and pathophysiological states associated to insulin resistance such as pregnancy, obesity or ageing, but the mechanisms mediating beta cell mass expansion in these scenarios are not well defined. We have recently shown that ob/ob mice with genetic ablation of PPARγ2, a mouse model known as the POKO mouse failed to expand its beta cell mass. This phenotype contrasted with the appropriate expansion of the beta cell mass observed in their obese littermate ob/ob mice. Thus, comparison of these models islets particularly at early ages could provide some new insights on early PPARγ dependent transcriptional responses involved in the process of beta cell mass expansion Results Here we have investigated PPARγ dependent transcriptional responses occurring during the early stages of beta cell adaptation to insulin resistance in wild type, ob/ob, PPARγ2 KO and POKO mice. We have identified genes known to regulate both the rate of proliferation and the survival signals of beta cells. Moreover we have also identified new pathways induced in ob/ob islets that remained unchanged in POKO islets, suggesting an important role for PPARγ in maintenance/activation of mechanisms essential for the continued function of the beta cell. Conclusions Our data suggest that the expansion of beta cell mass observed in ob/ob islets is associated with the activation of an immune response that fails to occur in POKO islets. We have also indentified other PPARγ dependent differentially regulated pathways including cholesterol biosynthesis, apoptosis through TGF-β signaling and decreased oxidative phosphorylation.

  8. DOES FATHER INVOLVEMENT INFLUENCE THE AFFECT, LANGUAGE ACQUISITION, SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT AND BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG AUTISTIC CHILDREN? AN EARLY INTERVENTION STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Tabitha LOUIS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study adopts a randomized experimental design to evaluate the impact of a father-mediated therapy to improve the play skills, affect, language, social skills and behavior among 30 clinically diagnosed autistic children at the age of 3-5 years. Standardized inventories such as, The Play Based Observation (PBO, The Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS, The Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS and the Rendel Shorts Questionnaire were administered pre and post intervention. A special program that involved fathers in the caregiving and nurturing processes of these children was designed and implemented for 6 months after which the children were reassessed. Prior to the intervention, deficits in play skills and developmental delays across expressive and receptive language were observed Scores on the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and the Rendel Shorts revealed behavioral markers. Post intervention, we noticed significant differences in the play, language acquisition, social engagement and behavior in the treatment group in comparison to the control group. The results suggested that father-mediated therapeutic involvement significantly has proven to positively foster development in young autistic children and this is an important implication for practitioners in developing early intervention programs.

  9. Chest radiographic staging in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: relationship with immunological findings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, J L

    2012-02-03

    The question of whether a chest radiographic severity staging system could be correlated with standard blood\\/serum diagnostic indices in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) was addressed in 41 patients. Asthma and positive Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) serology were considered essential diagnostic inclusion criteria. Eosinophil count, serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E and immediate skin hypersensitivity were also tested to grade patients as "definite" or "likely" ABPA. Definite cases had all five of these factors present, whereas likely cases had three or more. Chest radiographs were examined by experienced radiologists blinded to the clinical data. The six-stage radiographic score (0-5) was based on the severity and duration of changes seen: stage 0: normal; stage 1: transient hyperinflation; stage 2: transient minor changes; stage 3: transient major changes; stage 4: permanent minor changes; and stage 5: permanent major changes. Significant positive correlations (p<0.05) were observed between peak AF titres (expressed as an index), peak eosinophil count and radiographic severity stage. When considered as subgroups, these correlations approached, but did not reach, significance for the group with "likely" ABPA (n=28), but in the group with definite ABPA (n=13), there was a high correlation between radiographic score and peak AF index (r=0.59), as well as peak eosinophil count (r=0.62). This study suggests that the peak Aspergillus fumigatus index and eosinophil counts correlate best with the severity of radiographic stages in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. This chest radiographic staging system may be useful in the clinical assessment and management of patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, particularly in those patients with more severe radiographic stages.

  10. Voriconazole in the treatment of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glackin, L

    2009-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) can cause a significant clinical deterioration in patients with cystic fibrosis. There is very little research in the current literature with regard to alternatives for treatment, apart from long courses of steroids. We conducted a retrospective review of all our patients with ABPA treated with the antifungal voriconazole and found there was a significant drop in IgE levels post treatment as well as a decrease in steroid dosing. The improvement in FEV was not statistically significant; however there was a very wide variation in pre-treatment levels.

  11. Incidence and severity of stage IV bronchopulmonary dysplasia in infants of very low birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, B.R.; Stevens, S.K.; Northway, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence and severity of stage IV bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in infants of very low birth weight, the authors reviewed the clinical course and chest radiographs of 138 such infants. In the lowest weight group ( 1500 g, 10%). However, the severity of BPD (graded by the Toce-Edwards Scale) was highest (6.3) in the < 1500-g group (< 900 g, 5.4; 1200-1500 g, 5.9). These data showed that, although the incidence of stage IV BVD significantly decreased as birth weight increased, the severity of chronic changes was independent of birth weight

  12. How to decrease bronchopulmonary dysplasia in your neonatal intensive care unit today and "tomorrow".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelin, Leif D; Bhandari, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or BPD, is the most common chronic lung disease in infants. Genetic predisposition and developmental vulnerability secondary to antenatal and postnatal infections, compounded with exposure to hyperoxia and invasive mechanical ventilation to an immature lung, result in persistent inflammation, culminating in the characteristic pulmonary phenotype of BPD of impaired alveolarization and dysregulated vascularization. In this article, we highlight specific areas in current management, and speculate on therapeutic strategies that are on the horizon, that we believe will make an impact in decreasing the incidence of BPD in your neonatal intensive care units.

  13. How to decrease bronchopulmonary dysplasia in your neonatal intensive care unit today and “tomorrow”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelin, Leif D.; Bhandari, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or BPD, is the most common chronic lung disease in infants. Genetic predisposition and developmental vulnerability secondary to antenatal and postnatal infections, compounded with exposure to hyperoxia and invasive mechanical ventilation to an immature lung, result in persistent inflammation, culminating in the characteristic pulmonary phenotype of BPD of impaired alveolarization and dysregulated vascularization. In this article, we highlight specific areas in current management, and speculate on therapeutic strategies that are on the horizon, that we believe will make an impact in decreasing the incidence of BPD in your neonatal intensive care units. PMID:28503300

  14. Role of Ureaplasma Respiratory Tract Colonization in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Pathogenesis: Current Concepts and Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscardi, Rose Marie; Kallapur, Suhas G

    2015-12-01

    Respiratory tract colonization with the genital mycoplasma species Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum in preterm infants is a significant risk factor for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Recent studies of the ureaplasmal genome, animal infection models, and human infants have provided a better understanding of specific virulence factors, pathogen-host interactions, and variability in genetic susceptibility that contribute to chronic infection, inflammation, and altered lung development. This review provides an update on the current evidence supporting a causal role of ureaplasma infection in BPD pathogenesis. The current status of antibiotic trials to prevent BPD in Ureaplasma-infected preterm infants is also reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Trends in Survival and Incidence of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Extremely Preterm Infants at 23–26 Weeks Gestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between survival and incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely premature infants, and identify clinical factors responsible for this association. Medical records of 350 infants at 23–26 weeks gestation from 2000 to 2005 (period I, n = 137) and 2006 to 2010 (period II, n = 213) were retrospectively reviewed. The infants were stratified into 23–24 and 25–26 weeks gestation, and the survival, BPD incidence, and clinical characteristics were analyzed. BPD was defined as oxygen dependency at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. The overall survival rate was significantly improved in period II compared to period I (80.3% vs. 70.0%, respectively; P = 0.028), especially in infants at 23–24 weeks gestation (73.9% vs. 47.4%, respectively; P = 0.001). The BPD incidence in survivors during period II (55.0%) was significantly decreased compared to period I (67.7%; P = 0.042), especially at 25–26 weeks gestation (41.7% vs. 62.3%, respectively; P = 0.008). Significantly improved survival at 23–24 weeks gestation was associated with a higher antenatal steroid use and an improved 5-minute Apgar score. A significant decrease in BPD incidence at 25–26 weeks gestation was associated with early extubation, prolonged use of less invasive continuous positive airway pressure, and reduced supplemental oxygen. Improved perinatal and neonatal care can simultaneously lead to improved survival and decreased BPD incidence in extremely premature infants. PMID:26955244

  16. Characterization of early events involved in human dendritic cell maturation induced by sensitizers: Cross talk between MAPK signalling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trompezinski, Sandra; Migdal, Camille; Tailhardat, Magalie; Le Varlet, Beatrice; Courtellemont, Pascal; Haftek, Marek; Serres, Mireille

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs), efficient-antigen presenting cells play an important role in initiating and regulating immune responses. DC maturation following exposure to nickel or DNCB induced an up-regulation of phenotypic markers and inflammatory cytokine secretion. Early intracellular mechanisms involved in DC maturation required to be precise. To address this purpose, DCs derived from human monocytes were treated with sensitizers (nickel, DNCB or thimerosal) in comparison with an irritant (SDS). Our data confirming the up-regulation of CD86, CD54 and cytokine secretion (IL-8 and TNFα) induced by sensitizers but not by SDS, signalling transduction involved in DC maturation was investigated using these chemicals. Kinase activity measurement was assessed using two new sensitive procedures (Face TM and CBA) requiring few cells. SDS did not induce changes in signalling pathways whereas NiSO 4 , DNCB and thimerosal markedly activated p38 MAPK and JNK, in contrast Erk1/2 phosphorylation was completely inhibited by DNCB or thimerosal and only activated by nickel. A pre-treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) suppressed Erk1/2 inhibition induced by DNCB or thimerosal demonstrating a direct interaction between p38 MAPK and Erk1/2. A pre-treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) markedly reduced Erk1/2 inhibition and p38 MAPK phosphorylation induced by DNCB and thimerosal, suggesting a direct activation of p38 MAPK via an oxidative stress and a regulation of MAPK signalling pathways depending on chemicals. Because of a high sensitivity of kinase activity measurements, these procedures will be suitable for weak or moderate sensitizer screening

  17. Early involvement in friendships predicts later plasma concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin in juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

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    Tamara Aliza Rachel Weinstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP are involved in social bonding in attachment relationships, but their role in friendship is poorly understood. We investigated whether rhesus macaques’ (Macaca mulatta friendships at age one predicted plasma OT and AVP at two later time points. Subjects were 54 rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center. Blood was drawn during a brief capture-and-release in the home cage, and plasma assayed for OT and AVP using an enzyme immunoassay. Separate linear mixed models for each sex tested the effects of dominance rank, age, sampling time point, housing condition, parturition status, two blood draw timing measures, and five friendship types: proximity friendships, play friendships, reciprocal friendships (a preference for a peer that also preferred the subject, multiplex friendships (friendships displayed in more than one behavioral domain, and total number of friendships. Females’ number of reciprocal and play friendships at age one significantly predicted later OT; additionally, these two friendship types interacted with rank, such that high-ranking females with the fewest friendships had the highest OT concentrations. Friendship did not predict later OT levels in males, however proximity, play, reciprocal, and total number of friendships predicted males’ plasma AVP. Play and total number of friendships also tended to predict AVP in females. Our results show that peripheral measures of neuroendocrine functioning in juvenile rhesus monkeys are influenced by early involvement in friendships. Friendships have an especially strong impact on an individual’s psychosocial development, and our data suggest OT and AVP as potential underlying mechanisms. Moreover, sex differences in the functioning of the OT and AVP systems, and their relation to friendship, may have important clinical implications for the use of OT as a therapeutic, as well as informing the social context in

  18. Lung Volume Reduction Surgery for Respiratory Failure in Infants With Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Bongyeon; Park, Samina; Park, In Kyu; Kim, Young Tae; Park, June Dong; Park, Sung-Hye; Kang, Chang Hyun

    2018-04-01

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) can be performed in patients with severe emphysematous disease. However, LVRS in pediatric patients has not yet been reported. Here, we report our experience with 2 cases of pediatric LVRS. The first patient was a preterm infant girl with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and hypothyroidism. The emphysematous portion of the right lung was removed via sternotomy and right hemiclamshell incision. The patient was discharged on full-time home ventilator support for 3 months after the surgery. Since then, her respiratory function has improved continuously. She no longer needs oxygen supplementation or ventilator care. Her T-cannula was removed recently. The second patient was also a preterm infant girl with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. She was born with pulmonary hypertension and multiple congenital anomalies, including an atrial septal defect. Despite receiving the best supportive care, she could not be taken off the mechanical ventilator because of severe hypercapnia. We performed LVRS on the right lung via thoracotomy. She was successfully weaned off the mechanical ventilator 1 month after the surgery. She was discharged without severe complications at 3 months after the operation. At present, she is growing well with the help of intermittent home ventilator support. She can now tolerate an oral diet. Our experience shows that LVRS can be considered as a treatment option for pediatric patients with severe emphysematous lung. It is especially helpful for discontinuing prolonged mechanical ventilator care for patients with respiratory failure. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Ectopic ACTH secretion due to a bronchopulmonary carcinoid localized by somatostatin receptor scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, G; Pfohl, M; Dörr, U; Weiss, E M; Seif, F J

    1994-11-01

    We present the case of a 65-year-old woman with an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreting bronchopulmonary carcinoid. This patient showed the typical long history of Cushing's syndrome, including hypokaliemia, impaired glucose tolerance, high levels of ACTH and beta-endorphin, and coproduction of other peptides. At the onset of clinical symptoms in 1979 an adrenal adenoma was suspected, and left-sided adrenalectomy was performed. The symptoms soon recurred, and the diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome was made. As no ACTH-secreting tumor was found, the right adrenal was resected, and the patient was followed up regularly. Fourteen years later chest roentgenography and computed tomography revealed a para-aortic pulmonary lesion, which was suspicious for a bronchopulmonary carcinoid. ACTH and beta-endorphin were excessively, pancreatic polypeptide slightly elevated at that time. The final diagnosis was made using somatostatin receptor scintigraphy which confirmed the hormonal activity of the suspicious lesion; no additional focus was found. This method turned out to be not only a useful additional localization technique but also a promising tool for characterization and staging of a suspected ACTH-producing carcinoid. The tumor was resected curatively, and the diagnosis was confirmed histologically.

  20. Radiological diagnosis of immunologically mediated disorders of the bronchopulmonary system in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, F.

    1990-01-01

    After coverage of pathophysiological mechanisms, radiological symptoms and differential diagnosis of bacterial and opportunistic infections of the bronchopulmonary system are discussed as they occur in humoral, cellular and combined congenital and acquired immune deficiencies. The discussion is based on case reports. Humoral deficiences cause recurrent and chronic bacterial infections of the bronchopulmonary system, frequently with bronchiectasis. In the case of cellular and combined immune deficiencies, not only bacterial infections but also the very serious opportunistic infections occur. Opportunistic infections of the lung are predominantly caused by Pneumocystis carinii, by the cytomegaly virus, and by fungi such as Candida, Aspergillus and Mucor. Pneumocystis is also the most frequent cause of opportunistic infections of the lungs in children with AIDS. In contrast to the situation in adults, in children a relatively low-grade lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis occasionally precedes the typical opportunistic infections. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis and Pneumocystis pneumonia can be differentiated from each other easily in children because of their relatively characteristic appearances. Fungal infections, on the other hand, sometimes pose severe diagnostic problems. Radiological chest findings in autoimmune diseases are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Pulmonary scintigraphy using 197HgCl2 and pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy in bronchopulmonary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Kanai, Hisakata; Handa, Kenjiro; Kusama, Shozo

    1981-01-01

    75 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 106 patients with bronchopulmonary diseases whose chest x-rays showed diffuse shadows were studied. Pulmonary scintigraphy using 197 HgCl 2 was useful for the diagnosis of the localization and the activity of pulmonary tuberculosis, because 197 HgCl 2 readily accumulated in the foci, and its accumulation rate was related to the activity of the foci. 197 HgCl 2 also accumulated markedly in foci of pneumoconiosis, especially, in areas showing large shadows and foci suspected to be tuberculosis. 197 HgCl 2 also accumulated in areas of chronic bronchitis, diffuse interstitial pneumonia and bronchiectasis. Its accumulation was considered to have a relation to the activity of inflammation. In primary pulmonary carcinoma, 197 HgCl 2 accumulated most markedly, in the primary lesions. 197 HgCl 2 also accumulated in metastatic or invasion areas of the hilus and the mediastinum. It accumulated in intrapulmonary metastatic foci of pulmonary carcinoma and multiple metastatic pulmonary tumors, but it was difficult to differentiate these diseases from other pulmonary diseases. In selected cases, it was useful to use pulmonary scintigraphy using 197 HgCl 2 together with pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy for the diagnosis of diffuse bronchopulmonary diseases. (Tsunoda, M.)

  2. Pleural irregularities and mediastinal pleural involvement in early stages of malignant pleural mesothelioma and benign asbestos pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Katsuya; Gemba, Kenichi; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Aoe, Keisuke; Takeshima, Yukio; Inai, Kouki; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2016-09-01

    To elucidate differences in the level and localization of pleural irregularities in early malignant pleural mesothelioma (eMPM) and benign asbestos pleural effusion (BAPE) using CT. Retrospective assessment of CT findings of consecutive patients with BAPE at a single centre and patients with eMPM reported in Japanese vital statistics. Thirty-six patients with confirmed diagnoses of BAPE and sixty-six patients with confirmed diagnoses of eMPM (mesothelioma stages T1 or T2) were included. Informed consent, CT scans, and clinical and pathologic details were obtained for all patients and were reviewed by one radiologist, two pathologists, and two pulmonologists. Asbestosis, pleural plaque, rounded atelectasis, and diffuse pleural thickening were assessed in all patients. Prevalence of asbestosis, pleural plaque, rounded atelectasis, and diffuse pleural thickening was significantly higher in the BAPE group. Low-level irregularity was more common in the BAPE group (ppleural irregularity was not observed in any patients in the BAPE group, although 55% of patients in the eMPM group showed interlobar pleural irregularity. Mediastinal pleural involvement was observed in 74% of patients in the eMPM group and had a positive predictive value of 89%. This study demonstrates that the level and localization of plural irregularities significantly differed between patients with BAPE and eMPM. Large-scale prospective studies are needed to fully establish the diagnostic utility of such differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gestational Exposure to Sidestream (Secondhand) Cigarette Smoke Promotes Transgenerational Epigenetic Transmission of Exacerbated Allergic Asthma and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shashi P; Chand, Hitendra S; Langley, Raymond J; Mishra, Neerad; Barrett, Ted; Rudolph, Karin; Tellez, Carmen; Filipczak, Piotr T; Belinsky, Steve; Saeed, Ali I; Sheybani, Aryaz; Exil, Vernat; Agarwal, Hemant; Sidhaye, Venkataramana K; Sussan, Thomas; Biswal, Shyam; Sopori, Mohan

    2017-05-15

    Embryonic development is highly sensitive to xenobiotic toxicity and in utero exposure to environmental toxins affects physiological responses of the progeny. In the United States, the prevalence of allergic asthma (AA) is inexplicably rising and in utero exposure to cigarette smoke increases the risk of AA and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in children and animal models. We reported that gestational exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke (SS), or secondhand smoke, promoted nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent exacerbation of AA and BPD in mice. Recently, perinatal nicotine injections in rats were reported to induce peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-dependent transgenerational transmission of asthma. Herein, we show that first generation and second generation progeny from gestationally SS-exposed mice exhibit exacerbated AA and BPD that is not dependent on the decrease in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ levels. Lungs from these mice show strong eosinophilic infiltration, excessive Th2 polarization, marked airway hyperresponsiveness, alveolar simplification, decreased lung compliance, and decreased lung angiogenesis. At the molecular level, these changes are associated with increased RUNX3 expression, alveolar cell apoptosis, and the antiangiogenic factor GAX, and decreased expression of HIF-1α and proangiogenic factors NF-κB and VEGFR2 in the 7-d first generation and second generation lungs. Moreover, the lungs from these mice exhibit lower levels of microRNA (miR)-130a and increased levels of miR-16 and miR-221. These miRs regulate HIF-1α-regulated apoptotic, angiogenic, and immune pathways. Thus the intergenerational effects of gestational SS involve epigenetic regulation of HIF-1α through specific miRs contributing to increased incidence of AA and BPD in the progenies. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. INCIDENCE OF BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA IN PRETERM NEWBORNS SUBMITTED TO MECHANICAL VENTILATION: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF 1250 PRETERM NEWBORNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilianna de Souza Vieira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the incidence of preterm newborn infants in mechanical ventilation who developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia in a public hospital at Fortaleza/CE. Method: Descriptive, retrospective and longitudinal quantitative analysis with 1250 preterm infants admitted to the Intensive Care Unit, Dr. César Cals General Hospital, at Fortaleza, from July 2006 to June 2007. Data collection occurred during two months, with visits to units twice a week, where the medical records were done. Were included in these sample newborns that were in mechanical ventilation and developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Then the gestational average was 28.6 weeks; the mean weight of infants was 1125.33 grams, born vaginally or cesarean section, of both sexes and with various primary diseases such as respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice and neonatal infection. Results: In the sample from the total admissions, 34.48% were for mechanical ventilation and 3.48% developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Conclusion: Despite the low prevalence, bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a important complication of prematurity, directly related to the duration of mechanical ventilation, thus the team must be committed on weaning and extubation of those as soon as possible, preferably within the first week of life.

  5. Anatomical Closure of Left-to-Right Shunts in Premature Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Pulmonary Hypertension: A Cautionary Tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra R. Dereddy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Closure of a systemic to pulmonary shunt in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia may be beneficial, but in the presence of pulmonary hypertension is controversial. Here, we discuss two premature infants with pulmonary hypertension who developed acute pulmonary hypertensive crisis after closure of these shunts and hence advise caution.

  6. Transcriptional profile of genes involved in ascorbate glutathione cycle in senescing leaves for an early senescence leaf (esl) rice mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaowei; Su, Da; Lei, Bingting; Wang, Fubiao; Geng, Wei; Pan, Gang; Cheng, Fangmin

    2015-03-15

    To clarify the complex relationship between ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle and H2O2-induced leaf senescence, the genotype-dependent difference in some senescence-related physiological parameters and the transcript levels and the temporal patterns of genes involved in the AsA-GSH cycle during leaf senescence were investigated using two rice genotypes, namely, the early senescence leaf (esl) mutant and its wild type. Meanwhile, the triggering effect of exogenous H2O2 on the expression of OsAPX genes was examined using detached leaves. The results showed that the esl mutant had higher H2O2 level than its wild type at the initial stage of leaf senescence. At transcriptional level, the association of expression of various genes involved in the AsA-GSH cycle with leaf senescence was isoform dependent. For OsAPXs, the transcripts of two cytosolic OsAPX genes (OsAPX1 and OsAPX2), thylakoid-bound OsAPX8, chloroplastic OsAPX7 and peroxisomal OsAPX4 exhibited remarkable genotype-dependent variation in their expression levels and temporal patterns during leaf senescence, there were significantly increasing transcripts of OsAXP1 and OsAPX7, severely repressed transcripts of OsAPX4 and OsAPX8 for the esl rice at the initial leaf senescence. In contrast, the repressing transcript of OsAPX8 was highly sensitive to the increasing H2O2 level in the senescing rice leaves, while higher H2O2 concentration resulted in the enhancing transcripts of two cytosolic OsAPX genes, OsAPX7 transcript was greatly variable with different H2O2 concentrations and incubating duration, suggesting that the different OsAPXs isoforms played a complementary role in perceiving and scavenging H2O2 accumulation at various H2O2 concentrations during leaf senescence. Higher H2O2 level, increased AsA level, higher activities of APX and glutathione reductase (GR), and relatively stable GSH content during the entire sampling period in the leaves of esl mutant implied that a close interrelationship existed

  7. Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest Mechanisms Involving Early B-Cell Development in Canine IgA Deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Olsson

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgAD is the most common primary immune deficiency disorder in both humans and dogs, characterized by recurrent mucosal tract infections and a predisposition for allergic and other immune mediated diseases. In several dog breeds, low IgA levels have been observed at a high frequency and with a clinical resemblance to human IgAD. In this study, we used genome-wide association studies (GWAS to identify genomic regions associated with low IgA levels in dogs as a comparative model for human IgAD. We used a novel percentile groups-approach to establish breed-specific cut-offs and to perform analyses in a close to continuous manner. GWAS performed in four breeds prone to low IgA levels (German shepherd, Golden retriever, Labrador retriever and Shar-Pei identified 35 genomic loci suggestively associated (p <0.0005 to IgA levels. In German shepherd, three genomic regions (candidate genes include KIRREL3 and SERPINA9 were genome-wide significantly associated (p <0.0002 with IgA levels. A ~20kb long haplotype on CFA28, significantly associated (p = 0.0005 to IgA levels in Shar-Pei, was positioned within the first intron of the gene SLIT1. Both KIRREL3 and SLIT1 are highly expressed in the central nervous system and in bone marrow and are potentially important during B-cell development. SERPINA9 expression is restricted to B-cells and peaks at the time-point when B-cells proliferate into antibody-producing plasma cells. The suggestively associated regions were enriched for genes in Gene Ontology gene sets involving inflammation and early immune cell development.

  8. Definition and outpatient management of the very low-birth-weight infant with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groothuis, Jessie R; Makari, Doris

    2012-04-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), also known as chronic lung disease of prematurity, is the major cause of pulmonary disease in infants. The pathophysiology and management of BPD have evolved over the past four decades as improved neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) modalities have increased survival rates. The likelihood for developing BPD increases with the degree of prematurity and reaches 25-35% in very low-birth-weight and extremely low-birth-weight infants. BPD affects many organ systems, and infants with BPD are at increased risk for rehospitalization and numerous complications following NICU discharge. The management of BPD and medically related problems, particularly during the first 2 years of life, remains a continuing challenge for parents and healthcare providers. It is important that a multidisciplinary team consisting of the neonatologist/attending physician, primary care physician, and other specialized support staff work in concert and meet regularly to provide continuity of care and accurate patient assessments.

  9. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: clinical practices in five Portuguese neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, H; Rocha, G; Vasconcellos, G; Proença, E; Carreira, M L; Sossai, M R; Morais, B; Martins, I; Rodrigues, T; Severo, M

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of surfactant, prenatal corticosteroids (PNC) and advances in technology, the survival rate of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants has improved dramatically. Rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) vary widely among neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and many studies using multiple interventions have shown some improvement in BPD rates. Implementing potentially better practices to reduce BPD has been an effort made over the last few decades. To compare five Portuguese NICUs in terms of clinical practices in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, in order to develop better practices to prevent BPD. 256 preterm neonates, gestational age (GA) NICU, must be addressed to increase the prescription of PNC, to use a lower FiO2, to be careful with fluid administration in the first weeks of life and to prevent PDA and sepsis. It is necessary to follow guidelines, recommendations or protocols to improve quality in the prevention of BPD.

  10. Post-bronchoscopy fatal endobronchial hemorrhage in a woman with bronchopulmonary mucormycosis: a case report

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    La Licata Francesco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction During infection, Mucorales fungi invade major blood vessels, leading to extensive necrosis, and in cases of extensive pulmonary disease, bleeding into the lungs may occur. Case presentation We report an unexpected event of post-bronchoscopy fatal endobronchial hemorrhage in a 62-year-old HIV-negative Italian woman with well controlled diabetes mellitus who presented with diffuse cavitated pulmonary lesions. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed bilateral obstruction of the segmental bronchi. Fatal massive bleeding occurred after standard biopsy procedures. Histologic examination showed that the hyphae were more deeply colored by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E than by other stains for fungi. Culture and autopsy confirmed bronchopulmonary mucormycosis. Conclusion Infection by Mucorales fungi should be considered in the diabetes population regardless of the degree of metabolic control. In these patients, particular caution should be taken during bronchoscopic procedures because of the greater friability of the fungal lesions.

  11. Abnormal subchondral bone microstructure following steroid administration is involved in the early pathogenesis of steroid-induced osteonecrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Zhang, L; Pan, H; Peng, S; Zhao, X; Lu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Loss of bone microstructure integrity is thought to be related to osteonecrosis. But the relationship between the time when bone microstructure integrity loss appears and the onset of osteonecrosis has not yet been determined. Our study demonstrated abnormal changes of subchondral bone microstructure involved in the early pathogenesis of osteonecrosis. Using a rabbit model, we investigated the changes of subchondral bone microstructure following steroid administration to identify the onset of abnormal bone microstructure development in steroid-induced osteonecrosis. Fifty-five adult female Japanese White rabbits (mean body weight 3.5 kg; mean age 24 months) were used and randomly divided among three time points (3, 7, and 14 days) consisting of 15 rabbits each, received a single intramuscular injection of methylprednisolone acetate (MP; Pfizer Manufacturing Belgium NV) at a dose of 4 mg/kg, and a control group consisting of 10 rabbits was fed and housed under identical conditions but were not given steroid injections. A micro-CT scanner was applied to detect changes in the trabecular region of subchondral bone of excised femoral head samples. Parameters including bone volume fraction (BV/TV), bone surface (BS), trabecular bone pattern factor (Tb.Pf), trabecular thickness/number/separation (Tb.Th, Tb.N, and Tb.Sp), and structure model index (SMI) were evaluated using the software CTAn (SkyScan). After micro-CT scans, bilateral femoral heads were cut in the coronal plane at a thickness of 4 μm. The sections were then stained with haematoxylin-eosin and used for the diagnosis of osteonecrosis and the rate of development of osteonecrosis. The BV/TV, BS, Tb.Th and Tb.N demonstrated a time-dependent decline from 3, 7, and 14 days compared with the control group, while the Tb.Pf, Tb.Sp and SMI demonstrated an increase at 3, 7, and 14 days compared with the control group. For the histopathology portion, osteonecrosis was not seen 3 days after steroid treatment, but was

  12. Congenital bronchopulmonary malformations: A single-center experience and a review of literature

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    Kumar Basant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present a single-center experience with 25 cases of bronchopulmonary malformations and the review the literature. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients with congenital bronchopulmonary malformations who were operated between July 1997 and July 2007 in our institute; we examined the modes of presentations, management, and outcome. Outcome of all patients was assessed over a short follow-up period (average 1.8 months. Results: Out of 25 patients, 18 (72% were male and 7 (28% were female. Age of patients ranged from 1 day to 11 years. The histopathological diagnosis was congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations [CCAM; n = 14 (56%], congenital lobar emphysema [CLE; n = 5 (20%], pulmonary sequestrations [PS; n = 3 (12%], and bronchogenic cysts [BC; n = 3 (12%]. Antenatal diagnosis was available in only 2 (8% patients. The common presenting symptoms were respiratory distress and chest infections. Lobectomy was the procedure of choice . Mortality was 16% (n = 4; M: F = 3: 1. Two patients died because of overwhelming sepsis, one from compromised cardiac function, and one from aspiration which might possibly have been prevented. Conclusion: Patients with progressive respiratory distress due to these anomalies may require urgent surgical intervention regardless of age. The surgical outcome is favorable, with manageable complications. Plain x-ray chest and CT of thorax are usually sufficient for diagnosis and planning of treatment. Pathological diagnosis may differ from the imaging diagnosis. Mortality is found to be more in neonates. Apart from initial stabilization, resection of lesion and careful postoperative care is necessary to reduce mortality and morbidity.

  13. Response to bronchodilators in very preterm infants with evolving bronchopulmonary dysplasia

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    Morrow DK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Daniel K Morrow, Diane Schilling, Cindy T McEvoy Department of Pediatrics, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA Background: There are few effective and safe medications to treat very low birth weight (VLBW infants with evolving bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Bronchodilators are often given to patients who have clinical signs of reactive airway disease, but there is not enough information regarding their effectiveness within this population. Objective: To quantify the pulmonary function response to bronchodilator therapy in a population of VLBW infants with evolving bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective analysis of an ongoing large database of pulmonary function tests (PFTs in premature infants. We reviewed the pre- and post-bronchodilator PFTs ordered by a physician due to concern for reactive airway disease. Inclusion criteria: Birth weight (BW <1,500 g; >14 days of age; admission diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome; requiring ongoing oxygen, continuous positive airway pressure, or ventilator support at the time of PFT. PFTs were done prior to albuterol therapy and repeated 30 minutes after the therapy was given. PFTs included the measurement of passive respiratory mechanics with the single breath occlusion technique, including passive respiratory system compliance, resistance, and tidal volume. Results: Forty VLBW infants (mean gestation of 27.4 weeks; mean BW of 848 g were identified as having PFTs. Twenty-nine of these patients had a BW of ≤1,000 g. The patients were studied at a mean corrected gestational age of 34.9 weeks. Twenty-nine of 40 patients were extubated at the time of the PFT. Of these patients, 21 (52.5% had a decrease in respiratory system resistance of ≥10%. From the other 19 patients, five (12.5% had a decrease of 0% to <10% in respiratory system resistance, and 14(35% showed no response to therapy. There was no significant difference in respiratory system

  14. Organ involvement in Argentinian systemic sclerosis patients with "late" pattern as compared to patients with "early/active" pattern by nailfold capillaroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino Claverie, Lucila; Knobel, Elizabeth; Takashima, Lorena; Techera, Lorena; Oliver, Marina; Gonzalez, Paula; Romanini, Félix E; Fonseca, María L; Mamani, Marta N

    2013-06-01

    Changes in nailfold capillaroscopy in systemic sclerosis patients could be related to the disease severity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with "late" scleroderma (SD) pattern have more organ involvement than patients with "early/active" SD pattern. Forty-six Argentinian patients (44 women and 2 men), with a diagnosis of systemic sclerosis, were distributed in two groups based on the presence of late and early/active patterns. Organ involvement was assessed as follows: pulmonary function by chest radiography, high-resolution chest tomography (HRCT), lung volume tests, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO); esophageal involvement by manometry; and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by Doppler echocardiography and six-minute walk test. Honeycombing of the lungs evaluated by HRCT was more frequently present in patients with late pattern compared with early/active patients (p = 0.01). We also found statistically significant differences in lung volume tests (p = 0.03) and DLCO (p = 0.02) between the two SD pattern groups. Esophageal manometry showed a significantly higher frequency of motility disorders in the group with late pattern (p = 0.0024). In this study, patients with late pattern had higher frequency of pulmonary and esophageal involvement compared with patients with early/active pattern.

  15. Interobserver delineation uncertainty in involved-node radiation therapy (INRT) for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma: on behalf of the Radiotherapy Committee of the EORTC lymphoma group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aznar, M.C.; Girinsky, T.; Berthelsen, A.K.; Aleman, B.; Beijert, M.; Hutchings, M.; Lievens, Y.; Meijnders, P.; Petersen, P.M.; Schut, D.; Maraldo, M.V.; Maazen, R.W. van der; Specht, L.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In early-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) the target volume nowadays consists of the volume of the originally involved nodes. Delineation of this volume on a post-chemotherapy CT-scan is challenging. We report on the interobserver variability in target volume definition

  16. Interobserver delineation uncertainty in involved-node radiation therapy (INRT) for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma : On behalf of the Radiotherapy Committee of the EORTC lymphoma group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aznar, Marianne C.; Girinsky, Theodore; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Aleman, Berthe M.; Beijert, Max; Hutchings, Martin; Lievens, Yolande; Meijnders, Paul; Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Schut, Deborah; Maraldo, Maja V.; van der Maazen, Richard W.; Specht, Lena

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose: In early-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) the target volume nowadays consists of the volume of the originally involved nodes. Delineation of this volume on a post-chemotherapy CT-scan is challenging. We report on the interobserver variability in target volume definition

  17. The effects of parental reading socialization and early school involvement on children's academic performance: A panel study of primary school pupils in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, J.G.; Notten, N.J.W.R.; Tolsma, J.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which parental reading socialization and early school involvement account for performance differences between low-status and high-status children in successive primary school grades. It investigates not only the direct effects of these parental practices on

  18. The effects of parental reading socialization and early school involvement on children's academicperformance : a panelstudy of primary school pupils in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.; Tolsma, J.; Kraaykamp, G.; Kloosterman, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which parental reading socialization and early school involvement account for performance differences between low-status and high-status children in successive primary school grades. It investigates not only the direct effects of these parental practices on

  19. The effects of parental reading socialization and early school involvement on children's academic performance: a panel study of primary school pupils in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloostermann, R.; Notten, N.; Tolsma, J.; Kraaykamp, G.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which parental reading socialization and early school involvement account for performance differences between low-status and high-status children in successive primary school grades. It investigates not only the direct effects of these parental practices on

  20. Phrenic motor outputs in response to bronchopulmonary C‐fibre activation following chronic cervical spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Key points Activation of bronchopulmonary C‐fibres, the main chemosensitive afferents in the lung, can induce pulmonary chemoreflexes to modulate respiratory activity.Following chronic cervical spinal cord injury, bronchopulmonary C‐fibre activation‐induced inhibition of phrenic activity was exaggerated.Supersensitivity of phrenic motor outputs to the inhibitory effect of bronchopulmonary C‐fibre activation is due to a shift of phrenic motoneuron types and slow recovery of phrenic motoneuron discharge in cervical spinal cord‐injured animals.These data suggest that activation of bronchopulmonary C‐fibres may retard phrenic output recovery following cervical spinal cord injury.The alteration of phenotype and discharge pattern of phrenic motoneuron enables us to understand the impact of spinal cord injury on spinal respiratory activity. Abstract Cervical spinal injury interrupts bulbospinal pathways and results in cessation of phrenic bursting ipsilateral to the lesion. The ipsilateral phrenic activity can partially recover over weeks to months following injury due to the activation of latent crossed spinal pathways and exhibits a greater capacity to increase activity during respiratory challenges than the contralateral phrenic nerve. However, whether the bilateral phrenic nerves demonstrate differential responses to respiratory inhibitory inputs is unclear. Accordingly, the present study examined bilateral phrenic bursting in response to capsaicin‐induced pulmonary chemoreflexes, a robust respiratory inhibitory stimulus. Bilateral phrenic nerve activity was recorded in anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated adult rats at 8–9 weeks after C2 hemisection (C2Hx) or C2 laminectomy. Intra‐jugular capsaicin (1.5 μg kg−1) injection was performed to activate the bronchopulmonary C‐fibres to evoke pulmonary chemoreflexes. The present results indicate that capsaicin‐induced prolongation of expiratory duration was significantly attenuated in C2Hx

  1. Characteristics of microbial community involved in early biofilms formation under the influence of wastewater treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuke; Li, Jie; Lu, Junling; Xiao, Lin; Yang, Liuyan

    2018-04-01

    Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) containing microorganisms and residual nutrients can influence the biofilm formation. Although the process and mechanism of bacterial biofilm formation have been well characterized, little is known about the characteristics and interaction of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes in the early colonization, especially under the influence of WWTP effluent. The aim of this study was to characterize the important bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic species in the early stage of biofilm formation downstream of the WWTP outlet. Water and biofilm samples were collected 24 and 48hr after the deposition of bio-cords in the stream. Illumina Miseq sequencing of the 16S and 18S rDNA showed that, among the three domains, the bacterial biofilm community had the largest alpha and beta diversity. The early bacterial colonizers appeared to be "biofilm-specific", with only a few dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared between the biofilm and the ambient water environment. Alpha-proteobacteria and Ciliophora tended to dominate the bacterial and eukaryotic communities, respectively, of the early biofilm already at 24hr, whereas archaea played only a minor role during the early stage of colonization. The network analysis showed that the three domains of microbial community connected highly during the early colonization and it might be a characteristic of the microbial communities in the biofilm formation process where co-occurrence relationships could drive coexistence and diversity maintenance within the microbial communities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The influence of sensation-seeking and parental and peer influences in early adolescence on risk involvement through middle adolescence: A structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the relationships between youth and parental sensation-seeking, peer influence, parental monitoring and youth risk involvement in adolescence using structural equation modeling. Beginning in grade-six, longitudinal data were collected from 543 students over three years. Youth sensation-seeking in grade six contributed to risk involvement in early adolescence (grades six and seven) indirectly through increased peer risk influence and decreased parental monitoring but did not have a direct contribution. It contributed directly and indirectly to risk involvement in middle adolescence (grades eight and nine). Parent sensation-seeking at baseline was positively associated with peer risk influence and negatively associated with parental monitoring; it had no direct effect on adolescent risk involvement. Parental monitoring buffers negative peer influence on adolescent risk involvement. Results highlight the need for intervention efforts to provide normative feedback about adolescent risky behaviors and to vary among families in which parents and/or youth have high sensation-seeking propensities.

  3. Extrapulmonary Conditions, Concomitant of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia, in Babies of the First 3 Years of Life: Results of a Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Kazakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are few data on co-occurring with bronchopulmonary dysplasia diseases but there is no single point of view on their mutual effect.Objective: Our aim was to learn the structure and frequency of extrapulmonary disease, concomitant of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, in children aged up to 3 years.Methods. A retrospective analysis of histories of 93 children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia with an analysis of the consequences of perinatal pathology structure was carried out.Results. On average, each patient with bronchopulmonary dysplasia accounted for 5 comorbidities. The most common (89; 96% were perinatal lesions of the nervous system and their consequences. In children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia at the age of 3 years there was a relatively low incidence of hydrocephalus and, on the contrary, high — of infantile cerebral palsy. Violations of the organs of vision were found in 58 (62% children, malnutrition and other violations of physical development — in 58 (62% and 27 (29%, respectively, and the cardiovascular system pathology — in 59 (63%.Conclusion. The most commonly, extrapulmonary pathology, co-occuring with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, includes neurological deficit with psychomotor retardation, violations of organs of vision, pathology of the cardiovascular system, malnutrition/delay in physical development.

  4. Differences between early and late involvement of palliative home care in oncology care: A focus group study with palliative home care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhollander, Naomi; Deliens, Luc; Van Belle, Simon; De Vleminck, Aline; Pardon, Koen

    2018-05-01

    To date, no randomised controlled trials on the integration of specialised palliative home care into oncology care have been identified. Information on whether existing models of integrated care are applicable to the home care system and how working procedures and skills of the palliative care teams might require adaptation is missing. To gain insight into differences between early and late involvement and the effect on existing working procedures and skills as perceived by palliative home care teams. Qualitative study - focus group interviews. Six palliative home care teams in Flanders, Belgium. Participants included physicians, nurses and psychologists. Differences were found concerning (1) reasons for initiation, (2) planning of care process, (3) focus on future goals versus problems, (4) opportunity to provide holistic care, (5) empowerment of patients and (6) empowerment of professional caregivers. A shift from a medical approach to a more holistic approach is the most noticeable. Being involved earlier also results in a more structured follow-up and in empowering the patient to be part of the decision-making process. Early involvement creates the need for transmural collaboration, which leads to the teams taking on more supporting and coordinating tasks. Being involved earlier leads to different tasks and working procedures and to the need for transmural collaboration. Future research might focus on the development of an intervention model for the early integration of palliative home care into oncology care. To develop this model, components of existing models might need to be adapted or extended.

  5. Natural infection by gastrointestinal and bronchopulmonary nematodes in mouflons (Ovis musimon) and their response to netobimin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meana, A; Luzón-Peña, M; Santiago-Moreno, J; De Bulnes, A; Gómez-Bautista, M

    1996-01-01

    Gastrointestinal and bronchopulmonary nematode infections and the efficacy of netobimin (Hapasil) were analyzed by way of fecal examination in 10 female mouflons (Ovis musimon), in central Spain, February 1993. Before treatment all 10 mouflons had Trichostrongylus axei, Teladorsagia circumcincta and Marshallagia spp.; sic had Nematodirus spp., two had Trichuris sp., one had Capillaria sp., seven had bronchopulmonary Dictyocaulus filaria and 10 mouflons had protostrongylid lungworms (Muellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens, Cystocaulus ocreatus or Neostrongylus linearis). Netobimin (7.5 mg/kg) was 100% effective against T. axei, T. circumcincta, Marshallagia spp., and D. filaria infections whereas one animal continued eliminating Nematodirus spp. eggs. The drug also was effective against Capillaria spp. but not against Trichuris spp. or protostrongylid infections.

  6. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia as a predictor factor for motor alteration at 6 months corrected age in premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Martins,Priscila Silveira; Mello,Rosane Reis de; Silva,Kátia Silveira da

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) as a predisposing factor for alteration in the psychomotor development index (PDI) in premature infants and verify the incidence of neuromotor alterations at 6 months corrected age. METHOD: This was a prospective cohort study that followed the neuromotor development of 152 very low birth weight premature infants, with psychomotor development index as the outcome. The study used the Bayley Scale of Infant Development at 6 mo...

  7. A Randomised Controlled Trial to Determine the Effectiveness of an Early Psychological Intervention with Children Involved in Road Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Paul; Velleman, Richard; Salter, Emma; Howse, Imogen; Yule, William; Taylor, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether an early intervention using a psychological debriefing format is effective in preventing psychological distress in child road traffic accident survivors. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Accident and Emergency Department, Royal United Hospital, Bath. Subjects: 158 children aged 7-18. Follow-up…

  8. Xp22.3 genomic deletions involving the CDKL5 gene in girls with early onset epileptic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Davide; Marini, Carla; Novara, Francesca; Bernardina, Bernardo D; Granata, Tiziana; Fontana, Elena; Parrini, Elena; Ferrari, Anna R; Murgia, Alessandra; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Guerrini, Renzo

    2010-04-01

    Mutations of the X-linked gene cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) cause an X-linked encephalopathy with early onset intractable epilepsy, including infantile spasms and other seizure types, and a Rett syndrome (RTT)-like phenotype. Very limited information is available on the frequency and phenotypic spectrum associated with CDKL5 deletions/duplications. We investigated the role of CDKL5 deletions/duplications in causing early onset intractable epilepsy of unknown etiology in girls. We studied 49 girls with early onset intractable epilepsy, with or without infantile spasms, and developmental impairment, for whom no etiologic factors were obvious after clinical examination, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and expanded screening for inborn errors of metabolism. We performed CDKL5 gene mutation analysis in all and multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification assay (MLPA) in those who were mutation negative. Custom Array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), breakpoint polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, and X-inactivation studies were performed in patients in whom MLPA uncovered a genomic alteration. We found CDKL5 mutations in 8.2% (4 of 49) of patients and genomic deletions in 8.2% (4 of 49). Overall, abnormalities of the CDKL5 gene accounted for 16.3% (8 of 49) of patients. CDKL5 gene deletions are an under-ascertained cause of early onset intractable epilepsy in girls. Genetic testing of CDKL5, including both mutation and deletion/duplication analysis, should be considered in this clinical subgroup.

  9. Development of left ventricular longitudinal speckle tracking echocardiography in very low birth weight infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia during the neonatal period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Czernik

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In preterm infants, postnatal myocardial adaptation may be complicated by bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. We aimed to describe the development of left ventricular function by serial 2D, Doppler, and speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE in infants with and without BPD during the neonatal period and compare these to anthropometric and conventional hemodynamic parameters. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective echocardiography on day of life (DOL 1, 7, 14, and 28 in 119 preterm infants 10% were seen for the apical segment. While anthropometric parameters show rapid development during the first 4 weeks of life, the speckle tracking parameters did not differ statistically significantly during the neonatal period. Infants with and without BPD differed significantly (p<0.001 in the development of anthropometric parameters, conventional hemodynamic parameters except for heart rate, and 2D-STE parameters: global longitudinal systolic strain rate (GLSSR and longitudinal systolic strain for the mid left wall (LSSR. The largest differences were seen at DOL 1 and 7 in GLSSR (p<0.001 and in LSSR (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Reproducible 2D-STE measurements are possible in preterm infants <1500 g. Cardiac deformation reveals early (DOL 1 and 7 ventricular changes (GLSSR and LSSR in very low birth weight infants who develop BPD.

  10. Assessing the risk of pelvic and para-aortic nodal involvement in apparent early-stage ovarian cancer: A predictors- and nomogram-based analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Tagliabue, Elena; Ditto, Antonino; Signorelli, Mauro; Martinelli, Fabio; Casarin, Jvan; Chiappa, Valentina; Dondi, Giulia; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Scaffa, Cono; Borghi, Chiara; Montanelli, Luca; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of lymph node involvement in early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer in order to assess the prognostic value of lymph node dissection. Data of consecutive patients undergoing staging for early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer were retrospectively evaluated. Logistic regression and a nomogram-based analysis were used to assess the risk of lymph node involvement. Overall, 290 patients were included. All patients had lymph node dissection including pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. Forty-two (14.5%) patients were upstaged due to lymph node metastatic disease. Pelvic and para-aortic nodal metastases were observed in 22 (7.6%) and 42 (14.5%) patients. Lymph node involvement was observed in 18/95 (18.9%), 1/37 (2.7%), 4/29 (13.8%), 11/63 (17.4%), 3/41 (7.3%) and 5/24 (20.8%) patients with high-grade serous, low-grade-serous, endometrioid G1, endometrioid G2&3, clear cell and undifferentiated, histology, respectively (p=0.12, Chi-square test). We observed that high-grade serous histology was associated with an increased risk of pelvic node involvement; while, histology rather than low-grade serous and bilateral tumors were independently associated with para-aortic lymph node involvement (p<0.05). Nomograms displaying the risk of nodal involvement in the pelvic and para-aortic areas were built. High-grade serous histology and bilateral tumors are the main characteristics suggesting lymph node positivity. Our data suggested that high-grade serous and bilateral early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer are at high risk of having disease harboring in the lymphatic tissues of both pelvic and para-aortic area. After receiving external validation, our data will help to identify patients deserving comprehensive retroperitoneal staging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Influence of Sensation-Seeking and Parental and Peer Influences in Early Adolescence on Risk Involvement through Middle Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between youth and parental sensation-seeking, peer influence, parental monitoring and youth risk involvement in adolescence using structural equation modeling. Beginning in Grade 6, longitudinal data were collected from 543 students over 3 years. Youth sensation-seeking in Grade 6 contributed to risk…

  12. 12 CFR 408.4 - Early involvement in foreign activities for which Eximbank financing may be requested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... which Eximbank financing may be requested. 408.4 Section 408.4 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF... form of Federal approval. Pursuant to the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as amended, Eximbank is asked to provide financing for transactions involving exports of U.S. goods and services for projects in...

  13. The effect of Early Head Start on child welfare system involvement: A first look at longitudinal child maltreatment outcomes☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Beth L.; Ayoub, Catherine; Bartlett, Jessica Dym; Von Ende, Adam; Furrer, Carrie; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel; Vallotton, Claire; Klevens, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    The high societal and personal costs of child maltreatment make identification of effective early prevention programs a high research priority. Early Head Start (EHS), a dual generational program serving low-income families with children prenatally through age three years, is one of the largest federally funded programs for infants and toddlers in the United States. A national randomized trial found EHS to be effective in improving parent and child outcomes, but its effectiveness in reducing child maltreatment was not assessed. The current study used administrative data from state child welfare agencies to examine the impact of EHS on documented abuse and neglect among children from seven of the original seventeen programs in the national EHS randomized controlled trial. Results indicated that children in EHS had significantly fewer child welfare encounters between the ages of five and nine years than did children in the control group, and that EHS slowed the rate of subsequent encounters. Additionally, compared to children in the control group, children in EHS were less likely to have a substantiated report of physical or sexual abuse, but more likely to have a substantiated report of neglect. These findings suggest that EHS may be effective in reducing child maltreatment among low-income children, in particular, physical and sexual abuse. PMID:26744550

  14. Experience of emotional stress and resilience in street-involved youth: the need for early mental health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCay, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Mental illness left untreated in adolescence and young adulthood can readily become a chronic illness in adulthood, seriously hampering the capacity of individuals to become healthy contributing members of society. Mental health challenges are of paramount importance to the health and well-being of Canadian adolescents and young adults, with 18% of Canadian youth, ages 15-24, reporting a mental illness (Leitch 2007). However, it is unlikely that this statistic accounts for those invisible youth (Rachlis et al. 2009) who are disconnected from families and caregivers, bereft of stable housing and familial support - in other words, youth who are street-involved. Mental health risk is amplified in street-involved youth and, as such, must be recognized as a priority for policy development that commits to accessible mental health programming, in order to realize the potential of these vulnerable youth.

  15. Pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy in the evaluation of the severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, C. [Neonatal Unit, Dept. of Pediatrics, Casa Maternitat Hospital, Clinical Hospital and Sant Joan de Deu Hospital, Univ. of Barcelona (Spain); Figueras, J. [Neonatal Unit, Dept. of Pediatrics, Casa Maternitat Hospital, Clinical Hospital and Sant Joan de Deu Hospital, Univ. of Barcelona (Spain)]|[Servicio de Neonatologia, Hospital Clinico, Barcelona (Spain); Roca, I. [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Autonomous Univ. of Barcelona (Spain); Perez, J.M. [Neonatal Unit, Dept. of Pediatrics, Casa Maternitat Hospital, Clinical Hospital and Sant Joan de Deu Hospital, Univ. of Barcelona (Spain); Jimenez, R. [Neonatal Unit, Dept. of Pediatrics, Casa Maternitat Hospital, Clinical Hospital and Sant Joan de Deu Hospital, Univ. of Barcelona (Spain)

    1997-01-01

    Objective. The objectives of this study were to analyze the changes in pulmonary perfusion in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and to assess the advantages of this method in evaluating the severity of BPD. Patients and methods. The study group was made up of 10 children with BPD, matched with a control group of 12 children. The criteria for matching were birth weight, gestational age and need for ventilation for more than 3 days. Clinical and roentgenographic scoring systems were applied on the 21st day of life. At 6 months of corrected age, clinical evolutive severity was evaluated and a pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy using technetium-99 was performed in each child. The scintigraphic findings were classified in five categories ranging from normal to severely affected, depending on the degree and localization of perfusion abnormalities. Another score was obtained by assigning a value from 1 to 5 to each pulmonary lobe, depending on the concentration of the tracer. Results. The study of clinical, roentgenographic and evolutive scores always showed higher values in children with BPD, with good correlation between methods (P < 0.001). In the BPD group, abnormal lung perfusion patterns were more frequent and more severe (P < 0.05), the lobe scoring was higher (P < 0.05), and a lower count rate was found (P < 0.01). Conclusion. Pulmonary scintigraphy is a useful technique in evaluating the severity of BPD. (orig.). With 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Management of Alveolar Proteinosis by Bronchopulmonary lavage under Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Parsa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA The gold standard of treating Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP is bronchopulmonary lavage (BPL. We describe a rare case of BPD for PAP, who underwent ECMO due to hypoventilation in the setting of one lung ventilation. First, the clinical course of the patient is presented; furthermore, the biomolcular basis of PAP and new treatment approaches is discussed. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-bidi-font-family:"B Nazanin";} Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA  

  17. Donor Human Milk Protects against Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor-Martínez, Eduardo; Pierro, Maria; Cavallaro, Giacomo; Mosca, Fabio; Kramer, Boris W; Villamor, Eduardo

    2018-02-20

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common complication after preterm birth. Pasteurized donor human milk (DHM) has increasingly become the standard of care for very preterm infants over the use of preterm formula (PF) if the mother's own milk (MOM) is unavailable. Studies have reported beneficial effects of DHM on BPD. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies on the effects of DHM on BPD and other respiratory outcomes. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of RCTs could not demonstrate that supplementation of MOM with DHM reduced BPD when compared to PF (three studies, risk ratio (RR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60-1.32). However, meta-analysis of observational studies showed that DHM supplementation reduced BPD (8 studies, RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.67-0.90). An exclusive human milk diet reduced the risk of BPD, compared to a diet with PF and/or bovine milk-based fortifier (three studies, RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68-0.95). Feeding raw MOM, compared to feeding pasteurized MOM, protected against BPD (two studies, RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.96). In conclusion, our data suggest that DHM protects against BPD in very preterm infants.

  18. Lung segment geometry study: simulation of largest possible tumours that fit into bronchopulmonary segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, S; Stöcker, C; Dicken, V; Kühl, H; Krass, S; Stamatis, G

    2012-03-01

    Segmental resection in stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been well described and is considered to have similar survival rates as lobectomy but with increased rates of local tumour recurrence due to inadequate parenchymal margins. In consequence, today segmentectomy is only performed when the tumour is smaller than 2 cm. Three-dimensional reconstructions from 11 thin-slice CT scans of bronchopulmonary segments were generated, and virtual spherical tumours were placed over the segments, respecting all segmental borders. As a next step, virtual parenchymal safety margins of 2 cm and 3 cm were subtracted and the size of the remaining tumour calculated. The maximum tumour diameters with a 30-mm parenchymal safety margin ranged from 26.1 mm in right-sided segments 7 + 8 to 59.8 mm in the left apical segments 1-3. Using a three-dimensional reconstruction of lung CT scans, we demonstrated that segmentectomy or resection of segmental groups should be feasible with adequate margins, even for larger tumours in selected cases. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Development of a proxy-reported pulmonary outcome scale for preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laughon Matthew M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To develop an accurate, proxy-reported bedside measurement tool for assessment of the severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (also called chronic lung disease in preterm infants to supplement providers' current biometric measurements of the disease. Methods We adapted Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS methodology to develop the Proxy-Reported Pulmonary Outcomes Scale (PRPOS. A multidisciplinary group of registered nurses, nurse practitioners, neonatologists, developmental specialists, and feeding specialists at five academic medical centers participated in the PRPOS development, which included five phases: (1 identification of domains, items, and responses; (2 item classification and selection using a modified Delphi process; (3 focus group exploration of items and response options; (4 cognitive interviews on a preliminary scale; and (5 final revision before field testing. Results Each phase of the process helped us to identify, classify, review, and revise possible domains, questions, and response options. The final items for field testing include 26 questions or observations that a nurse assesses before, during, and after routine care time and feeding. Conclusions We successfully created a prototype scale using modified PROMIS methodology. This process can serve as a model for the development of proxy-reported outcomes scales in other pediatric populations.

  20. Antioxidant role of plasma carotenoids in bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsang, Annelies; van Lingen, Richard A; Slootstra, Janine; Dikkeschei, Bert D; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Schaafsma, Anne; van Zoeren-Grobben, Diny

    2009-09-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and consequently, it might be theorized that sufficient antioxidant defenses are needed to prevent BPD. We hypothesized that, except for vitamins E and A, carotenoids may be important in this defense. Carotenoids are present in human milk; however, they are not added to parenteral nutrition, the main food source of preterm infants in the first week of life. To evaluate prospectively the role of carotenoids in BPD in a cohort of preterm infants. The plasma concentrations of F(2alpha)-isoprostane, alpha- and beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, vitamin A, and the vitamin E/cholesterol ratio were studied at days 1, 3, and 7 in a cohort of 109 preterm infants, of whom 19 had BPD. When comparing the BPD and control group, infants in the BPD group were younger (plutein, alpha-carotene, vitamin E, and F(2alpha)-isoprostane concentrations did not differ between groups. Plasma beta-carotene and vitamin A concentrations are lower in BPD infants which may result in a reduction of their antioxidant protection.

  1. Constructing a relevant decision aid for parents of children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibo, M; Guillen, U; Zhang, H; Munson, D; Mackley, A; Nilan, K; Kirpalani, H

    2017-12-01

    To develop and test a decision aid for counseling parents of children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).Local problem:Parental education about complex conditions is not standardized and communication and understanding may not be adequate. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 neonatal clinicians and 12 parents of children with BPD using a qualitative research design. The interviews were used to identify education topics that were felt to be important in BPD education. These topics were then used to create a visual decision aid to be used in counseling sessions with parents. The decision aid was then used in mock counseling sessions with 15 'experienced' participants and 7 'naïve' participants to assess its efficacy. The participants completed a pre and post test to assess change in knowledge as well as an 11-question Likert style acceptability survey. Implementation of a decision aid while educating parents about BPD. Topics identified during the interviews were used to create eight educational cards which included pictures, pictographs and statistics. Overall, participants thought the decision aid contained an appropriate amount of information, were easy to understand and improved their knowledge about BPD. Testing demonstrated a significant increase in knowledge in both the 'experienced' (Pdecision aid for parents of children with BPD may improve understanding of the condition and help facilitate communication between parents and doctors.

  2. Intraerythrocyte Non-Protein-Bound Iron in Children with Bronchopulmonary Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Vasilyeva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 230 children having bronchopulmonary pathology (BPP were examined. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to their intraerythrocyte non-protein- bound iron (IE-NPBI levels. We investigated the relationship of the IE-NPBI level with parameters of respiratory function (RF tests, the severity of comorbidities, and level of other free intracellular ions, such as copper, zinc, and magnesium. The pronounced increase in IE-NPBI level was typical for patients with the connective tissue dysplasia, often accompanied by mitral valve prolapse, osteopenia, and mineral metabolism violation. The severe comorbid diagnoses were typical for patients with reduced levels of IE-NPBI (chronic cor pulmonale, tuberculosis infection. The largest number of comorbidities, aggravating the underlying disease, took place in the group of patients with a significant reduction in IE-NPBI level. A significant increase in IE-NPBI level, as well as a marked reduction of IE-NPBI level, was an unfavorable factor for the underlying disease. We found a correlation between IE-NPBI level and parameters of RF-test in patients with moderate increase in IE-NPBI level.

  3. Beneficial effects of Omalizumab therapy in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: A synthesis review of published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Xiong; Fan, Li-Chao; Li, Man-Hui; Cao, Wei-Jun; Xu, Jin-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Omalizumab, a humanized mAb that binds to IgE, has been an effective therapy for patients with severe allergic asthma; however, there are few clinical trials examining the efficacy of Omalizumab in patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) except some case reports. To assess the clinical and immunological effects of Omalizumab in ABPA patients, we made a synthesis review of 102 cases from 30 published literature, analyzed the effects of Omalizumab therapy in ABPA and conducted subgroup analyses to determine factors that influenced the therapy endpoints. We found that Omalizumab treatment not only provided a clinically important reduction in serum IgE, exacerbation rates and steroid requirement, but also showed attenuated asthma symptoms and improved pulmonary function parameters in patients with ABPA. Moreover, further discussion was made when interpretating the results. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are necessary to establish the efficacy and safety of this novel therapeutic intervention for ABPA patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential expression and prognostic value of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Elisa; Wirtz, Ralph M.; Sayeg, Manal; Baum, Richard P.; Schulz, Stefan; Lupp, Amelie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction For many tumors, the overexpression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 is associated with increased malignancy and poor patient outcomes. However, comprehensive data for neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung are still lacking. Methods CXCR4 expression was evaluated in a panel of bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms (BP-NEN) comprising typical carcinoids (n = 26), atypical carcinoids (n = 30), and small cell lung cancers (SCLC, n = 34). Samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using the novel monoclonal rabbit anti-human CXCR4 antibody UMB-2 and by qRT-PCR. The expression was correlated with clinical data and overall patient survival. Results CXCR4 was predominantly localized at the plasma membrane of the tumor cells. CXCR4 was expressed with a high intensity in almost all of the 30 SCLC samples. In contrast, it was detected infrequently and with low intensity in the typical carcinoid and atypical carcinoid samples. There was a significant correlation between the immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR data. Additionally, there was a significant negative relationship between CXCR4 expression and overall survival. Conclusions With increasing malignancy, BP-NEN clearly differ in the extent of CXCR4 expression. As in other tumor entities, CXCR4 overexpression significantly correlates with negative patient outcome. Due to its particular high expression rate in SCLC, CXCR4 may serve as a promising new target for diagnostic and pharmacological intervention as well as for peptide receptor-based radionuclide therapy. PMID:25671300

  5. Pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy in the evaluation of the severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler, C.; Figueras, J.; Roca, I.; Perez, J.M.; Jimenez, R.

    1997-01-01

    Objective. The objectives of this study were to analyze the changes in pulmonary perfusion in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and to assess the advantages of this method in evaluating the severity of BPD. Patients and methods. The study group was made up of 10 children with BPD, matched with a control group of 12 children. The criteria for matching were birth weight, gestational age and need for ventilation for more than 3 days. Clinical and roentgenographic scoring systems were applied on the 21st day of life. At 6 months of corrected age, clinical evolutive severity was evaluated and a pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy using technetium-99 was performed in each child. The scintigraphic findings were classified in five categories ranging from normal to severely affected, depending on the degree and localization of perfusion abnormalities. Another score was obtained by assigning a value from 1 to 5 to each pulmonary lobe, depending on the concentration of the tracer. Results. The study of clinical, roentgenographic and evolutive scores always showed higher values in children with BPD, with good correlation between methods (P < 0.001). In the BPD group, abnormal lung perfusion patterns were more frequent and more severe (P < 0.05), the lobe scoring was higher (P < 0.05), and a lower count rate was found (P < 0.01). Conclusion. Pulmonary scintigraphy is a useful technique in evaluating the severity of BPD. (orig.). With 1 fig., 3 tabs

  6. Donor Human Milk Protects against Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Villamor-Martínez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is the most common complication after preterm birth. Pasteurized donor human milk (DHM has increasingly become the standard of care for very preterm infants over the use of preterm formula (PF if the mother’s own milk (MOM is unavailable. Studies have reported beneficial effects of DHM on BPD. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs and observational studies on the effects of DHM on BPD and other respiratory outcomes. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of RCTs could not demonstrate that supplementation of MOM with DHM reduced BPD when compared to PF (three studies, risk ratio (RR 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.60–1.32. However, meta-analysis of observational studies showed that DHM supplementation reduced BPD (8 studies, RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.67–0.90. An exclusive human milk diet reduced the risk of BPD, compared to a diet with PF and/or bovine milk-based fortifier (three studies, RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68–0.95. Feeding raw MOM, compared to feeding pasteurized MOM, protected against BPD (two studies, RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62–0.96. In conclusion, our data suggest that DHM protects against BPD in very preterm infants.

  7. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis reveals potential genes involved in early metamorphosis process in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongxin; Kikuchi, Mani; Li, Xueyan; Gao, Qionghua; Xiong, Zijun; Ren, Yandong; Zhao, Ruoping; Mao, Bingyu; Kondo, Mariko; Irie, Naoki; Wang, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, one main class of Echinoderms, have a very fast and drastic metamorphosis process during their development. However, the molecular basis under this process remains largely unknown. Here we systematically examined the gene expression profiles of Japanese common sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) for the first time by RNA sequencing across 16 developmental time points from fertilized egg to juvenile stage. Based on the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), we identified 21 modules. Among them, MEdarkmagenta was highly expressed and correlated with the early metamorphosis process from late auricularia to doliolaria larva. Furthermore, gene enrichment and differentially expressed gene analysis identified several genes in the module that may play key roles in the metamorphosis process. Our results not only provide a molecular basis for experimentally studying the development and morphological complexity of sea cucumber, but also lay a foundation for improving its emergence rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition of MHC-I by Brucella abortus is an early event during infection and involves EGFR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Lis N; Milillo, M Ayelén; Delpino, M Victoria; Trotta, Aldana; Mercogliano, M Florencia; Pozner, Roberto G; Schillaci, Roxana; Elizalde, Patricia V; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H; Barrionuevo, Paula

    2017-04-01

    Brucella abortus is able to persist inside the host despite the development of potent CD8 + T-cell responses. We have recently reported the ability of B. abortus to inhibit the interferon-γ-induced major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I cell surface expression on human monocytes. This phenomenon was due to the B. abortus-mediated retention of MHC-I molecules within the Golgi apparatus and was dependent on bacterial viability. However, the implications of bacterial virulence or replicative capacity and the signaling pathways remained unknown. Here we demonstrated that the B. abortus mutant strains RB51 and virB10 - are able to inhibit MHC-I expression in the same manner as wild-type B. abortus, even though they are unable to persist inside human monocytes for a long period of time. Consistent with this, the phenomenon was triggered early in time and could be observed at 8 h postinfection. At 24 and 48 h, it was even stronger. Regarding the signaling pathway, targeting epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR), ErbB2 (HER2) or inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme, one of the enzymes which generates soluble EGF-like ligands, resulted in partial recovery of MHC-I surface expression. Moreover, recombinant EGF and transforming growth factor-α as well as the combination of both were also able to reproduce the B. abortus-induced MHC-I downmodulation. Finally, when infection was performed in the presence of an extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) inhibitor, MHC-I surface expression was significantly recovered. Overall, these results describe how B. abortus evades CD8 + T-cell responses early during infection and exploits the EGFR-ERK signaling pathway to escape from the immune system and favor chronicity.

  9. [Analysis of the effectiveness of the spa and health resort-based treatment of the patients presenting with broncho-pulmonary pathology at the southern coast of the Crimea depending on the period of flowering of Mediterranean Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, V M; Belyaeva, S N; Govorun, M I; Pirogova, M E

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of pollen of Mediterranean Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) on the effectiveness of the spa and health resort-based treatment (SHRT) of the patients with broncho-pulmonary pathology at the southern coast of the Crimea (SCC). This article presents the results of the analysis of the data on 122 patients presenting with broncho-pulmonary pathology who received SHRT under the conditions of the Southern Coast of the Crimea. Fifty one (41.8%) of these patients suffered from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 71 (58.2%) ones had bronchial asthma. The whole group was comprised of 44 men (36.1%) and 78 women (63.9%). The average (median) age of the patients was 55.8 years. All the participants of the study underwent the comprehensive examination including the general medical and physical examination, complete blood count, the study of sputum cytology and immunological properties of blood including the standard characteristics, IgE and lysozyme levels), evaluation of the respiratory and locomotor (physical) functions with the use of the 6-minute walking test. The aeropollenological study of the aerial environment of the southern coast of the Crimea in the region of Yalta showed that the «bloom» of the Mediterranean Cypress occurs during the period from February till April inclusive. The highest concentrations of cypress pollen are observed in March and early April. The overall effectiveness of SHRT for the patients with broncho-pulmonary pathology arriving for the treatment at the southern coast of the Crimea from other Crimean localities does not depend on the period of «flowering» (the presence of pollen in the air) of the Mediterranean Cypress. In these patients, the termination of the spa and health resort-based treatment during the «flowering» of the Mediterranean Cypress resulted in nothing more than a strained adaptive response manifested as the altered blood leukocyte count. Such reaction

  10. In vivo and in vitro studies suggest a possible involvement of HPV infection in the early stage of breast carcinogenesis via APOBEC3B induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ohba

    Full Text Available High prevalence of infection with high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV ranging from 25 to 100% (average 31% was observed in breast cancer (BC patients in Singapore using novel DNA chip technology. Early stage of BC demonstrated higher HPV positivity, and BC positive for estrogen receptor (ER showed significantly higher HPV infection rate. This unique association of HPV with BC in vivo prompted us to investigate a possible involvement of HPV in early stages of breast carcinogenesis. Using normal breast epithelial cells stably transfected with HPV-18, we showed apparent upregulation of mRNA for the cytidine deaminase, APOBEC3B (A3B which is reported to be a source of mutations in BC. HPV-induced A3B overexpression caused significant γH2AX focus formation, and DNA breaks which were cancelled by shRNA to HPV18 E6, E7 and A3B. These results strongly suggest an active involvement of HPV in the early stage of BC carcinogenesis via A3B induction.

  11. Analyses of the pathways involved in early- and late-phase induction of IFN-beta during C. muridarum infection of oviduct epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sishun Hu

    Full Text Available We previously reported that the IFN-β secreted by Chlamydia muridarum-infected murine oviduct epithelial cells (OE cells was mostly dependent on the TLR3 signaling pathway. To further characterize the mechanisms of IFN-β synthesis during Chlamydia infection of OE cells in vitro, we utilized specific inhibitory drugs to clarify the roles of IRF3 and NF-κB on both early- and late-phase C. muridarum infections. Our results showed that the pathways involved in the early-phase of IFN-β production were distinct from that in the late-phase of IFN-β production. Disruption of IRF3 activation using an inhibitor of TBK-1 at early-phase Chlamydia infection had a significant impact on the overall synthesis of IFN-β; however, disruption of IRF3 activation at late times during infection had no effect. Interestingly, inhibition of NF-κB early during Chlamydia infection also had a negative effect on IFN-β production; however, its impact was not significant. Our data show that the transcription factor IRF7 was induced late during Chlamydia infection, which is indicative of a positive feedback mechanism of IFN-β synthesis late during infection. In contrast, IRF7 appears to play little or no role in the early synthesis of IFN-β during Chlamydia infection. Finally, we demonstrate that antibiotics that target chlamydial DNA replication are much more effective at reducing IFN-β synthesis during infection versus antibiotics that target chlamydial transcription. These results provide evidence that early- and late-phase IFN-β production have distinct signaling pathways in Chlamydia-infected OE cells, and suggest that Chlamydia DNA replication might provide a link to the currently unknown chlamydial PAMP for TLR3.

  12. Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in First-Time Mothers: Exploring the Impact of Father Involvement in the Early Post-Partum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Hunter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The early post-partum period is a crucial time for breastfeeding support. Mothers who have physical and emotional support during this period are more likely to be successful in breastfeeding. This study examined the relationship between father involvement and support for breast feeding initiation and duration in first-time mothers. Methods: Overall, 146 women who attended a childbirth education class or breastfeeding course at BABS were asked to fill out the Childbirth Experiences Survey, which explored key topics such as (1 breastfeeding initiation, (2 early post-partum breastfeeding, (3 breastfeeding plan, (4 post-partum breastfeeding support and (5 breast feeding duration. This was a voluntary self-reported questionnaire. The surveys were completed by the mothers during the post-partum period. Results: 45.9% (n=67 of mothers received helped from their husband or partner with breastfeeding while in the hospital, while 54.1% (n=79 of mothers did not receive support from their partners. Mothers who received early post-partum breastfeeding support were more likely to continue breastfeeding after leaving the hospital. Conclusion: First-time mothers who identified as having breastfeeding support from their partners, the infant’s father, during the early post-partum period were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and had longer breastfeeding durations.

  13. Characteristic of muscle involvement evaluated by CT scans in early stages of progressive muscular dystrophy; Comparison between Duchenne and Fukuyama types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Yumi (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1993-10-01

    Muscle CT scans were performed in order to compare the characteristic distribution of progressive muscle involvement in the early stages of Duchenne type (DMD) and Fukuyama type muscular dystrophy (FCMD). Muscle images at the levels of the 3rd lumbar vertebra, thigh and calf were assessed by visual inspection, and mean CT numbers calculated for individual muscles were statistically analysed. On visual inspection, intramuscular low density areas and muscular atrophy were observed in the muscles of older patients with either disease. These changes were, however, more extensive at thigh level in DMD, and at calf level in FCMD. Nevertheless, the mean CT numbers of muscles in which only slight changes were grossly visible on CT scans displayed progressive decreases with increasing age. Moreover, a significant negative relationship was recognizable between age and mean CT number in almost all muscles examined. Comparison of the slopes of the regression lines revealed that the so-called selective pattern of muscle involvement characteristic of the symptomatic stage had already partially manifested in the preclinical or early stages of both diseases. In FCMD, the rates of decrease in CT numbers were extremely rapid for calf muscles as compared with those in DMD, indicating that this is one reason for FCMD patients never becoming ambulatory. However, for almost all of the other muscles, the CT numbers in FCMD decreased in parallel with the corresponding CT numbers in DMD; thus, these diseases displayed a similarity in the pattern of muscle involvement, despite their different pathogenetic mechanisms and inheritance patterns. (author).

  14. The influence of sensation-seeking and parental and peer influences in early adolescence on risk involvement through middle adolescence: A structural equation modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between youth and parental sensation-seeking, peer influence, parental monitoring and youth risk involvement in adolescence using structural equation modeling. Beginning in grade-six, longitudinal data were collected from 543 students over three years. Youth sensation-seeking in grade six contributed to risk involvement in early adolescence (grades six and seven) indirectly through increased peer risk influence and decreased parental monitoring but did not have a direct contribution. It contributed directly and indirectly to risk involvement in middle adolescence (grades eight and nine). Parent sensation-seeking at baseline was positively associated with peer risk influence and negatively associated with parental monitoring; it had no direct effect on adolescent risk involvement. Parental monitoring buffers negative peer influence on adolescent risk involvement. Results highlight the need for intervention efforts to provide normative feedback about adolescent risky behaviors and to vary among families in which parents and/or youth have high sensation-seeking propensities. PMID:27030784

  15. Molecular pathways involved in the early and late damage induced by testis ischemia: evidence for a rational pharmacological modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altavilla, D; Romeo, C; Squadrito, F; Marini, H; Morgia, G; Antonuccio, P; Minutoli, L

    2012-01-01

    Testicular torsion or torsion of the spermatic cord is a surgical emergency in which misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment can lead to male infertility. Events occurring during testicular torsion and detorsion are representative of an ischemia-reperfusion injury observed in other organs. The two most important factors determining testicular damage are the degree of twisting and the early onset of a surgical treatment to counter-rotate both testis and spermatic cord for inducing reperfusion. The damage from reperfusion is more severe than that induced by ischemia and several mechanisms are implicated in the development of testicular damage following torsion and detorsion. However, these mechanisms have not yet been fully clarified and, as a consequence, there is still a strong need to identify specific pharmacological treatment to limit the damage triggered by the reperfusion procedures. Ischemia and reperfusion of testis result in elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activate mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and PPARβ/δ receptor, induce transcription factors and growth factors including NF-κB and VEGF, trigger apoptotic machinery and induce several inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-1β . This pathological cascade is responsible for the testicular atrophy, decreased blood flow and impaired spermatogenesis. Several pharmacological approaches have been characterized as promising therapeutic agents for the management of testicular torsion and may be useful to ameliorate the sequel of this disease.

  16. Involvement of microbial mats in early fossilization by decay delay and formation of impressions and replicas of vertebrates and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesto, Miguel; Buscalioni, Ángela D.; Carmen Guerrero, M.; Benzerara, Karim; Moreira, David; López-Archilla, Ana I.

    2016-05-01

    Microbial mats have been hypothesized to improve the persistence and the preservation of organic remains during fossilization processes. We test this hypothesis with long-term experiments (up to 5.5 years) using invertebrate and vertebrate corpses. Once placed on mats, the microbial community coats the corpses and forms a three-dimensional sarcophagus composed of microbial cells and exopolymeric substances (EPS). This coverage provides a template for i) moulding superficial features, resulting in negative impressions, and ii) generating replicas. The impressions of fly setulae, fish scales and frog skin verrucae are shaped mainly by small cells in an EPS matrix. Microbes also replicate delicate structures such as the three successive layers that compose a fish eye. The sarcophagus protects the body integrity, allowing the persistence of inner organs such as the ovaries and digestive apparatus in flies, the swim bladder and muscles in fish, and the bone marrow in frog legs. This study brings strong experimental evidence to the idea that mats favour metazoan fossilization by moulding, replicating and delaying decay. Rapid burial has classically been invoked as a mechanism to explain exceptional preservation. However, mats may play a similar role during early fossilization as they can preserve complex features for a long time.

  17. Extension of radiotherapy (involved field vs subtotal nodal) after short-term chemotherapy in early-stage Hodgkin's disease (ESHD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanini, M.; Bonfante, V.; Soncini, F.; Di Russo, A.; Santoro, A.; Viviani, S.; Devizzi, L.; Gasparini, M.; Tesoro, Tess J.D.; Valagussa, P.; Bonadonna, G.

    1995-01-01

    Aims of this study were to avoid staging laparotomy, to improve the results of radiotherapy (RT) alone by a combined modality approach, to evaluate the optimal extent of RT after short-term chemotherapy (CT) and to reduce the long-term toxicity in patients cured for ESHD. From (2(90)) to (1(95)), 110 consecutive patients with clinical stage I (bulky and/or B), IIA, IIA bulky and IIEA entered a randomized trial comparing subtotal nodal irradiation (STNI) vs involved field radiotherapy (IFRT), both after short-term chemotherapy (ABVD for 4 cycles). The doses of RT were 30 Gy to uninvolved and 36 Gy to involved sites, respectively. With a median follow-up of 38 mos., the main results in 96 evaluable patients (stage I: 13 pts., stage II: 83 pts., median age 28 yrs., range 17-64) are as reported below. Most patients achieved complete remission (CR) after CT (92%), while 8 partial responders attained CR with RT (IFRT 5 pts., STNI 3 pts.). Four stage II patients relapsed (IFRT 2, pts., STNI 2 pts.), mainly in extranodal or not irradiated sites. Up-to-date the most remarkable toxicities include: acute myocardial infarction (1%), aspecific EKG changes (5%), reductions in pulmonary function tests (most mild and/or transient) in 45%, subclinical or clinical hypothyroidism 26% (only in pts. irradiated to the neck), 3 cases of azoospermia in 23 evaluable patients (13%) and transient amenorreha in(1(44)) patients. No second malignancies have been so far observed. The results of this study seem to indicate that 4 courses of ABVD plus RT are an effective treatment in clinical ESHD, with moderate long-term toxicities. In almost 10% of patients RT changed partial into complete remission. Should these results be confirmed on a longer follow-up, IFRT will definitely replace STNI in a combined modality treatment

  18. Father involvement in early child-rearing and behavioural outcomes in their pre-adolescent children: evidence from the ALSPAC UK birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redshaw, Maggie; Savage-McGlynn, Emily; Quigley, Maria A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the nature of paternal involvement in early child-rearing adopting a social developmental perspective, and estimate its effect on behavioural outcomes of children aged 9 and 11 years. Setting The data come from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort recruited in the former county of Avon in the southwest of England. Participants Out of the 14 701 children in this cohort who were alive at 1 year, 10 440 children were living with both parents at 8 months and were therefore eligible. Outcome data were available for 6898 children at 9 years and 6328 children at 11 years. Main exposure Paternal involvement was measured using factor scores obtained through factor analysis of fathers’ responses on their participation in, understanding of, and feelings about their child's early upbringing. Outcome Behavioural problems were measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) total difficulties score. Results 3 factors were identified in the factor analysis: Factor 1 described fathers’ emotional response to the child; factor 2 measured the frequency of fathers’ involvement in domestic and childcare activities; factor 3 characterised fathers’ feelings of security in their role as parent and partner. Children of fathers with high scores on factors 1 and 3 had 14% (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.94, p=0.001) and 13% (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.96, p=0.006), respectively, lower adjusted odds of behavioural problems at 9 years. Factors 1 and 3 were associated with comparable reduction in adjusted odds of behavioural problems at 11 years (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.98, p=0.017 and OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.99, p=0.034, respectively). Factor 2 was not associated with the outcome. Conclusions Psychological and emotional aspects of paternal involvement in children's early upbringing, particularly how new fathers see themselves as parents and adjust to the role, rather than the quantity of direct

  19. Father involvement in early child-rearing and behavioural outcomes in their pre-adolescent children: evidence from the ALSPAC UK birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opondo, Charles; Redshaw, Maggie; Savage-McGlynn, Emily; Quigley, Maria A

    2016-11-22

    To explore the nature of paternal involvement in early child-rearing adopting a social developmental perspective, and estimate its effect on behavioural outcomes of children aged 9 and 11 years. The data come from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort recruited in the former county of Avon in the southwest of England. Out of the 14 701 children in this cohort who were alive at 1 year, 10 440 children were living with both parents at 8 months and were therefore eligible. Outcome data were available for 6898 children at 9 years and 6328 children at 11 years. Paternal involvement was measured using factor scores obtained through factor analysis of fathers' responses on their participation in, understanding of, and feelings about their child's early upbringing. Behavioural problems were measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) total difficulties score. 3 factors were identified in the factor analysis: Factor 1 described fathers' emotional response to the child; factor 2 measured the frequency of fathers' involvement in domestic and childcare activities; factor 3 characterised fathers' feelings of security in their role as parent and partner. Children of fathers with high scores on factors 1 and 3 had 14% (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.94, p=0.001) and 13% (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.96, p=0.006), respectively, lower adjusted odds of behavioural problems at 9 years. Factors 1 and 3 were associated with comparable reduction in adjusted odds of behavioural problems at 11 years (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.98, p=0.017 and OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.99, p=0.034, respectively). Factor 2 was not associated with the outcome. Psychological and emotional aspects of paternal involvement in children's early upbringing, particularly how new fathers see themselves as parents and adjust to the role, rather than the quantity of direct involvement in childcare, is associated with positive behavioural outcomes in children

  20. Association between father involvement and attitudes in early child-rearing and depressive symptoms in the pre-adolescent period in a UK birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opondo, Charles; Redshaw, Maggie; Quigley, Maria A

    2017-10-15

    Much of the research on parenting and its influence on child development has emphasised the mother's role. However, increasing evidence highlights the important role of fathers in the development, health and well-being of their children. We sought to explore the association between paternal involvement in early child-rearing and depressive symptoms in 9 and 11 year-old children. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort recruited in the southwest of England. The outcome was depressive symptoms measured using the short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (sMFQ) score. The main exposure was father involvement measured through factor analysis of fathers' responses on their participation in, understanding of, and feelings about their child's early upbringing. Scores on factor 1 measured fathers' emotional response to the child; scores on factor 2 measured the frequency of father involvement in domestic and childcare activities; scores on factor 3 measured fathers' feelings of security in their role as parent and partner. Children of fathers with high scores on factors 1 and 3 had 13% (OR 0.87, 95%CI 0.77-0.98, p = 0.024) and 9% (OR 0.91, 95%CI 0.80-1.03, p = 0.129) respectively lower adjusted odds of depressive symptoms at 9 and 11 years. For factor 2, there was weak evidence of a 17% increase in odds of depressive symptoms associated with 1 unit higher factor scores at both ages (OR 1.17, 95%CI 1.00-1.37, p = 0.050). In these observational data, the possibility of residual confounding in the association between the exposure and the outcome cannot be ruled out. Positive psychological and emotional aspects of father involvement in children's early upbringing, but not the quantity of direct involvement in childcare, may protect children against developing symptoms of depression in their pre-teen years. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Tamoxifen dosing for Cre-mediated recombination in experimental bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Camp, Jordi; Rodríguez-Castillo, José Alberto; Herold, Susanne; Mayer, Konstantin; Vadász, István; Tallquist, Michelle D; Seeger, Werner; Ahlbrecht, Katrin; Morty, Rory E

    2017-02-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common complication of preterm birth characterized by blunted post-natal lung development. BPD can be modelled in mice by exposure of newborn mouse pups to elevated oxygen levels. Little is known about the mechanisms of perturbed lung development associated with BPD. The advent of transgenic mice, where genetic rearrangements can be induced in particular cell-types at particular time-points during organogenesis, have great potential to explore the pathogenic mechanisms at play during arrested lung development. Many inducible, conditional transgenic technologies available rely on the application of the estrogen-receptor modulator, tamoxifen. While tamoxifen is well-tolerated and has been widely employed in adult mice, or in healthy developing mice; tamoxifen is not well-tolerated in combination with hyperoxia, in the most widely-used mouse model of BPD. To address this, we set out to establish a safe and effective tamoxifen dosing regimen that can be used in newborn mouse pups subjected to injurious stimuli, such as exposure to elevated levels of environmental oxygen. Our data reveal that a single intraperitoneal dose of tamoxifen of 0.2 mg applied to newborn mouse pups in 10 μl Miglyol vehicle was adequate to successfully drive Cre recombinase-mediated genome rearrangements by the fifth day of life, in a murine model of BPD. The number of recombined cells was comparable to that observed in regular tamoxifen administration protocols. These findings will be useful to investigators where tamoxifen dosing is problematic in the background of injurious stimuli and mouse models of human and veterinary disease.

  2. Clinical characteristics of biopsy-proven allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis: variety in causative fungi and laboratory findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Takashi; Takayanagi, Noboru; Kagiyama, Naho; Shimizu, Yoshihiko; Yanagisawa, Tsutomu; Sugita, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) has traditionally relied widely on Rosenberg's criteria, which emphasize immunologic responses while overlooking the investigation of mucous plugs as a primary criterion. Therefore, the characteristics of biopsy-proven ABPM require further elucidation. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of biopsy-proven ABPM and address whether full compliance with clinical criteria, such as the presence of asthma, and certain laboratory findings is necessary to establish a diagnosis of ABPM. We retrospectively analyzed 17 patients with biopsy-proven ABPM focusing on causative fungi and laboratory findings. Causative fungi included Aspergillus sp. in seven patients, Schizophyllum commune in four patients, Penicillium sp. in two patients and unknown in five patients. Bronchial asthma was observed in 10 patients, eosinophilia was observed in 10 patients and an increased serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E level was observed in 14 of the 17 patients. IgG for Aspergillus sp. was positive in six of the seven patients with ABPM due to Aspergillus and turned positive in the remaining patient during follow-up. Technological limitations prevented the measurement of specific IgE for S. commune and IgG for S. commune and Penicillium sp. in most patients. Computed tomography revealed central bronchiectasis, pulmonary infiltration and mucous plugs in all patients. Causative fungi other than Aspergillus sp. are not uncommon, and immunological tests for other fungi should be popularized. Asthma and characteristic laboratory findings, such as peripheral blood eosinophilia, increased serum IgE and precipitating antibodies, may not always be required to diagnose ABPM. The importance of typical pathologic findings of mucous plugs for diagnosing ABPM requires reevaluation. Further studies are needed to establish more elaborate diagnostic criteria for ABPM.

  3. Update on Vitamin E and Its Potential Role in Preventing or Treating Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Cosby A; McEvoy, Cindy T; Aschner, Judy L; Kirk, Ashudee; Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Cook-Mills, Joan M; Moore, Paul E; Walsh, William F; Hartert, Tina V

    2018-03-07

    Vitamin E is obtained only through the diet and has a number of important biological activities, including functioning as an antioxidant. Evidence that free radicals may contribute to pathological processes such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a disease of prematurity associated with increased lung injury, inflammation and oxidative stress, led to trials of the antioxidant vitamin E (α-tocopherol) to prevent BPD with variable results. These trials were all conducted at supraphysiologic doses and 2 of these trials utilized a formulation containing a potentially harmful excipient. Since 1991, when the last of these trials was conducted, both neonatal management strategies for minimizing oxygen and ventilator-related lung injury and our understanding of vitamin E isoforms in respiratory health have advanced substantially. It is now known that there are differences between the effects of vitamin E isoforms α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol on the development of respiratory morbidity and inflammation. What is not known is whether improvements in physiologic concentrations of individual or combinations of vitamin E isoforms during pregnancy or following preterm birth might prevent or reduce BPD development. The answers to these questions require adequately powered studies targeting pregnant women at risk of preterm birth or their premature infants immediately following birth, especially in certain subgroups that are at increased risk of vitamin E deficiency (e.g., smokers). The objective of this review is to compile, update, and interpret what is known about vitamin E isoforms and BPD since these first studies were conducted, and suggest future research directions. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Omalizumab in the treatment of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: One center's experience with 14 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Ömür; Sözener, Zeynep Çelebi; Soyyiğit, Şadan; Kendirlinan, Reşat; Gençtürk, Zeynep; Mısırlıgil, Zeynep; Mungan, Dilşad; Sin, Betül Ayşe; Demirel, Yavuz Selim; Çelik, Gülfem Elif; Bavbek, Sevim

    2015-01-01

    Omalizumab has been a valuable option for patients with severe allergic asthma, but there are only case reports regarding effectiveness of omalizumab in patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). To evaluate the clinical and functional effectiveness of omalizumab in patients with asthma and ABPA in long-term follow-up. The study was conducted as a retrospective chart review of patients with ABPA who were treated with omalizumab injections between December 2008 and June 2014. Once treatment with omalizumab was started, data were collected at three time points: at baseline, after 1 year, and, in June 2014, at the last follow-up. Fourteen patients with ABPA (seven women and seven men; mean [± standard deviation (SD)] age, 44.21 ± 13.01 years) were included. The treatment period was 31.5 ± 3.99 months (mean ± SD). The difference between the baseline and the last evaluation of the mean percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was significant (p = 0.02). The mean asthma control test score was increased at all-time points compared with the basal score (p = 0.001). After omalizumab treatment was initiated, the patients' mean oral corticosteroid dosage significantly decreased (p = 0.001). The baseline exacerbation rate was 2.7 ± 1.5/y (mean ± SD), and the hospitalization rate was 1.4/y, and both were zero at the last assessment (p = 0.001). Eleven of the patients (78.6%) responded perfectly, and three (21.4%) partially responded to treatment. The patients who had a total immunoglobulin E level of 1000 IU/mL (p = 0.05). Omalizumab provided a clinically important reduction in exacerbations and steroid requirement, and improved asthma symptoms and pulmonary function parameters in patients with asthma and ABPA who had previously shown an unsatisfactory response to Global Initiative for Asthma step 4 treatment.

  5. Clinical efficacy and immunologic effects of omalizumab in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskamp, Astrid L; Gillman, Andrew; Symons, Karen; Sandrini, Alessandra; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Douglass, Jo A

    2015-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) often presents with persistently uncontrolled asthma despite the use of corticosteroids and antifungal therapy. Omalizumab is a humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody currently used to treat severe asthma. The aim was to assess the clinical and immunologic effects of omalizumab in ABPA in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Patients with chronic ABPA were randomized to 4-month treatment with omalizumab (750 mg monthly) or placebo followed by a 3-month washout period in a cross-over design. The main endpoint was number of exacerbations. Other clinical endpoints included lung function, exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), quality of life and symptoms. In vitro basophil activation to Aspergillus fumigatus extract and basophil FcεR1 and surface-bound IgE levels were assessed by flow cytometry. Thirteen patients were recruited with mean total IgE 2314 ± 2125 IU/mL. Exacerbations occurred less frequently during the active treatment phase compared with the placebo period (2 vs 12 events, P = .048). Mean FeNO decreased from 30.5 to 17.1 ppb during omalizumab treatment (P = .03). Basophil sensitivity to A. fumigatus and surface-bound IgE and FcεR1 levels decreased significantly after omalizumab but not after placebo. Omalizumab can be used safely to treat ABPA, despite high serum IgE levels. Clinical improvement was accompanied by decreased basophil reactivity to A. fumigatus and FcεR1 and surface-bound IgE levels. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Case series of omalizumab for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nové-Josserand, Raphaële; Grard, Soazic; Auzou, Lila; Reix, Philippe; Murris-Espin, Marlène; Brémont, François; Mammar, Benyebka; Mely, Laurent; Hubert, Dominique; Durieu, Isabelle; Burgel, Pierre-Régis

    2017-02-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) affects up to 15% of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Corticosteroids are used as first-line therapy, but relapse and adverse effects commonly occur. Case reports have suggested the efficacy of the anti-IgE recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody omalizumab. A retrospective multicenter observational French study retrieved 32 CF patients (11 children and 21 adults) who have received omalizumab for more than 3 months in the context of ABPA. Clinical characteristics, concomitant medications (inhaled and oral corticosteroids, antifungal drugs), lung function, body mass index (BMI), and serum IgE were compared at the start and during the first year of omalizumab therapy. Omalizumab-related adverse effects and costs were also evaluated. No significant difference with omalizumab could be demonstrated with regard to lung function, BMI, or the number of patients receiving oral corticosteroids. At the time of initiation of omalizumab, 56% of patients were receiving oral corticosteroids. Five patients were able to discontinue corticosteroids during follow-up and nine patients were able to reduce their daily dose. A total of 78% of the patients had received antifungal therapy at the time of the initiation of omalizumab. Treatment tolerance was good (12.5% of patients experienced side effects). The median cost of omalizumab treatment was €3,620 per patient per month. Omalizumab may represent a steroid-sparing therapy in CF patients with ABPA. A randomized-controlled trial is urgently required to provide higher level of evidence regarding the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of omalizumab in CF patients with ABPA. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:190-197. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Safety, reliability, and validity of a physiologic definition of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michele C; Wilson-Costello, Deanna; Zadell, Arlene; Newman, Nancy; Fanaroff, Avroy

    2003-09-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the focus of many intervention trials, yet the outcome measure when based solely on oxygen administration may be confounded by differing criteria for oxygen administration between physicians. Thus, we wished to define BPD by a standardized oxygen saturation monitoring at 36 weeks corrected age, and compare this physiologic definition with the standard clinical definition of BPD based solely on oxygen administration. A total of 199 consecutive very low birthweight infants (VLBW, 501 to 1500 g birthweight) were assessed prospectively at 36+/-1 weeks corrected age. Neonates on positive pressure support or receiving >30% supplemental oxygen were assigned the outcome BPD. Those receiving or =88% for 60 minutes) or "BPD" (saturation reliability, test-retest reliability, and validity of the physiologic definition vs the clinical definition were assessed. A total of 199 VLBW were assessed, of whom 45 (36%) were diagnosed with BPD by the clinical definition of oxygen use at 36 weeks corrected age. The physiologic definition identified 15 infants treated with oxygen who successfully passed the saturation monitoring test in room air. The physiologic definition diagnosed BPD in 30 (24%) of the cohort. All infants were safely studied. The test was highly reliable (inter-rater reliability, kappa=1.0; test-retest reliability, kappa=0.83) and highly correlated with discharge home in oxygen, length of hospital stay, and hospital readmissions in the first year of life. The physiologic definition of BPD is safe, feasible, reliable, and valid and improves the precision of the diagnosis of BPD. This may be of benefit in future multicenter clinical trials.

  8. Interleukin-6 polymorphism and bronchopulmonary dysplasia risk in very low-birthweight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuda, Touhei; Kobayashi, Takehiro; Sakakibara, Seiichi; Kobayashi, Akira; Kaneko, Takayuki; Wada, Masaki; Onozuka, Junya; Numata, Osamu; Torigoe, Katsumi; Yamazaki, Hajime; Sato, Takashi; Nagayama, Yoshihisa; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of interleukin (IL)-6-634 polymorphism in neonatal disorders such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) in very low-birthweight (VLBW) infants. This prospective cohort study included 202 infants (gestational age at birth, 23-34 weeks; birthweight, 500-1499 g). Genotypic analysis (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) was performed with DNA extracted from whole-blood samples. Genotype distribution (66.8% CC, 28.2% CG, 5.0% GG) was similar to that in the adult Japanese population. BPD occurred in 85 infants (42.1%) among 202 VLBW infants. The duration of O(2) therapy in infants with CG/GG genotypes was significantly longer than that in infants with the CC genotype (CG/GG vs CC: 40.3 ± 52.2 days vs 28.4 ± 32.6 days, P < 0.05), but the prevalence of BPD was not associated with the CG/GG genotype (CG/GG, 40.0%; CC, 46.3%, P= 0.24). Infants with CG/GG genotypes were more likely to have received postnatal corticosteroid therapy for BPD than those with the CC genotype (CG/GG vs CC: 20.9% vs 11.1%, P = 0.05). PVL occurred in six infants (3.0%). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of PVL among IL-6-634 polymorphisms (CG/GG, 3.0%; CC, 3.0%, P = 0.65). IL-6-634 polymorphism is associated with duration of oxygen therapy in VLBW infants. This suggests that the IL-6-634 polymorphism G allele is an aggravating factor of BPD. IL-6-634 polymorphism is not associated with PVL. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Blood Cytokine Profiles Associated with Distinct Patterns of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia among Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angio, Carl T; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Carlo, Waldemar A; McDonald, Scott A; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, David M; Shankaran, Seetha; Goldberg, Ronald N; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Tyson, Jon E; Stoll, Barbara J; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2016-07-01

    To explore differences in blood cytokine profiles among distinct bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) patterns. We evaluated blood spots collected from 943 infants born at ≤1000 g and surviving to 28 days on postnatal days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 for 25 cytokines. Infants were assigned to the following lung disease patterns: (1) no lung disease (NLD); (2) respiratory distress syndrome without BPD; (3) classic BPD (persistent exposure to supplemental oxygen until 28 days of age); or (4) atypical BPD (period without supplemental oxygen before 28 days). Median cytokine levels for infants with BPD were compared with the IQR of results among infants with NLD. The distribution of enrolled infants by group was as follows: 69 (NLD), 73 (respiratory distress syndrome), 381 (classic BPD), and 160 (atypical BPD). The remaining 260 infants could not be classified because of missing data (104) or not fitting a predefined pattern (156). Median levels of 3 cytokines (elevated interleukin [IL]-8, matrix metalloproteinase-9; decreased granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) fell outside the IQR for at least 2 time points in both infants with atypical and classic BPD. Profiles of 7 cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, C-reactive protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) differed between infants with classic and atypical BPD. Blood cytokine profiles may differ between infants developing classic and atypical BPD. These dissimilarities suggest the possibility that differing mechanisms could explain the varied patterns of pathophysiology of lung disease in extremely premature infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Isoflurane depolarizes bronchopulmonary C neurons by inhibiting transient A-type and delayed rectifier potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenxiong; Zhuang, Jianguo; Zhang, Cancan; Xu, Fadi

    2013-04-01

    Inhalation of isoflurane (ISO), a widely used volatile anesthetic, can produce clinical tachypnea. In dogs, this response is reportedly mediated by bronchopulmonary C-fibers (PCFs), but the relevant mechanisms remain unclear. Activation of transient A-type potassium current (IA) channels and delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) channels hyperpolarizes neurons, and inhibition of both channels by ISO increases neural firing. Due to the presence of these channels in the cell bodies of rat PCFs, we determined whether ISO could stimulate PCFs to produce tachypnea in anesthetized rats, and, if so, whether this response resulted from ISO-induced depolarization of the pulmonary C neurons via the inhibition of IA and IK. We recorded ventilatory responses to 5% ISO exposure in anesthetized rats before and after blocking PCF conduction and the responses of pulmonary C neurons (extracellularly recorded) to ISO exposure. ISO-induced (1mM) changes in pulmonary C neuron membrane potential and IA/IK were tested using the perforated patch clamp technique. We found that: (1) ISO inhalation evoked a brief tachypnea (∼7s) and that this response disappeared after blocking PCF conduction; (2) the ISO significantly elevated (by 138%) the firing rate of most pulmonary C neurons (17 out of 21) in the nodose ganglion; and (3) ISO perfusion depolarized the pulmonary C neurons in the vitro and inhibited both IA and IK, and this evoked-depolarization was largely diminished after blocking both IA and IK. Our results suggest that ISO is able to stimulate PCFs to elicit tachypnea in rats, at least partly, via inhibiting IA and IK, thereby depolarizing the pulmonary C neurons. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in neonates born at ≤ 1500 g (1999-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongshan; Fang, Jianpei; Su, Haobin; Chen, Miao

    2011-12-01

    Advances in perinatal care have improved the survival rate for very low-birthweight (VLBW) infants in China. The incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), however, has not been reduced. The objective of the present study was to identify the perinatal risk factors for BPD in neonates born at ≤ 1500 g. A retrospective analysis of data for neonates born at ≤ 1500 g between 1999 and 2009 in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou city, China, was carried out. Out of a total of 11,506 live births, 3538 infants were admitted to level II nursery and NICU (level III nursery). Among 149 preterm infants born at ≤ 1500 g, 77.8% survived until day 28, and the incidence of BPD was 48.3%. Logistic regression analysis showed that gestational age (GA) ≤ 30 weeks (odds ratio [OR], 9.507; 95% confidence intervals [95%CI]: 2.604-34.707), maternal chorioamnionitis (OR, 41.987; 95%CI: 6.048-291.492), ventilation-associated pneumonia (OR, 11.600; 95%CI: 2.847-47.268), and more than three blood transfusions (OR, 10.214; 95%CI: 2.191-47.623) were associated with the development of BPD. Clinical evidence has been provided for possibly significant risk factors associated with BPD in neonates born at ≤ 1500 g, which can provide useful information for further research to improve survival of VLBW infants and decrease the incidence of BPD. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Persistently elevated right ventricular index of myocardial performance in preterm infants with incipient bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Czernik

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Elevated pulmonary vascular resistance occurs during the first days after birth in all newborn infants and persists in infants at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. It is difficult to measure in a non-invasive fashion. We assessed the usefulness of the right ventricular index of myocardial performance (RIMP to estimate pulmonary vascular resistance in very low birth weight infants. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective echocardiography on day of life (DOL 2, 7, 14, and 28 in 121 preterm infants (median [quartiles] gestational age 28 [26]-[29] weeks, birth weight 998 [743-1225] g of whom 36 developed BPD (oxygen supplementation at 36 postmenstrual weeks. RESULTS: RIMP derived by conventional pulsed Doppler technique was unrelated to heart rate or mean blood pressure. RIMP on DOL 2 was similar in infants who subsequently did (0.39 [0.33-0.55] and did not develop BPD (0.39 [0.28-0.51], p = 0.467. RIMP declined steadily in non-BPD infants but not in BPD infants (DOL 7: 0.31[0.22-0.39] vs. 0.35[0.29-0.48], p = 0.014; DOL 14: 0.23[0.17-0.30] vs. 0.35[0.25-0.43], p<0.001; DOL 28: 0.21[0.15-0.28] vs. 0.31 [0.21-0.35], p = 0.015. CONCLUSIONS: In preterm infants, a decline in RIMP after birth was not observed in those with incipient BPD. The pattern of RIMP measured in preterm infants is commensurate with that of pulmonary vascular resistance.

  13. Neonatal Pulmonary MRI of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Predicts Short-term Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higano, Nara S; Spielberg, David R; Fleck, Robert J; Schapiro, Andrew H; Walkup, Laura L; Hahn, Andrew D; Tkach, Jean A; Kingma, Paul S; Merhar, Stephanie L; Fain, Sean B; Woods, Jason C

    2018-05-23

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious neonatal pulmonary condition associated with premature birth, but the underlying parenchymal disease and trajectory are poorly characterized. The current NICHD/NHLBI definition of BPD severity is based on degree of prematurity and extent of oxygen requirement. However, no clear link exists between initial diagnosis and clinical outcomes. We hypothesized that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of structural parenchymal abnormalities will correlate with NICHD-defined BPD disease severity and predict short-term respiratory outcomes. Forty-two neonates (20 severe BPD, 6 moderate, 7 mild, 9 non-BPD controls; 40±3 weeks post-menstrual age) underwent quiet-breathing structural pulmonary MRI (ultrashort echo-time and gradient echo) in a NICU-sited, neonatal-sized 1.5T scanner, without sedation or respiratory support unless already clinically prescribed. Disease severity was scored independently by two radiologists. Mean scores were compared to clinical severity and short-term respiratory outcomes. Outcomes were predicted using univariate and multivariable models including clinical data and scores. MRI scores significantly correlated with severities and predicted respiratory support at NICU discharge (P<0.0001). In multivariable models, MRI scores were by far the strongest predictor of respiratory support duration over clinical data, including birth weight and gestational age. Notably, NICHD severity level was not predictive of discharge support. Quiet-breathing neonatal pulmonary MRI can independently assess structural abnormalities of BPD, describe disease severity, and predict short-term outcomes more accurately than any individual standard clinical measure. Importantly, this non-ionizing technique can be implemented to phenotype disease and has potential to serially assess efficacy of individualized therapies.

  14. IFN-γ and IP-10 in tracheal aspirates from premature infants: relationship with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghai, Zubair H; Saslow, Judy G; Mody, Kartik; Eydelman, Riva; Bhat, Vishwanath; Stahl, Gary; Pyon, Kee; Bhandari, Vineet

    2013-01-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interferon-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10) are potent inflammatory mediators and contribute to acute lung injury in adults. Recently, a potential role for IFN-γ and IP-10 in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has been reported in animal models. To study the association between IFN-γ and IP-10 in tracheal aspirate (TA) and the development of BPD in premature infants. TA samples collected within 48 hr after birth from 79 mechanically ventilated premature neonates [gestational age (GA) IP-10 was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit. Total protein in TA was measured by Bradford assay to correct for sampling related dilution. BPD was defined as the need of supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). Twenty infants (GA 26.4 ± 1.9w, BW 860 ± 201 g) survived without BPD at 36 weeks PMA and 59 infants (GA 25.5 ± 1.5w, BW 751 ± 163 g) died before 36 weeks PMA or developed BPD. The mean IFN-γ level was higher in infants who died or developed BPD (9.7 ± 2.8 vs. 3.1 ± 1.1 pg/ml, P = 0.03). Similarly, the mean IP-10 level was higher in infants who died or developed BPD (63.4 ± 17.5 pg/ml) compared to those who survived without BPD (18.5 ± 7.5 pg/ml, P = 0.02). Higher IFN-γ and IP-10 levels in TA samples are associated with the development of BPD or death in premature infants. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Promoting father involvement in early home visiting services for vulnerable families: Findings from a pilot study of "Dads matter".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Neil B; Bellamy, Jennifer L; Banman, Aaron

    2018-02-01

    Despite mounting evidence on the importance of fathers in children's development, evidence-based perinatal home visitation programs have largely overlooked fathers in the design and delivery of services. This paper describes the design, development, and pilot testing of the "Dads Matter" enhancement to standard home visiting services. Dads Matter is a manualized intervention package designed to fully incorporate fathers into perinatal home visiting services. Twenty-four families were enrolled in a pilot study to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of the intervention. Using a quasi-experimental time-lagged design, 12 families received standard home visiting services and completed baseline and four-month post-tests. Home visitor staff were then trained and supervised to implement the Dads Matter enhancement in addition to standard services. Twelve additional families were then enrolled and completed baseline and four-month post-tests. Implementation data indicated that Dads Matter was implemented as planned. Cohen's d scores on outcome measures indicate positive trends associated with Dads Matter in the quality of the mother-father relationship, perceived stress reported by both parents, fathers' involvement with the child, maltreatment indicators, and fathers' verbalizations toward the infant. Effect sizes generally ranged from moderate to large in magnitude and were larger than overall effect sizes of home visitation services alone reported in prior meta-analyses. Dads Matter appears to be a feasible, acceptable, and promising approach to improving fathers' engagement in home visiting services and promoting family and child well-being. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. [The prevention and treatment of suppurative-inflammatory complications in the bronchopulmonary system during prolonged artificial ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozhaev, G A; Tikhonovskiĭ, I Iu

    1992-01-01

    The use of physical methods, namely low frequency magnetic field in critically ill patients under respiratory therapy made it possible to prevent and in case of their development to effectively treat pyoinflammatory bronchopulmonary complications that accompany prolonged controlled lung ventilation. The results obtained were due to the elimination of an unfavourable effect of controlled lung ventilation on natural resistance and immune response of the respiratory tract because of normalization of physicochemical properties of the tracheobronchial tree secretion, enhanced functional capacities of phagocytes, repaired bonds between cellular and humoral local immunity in the lungs.

  17. Preliminary study on the rate of broncho-pulmonary cancer in a Romanian department (Bihor) for the estimation of radon risk exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaida, T.; Maghiar, F.; Cosma, C.; Ristoiu, D.; Ramboiu, S.; Pacurar, V.; Poffijn, A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is a retrospective estimation on the rate of lung cancer at the population in the Bihor district (Romania) in two years (1993 -1994) and the potential bronchopulmonary cancer risk from indoor radon. In this time were found 473 cases with primary bronchopulmonary cancer: 400 men (84.5%) and 73 women (15.4%). Most cases ( 64.4%) were from rural environment while the other 35.5% were from urban environment. Preliminary study on the potential lung cancer risk from indoor radon encompassed 40 cases and 66 non-cancer controls in the period March-July 1995. (author)

  18. Reduction of the treated volume to involved node radiation therapy as part of combined modality treatment for early stage aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhappen, Marieke H.; Poortmans, Philip M.P.; Raaijmakers, Esther; Raemaekers, John M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: This retrospective study investigated whether focused involved node radiation therapy (INRT) can safely replace involved field RT (IFRT) in patients with early stage aggressive NHL. Patients and methods: We included 258 patients with stage I/II aggressive NHL who received combined modality treatment (87%) or primary RT alone (13%). RT consisted of a total dose of 30–40 Gy in 15–20 fractions IFRT or INRT. We compared survival, relapse pattern, radiation-related toxicity and quality of life for both RT techniques. Results: Type of RT was not related to the outcome in either the uni- or multivariate survival analysis. Relapses developed in 59 of 252 patients (23%) of which 47 (80%) were documented as distant recurrence only. Failure of the INRT technique was noted in one patient. There was no significant difference in acute radiation-related toxicity between RT-groups but IFRT showed a significantly higher incidence of higher grade toxicities. Patients treated with INRT had a significantly better physical functioning and global quality of life compared to the IFRT group. Conclusions: Given the retrospective nature of this study, no solid conclusions can be drawn. However, in view of the equivalent efficacy and more favorable toxicity profile, the replacement of IFRT by INRT in combination with chemo-(immuno)-therapy looks very attractive for patients with early stage aggressive NHL

  19. Reconstruction of the gene regulatory network involved in the sonic hedgehog pathway with a potential role in early development of the mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling pathway is crucial for pattern formation in early central nervous system development. By systematically analyzing high-throughput in situ hybridization data of E11.5 mouse brain, we found that Shh and its receptor Ptch1 define two adjacent mutually exclusive gene expression domains: Shh+Ptch1- and Shh-Ptch1+. These two domains are associated respectively with Foxa2 and Gata3, two transcription factors that play key roles in specifying them. Gata3 ChIP-seq experiments and RNA-seq assays on Gata3-knockdown cells revealed that Gata3 up-regulates the genes that are enriched in the Shh-Ptch1+ domain. Important Gata3 targets include Slit2 and Slit3, which are involved in the process of axon guidance, as well as Slc18a1, Th and Qdpr, which are associated with neurotransmitter synthesis and release. By contrast, Foxa2 both up-regulates the genes expressed in the Shh+Ptch1- domain and down-regulates the genes characteristic of the Shh-Ptch1+ domain. From these and other data, we were able to reconstruct a gene regulatory network governing both domains. Our work provides the first genome-wide characterization of the gene regulatory network involved in the Shh pathway that underlies pattern formation in the early mouse brain.

  20. Trends in survival among extremely-low-birth-weight infants (less than 1000 g without significant bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botet Francesc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the evolution from 1997 to 2009 of survival without significant (moderate and severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (SWsBPD in extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW infants and to determine the influence of changes in resuscitation, nutrition and mechanical ventilation on the survival rate. Study design In this study, 415 premature infants with birth weights below 1000 g (ELBW were divided into three chronological subgroups: 1997 to 2000 (n = 65, 2001 to 2005 (n = 178 and 2006 to 2009 (n = 172. Between 1997 and 2000, respiratory resuscitation in the delivery room was performed via a bag and mask (Ambu®, Ballerup, Sweden with 40-50% oxygen. If this procedure was not effective, oral endotracheal intubation was always performed. Pulse oximetry was never used. Starting on January 1, 2001, a change in the delivery room respiratory policy was established for ELBW infants. Oxygenation and heart rate were monitored using a pulse oximeter (Nellcor® attached to the newborn’s right hand. If resuscitation was required, ventilation was performed using a face mask, and intermittent positive pressure was controlled via a ventilator (Babylog2, Drägger. In 2001, a policy of aggressive nutrition was also initiated with the early provision of parenteral amino acids. We used standardized parenteral nutrition to feed ELBW infants during the first 12–24 hours of life. Lipids were given on the first day. The glucose concentration administered was increased by 1 mg/kg/minute each day until levels reached 8 mg/kg/minute. Enteral nutrition was started with trophic feeding of milk. In 2006, volume guarantee treatment was instituted and administered together with synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV + VG. The complications of prematurity were treated similarly throughout the study period. Patent ductus arteriosus was only treated when hemodynamically significant. Surgical closure of the

  1. Glial Alterations From Early to Late Stages in a Model of Alzheimer’s Disease: Evidence of Autophagy Involvement in Aβ Internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomilio, Carlos; Pavia, Patricio; Gorojod, Roxana Mayra; Vinuesa, Angeles; Alaimo, Agustina; Galvan, Veronica; Kotler, Monica Lidia; Beauquis, Juan; Saravia, Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease without effective therapy. Brain amyloid deposits are classical histopathological hallmarks that generate an inflammatory reaction affecting neuronal and glial function. The identification of early cell responses and of brain areas involved could help to design new successful treatments. Hence, we studied early alterations of hippocampal glia and their progression during the neuropathology in PDAPP-J20 transgenic mice, AD model, at 3, 9, and 15 months (m) of age. At 3 m, before deposits formation, microglial Iba1 + cells from transgenic mice already exhibited signs of activation and larger soma size in the hilus, alterations appearing later on stratum radiatum. Iba1 immunohistochemistry revealed increased cell density and immunoreactive area in PDAPP mice from 9 m onward selectively in the hilus, in coincidence with prominent amyloid Congo red + deposition. At pre-plaque stages, GFAP+ astroglia showed density alterations while, at an advanced age, the presence of deposits was associated with important glial volume changes and apparently being intimately involved in amyloid degradation. Astrocytes around plaques were strongly labeled for LC3 until 15 m in Tg mice, suggestive of increased autophagic flux. Moreover, β-Amyloid fibrils internalization by astrocytes in in vitro conditions was dependent on autophagy. Co-localization of Iba1 with ubiquitin or p62 was exclusively found in microglia contacting deposits from 9 m onward, suggesting torpid autophagy. Our work characterizes glial changes at early stages of the disease in PDAPP-J20 mice, focusing on the hilus as an especially susceptible hippocampal subfield, and provides evidence that glial autophagy could play a role in amyloid processing at advanced stages. PMID:26235241

  2. First experience of simultaneous PET/MRI for the early detection of cardiac involvement in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nappi, Carmela; Altiero, Michele; Imbriaco, Massimo; Giudice, Caterina Anna; Spinelli, Letizia; Cuocolo, Alberto; Nicolai, Emanuele; Aiello, Marco; Diomiaiuti, Claudio Tommaso; Pisani, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder associated with severe multiorgan dysfunction and premature death. Early diagnosis and treatment strategies play a key role in patient outcome. We investigated the potential role of hybrid PET/MR imaging in the assessment of early cardiac involvement in AFD patients. Thirteen AFD patients without cardiac symptoms and with normal left ventricular function underwent simultaneous cardiac PET/MR imaging after administration of 18 F-FDG. Cardiac FDG uptake was quantified by measuring the standardized uptake value in 17 myocardial segments in each subject. The coefficient of variation (COV, i.e. the standard deviation divided by the average) of the uptake of the 17 segments was calculated as an index of heterogeneity in the heart. Six patients exhibited focal late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) indicating intramyocardial fibrosis, and four of these also had positive short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. All patients with LGE and positive STIR MR images showed focal FDG uptake in the corresponding myocardial segments indicating inflammation. Of the seven patients with negative LGE and STIR images, five showed homogeneous FDG cardiac uptake and two showed heterogeneous FDG uptake. The COV was significantly greater in patients with focal FDG uptake (0.25 ± 0.02) than in those without (0.14 ± 0.07, p < 0.01). PET/MR imaging is clinically feasible for the early detection of cardiac involvement in patients with AFD. Further studies evaluating the role of hybrid PET/MR imaging in management of the disease in larger patient populations are warranted. (orig.)

  3. First experience of simultaneous PET/MRI for the early detection of cardiac involvement in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nappi, Carmela; Altiero, Michele; Imbriaco, Massimo; Giudice, Caterina Anna; Spinelli, Letizia; Cuocolo, Alberto [University Federico II, Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Nicolai, Emanuele; Aiello, Marco; Diomiaiuti, Claudio Tommaso [IRCCS SDN, Naples (Italy); Pisani, Antonio [University Federico II, Department of Public Health, Naples (Italy)

    2015-03-26

    Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder associated with severe multiorgan dysfunction and premature death. Early diagnosis and treatment strategies play a key role in patient outcome. We investigated the potential role of hybrid PET/MR imaging in the assessment of early cardiac involvement in AFD patients. Thirteen AFD patients without cardiac symptoms and with normal left ventricular function underwent simultaneous cardiac PET/MR imaging after administration of {sup 18}F-FDG. Cardiac FDG uptake was quantified by measuring the standardized uptake value in 17 myocardial segments in each subject. The coefficient of variation (COV, i.e. the standard deviation divided by the average) of the uptake of the 17 segments was calculated as an index of heterogeneity in the heart. Six patients exhibited focal late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) indicating intramyocardial fibrosis, and four of these also had positive short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. All patients with LGE and positive STIR MR images showed focal FDG uptake in the corresponding myocardial segments indicating inflammation. Of the seven patients with negative LGE and STIR images, five showed homogeneous FDG cardiac uptake and two showed heterogeneous FDG uptake. The COV was significantly greater in patients with focal FDG uptake (0.25 ± 0.02) than in those without (0.14 ± 0.07, p < 0.01). PET/MR imaging is clinically feasible for the early detection of cardiac involvement in patients with AFD. Further studies evaluating the role of hybrid PET/MR imaging in management of the disease in larger patient populations are warranted. (orig.)

  4. Identification of ER Proteins Involved in the Functional Organisation of the Early Secretory Pathway in Drosophila Cells by a Targeted RNAi Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondylis, Vangelis; Tang, Yang; Fuchs, Florian; Boutros, Michael; Rabouille, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Background In Drosophila, the early secretory apparatus comprises discrete paired Golgi stacks in close proximity to exit sites from the endoplasmic reticulum (tER sites), thus forming tER-Golgi units. Although many components involved in secretion have been identified, the structural components sustaining its organisation are less known. Here we set out to identify novel ER resident proteins involved in the of tER-Golgi unit organisation. Results To do so, we designed a novel screening strategy combining a bioinformatics pre-selection with an RNAi screen. We first selected 156 proteins exhibiting known or related ER retention/retrieval signals from a list of proteins predicted to have a signal sequence. We then performed a microscopy-based primary and confirmation RNAi screen in Drosophila S2 cells directly scoring the organisation of the tER-Golgi units. We identified 49 hits, most of which leading to an increased number of smaller tER-Golgi units (MG for “more and smaller Golgi”) upon depletion. 16 of them were validated and characterised, showing that this phenotype was not due to an inhibition in secretion, a block in G2, or ER stress. Interestingly, the MG phenotype was often accompanied by an increase in the cell volume. Out of 6 proteins, 4 were localised to the ER. Conclusions This work has identified novel proteins involved in the organisation of the Drosophila early secretory pathway. It contributes to the effort of assigning protein functions to gene annotation in the secretory pathway, and analysis of the MG hits revealed an enrichment of ER proteins. These results suggest a link between ER localisation, aspects of cell metabolism and tER-Golgi structural organisation. PMID:21383842

  5. Altered Right Ventricular Mechanical Properties Are Afterload Dependent in a Rodent Model of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

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    Jitandrakumar R. Patel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Infants born premature are at increased risk for development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, pulmonary hypertension (PH, and ultimately right ventricular (RV dysfunction, which together carry a high risk of neonatal mortality. However, the role alveolar simplification and abnormal pulmonary microvascular development in BPD affects RV contractile properties is unknown. We used a rat model of BPD to examine the effect of hyperoxia-induced PH on RV contractile properties. We measured in vivo RV pressure as well as passive force, maximum Ca2+ activated force, calcium sensitivity of force (pCa50 and rate of force redevelopment (ktr in RV skinned trabeculae isolated from hearts of 21-and 35-day old rats pre-exposed to 21% oxygen (normoxia or 85% oxygen (hyperoxia for 14 days after birth. Systolic and diastolic RV pressure were significantly higher at day 21 in hyperoxia exposed rats compared to normoxia control rats, but normalized by 35 days of age. Passive force, maximum Ca2+ activated force, and calcium sensitivity of force were elevated and cross-bridge cycling kinetics depressed in 21-day old hyperoxic trabeculae, whereas no differences between normoxic and hyperoxic trabeculae were seen at 35 days. Myofibrillar protein analysis revealed that 21-day old hyperoxic trabeculae had increased levels of beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC, atrial myosin light chain 1 (aMLC1; often referred to as essential light chain, and slow skeletal troponin I (ssTnI compared to age matched normoxic trabeculae. On the other hand, 35-day old normoxic and hyperoxic trabeculae expressed similar level of α- and β-MHC, ventricular MLC1 and predominantly cTnI. These results suggest that neonatal exposure to hyperoxia increases RV afterload and affect both the steady state and dynamic contractile properties of the RV, likely as a result of hyperoxia-induced expression of β-MHC, delayed transition of slow skeletal TnI to cardiac TnI, and expression of atrial MLC1. These

  6. Standardisation of oxygen exposure in the development of mouse models for bronchopulmonary dysplasia

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    Claudio Nardiello

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Progress in developing new therapies for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is sometimes complicated by the lack of a standardised animal model. Our objective was to develop a robust hyperoxia-based mouse model of BPD that recapitulated the pathological perturbations to lung structure noted in infants with BPD. Newborn mouse pups were exposed to a varying fraction of oxygen in the inspired air (FiO2 and a varying window of hyperoxia exposure, after which lung structure was assessed by design-based stereology with systemic uniform random sampling. The efficacy of a candidate therapeutic intervention using parenteral nutrition was evaluated to demonstrate the utility of the standardised BPD model for drug discovery. An FiO2 of 0.85 for the first 14 days of life decreased total alveoli number and concomitantly increased alveolar septal wall thickness, which are two key histopathological characteristics of BPD. A reduction in FiO2 to 0.60 or 0.40 also caused a decrease in the total alveoli number, but the septal wall thickness was not impacted. Neither a decreasing oxygen gradient (from FiO2 0.85 to 0.21 over the first 14 days of life nor an oscillation in FiO2 (between 0.85 and 0.40 on a 24 h:24 h cycle had an appreciable impact on lung development. The risk of missing beneficial effects of therapeutic interventions at FiO2 0.85, using parenteral nutrition as an intervention in the model, was also noted, highlighting the utility of lower FiO2 in selected studies, and underscoring the need to tailor the model employed to the experimental intervention. Thus, a state-of-the-art BPD animal model that recapitulates the two histopathological hallmark perturbations to lung architecture associated with BPD is described. The model presented here, where injurious stimuli have been systematically evaluated, provides a most promising approach for the development of new strategies to drive postnatal lung maturation in affected infants.

  7. Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 2 of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtVDAC2 Is Involved in ABA-Mediated Early Seedling Development

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    Xufeng Li

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC is the major transport protein in the outer membrane of mitochondria and plays crucial roles in energy metabolism, apoptosis, and metabolites transport. In plants, the expression of VDACs can be affected by different stresses, including drought, salinity and pathogen defense. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of AtVDAC2 in A. thaliana and found ABA suppressed the accumulation of AtVDAC2 transcripts. Further, phenotype analysis of this VDAC deregulated-expression transgenic Arabidopsis plants indicated that AtVDAC2 anti-sense line showed an ABA-insensitivity phenotype during the early seedling development under ABA treatment. The results suggested that AtVDAC2 might be involved in ABA signaling in A. thaliana.

  8. First results of functional RES scintigraphy using sup(99m)-Tc-labeled human serum albumin millimicrospheres in progressive scleroderma: Possibility of early diagnosis of lung involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munz, D.L.; Altmeyer, P.; Ehrenheim, C.; Tuengerthal, S.; Holzmann, H.; Hoer, G.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1984-01-01

    Functional RES scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-labeled human serum albumin millimicrospheres (sup(99m)Tc-HSA-MM) was conducted in 11 female patients suffering from progressive scleroderma. The RES scan revealed abnormalities in the bone marrow in eight patients as well as pathological changes of the liver in 2 cases. 7 patients showed diffusely enhanced concentrations of sup(99m)Tc-HSA-MM in the lung, whereas X-ray picture and pulmonary function test revealed pathological findings in only 4 patients, respectively. Humoral inflammatory and immunologic parameters, too, indicated abnormalities less frequently than the lung scan. Thus functional RES scintigraphy seems to be a very sensitive approach to the assessment and possibly to the early diagnosis of lung involvement in progressive scleroderma. (orig.) [de

  9. First results of functional RES scintigraphy using sup(99m)-Tc-labeled human serum albumin millimicrospheres in progressive scleroderma: Possibility of early diagnosis of lung involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munz, D.L.; Altmeyer, P.; Ehrenheim, C.; Tuengerthal, S.; Holzmann, H.; Hoer, G.

    1984-01-01

    Functional RES scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-labeled human serum albumin millimicrospheres (sup(99m)Tc-HSA-MM) was conducted in 11 female patients suffering from progressive scleroderma. The RES scan revealed abnormalities in the bone marrow in eight patients as well as pathological changes of the liver in 2 cases. 7 patients showed diffusely enhanced concentrations of sup(99m)Tc-HSA-MM in the lung, whereas X-ray picture and pulmonary function test revealed pathological findings in only 4 patients, respectively. Humoral inflammatory and immunologic parameters, too, indicated abnormalities less frequently than the lung scan. Thus functional RES scintigraphy seems to be a very sensitive approach to the assessment and possibly to the early diagnosis of lung involvement in progressive scleroderma.

  10. Human Hsp10 and Early Pregnancy Factor (EPF) and their relationship and involvement in cancer and immunity: current knowledge and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrao, Simona; Campanella, Claudia; Anzalone, Rita; Farina, Felicia; Zummo, Giovanni; Conway de Macario, Everly; Macario, Alberto J L; Cappello, Francesco; La Rocca, Giampiero

    2010-01-30

    This article is about Hsp10 and its intracellular and extracellular forms focusing on the relationship of the latter with Early Pregnancy Factor and on their roles in cancer and immunity. Cellular physiology and survival are finely regulated and depend on the correct functioning of the entire set of proteins. Misfolded or unfolded proteins can cause deleterious effects and even cell death. The chaperonins Hsp10 and Hsp60 act together inside the mitochondria to assist protein folding. Recent studies demonstrated that these proteins have other roles inside and outside the cell, either together or independently of each other. For example, Hsp10 was found increased in the cytosol of different tumors (although in other tumors it was found decreased). Moreover, Hsp10 localizes extracellularly during pregnancy and is often indicated as Early Pregnancy Factor (EPF), which is released during the first stages of gestation and is involved in the establishment of pregnancy. Various reports show that extracellular Hsp10 and EPF modulate certain aspects of the immune response with anti-inflammatory effects in patients with autoimmune conditions improving clinically after treatment with recombinant Hsp10. Moreover, Hsp10 and EPF are involved in embryonic development, acting as a growth factor, and in cell proliferation/differentiation mechanisms. Therefore, it becomes evident that Hsp10 is not only a co-chaperonin, but an active player in its own right in various cellular functions. In this article, we present an overview of various aspects of Hsp10 and EPF as they participate in physiological and pathological processes such as the antitumor response and autoimmune diseases. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Involvement of the iNKT Cell Pathway Is Associated With Early-Onset Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Response to Allergen Avoidance Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexmond, Willem S.; Neves, Joana F.; Nurko, Samuel; Olszak, Torsten; Exley, Mark A.; Blumberg, Richard S.; Fiebiger, Edda

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Recent experimental evidence suggests that environmental microbial factors early in life determine susceptibility to allergic diseases through inappropriate chemotaxis and local activation of CD1d-restricted, invariant chain natural killer T (iNKT) cells. In this study, we analyzed the involvement of these pathways in pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) before and after dietary allergen elimination. METHODS mRNA expression levels of components of the C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 16 (CXCL16)–iNKT–CD1d axis were compared in esophageal biopsies from EoE patients vs. normal or inflammatory controls and before and after treatment. RESULTS CXCL16, iNKT cell–associated cell marker Vα24, and CD1d were significantly upregulated in esophageal biopsies from EoE patients and correlated with the expression of inflammatory mediators associated with allergy. Upregulation of each of these factors was significantly more pronounced in patients aged < 6 years at diagnosis, and this early-onset EoE subpopulation was characterized by a more prominent food allergic disease phenotype in a cohort-wide analysis. Successful, but not unsuccessful, treatment of early-onset EoE patients with dietary elimination of instigating allergens led to reduction in infiltrating iNKT cells and complete normalization of mRNA expression levels of CXCL16 and CD1d. CONCLUSIONS Our observations place iNKT cells at the center of allergic inflammation associated with EoE, which could have profound implications for our understanding, treatment and prevention of this and other human allergic diseases. PMID:24513807

  12. Functional analysis of a tyrosinase gene involved in early larval shell biogenesis in Crassostrea angulata and its response to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bingye; Pu, Fei; Li, Lingling; You, Weiwei; Ke, Caihuan; Feng, Danqing

    2017-04-01

    The formation of the primary shell is a vital process in marine bivalves. Ocean acidification largely influences shell formation. It has been reported that enzymes involved in phenol oxidation, such as tyrosinase and phenoloxidases, participate in the formation of the periostracum. In the present study, we cloned a tyrosinase gene from Crassostrea angulata named Ca-tyrA1, and its potential function in early larval shell biogenesis was investigated. The Ca-tyrA1 gene has a full-length cDNA of 2430bp in size, with an open reading frame of 1896bp in size, which encodes a 631-amino acid protein that includes a 24-amino acid putative signal peptide. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that Ca-tyrA1 transcription mainly occurs at the trochophore stage, and the Ca-tyrA1 mRNA levels in the 3000ppm treatment group were significantly upregulated in the early D-veliger larvae. WMISH and electron scanning microscopy analyses showed that the expression of Ca-tyrA1 occurs at the gastrula stage, thereby sustaining the early D-veliger larvae, and the shape of its signal is saddle-like, similar to that observed under an electron scanning microscope. Furthermore, the RNA interference has shown that the treatment group has a higher deformity rate than that of the control, thereby indicating that Ca-tyrA1 participates in the biogenesis of the primary shell. In conclusion, and our results indicate that Ca-tyrA1 plays a vital role in the formation of the larval shell and participates in the response to larval shell damages in Crassostrea angulata that were induced by ocean acidification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Involving users in the design of a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to promote early presentation in breast cancer: qualitative study

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    Tompkins Charlotte

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to explore women's views of the design of a large pragmatic cost-effectiveness randomised controlled trial of the policy of offering a health professional-delivered intervention to promote early presentation with breast symptoms in older women and thereby improve survival, with a view to informing protocol development. The trial will recruit over 100,000 healthy women aged 67+, and outcome data will be collected on those who develop breast cancer. The scale of the trial and the need for long-term follow-up presented a number of design challenges in relation to obtaining consent, ascertaining and contacting participants who developed breast cancer, and collecting outcome data. Methods Qualitative study involving 69 women participating in 7 focus groups and 17 in-depth interviews. 15 women had a previous diagnosis of breast cancer and 54 did not. Results The women held strong views and had a good understanding of the rationale of the design of clinical trials. The women recognised that in a very large trial with long-term follow-up it was necessary to incorporate design features to make the trial feasible and efficient. Most strikingly, they supported the idea of opt-out consent and identifying women with breast cancer using routine datasets. Conclusions This model of user involvement engaged women well with the design challenges of the trial and led to improvements to the protocol. The study strengthens the case for user involvement, in particular through focus groups and in-depth interviews, in the design of trials.

  14. A strategy for early-risk predictions of clinical drug-drug interactions involving the GastroPlusTM DDI module for time-dependent CYP inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohlenius-Sternbeck, Anna-Karin; Meyerson, Gabrielle; Hagbjörk, Ann-Louise; Juric, Sanja; Terelius, Ylva

    2018-04-01

    1. A set of reference compounds for time-dependent inhibition (TDI) of cytochrome P450 with available literature data for k inact and K I was used to predict clinical implications using the GastroPlus TM software. Comparisons were made to in vivo literature interaction data. 2. The predicted AUC ratios (AUC +inhibitor /AUC control ) could be compared with the observed ratios from literature for all compounds with detailed information about in vivo administration, pharmacokinetics and in vivo interactions (N = 21). For this dataset, the difference between predicted and observed AUC ratios for interactions with midazolam was within twofold for all compounds except one (telaprevir, for which non-CYP-mediated metabolism likely plays a role after multiple dosing). 3. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the GastroPlus TM predictions using a binary classification as no-to-weak interaction versus moderate-to-strong interaction for all compounds with available in vivo interaction data, were 80%, 82% and 81%, respectively (N = 31). 4. As a result of our evaluations of the DDI module in GastroPlus TM , we have implemented an early TDI risk assessment decision tree for our drug discovery projects involving in vitro screening and early GastroPlus TM predictions. Shifted IC 50 values are determined and k inact /K I estimated (by using a regression line established with in house-shifted IC 50 values and literature k inact /K I ratios), followed by GastroPlus TM predictions.

  15. FKBP5 and specific microRNAs via glucocorticoid receptor in the basolateral amygdala involved in the susceptibility to depressive disorder in early adolescent stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjing; Wang, Rui; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Dexiang; Jiang, Hong; Pan, Fang

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to stressful events induces depressive-like symptoms and increases susceptibility to depression. However, the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Studies reported that FK506 binding protein51 (FKBP5), the co-chaperone protein of glucocorticoid receptors (GR), plays a crucial role. Further, miR-124a and miR-18a are involved in the regulation of FKBP5/GR function. However, few studies have referred to effects of early life stress on depressive-like behaviours, GR and FKBP5, as well as miR-124a and miR-18a in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) from adolescence to adulthood. This study aimed to examine the dynamic alternations of depressive-like behaviours, GR and FKBP5, as well as miR-124a and miR-18a expressions in the BLA of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats and dexamethasone administration rats during the adolescent period. Meanwhile, the GR antagonist, RU486, was used as a means of intervention. We found that CUMS and dexamethasone administration in the adolescent period induced permanent depressive-like behaviours and memory impairment, decreased GR expression, and increased FKBP5 and miR-124a expression in the BLA of both adolescent and adult rats. However, increased miR-18a expression in the BLA was found only in adolescent rats. Depressive-like behaviours were positively correlated with the level of miR-124a, whereas GR levels were negatively correlated with those in both adolescent and adult rats. Our results suggested FKBP5/GR and miR-124a in the BLA were associated with susceptibility to depressive disorder in the presence of stressful experiences in early life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasma membrane potential depolarization and cytosolic calcium flux are early events involved in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) plant-to-plant communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebelo, Simon A; Matsui, Kenji; Ozawa, Rika; Maffei, Massimo E

    2012-11-01

    Tomato plants respond to herbivory by emitting volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are released into the surrounding atmosphere. We analyzed the tomato herbivore-induced VOCs and tested the ability of tomato receiver plants to detect tomato donor volatiles by analyzing early responses, including plasma membrane potential (V(m)) variations and cytosolic calcium ([Ca²⁺](cyt)) fluxes. Receiver tomato plants responded within seconds to herbivore-induced VOCs with a strong V(m) depolarization, which was only partly recovered by fluxing receiver plants with clean air. Among emitted volatiles, we identified by GC-MS some green leaf volatiles (GLVs) such as (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, the monoterpene α-pinene, and the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. GLVs were found to exert the stronger V(m) depolarization, when compared to α-pinene and β-caryophyllene. Furthermore, V(m) depolarization was found to increase with increasing GLVs concentration. GLVs were also found to induce a strong [Ca²⁺](cyt) increase, particularly when (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate was tested both in solution and with a gas. On the other hand, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene, which also induced a significant V(m) depolarization with respect to controls, did not exert any significant effect on [Ca²⁺](cyt) homeostasis. Our results show for the first time that plant perception of volatile cues (especially GLVs) from the surrounding environment is mediated by early events, occurring within seconds and involving the alteration of the plasma membrane potential and the [Ca²⁺](cyt) flux. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: Clinical practices in five Portuguese neonatal intensive care units

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    H. Guimarães

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of surfactant, prenatal corticosteroids (PNC and advances in technology, the survival rate of extremely low birth weight (ELBW infants has improved dramatically. Rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD vary widely among neonatal intensive care units (NICUs and many studies using multiple interventions have shown some improvement in BPD rates. Implementing potentially better practices to reduce BPD has been an effort made over the last few decades. Aim: To compare five Portuguese NICUs in terms of clinical practices in very low birth weight (VLBW infants, in order to develop better practices to prevent BPD. Patients and methods: 256 preterm neonates, gestational age (GA < 30 weeks and/or birthweight (BW < 1250g admitted to five Portuguese NICUs (centers 1 to 5 between 1st January 2004 and 31st December 2006, were studied. VLBW infants with major malformations, grade IV intraventricular haemorrhage in the first week of life and metabolic or neuromuscular disease were excluded. BPD was defined as oxygen dependency at 36 weeks of postconceptional age. We considered a practice to be improved as clinically significant whenever a decrease greater than 10% in the prevalence of BPD adjusted for the practice, GA and BW was achieved compared to BPD prevalence adjusted only for GA and BW. Results: The overall prevalence of BPD was 12.9%. Our results revealed that PNC use should be improved in centers 4 and 5; fluid policy in center 4; oxygen therapy and sepsis prevention in centers 1 and 2. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA treatment should be improved in center 2. Conclusion: The implementation of potentially better practices to reduce lung injury in neonates in Portuguese NICUs, according to each NICU, must be addressed to increase the prescription of PNC, to use a lower FiO2, to be careful with fluid administration in the first weeks of life and to prevent PDA and sepsis. It is necessary to follow guidelines, recommendations or

  18. Combined Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis and Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis: Three Cases and a Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Takashi; Takayanagi, Noboru; Takaku, Yotaro; Kagiyama, Naho; Kurashima, Kazuyoshi; Sugita, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Previous reports of combined allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) are limited; however, among 41 cases of ABPM and 18 cases of EGPA treated at our hospital, we experienced three cases of combined ABPM and EGPA. In two of these cases, the diagnosis of EGPA preceded that of ABPM, however, one of the two cases had already shown findings suggestive of ABPM, such as mucous plugs and central bronchiectasis, at the time of the diagnosis of EGPA. In six previously reported cases of combined ABPM and EGPA, ABPM preceded EGPA in four cases. In the other two cases in which EGPA was diagnosed before or simultaneously with ABPM, findings suggestive of ABPM had been detected when EGPA was diagnosed, which suggests that sensitization to fungi resulting in ABPM may play an important role in the development of EGPA. Careful attention should therefore be paid to the possibility that these diseases may coexist during the course of either disease.

  19. Early and late toxicity of involved-field radiation therapy in conjunction with high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell rescue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubich, L.; Mundt, A.; Sibley, G.; Hallahan, D.; Nautiyal, J.; Weichselbaum, R.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Recent reports have demonstrated a benefit to involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT) in patients with relapsed/metastatic disease undergoing high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and stem cell rescue (SCR). We evaluate here the early and late toxicity of this approach. Methods: Eighty-five patients with either metastatic breast cancer (MBC) (31) or relapsed/refractory Hodgkin's disease (HD) (54) underwent HDCT/SCR. HDCT in the MBC patients consisted of cytoxan, thiotepa +/- carmustine and VP-16, cytoxan, BCNU +/- thiotepa in the HD patients. Thirty-four patients (40%) received IFRT either prior to (14) or following (20) HDCT to sites of disease involvement. A total of 18 patients received chest wall/mediastinal (CWMED) RT. Median followup for the MBC and HD patients were 21.3 months and 41 months, respectively. Results: Acute sequelae were similar in the 2 groups. Only one patient (5%) treated with IFRT (HD with 5 nodal sites) required a break from therapy due to low blood counts. Seven patients (0 MBC, 7 HD) (8.2%) suffered a toxic death (TD). No difference in was seen in the rate of TD in the patients as a whole ((1(14)) vs. (6(71))) (p =0.87) nor in the HD patients alone ((1(7)) vs. (6(47))) (p =0.91) with the use of IFRT prior to HDCT. Eleven patients (12.9%) developed late toxicity: 3 myelodysplasia/acute leukemia (MAL), 2 persistent low blood counts (requiring transfusions), 4 pulmonary toxicity (PT) and 2 hypothyroidism. All 4 cases of PT occurred in the HD group of which 3 received CWMED RT. The Table below shows the 5-yr actuarial risk of PT with and without CWMED RT as well as the 5-yr actuarial risk of MAL and any hematologic sequelae with and without RT. Multivariate analysis in the HD patients demonstrated that CWMED RT was the most significant factor for PT (p =0.09). All 3 cases of MAL and the 2 cases of persistent low blood counts occurred in the HD group. The use of IFRT did not increase the incidence of MAL or of any hematologic sequelae

  20. Bronchopulmonary lavage and DTPA treatment for the removal of inhaled 239Pu of varied solubility in beagle dogs. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Miglio, J.J.; Slauson, D.O.; McClellan, R.O.

    1974-01-01

    The efficacy of bronchopulmonary lavage and chelation therapy was determined for removing 239 Pu from Beagle dogs after inhalation of 239 Pu aerosols of differing in vivo solubility. The four aerosols used were nebulized from a solution of 239 PuCl 4 and heat treated at temperatures of 325, 600, 900, and 1150 0 C, respectively. Six dogs were exposed to each of the four aerosols and three dogs in each group were treated subsequently by lavage and intravenous diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA); three dogs served as untreated controls. Tissue accumulation of 239 Pu in the untreated control dogs at sacrifice 56 days post-exposure, expressed as a percentage of the initial lung burden (ILB), was 6 percent in liver and 9 percent in skeleton for the 325 0 C aerosol group, 1 percent in liver and 2 percent in the skeleton for the 600 0 C group, and less than 0.6 percent in these tissues for the 900 0 and 1150 0 C aerosol groups. Tissue accumulation was 1.0 percent or less of the ILB for all organs in the treated groups of dogs. The urinary excretion of 239 Pu was increased in the treated dogs compared to the control dogs that inhaled the 325 0 C and 600 0 C aerosols and was low in all dogs exposed to the 900 0 and 1150 0 C treated aerosol particles. Ten bronchopulmonary lavage procedures removed a mean of 44 percent of the ILB of 239 Pu from the lungs. The aerosol temperature and resulting differences in solubility of the particles did not influence the efficacy of the lavage procedure. An in vitro solubility test predicted the relative in vivo solubility of the four aerosols. These results are discussed in relation to the choice of therapy and its timing. (U.S.)

  1. Proteomic analysis of stipe explants reveals differentially expressed proteins involved in early direct somatic embryogenesis of the tree fern Cyathea delgadii Sternb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domżalska, Lucyna; Kędracka-Krok, Sylwia; Jankowska, Urszula; Grzyb, Małgorzata; Sobczak, Mirosław; Rybczyński, Jan J; Mikuła, Anna

    2017-05-01

    Using cyto-morphological analysis of somatic embryogenesis (SE) in the tree fern Cyathea delgadii as a guide, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis in stipe explants undergoing direct SE. Plant material was cultured on hormone-free medium supplemented with 2% sucrose. Phenol extracted proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry was performed for protein identification. A total number of 114 differentially regulated proteins was identified during early SE, i.e. when the first cell divisions started and several-cell pro-embryos were formed. Proteins were assigned to seven functional categories: carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism, cell organization, defense and stress responses, amino acid metabolism, purine metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism. Carbohydrate and protein metabolism were found to be the most sensitive SE functions with the greatest number of alterations in the intensity of spots in gel. Differences, especially in non-enzymatic and structural protein abundance, are indicative for cell organization, including cytoskeleton rearrangement and changes in cell wall components. The highest induced changes concern those enzymes related to fatty acid metabolism. Global analysis of the proteome reveals several proteins that can represent markers for the first 16days of SE induction and expression in fern. The findings of this research improve the understanding of molecular processes involved in direct SE in C. delgadii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. FAMILIES’ FIRST IN EARLYCHILDHOOD INTERVENTION.A THEORETICAL APPROACH TOWARDS PARENT’S INVOLVEMENT AND INCREASE OF EFFICIENCY OF THE EARLY CHILDHOOD INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred PRETIS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Early Childhood Intervention (ECI for vulnerable children between the age of 0-3 and 6 can be seen as well established preventive service in Europe. Even though recent epidemiologic data indicate higher rates of vulnerability during childhood and adolescence, traditionally up to 6% of the children are eligible for the ECI treatment. Definitions describing the ECI include from stable or ad hoc trans-disciplinary teams helping the child, to specific professional profiles. There is a scientific consensus regarding the effects of the ECI upon the child’s development and the family dynamics. The ECI itself is responsible for more stable impact on the socio-emotional development of the child and the parent-child relationship. Specific focus in the research is given to the role of the parents as primary caregivers. Based on the importance of enhancing the interactions between the parents and the children, this paper discusses the strategies that help increase the efficiency of the ECI trough parental involvement. Special attention is dedicated to the mutual understanding, transparency and the use of common language such as the ICF.

  3. Parent Involvement Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Arna

    This handbook on parent involvement, designed to be used with preschool programs, was developed by the Jefferson County Public Schools in Lakewood, Colorado. Included are: (1) a general statement about parent involvement in an early childhood program, (2) a description of the Jefferson County Early Childhood Program, (3) a description of the…

  4. Involvement of NADPH oxidase isoforms in the production of O2- manipulated by ABA in the senescing leaves of early-senescence-leaf (esl) mutant rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaowei; Wang, Fubiao; Zhao, Qian; Liu, Jianchao; Cheng, Fangmin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the differences in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in senescing leaves were investigated by early-senescence-leaf (esl) mutant and its wild type, to clarify the relationship among ABA levels, ROS generation, and NADPH oxidase (Nox) in senescing leaves of rice (Oryza sativa). The temporal expression levels of OsNox isoforms in senescing leaves and their expression patterns in response to ABA treatment were determined through quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Results showed that the flag leaf of the esl mutant generated more O2- concentrations and accumulated higher ABA levels than the wild-type cultivar did in the grain-filling stage. Exogenous ABA treatment induced O2- generation; however, it was depressed by diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) pretreatment in the detached leaf segments. This finding suggested the involvement of NADPH oxidase in ABA-induced O2- generation. The esl mutant exhibited significantly higher expression of OsNox2, OsNox5, OsNox6, and OsNox7 in the initial of grain-filling stage, followed by sharply decrease. The transcriptional levels of OsNox1, OsNox3, and OsFR07 in the flag leaf of the esl mutant were significantly lower than those in the wild-type cultivar. The expression levels of OsNox2, OsNox5, OsNox6, and OsNox7 were significantly enhanced by exogenous ABA treatments. The enhanced expression levels of OsNox2 and OsNox6 were dependent on the duration of ABA treatment. The inducible expression levels of OsNox5 and OsNox7 were dependent on ABA concentrations. By contrast, exogenous ABA treatment severely repressed the transcripts of OsNox1, OsNox3, and OsFR07 in the detached leaf segments. Therefore, OsNox2, OsNox5, OsNox6, and OsNox7 were probably involved in the ABA-induced O2- generation in the initial stage of leaf senescence. Subsequently, other oxidases activated in deteriorating cells were associated with ROS generation and accumulation in the

  5. Interobserver delineation uncertainty in involved-node radiation therapy (INRT) for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma: on behalf of the Radiotherapy Committee of the EORTC lymphoma group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Marianne C; Girinsky, Theodore; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Aleman, Berthe; Beijert, Max; Hutchings, Martin; Lievens, Yolande; Meijnders, Paul; Meidahl Petersen, Peter; Schut, Deborah; Maraldo, Maja V; van der Maazen, Richard; Specht, Lena

    2017-04-01

    In early-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) the target volume nowadays consists of the volume of the originally involved nodes. Delineation of this volume on a post-chemotherapy CT-scan is challenging. We report on the interobserver variability in target volume definition and its impact on resulting treatment plans. Two representative cases were selected (1: male, stage IB, localization: left axilla; 2: female, stage IIB, localizations: mediastinum and bilateral neck). Eight experienced observers individually defined the clinical target volume (CTV) using involved-node radiotherapy (INRT) as defined by the EORTC-GELA guidelines for the H10 trial. A consensus contour was generated and the standard deviation computed. We investigated the overlap between observer and consensus contour [Sørensen-Dice coefficient (DSC)] and the magnitude of gross deviations between the surfaces of the observer and consensus contour (Hausdorff distance). 3D-conformal (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans were calculated for each contour in order to investigate the impact of interobserver variability on each treatment modality. Similar target coverage was enforced for all plans. The median CTV was 120 cm 3 (IQR: 95-173 cm 3 ) for Case 1, and 255 cm 3 (IQR: 183-293 cm 3 ) for Case 2. DSC values were generally high (>0.7), and Hausdorff distances were about 30 mm. The SDs between all observer contours, providing an estimate of the systematic error associated with delineation uncertainty, ranged from 1.9 to 3.8 mm (median: 3.2 mm). Variations in mean dose resulting from different observer contours were small and were not higher in IMRT plans than in 3D-CRT plans. We observed considerable differences in target volume delineation, but the systematic delineation uncertainty of around 3 mm is comparable to that reported in other tumour sites. This report is a first step towards calculating an evidence-based planning target volume margin for INRT in HL.

  6. Cellular entry of ebola virus involves uptake by a macropinocytosis-like mechanism and subsequent trafficking through early and late endosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad F Saeed

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV, a highly pathogenic zoonotic virus, poses serious public health, ecological and potential bioterrorism threats. Currently no specific therapy or vaccine is available. Virus entry is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. However, current knowledge of the ZEBOV entry mechanism is limited. While it is known that ZEBOV enters cells through endocytosis, which of the cellular endocytic mechanisms used remains unclear. Previous studies have produced differing outcomes, indicating potential involvement of multiple routes but many of these studies were performed using noninfectious surrogate systems such as pseudotyped retroviral particles, which may not accurately recapitulate the entry characteristics of the morphologically distinct wild type virus. Here we used replication-competent infectious ZEBOV as well as morphologically similar virus-like particles in specific infection and entry assays to demonstrate that in HEK293T and Vero cells internalization of ZEBOV is independent of clathrin, caveolae, and dynamin. Instead the uptake mechanism has features of macropinocytosis. The binding of virus to cells appears to directly stimulate fluid phase uptake as well as localized actin polymerization. Inhibition of key regulators of macropinocytosis including Pak1 and CtBP/BARS as well as treatment with the drug EIPA, which affects macropinosome formation, resulted in significant reduction in ZEBOV entry and infection. It is also shown that following internalization, the virus enters the endolysosomal pathway and is trafficked through early and late endosomes, but the exact site of membrane fusion and nucleocapsid penetration in the cytoplasm remains unclear. This study identifies the route for ZEBOV entry and identifies the key cellular factors required for the uptake of this filamentous virus. The findings greatly expand our understanding of the ZEBOV entry mechanism that can be applied to development of new

  7. Characterization of a putative grapevine Zn transporter, VvZIP3, suggests its involvement in early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gainza-Cortés Felipe

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc (Zn deficiency is one of the most widespread mineral nutritional problems that affect normal development in plants. Because Zn cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes, it must be transported into intracellular compartments for all biological processes where Zn is required. Several members of the Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Protein (ZIP gene family have been characterized in plants, and have shown to be involved in metal uptake and transport. This study describes the first putative Zn transporter in grapevine. Unravelling its function may explain an important symptom of Zn deficiency in grapevines, which is the production of clusters with fewer and usually smaller berries than normal. Results We identified and characterized a putative Zn transporter from berries of Vitis vinifera L., named VvZIP3. Compared to other members of the ZIP family identified in the Vitis vinifera L. genome, VvZIP3 is mainly expressed in reproductive tissue - specifically in developing flowers - which correlates with the high Zn accumulation in these organs. Contrary to this, the low expression of VvZIP3 in parthenocarpic berries shows a relationship with the lower Zn accumulation in this tissue than in normal seeded berries where its expression is induced by Zn. The predicted protein sequence indicates strong similarity with several members of the ZIP family from Arabidopsis thaliana and other species. Moreover, VvZIP3 complemented the growth defect of a yeast Zn-uptake mutant, ZHY3, and is localized in the plasma membrane of plant cells, suggesting that VvZIP3 has the function of a Zn uptake transporter. Conclusions Our results suggest that VvZIP3 encodes a putative plasma membrane Zn transporter protein member of the ZIP gene family that might play a role in Zn uptake and distribution during the early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L., indicating that the availability of this micronutrient

  8. Sphingosine kinase 1 deficiency confers protection against hyperoxia-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia in a murine model: role of S1P signaling and Nox proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harijith, Anantha; Pendyala, Srikanth; Reddy, Narsa M; Bai, Tao; Usatyuk, Peter V; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Gorshkova, Irina; Huang, Long Shuang; Mohan, Vijay; Garzon, Steve; Kanteti, Prasad; Reddy, Sekhar P; Raj, J Usha; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2013-10-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia of the premature newborn is characterized by lung injury, resulting in alveolar simplification and reduced pulmonary function. Exposure of neonatal mice to hyperoxia enhanced sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) levels in lung tissues; however, the role of increased S1P in the pathobiological characteristics of bronchopulmonary dysplasia has not been investigated. We hypothesized that an altered S1P signaling axis, in part, is responsible for neonatal lung injury leading to bronchopulmonary dysplasia. To validate this hypothesis, newborn wild-type, sphingosine kinase1(-/-) (Sphk1(-/-)), sphingosine kinase 2(-/-) (Sphk2(-/-)), and S1P lyase(+/-) (Sgpl1(+/-)) mice were exposed to hyperoxia (75%) from postnatal day 1 to 7. Sphk1(-/-), but not Sphk2(-/-) or Sgpl1(+/-), mice offered protection against hyperoxia-induced lung injury, with improved alveolarization and alveolar integrity compared with wild type. Furthermore, SphK1 deficiency attenuated hyperoxia-induced accumulation of IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 and NOX4 protein expression in lung tissue. In vitro experiments using human lung microvascular endothelial cells showed that exogenous S1P stimulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, whereas SphK1 siRNA, or inhibitor against SphK1, attenuated hyperoxia-induced S1P generation. Knockdown of NOX2 and NOX4, using specific siRNA, reduced both basal and S1P-induced ROS formation. These results suggest an important role for SphK1-mediated S1P signaling-regulated ROS in the development of hyperoxia-induced lung injury in a murine neonatal model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Role of Growth Factors (VEGF, TGF-β1 and Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate in the Formation of Pulmonary Hypertension in Children with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Senatorova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In 82 children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (from 1 to 36 months of corrected age we investigated the level of VEGF, TGF-β1 in blood and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP in sputum. It was revealed that children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia had a significant increase in TGF-β1 (p < 0.05 and cGMP (p < 0.01–0.001, reduced VEGF (p < 0.05, indicating inhibition of angiogenesis, activation of fibrosis factors and endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Reliable direct dependence of activation of TGF-β1 in blood and cGMP in sputum, as well as inverse correlation between VEGF in blood and rLA had been proved, which gave reason to think of pulmonary hypertension as an adverse factor in fibrosis activation and angiogenesis inhibition in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Reduced oxygen saturation and oxygen partial pressure moderately activated cGMP, but did not provide a sufficient reduction of pressure in the pulmonary artery.

  10. Management of Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation and Bronchopulmonary Sequestration in Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Wen Chen

    2010-06-01

    Conclusion: The high proportion of mixed-type lesions suggests that CCAM and BPS may share the same developmental ancestry. Early surgical resection within 1 month of age is safe in symptomatic patients.

  11. Early-onset and classical forms of type 2 diabetes show impaired expression of genes involved in muscle branched-chain amino acids metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández-Alvarez, María Isabel; Díaz-Ramos, Angels; Berdasco, María

    2017-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for the pathophysiological traits of type 2 diabetes are incompletely understood. Here we have performed transcriptomic analysis in skeletal muscle, and plasma metabolomics from subjects with classical and early-onset forms of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Focused...... of type 2 diabetes, and this occurs both in early-onset and in classical type 2 diabetes....

  12. Family and Teacher Characteristics as Predictors of Parent Involvement in Education during Early Childhood among Afro-Caribbean and Latino Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Esther J.; Huang, Keng-Yen; Hernandez, Miguel; Soriano, Erika; Acra, C. Francoise; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Brotman, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Parent involvement is a robust predictor of academic achievement, but little is known about school- and home-based involvement in immigrant families. Drawing on ecological theories, the present study examined contextual characteristics as predictors of parent involvement among Afro-Caribbean and Latino parents of young students in urban public…

  13. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in evaluation of pelvic and para-aortic nodal involvement in early stage and operable cervical cancer: comparison with surgicopathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Vandana; Damania, Kaizad; Sharma, Anshu Rajnish

    2011-01-01

    Nodal metastases in cervical cancer have prognostic implications. Imaging is used as an adjunct to clinical staging for evaluation of nodal metastases. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has an advantage of superior resolution of its CT component and detecting nodal disease based on increased glycolytic activity rather than node size. But there are limited studies describing its limitations in early stage cervical cancers. We have done meta-analysis with an objective to evaluate the efficacy of FDG PET/CT and its current clinical role in early stage and operable cervical cancer. Studies in which FDG PET/CT was performed before surgery in patients with early stage cervical cancers were included for analysis. PET findings were confirmed with histopathological diagnosis rather than clinical follow-up. The current data suggest that FDG PET/CT is suboptimal in nodal staging in early stage cervical cancer

  14. High incidence of rickets in extremely low birth weight infants with severe parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Min; Namgung, Ran; Park, Min Soo; Eun, Ho Sun; Park, Kook In; Lee, Chul

    2012-12-01

    Risk factors for rickets of prematurity have not been re-examined since introduction of high mineral formula, particularly in ELBW infants. We analyzed the incidence and the risk factors of rickets in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. As a retrospective case-control study from 2004 to 2008, risk factors were analyzed in 24 patients with rickets versus 31 patients without. The frequency of rickets in ELBW infants was 24/55 (44%). Infants with rickets were diagnosed at 48.2 ± 16.1 days of age, and improved by 85.3 ± 25.3 days. By radiologic evaluation, 29% were grade 1 rickets, 58% grade 2 and 13% grade 3. In univariate analysis, infants with rickets had significantly higher incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, parenteral nutrition associated cholestasis (PNAC), severe PNAC and moderate/severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). In multiple regression analysis, after adjustment for gestation and birth weight, rickets significantly correlated with severe PNAC and with moderate/severe BPD. Serum peak alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly elevated in rickets (P rickets of prematurity remains high and the incidence of severe PNAC and moderate/severe BPD was significantly increased 18 and 3 times, respectively.

  15. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in Italian cystic fibrosis patients: Prevalence and percentage of positive tests in the employed diagnostic criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccetti, Giovanni; Procopio, Elena; Marianelli, Lore; Campana, Silvia

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is difficult to determine because the data in the literature are not homogeneous or comparable. ABPA and CF have similar clinical symptoms which make diagnosis difficult and underestimate the real dimensions of the problem. We conducted an epidemiological study on 3089 Italian CF patients to determine the prevalence of ABPA in Italy and verify the percentage of positive tests in the employed diagnostic criteria. Our results indicate that the prevalence of ABPA in Italian CF patients is 6.18%, mainly in adolescents and young adults. ABPA is diagnosed using clinical symptoms (presence of episodic bronchial obstructions or typical radiographic features) and on the basis of other criteria which can only be partially fulfilled in paediatric patients. Among the diagnostic tests the most sensitive are the total IgE (84.5%), specific IgE anti-Aspergillus fumigatus (81.6%) and the prick test (68.3%). In the absence of clinical symptoms and gold standard diagnostic tests, serological positivity and/or the skin test are not sufficient evidence to confirm the presence of ABPA

  16. Bronchocele density in cystic fibrosis as an indicator of allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occelli, Aurélie; Soize, Sébastien; Ranc, Caroline; Giovannini-Chami, Lisa; Bailly, Carole; Leloutre, Béatrice; Boyer, Corinne; Baque-Juston, Marie

    2017-08-01

    Allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a severe and under-diagnosed complication of cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of the study was to determine whether the mucus content of bronchoceles in cystic fibrosis complicated with ABPA reveals a higher density than the mucus content of non-ABPA cystic fibrosis. We studied retrospectively 43 computed tomography scans (CT scans) of a pediatric population of cystic fibrosis patients. We measured the mucus attenuation in Hounsfield Units (HU) of all bronchoceles >5mm in diameter. We found bronchoceles >5mm in 13/43 patients. 5/13 patients had a positive diagnosis of ABPA. The median HU value of bronchoceles was higher in patients with than without ABPA [98 HU (26-135) vs 28 HU (10-36); P=0,02]. Moreover, all patients with a bronchocele density >36HU were ABPA positive. CF complicated with ABPA shows higher attenuation bronchoceles on CT scans of the chest. Systematic density measurements of bronchoceles could help to raise the difficult diagnosis of ABPA in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. Larger series could confirm a threshold in HU which could become a new imaging criterion for the diagnosis of ABPA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase gene is associated with lower risk of pulmonary hypertension in bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trittmann, JK; Gastier-Foster, JM; Zmuda, EJ; Frick, J; Rogers, LK; Vieland, VJ; Chicoine, LG; Nelin, LD

    2016-01-01

    Aim Pulmonary hypertension (PH) develops in 25–40% of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) patients, substantially increasing mortality. We have previously found that asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) production, is elevated in patients with BPD-associated PH. ADMA is metabolized by NG,NG- dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH). Presently, we test the hypothesis that there are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DDAH1 and/or DDAH2 associated with the development of PH in BPD patients. Methods BPD patients were enrolled (n=98) at Nationwide Children’s Hospital. Clinical characteristics and 36 SNPs in DDAH1 and DDAH2 were compared between BPD-associated PH patients (cases) and BPD-alone patients (controls). Results In BPD patients, 25 (26%) had echocardiographic evidence of PH (cases). In this cohort, DDAH1 wildtype rs480414 was 92% sensitive and 53% specific for PH in BPD, and the DDAH1 SNP rs480414 decreased the risk of PH in an additive model of inheritance (OR=0.39; 95% CI [0.18–0.88], p=0.01). Conclusion The rs480414 SNP in DDAH1 may be protective against the development of PH in patients with BPD. Furthermore, the DDAH1 rs480414 may be a useful biomarker in developing predictive models for PH in patients with BPD. PMID:26663142

  18. Antenatal exposure to Ureaplasma species exacerbates bronchopulmonary dysplasia synergistically with subsequent prolonged mechanical ventilation in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inatomi, Tadashi; Oue, Shinya; Ogihara, Tohru; Hira, Seigo; Hasegawa, Masashi; Yamaoka, Shigeo; Yasui, Masako; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    The presence of microorganisms in gastric fluid in neonates at birth is postulated to reflect antenatal infection and also to be associated with the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). A logistic regression analysis, after controlling for other risk factors, indicated that Ureaplasma-positive infants were not at increased risk for moderate/severe BPD (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 2.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-6.89, P = 0.12). However, the association between the presence of Ureaplasma species and the risk for moderate/severe BPD increased significantly in infants on mechanical ventilation (MV) ≥2 wk (adjusted OR: 4.17, 95% CI: 1.62-44.1, P = 0.009). An analysis using a lung injury marker indicated that Ureaplasma-positive infants with MV ≥2 wk, but not other infants, showed higher serum KL-6 levels in samples taken from cord blood, and that KL-6 levels increased time-dependently up to 4 wk of age. Antenatal exposure to Ureaplasma species induces lung injury prior to birth and synergistically contributes to the development of BPD in infants requiring prolonged MV (≥2 wk). We recovered gastric fluid specimens from 122 infants with gestational age (GA) Ureaplasma-positive or Ureaplasma-negative infants.

  19. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene mutations: do they play a role in the aetiology of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, T E; Weiner Miller, P; Garrett, J E; Cutting, G R

    2002-05-01

    Previous work suggests that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutations may be implicated in the aetiology of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergilosis (ABPA). To compare the frequency of CF gene mutations in asthmatics with ABPA of varying severity with asthmatics who were skin prick test (SPT)-positive to Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) without evidence of ABPA and asthmatics SPT-negative to Af. Thirty-one Caucasian patients with ABPA were identified, together with asthmatics SPT positive to Af without evidence of ABPA (n = 23) and SPT negative to Af (n = 28). Genomic DNA was tested for 16 CF mutations accounting for approximately 85% of CF alleles in Caucasian New Zealanders. Four (12.9%) ABPA patients were found to be carriers of a CF mutation (DeltaF508 n = 3, R117H n = 1), one (4.3%) asthmatic SPT positive to Af without ABPA (DeltaF508), and one (3.6%) asthmatic SPT negative to Af (R117H). All patients with a CF mutation had normal sweat chloride (< 40 mM). There was no significant difference between the frequency of CF mutations in the ABPA patients and asthmatics without ABPA. However, the frequency of CF mutations in the ABPA patients was significantly different (P = 0.0125) to the expected carrier rate in the general population. These results lend further support to a possible link between CF mutations and ABPA.

  20. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computed tomography in evaluation of pelvic and para-aortic nodal involvement in early stage and operable cervical cancer: Comparison with surgicopathological findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Vandana; Damania, Kaizad; Sharma, Anshu Rajnish

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Nodal metastases in cervical cancer have prognostic implications. Imaging is used as an adjunct to clinical staging for evaluation of nodal metastases. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has an advantage of superior resolution of its CT component and detecting nodal disease based on increased glycolytic activity rather than node size. But there are limited studies describing its limitations in early stage cervical cancers. Objective: We have done meta-analysis with an objective to evaluate the efficacy of FDG PET/CT and its current clinical role in early stage and operable cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Studies in which FDG PET/CT was performed before surgery in patients with early stage cervical cancers were included for analysis. PET findings were confirmed with histopathological diagnosis rather than clinical follow-up. FDG PET/CT showed lower sensitivity and clinically unacceptable negative predictive value in detecting nodal metastases in early stage cervical cancer and therefore, can not replace surgicopathological staging. False negative results in presence of microscopic disease and sub-centimeter diseased nodes are still the area of concern for metabolic imaging. However, these studies are single institutional and performed in a small group of patients. There is enough available evidence of clinical utility of FDG PET/CT in locally advanced cervical cancer. But these results can not be extrapolated for early stage disease. Conclusion: The current data suggest that FDG PET/CT is suboptimal in nodal staging in early stage cervical cancer. PMID:23559711

  1. About evidence based and beyond: a discourse-analytic study of stakeholders' talk on involvement in the early development of personalized nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.I.; Molder, te H.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper draws on discourse analysis to examine how Dutch stakeholders in health education, health care, health insurance, social science, the food industry and the media make sense of innovations in the field of `personalized nutrition¿ and their own role and significance in an early stage of

  2. "It's Part of the Fabric": Creating Context for the Successful Involvement of an Outside Expert of Jewish Early Childhood Education in School Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, David L.; Gorsetman, Chaya R.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of outside experts in professional development in Jewish schools has been questioned in light of scholarly critique of this approach. This case study examines the sociocultural context of one such long-term project aimed at school improvement through early childhood (EC) curriculum development. The research identifies cultural…

  3. Redistribution of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Causes Neonatal Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling and PH but Protects Against Experimental Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie G. Sherlock

    2018-03-01

    increased serum SOD3 expression and SOD activity prevent lung injury in experimental bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD and PH.

  4. [Somatic and psychomotor development of preterm infants at the age of 2 years, with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwinta, Przemko; Klimek, Małgorzata; Pietrzyk, Jacek J

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of psychomotor and somatic development at the age of 2 years of preterm infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Case -- control study. Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital. 62 preterm infants born before 32 weeks of gestation, with mean birth weight equaled to 1112 g were included into 2 groups: group A -- with BPD (n=31), group B (control) -- matched by sex, birth weight, gestational age (n=31). Evaluation of reaching milestones, neurological examination at 3, 9, 12, 18-24 months, Psyche-Cattel tests at 12 and 24 months, hearing and visions examinations, head, chest circumference, length and weight at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months. Age of unsupported sitting and walking, intelligence quotient (IQ), cerebral palsy, hearing and sight impairment. Reaching motor milestones were similar in the both groups (unsupported sitting (mean) 10.4 vs. 8.7 months, unsupported walking: 15.1 vs. 13.9 months). Cerebral palsy occurred more (non-significantly) frequently in group A than in group B (7/31 vs. 2/31, p=0.15). Significantly lower IQ was found in group A at the age of 1 year in comparison with group B (x +/- SEM: 79.9 +/- 2.1 vs. 86.1 +/- 1.5, p=0.03) and at the age of 2 years (x +/- SEM: 89.2 +/- 2.7 vs. 96.0 +/- 2.1, p=0.06). Weight, length, head and chest circumferences at the term of delivery were similar in the both groups, but at the age of 9 and 24 months the group A children weighted less than group B (respectively: 7432 vs. 8128 g, 10010 vs. 11116; pdevelopment of preterm newborns.

  5. Medical closure of patent ductus arteriosus does not reduce mortality and development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Terek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA is associated with significant morbidity due to hemodynamic instability in preterm infants, the effect of ductus closure on mortality and morbidity is a controversial issue. The aim is to evaluate the efficacy of oral and intravenous (IV ibuprofen treatment on ductal closure and effects on mortality and bronchoplumonary dysplasia. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 292 premature infants treated at Ege University Neonatal Intensive Care Unit were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were classified into 3 groups as; No PDA, hemodynamically insignificant PDA (hiPDA and hemodynamically significant PDA (hsPDA according to the presence and hemodynamical significance of PDA by echocardiography. hsPDA group was treated with IV or oral ibuprofen. Results: Patent ductus arteriosus was diagnosed by routine echocardiography in 145 patients, of whom 78 (53.7% had hsPDA. All 65 infants with hiPDA had spontaneous PDA closure. Echocardiographic measurements were similar to those patients treated with oral or IV ibuprofen, as in the response rate to treatment without serious adverse effects. The presence of respiratory distress syndrome, surfactant therapy, late sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD and mortality rates were significantly higher in patients with hsPDA. However, with stepwise logistic regression; 5th min Apgar score (odds ratio [OR], 1.321, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.063-1.641, P = 0.012 and gestational age (OR, 1.422, 95% CI, 1.212-1.662, P < 0.001 were the only significant variables associated with mortality. Gestational age (OR, 0.680, 95% CI, 0.531-0.871, P = 0.002 was the only significant variable associated with BPD shown with logistic regression. Conclusion: Ibuprofen treatment is effective for hsPDA closure with minimal side effects. HiPDA can close spontaneously; therefore treatment decision should be individualized. However, medical treatment of PDA does not reduce

  6. Antenatal steroids and risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a lack of effect or a case of over-adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Luigi; Bellù, Roberto; Rusconi, Franca; Merazzi, Daniele; Mosca, Fabio

    2007-07-01

    Although antenatal steroids reduce risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants, their effect on BPD is conflicting. We hypothesised that the lack of protective effect found in some studies could derive from over-adjustment during analysis, caused by controlling for factors intermediate in the causal pathway between treatment and outcome. We prospectively studied a cohort of infants 23-32 weeks gestation steroids. In univariable analysis, steroids were not significantly protective against BPD; some intermediate factors (mechanical ventilation, greater severity of illness as measured by Clinical Risk Index for Babies score, patent ductus arteriosus) were significantly positively associated with (i.e. were risk factors for) BPD (OR = 11.0, 1.55, 4.42, respectively, all P steroids (OR = 0.58, 0.92, and 0.58, respectively, all P steroid-treated infants had a lower risk of BPD (OR 0.59 [95% CI 0.36, 0.97], P = 0.036); male sex (OR = 2.08), late-onset sepsis (OR = 4.26), and birthweight (OR = 0.63 for 100 g increase) were also associated with BPD, all P effect of steroids disappeared; ventilation (OR = 3.03), increased illness severity (OR = 1.11), and patent ductus arteriosus (OR = 1.90) were significant risk factors. This study suggests that including variables that are potential mediators in the causal chain can obscure the ability to detect a protective effect of treatment. We observed such a phenomenon in our analyses of the relationship between antenatal steroids and BPD, suggesting that steroid effect is partly mediated through a reduction in the classical risk factors.

  7. Medical closure of patent ductus arteriosus does not reduce mortality and development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terek, Demet; Yalaz, Mehmet; Ulger, Zulal; Koroglu, Ozge Altun; Kultursay, Nilgun

    2014-11-01

    Although, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is associated with significant morbidity due to hemodynamic instability in preterm infants, the effect of ductus closure on mortality and morbidity is a controversial issue. The aim is to evaluate the efficacy of oral and intravenous (IV) ibuprofen treatment on ductal closure and effects on mortality and bronchoplumonary dysplasia. The medical records of 292 premature infants treated at Ege University Neonatal Intensive Care Unit were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were classified into 3 groups as; No PDA, hemodynamically insignificant PDA (hiPDA) and hemodynamically significant PDA (hsPDA) according to the presence and hemodynamical significance of PDA by echocardiography. hsPDA group was treated with IV or oral ibuprofen. Patent ductus arteriosus was diagnosed by routine echocardiography in 145 patients, of whom 78 (53.7%) had hsPDA. All 65 infants with hiPDA had spontaneous PDA closure. Echocardiographic measurements were similar to those patients treated with oral or IV ibuprofen, as in the response rate to treatment without serious adverse effects. The presence of respiratory distress syndrome, surfactant therapy, late sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and mortality rates were significantly higher in patients with hsPDA. However, with stepwise logistic regression; 5(th) min Apgar score (odds ratio [OR], 1.321, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.063-1.641, P = 0.012) and gestational age (OR, 1.422, 95% CI, 1.212-1.662, P closure with minimal side effects. HiPDA can close spontaneously; therefore treatment decision should be individualized. However, medical treatment of PDA does not reduce mortality and BPD.

  8. Association between pulmonary ureaplasma colonization and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants: updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John; Watkins, W John; Edwards, Martin O; Spiller, O Brad; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne; Kotecha, Sarah J; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2014-07-01

    Previous meta-analyses have reported a significant association between pulmonary colonization with Ureaplasma and development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). However, because few studies reporting oxygen dependency at 36 weeks corrected gestation were previously available, we updated the systematic review and meta-analyses to evaluate the association between presence of pulmonary Ureaplasma and development of BPD. Five databases were searched for articles reporting the incidence of BPD at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (BPD36) and/or BPD at 28 days of life (BPD28) in Ureaplasma colonized and noncolonized groups. Pooled estimates were produced using random effects meta-analysis. Meta-regression was used to assess the influence of difference in gestational age between the Ureaplasma-positive and Ureaplasma-negative groups. The effects of potential sources of heterogeneity were also investigated. Of 39 studies included, 8 reported BPD36, 22 reported BPD28 and 9 reported both. The quality of studies was assessed as moderate to good. There was a significant association between Ureaplasma and development of BPD36 (odds ratio = 2.22; 95% confidence intervals: 1.42-3.47) and BPD28 (odds ratio = 3.04; 95% confidence intervals: 2.41-3.83). Sample size influenced the odds ratio, but no significant association was noted between BPD28 rates and difference in gestational age between Ureaplasma colonized and noncolonized infants (P = 0.96). Pulmonary colonization with Ureaplasma continues to be significantly associated with development of BPD in preterm infants at both 36 weeks postmenstrual age and at 28 days of life. This association at BPD28 persists regardless of difference in gestational age.

  9. Differential involvement of IL-6 in the early and late phase of 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA) release in Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternak, Magdalena; Jakubowski, Andrzej; Czarnowska, Elzbieta; Slominska, Ewa M; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Szafarz, Malgorzata; Walczak, Maria; Sitek, Barbara; Wojcik, Tomasz; Jasztal, Agnieszka; Kaminski, Karol; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Exogenous 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA) displays anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this work was to characterize the profile of release of endogenous MNA during the initiation and progression of murine hepatitis induced by Concanavalin A (ConA). In particular we aimed to clarify the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as the energy state of hepatocytes in MNA release in early and late phases of ConA-induced hepatitis in mice. Hepatitis was induced by ConA in IL-6(+/+) and IL-6(-/-) mice, and various parameters of liver inflammation and injury, as well as the energy state of hepatocytes, were analysed in relation to MNA release. The decrease in ATP/ADP and NADH/NAD ratios, cytokine release (IL-6, IFN-ɤ), acute phase response (e.g. haptoglobin) and liver injury (alanine aminotransaminase, ALT) were all blunted in ConA-induced hepatitis in IL-6(-/-) mice as compared to IL-6(+/+) mice. The release of MNA in response to Con A was also significantly blunted in IL-6(-/-) mice as compared to IL-6(+/+) mice in the early stage of ConA-induced hepatitis. In turn, nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) and aldehyde oxidase (AO) activities were blunted in the liver and MNA plasma concentration was elevated to similar degree in the late stage after Concanavalin A in IL-6(+/+) and IL-6(-/-) mice. In conclusion, we demonstrated that in ConA-induced hepatitis, early, but not late MNA release was IL-6-dependent. Our results suggest that in the initiation and early hepatitis, MNA release is linked to the energy deficit/impaired redox status in hepatocytes, while in a later phase, MNA release is rather linked to the systemic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Melatonin on Early Pregnancy in Mouse: Involving the Regulation of StAR, Cyp11a1, and Ihh Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Shengyu; Xie, Lu; Ma, Teng; Lv, Dongying; Jing, Wang; Tian, Xiuzhi; Song, Yukun; Liu, Zhiping; Xiao, Xianghong; Liu, Guoshi

    2017-01-01

    To test whether melatonin plays an important role in the process of early pregnancy, melatonin was given in drinking water to pregnant mice at different gestation stages. These included mice who were given melatonin 14 days prior to their successful mating (confirmed by vaginal plug) (Group A), after successful mating (Group B), and 14 days prior to and until after successful mating (Group C). Melatonin administration significantly enhanced serum as well as ovarian melatonin levels in the mic...

  11. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography?computed tomography in evaluation of pelvic and para-aortic nodal involvement in early stage and operable cervical cancer: Comparison with surgicopathological findings

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Vandana; Damania, Kaizad; Sharma, Anshu Rajnish

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Nodal metastases in cervical cancer have prognostic implications. Imaging is used as an adjunct to clinical staging for evaluation of nodal metastases. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has an advantage of superior resolution of its CT component and detecting nodal disease based on increased glycolytic activity rather than node size. But there are limited studies describing its limitations in early stage cervical cancers. Objectiv...

  12. Questions of the clinical estimation of bronchopulmonary system status of the personnel which will participate in works on transformation 'Shelter object' in radioecologically safe condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushko, V.A.; Shvajko, L.I.

    2002-01-01

    The given data indicate that for victims of the ChNPP accident (primarily clean-up workers) presence of bronchological pathology in the form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with some special clinical, endoscopes, pathomorphological and immunological features appeared typical. That requires the adequate methodology elaboration of diagnostics and treatment of bronchopulmonary diseases for the given contingent. Thus, the personnel directed on works, connected with transformation 'Shelter Object' (ShO) in radioecologically safe condition should have complex pulmonological maintenance at all stages of medicosanitary support

  13. Early Father Involvement and Subsequent Child Behaviour at Ages 3, 5 and 7 Years: Prospective Analysis of the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Mary E; Carson, Claire; Redshaw, Maggie; Quigley, Maria A

    Fathers are increasingly involved in care of their babies and young children. We assessed the association of resident fathers' involvement with subsequent behaviour of their children, examining boys and girls separately. We used longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study for children born in 2000-2001, divided into three separate analysis periods: ages 9 months to 3 years, 3 to 5 years, and 5 to 7 years. By exploratory factor analysis of self-reported attitudes and engagement in caring activities, we derived composite measures of various types of father involvement at 9 months, 3 and 5 years. Where possible we created equivalent measures of mother involvement. Child behaviour was assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which was completed by the mother when the child was aged 3, 5 and 7 years. We estimated gender-specific odds ratios for behaviour problems per quintile of father involvement, using separate logistic regression models for boys and girls in each analysis period. We controlled for a wide range of potential confounders: characteristics of the child (temperament and development at 9 months, and illness and exact age at outcome), equivalent mother involvement where appropriate, and factors related to socioeconomic status, household change, and parental well-being, where statistically significant. Paternal positive parenting beliefs at age 9 months and increased frequency of creative play at age 5 years were significantly associated with lower risk of subsequent behaviour problems (SDQ total difficulties) in both boys and girls (pinvolvement. No associations were observed for other composite measures of caring activity by the father at 9 months, 3 years or 5 years. Quality of parenting, rather than the division of routine care between parents, was associated with child behavioural outcomes.

  14. The Effects of Parental Involvement, Trust in Parents, Trust in Students and Pupil Control Ideology on Conflict Management Strategies of Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Mehmet; Savas, Ahmet Cezmi

    2012-01-01

    In this study it was aimed to determine the effects of parental involvement, teachers' trust in parents and students, and teachers' pupil control ideology on the conflict management strategies used by teachers in classroom management. Data were collected from a sample of 254 teachers through paper and pencil questionnaires. Data were analyzed with…

  15. 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) treatment of wild roach (Rutilus rutilus) during early life development disrupts expression of genes directly involved in the feedback cycle of estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoleris, Lina; Hultin, Cecilia L; Hallgren, Per; Hansson, Maria C

    2016-02-01

    Fish are more sensitive to introduced disturbances from synthetic endocrine disrupting compounds during early life phases compared with mature stages. 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2), which is the active compound in human oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapies, is today ever present in the effluents from sewage treatment plants. EE2 targets and interacts with the endogenous biological systems of exposed vertebrates resulting in to large extents unknown short- and long-term effects. We investigated how EE2 exposure affects expression profiles of a large number of target genes during early life of roach (Rutilus rutilus). We exposed fertilized roach eggs collected from a lake in Southern Sweden to EE2 for 12weeks together with 1+-year-old roach in aquaria. We measured the gene expression of the estrogen receptor (esr)1/2a/2b, androgen receptor (ar), vitellogenin, cytochrome P450 (cyp)19a1a/1b in fertilized eggs; newly hatched larvae; 12-week-old fry; and juvenile wild roach (1+-year-old). Results shows that an EE2 concentration as low as 0.5ng/L significantly affects gene expression during early development. Gene expression responses vary both among life stages and molecular receptors. We also show that the gene profile of the estrogen feedback cycle to a large extent depends on the relationship between the three esr genes and the two cyp19a1 genes, which are all up-regulated with age. Results indicate that a disruption of the natural activity of the dominant esr gene could lead to detrimental biological effects if EE2 exposure occurs during development, even if this exposure occurred for only a short period. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Effects of Melatonin on Early Pregnancy in Mouse: Involving the Regulation of StAR, Cyp11a1, and Ihh Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Shengyu; Xie, Lu; Ma, Teng; Lv, Dongying; Jing, Wang; Tian, Xiuzhi; Song, Yukun; Liu, Zhiping; Xiao, Xianghong; Liu, Guoshi

    2017-07-27

    To test whether melatonin plays an important role in the process of early pregnancy, melatonin was given in drinking water to pregnant mice at different gestation stages. These included mice who were given melatonin 14 days prior to their successful mating (confirmed by vaginal plug) (Group A), after successful mating (Group B), and 14 days prior to and until after successful mating (Group C). Melatonin administration significantly enhanced serum as well as ovarian melatonin levels in the mice. It was observed that melatonin did not affect the natural estrous of mice. On day 0.5 of gestation (D0.5), melatonin not only elevated progesterone (P) secretion, but also upregulated expressions of StAR and Cyp11a1 , the two marker genes of corpus luteum in ovaries ( p Ihh expression in endometrium of D7.5 gestation. Melatonin treatment after successful mating improved the progesterone (P) secretion at D7.5 of gestation ( p Ihh expression in uterine endometrium. The mechanisms of melatonin to improve embryo implantation related to their actions on promoting the development of corpus luteum before gestation and helping to specify uterine receptivity in early pregnant mice.

  17. Early Involvement of Death-Associated Protein Kinase Promoter Hypermethylation in the Carcinogenesis of Barrett's Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Its Association with Clinical Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doerthe Kuester

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal Barrett's adenocarcinoma (BA develops through a multistage process, which is associated with the transcriptional silencing of tumor-suppressor genes by promoter CpG island hypermethylation. In this study, we explored the promoter hypermethylation and protein expression of proapoptotic deathassociated protein kinase (DAPK during the multistep Barrett's carcinogenesis cascade. Early BA and paired samples of premalignant lesions of 61 patients were analyzed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. For the association of clinicopathological markers and protein expression, an immunohistochemical tissue microarray analysis of 66 additional BAs of advanced tumor stages was performed. Hypermethylation of DAPK promoter was detected in 20% of normal mucosa, 50% of Barrett's metaplasia, 53% of dysplasia, and 60% of adenocarcinomas, and resulted in a marked decrease in DAPK protein expression (P < .01. The loss of DAPK protein was significantly associated with advanced depth of tumor invasion and advanced tumor stages (P < .001. Moreover, the severity of reflux esophagitis correlated significantly with the hypermethylation rate of the DAPK promoter (P < .003. Thus, we consider DAPK inactivation by promoter hypermethylation as an early event in Barrett's carcinogenesis and suggest that a decreased protein expression of DAPK likely plays a role in the development and progression of BA.

  18. Joint involvement in patients with early polymyalgia rheumatica using high-resolution ultrasound and its contribution to the EULAR/ACR 2012 classification criteria for polymyalgia rheumatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Sandra; Ehrenstein, Boris; Fleck, Martin; Hartung, Wolfgang

    2014-04-01

    To assess joint involvement and the contribution of musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) to the novel European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology (EULAR/ACR) 2012 classification criteria in patients with polymyalgia rheumatic (PMR). MSUS was performed in 54 consecutive patients with recent-onset PMR. Biceps tenosynovitis of at least 1 shoulder has been observed in 70.4% of patients, and 64.8% had a bilateral biceps tenosynovitis. Subdeltoid bursitis (27.8% unilateral, 5.6% bilateral), glenohumeral synovitis (22.2% unilateral, 9.3% bilateral), and hip involvement (22.2% unilateral, 16.7% bilateral) were observed less frequently. The sensitivities of the classification criteria were 85.2% for EULAR/ACR without MSUS and 81.5% for EULAR/ACR with MSUS. The most common MSUS pathology was a biceps tenosynovitis. However, US findings had no effect on the sensitivity of the novel EULAR/ACR criteria for PMR.

  19. Storytelling in the Early Bereavement Period to Reduce Emotional Distress Among Surrogates Involved in a Decision to Limit Life Support in the ICU: A Pilot Feasibility Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnato, Amber E; Schenker, Yael; Tiver, Greer; Dew, Mary Amanda; Arnold, Robert M; Nunez, Eduardo R; Reynolds, Charles F

    2017-01-01

    Surrogate decision makers involved in decisions to limit life support for an incapacitated patient in the ICU have high rates of adverse emotional health outcomes distinct from normal processes of grief and bereavement. Narrative self-disclosure (storytelling) reduces emotional distress after other traumatic experiences. We sought to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and tolerability of storytelling among bereaved surrogates involved in a decision to limit life support in the ICU. Pilot single-blind trial. Five ICUs across three hospitals within a single health system between June 2013 and November 2014. Bereaved surrogates of ICU patients. Storytelling and control conditions involved printed bereavement materials and follow-up assessments. Storytelling involved a single 1- to 2-hour home or telephone visit by a trained interventionist who elicited the surrogate's story. The primary outcomes were feasibility (rates of enrollment, intervention receipt, 3- and 6-mo follow-up), acceptability (closed and open-ended end-of-study feedback at 6 mo), and tolerability (acute mental health services referral). Of 53 eligible surrogates, 32 (60%) consented to treatment allocation. Surrogates' mean age was 55.5 (SD, 11.8), and they were making decisions for their parent (47%), spouse (28%), sibling (13%), child (3%), or other relation (8%). We allocated 14 to control and 18 to storytelling, 17 of 18 (94%) received storytelling, 14 of 14 (100%) and 13 of 14 (94%) control subjects and 16 of 18 (89%) and 17 of 18 (94%) storytelling subjects completed their 3- and 6-month telephone assessments. At 6 months, nine of 13 control participants (69%) and 16 of 17 storytelling subjects (94%) reported feeling "better" or "much better," and none felt "much worse." One control subject (8%) and one storytelling subject (6%) said that the study was burdensome, and one control subject (8%) wished they had not participated. No subjects required acute mental health services referral. A

  20. Influência de fatores maternos e neonatais no desenvolvimento da displasia broncopulmonar Influence of maternal and neonatal factors on bronchopulmonary dysplasia development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Raquel de Oliveira Lima

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as características epidemiológicas da displasia broncopulmonar (DBP e suas relações com condições maternas e neonatais em uma unidade neonatal. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, descritivo e analítico, sendo os dados coletados através da análise de prontuários envolvendo recém-nascidos (RNs pré-termo com peso ao nascimento inferior a 1.500 g e idade gestacional abaixo de 37 semanas internados em uma unidade neonatal. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 323 recém-nascidos com média do peso ao nascimento de 1.161 g (± 231 g, idade gestacional entre 24 e 36,5 semanas com incidência da DBP de 17,6%. Entre os RNs que desenvolveram DBP, a média de dias de uso de assistência ventilatória mecânica invasiva (AVMI, ventilação não invasiva (VNI e oxigênio foi, respectivamente, 17,6 dias, 16,2 dias e 46,1 dias, sendo significativamente maior naqueles RNs que desenvolveram a DBP (p < 0,001. A ocorrência da DBP foi significativamente maior nos RNs com diagnóstico de persistência do canal arterial (PCA. CONCLUSÃO: A incidência da DBP neste estudo foi semelhante à encontrada na literatura mundial. Não houve associação entre a presença de infecção materna e o uso de corticoide antenatal com a DBP. Os RNs que fizeram uso de surfactante tiveram maior incidência da DBP porque tinham menor PN e menor IG. A ocorrência da PCA e DBP simultaneamente está associada ao maior tempo de uso de AVMI, VNI e oxigênioOBJECTIVE: To review epidemiological features of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD and its relationship with maternal and neonatal conditions in a neonatal unit. METHODS: Cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study involving preterm newborns (NBs with a birth weight lower than 1,500 g and gestational age under 37 weeks. Data was collected through a review of medical records of these newborns admitted to a neonatal unit. RESULTS: The study included 323 newborns with a mean birth weight of 1,161 g (± 231 g

  1. Senior doctor triage (SDT), a qualitative study of clinicians' views on senior doctors' involvement in triage and early assessment of emergency patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulwahid, Maysam Ali; Turner, Janette; Mason, Suzanne M

    2018-07-01

    Despite the focus during the last decade on introducing interventions such as senior doctor initial assessment or senior doctor triage (SDT) to reduce emergency department (ED) crowding, there has been little attempt to identify the views of emergency healthcare professionals on such interventions. The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of SDT from the perspective of emergency hospital staff. A secondary aim of this study was to develop a definition of SDT based on the interview findings and the available literature on this process. Qualitative semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with participants of different backgrounds including senior doctors, nurses, paramedics and ED managers. Textual data were analysed using a template analysis approach. 27 participants from 13 EDs across England were interviewed. SDT was viewed as a safety mechanism and a measure to control patient flow. The most prominent positive aspect was the ability to initiate early investigations and treatment. Various shortcomings of SDT were described such as the lack of standardisation of the process and its cost implications. Participants identified a number of barriers to this process including insufficient resources and exit block, and called for solutions focused on these issues. A proposed definition of an 'ideal' SDT was developed where it is described as a systematic brief assessment of patients arriving at the ED by a senior doctor-led team, which takes place in a dedicated unit. The aim of this assessment is to facilitate early investigation and management of patients, early patient disposition and guide junior staff to deliver safe and high-quality clinical care. This is the first national study to explore the opinions of various emergency and managerial staff on the SDT model. It revealed variable interpretations of this model and what it can and cannot offer. This has led to a standard definition of the SDT process, which can be useful for clinicians and

  2. Fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia: will the proposed policy of banning the early-hour operation reduce fatigue-related crashes and benefit overall road safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Norlen; Mohd-Yusoff, Mohammad-Fadhli; Othman, Ilhamah; Zulkipli, Zarir-Hafiz; Osman, Mohd Rasid; Voon, Wong Shaw

    2012-03-01

    Fatigue-related crashes have long been the topic of discussion and study worldwide. The relationship between fatigue-related crashes and time of day is well documented. In Malaysia, the possibility of banning express buses from operating during the early-hours of the morning has emerged as an important consideration for passenger safety. This paper highlights the findings of an impact assessment study. The study was conducted to determine all possible impacts prior to the government making any decision on the proposed banning. This study is an example of a simple and inexpensive approach that may influence future policy-making process. The impact assessment comprised two major steps. The first step involved profiling existing operation scenarios, gathering information on crashes involving public express buses and stakeholders' views. The second step involved a qualitative impact assessment analysis using all information gathered during the profiling stage to describe the possible impacts. Based on the assessment, the move to ban early-hour operations could possibly result in further negative impacts on the overall road safety agenda. These negative impacts may occur if the fundamental issues, such as driving and working hours, and the need for rest and sleep facilities for drivers, are not addressed. In addition, a safer and more accessible public transportation system as an alternative for those who choose to travel at night would be required. The proposed banning of early-hour operations is also not a feasible solution for sustainability of express bus operations in Malaysia, especially for those operating long journeys. The paper concludes by highlighting the need to design a more holistic approach for preventing fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlation among cytokines, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and modality of ventilation in preterm newborns: improvement with melatonin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitto, Eloisa; Reiter, Russel J; Sabatino, Giuseppe; Buonocore, Giuseppe; Romeo, Carmelo; Gitto, Placido; Buggé, Concetta; Trimarchi, Giuseppe; Barberi, Ignazio

    2005-10-01

    Improved survival because of advances in neonatal care has resulted in an increased number of infants at risk for chronic lung disease. Even though the etiology of lung injury is multifactorial, recent animal and clinical data indicate that pulmonary damage depends in large part on the ventilatory strategies used. Ventilator-associated lung injury was believed to result from the use of high pressure, thus, the term barotraumas. This trauma is believed to involve free-radical damage. Oxidant injury is a serious cause of lung injury. In the present study, 110 newborns with respiratory distress syndrome were studied; 55 were treated with melatonin and the other 55 with placebo. All the subjects were mechanically ventilated with or without guaranteed volume. Proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha] were measured in tracheobronchial aspirate and the clinical outcome was evaluated. Melatonin treatment reduced the proinflammatory cytokines and improved the clinical outcome. The beneficial action of melatonin presumably related to its antioxidative actions.

  4. Emerging inequality in effort: A longitudinal investigation of parental involvement and early elementary school-aged children's learning time in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoji; Nakamuro, Makiko; Inui, Tomohiko

    2015-11-01

    While studies on effort (e.g., Carbonaro, 2005; Kariya, 2000, 2013) have revealed relationships among students' effort (e.g., self-reported learning time), socioeconomic status, and school-related factors (e.g., tracking) through secondary education data, whether and how the effort gap emerges and widens in the early years of compulsory education have not been researched. This study investigates the beginning of inequality in effort by using four waves (from first- to fourth-grade students) of the Longitudinal Survey of Babies in the 21st Century, collected in Japan. The results indicate that college-educated parents tend to employ parenting practices that directly and indirectly shape children's learning time; inequality in effort exists, and it becomes exacerbated partly because of parenting differences in a society with a relatively equal elementary education system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimized volumetric modulated arc therapy versus 3D-CRT for early stage mediastinal Hodgkin lymphoma without axillary involvement: a comparison of second cancers and heart disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Ragona, Riccardo; Piva, Cristina; Scafa, Davide; Fiandra, Christian; Fusella, Marco; Giglioli, Francesca Romana; Lohr, Frank; Ricardi, Umberto

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risks of second cancers and cardiovascular diseases associated with an optimized volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning solution in a selected cohort of stage I/II Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients treated with either involved-node or involved-site radiation therapy in comparison with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT). Thirty-eight patients (13 males and 25 females) were included. Disease extent was mediastinum alone (n=8, 21.1%); mediastinum plus unilateral neck (n=19, 50%); mediastinum plus bilateral neck (n=11, 29.9%). Prescription dose was 30 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. Only 5 patients had mediastinal bulky disease at diagnosis (13.1%). Anteroposterior 3D-CRT was compared with a multiarc optimized VMAT solution. Lung, breast, and thyroid cancer risks were estimated by calculating a lifetime attributable risk (LAR), with a LAR ratio (LAR(VMAT)-to-LAR(3D-CRT)) as a comparative measure. Cardiac toxicity risks were estimated by calculating absolute excess risk (AER). The LAR ratio favored 3D-CRT for lung cancer induction risk in mediastinal alone (P=.004) and mediastinal plus unilateral neck (P=.02) presentations. LAR ratio for breast cancer was lower for VMAT in mediastinal plus bilateral neck presentations (P=.02), without differences for other sites. For thyroid cancer, no significant differences were observed, regardless of anatomical presentation. A significantly lower AER of cardiac (P=.038) and valvular diseases (Pdisease extent. In a cohort of patients with favorable characteristics in terms of disease extent at diagnosis (large prevalence of nonbulky presentations without axillary involvement), optimized VMAT reduced heart disease risk with comparable risks of thyroid and breast cancer, with an increase in lung cancer induction probability. The results are however strongly influenced by the different anatomical presentations, supporting an individualized approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  6. Optimized Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Versus 3D-CRT for Early Stage Mediastinal Hodgkin Lymphoma Without Axillary Involvement: A Comparison of Second Cancers and Heart Disease Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo, E-mail: andreariccardo.filippi@unito.it [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Ragona, Riccardo; Piva, Cristina; Scafa, Davide; Fiandra, Christian [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Fusella, Marco; Giglioli, Francesca Romana [Medical Physics, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza Hospital, Torino (Italy); Lohr, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Ricardi, Umberto [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risks of second cancers and cardiovascular diseases associated with an optimized volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning solution in a selected cohort of stage I/II Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients treated with either involved-node or involved-site radiation therapy in comparison with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: Thirty-eight patients (13 males and 25 females) were included. Disease extent was mediastinum alone (n=8, 21.1%); mediastinum plus unilateral neck (n=19, 50%); mediastinum plus bilateral neck (n=11, 29.9%). Prescription dose was 30 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. Only 5 patients had mediastinal bulky disease at diagnosis (13.1%). Anteroposterior 3D-CRT was compared with a multiarc optimized VMAT solution. Lung, breast, and thyroid cancer risks were estimated by calculating a lifetime attributable risk (LAR), with a LAR ratio (LAR{sub VMAT}-to-LAR{sub 3D-CRT}) as a comparative measure. Cardiac toxicity risks were estimated by calculating absolute excess risk (AER). Results: The LAR ratio favored 3D-CRT for lung cancer induction risk in mediastinal alone (P=.004) and mediastinal plus unilateral neck (P=.02) presentations. LAR ratio for breast cancer was lower for VMAT in mediastinal plus bilateral neck presentations (P=.02), without differences for other sites. For thyroid cancer, no significant differences were observed, regardless of anatomical presentation. A significantly lower AER of cardiac (P=.038) and valvular diseases (P<.0001) was observed for VMAT regardless of disease extent. Conclusions: In a cohort of patients with favorable characteristics in terms of disease extent at diagnosis (large prevalence of nonbulky presentations without axillary involvement), optimized VMAT reduced heart disease risk with comparable risks of thyroid and breast cancer, with an increase in lung cancer induction probability. The results are however strongly influenced by

  7. Morbid condition involving cardio-vascular, broncho-pulmonary, digestive and neural lesions in children and young adults after dietary arsenic exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaldivar, R.

    1980-02-01

    An investigation on the relationship between dietary arsenic exposure and cardiovascular diseases was made. In Antofagasta Commune, northern Chile, since 1955 arsenic has polluted public drinking water. This environmental contamination is of geological origin. The concentration of arsenic in drinking water for the 1955 to 1970 period was 0.5980 ppM. In the period June 1970 to March 1972, the concentration decreased to 0.0815 ppM due to a water filtration plant which started operating in May 1970. Greater Santiago showed 0.00 ppM of arsenic in drinking water. Amongst 10 autopsied patients with chronic arsenical dermatosis from Antofagasta Commune, 9 showed marked fibrous intimal thickening of the arterial wall and/or restricted lumen of the left coronary artery, 2 of these 9 also exhibiting myocardial infarction. Of the 10 patients, 7 developed cardiomegaly, which was related to chronic exposure to dietary arsenic. Two series of patients with myocardial infarction under 40 years of age, one from Antofagasta Commune, the other from greater Santiago (not exposed to arsenic) were compared. The Yates corrected chi 2 value being 11.7776. The difference was statistically highly significant. In Antofagasta Commune, the number of cases which had myocardial infarction with chronic arsenical dermatosis were compared with the cases which showed, myocardial infarction without chronic arsenical dermatosis. The Yates corrected chi 2 value was 13.0395. A highly significant difference was detected. Children from the two cities were also compared. The number of cases with myocardial infarction showed a significant difference; Fisher's exact test yielded a P approximately equal to 0.004944, the Yates corrected chi 2 value being 20.7311. The number of children with systemic occlusive arterial disease from the two cities also exhibited a highly significant difference.

  8. Early brain response to low-dose radiation exposure involves molecular networks and pathways associated with cognitive functions, advanced aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Xiu R; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the cognitive and behavioral consequences of brain exposures to low-dose ionizing radiation has broad relevance for health risks from medical radiation diagnostic procedures, radiotherapy and environmental nuclear contamination as well as for Earth-orbit and space missions. Analyses of transcriptome profiles of mouse brain tissue after whole-body irradiation showed that low-dose exposures (10 cGy) induced genes not affected by high-dose radiation (2 Gy) and that low-dose genes were associated with unique pathways and functions. The low-dose response had two major components: pathways that are consistently seen across tissues and pathways that were specific for brain tissue. Low-dose genes clustered into a saturated network (P < 10(-53)) containing mostly down-regulated genes involving ion channels, long-term potentiation and depression, vascular damage, etc. We identified nine neural signaling pathways that showed a high degree of concordance in their transcriptional response in mouse brain tissue after low-dose irradiation, in the aging human brain (unirradiated), and in brain tissue from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Mice exposed to high-dose radiation did not show these effects and associations. Our findings indicate that the molecular response of the mouse brain within a few hours after low-dose irradiation involves the down-regulation of neural pathways associated with cognitive dysfunctions that are also down-regulated in normal human aging and Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Early Brain Response to Low-Dose Radiation Exposure Involves Molecular Networks and Pathways Associated with Cognitive Functions, Advanced Aging and Alzheimer's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, Xiu R.; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the cognitive and behavioral consequences of brain exposures to low-dose ionizing radiation has broad relevance for health risks from medical radiation diagnostic procedures, radiotherapy, environmental nuclear contamination, as well as earth orbit and space missions. Analyses of transcriptome profiles of murine brain tissue after whole-body radiation showed that low-dose exposures (10 cGy) induced genes not affected by high dose (2 Gy), and low-dose genes were associated with unique pathways and functions. The low-dose response had two major components: pathways that are consistently seen across tissues, and pathways that were brain tissue specific. Low-dose genes clustered into a saturated network (p -53 ) containing mostly down-regulated genes involving ion channels, long-term potentiation and depression, vascular damage, etc. We identified 9 neural signaling pathways that showed a high degree of concordance in their transcriptional response in mouse brain tissue after low-dose radiation, in the aging human brain (unirradiated), and in brain tissue from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Mice exposed to high-dose radiation did not show these effects and associations. Our findings indicate that the molecular response of the mouse brain within a few hours after low-dose irradiation involves the down-regulation of neural pathways associated with cognitive dysfunctions that are also down regulated in normal human aging and Alzheimer's disease

  10. Early Brain Response to Low-Dose Radiation Exposure Involves Molecular Networks and Pathways Associated with Cognitive Functions, Advanced Aging and Alzheimer's Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, Xiu R; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2008-06-06

    Understanding the cognitive and behavioral consequences of brain exposures to low-dose ionizing radiation has broad relevance for health risks from medical radiation diagnostic procedures, radiotherapy, environmental nuclear contamination, as well as earth orbit and space missions. Analyses of transcriptome profiles of murine brain tissue after whole-body radiation showed that low-dose exposures (10 cGy) induced genes not affected by high dose (2 Gy), and low-dose genes were associated with unique pathways and functions. The low-dose response had two major components: pathways that are consistently seen across tissues, and pathways that were brain tissue specific. Low-dose genes clustered into a saturated network (p < 10{sup -53}) containing mostly down-regulated genes involving ion channels, long-term potentiation and depression, vascular damage, etc. We identified 9 neural signaling pathways that showed a high degree of concordance in their transcriptional response in mouse brain tissue after low-dose radiation, in the aging human brain (unirradiated), and in brain tissue from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Mice exposed to high-dose radiation did not show these effects and associations. Our findings indicate that the molecular response of the mouse brain within a few hours after low-dose irradiation involves the down-regulation of neural pathways associated with cognitive dysfunctions that are also down regulated in normal human aging and Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Azithromycin in the extremely low birth weight infant for the prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anstead Michael I

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Azithromycin reduces the severity of illness in patients with inflammatory lung disease such as cystic fibrosis and diffuse panbronchiolitis. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is a pulmonary disorder which causes significant morbidity and mortality in premature infants. BPD is pathologically characterized by inflammation, fibrosis and impaired alveolar development. The purpose of this study was to obtain pilot data on the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic azithromycin in reducing the incidence and severity of BPD in an extremely low birth weight (≤ 1000 grams population. Methods Infants ≤ 1000 g birth weight admitted to the University of Kentucky Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (level III, regional referral center from 9/1/02-6/30/03 were eligible for this pilot study. The pilot study was double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled. Infants were randomized to treatment or placebo within 12 hours of beginning mechanical ventilation (IMV and within 72 hours of birth. The treatment group received azithromycin 10 mg/kg/day for 7 days followed by 5 mg/kg/day for the duration of the study. Azithromycin or placebo was continued until the infant no longer required IMV or supplemental oxygen, to a maximum of 6 weeks. Primary endpoints were incidence of BPD as defined by oxygen requirement at 36 weeks gestation, post-natal steroid use, days of IMV, and mortality. Data was analyzed by intention to treat using Chi-square and ANOVA. Results A total of 43 extremely premature infants were enrolled in this pilot study. Mean gestational age and birth weight were similar between groups. Mortality, incidence of BPD, days of IMV, and other morbidities were not significantly different between groups. Post-natal steroid use was significantly less in the treatment group [31% (6/19] vs. placebo group [62% (10/16] (p = 0.05. Duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly less in treatment survivors, with a median of 13 days (1–47

  12. Effects of an early experience involving training in a T-maze under either denial or receipt of expected reward through maternal contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios eStamatakis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The mother is the most salient stimulus for the developing pups and a number of early experience models employ manipulation of the mother-infant interaction. We have developed a new model which in addition to changes in maternal behavior includes a learning component on the part of the pups. More specifically, pups were trained in a T-maze and either received (RER rats or were denied (DER the reward of maternal contact, during postnatal days 10—13.Pups of both experimental groups learn the T-maze, but the RER do so more efficiently utilizing a procedural-type of learning and memory with activation of the dorsal basal ganglia. On the other hand, the DER experience leads to activation of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala in the pups.In adulthood, male DER animals exhibit better mnemonic abilities in the Morris water maze and higher activation of the hippocampus, while they have decreased brain serotonergic activity, exhibit a depressive-like phenotype and proactive aggressive behavior in the resident-intruder test. On the other hand, male RER animals assume a reactive coping style in this test, showed increased emotionality as well as freezing in the memory test following both contextual and cued fear conditioning.

  13. Three exploratory studies of relations between young adults' preference for activities involving a specific sense modality and sensory attributes of early memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, A S; Stuve, M

    2001-04-01

    Three studies explored whether young adults' preference for using a sense modality, e.g., hearing, correlated with presence or clarity of attributes of that sense modality in earliest memories from childhood, elementary school, or high school. In Study 1, 75 graduates or seniors in fine arts, fashion merchandising, music, conducting, or dance showed no greater frequency or clarity of any modality's sensory attributes. In Study 2, 213 beginning university students' ratings of current importance of activities emphasizing a sense modality correlated with sensory contents of recollections only for smell and taste. In Study 3, 102 beginning students' ratings of current enjoyment in using a sense modality and sensory contents of recollections were correlated and involved every modality except vision.

  14. A longitudinal evaluation of early anatomical changes of parotid gland in intensity modulated radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with parapharyngeal space involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingting; Lin, Chengguang; Wu, Jianhua; Jiang, Xiaobo; Lee, Shara W Y; Tam, Shing-Yau; Wu, Vincent W C

    2017-09-01

    Radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with parapharyngeal space (PPS) involvement may deliver high dose to the parotid gland. This study evaluated parotid gland changes during and up to 3 months after radiotherapy. Kilovoltage computed tomography (CT) scans of head and neck region of 39 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with PPS involvement were performed at pre-radiotherapy, 10th, 20th and 30th fractions and 3 months after treatment. The parotid glands were contoured in pre-radiotherapy planning CT scan and in subsequent scans. Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), percentage volume change and centroid movement between the planning CT and the subsequent CTs were obtained from the contouring software. In addition, the distance between medial and lateral borders of parotid glands from the mid-line at various time intervals were also measured. The ipsilateral parotid gland received a mean dose of about 5 Gy higher than the contralateral side. The mean DSC and parotid volume decreased by more than 30% at 20th fraction and reached the minimum at 30th fraction. Partial recovery was observed at 3 months after treatment. The centroid displacement followed a similar pattern, which moved medially and superiorly by an average of 0.30 cm and 0.18 cm, respectively, at 30th fraction. The changes in ipsilateral gland were slightly greater than the contralateral side. Substantial volume change and medial movement of parotid gland were observed with slightly greater magnitude in the ipsilateral side. Adaptive radiotherapy was suggested at around 15th to 20th fraction so as to optimise the original dose distribution of the plan. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  15. An Early Postnatal Oxytocin Treatment Prevents Social and Learning Deficits in Adult Mice Deficient for Magel2, a Gene Involved in Prader-Willi Syndrome and Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziane, Hamid; Schaller, Fabienne; Bauer, Sylvian; Villard, Claude; Matarazzo, Valery; Riet, Fabrice; Guillon, Gilles; Lafitte, Daniel; Desarmenien, Michel G; Tauber, Maithé; Muscatelli, Françoise

    2015-07-15

    Mutations of MAGEL2 have been reported in patients presenting with autism, and loss of MAGEL2 is also associated with Prader-Willi syndrome, a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder. This study aimed to determine the behavioral phenotype of Magel2-deficient adult mice, to characterize the central oxytocin (OT) system of these mutant mice, and to test the curative effect of a peripheral OT treatment just after birth. We assessed the social and cognitive behavior of Magel2-deficient mice, analyzed the OT system of mutant mice treated or not by a postnatal administration of OT, and determined the effect of this treatment on the brain. Magel2 inactivation induces a deficit in social recognition and social interaction and a reduced learning ability in adult male mice. In these mice, we reveal anatomical and functional modifications of the OT system and show that these defects change from birth to adulthood. Daily administration of OT in the first postnatal week was sufficient to prevent deficits in social behavior and learning abilities in adult mutant male mice. We show that this OT treatment partly restores a normal OT system. Thus, we report that an alteration of the OT system around birth has long-term consequences on behavior and on cognition. Importantly, an acute OT treatment of Magel2-deficient pups has a curative effect. Our study reveals that OT plays a crucial role in setting social behaviors during a period just after birth. An early OT treatment in this critical period could be a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders such as Prader-Willi syndrome and autism. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early growth response 4 is involved in cell proliferation of small cell lung cancer through transcriptional activation of its downstream genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisuke Matsuo

    Full Text Available Small cell lung cancer (SCLC is aggressive, with rapid growth and frequent bone metastasis; however, its detailed molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we report the critical role of early growth factor 4 (EGR4, a DNA-binding, zinc-finger transcription factor, in cell proliferation of SCLC. EGR4 overexpression in HEK293T cells conferred significant upregulation of specific splice variants of the parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP gene, resulting in enhancement of the secretion of PTHrP protein, a known mediator of osteolytic bone metastasis. More importantly, depletion of EGR4 expression by siRNA significantly suppressed growth of the SCLC cell lines, SBC-5, SBC-3 and NCI-H1048. On the other hand, introduction of EGR4 into NIH3T3 cells significantly enhanced cell growth. We identified four EGR4 target genes, SAMD5, RAB15, SYNPO and DLX5, which were the most significantly downregulated genes upon depletion of EGR4 expression in all of the SCLC cells examined, and demonstrated the direct recruitment of EGR4 to their promoters by ChIP and luciferase reporter analysis. Notably, knockdown of the expression of these genes by siRNA remarkably suppressed the growth of all the SCLC cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that EGR4 likely regulates the bone metastasis and proliferation of SCLC cells via transcriptional regulation of several target genes, and may therefore be a promising target for the development of anticancer drugs for SCLC patients.

  17. Derived emergency reference levels for the introduction of countermeasures in the early to intermediate phases of emergencies involving the release of radioactive materials to atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.S.; Crick, M.J.; Simmonds, J.R.; Haywood, S.M.

    1986-03-01

    Derived Emergency Reference Levels (DERLs) are practical quantities intended for use in the aftermath of an accident involving the release of radioactive materials to atmosphere and for use in preparing emergency plans for the protection of the public. The results of environmental measurements may be compared with them as a means of assessing the seriousness of the release and in order to form judgements on the need to institute protective countermeasures. DERLs are the practical expression of Emergency Reference Levels, the radiological criteria for planning the introduction of emergency countermeasures. DERLs have been evaluated for a range of radionuclides which could be released in the event of an accident and for a number of different exposure pathways that are relevant in the initial phase of an accident. These pathways are: inhalation of activity both in the plume and resuspended from the ground; skin irradiation by β-emitting noble gases in the cloud; doses from β-emitters deposited on the skin; and external γ irradiation from ground deposits. (author)

  18. De novo RNA sequencing transcriptome of Rhododendron obtusum identified the early heat response genes involved in the transcriptional regulation of photosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linchuan Fang

    Full Text Available Rhododendron spp. is an important ornamental species that is widely cultivated for landscape worldwide. Heat stress is a major obstacle for its cultivation in south China. Previous studies on rhododendron principally focused on its physiological and biochemical processes, which are involved in a series of stress tolerance. However, molecular or genetic properties of rhododendron's response to heat stress are still poorly understood. The phenotype and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics parameters of four rhododendron cultivars were compared under normal or heat stress conditions, and a cultivar with highest heat tolerance, "Yanzhimi" (R. obtusum was selected for transcriptome sequencing. A total of 325,429,240 high quality reads were obtained and assembled into 395,561 transcripts and 92,463 unigenes. Functional annotation showed that 38,724 unigenes had sequence similarity to known genes in at least one of the proteins or nucleotide databases used in this study. These 38,724 unigenes were categorized into 51 functional groups based on Gene Ontology classification and were blasted to 24 known cluster of orthologous groups. A total of 973 identified unigenes belonged to 57 transcription factor families, including the stress-related HSF, DREB, ZNF, and NAC genes. Photosynthesis was significantly enriched in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway, and the changed expression pattern was illustrated. The key pathways and signaling components that contribute to heat tolerance in rhododendron were revealed. These results provide a potentially valuable resource that can be used for heat-tolerance breeding.

  19. De novo RNA sequencing transcriptome of Rhododendron obtusum identified the early heat response genes involved in the transcriptional regulation of photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jun; Dong, Yanfang; Xu, Dongyun; Mao, Jing; Zhou, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Rhododendron spp. is an important ornamental species that is widely cultivated for landscape worldwide. Heat stress is a major obstacle for its cultivation in south China. Previous studies on rhododendron principally focused on its physiological and biochemical processes, which are involved in a series of stress tolerance. However, molecular or genetic properties of rhododendron’s response to heat stress are still poorly understood. The phenotype and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics parameters of four rhododendron cultivars were compared under normal or heat stress conditions, and a cultivar with highest heat tolerance, “Yanzhimi” (R. obtusum) was selected for transcriptome sequencing. A total of 325,429,240 high quality reads were obtained and assembled into 395,561 transcripts and 92,463 unigenes. Functional annotation showed that 38,724 unigenes had sequence similarity to known genes in at least one of the proteins or nucleotide databases used in this study. These 38,724 unigenes were categorized into 51 functional groups based on Gene Ontology classification and were blasted to 24 known cluster of orthologous groups. A total of 973 identified unigenes belonged to 57 transcription factor families, including the stress-related HSF, DREB, ZNF, and NAC genes. Photosynthesis was significantly enriched in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway, and the changed expression pattern was illustrated. The key pathways and signaling components that contribute to heat tolerance in rhododendron were revealed. These results provide a potentially valuable resource that can be used for heat-tolerance breeding. PMID:29059200

  20. Early activation of nSMase2/ceramide pathway in astrocytes is involved in ischemia-associated neuronal damage via inflammation in rat hippocampi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ceramide accumulation is considered a contributing factor to neuronal dysfunction and damage. However, the underlying mechanisms that occur following ischemic insult are still unclear. Methods In the present study, we established cerebral ischemia models using four-vessel occlusion and oxygen-glucose deprivation methods. The hippocampus neural cells were subjected to immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining for ceramide and neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) levels; immunoprecipitation and immunoblot analysis for nSMase2, receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1), embryonic ectoderm development (EED), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and phosphorylated p38MAPK expression; SMase assay for nSMase and acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) activity; real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for cytokine expression; and Nissl, microtubule-associated protein 2 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining. Results We found considerable production of ceramide in astrocytes, but not in neurons, during early cerebral ischemia. This was accompanied by the induction of nSMase (but not aSMase) activity in the rat hippocampi. The inhibition of nSMase2 activity effectively reduced ceramide accumulation in astrocytes and alleviated neuronal damage to some extent. Meanwhile, the expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-6, were found to be upregulated, which may have played an import role in neuronal damage mediated by the nSMase2/ceramide pathway. Although enhanced binding of nSMase2 with RACK1 and EED were also observed after cerebral ischemia, nSMase2 activity was not blocked by the TNF-α receptor inhibitor through RACK1/EED signaling. p38MAPK, but not protein kinase Cζ or protein phosphatase 2B, was able to induce nSMase2 activation after ischemia. p38MAPK can be induced by A2B adenosine

  1. EMF radiations (1800 MHz)-inhibited early seedling growth of maize (Zea mays) involves alterations in starch and sucrose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy R; Kaur, Shalinder; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the impact of 1800-MHz electromagnetic field radiations (EMF-r), widely used in mobile communication, on the growth and activity of starch-, sucrose-, and phosphate-hydrolyzing enzymes in Zea mays seedlings. We exposed Z. mays to modulated continuous wave homogenous EMF-r at specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.69±0.0 × 10(-1) W kg(-1) for ½, 1, 2, and 4 h. The analysis of seedlings after 7 days revealed that short-term exposure did not induce any significant change, while longer exposure of 4 h caused significant growth and biochemical alterations. There was a reduction in the root and coleoptile length with more pronounced effect on coleoptile growth (23 % reduction on 4-h exposure). The contents of photosynthetic pigments and total carbohydrates declined by 13 and 18 %, respectively, in 4-h exposure treatments compared to unexposed control. The activity of starch-hydrolyzing enzymes-α- and β-amylases-increased by ∼92 and 94 %, respectively, at an exposure duration of 4 h, over that in the control. In response to 4-h exposure treatment, the activity of sucrolytic enzymes-acid invertases and alkaline invertases-was increased by 88 and 266 %, whereas the specific activities of phosphohydrolytic enzymes (acid phosphatases and alkaline phosphatases) showed initial increase up to ≤2 h duration and then declined at >2 h exposure duration. The study concludes that EMF-r-inhibited seedling growth of Z. mays involves interference with starch and sucrose metabolism.

  2. Early long-term exposure with caffeine induces cross-sensitization to methylphenidate with involvement of DARPP-32 in adulthood of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeck, Carina R; Marques, Virgínia B; Valvassori, Samira S; Constantino, Leandra C; Rosa, Daniela V F; Lima, Fabrício F; Romano-Silva, Marco A; Quevedo, João

    2009-09-01

    Chronic ingestion of caffeine causes dependence and sleep disturbance in children and adolescents. In rodents, the administration of caffeine may produce behavioral cross-sensitization to some psychostimulants, such as dopaminergic psychoactive drugs. Methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin) is a psychostimulant used in pediatric- and adult human populations to manage the symptoms associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous studies have suggested that dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoproteins of 32 kDa (DARPP-32) participate in the manifestation of behavioral activity following ingestion of caffeine or MPH. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether long-term administration of low doses of caffeine in rodents during their adolescence induces cross-sensitization to MPH challenge in their adulthood and investigate the involvement of DARPP-32 in this model. Young rats (P25) consumed water or caffeine (0.3 g/L; mean consumption was 7.5 mg/day/kg) for 28 days. The caffeine consumption was then suspended for 14 days (washout period) when the animals received saline solution or MPH (1, 2, or 10 mg/kg) (P67) intraperitoneally. The locomotor activity of these rats was assessed using the open-field test, following which the immunocontent of DARPP-32 was evaluated in samples of their prefrontal cortex, striatum, or hippocampus. Rats chronically exposed to caffeine in their adolescent period and to inactive doses of MPH (1mg/kg) in adulthood showed augmented locomotor activity. The behavioral effect observed was accompanied by increased levels of DARPP-32 in the striatum and prefrontal cortex compared to control groups (saline or caffeine). However, no alteration caused by these treatments was noted in the hippocampus. In conclusion, chronic caffeine exposure induces likely long-term cross-sensitization to MPH in a DARPP-32-dependent pathway.

  3. What Is Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lungs. Later, babies may be given breast milk or infant formula through feeding tubes that are ... can help strengthen your child's muscles and clear mucus out of his or her lungs. Infants who ...

  4. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy ... care. Clinician Awards Clinician Career Development Awards Clinician Training Awards Mutation Analysis Program Network News Network News: ...

  5. Optimizing Caffeine Use and Risk of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review, Meta-analysis, and Application of Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakvasa, Mitali Atul; Saroha, Vivek; Patel, Ravi Mangal

    2018-06-01

    Caffeine reduces the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Optimizing caffeine use could increase therapeutic benefit. We performed a systematic-review and random-effects meta-analysis of studies comparing different timing of initiation and dose of caffeine on the risk of BPD. Earlier initiation, compared to later, was associated with a decreased risk of BPD (5 observational studies; n = 63,049, adjusted OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.64-0.75, GRADE: low quality). High-dose caffeine, compared to standard-dose, was associated with a decreased risk of BPD (3 randomized trials, n = 432, OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.43-0.97; GRADE: low quality). Higher quality evidence is needed to guide optimal caffeine use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Parental involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra S Simon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parent-Teacher Associations and other community groups can play a significant role in helping to establish and run refugee schools; their involvement can also help refugee adults adjust to their changed circumstances.

  7. Envolvimento participativo de famílias no processo de apoio em Intervenção Precoce na Infância/Participatory involvement in Early Childhood Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Alexandra Maia Machado

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Data de Submissão: 12-10-2017 Data de Aceitação: 22-12-2017A influência que a família exerce sobre o desenvolvimento da criança conduz à importância da adoção de práticas que promovam o envolvimento participativo da família. Daí a dimensão participativa, caracterizadora de inclusão, se relevar como componente diferenciadora no processo de apoio em Intervenção Precoce na Infância.Assim, este estudo exploratório utilizou o triângulo das práticas de ajuda eficaz, com enfoque no vetor envolvimento participativo, como quadro teórico, para obter uma melhor compreensão acerca as oportunidades proporcionadas à participação das famílias apoiadas; e as suas expectativas quanto às práticas participativas.Encontrámos evidências congruentes com os princípios da abordagem centrada na família, emergindo passíveis implicações, essencialmente, sobre redes de suporte.The child’s development process occurs in the context of her/his involvement in meaningful relationships with "reference persons" - those who, by responding in a contingent, regular and consistent manner to the child's basic needs, become "special", unique to her/him; in most cases, they’re the child's family, and their involvement and participation in the Early Childhood Intervention (ECI process is an essential component for its success, and a key in the path towards the child’s educational and social inclusion.This exploratory study, based on the framework of the “ECI effective help-giving practices” advocated in the literature, aims to obtain a better understanding of (i families’ perception about the opportunities they are offered to participate in the process of supporting their children, and (ii about their expectations regarding the professional practices providing this participation.The generated data indicate that the inquired families (represented by three mothers experience a family centred approach that they recognize as a way for the

  8. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia as a predictor factor for motor alteration at 6 months corrected age in premature infants Displasia broncopulmonar como fator predisponente para alterações motoras aos 6 meses em prematuros

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Silveira Martins; Rosane Reis de Mello; Kátia Silveira da Silva

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) as a predisposing factor for alteration in the psychomotor development index (PDI) in premature infants and verify the incidence of neuromotor alterations at 6 months corrected age. METHOD: This was a prospective cohort study that followed the neuromotor development of 152 very low birth weight premature infants, with psychomotor development index as the outcome. The study used the Bayley Scale of Infant Development at 6 mo...

  9. Ruptura prematura das membranas amnióticas no pré-termo: fatores associados à displasia broncopulmonar Preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes: factors associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danieli Dias Gonçalves

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar os fatores obstétricos e neonatais associados ao desfecho de displasia broncopulmonar em pacientes com amniorrexe prematura no pré-termo. MÉTODOS: foram analisados 213 prontuários do Instituto Fernandes Figueira, entre 1998 e 2002, cujas pacientes evoluíram com quadro de amniorrexe prematura 10 dias (OR: 54,00 [11,55-278,25] p=0,000; idade gestacional 10 dias (p=0,001 e "uso de surfactante" (p=0,040 permaneceram independentemente associadas ao desfecho. CONCLUSÕES: observou-se que os fatores associados à displasia broncopulmonar são de natureza neonatal, sendo que a ventilação mecânica duradoura e o uso de surfactante neonatal influenciaram no desenvolvimento dessa doença.PURPOSE: to analyze obstetric and neonatal factors associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia outcome in patients with preterm premature amniorrhexis. METHODS: we analyzed 213 medical records of patients of Fernandes Figueira Institute who suffered premature amniorrhexis (10 days (p=0.001 and "use of a surfactant" (p=0.040 remained independently associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. CONCLUSIONS: the factors associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia are related to neonatal features, asprolonged mechanical ventilation and the use of a surfactant influencethe development of thedisease.

  10. Ki-67 as a prognostic marker in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer in Asian patients: a meta-analysis of published studies involving 32 studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Song; Zhou, Wei; Li, Chun-ming; Hu, Juan; Hu, Xiao-ming; Chen, Ping; Shao, Guo-liang; Guo, Wu-hua

    2015-01-01

    Despite the large number of published papers analyzing the prognostic role of Ki-67 in NSCLC, it is still not considered an established factor for routine use in clinical practice. The present meta-analysis summarizes and analyses the associations between Ki-67 expression and clinical outcome in NSCLC patients. PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase databases were searched systematically using identical search strategies. The impacts of Ki-67 expression on survival in patients with NSCLC and NSCLC subtypes were evaluated. Furthermore, the association between Ki-67 expression and the clinicopathological features of NSCLC were evaluated. In total, 32 studies from 30 articles met the inclusion criteria, involving 5600 patients. Meta-analysis results suggested that high Ki-67 expression was negatively associated with overall survival (OS; HR = 1.59, 95 % CI 1.35-1.88, P < 0.001) and disease-free survival (DFS; HR = 2.21, 95 % CI 1.43-3.42, P < 0.001) in NSCLC patients. Analysis of the different subgroups of NSCLC suggested that the negative association between high Ki-67 expression and OS and DFS in Asian NSCLC patients was stronger than that in non-Asian NSCLC patients, particularly in early-stage (Stage I-II) adenocarcinoma (ADC) patients. Additionally, while high expression was more common in males, smokers, and those with poorer differentiation, there was no correlation between high Ki-67 expression and age or lymph node status. Importantly, significant correlations between high Ki-67 expression and clinicopathological features (males, higher tumor stage, poor differentiation) were seen only in Asian NSCLC patients. The present meta-analysis indicated that elevated Ki-67 expression was associated with a poorer outcome in NSCLC patients, particularly in early-stage Asian ADC patients. Studies with larger numbers of patients are needed to validate our findings. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1524-2) contains supplementary material, which is

  11. Estimating the threshold levels of uranium and fluorine for the development of pulmonitis and toxic lung edema resultant from accidents involving uranium hexafluoride release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasteva, G.N.; Antipin, E.B.; Bad'in, V.I.; Molokanov, A.A.; Mordasheva, V.V.; Mirkhajdarov, A.Kh.; Sorokin, A.V.; Savinova, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    Threshold doses of uranium and fluorine for the development of pulmonitis and toxic edema of the lung with lethal outcome are estimated. The levels of UF 6 entry under emergency conditions are evaluated and bronchopulmonary disease is described in subjects involved in three accidents with UF 6 release which occurred in the seventies and eighties, as shown by records. The results deny the previous assumption on the leading role of uranium in a single exposure to uranium hexafluoride. Fluorine ion triggering the mechanism of reactions in systems which determine the disease outcome is vitally important [ru

  12. Involving women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, J

    1994-01-01

    I am a primary health care (PHC) coordinator working with the May Day Rural project, a local NGO involved in integrated approaches and programs with rural communities in the Ga District of the Greater-Accra region in Ghana. When we talk about the community development approach we must first and foremost recognize that we are talking about women, because in the developing world frequent childbirths mean that her burden of mortality is higher than a man's; her workload is extremely heavy--whether in gardening, farming, other household duties, caring for the sick, or the rearing of children; she has a key role in PHC and community development, because men are always looking for greener pastures elsewhere, leaving the women behind. Women's concerns are critical in most health care projects and women and children are their main beneficiaries. Why not include women in the management team, project design, implementation and evaluation processes? That is what the May Day Rural project is practicing, encouraging women's participation and creating a relationship of trust. full text

  13. Asp f6, an Aspergillus allergen specifically recognized by IgE from patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, is differentially expressed during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienbacher, M; Israel, L; Heesemann, J; Ebel, F

    2005-11-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a pathogenic mould causing allergic and invasive respiratory diseases. Allergic bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA) is a severe pulmonary complication resulting from hypersensitivity to A. fumigatus proteins. Aspergillus allergen Asp f6 is recognized by IgE from ABPA patients, but not from sensitized individuals, a fact that can be used to differentiate between these two groups of allergic patients. Proteins from hyphae, resting and germinating conidia of A. fumigatus were compared by SDS-PAGE. Protein identification was performed using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Recombinant A. fumigatus allergens were used to isolate specific monoclonal antibodies (mab) from a hybridoma bank generated against Aspergillus proteins. A hyphae-specific 23 kDa A. fumigatus protein was identified as the allergen Asp f6/manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Differential expression of MnSOD was confirmed by immunoblot using a specific mab. In contrast, Asp f8 another intracellular, but not ABPA-specific allergen, was detected in hyphae and conidia. Aspergillus fumigatus is able to colonize its environment by the formation of hyphae. Hyphae are found in the lung of ABPA patients, but not in patients suffering from atopic asthma. Our finding that Asp f6 is specifically expressed in hyphae might explain why an IgE response to Asp f6 is specific for ABPA patients.

  14. Pulmonary outcome in former preterm, very low birth weight children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a case-control follow-up at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vom Hove, Maike; Prenzel, Freerk; Uhlig, Holm H; Robel-Tillig, Eva

    2014-01-01

    To assess and compare long-term pulmonary outcomes in former preterm-born, very low birth weight (VLBW) children with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) born in the surfactant era. Pulmonary function tests (ie, spirometry, body plethysmography, and gas transfer testing) were performed in children with a history of VLBW and BPD (n = 28) and compared with a matched preterm-born VLBW control group (n = 28). Medical history was evaluated by questionnaire. At time of follow-up (mean age, 9.5 years), respiratory symptoms (36% vs 8%) and receipt of asthma medication (21% vs 0%) were significantly more frequent in the preterm-born children with previous BPD than in those with no history of BPD. The children with a history of BPD had significantly lower values for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (z-score -1.27 vs -0.4; P = .008), forced vital capacity (z-score -1.39 vs -0.71 z-score; P = .022), and forced expiratory flow rate at 50% of forced vital capacity (z-score -2.21 vs -1.04; P = .048) compared with the preterm control group. Preterm-born children with a history of BPD are significantly more likely to have lung function abnormalities, such as airway obstruction and respiratory symptoms, at school age compared with preterm-born children without BPD. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A quantitative analysis of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum compared with host immune response in preterm neonates at risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Matthew S; Goss, Kevin C W; Connett, Gary J; Legg, Julian P; Bruce, Ken D; Chalker, Vicki

    2012-03-01

    Multiplex, real-time PCR for the identification of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum was performed on nucleic acids extracted from sequential endotracheal aspirates obtained from preterm neonates born at Ureaplasma spp. were identified in 5 of 13 neonates studied. In most cases, the DNA load of the detected Ureaplasma species was low and decreased over time. In addition, changes in detectable Ureaplasma species DNA did not relate to changes in the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) or respiratory status. All but two blood samples obtained at times of suspected sepsis were culture positive for other microorganisms; the species cultured were typically coagulase-negative staphylococci and were associated with increased levels of CRP (>10 mg/liter). This study was limited by the small number of patients examined and does not have the power to support or contradict the hypothesis that postnatal lung infection with Ureaplasma parvum is causally related to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or adverse respiratory outcomes after preterm birth. However, in this study, increases in CRP levels were not associated with patients in whom Ureaplasma parvum was detected, in contrast to the detection of other bacterial species.

  16. Single nucleotide polymorphism in toll-like receptor 6 is associated with a decreased risk for ureaplasma respiratory tract colonization and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Alexandra H; Levan, Tricia D; Vogel, Stefanie N; Chesko, Kirsty L; Pollin, Toni I; Viscardi, Rose M

    2013-08-01

    Ureaplasma spp. respiratory tract colonization is a risk factor for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants, but differences in host susceptibility have not been elucidated. We hypothesized that variants in genes regulating the innate immune response are associated with altered risk for Ureaplasma spp. respiratory colonization and BPD in preterm infants. Twenty-four tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Toll-like receptor (TLR)1, TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 were assayed in 298 infants Ureaplasma spp. and were evaluated for BPD. The majority of subjects (N = 205 [70%]) were African-American. One hundred ten (37%) were Ureaplasma positive. Four SNPs in TLR2 and TLR6 were significantly associated with Ureaplasma respiratory tract colonization. Single SNPs in TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 were associated with BPD. TLR6 SNP rs5743827 was associated with both a decreased risk for Ureaplasma respiratory tract colonization and decreased risk for BPD (odds ratio: 0.54 [0.34-0.86] and odds ratio: 0.54 [0.31-0.95], respectively). There was a significant additive interaction between Ureaplasma colonization and genotype at TLR6 SNP rs5743827 (Padditive = 0.023), with an attributable proportion due to interaction of 0.542. Polymorphisms in host defense genes may alter susceptibility to Ureaplasma infection and severity of the inflammatory response contributing to BPD. These observations implicate host genetic susceptibility as a major factor in BPD pathogenesis in Ureaplasma-infected preterms.

  17. Iniciação desportiva, actividades prévias e especialização no treino de futsal em Portugal Sport initiation, early sport involvement and specialization in futsal training in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Manuel Pereira Ramalho Serrano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo pretende analisar e caracterizar a preparação desportiva em longo prazo dos melhores jogadores de futsal portugueses. Para alcançar este objetivo foram realizados dois estudos distintos. O estudo 1 permitiu averiguar o percurso desportivo de jogadores séniores proveniente de diferentes níveis competitivos, elite (n=60, intermédio (n=160 e regional (151. Por sua vez, o estudo 2 comparou o envolvimento desportivo inicial dos melhores jogadores portugueses (n=24, com aquele desenvolvido por jogadores mais jovens, selecionados para representar as equipas distritais (n=270 e contemplou, adicionalmente, uma análise entre sexos. Todos os participantes preencheram um questionário previamente validado, que fornece informações de carácter retrospectivo sobre as atividades desportivas experiências ao longo da sua carreira. Os resultados demonstraram que os melhores jogadores se distinguem dos jogadores de níveis competitivos inferiores pela dedicação mais precoce ao treino desportivo e especificamente ao futsal, facto que é reforçado tanto pelo acréscimo progressivo do volume de treino semanal como na duração das épocas desportivas. Estes aspectos emergem como fatores discriminantes neste processo, não deixando de referenciar o contributo da prática diversificada no percurso dos melhores jogadores portugueses de futsal.The present study aimed to analyze and characterize the long-term athlete development in the elite Portuguese futsal players. There were performed two different studies to achieve this goal. The first one allowed to ascertain the route of seniors sports players from different competitive levels, elite (n=60, medium (N=160 and regional (n=151. The second study has compared the early involvement of the elite senior Portuguese players (n=24, with the study developed with young players, selected to represent the district teams (n=270 and also included a comparison between genders. All the participants

  18. Involvement of NADPH oxidase isoforms in the production of O2− manipulated by ABA in the senescing leaves of early-senescence-leaf (esl) mutant rice (Oryza sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fubiao; Zhao, Qian; Liu, Jianchao; Cheng, Fangmin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the differences in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in senescing leaves were investigated by early-senescence-leaf (esl) mutant and its wild type, to clarify the relationship among ABA levels, ROS generation, and NADPH oxidase (Nox) in senescing leaves of rice (Oryza sativa). The temporal expression levels of OsNox isoforms in senescing leaves and their expression patterns in response to ABA treatment were determined through quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Results showed that the flag leaf of the esl mutant generated more O2- concentrations and accumulated higher ABA levels than the wild-type cultivar did in the grain-filling stage. Exogenous ABA treatment induced O2- generation; however, it was depressed by diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) pretreatment in the detached leaf segments. This finding suggested the involvement of NADPH oxidase in ABA-induced O2- generation. The esl mutant exhibited significantly higher expression of OsNox2, OsNox5, OsNox6, and OsNox7 in the initial of grain-filling stage, followed by sharply decrease. The transcriptional levels of OsNox1, OsNox3, and OsFR07 in the flag leaf of the esl mutant were significantly lower than those in the wild-type cultivar. The expression levels of OsNox2, OsNox5, OsNox6, and OsNox7 were significantly enhanced by exogenous ABA treatments. The enhanced expression levels of OsNox2 and OsNox6 were dependent on the duration of ABA treatment. The inducible expression levels of OsNox5 and OsNox7 were dependent on ABA concentrations. By contrast, exogenous ABA treatment severely repressed the transcripts of OsNox1, OsNox3, and OsFR07 in the detached leaf segments. Therefore, OsNox2, OsNox5, OsNox6, and OsNox7 were probably involved in the ABA-induced O2- generation in the initial stage of leaf senescence. Subsequently, other oxidases activated in deteriorating cells were associated with ROS generation and accumulation in the

  19. Involved Node Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Aznar, Marianne C; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy...... to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. RESULTS: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field......, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7...

  20. VACCINE IMMUNIZATION FOR PREVENTION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL, HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE AND FLU AMONG SICKLY CHILDREN, WHO OFTEN SUFFER FROM PERSISTENT HETEROSPECIFIC INFECTIOUS PATHOLOGY OF THE BRONCHOPULMONARY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Ilienko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Among serious diseases of the lower respiratory tract a special place is taken by pneumonias and chronic infectious respiratory diseases caused by pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB. The research purpose is to determine the effectiveness of vaccine combined application to treat sickly children, who often suffer from persistent infectious pathology of the respiratory tract, for flu, pneumococcal and HIB disease. 110 children aged between 3 and 12 have been vaccinated. The first part of research implied children vaccination by means of Actahib and Pneumo 23 vaccines (Sanofi Pasteur, France, the second one consisted in immunization of children with the same pathology by means of Pneumo 23, Actahib and Vaxigrip vaccines (Sanofi Pasteur, France. The researches established that within a year after HIB and Pneumo 23 vaccination the frequency of upper and lower respiratory tract acerbations reduced by 2,3 times on average; likewise, the number of system antimicrobial dosage reduced by 7,4 times along with the total duration of dosage; the carrier state of S. pneumoniae reduced by 3,7 times, H. influenzae — by 3,9 times. In the course of application of three vaccines, the frequency of persistent heat erospecific infectious bronchopulmonary pathology acerbations reduced by 3,3 times. The carrier state of S. pneumoniae reduced by 2,5 times, H. influenzae — by 4,1 times. Thus, vaccine immunization to treat for flu, pneumococcal and HIB disease in various combinations may be recoma mended for wider application to reduce the frequency and severity of heat erospecific infectious respiratory diseases among sickly children, who often suffer from various illnesses.Key words: children with recurrent diseases, vaccination, prevention, flu, H. Influenzae, S. pneumoniae.

  1. Comparative evaluation of three proliferation markers, Ki-67, TOP2A, and RacGAP1, in bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms: Issues and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Elisa; Wirtz, Ralph M.; Kaemmerer, Daniel; Athelogou, Maria; Schmidt, Lydia; Sänger, Jörg; Lupp, Amelie

    2016-01-01

    The classification of bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms (BP-NEN) into four tumor entities (typical carcinoids (TC), atypical carcinoids (AC), small cell lung cancers (SCLC), large cell neuroendocrine lung carcinomas (LCNEC)) is difficult to perform accurately, but important for prognostic statements and therapeutic management decisions. In this regard, we compared the expression of three proliferation markers, Ki-67, Topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A), and RacGAP1, in a series of tumor samples from 104 BP-NEN patients (24 TC, 21 AC, 52 SCLC, 7 LCNEC) using different evaluation methods (immunohistochemistry (IHC): Average evaluation, Hotspot evaluation, digital image analysis; RT-qPCR). The results indicated that all three markers had increased protein and mRNA expression with poorer differentiation and correlated well with each other, as well as with grading, staging, and poor survival. Compared with Ki-67 and TOP2A, RacGAP1 allowed for a clearer prognostic statement. The cut-off limits obtained for Ki-67-Average (IHC) were TC-AC 1.5, AC-SCLC 19, and AC-LCNEC 23.5. The Hotspot evaluation generated equal to higher, the digital image analysis generally lower between-entity cut-off limits. All three markers enabled a clear-cut differentiation between the BP-NEN entities, and all methods evaluated were suitable for marker assessment. However, to define optimal cut-off limits, the Ki-67 evaluation methods should be standardized. RacGAP1 appeared to be a new marker with great potential. PMID:27259241

  2. Risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in five Portuguese neonatal intensive care units Factores de risco de displasia broncopulmonar em cinco unidades portuguesas de cuidados intensivos neonatais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercília Guimarães

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is clearly multifactorial. Specific pathogenic risk factors are prematurity, respiratory distress, oxygen supplementation, mechanical ventilation (MV, inflammation, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, etc. Aim: To evaluate BPD prevalence and to identify risk factors for BPD in five Portuguese Neonatal Intensive Care Units in order to develop better practices the management of these newborns. Material and methods: 256 very low birth weight infants with gestational age (GA 0.30 (85 vs 5 days, respectively in BPD and no BPD patients, pA displasia broncopulmonar (DBP é multifactorial. Prematuridade, doença da membrana hialina, oxigénio, ventilação mecânica, inflamação e canal arterial são alguns dos factores na sua patogénese. Objectivo: Avaliar a prevalência da DBP e seus factores de risco em cinco unidades portuguesas, para implementar boas práticas no tratamento deste doentes. Material e métodos: 256 recém-nascidos (RN com idade gestacional (IG 0,30 (85 vs 5 dias, respectivamente nos doentes com e sem DBP, p<0,001. Comentários: Os factores de risco de DBP mais relevantes foram o baixo peso, a doença da membrana hialina grave, a duração da ventilação mecânica e da oxigenoterapia e a sépsis. A implementação das boas práticas para reduzir a lesão pulmonar nos RN deve ser dirigida para melhorar as práticas que reduzem estes factores de risco.

  3. A pilot study to assess short-term physiologic outcomes of transitioning infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia from ICU to two subacute ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBlasi, Robert M; Crotwell, Dave N; Poli, Jonathan; Hotz, Justin; Cogen, Jonathan D; Carter, Edward

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate short-term physiologic outcomes of transitioning neonates with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) from intensive care unit (ICU) ventilators to both the Trilogy 202 (Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA) and LTV 1200 (CareFusion, Yorba Linda, CA) subacute ventilators. Six infants with BPD requiring tracheostomies for support with a neonatal-specific ICU ventilator underwent placement of esophageal balloon catheters, airway pressure transducers, flow sensors, oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ), and end tidal carbon dioxide (P ET CO 2 ) monitors. Noninvasive gas exchange, airflow, and airway and esophageal pressures (P ES ) were recorded following 20 min on the ICU ventilator. The infants were placed on the Trilogy 202 and LTV 1200 ventilators in random order at identical settings as the ICU ventilator. We measured noninvasive gas exchange, pressure-rate product (respiratory rate × ΔP ES ), ventilator response times, and the percentage of spontaneous breaths that triggered the ventilator at 20 min in each subject while being supported with each of the different subacute ventilators. The mean (SD) weight of the six infants was 4.983 (0.56) kg. There were no differences in heart rate ( p = 0.51) or SpO 2 ( p = 0.97) but lower P ET CO 2 , ΔP ES , respiratory rate, pressure rate-product, response times, and greater percentage of subject initiated breaths that triggered the ventilator ( p ventilator to the Trilogy 202 ventilator. In this small group of infants with BPD, the Trilogy 202 ventilator performed better than the LTV 1200. The improved subject efforts, per cent subject triggering, and response times observed with the Trilogy are likely related to differences in triggering algorithms, location of triggering mechanisms, and gas delivery system performance within the ventilators. These pilot data may be useful for informing future clinical study design and understanding differences in the level of support provided by different subacute

  4. [Father involvement in childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalón, H; Toro, R; Riesco, I; Pinto, M; Silva, C

    2014-10-01

    Recent initiatives have promoted the participation of fathers in the early care of their children. To assess the results of a program to encourage parental involvement in childbirth. Parents of healthy term newborns were randomly allocated to participate either in the birth experience or control. The protocol included: to dry the skin, umbilical cord cutting off, weight, height, and finally give him/her to the mother for the skin-to-skin contact. Heart rate (HR), respiratory (RR) and temperature were evaluated one hour later. In the first outpatient clinic assessment, mothers completed a questionnaire. 127 fathers participated either in the birth experience or control. 62 followed the protocol and 65 the control. Both newborn groups were comparable. Also were fathers in age, education and rurality; mothers in primiparity. Significant differences: night care (37/62, 10/65 59.6% vs 15.4%, pfathers at birth, even belonging to a discouraging socio cultural environment.

  5. Bronchopulmonary C-fibers' IL1RI contributes to the prolonged apneic response to intra-atrial injection of capsaicin by prenatal nicotinic exposure in rat pups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Lei; Zhuang, Jianguo; Xu, Fadi, E-mail: fxu@lrri.org

    2016-07-15

    Prenatal nicotinic exposure (PNE) as a SIDS model reportedly sensitizes bronchopulmonary C-fibers (PCFs), contributing to the prolonged PCF-mediated apnea in rat pups, but the relevant mechanisms are not fully understood. Pulmonary IL-1β upregulated by cigarette smoke is known to stimulate or sensitize PCFs acting via IL-1 type I receptor (IL1RI) and inhibit inspiration frequency. Because of its upregulation observed in SIDS victims, we hypothesized that PNE increased pulmonary IL-1β release and IL1RI expression in pulmonary C-neurons via action on α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChR) to induce the prolonged PCF-mediated apnea. IL-1β in BALF and IL1RI in the nodose/jugular (N/J) ganglion and vagal pulmonary C-neurons retrogradely-traced were compared between Ctrl (saline) and PNE pups and among the vehicle-treated Ctrl and PNE and methyllycaconitine (a selective α7nAChR antagonist)-treated PNE pups. The effect of IL-1RI blockade (IL-1Ra) on the PCF-mediated apnea was also compared between Ctrl and PNE pups. PNE significantly elevated IL-1β in BALF and upregulated IL1RI gene and protein expression in N/J ganglia and gene in vagal pulmonary C-neurons. All of these responses were eliminated by pretreatment with blockade of α7nAChR. In addition, the prolonged PCF-mediated apnea in PNE pups was significantly shortened by right atrial bolus injection of IL-1Ra. We conclude that PNE enhances pulmonary IL-1β release and PCF IL1RI expression acting via α7nAChR in contributing to sensitization of PCFs and prolongation of the PCF-mediated apneic response. - Highlights: • PNE increased pulmonary IL-1β release and IL1R1 expression in the N/J ganglia. • PNE elevated IL1R1 mRNA in vagal pulmonary C-neurons. • Blockage of peripheral IL1R1 reduced the PNE-induced PCF sensitization. • PNE induced the changes in IL-1β and IL1R1 dependent on action of α7nAChR.

  6. Prenatal administration of the cytochrome P4501A inducer, Β-naphthoflavone (BNF), attenuates hyperoxic lung injury in newborn mice: Implications for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couroucli, Xanthi I.; Liang Yanhong Wei; Jiang Weiwu; Wang Lihua; Barrios, Roberto; Yang Peiying; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2011-01-01

    Supplemental oxygen contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal treatment of pregnant mice (C57BL/6J) with the cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1 inducer, ss-napthoflavone (BNF), will lead to attenuation of lung injury in newborns (delivered from these dams) exposed to hyperoxia by mechanisms entailing transplacental induction of hepatic and pulmonary CYP1A enzymes. Pregnant mice were administered the vehicle corn oil (CO) or BNF (40 mg/kg), i.p., once daily for 3 days on gestational days (17-19), and newborns delivered from the mothers were either maintained in room air or exposed to hyperoxia (> 95% O 2 ) for 1-5 days. After 3-5 days of hyperoxia, the lungs of CO-treated mice showed neutrophil infiltration, pulmonary edema, and perivascular inflammation. On the other hand, BNF-pretreated neonatal mice showed decreased susceptibility to hyperoxic lung injury. These mice displayed marked induction of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) (CYP1A1) and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD) (CYP1A2) activities, and levels of the corresponding apoproteins and mRNA levels until PND 3 in liver, while CYP1A1 expression alone was augmented in the lung. Prenatal BNF did not significantly alter gene expression of pulmonary NAD(P)H quinone reductase (NQO1). Hyperoxia for 24-72 h resulted in increased pulmonary levels of the F 2 -isoprostane 8-iso-PGF 2α , whose levels were decreased in mice prenatally exposed to BNF. In conclusion, our results suggest that prenatal BNF protects newborns against hyperoxic lung injury, presumably by detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides by CYP1A enzymes, a phenomenon that has implications for prevention of BPD in infants. - Highlights: → Supplemental oxygen is routinely administered to premature infants. → Hyperoxia causes lung injury in experimental animals. → Prenatal treatment of mice with beta-naphthoflavone attenuates oxygen injury

  7. Azithromycin to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia in ureaplasma-infected preterm infants: pharmacokinetics, safety, microbial response, and clinical outcomes with a 20-milligram-per-kilogram single intravenous dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscardi, Rose M; Othman, Ahmed A; Hassan, Hazem E; Eddington, Natalie D; Abebe, Elias; Terrin, Michael L; Kaufman, David A; Waites, Ken B

    2013-05-01

    Ureaplasma respiratory tract colonization is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. Previously, we demonstrated that a single intravenous (i.v.) dose of azithromycin (10 mg/kg of body weight) is safe but inadequate to eradicate Ureaplasma spp. in preterm infants. We performed a nonrandomized, single-arm open-label study of the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of intravenous 20-mg/kg single-dose azithromycin in 13 mechanically ventilated neonates with a gestational age between 24 weeks 0 days and 28 weeks 6 days. Pharmacokinetic data from 25 neonates (12 dosed with 10 mg/kg i.v. and 13 dosed with 20 mg/kg i.v.) were analyzed using a population modeling approach. Using a two-compartment model with allometric scaling of parameters on body weight (WT), the population PK parameter estimates were as follows: clearance, 0.21 liter/h × WT(kg)(0.75) [WT(kg)(0.75) indicates that clearance was allometrically scaled on body weight (in kilograms) with a fixed exponent of 0.75]; intercompartmental clearance, 2.1 liters/h × WT(kg)(0.75); central volume of distribution (V), 1.97 liters × WT (kg); and peripheral V, 17.9 liters × WT (kg). There was no evidence of departure from dose proportionality in azithromycin exposure over the tested dose range. The calculated area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC90 (AUC24/MIC90) for the single dose of azithromycin (20 mg/kg) was 7.5 h. Simulations suggest that 20 mg/kg for 3 days will maintain azithromycin concentrations of >MIC50 of 1 μg/ml for this group of Ureaplasma isolates for ≥ 96 h after the first dose. Azithromycin was well tolerated with no drug-related adverse events. One of seven (14%) Ureaplasma-positive subjects and three of six (50%) Ureaplasma-negative subjects developed physiologic BPD. Ureaplasma was eradicated in all treated Ureaplasma-positive subjects. Simulations suggest that a multiple-dose regimen may be efficacious for microbial

  8. Influence of more extensive radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy on long-term outcome of early-stage Hodgkin's disease: a meta-analysis of 23 randomized trials involving 3,888 patients. International Hodgkin's Disease Collaborative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L.; Gray, R.G.; Clarke, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the effect of more extensive radiotherapy and of adjuvant combination chemotherapy on long-term outcome of early-stage Hodgkin's disease. METHODS: In a collaborative worldwide systematic overview, individual patient data were centrally reviewed on 1,974 patients in eight.......7%; P counterbalanced by a nonsignificant excess of deaths from other...... causes (12.4% v 10.0% 10-year risk). CONCLUSION: More extensive radiotherapy fields or the addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy in the initial treatment of early-stage Hodgkin's disease had a large effect on disease control, but only a small effect on overall survival. Recurrences could be prevented...

  9. The significance of IL-1β +3953C>T, IL-6 -174G>C and -596G>A, TNF-α -308G>A gene polymorphisms and 86 bp variable number tandem repeat polymorphism of IL-1RN in bronchopulmonary dysplasia in infants born before 32 weeks of gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Szpecht

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is a chronic lung disease that affects primarily preterm infants. Genetic factors are also taken into consideration in the pathogenesis of BPD. Genetic predispositions to higher production of inflammation mediators seem to be crucial. Material and methods: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible relationship between polymorphisms: interleukin-1β +3953 C>T, interleukin-6 -174 G>C and -596 G>A, tumour necrosis factor -308 G>A and interleukin-1RN VNTR 86bp and the occurrence of BPD in a population of 100 preterm infants born from singleton pregnancy, before 32+0 weeks of gestation, exposed to antenatal steroids therapy, and without congenital abnormalities.  Results : In the study population BPD was diagnosed in 36 (36% newborns. Among the studied polymorphisms we found the higher prevalence for BPD developing of the following genotypes: 1/2 (OR 1.842 [0.673-5.025] and 2/2 IL-1RN (OR 1.75 [0.418-6.908] 86bpVNTR; GC (2.222 [0.658-8.706] and CC IL-6 -174G>C (1.6 [0.315-8.314] and GA (2.753 [0.828-10.64] and AA (1.5 [0.275-8.067] IL-6 -596G>A, GA 1.509 (0.515-4.301 TNF-α -308G>A. However, these finding were not statistically significant.  Conclusions : Genetic factors are undeniably involved in the pathogenesis of BPD. In the times of individualised therapy finding genes responsible for BPD might allow the development of new treatment strategies. A new way of specific therapy could ensure the reduction of complications connected with BPD and treatment costs.

  10. Disruptive cell cycle regulation involving epigenetic downregulation of Cdkn2a (p16Ink4a) in early-stage liver tumor-promotion facilitating liver cell regeneration in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Takuma; Wang, Liyun; Yafune, Atsunori; Kimura, Masayuki; Ohishi, Takumi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Cell cycle aberration was immunohistochemically examined in relation to preneoplastic liver cell foci expressing glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) at early stages of tumor-promotion in rats with thioacetamide (TAA), a hepatocarcinogen facilitating liver cell regeneration. Immunoexpression of p16 Ink4a following exposure to other hepatocarcinogens/promoters and its DNA methylation status were also analyzed during early and late tumor-promotion stages. GST-P + liver cell foci increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis when compared with surrounding liver cells. In concordance with GST-P + foci, checkpoint proteins at G 1 /S (p21 Cip1 , p27 Kip1 and p16 Ink4a ) and G 2 /M (phospho-checkpoint kinase 1, Cdc25c and phospho-Wee1) were either up- or downregulated. Cellular distribution within GST-P + foci was either increased or decreased with proteins related to G 2 -M phase or DNA damage (topoisomerase IIα, phospho-histone H2AX, phospho-histone H3 and Cdc2). In particular, p16 Ink4a typically downregulated in GST-P + foci and regenerative nodules at early tumor-promotion stage with hepatocarcinogens facilitating liver cell regeneration and in neoplastic lesions at late tumor-promotion stage with hepatocarcinogens/promoters irrespective of regenerating potential. Hypermethylation at exon 2 of Cdkn2a was detected at both early- and late-stages. Thus, diverse disruptive expression of G 1 /S and G 2 /M proteins, which allows for clonal selection of GST-P + foci, results in the acquisition of multiple aberrant phenotypes to disrupt checkpoint function. Moreover, increased DNA-damage responses within GST-P + foci may be the signature of genetic alterations. Intraexonic hypermethylation may be responsible for p16 Ink4a -downregulation, which facilitates cell cycle progression in early preneoplastic lesions produced by repeated cell regeneration and late-stage neoplastic lesions irrespective of the carcinogenic mechanism.

  11. Public interest group involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, P.

    1986-01-01

    Including public interest groups in the siting process for nuclear waste disposal facilities is of great importance. Controversial sitings often result in litigation, but involving public interest groups early in the process will lessen the change of this. They act as surrogates for the general public and should be considered as members of the team. It is important to remember though, that all public interest groups are different. In choosing public panels such as public advisory committees, members should not be chosen on the basis of some quota. Opposition groups should not be excluded. Also, it is important to put the right person in charge of the committee. The goal of public involvement is to identify the conflicts. This must be done during the decision process, because conflicts must be known before they can be eliminated. Regarding litigation, it is important to ease through and around legal battles. If the siting process has integrity and a good faith effort has been shown, the court should uphold the effort. In addition, it is important to be negotiable and to eliminate shortcuts

  12. Increased circulating resistin levels in early-onset breast cancer patients of normalbody mass index correlate with lymphnode negative involvement and longerdisease free survival: a multi-center POSH cohort serum proteomics study

    OpenAIRE

    Zeidan, Bashar; Manousopoulou, Antigoni; Garay Baquero, Diana J.; White, Cory H.; Larkin, Samantha E.T.; Potter, Kathleen N.; Roumeliotis, Theodoros I.; Papachristou, Evangelia K.; Copson, Ellen; Cutress, Ramsey I.; Beers, Stephen A.; Eccles, Diana; Townsend, Paul A.; Garbis, Spiros D.

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundEarly-onset breast cancer (EOBC) affects about one in 300 women aged 40 years or younger and is associated with worse outcomes than later onset breast cancer. This study explored novel serum proteins as surrogate markers of prognosis in patients with EOBC.MethodsSerum samples from EOBC patients (stages 1–3) were analysed using agnostic high-precision quantitative proteomics. Patients received anthracycline-based chemotherapy. The discovery cohort (n = 399) either had more than 5-yea...

  13. 175 original article bronchopulmonary tuberculosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    Also efforts should be made to ensure that all positive cases .... tuberculosis situation in some cities of the country such as Portharcourt .... countries were above the age of 50 (17, 25) . Of the 350 smear-positive patients, 235 were tested for HIV infection. 63 (26.8%) of these were positive. This agrees with the WHO estimate.

  14. Infusing Early Childhood Mental Health into Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabert, John C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…

  15. Impact of miglustat on evolution of atypical presentation of late-infantile-onset Niemann?Pick disease type C with early cognitive impairment, behavioral dysfunction, epilepsy, ophthalmoplegia, and cerebellar involvement: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Sukno, S.; Trauffler, A.; Latour, P.; Dobbelaere, D.; Michaud, L.; Vall?e, L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Niemann?Pick disease type C is a rare inherited neurodegenerative disease involving impaired intracellular lipid trafficking and accumulation of glycolipids in various tissues, including the brain. Miglustat, a reversible inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of progressive neurological manifestations in pediatric and adult patients with Niemann?Pick disease type C, and has been used in that indication in Europe since 2010. Case pre...

  16. Prognostic value of age, subglottic, and anterior commissure involvement for early glottic carcinoma treated with CO2 laser transoral microsurgery: a retrospective, single-center cohort study of 261 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Filippo; Bandino, Fabrizio; Olla, Aurora Marta; Chuchueva, Natalia; Gerosa, Clara; Puxeddu, Roberto

    2018-05-01

     CO 2 laser transoral microsurgery for glottic carcinoma, when indicated, has the well-established advantages of low morbidity and positive oncological outcomes. The present study aims to determine how patient age, and tumor site could negatively impact prognosis; other variables such as the status of the margins of resection, tobacco and alcohol intake, and the grade of differentiation of the tumors have been evaluated. This was a retrospective analysis on 261 patients with a glottic carcinoma who underwent CO 2 laser transoral microsurgery. The impact of different variables was calculated using univariate and multivariate analyses. The study included 248 males and 13 females. The median follow-up period was 4.3 years. Five-year disease-specific survival, recurrence-free survival, local control with laser alone, overall laryngeal preservation, and overall survival rates were 99.4, 92.2, 93.8, 97.6, and 85.5%, respectively. Equivalent results were observed in young and elderly patients. Patients with positive margins after CO 2 laser transoral microsurgery showed a reduced local control with laser alone. T2 patients with true subglottic spreading and patients with anterior commissure involvement of grade 3 (Rucci's classification) experienced worse local control rates, despite free surgical margins confirmed by histology.  CO 2 laser transoral microsurgery is an effective and reproducible single-stage modality therapy for young and elderly patients with glottic carcinoma. Superficial close margins can be managed by a careful wait-and-see policy, while positive margins should undergo surgical enlargement. In our experience, undifferentiated tumors, true subglottic extension, and anterior commissure involvement of grade 3 were associated with worse outcomes.

  17. Who and What Does Involvement Involve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Oute; Petersen, Anders; Huniche, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This article gives an account of aspects of a multi-sited field study of involvement of relatives in Danish psychiatry. By following metaphors of involvement across three sites of the psychiatric systema family site, a clinical site and a policy sitethe first author (J.O.) investigated how...... theoretical perspective laid out by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, the aim of this study is to show how the dominant discourse about involvement at the political and clinical sites is constituted by understandings of mentally ill individuals and by political objectives of involvement. The analysis...... the responsibility toward the mental health of the ill individual as well as toward the psychological milieu of the family....

  18. Enhanced sensitivity to low dose irradiation of ApoE-/- mice mediated by early pro-inflammatory profile and delayed activation of the TGFβ1 cascade involved in fibrogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Monceau

    Full Text Available AIM: Investigating long-term cardiac effects of low doses of ionizing radiation is highly relevant in the context of interventional cardiology and radiotherapy. Epidemiological data report that low doses of irradiation to the heart can result in significant increase in the cardiovascular mortality by yet unknown mechanisms. In addition co-morbidity factor such as hypertension or/and atherosclerosis can enhance cardiac complications. Therefore, we explored the mechanisms that lead to long-term cardiac remodelling and investigated the interaction of radiation-induced damage to heart and cardiovascular systems with atherosclerosis, using wild-type and ApoE-deficient mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: ApoE-/- and wild-type mice were locally irradiated to the heart at 0, 0.2 and 2 Gy (RX. Twenty, 40 and 60 weeks post-irradiation, echocardiography were performed and hearts were collected for cardiomyocyte isolation, histopathological analysis, study of inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis deposition. Common and strain-specific pathogenic pathways were found. Significant alteration of left ventricular function (eccentric hypertrophy occurred in both strains of mice. Low dose irradiation (0.2 Gy induced premature death in ApoE-/- mice (47% died at 20 weeks. Acute inflammatory infiltrate was observed in scarring areas with accumulation of M1-macrophages and secretion of IL-6. Increased expression of the fibrogenic factors (TGF-β1 and PAI-1 was measured earlier in cardiomyocytes isolated from ApoE-/- than in wt animals. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that cardiac exposure to low dose of ionizing radiation induce significant physiological, histopathological, cellular and molecular alterations in irradiated heart with mild functional impairment. Atherosclerotic predisposition precipitated cardiac damage induced by low doses with an early pro-inflammatory polarization of macrophages.

  19. Early Cardiac Involvement Affects Left Ventricular Longitudinal Function in Females Carrying α-Galactosidase A Mutation: Role of Hybrid Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Letizia; Imbriaco, Massimo; Nappi, Carmela; Nicolai, Emanuele; Giugliano, Giuseppe; Ponsiglione, Andrea; Diomiaiuti, Tommaso Claudio; Riccio, Eleonora; Duro, Giovanni; Pisani, Antonio; Trimarco, Bruno; Cuocolo, Alberto

    2018-04-01

    Hybrid 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may differentiate mature fibrosis or scar from fibrosis associated to active inflammation in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease, even in nonhypertrophic stage. This study was designed to compare the results of positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance cardiac imaging with those of speckle-tracking echocardiography in heterozygous Anderson-Fabry disease females. Twenty-four heterozygous females carrying α-galactosidase A mutation and without left ventricular hypertrophy underwent cardiac positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance using 18 F-FDG for glucose uptake and 2-dimensional strain echocardiography. 18 F-FDG myocardial uptake was quantified by measuring the coefficient of variation (COV) of the standardized uptake value using a 17-segment model. Focal 18 F-FDG uptake with COV >0.17 was detected in 13 patients, including 2 patients with late gadolinium enhancement at magnetic resonance. COV was 0.30±0.14 in patients with focal 18 F-FDG uptake and 0.12±0.03 in those without ( P 0.17 compared with those with COV ≤0.17 (-18.5±2.7% versus -22.2±1.8%; P =0.024). For predicting COV >0.17, a global longitudinal strain >-19.8% had 77% sensitivity and 91% specificity and a value >2 dysfunctional segments 92% sensitivity and 100% specificity. In females carrying α-galactosidase A mutation, focal 18 F-FDG uptake represents an early sign of disease-related myocardial damage and is associated with impaired left ventricular longitudinal function. These findings support the hypothesis that inflammation plays an important role in glycosphingolipids storage disorders. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Tumor-infiltrating CD4+ T lymphocytes in early breast cancer reflect lymph node involvement Linfócitos T CD4+ tumor infiltrantes no câncer de mama inicial refletem envolvimento linfonodal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Henrique Macchetti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of immune system in the pathogenesis and progression of breast cancer is a subject of controversy, and this stimulated us to investigate the association of the immunophenotype of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in early breast cancer with the spread of tumor cells to axillary lymph nodes. METHODS: Tumor samples from 23 patients with early breast cancer from the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Ribeirão Preto Medical School (USP were obtained at the time of biopsy and submitted to an enzyme-digestion procedure for the extraction of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. The lymphocytes extracted were analyzed by dual-color flow cytometry with monoclonal antibodies in these combinations: CD3 FITC/CD19 PE, CD3 FITC/CD4 PE, CD3 FITC/CD8 PE, and CD16/56 PerCP, which are specific for immunophenotyping of T and B lymphocytes, helper and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and natural killer (NK cells. The mean percentage of these cells was used for comparing groups of patients with or without lymph node metastasis. RESULTS: The mean value for T-lymphocyte infiltration was 24.72 ± 17.37%; for B-lymphocyte infiltration, 4.22 ± 6.27%; for NK-cell infiltration, 4.41 ± 5.22%, and for CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte infiltration, 12.43 ± 10.12% and 11.30 ± 15.09%, respectively. Only mean values of T- and CD4+ T-lymphocyte infiltration were higher in the group of patients with lymph node metastasis, while no differences were noted in the other lymphocyte subpopulations. CONCLUSION: The association of tumor-infiltrating CD4+ T lymphocytes with lymph node metastasis suggests a role for these cells in the spread of neoplasia to lymph nodes in patients with early breast cancer.INTRODUÇÃO: O papel do sistema imunológico na patogênese e progressão do câncer de mama ainda é controverso, e isto nos estimulou a verificar a associação do imunofenótipo dos linfócitos tumor infiltrantes do câncer de mama inicial com a disseminação de c

  1. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: Clinical practices in five Portuguese neonatal intensive care units Displasia broncopulmonar: Práticas clínicas em cinco unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Guimarães

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of surfactant, prenatal corticosteroids (PNC and advances in technology, the survival rate of extremely low birth weight (ELBW infants has improved dramatically. Rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD vary widely among neonatal intensive care units (NICUs and many studies using multiple interventions have shown some improvement in BPD rates. Implementing potentially better practices to reduce BPD has been an effort made over the last few decades. Aim: To compare five Portuguese NICUs in terms of clinical practices in very low birth weight (VLBW infants, in order to developbetter practices to prevent BPD. Patients and methods: 256 preterm neonates, gestational age (GA Com o advento do surfactante, dos corticosteróides prénatais e dos avanços na tecnologia, a sobrevida dos recém-nascidos de extremo baixo peso tem melhorado dramaticamente. As taxas de displasia broncopulmonar (DBP variam amplamente entre unidades, e vários estudos, avaliando resultados de múltiplas intervenções, têm mostrado alguma melhoria na prevalência da DBP. A implementação de potenciais boas práticas na DBP tem sido adoptada por muitos serviços nas últimas décadas. Objectivo: Comparar cinco unidades portuguesas de cuidados intensivos neonatais no que se refere as práticas clínicas no tratamento dos recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso, para desenvolver e melhorar as boas práticas na prevenção da DBP. População e métodos: Foram estudados 256 recém-nascidos com a idade gestacional inferior a 30 semanas e/ou peso ao nascer inferior a 1250 g, admitidos nas cinco unidades portuguesas (centros 1 a 5 entre 1 de Janeiro de 2004 e 31 de Dezembro de 2006. Foram excluídos os recém-nascidos com malformações major, hemorragia intraventricular grau IV na primeira semana de vida e com doença metabólica ou neuromuscular. Definimos DBP como a dependência do oxigénio às 36 semanas de idade pós-concepcional. A ecessidade de melhorar

  2. Putative apolipoprotein A-I, natural killer cell enhancement factor and lysozyme g are involved in the early immune response of brown-marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Forskal, to Vibrio alginolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, C-F; Shamsudin, M N; Chee, H-Y; Aliyu-Paiko, M; Idrus, E S

    2014-08-01

    The gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio alginolyticus, has frequently been identified as the pathogen responsible for the infectious disease called vibriosis. This disease is one of the major challenges facing brown-marbled grouper aquaculture, causing fish farmers globally to suffer substantial economic losses. The objective of this study was to investigate the proteins involved in the immune response of brown-marbled grouper fingerlings during their initial encounter with pathogenic organisms. To achieve this objective, a challenge experiment was performed, in which healthy brown-marbled grouper fingerlings were divided into two groups. Fish in the treated group were subjected to intraperitoneal injection with an infectious dose of V. alginolyticus suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and those in the control group were injected with an equal volume of PBS. Blood samples were collected from a replicate number of fish from both groups at 4 h post-challenge and analysed for immune response-related serum proteins via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results showed that 14 protein spots were altered between the treated and control groups; these protein spots were further analysed to determine the identity of each protein via MALDI-TOF/TOF. Among the altered proteins, three were clearly overexpressed in the treated group compared with the control; these were identified as putative apolipoprotein A-I, natural killer cell enhancement factor and lysozyme g. Based on these results, these three highly expressed proteins participate in immune response-related reactions during the initial exposure (4 h) of brown-marbled grouper fingerling to V. alginolyticus infection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Avaliação tomográfica pulmonar tardia em prematuros com displasia broncopulmonar e persistência de canal arterial Late pulmonary tomography assessment in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia submitted to patent ductus arteriosus managemnent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Beani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação tomográfica do parênquima pulmonar de crianças nascidas prematuras de muito baixo peso, com persistência do canal arterial submetidas a tratamento clínico ou cirúrgico e que apresentaram displasia broncopulmonar. MÉTODOS: Entre dezembro de 2006 e janeiro de 2007, 14 crianças foram submetidas à tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução (TCAR, que nasceram prematuras, peso inferior a 1500 gramas, com displasia broncopulmonar (DBP e persistência do canal arterial (PCA, os quais necessitaram tratamento para oclusão do canal, sendo divididos em dois grupos: A - clínico (n = 6 e B - cirúrgico (n = 8. Nove pacientes eram do sexo masculino e cinco, do feminino, com idade média de 36,5±4,3 meses. As TCAR foram analisadas por dois observadores independentes e as lesões quantificadas em cada paciente. Para análises estatísticas, foi utilizado o teste de Mann-Whitney e considerados significantes valores de pOBJECTIVE: To assess through high-resolution computed tomography the pulmonary parenchyma of children prematurely born with both very low birth weight and patent ductus arteriosus submitted to medical or surgical treatment that developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia. METHODS: Between December 2006 and January 2007, 14 children prematurely born with a weight less than 1500g with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA were submitted to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT. All of them underwent surgical closure of the canal divided into two groups: A - medical (n=6 and B - surgical (n=8. The pool of patients comprised 9 baby boys and 5 girls who were 36.5±4.3 month-old. The HRCT were analyzed by two independent observers and quantified in each patient. The statistical analyses were assessed using the Mann-Whitney test, and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Three patients presented normal tomographies, being two of A group and one of B. In A, the most

  4. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of individuals with TSC, ... the hamartomas have many blood vessels (as are angiofibromas of the skin). Less than half of the ...

  5. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia as a predictor factor for motor alteration at 6 months corrected age in premature infants Displasia broncopulmonar como fator predisponente para alterações motoras aos 6 meses em prematuros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Silveira Martins

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD as a predisposing factor for alteration in the psychomotor development index (PDI in premature infants and verify the incidence of neuromotor alterations at 6 months corrected age. METHOD: This was a prospective cohort study that followed the neuromotor development of 152 very low birth weight premature infants, with psychomotor development index as the outcome. The study used the Bayley Scale of Infant Development at 6 months corrected age, and neurological examination. RESULTS: Incidence of BPD was 13.2% (n=20. Logistic regression analysis showed an association between BPD and altered psychomotor development index (OR 3.98; 95%CI: 1.04-15.1 after adjusting for confounding variables. Neurological examination was altered in 67.1% of the 152 infants. CONCLUSION: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia acted as an independent predisposing factor for alteration in the psychomotor development index in premature infants at 6 months corrected age.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a displasia broncopulmonar (DBP como fator predisponente para alteração no índice de desenvolvimento psicomotor em prematuros e verificar a incidência das alterações neuromotoras aos 6 meses de idade corrigida. MéTODO: Estudo de coorte prospectivo que acompanhou o desenvolvimento neuromotor de 152 prematuros de muito baixo peso, cujo desfecho foi o desenvolvimento psicomotor. Utilizou-se a Bayley Scale of Infant Development aos 6 meses de idade corrigida e exame neurológico. RESULTADOS: A incidência de DBP foi de 13,2% (n=20. A análise de regressão logística mostrou associação entre a DBP e alteração no índice de desenvolvimento psicomotor (RC 3,98 IC 95%:1,04-15,1 após ajuste para as variáveis de confundimento. O exame neurológico apresentou-se alterado em 67,1% das 152 crianças. CONCLUSão: A displasia broncopulmonar atuou como fator predisponente independente para alteração no índice de desenvolvimento

  6. Organizing Patient Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm Johansen, Mette

    hospitals. During the last 25 years, patient involvement and quality improvement have become connected in Danish healthcare policy. However, the ideal of involving patients in quality improvement is described in very general terms and with only few specific expectations of how it is to be carried out...... in practice, as I show in the thesis. In the patient involvement literature, the difficulties of getting patient involvement in quality improvement to have in an impact on the planning and development of healthcare services is, for example, ascribed to conceptual vagueness of patient involvement, differences...... in perspectives, values and understandings between patients and healthcare professionals, or the lack of managerial attention and prioritization....

  7. JOINT INVOLVEMENT IN SYPHILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Zlobina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint involvement in syphilis has been considered as casuistry in recent years. At the same time, the high incidence of primary syphilis and the notified cases of late neurosyphilis may suggest that joint involvement in this disease is by no means always verified. Traditionally there are two forms of syphilitic arthritis: primary synovial (involving the articular membranes and sac and primary bone (involving the articular bones and cartilages ones. The paper describes the authors' clinical case of the primary bone form of articular syphilis in a 34-year-old man. 

  8. IMPG2-Associated Retinitis Pigmentosa Displays Relatively Early Macular Involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huet, R.A.C. van; Collin, R.W.J.; Siemiatkowska, A.M.; Klaver, C.C.; Hoyng, C.B.; Simonelli, F.; Khan, M.I.; Qamar, R.; Banin, E.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Theelen, T.; Hollander, A.I. den; Born, L.I. van den; Klevering, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To provide the first detailed clinical description in patients with RP caused by recessive mutations in IMPG2. METHODS: This international collaborative study includes 17 RP patients with inherited retinal disease caused by mutations in IMPG2. The patients were clinically (re-)examined,

  9. Modality-specific involvement of occipital cortex in Early Blind?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; van Mierlo, C.M.; Postma, A.

    2008-01-01

    What happens in occipital cortex when neuronal activity is no longer evoked by regular visual stimulation? Studying brain activity induced by tactile and auditory stimuli in the blind may provide an answer. Several studies indicate that occipital cortex in the blind is recruited in simple tasks,

  10. The Involved Ostrich

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Geiger, Susi

    2008-01-01

    that the transition into parenthood can be difficult for men due to their lack of a physical connection to the pregnancy, a perception that the baby industry is not designed for them, the continuance of male stereotypes in the media, and also the time available to men to become involved in consumption activities......-natal data. Data revealed that men, according to their partner’s perceptions, used consumption as a virtual umbilical cord, although levels of consumption involvement varied from co-involvement for most purchases, to limited involvement, and/or involvement for ‘large’ items, particularly travel systems...... and technical items. This research also revealed that men partook in highly masculinized forms of “nesting,” and in general shunned pregnancy book reading; although some did engage in “research” activities such as searching the internet for product safety information. We conclude from this study...

  11. Stakeholder involvement in developing brochures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, M.; Garing, K.; Waldrop, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management involved stakeholders (i.e., people who perceive themselves to be affected by the DOE's activities) in a pre-decisional draft of a DOE public document-a practice that the public has called for if the DOE is to begin real public participation. Early and ongoing public input is key to realizing Environmental Management's goal of increasing public participation. The stakeholder review process employed in the development of this document, a brochure outlining public participation information, demonstrates that Environmental Management is open-quotes practicing what it preachesclose quotes about institutionalizing public participation in its program. environmental Management's objective for the brochure is to create a document that uses plain, direct language that encourages citizens to become involved in its decision making process. The information in the brochure provides the public with the information they need to become involved stakeholders. The breadth and volume of comments received assisted in the development of a brochure that includes many viewpoints

  12. IDEA and Family Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Öztürk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA gives many rights to parents with special needs in terms of involvement and participation. Given the importance of family involvement in the special education process, and federal legislation that increasingly mandated and supported such involvement over time, considerable research has focused on the multiple ways that relationships between schools and families in the special education decision making process have played out. Educational professionals should create a positive climate for CLD families so that they feel more comfortable and therefore are able to participate more authentically and meaningfully.

  13. Fathers' Leave, Fathers' Involvement and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Lausten, Mette; Baxter, Jennifer

    involved’ perform better during the early years than their peers with less involved fathers. This paper analyses data of four OECD countries — Australia; Denmark; United Kingdom; United States — to describe how leave policies may influence father’s behaviours when children are young and whether...... their involvement translates into positive child cognitive and behavioural outcomes. This analysis shows that fathers’ leave, father’s involvement and child development are related. Fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when...

  14. Early discontinuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Felde, Lina; Gichangi, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    prevalence and rate of early discontinuation of different drugs consisting of, in this study, lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensive drugs, antidepressants, antidiabetics and drugs against osteoporosis. Material and methods This was a register study based on prescription data covering a 4-year period...... and consisting of 470,000 citizens. For each practice and group of drug, a 1-year prevalence for 2002 and the rate of early discontinuation among new users in 2002-2003 were estimated. Early discontinuation was defined as no prescriptions during the second half-year following the first prescription....... There was a positive association between the prevalence of prescribing for the specific drugs studied (antidepressants, antidiabetics, drugs against osteoporosis and lipid-lowering drugs) and early discontinuation (r = 0.29 -0.44), but not for anti-hypertensive drugs. The analysis of the association between prevalence...

  15. Early literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from the Danish contribution to the EASE project, a European research project running from 2008 to 2010 on early literacy in relation to the transition from childcare to school. It explores a holistic, inclusive approach to early literacy that resists a narrow...... and schools. The paper also draws on Gee’s (2001, 2003, 2004, 2008) sociocultural approach to literacy, and Honneth’s (2003, 2006) concept of recognition. Emphasizing participation and recognition as key elements, it claims that stakeholders in early liter- acy must pay attention to how diverse early literacy...... opportunities empower children, especially when these opportunities are employed in a project-based learning environ- ment in which each child is able to contribute to the shared literacy events....

  16. Parental Involvement in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Tessa

    1979-01-01

    Arguments in favor of increased parental involvement, particularly in nursery education, are presented. Opposition to participation from parents and teachers is discussed and specific areas in which cooperation might be possible are suggested along with different levels of participation. (JMF)

  17. Teacher Training in Family Involvement: An Interpersonal Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mick; Wallinga, Charlotte

    2000-01-01

    Discusses ways to develop family-school-community involvement, based on an early childhood teacher training course in family involvement. Discusses strategies for using Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs to facilitate family involvement interactions, and using student teachers' experiences for structuring reflective thought about family involvement…

  18. Supporting Active User Involvment in Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj

    1990-01-01

    The term prototyping has in recent years become a buzzword in both research and practice of system design due to a number of claimed advantages of prototyping techniques over traditional specification techniques. In particular it is often stated that prototyping facilitates the users' involvement...... in the development process. But prototyping does not automatically imply active user involvement! Thus a cooperative prototyping approach aiming at involving users actively and creatively in system design is proposed in this paper. The key point of the approach is to involve users in activities that closely couple...... development of prototypes to early evaluation of prototypes in envisioned use situations. Having users involved in such activities creates new requirements for tool support. Tools that support direct manipulation of prototypes and simulation of behaviour have shown promise for cooperative prototyping...

  19. Cardiovascular involvement in myositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise P

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on cardiovascular involvement in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). Studies from the past 18 months are identified and reviewed. Finally, the clinical impact of these findings is discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological...... on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging suggests that CMR should be considered as a potentially viable diagnostic tool to evaluate the possibility of silent myocardial inflammation in IIM with normal routine noninvasive evaluation. SUMMARY: Updated literature on cardiovascular involvement in IIM has...... identified an increased risk for subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease in these rare inflammatory muscle diseases....

  20. Who Involves Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Clifford

    1979-01-01

    The author reviews the development of a parents' group at the Bradford Grange School (Manchester, United Kingdom) for ESN (educationally subnormal) children. Problems with the initial parents' group are pointed out, successful approaches are considered, and the importance of parent involvement is stressed. (SBH)

  1. PATTERNS AND FACTORS INVOLVED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 1*' of July 1996 and 30'h of June 2000 a total of 3583 patients were registered at the accident and emergency unit of Nnamdi. Azikiwe ... The case files of these were reviewed with a view to ascertaining the causes and factors involved in the deaths of these patients. The .... H.I.V/AIDS related complications 23 6.8.

  2. Early Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuys, Ute Elisabeth

    1986-01-01

    Presents reviews of the following mathematics software designed to teach young children counting, number recognition, visual discrimination, matching, addition, and subtraction skills; Stickybear Numbers, Learning with Leeper, Getting Ready to Read and Add, Counting Parade, Early Games for Young Children, Charlie Brown's 1,2,3's, Let's Go Fishing,…

  3. Microorganisms involved in MIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K. [Danish Technological Institute (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a widespread problem that is difficult to detect and assess because of its complex mechanism. This paper presents the involvement of microorganisms in MIC. Some of the mechanisms that cause MIC include hydrogen consumption, production of acids, anode-cathode formation and electron shuttling. A classic bio-corrosive microorganism in the oil and gas industry is sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP). Methanogens also increase corrosion rates in metals. Some of the phylogenetic orders detected while studying SRP and methanogens are archaeoglobales, clostridiales, methanosarcinales and methanothermococcus. There were some implications, such as growth of SRP not being correlated with growth of methanogens; methanogens were included in MIC risk assessment. A few examples are used to display how microorganisms are involved in topside corrosion and microbial community in producing wells. From the study, it can be concluded that, MIC risk assessment includes system data and empirical knowledge of the distribution and number of microorganisms in the system.

  4. Peer Effects and Academics’ Industry Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschhoff, Birgit; Grimpe, Christoph

    This study explores the interaction between professional imprinting and age in the context of industry-science collaboration. Specifically, we examine the impact of localized and personal peer effects on academics’ involvement with industry and how these effects are moderated by the career age...... of the scientist. We suggest that both localized and personal peer effects drive industry involvement but that the effects from such imprinting are more pronounced for younger researchers, suggesting that professional imprinting takes place in the early stages of a scientist’s academic career. Based on a sample...... of 330 German academics in the field of biotechnology and publication data from the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), we find that scientists with industry-oriented co-authors are more likely to be involved with industry (personal peer effect). Moreover, we find that the scientist’s involvement...

  5. Reactors also involve people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurt, H.B.

    1975-01-01

    As the nuclear industry develops it is to be hoped that high quality occupational health programs will evolve along with other sound operational procedures and practices. The immediate involvement of occupational health personnel may well afford a safety factor which will minimize the likelihood of either the selection of personnel not adequate for the full responsibilities of their work or the continuation in responsible positions of personnel who develop handicaps of either a physical or mental nature

  6. Involvement through photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, J

    2016-12-01

    As a photographer living in Tokyo, I have been visiting Suetsugi village regularly to take photographs and show the printed photographs to the residents. What is the role of photography? What does it mean to be involved in the life of Suetsugi through photography? This article discusses some of the answers to these questions 5 years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

  7. Getting involved in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, Davina; Grant, Lyle G

    2011-01-01

    The need for quality nursing research to promote evidence-based practice and optimize patient care is well recognized. This is particularly pertinent in cardiovascular nursing, where cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide (World Health Organization, 2007). Across the spectrum of academic, clinical, and health care administration nursing roles, research remains fundamental to bridging theory, practice, and education (LoBiondo-Wood, Haber, Cameron, & Singh, 2009). Despite recognition of the importance of nursing research, the gap between research and practice continues to be an ongoing issue (Funk, Tornquist, & Champagne, 1995; Pettengill, Gillies, & Clark, 1994; Rizzuto, Bostrom, Suterm, & Chenitz, 1994; Rolfe, 1998). Nurses are appropriately situated to contribute to research that improves clinical outcomes and health service delivery. However, the majority of nurses in clinical practice do not have a significant research component structured into their nursing role. In this research column, the authors outline the importance of nurses being engaged in research and present some different levels of involvement that nurses may assume. A continuum of nursing research involvement includes asking researchable questions, being a savvy consumer of research evidence, finding your own level of research involvement, and aspiring to lead.

  8. Displasia broncopulmonar: incidência, fatores de risco e utilização de recursos em uma população sul-americana de recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: incidence, risk factors and resource utilization in a population of South-American very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Tapia

    2006-02-01

    .OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, its risk factors and resource utilization in a large South American population of very low birth weight infants. METHODS: Data were prospectively collected from infants weighing 500 to 1,500 g born at 16 NEOCOSUR Network centers from 10/2000 through 12/2003. Multivariate relative risk and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by Poisson regression with robust error variance to find factors that affected the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. RESULTS: 1,825 very low birth weight infant survivors were analyzed. Mean birth weight and gestational age were 1085+279 g and 29+3 weeks respectively. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia incidence averaged 24.4% and survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia augmented with increasing gestational age. Higher birth weight and gestational age and a female gender all decreased the risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Factors that independently increased that risk were surfactant requirement, mechanical ventilation, air leak, patent ductus arteriosus, late onset sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia infants had more days of hospitalization (91±27 vs. 51±19, on mechanical ventilation (19±20 vs. 4±7 and oxygen therapy (72±30 vs. 8±14 in comparison with non BPD infants. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia incidence was 24.4% in a large South American population and is related to greater resource utilization. Risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in this study were: surfactant requirement, mechanical ventilation, air leak, patent ductus arteriosus, late onset sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. These studies may provide information useful to the design of effective preventive perinatal strategies.

  9. Involvement Without Participation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a case study of a knowledge-intensive company that launched a 2-year project to improve their psychosocial working environment. All parties agreed on the project, and the methods used aimed to promote the involvement of the employees. Surprisingly, the psychosocial working...... environment did not improve; on the contrary, it deteriorated. The article highlights cultural and structural obstacles to the process, including an inadequate understanding of organisational learning and a narrow focus on market and competition. The endeavours did not consistently increase delegation...

  10. Involvement in Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,096 adolescents participated in 123 focus groups regarding the perceived outcomes of their involvement in sports and physical activity (PA. The groups, segmented by grade level, sex, and school types, were conducted in both public and private high schools in Montreal, Quebec. We sought to understand, through the participants’ own words, their perception of the outcome matrix of involvement in sports and PA. Focus group questions emphasized changes that adolescents associated with such engagement. In particular, participants were asked how sports and PA might influence behaviors, emotional states, personal characteristics, and other outcomes. Twelve themes were identified in the responses: Positive Health and Physical Changes (18.5%, Activity-Related Positive Emotions (15.6%, and Personal Learning (11.3% were most prevalent in the discussions. A cluster of deeper personal changes thematically described as Self-Identity, Autonomy, and Positive Character Development accounted for another 16.5% of the responses. Relatively few commentaries emphasized negative effects (7.1%. Converting the proportions of qualitative data into a quantitative index allowed us to analyze potential differences in emphasis according to sex, age, and school type. Though a few significant findings emerged, the larger pattern was of a uniform perceptual map across the variables for this adolescent sample. Implications drawn from this investigation highlight the need to clearly articulate concrete pathways to positive nonphysical changes (e.g., mood states, autonomy, positive character development from engagements in sports and PA.

  11. Assessment of respiratory involvement in children with mucoplysaccharidosis using pulmonary function tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona M. El Falaki

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Evaluation and follow up of patients with MPS using pulmonary function tests are essential to detect early involvement of respiratory system and hence start treatment for respiratory complications early in the course of the disease.

  12. Barriers to School Involvement: Are Immigrant Parents Disadvantaged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Kao, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Parental involvement at school offers unique opportunities for parents, and this school-based involvement has important implications for children's academic and behavioral outcomes. The authors used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (National Center for Education Statistics, 2001) to examine race and immigrant…

  13. Fostering employee involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, G P

    1997-11-01

    Every year, the ODA's Economics of Practice Committee, with the help of an independent consulting firm, carries out the Cost of Practice Monitor which tracks the various costs of running a dental practice in Ontario. This article is the result of a joint ODA-Arthur Andersen initiative to provide members with detailed information from the Monitor. Over the next year, there will be a series of articles published under the heading "Best practises for Ontario's Dental Practices." The article featured in this issue focuses on wage expenses in dental practices and how to foster employee involvement as a means of addressing cost-productivity issues. Furthermore, information relating to wage expenses may be used by practitioners to benchmark their practice against the average Ontario dental practice. Appendix C was developed for this purpose. Through benchmarking, the practitioner may gain insight into ways of evaluating their practice and in addressing issues that could improve the management of the practice. For a long time, concepts of best business practises were applied only to manufacturing organizations or large multi-national corporations but experience has demonstrated that these activities are universal to all organizations, including service companies, schools, government and not-for-profit organizations.

  14. Internationalism in Early Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Patrick

    1985-01-01

    Explores the nature and scope of internationalism in early 19th century adult education, using as a context the lyceums and mechanics' institutes of Britain and North America. The contacts involved newspaper and journal accounts, the personal advocacy of former members, written advice from promoters and administrators, and the contributions of…

  15. Characterization of LAF-4, a Putative Proto-Oncogene Involved in the Development of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrulis, Irene

    2001-01-01

    The long range goal of our research is to identify genes involved in the early stages of breast cancer development, specifically genes involved in the transition from hyperplasia to ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS...

  16. Early Detection Of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V B Bhatnagar

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Farly detection of cancer is based upon three fundamental assumptions, firstly that the trea'ment of benign and precancerous lesions reduces the incidence of cancer, secondly, that the treatment of in situ cancers is conducive to total cure and thirdly that early diagnosis and management of invasive cancer ensures be.ter survival. When patient seeks medical advice for vague symptoms, which could however be due to a possible malignant tumour at a particular site, the alert clinician should investigate the patient immediately to exclude cancer. At this stage cancer is usually not significantly advanced. Currently the U. I. C. C. (International Union for Cancer Control} is studying the epidemiology of cancers in various countries The importance of this is two folds : Firstly by focussing attention on a section of population vulnerable to a particular cancer an early detection is facilitated Secondly by changing the causative factors responsible to a particular cancer, the incidence of that cancer can be reduced e. g. reduction in lung cancer following campaigns against ciguette smoking and reductioi in breast cancer after campaigns for advocating breast feeding of infants, lowering fat consumption and encouraging self palpation of breast regularly. Indeed early diagnosis of cancer implies diagnosis of cancer in almost a symptomatic stage It involves motiva’ion of the population towards acquisitio : of knowledge, attitude and practice.. Epidemiologies and clinicians should be able to recognise high risk cases exposed to particular neoplasia and knowledge of alarming symptoms should be pro- pogated for wide publicity through common available media and means. Probable cases should have regular clhrcal examination periodically and relevant investigations including radiological, imaging techniques and Bio-Chemical examination should be undertaken as and when desired Suspicious lesions should be investigated by specific tests including smear cytology

  17. Tribal and stakeholder involvement in systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, L.; Swartz, G.; Cooley, C.

    1997-01-01

    Beginning in early 1995, U.S. Department of Energy began an experiment to link tribal and stakeholder representatives into technology assessment activities related to an Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System (INTS) study. The INTS study moved outside the framework of after-the-fact public involvement by providing the opportunity for technical and non-technical stakeholders alike to work together in the early predecision stages of the criteria development and assessment of options for innovative mixed waste treatment. The stakeholders gained an appreciation of the intense level of effort required to complete such an analysis. The engineers and scientists conducting the systems analyses had the opportunity (some for the first time) to learn more about tribal and stakeholder issues and how they might apply to the technical tasks related to technology assessment and selection

  18. Early Stuttering, Temperament and Anxiety: Two Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Block, Susan; Menzies, Ross; Reilly, Sheena

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The topic of temperament and early stuttering and the extent to which it involves anxiety is theoretically and clinically relevant. The topic can contribute to theory development and clinical practices with early stuttering. Method: We present a review of the empirical literature for this area with a view to determining which of two…

  19. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Mycosis Caused by Cladosporidium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    Mycosis Caused by Cladosporidium presented at/published to 2017 American Thoracic Society International Conference, Washington D.C., 23 May 2017 (Poster...Clinical Research Division may pay for your basic journal publishing charges (to include costs for tables and black and white photos). We cannot pay for...GHSE) (SGS O&M); SGS R&D; Tri-Service Nursing Research Program (TSNRP): Defense Medical Research & Development Program (OMRDP): NIH: Congressionally

  20. CT Features of pseudo tumoral bronchopulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidi, A.; Hantoux, S.; Mestiri, I.; Ben Miled-Mrad, K.

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis may at times simulate lung carcinoma on bronchoscopic examination or imaging studies. Diagnosis can be delayed and lead to surgical resection. Based on review of 25 cases, the different CT features are reviewed. (author)

  1. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokhani, Ramesh; Neupane, Saraswoti; Kandel, Ishwar Sharma

    2004-12-01

    A 24 years old male presented with recurrent symptoms of cough and breathlessness for 6 years but increased in past 6 months. Fleeting radiological opacities, peripheral eosinophilia and central type bronchiectasus in high resolution CT scan gave the suspicion of allergic bronchopolmonary aspergilosis. Confirmation of the diagnosis was done by skin prick and immunological tests. The patient showed an excellent response to oral prednisolone.

  2. Association of BPD and IVH with early neutrophil and white counts in VLBW neonates with gestational age <32 weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Mari; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Carlton, David P

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To investigate associations between early low neutrophil count from routine blood samples, white blood count (WBC), pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes for very low birth weight infants (VLBW ≤1500g) with gestational age <32 weeks. Patients and Methods Information was abstracted on all infants admitted to level III NICUs in Wisconsin 2003-2004. 1002 (78%) had differential and corrected total white counts within 2 ½ hours of birth. Data analyses included frequency tables, binary logistic, ordinal logistc and ordinary regression. Results Low neutrophil count (<1000/μL) was strongly associated with low WBC, pregnancy complications and antenatal steroids. Low neutrophil count predicted bronchopulmonary dysplasia severity level (BPD) (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.7) and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) grade (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.8). Conclusions Early neutrophil counts may have multiple causes interfering with their routine use as an inflammatory marker. Nonetheless, low neutrophil count has consistent independent associations with outcomes. PMID:18563166

  3. Avaliação neurológica de recém-nascidos pré-termo de muito baixo peso com displasia broncopulmonar Neurological assessment of very low birth weight infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Ghisi de Souza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever e comparar a avaliação neurológica e comportamental de recém-nascidos pré-termos com e sem displasia broncopulmonar (DBP. MÉTODOS: Recém-nascidos prematuros com peso ao nascer inferior a 1500g e idade gestacional menor de 32 semanas foram avaliados com 40 semanas de idade gestacional corrigida, no Centro de Atenção Integral à Saúde da Mulher da Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Utilizou-se a Avaliação Neurológica de Dubowitz, com 29 itens divididos em seis categorias: tônus, padrões de tônus, reflexos, movimentos, sinais anormais e comportamento. O estado de consciência do recém-nascido foi graduado segundo Brazelton (1973. Utilizaram-se os testes do qui-quadrado e exato de Fischer para variáveis qualitativas e o de Mann-Whitney para as numéricas não-paramétricas, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: No período de janeiro de 2005 a setembro de 2007, 24 recém-nascidos, 12 com DBP e 12 controles, com idade gestacional ao nascer de 28±1 semana e peso de 884±202g no grupo com DBP e 31±1 semana e 1156±216g no Grupo Controle foram avaliados. Dos 29 itens avaliados, 18 foram homogêneos entre os grupos e a pontuação geral dos dois grupos não apresentou diferença (p=0,30. Observou-se maior anormalidade neurológica no grupo com DBP em oito itens e, no Grupo Controle, em três itens. CONCLUSÕES: A comparação da avaliação neurológica de Dubowitz de recém-nascidos pré-termos com e sem DBP não apresentou diferença significante com 40 semanas de idade gestacional corrigida. Nas categorias reflexos e postura/tônus, observou-se tendência a anormalidade no grupo DBP.OBJECTIVE: To compare the neurological assessment of preterm newborn infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. METHODS: Preterm newborn infants with birth weight less than 1,500g and gestational age less than 32 weeks were evaluated by Dubowitz Method at 40 weeks of corrected gestational age. All infants

  4. Primary Mural Endocarditis Without Valvular Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Mai; Nagai, Tomoo; Takase, Yoshiyuki; Takiguchi, Shunichi; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Kunihara, Takashi; Arakawa, Junko; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Hamabe, Akira; Gatate, Youdou; Kujiraoka, Takehiko; Tabata, Hirotsugu; Katsushika, Shuichi

    2017-03-01

    Primary mural endocarditis is an extremely rare infection in which nonvalvular endocardial involvement is seen without any cardiac structural abnormalities such as ventricular septal defects. The rapid and precise diagnosis of this disease remains challenging. We present 2 cases (67- and 47-year-old male patients) of pathologically confirmed primary mural endocarditis that could have been detected by initial transthoracic echocardiography in the emergency department. Transthoracic echocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography play critical roles in the early recognition and confirmation of primary mural endocarditis. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  5. Involving stakeholders in evaluating environmental restoration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, G.H.; Serie, P.J.

    1993-02-01

    Involving citizens, interest groups, and regulators in environmental restoration and waste management programs is a challenge for government agencies and the organizations that support them. To be effective, such involvement activities must identify all individuals and groups who have a stake in the cleanup. Their participation must be early, substantive, and meaningful. Stockholders must be able to see how their input was considered and used, and feel that a good- faith effort was made to reconcile conflicting objectives. The Integrated Demonstration for Cleanup of Volatile Organic Compounds at Arid Sites (VOC-Arid ID) is a Department of Energy Office of Technology Development project located at Hanford. Along with technical evaluation of innovative cleanup technologies, the program is conducting an institutional assessment of regulatory and public acceptance of new technologies. Through a series of interviews and workshops, and use of a computerized information management tool, stakeholders are having a voice in the evaluation. Public and regulatory reaction has been positive

  6. Cardio-pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis: A study at a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetakiran Arakkal

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In our patients, pulmonary involvement was more common than cardiac involvement. Interstitial lung disease and cardiac involvement were more commonly seen in diffuse systemic sclerosis whereas pulmonary hypertension was more frequent in limited systemic sclerosis. Hence, it is important to screen the patients for cardiopulmonary involvement for early diagnosis and treatment and a better prognostic outcome.

  7. [Cardiac involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Antonio; Maestroni, Silvia; Masciocco, Gabriella; Ammirati, Enrico; Bonacina, Edgardo; Pedrotti, Patrizia

    2015-09-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome, recently renamed eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), is a rare form of systemic vasculitis, characterized by disseminated necrotizing vasculitis with extravascular granulomas occurring among patients with asthma and tissue eosinophilia. EGPA is classified as a small and medium-sized vessel vasculitis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and the hypereosinophilic syndrome. Typical clinical features include asthma, sinusitis, transient pulmonary infiltrates and neuropathy. Blood eosinophils are often >1500/µl or more than 10% on the differential leukocyte count. Blood eosinophils should always be tested in unexplained cardiac disorders, and may normalize even after low doses of corticosteroids. ANCA are positive in 40-60% of cases, mainly anti-myeloperoxidase. Heart involvement occurs in approximately 15-60% of EGPA patients, especially those who are ANCA negative. Any cardiac structure can be involved, and patients present with myocarditis, heart failure, pericarditis, arrhythmia, coronary arteritis, valvulopathy, intracavitary cardiac thrombosis. Although cardiovascular involvement is usually an early manifestation, it can also occur later in the course of the disease. A significant proportion of patients with cardiac involvement is asymptomatic. In the absence of symptoms and major ECG abnormalities, cardiac involvement may be detected in nearly 40% of the patients. All patients with EGPA should be studied not only with a detailed history of cardiac symptoms and ECG, but also with echocardiography; if abnormalities are detected, a cardiac magnetic resonance study should be performed. Coronary angiography and endomyocardial biopsy should be reserved to selected cases. Heart involvement carries a poor prognosis and causes 50% of the deaths of these patients. It is often insidious and underestimated. Optimal therapy is therefore important and based on high-dose corticosteroids plus immunosuppressive

  8. O momento da avaliação na intervenção precoce: o envolvimento da família estudo das qualidades psicométricas do ASQ-2 dos 30 aos 60 meses The moment of assessment in early intervention: study of parental involvement of psychometric properties of ASQ-2 from 30 to 60 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Roberto de Meireles Graça

    2010-08-01

    practice in different contexts, requiring professionals to take on new roles and learn new skills in working with families. These skills come to the foreground during the first contacts with the family beginning at the time of assessment through to the effective provision of services. This study arose due to the perception that parents needed to be involved from the very beginning of the process in Early Intervention, by means of a formal instrument and simple application. The ASQ-2 is composed of 19 different questionnaires organized according to age intervals from 4 to 60 months. Each questionnaire comprises 30 items grouped according to the developmental areas of communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem solving and personal-social. This study presents the analysis of questionnaires from 30 to 60 months to observe the psychometric properties of the ASQ applied to a convenience sample of 127 households in the district of Braga. We concluded that the ASQ-2 presents attractive results suggesting that it could be used by the Portuguese population of parents and professionals (health and education who wish to answer some questions using a formal screening and monitoring of child development instrument.

  9. Early or Premature Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email updates Enter email Submit Early or premature menopause Menopause that happens before age 40 is called ... What is the difference between early and premature menopause? Early or premature menopause happens when ovaries stop ...

  10. Student involvement and research for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginniff, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear engineering is one of the modern and rapidly advancing technologies. Those already involved in it are continually updating their knowledge to keep abreast of the developments. Of course the sound basic principles of engineering still apply but the scene of application can be transformed in a few years. In fact, because of this, many engineers from more traditional industries often express the view that presently the total range of nuclear engineering is research and development. How can students be trained for such a rapidly advancing technology. Is not the answer early involvement. Effective early involvement for students can only come about by the close co-operation and involvement of the staff of universities and industry. The theme is developed. (author)

  11. Influence of Involvement in Sports on Students' Involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to establish whether students' involvement in sports activities affected their involvement in academic activities. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analysed using percentages and means. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to test the hypotheses that guided ...

  12. Early hospital discharge and early puerperal complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Villalobos, Dolores; Hernández-Garduño, Adolfo; Salinas, Aarón; González, Dolores; Walker, Dilys; Rojo-Herrera, Guadalupe; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the association between time of postpartum discharge and symptoms indicative of complications during the first postpartum week. Women with vaginal delivery at a Mexico City public hospital, without complications before the hospital discharge, were interviewed seven days after delivery. Time of postpartum discharge was classified as early (25 hours). The dependent variable was defined as the occurrence and severity of puerperal complication symptoms. Out of 303 women, 208 (68%) were discharged early. However, women with early discharge and satisfactory prenatal care had lower odds of presenting symptoms in early puerperium than women without early discharge and inadequate prenatal care (OR 0.36; 95% confidence intervals = 0.17-0.76). There was no association between early discharge and symptoms of complications during the first postpartum week; the odds of complications were lower for mothers with early discharge and satisfactory prenatal care.

  13. Justification of novel practices involving radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.; Boal, T.; Mason, C.; Wrixon, T.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of 'justification' of practices has been one of the three basic principles of radiation protection for many decades. The principle is simple in essence - that any practice involving radiation exposure should do more good than harm. There is no doubt that the many uses of radiation in the medical field and in industry generally satisfy this principle, yielding benefits that could not be achieved using other techniques; examples include CT scanning and industrial radiography. However, even in the early period after the introduction of the justification principle, there were practices for which the decision on justification was not clear and for which different decisions were made by the authorities in different countries. Many of these involved consumer products such as luminous clocks and watches, telephone dials, smoke detectors, lightning preventers and gas mantles. In most cases, these practices were relatively small scale and did not involve large exposures of either individual workers or members of the public. Decisions on justification were therefore often made by the regulator without extensive national debate. Over recent years, several practices have been proposed and undertaken that involve exposure to radiation for purposes that were generally not envisaged when the current system of radiation protection was created. Some of these practices were reviewed during a recent symposium held in Dublin, Ireland and involve, for example, the x-raying of people for theft detection purposes, for detection of weapons or contraband, for the prediction of physical development of young athletes or dancers, for age determination, for insurance purposes and in cases of suspected child abuse. It is particularly in the context of such novel practices that the need has emerged for clearer international guidance on the application of the justification principle. This paper reviews recent activities of the IAEA with respect to these issues, including the

  14. Justification of novel practices involving radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, G. [Radiation Protection Consul tant, Brighton (United Kingdom); Boal, T.; Mason, C.; Wrixon, T. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    The concept of 'justification' of practices has been one of the three basic principles of radiation protection for many decades. The principle is simple in essence - that any practice involving radiation exposure should do more good than harm. There is no doubt that the many uses of radiation in the medical field and in industry generally satisfy this principle, yielding benefits that could not be achieved using other techniques; examples include CT scanning and industrial radiography. However, even in the early period after the introduction of the justification principle, there were practices for which the decision on justification was not clear and for which different decisions were made by the authorities in different countries. Many of these involved consumer products such as luminous clocks and watches, telephone dials, smoke detectors, lightning preventers and gas mantles. In most cases, these practices were relatively small scale and did not involve large exposures of either individual workers or members of the public. Decisions on justification were therefore often made by the regulator without extensive national debate. Over recent years, several practices have been proposed and undertaken that involve exposure to radiation for purposes that were generally not envisaged when the current system of radiation protection was created. Some of these practices were reviewed during a recent symposium held in Dublin, Ireland and involve, for example, the x-raying of people for theft detection purposes, for detection of weapons or contraband, for the prediction of physical development of young athletes or dancers, for age determination, for insurance purposes and in cases of suspected child abuse. It is particularly in the context of such novel practices that the need has emerged for clearer international guidance on the application of the justification principle. This paper reviews recent activities of the IAEA with respect to these issues, including the

  15. Parents' Role in the Early Head Start Children's Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Cecelia Smalls

    2014-01-01

    The development of language during a child's early years has been linked to parental involvement. While Early Head Start (EHS) researchers have theorized that parental involvement is an important factor in language development, there has been little research on how parents view their roles in the language development process. The purpose of this…

  16. Maternal Involvement and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Linda C.; Holmes, William M.

    The potential impact of several maternal involvement behaviors on teachers' ratings of children's academic skills was examined through statistical analyses. Data, based on mothers' responses to selected questions concerning maternal involvement and on teachers' ratings on the Classroom Behavior Inventory, were obtained for 115 kindergarten…

  17. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…