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Sample records for early breastfeeding initiation

  1. Intervening to promote early initiation of breastfeeding in the LDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komara, Carol; Simpson, Diana; Teasdale, Carla; Whalen, Gaye; Bell, Shay; Giovanetto, Laurie

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an interventional protocol for the early initiation of breastfeeding that would remove barriers in the labor, delivery, recovery (LDR) unit. Descriptive design using 100 postpartum mothers who were interviewed before discharge at a large university hospital in the south-central United States. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis. The protocol was effective for initiating breastfeeding, and breastfeeding increased from 53% to 66%. When barriers to breastfeeding are reduced in the LDR setting, women will breastfeed. It is possible that reducing hospital barriers to breastfeeding in the LDR can also set the stage for sustained breastfeeding during hospitalization and for less supplementation with formula.

  2. Initial management of breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinusas, K; Gagliardi, A

    2001-09-15

    Breast milk is widely accepted as the ideal source of nutrition for infants. In order to ensure success in breastfeeding, it is important that it be initiated as early as possible during the neonatal period. This is facilitated by skin-to-skin contact between the mother and infant immediately following birth. When possible, the infant should be allowed to root and latch on spontaneously within the first hour of life. Many common nursery routines such as weighing the infant, administration of vitamin K and application of ocular antibiotics can be safely delayed until after the initial breastfeeding. Postpartum care practices that improve breastfeeding rates include rooming-in, anticipatory guidance about breastfeeding problems and the avoidance of formula supplementation and pacifiers.

  3. HEALTH SERVICES AND IT’S UTILIZATION RELATED TO EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING AND EARLY BREASTFEEDING INITIATION PROGRAM IN WEST JAVA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Handayani Utami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDespite the essential benefit of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breast feeding during the first six months, the practice was still low. Health services and personnel play important role have not optimal yet in breast feeding. The aim of this study was to review the provision of health services and it’s utilization related to early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding practices in West Java province. This study was an analysis of the Indonesian Health Facility Survey (Rifaskes 2011 and the Basic Health Survey (Riskesdas 2010. It analyzed 45 public hospitals  and  997  primary  health  centers  in  West  Java  Province  from  HFS  and  285  infants (0-6 months in West Java province from Riskesdas. It supplemented with qualitative data that obtained from in-depth interviews with the representatives from central government, Provincial Health Office, District Health Office (DHO, public health centers and hospitals in Bandung city and Bogor district, West Java. This study revealed that a number of gaps related to breastfeeding services  in  PHC  and  hospitals  were  still  found.  One  of  the  influential  factors  that  hindering  the breastfeeding services in health services was the absence of local policy regarding early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding practices in West Java Province. The limitation of human resources, facilities and specific budget were also become the obstacles in the implementation of the breastfeeding program. This study implied that most of community already utilized the maternal and child’s heath care. This study indicated the importance of health services and support from health professionals for successful of breastfeeding. Thus the strong commitment of health personnels as well as the policy makers was really needed.Keywords : early initiation of breastfeeding; exclusive breastfeeding; health facilities; utilization

  4. Early initiation of breastfeeding among mothers of children under the age of 24 months in Southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyene, Misrak Getnet; Geda, Nigatu Regassa; Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie; Assen, Zuriash Mengistu

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF), or timely initiation of breastfeeding, is the proportion of children put to the breast within one hour of birth. It is an important strategy for reducing perinatal and infant morbidity and mortality, but it remains under practiced in

  5. Early breastfeeding problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feenstra, Maria Monberg; Kirkeby, Mette Jørgine; Thygesen, Marianne

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Breastfeeding problems are common and associated with early cessation. Stilllength of postpartum hospital stay has been reduced. This leaves new mothers to establish breastfeeding at home with less support from health care professionals. The objective was to explore mothers’ perspectives...... on when breastfeeding problems were the most challenging and prominent early postnatal. The aim was also toidentify possible factors associated with the breastfeeding problems. Methods In a cross-sectional study, a mixed method approach was used to analyse postal survey data from 1437 mothers with full...... term singleton infants. Content analysis was used to analyse mothers’ open text descriptions of their most challenging breastfeeding problem. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for early breastfeeding problems according to sociodemographic- and psychosocial factors. Results...

  6. Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in First-Time Mothers: Exploring the Impact of Father Involvement in the Early Post-Partum Period

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    Theresa Hunter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The early post-partum period is a crucial time for breastfeeding support. Mothers who have physical and emotional support during this period are more likely to be successful in breastfeeding. This study examined the relationship between father involvement and support for breast feeding initiation and duration in first-time mothers. Methods: Overall, 146 women who attended a childbirth education class or breastfeeding course at BABS were asked to fill out the Childbirth Experiences Survey, which explored key topics such as (1 breastfeeding initiation, (2 early post-partum breastfeeding, (3 breastfeeding plan, (4 post-partum breastfeeding support and (5 breast feeding duration. This was a voluntary self-reported questionnaire. The surveys were completed by the mothers during the post-partum period. Results: 45.9% (n=67 of mothers received helped from their husband or partner with breastfeeding while in the hospital, while 54.1% (n=79 of mothers did not receive support from their partners. Mothers who received early post-partum breastfeeding support were more likely to continue breastfeeding after leaving the hospital. Conclusion: First-time mothers who identified as having breastfeeding support from their partners, the infant’s father, during the early post-partum period were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and had longer breastfeeding durations.

  7. Effect of prenatal education on breastfeeding initiation and exclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding is low globally in both developing and developed countries despite the promotion interventions on breastfeeding rates in early infancy. In Ethiopia, the proportion of women who practiced early breastfeeding initiation (EBI) and exclusive ...

  8. Community Rates of Breastfeeding Initiation.

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    Grubesic, Tony H; Durbin, Kelly M

    2016-11-01

    Breastfeeding initiation rates vary considerably across racial and ethnic groups, maternal age, and education level, yet there are limited data concerning the influence of geography on community rates of breastfeeding initiation. This study aimed to describe how community rates of breastfeeding initiation vary in geographic space, highlighting "hot spots" and "cool spots" of initiation and exploring the potential connections between race, socioeconomic status, and urbanization levels on these patterns. Birth certificate data from the Kentucky Department of Health for 2004-2010 were combined with county-level geographic base files, Census 2010 demographic and socioeconomic data, and Rural-Urban Continuum Codes to conduct a spatial statistical analysis of community rates of breastfeeding initiation. Between 2004 and 2010, the average rate of breastfeeding initiation for Kentucky increased from 43.84% to 49.22%. Simultaneously, the number of counties identified as breastfeeding initiation hot spots also increased, displaying a systematic geographic pattern in doing so. Cool spots of breastfeeding initiation persisted in rural, Appalachian Kentucky. Spatial regression results suggested that unemployment, income, race, education, location, and the availability of International Board Certified Lactation Consultants are connected to breastfeeding initiation. Not only do spatial analytics facilitate the identification of breastfeeding initiation hot spots and cool spots, but they can be used to better understand the landscape of breastfeeding initiation and help target breastfeeding education and/or support efforts.

  9. The importance of skin-to-skin contact for early initiation of breastfeeding in Nigeria and Bangladesh.

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    Singh, Kavita; Khan, Shane M; Carvajal-Aguirre, Liliana; Brodish, Paul; Amouzou, Agbessi; Moran, Allisyn

    2017-12-01

    Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) between mother and newborn offers numerous protective effects, however it is an intervention that has been under-utilized. Our objectives are to understand which newborns in Bangladesh and Nigeria receive SSC and whether SSC is associated with the early initiation of breastfeeding. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data were used to study the characteristics of newborns receiving SSC for non-facility births in Nigeria (DHS 2013) and for both facility and non-facility births in Bangladesh (DHS 2014). Multivariable logistic regression was used to study the association between SSC and early initiation of breastfeeding after controlling for key socio-demographic, maternal and newborn-related factors. Only 10% of newborns in Nigeria and 26% of newborns in Bangladesh received SSC. In the regression models, SSC was significantly associated with the early initiation of breastfeeding in both countries (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.15-1.76 for Nigeria; OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04-1.55, for Bangladesh). Findings from the regression analysis for Bangladesh revealed that newborns born by Cesarean section had a 67% lower odds of early initiation of breastfeeding than those born by normal delivery (OR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.26-0.43). Also in Bangladesh newborns born in a health facility had a 30% lower odds of early initiation of breastfeeding than those born in non-facility environments (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.53-0.92). Early initiation of breastfeeding was significantly associated with parity, urban residence and wealth in Nigeria. Geographic area was significant in the regression analyses for both Bangladesh and Nigeria. Coverage of SSC is very low in the two countries, despite its benefits for newborns without complications. SSC has the potential to save newborn lives. There is a need to prioritize training of health providers on the implementation of essential newborn care including SSC. Community engagement is also needed to ensure that all women and

  10. Rates and determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breast feeding at 42 days postnatal in six low and middle-income countries: A prospective cohort study.

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    Patel, Archana; Bucher, Sherri; Pusdekar, Yamini; Esamai, Fabian; Krebs, Nancy F; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Chomba, Elwyn; Garces, Ana; Pasha, Omrana; Saleem, Sarah; Kodkany, Bhalachandra S; Liechty, Edward A; Kodkany, Bhala; Derman, Richard J; Carlo, Waldemar A; Hambidge, K; Goldenberg, Robert L; Althabe, Fernando; Berrueta, Mabel; Moore, Janet L; McClure, Elizabeth M; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Hibberd, Patricia L

    2015-01-01

    Early initiation of breastfeeding after birth and exclusive breastfeeding through six months of age confers many health benefits for infants; both are crucial high impact, low-cost interventions. However, determining accurate global rates of these crucial activities has been challenging. We use population-based data to describe: (1) rates of early initiation of breastfeeding (defined as within 1 hour of birth) and of exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum; and (2) factors associated with failure to initiate early breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum. Prospectively collected data from women and their live-born infants enrolled in the Global Network's Maternal and Newborn Health Registry between January 1, 2010-December 31, 2013 included women-infant dyads in 106 geographic areas (clusters) at 7 research sites in 6 countries (Kenya, Zambia, India [2 sites], Pakistan, Argentina and Guatemala). Rates and risk factors for failure to initiate early breastfeeding were investigated for the entire cohort and rates and risk factors for failure to maintain exclusive breastfeeding was assessed in a sub-sample studied at 42 days post-partum. A total of 255,495 live-born women-infant dyads were included in the study. Rates and determinants for the exclusive breastfeeding sub-study at 42 days post-partum were assessed from among a sub-sample of 105,563 subjects. Although there was heterogeneity by site, and early initiation of breastfeeding after delivery was high, the Pakistan site had the lowest rates of early initiation of breastfeeding. The Pakistan site also had the highest rate of lack of exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum. Across all regions, factors associated with failure to initiate early breastfeeding included nulliparity, caesarean section, low birth weight, resuscitation with bag and mask, and failure to place baby on the mother's chest after delivery. Factors associated with failure to achieve exclusive breastfeeding

  11. Caesarean section delivery and breastfeeding initiation at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Caesarean section (CS) presents a challenge for early breastfeeding of the newborn infant. It is expected that with the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), mothers who deliver by CS can be helped to initiate breastfeeding early. Objectives: This study aims to determine the time of initiation of breastfeeding in ...

  12. Predictors of early breastfeeding initiation among mothers of children under 24 months of age in rural part of West Ethiopia.

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    Hailemariam, Tsedeke Wolde; Adeba, Emiru; Sufa, Alem

    2015-10-21

    The World Health Organization recommends initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour after childbirth. In developing countries alone, early initiation of breastfeeding could save as many as 1.45 million lives each year by reducing deaths mainly due to diarrheal disorders and lower respiratory tract infections in children. The current study aimed to determine the rate and the predictors of breastfeeding initiation in East Wollega Zones of West Ethiopia. A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2014 among 594 mothers who had children less than 24 months. Multi stage cluster sampling method was used to select the study population. Eligible mothers were invited to interview using pretested questionnaires to gather data regarding sociodemographics, health-related variables, breastfeeding initiation, and current breastfeeding practices. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of early initiation of breastfeeding after controlling for confounding variables. A sample of 593 mothers was included in the study. Breastfeeding was initiated by 83.1 % of mothers within the first hour of childbirth. Being a housewife (AOR (95 % CI) = 2.48 (1.54- 3.99)) and infant received colostrum (AOR (95 % CI) =2.22 (1.08-4.55)) were significant positive predictors for early breastfeeding initiation as revealed by logistic regression. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the mothers who had no radio and/or TV in the household (AOR (95 % CI = 0.55 (0.35-0.88)), were not exposure to health information (AOR (95 % CI) = 0.44 (0.25-0.75)), and infants were provided with prelacteal feeds (AOR (95 % CI)=0.30 (0.14-0.65)) were less likely to initiate breastfeeding. The rate of timely initiation of breastfeeding was high. Breastfeeding promotion program is essential to encourage the practice of timely initiation of breastfeeding, and reduce the practice of providing prelacteal

  13. The Practices, Perceptions, and Beliefs of Traditional Birth Attendants Regarding Early Breastfeeding Initiation in Zimbabwe: A Qualitative Study

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    Gladys Mugadza

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Early breastfeeding initiation (EBFI defined as giving breast milk within the first hours following birth, which is recommended as a simple strategy for the enhancement of neonatal health and survival. This descriptive qualitative study was conducted to explore the practices, perceptions and beliefs of renowned traditional birth attendants (TBA regarding EBFI in Chipinge rural community, Zimbabwe. Methods: The study population was selected through purposive sampling technique. One-on-one interview was conducted for the purpose of unearthing sensitive issues regarding EBFI. The data were collected using an unstructured in-depth interview to explore the practices, perceptions, and beliefs regarding EBFI. Data analysis was carried out using thematic analysis. To this end, the data were presented in thematic categories using the deductive approach and coded into subthemes, which were then merged into themes. The trustworthiness of the study was enhanced through credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability. Results: The emerged themes included EBFI preparation, EBFI and significance of colostrum, and determinants of EBFI. The findings revealed that EBFI was not only related to physical and emotional interactions, but also associated with a totality of the person, involving sociocultural ties. The EBFI is viewed as a predictor of maternal sociocultural integrity and the legitimacy of the newborn. In the context under study, failure to breastfeed or to initiate breastfeeding early is thought to be a result of the mother’s past immorality. Breastfeeding in Chipinge community goes beyond the mother-baby interaction. Conclusion: It encompasses the whole person,  that is the physical, social, cultural and spiritual ties. Under this condition, the mother should testify and undergo a ritual cleansing to rectify the problem.

  14. Barriers to timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Routine labour ward and delivery table, specific assignment to the staff in the delivery/ labour rooms help newly delivered mothers initiate breastfeeding early, and empowering the to request for babies are recommended. Keywords: breastfeeding, initiation, barriers. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice Vol. 9(1) 2006: 57-64 ...

  15. Initiating and sustaining breastfeeding in african american women.

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    Lewallen, Lynne Porter; Street, Darlene J

    2010-01-01

    To explore issues related to initiating and sustaining breastfeeding in African American women. Qualitative design using focus groups, guided by Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality. Three different regions of a southeastern state in the United States. Fifteen self-identified African American women who had recently breastfed were recruited by lactation consultants and by word of mouth. Three focus groups were conducted with initial guiding questions. New ideas that emerged were fully explored in the group and included as a guiding question for the next group. Categories identified from the data were reasons to start and stop breastfeeding, advice about breastfeeding that was useful or not useful, and cultural issues related to breastfeeding that were perceived to be unique among African Americans. Three overall themes were identified that cut across categories: perceived lack of information about benefits and management of breastfeeding, difficulties breastfeeding in public, and lack of a support system for continued breastfeeding. Women need to be taught early in their pregnancies about the benefits of breastfeeding and offered continuing support and teaching once breastfeeding is established. Peer support groups for breastfeeding African American women should be established. © 2010 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  16. Investing in breastfeeding - the world breastfeeding costing initiative.

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    Holla-Bhar, Radha; Iellamo, Alessandro; Gupta, Arun; Smith, Julie P; Dadhich, Jai Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Despite scientific evidence substantiating the importance of breastfeeding in child survival and development and its economic benefits, assessments show gaps in many countries' implementation of the 2003 WHO and UNICEF Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding (Global Strategy). Optimal breastfeeding is a particular example: initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of birth, exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months; and continued breastfeeding for two years or more, together with safe, adequate, appropriate, responsive complementary feeding starting in the sixth month. While the understanding of "optimal" may vary among countries, there is a need for governments to facilitate an enabling environment for women to achieve optimal breastfeeding. Lack of financial resources for key programs is a major impediment, making economic perspectives important for implementation. Globally, while achieving optimal breastfeeding could prevent more than 800,000 under five deaths annually, in 2013, US$58 billion was spent on commercial baby food including milk formula. Support for improved breastfeeding is inadequately prioritized by policy and practice internationally. The World Breastfeeding Costing Initiative (WBCi) launched in 2013, attempts to determine the financial investment that is necessary to implement the Global Strategy, and to introduce a tool to estimate the costs for individual countries. The article presents detailed cost estimates for implementing the Global Strategy, and outlines the WBCi Financial Planning Tool. Estimates use demographic data from UNICEF's State of the World's Children 2013. The WBCi takes a programmatic approach to scaling up interventions, including policy and planning, health and nutrition care systems, community services and mother support, media promotion, maternity protection, WHO International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes implementation, monitoring and research, for optimal breastfeeding practices

  17. High initiation and long duration of breastfeeding despite absence of early skin-to-skin contact in Karen refugees on the Thai-Myanmar border: a mixed methods study.

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    White, Adrienne L; Carrara, Verena I; Paw, Moo Kho; Malika; Dahbu, Colleypaw; Gross, Mechthild M; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Nosten, Francois H; McGready, Rose

    2012-12-13

    Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) after birth is recommended as part of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) baby friendly health initiative to promote optimum breastfeeding. This paper reports rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration in a low resource environment, where early SSC is not practised, and explores views of pregnant women and midwives surrounding breastfeeding and swaddling. Data from records from a single hospital on the Thai-Myanmar border where refugee women gave birth during a one-year period (2010) were used to determine breastfeeding initiation rates and the time of the first breastfeed, and duration of breastfeeding of the previous alive child in multigravidae. Focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted to obtain information from pregnant women attending antenatal care about their intended or previous duration of breastfeeding and views on breastfeeding. Interviews with local midwives explored reasons for high rates of breastfeeding in this setting and the practice of newborn swaddling. Of 1404 live births in 2010 in Maela refugee camp there were 982 evaluable mother-newborn pairs, including 80 infants born before 37 weeks gestation. Initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour after birth and exclusive breastfeeding at discharge in term mother-newborn pairs was 91.2% (823/902) and 99.3% (896/902); and before 37 weeks gestation, 48.8% (39/80) and 98.8% (79/80). Reported duration of previous breastfeeding was 19 (range 2 to 72) months.During FGD all primigravidae (n = 17) intended to breastfeed and all multigravidae (n = 33) had previously breastfed; expected or previous duration of feeding was for more than one year or longer. The major theme identified during FGD was breastfeeding is "good". Women stated their intention to breastfeed with certainty. This certainty was echoed during the interviews with midwifery staff. SSC requires a delay in early swaddling that in Karen people, with animistic beliefs, could risk loss

  18. Effect of a prenatal nutritional intervention program on initiation and duration of breastfeeding.

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    Léger-Leblanc, Gisèle; Rioux, France M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate initiation and duration of breastfeeding of infants born to mothers who participated in the Early Childhood Initiative (ECI) program. Factors affecting the initiation and the early cessation of breastfeeding were also explored. Twenty-five pregnant women participating in the ECI program completed this prospective study. At 36 weeks' gestation, a questionnaire was administered to assess socioeconomic status, intention to breastfeed and breastfeeding experience. When the infants were three and six months of age, feeding practices were assessed with a questionnaire. The breastfeeding initiation rate was 62.5%. At one and three months postpartum, exclusive breastfeeding rates were 39% and 4%, respectively. At six months, none of the women was exclusively breastfeeding. Primiparity, prenatal classes, having been breastfed and intention to breastfeed at 36 weeks' gestation were positively associated with breastfeeding initiation. Father's education, intention to breastfeed at 36 weeks' gestation, no water or formula given to the infant during hospitalization and higher maternal hemoglobin level at 36 weeks' gestation were positively associated with the duration of breastfeeding. The rate of initiation and duration of breastfeeding for ECI participants were low. To achieve successful interventions, it is important to target modifiable factors known to influence the initiation and duration of breastfeeding within this population.

  19. Interventions for promoting the initiation of breastfeeding

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    Lisa Dyson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the widely documented health advantages of breastfeeding over formula feeding, initiation rates remain relatively low in many high-income countries, particularly among women in lower income groups. OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions which aim to encourage women to breastfeed in terms of changes in the number of women who start to breastfeed. METHODS : Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (July 2007, handsearched the Journal of Human Lactation, Health Promotion International and Health Education Quarterly from inception to 15 August 2007, and scanned reference lists of all articles obtained. Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials, with or without blinding, of any breastfeeding promotion intervention in any population group except women and infants with a specific health problem. Data collection and analysis: One review author independently extracted data and assessed trial quality, checked by a second author. We contacted investigators to obtain missing information. MAIN RESULTS: Main results: Eleven trials were included. Statistical analyses were conducted on data from eight trials (1553 women. Five studies (582 women on low incomes in the USA with typically low breastfeeding rates showed breastfeeding education had a significant effect on increasing initiation rates compared to standard care (risk ratio (RR 1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.15 to 2.15, P = 0.005. Subgroup analyses showed that one-to-one, needs-based, informal repeat education sessions and generic, formal antenatal education sessions are effective in terms of an increase in breastfeeding rates among women on low incomes regardless of ethnicity and feeding intention. Needs-based, informal peer support in the antenatal and postnatal periods was also shown to be effective in one study conducted among Latina women who were considering breastfeeding in the USA (RR 4.02, 95% CI

  20. Factors influencing initiation of breast-feeding.

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    Ekwo, E E; Dusdieker, L B; Booth, B M

    1983-04-01

    We used the critical incidence method to study factors motivating 33 primigravidas and 39 multigravidas to initiate breast-feeding of their infants. Women chose breast-feeding because they believed that it would provide protection to the infant against infection, establish maternal-infant bonding, was convenient, provided better nutrition than cow's milk formula, was emotionally satisfying, and was the natural way to feed infants. The decision to breast-feed was made well in advance of pregnancy by primigravidas and shortly before pregnancy by multigravidas. Friends who had successfully nursed infants were as influential as immediate family members in influencing our study subjects in their decision to breast-feed. Prenatal counseling, though important, may not be the optimal period for motivating women to breast-feed.

  1. Breastfeeding Progression in Preterm Infants Is Influenced by Factors in Infants, Mothers and Clinical Practice: The Results of a National Cohort Study with High Breastfeeding Initiation Rates

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    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Kronborg, Hanne; Bojesen, Susanne Norby; Hallum, Karin; Frandsen, Annemi; Kyhnaeb, Anne; Svarer, Inge; Hallström, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Many preterm infants are not capable of exclusive breastfeeding from birth. To guide mothers in breastfeeding, it is important to know when preterm infants can initiate breastfeeding and progress. The aim was to analyse postmenstrual age (PMA) at breastfeeding milestones in different preterm gestational age (GA) groups, to describe rates of breastfeeding duration at pre-defined times, as well as analyse factors associated with PMA at the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. Methods The study was part of a prospective survey of a national Danish cohort of preterm infants based on questionnaires and structured telephone interviews, including 1,221 mothers and their 1,488 preterm infants with GA of 24–36 weeks. Results Of the preterm infants, 99% initiated breastfeeding and 68% were discharged exclusively breastfed. Breastfeeding milestones were generally reached at different PMAs for different GA groups, but preterm infants were able to initiate breastfeeding at early times, with some delay in infants less than GA 32 weeks. Very preterm infants had lowest mean PMA (35.5 weeks) at first complete breastfeed, and moderate preterm infants had lowest mean PMA at the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding (36.4 weeks). Admitting mothers to the NICU together with the infant and minimising the use of a pacifier during breastfeeding transition were associated with 1.6 (95% CI 0.4–2.8) and 1.2 days (95% CI 0.1–2.3) earlier establishment of exclusive breastfeeding respectively. Infants that were small for gestational age were associated with 5.6 days (95% CI 4.1–7.0) later establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusion Breastfeeding competence is not developed at a fixed PMA, but is influenced by multiple factors in infants, mothers and clinical practice. Admitting mothers together with their infants to the NICU and minimising the use of pacifiers may contribute to earlier establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. PMID:25251690

  2. Determinants of breastfeeding initiation and cessation among employed mothers: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Rada K; McGovern, Patricia M; Schold, Jesse D; Randall, Xian J

    2016-07-29

    The U.S. continues to have one of the lowest breastfeeding rates in the industrialized world. Studies have shown that full-time employment and early return to work decreased breastfeeding duration, but little is known about the relationship between leave policies and breastfeeding initiation and cessation. This study aimed to identify workplace-related barriers and facilitators associated with breastfeeding initiation and cessation in the first 6 months postpartum. A prospective cohort study design was utilized to recruit 817 Minnesota women aged 18 and older while hospitalized for childbirth. Selection criteria included English-speaking, employed mothers with a healthy, singleton birth. These women were followed up using telephone interviews at 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months after childbirth. The main study outcomes were breastfeeding initiation, measured during hospital enrollment, and breastfeeding cessation by 6 months postpartum. Women were 30 years old; 86 % were White, and 73 % were married. Breastfeeding rates were 81 % at childbirth, 67 % at 6 weeks, 49 % at 12 weeks, and 33 % at 6 months postpartum. Logistic regression revealed the odds of breastfeeding initiation were higher for women who: held professional jobs, were primiparae, had graduate degree, did not smoke prenatally, had no breastfeeding problems, and had family or friends who breastfeed. Survival analyses showed the hazard for breastfeeding cessation by 6 months was: higher for women who returned to work at any time during the 6 months postpartum versus those who did not return, lower for professional workers, higher among single than married women, higher for every educational category compared to graduate school, and higher for those with no family or friends who breastfeed. While employer paid leave policy did not affect breastfeeding initiation or cessation, women who took shorter leaves were more likely to stop breastfeeding in the first 6 months postpartum. Future research should examine

  3. Challenges to Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration for Teen Mothers.

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    Cota-Robles, Sonia; Pedersen, Laura; LeCroy, Craig Winston

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate breastfeeding practices of teen mothers in a pre- and postnatal education and support program. We studied breastfeeding practices of primarily Hispanic and non-Hispanic White teen mothers who participated in the Teen Outreach Pregnancy Services (TOPS) program, which promoted breastfeeding through prenatal programming and postpartum support. Analyses identified the most common reasons participants had not breastfed and, for those who initiated breastfeeding, the most common reasons they stopped. Participants (g = 314) reported on whether and for how long they breastfed. Nearly all participants reported initiating breastfeeding but few breastfed to 6 months. For the most part, reasons they reported stopping breastfeeding paralleled those previously reported for adult mothers across the first several months of motherhood. We found that teen mothers can initiate breastfeeding at high rates. Results highlight areas in which teen mothers' knowledge and skills can be supported to promote breastfeeding duration, including pain management and better recognizing infant cues. Our findings expand limited previous research investigating reasons that teen mothers who initiate breastfeeding stop before 6 months.

  4. Rural-urban differences in breastfeeding initiation in the United States.

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    Sparks, P Johnelle

    2010-05-01

    Research has noted a rural disadvantage in breastfeeding initiation; however, most previous research has been based on nonrepresentative samples and has been limited in its ability to compare racial/ethnic differences in breastfeeding initiation based on residential location. This research fills this gap by examining a nationally representative sample of births using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) to explore associations between rural-urban residence and maternal race/ethnicity on breastfeeding initiation. Results indicate that associations observed for rural-urban breastfeeding initiation differ based on maternal race/ethnicity and poverty status. These patterns likely reflect differences in economic resources, work environments, and social support among rural minority postpartum women.

  5. Obesity and early cessation of breastfeeding in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Væth, Michael; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with early cessation of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is multi-factorial and several factors contribute to this association. Our aim was to investigate to what extent socio-demographic and psychosocial characteristics, parity and prenatal conditions could explain...... the association between high BMI and early cessation of breastfeeding Methods: We used data from a randomized trial of 1597 Danish mothers of singleton infants. Self-reported Maternal postnatal weight and height were available from 1375 (86 %). High BMI was defined as body mass index ≥32 kg/m2 at ~ 17 d after...... and previous breastfeeding experience are important factors to include when studying the association between BMI and breastfeeding duration. Intervention to extend the duration of lactation among obese mothers should focus on those with no or little previous breastfeeding experience....

  6. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Paige Hall

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have

  7. Birthing support and breastfeeding initiation in Somaliland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Semi-structured interviews, direct observations and participant observations were conducted. A purposeful, non-statistical sample was ... Conclusions: The presence of a labor companion is a low-cost, preventative intervention that is consistent with the cultural practices of Somaliland. Breastfeeding education and support ...

  8. Father's involvement and its effect on early breastfeeding practices in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bich, Tran Huu; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Ha, Nguyen Thanh; Vui, Le Thi; Nghia, Dang Thi; Målqvist, Mats

    2016-10-01

    Fathers have an important but often neglected role in the promotion of healthy breastfeeding practices in developing countries. A community-based education intervention was designed to mobilize fathers' support for early breastfeeding. This study aimed to evaluate an education intervention targeting fathers to increase the proportion of early breastfeeding initiation and to reduce prelacteal feeding. Quasi-experimental study design was used to compare intervention and control areas located in two non-adjacent rural districts that shared similar demographic and health service characteristics in northern Viet Nam. Fathers and expectant fathers with pregnant wives from 7 to 30 weeks gestational age were recruited. Fathers in the intervention area received breastfeeding education materials, counselling services at a commune health centre and household visits. They were also invited to participate in a breastfeeding promotion social event. After intervention, early breastfeeding initiation rate was 81.2% in the intervention area and 39.6% in the control area (P < 0.001). Babies in the intervention area were more likely to be breastfed within the first hour after birth [odds ratio (OR) 7.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.81-12.12] and not to receive any prelacteal feeding (OR 4.43, 95% CI 2.88-6.82) compared with those in the control area. Fathers may positively influence the breastfeeding practices of mothers, and as a resource for early childcare, they can be mobilized in programmes aimed at improving the early initiation of breastfeeding. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Breastfeeding (part one): Frequency, benefits and drawbacks, optimal duration and factors influencing its initiation and prolongation. Clinical guidelines for practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantry, A A; Monier, I; Marcellin, L

    2015-12-01

    The objectives were to on assess the frequency and the duration of breastfeeding in France. On the other hand, the objectives were to identify its benefits and drawbacks, and to study the factors influencing its initiation and its extension. Bibliographic research in Medline, Google Scholar and in the Cochrane Library. Breastfeeding concerns in France about 70% of children at birth (EL2). Its median duration is about 15 weeks and 3 weeks ½ for exclusive breastfeeding. At three months, only one third of children breastfed at birth are still being breastfed (EL2). Whether this is due to the composition of breast milk or the behavior of mothers with their children or their socio-cultural level, or even by all these components at once, breastfeeding is associated with better cognitive development children (EL2). This effect is even more reinforced that mothers breastfeed exclusively and prolonged (EL2). As part of the prevention of many diseases (ear infections, gastrointestinal infections, atopic diseases, obesity and cardiovascular diseases…), exclusive and prolonged breastfeeding (grade B) between 4 to 6 months is recommended (professional consensus). Breastfeeding is not a means of preventing postpartum depression (professional consensus). To reduce the incidence of breast cancer, prolonged breastfeeding is recommended (grade B). In order to increase the rate of initiation of breastfeeding as well as its duration, it is recommended that health professionals work closely with mothers in their project (grade A), the breastfeeding promotion messages include message to husbands (grade B), and to promote breastfeeding on demand without fixed interval between feedings (grade B). However, there is not enough data to recommend the use of a specific position during breastfeeding, or the use of one or two breast or to early start breastfeeding or not (professional consensus). Exclusive and extended breastfeeding is recommended (grade B) between 4 to 6 months (professional

  10. Breastfeeding Initiation and Continuation by Employment Status among Korean Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, N.M.; Lee, J.E.; Bai, Y.; Achterberg, T. van; Hyun, T.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to examine the factors associated with initiation and continuation of breastfeeding among Korean women in relation to their employment status. METHODS: Data were collected using a web-based self-administered questionnaire from 1,031 Korean mothers living in

  11. Factors That Influence Breastfeeding Initiation Among African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Tyonne D; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Spatz, Diane L

    2018-05-01

    To examine cultural and socioenvironmental factors that affect breastfeeding initiation among African American women. Qualitative descriptive design and conventional content analysis. A large, inner-city, primary care center affiliated with a 500-bed children's hospital within a large, Northeastern U.S. city. Participants were 34 U.S.-born African American mothers of healthy term infants 0 to 3 months of age. Six focus groups were conducted using a 16-question, scripted interview guide. A number of complex factors that influenced breastfeeding initiation included certain cultural beliefs about sexuality, the influence of family and peer networks, information sources, intentions, and a variety of other barriers and facilitators. Our findings suggest that the decision to initiate breastfeeding is not solely determined by the woman within the African American community. Because this decision is contingent on multiple factors external to the woman, it is important to recognize the role that partners, grandmothers, communities, information sources, and health care providers/organizations play in women's decisions. Implementation of multilevel strategies is critical to increase breastfeeding initiation among African American mothers. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Review of the Factors Associated With the Timely Initiation of Breastfeeding and Exclusive Breastfeeding in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzaheb, Riyadh A

    2017-01-01

    Background: Breastfeeding supplies all the nutrients that infants need for their healthy development. Breastfeeding practice is multifactorial, and numerous variables influence mothers’ decisions and ability to breastfeed. This review identifies the factors potentially affecting the timely initiation of breastfeeding within an hour after birth and exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months in Middle Eastern countries. Methods: The Medline, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science databases were keyword-searched for primary studies meeting the following inclusion criteria: (1) publication in the English language between January 2001 and May 2017, (2) original research articles reporting primary data on the factors influencing the timely initiation of breastfeeding and/or exclusive breastfeeding, (3) the use of World Health Organization definitions, and (4) Middle Eastern research contexts. A random effect model was used to establish the average prevalence of the timely initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding in the Middle East. Results: The review identified 19 studies conducted in Saudi Arabia (7), Iran (3), Egypt (2), Turkey (2), Kuwait (1), the United Arab Emirates (1), Qatar (1), Lebanon (1), and Syria (1). The meta-analysis established that 34.3% (confidence interval [CI]: 20.2%-51.9%) of Middle Eastern newborns received breastfeeding initiated within an hour of birth, and only 20.5% (CI: 14.5%-28.2%) were fed only breast milk for the first 6 months. The 8 studies exploring breastfeeding initiation most commonly associated it with the following: delivery mode, maternal employment, rooming-in, and prelacteal feeding. The 17 studies investigating exclusive breastfeeding most frequently linked it to the following: maternal age, maternal education, maternal employment, and delivery mode. Conclusions: Middle Eastern health care organizations should fully understand all the determinants of breastfeeding identified by this review to provide suitable

  13. A Review of the Factors Associated With the Timely Initiation of Breastfeeding and Exclusive Breastfeeding in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyadh A Alzaheb

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding supplies all the nutrients that infants need for their healthy development. Breastfeeding practice is multifactorial, and numerous variables influence mothers’ decisions and ability to breastfeed. This review identifies the factors potentially affecting the timely initiation of breastfeeding within an hour after birth and exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months in Middle Eastern countries. Methods: The Medline, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science databases were keyword-searched for primary studies meeting the following inclusion criteria: (1 publication in the English language between January 2001 and May 2017, (2 original research articles reporting primary data on the factors influencing the timely initiation of breastfeeding and/or exclusive breastfeeding, (3 the use of World Health Organization definitions, and (4 Middle Eastern research contexts. A random effect model was used to establish the average prevalence of the timely initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding in the Middle East. Results: The review identified 19 studies conducted in Saudi Arabia (7, Iran (3, Egypt (2, Turkey (2, Kuwait (1, the United Arab Emirates (1, Qatar (1, Lebanon (1, and Syria (1. The meta-analysis established that 34.3% (confidence interval [CI]: 20.2%-51.9% of Middle Eastern newborns received breastfeeding initiated within an hour of birth, and only 20.5% (CI: 14.5%-28.2% were fed only breast milk for the first 6 months. The 8 studies exploring breastfeeding initiation most commonly associated it with the following: delivery mode, maternal employment, rooming-in, and prelacteal feeding. The 17 studies investigating exclusive breastfeeding most frequently linked it to the following: maternal age, maternal education, maternal employment, and delivery mode. Conclusions: Middle Eastern health care organizations should fully understand all the determinants of breastfeeding identified by this review to provide

  14. Expansion of the baby-friendly hospital initiative ten steps to successful breastfeeding into neonatal intensive care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyqvist, Kerstin H; Häggkvist, Anna-Pia; Hansen, Mette N

    2013-01-01

    In the World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund document Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative: Revised, Updated and Expanded for Integrated Care, neonatal care is mentioned as 1 area that would benefit from expansion of the original Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The different...... provision of antenatal information, that are specific to neonatal care. Facilitation of early, continuous, and prolonged skin-to-skin contact (kangaroo mother care), early initiation of breastfeeding, and mothers' access to breastfeeding support during the infants' whole hospital stay are important. Mother......'s own milk or donor milk (when available) is the optimal nutrition. Efforts should be made to minimize parent-infant separation and facilitate parents' unrestricted presence with their infants. The initiation and continuation of breastfeeding should be guided only by infant competence and stability...

  15. Expansion of the baby-friendly hospital initiative ten steps to successful breastfeeding into neonatal intensive care: expert group recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyqvist, Kerstin H; Häggkvist, Anna-Pia; Hansen, Mette N; Kylberg, Elisabeth; Frandsen, Annemi L; Maastrup, Ragnhild; Ezeonodo, Aino; Hannula, Leena; Haiek, Laura N

    2013-08-01

    In the World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund document Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative: Revised, Updated and Expanded for Integrated Care, neonatal care is mentioned as 1 area that would benefit from expansion of the original Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The different situations faced by preterm and sick infants and their mothers, compared to healthy infants and their mothers, necessitate a specific breastfeeding policy for neonatal intensive care and require that health care professionals have knowledge and skills in lactation and breastfeeding support, including provision of antenatal information, that are specific to neonatal care. Facilitation of early, continuous, and prolonged skin-to-skin contact (kangaroo mother care), early initiation of breastfeeding, and mothers' access to breastfeeding support during the infants' whole hospital stay are important. Mother's own milk or donor milk (when available) is the optimal nutrition. Efforts should be made to minimize parent-infant separation and facilitate parents' unrestricted presence with their infants. The initiation and continuation of breastfeeding should be guided only by infant competence and stability, using a semi-demand feeding regimen during the transition to exclusive breastfeeding. Pacifiers are appropriate during tube-feeding, for pain relief, and for calming infants. Nipple shields can be used for facilitating establishment of breastfeeding, but only after qualified support and attempts at the breast. Alternatives to bottles should be used until breastfeeding is well established. The discharge program should include adequate preparation of parents, information about access to lactation and breastfeeding support, both professional and peer support, and a plan for continued follow-up.

  16. Immediate newborn care practices delay thermoregulation and breastfeeding initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Howard L; Silvestre, Maria Asuncion A; Mantaring, Jacinto Blas V; Oliveros, Yolanda E; Nyunt-U, Soe

    2011-01-01

    Aim A deadly nosocomial outbreak in a Philippine hospital drew nationwide attention to neonatal sepsis. Together with specific infection control measures, interventions that protect newborns against infection-related mortality include drying, skin-to-skin contact, delayed cord clamping, breastfeeding initiation and delayed bathing. This evaluation characterized hospital care in the first hours of life with the intent to drive policy change, strategic planning and hospital reform. Methods Trained physicians observed 481 consecutive deliveries in 51 hospitals using a standardized tool to record practices and timing of immediate newborn care procedures. Results Drying, weighing, eye care and vitamin K injections were performed in more than 90% of newborns. Only 9.6% were allowed skin-to-skin contact. Interventions were inappropriately sequenced, e.g. immediate cord clamping (median 12 sec), delayed drying (96.5%) and early bathing (90.0%). While 68.2% were put to the breast, they were separated two minutes later. Unnecessary suctioning was performed in 94.9%. Doctors trained in neonatal resuscitation were 2.5 (1.1–5.7) times more likely to unnecessarily suction vigorous newborns. Two per cent died and 5.7% developed sepsis/pneumonia. Conclusions This minute-by-minute observational assessment revealed that performance and timing of immediate newborn care interventions are below WHO standards and deprive newborns of basic protections against infection and death. PMID:21375583

  17. Determinants of breastfeeding initiation within the first hour of life in a Brazilian population: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Carlos MC

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding within the first hour of life is a potential mechanism for health promotion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of breastfeeding initiation within the first hour of life in Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil, between 2004 and 2005, and investigate the influence of maternal, child and prenatal factors on this practice. Methods This is a cross-sectional study extracted from the results of a contemporary cohort conducted in 10 maternity hospitals in the city of Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil. A group of 1,309 mother-child pairs was included in the study. Information about mother's and baby's characteristics, pregnancy, birth, and time of breastfeeding initiation was collected in the first 72 hours after delivery, through interview with mothers and hospital records. The data gathered were stored and analyzed using the SPSS 16.0 and R 8.0. The chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis were used to examine the relationship between breastfeeding within the first hour and different variables. Results 47.1% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding within the first hour after birth. Early initiation of breastfeeding was associated with birth at full term pregnancy (adjusted Prevalence Ratio 1.43; 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 2.00, mothers who received prenatal guidance regarding the advantages of breastfeeding (aPR1.23; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.41 and vaginal delivery (aPR 2.78; 95% CI 2.38 to 3.23. Conclusions In order to improve the rates of breastfeeding within the first hour of life, health care professionals must promote the factors favoring this practice such as prenatal guidance regarding the advantages of breastfeeding, vaginal delivery and full term birth, and stimulate this practice in vulnerable situations such as mothers with cesarean section and preterm birth.

  18. Initiation of breastfeeding and prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge in urban, suburban and rural areas of Zhejiang China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binns Colin W

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of exclusive breastfeeding in China are relatively low and below national targets. The aim of this study was to document the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding initiation in Zhejiang, PR China. Methods A cohort study of infant feeding practices was undertaken in Zhejiang Province, an eastern coastal region of China. A total of 1520 mothers who delivered in four hospitals located in city, suburb and rural areas during late 2004 to 2005 were enrolled in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore factors related to exclusive breastfeeding initiation. Results On discharge from hospital, 50.3% of the mothers were exclusively breastfeeding their infants out of 96.9% of the mothers who had earlier initiated breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding was positively related to vaginal birth, baby's first feed being breast milk, mother living in the suburbs or rural areas, younger age of mother, lower maternal education level and family income. Conclusion The exclusive breastfeeding rate in Zhejiang is only 50.3% on discharge and does not reach Chinese or international targets. A number of behaviours have been identified in the study that could be potentially incorporated into health promotion activities.

  19. Body Shape and Weight Loss as Motivators for Breastfeeding Initiation and Continuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalla, Sophie C; Witcomb, Gemma L; Haycraft, Emma

    2017-07-11

    Breastfeeding rates in the UK are low. Efforts to promote breastfeeding typically include the known health benefits for mother and child, many of which are not immediate. Gaining immediate benefits can be effective motivators of behaviour. Body-related changes resulting from breastfeeding could be an immediate benefit. This study explored breastfeeding mothers' reports of body-related changes as benefits of breastfeeding. Mothers (N = 182) who currently, or had recently, breastfed an infant completed a survey detailing their infant feeding choices and the perceived benefits of breastfeeding on their bodies. Half of the mothers felt that breastfeeding had a positive effect on their body. Benefits were grouped into five themes: (1) Returning to pre-pregnancy body shape; (2) Health benefits; (3) Physical benefits; (4) Eating benefits; (5) Psychological benefits. These themes highlight the numerous body-related benefits that mothers identified as resulting from breastfeeding and suggest that immediate, personal, and appearance-related gains of breastfeeding are highly valued. These findings indicate that interventions would likely benefit from emphasising the more immediate physical and psychological benefits of breastfeeding, alongside the health and bonding benefits, as a way to promote breastfeeding initiation and continuation in more women. This may be particularly effective for groups such as young mothers, where breastfeeding rates are low and whose emphasis on body image may be greater.

  20. Body Shape and Weight Loss as Motivators for Breastfeeding Initiation and Continuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie C. Schalla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding rates in the UK are low. Efforts to promote breastfeeding typically include the known health benefits for mother and child, many of which are not immediate. Gaining immediate benefits can be effective motivators of behaviour. Body-related changes resulting from breastfeeding could be an immediate benefit. This study explored breastfeeding mothers’ reports of body-related changes as benefits of breastfeeding. Mothers (N = 182 who currently, or had recently, breastfed an infant completed a survey detailing their infant feeding choices and the perceived benefits of breastfeeding on their bodies. Half of the mothers felt that breastfeeding had a positive effect on their body. Benefits were grouped into five themes: (1 Returning to pre-pregnancy body shape; (2 Health benefits; (3 Physical benefits; (4 Eating benefits; (5 Psychological benefits. These themes highlight the numerous body-related benefits that mothers identified as resulting from breastfeeding and suggest that immediate, personal, and appearance-related gains of breastfeeding are highly valued. These findings indicate that interventions would likely benefit from emphasising the more immediate physical and psychological benefits of breastfeeding, alongside the health and bonding benefits, as a way to promote breastfeeding initiation and continuation in more women. This may be particularly effective for groups such as young mothers, where breastfeeding rates are low and whose emphasis on body image may be greater.

  1. Factors Associated with Breastfeeding Initiation: A Comparison between France and French-Speaking Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Christine Girard

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is associated with multiple domains of health for both mothers and children. Nevertheless, breastfeeding initiation is low within certain developed countries. Furthermore, comparative studies of initiation rates using harmonised data across multiple regions is scarce.The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare individual-level determinants of breastfeeding initiation using two French-speaking cohorts.Participants included ~ 3,900 mothers enrolled in two cohort studies in Canada and France. Interviews, questionnaires, and medical records were utilised to collect information on maternal, family, and medical factors associated with breastfeeding initiation.Rates of breastfeeding initiation were similar across cohorts, slightly above 70%. Women in both Canada and France who had higher levels of maternal education, were born outside of their respective countries and who did not smoke during pregnancy were more likely to initiate breastfeeding with the cohort infant. Notably, cohort effects of maternal education at the university level were found, whereby having 'some university' was not statistically significant for mothers in France. Further, younger mothers in Canada, who delivered by caesarean section and who had previous children, had reduced odds of breastfeeding initiation. These results were not found for mothers in France.While some similar determinants were observed, programming efforts to increase breastfeeding initiation should be tailored to the characteristics of specific geographical regions which may be heavily impacted by the social, cultural and political climate of the region, in addition to individual and family level factors.

  2. The prevalence and determinants of breast-feeding initiation and duration in a sample of women in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2010-06-01

    To assess breast-feeding initiation and prevalence from birth to 6 months in a sample of mothers in Dublin, and to determine the factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks in a sample of Irish-national mothers.

  3. Timely initiation of breastfeeding and associated factors among mothers in Motta town, East Gojjam zone, Amhara regional state, Ethiopia, 2015: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewabe, Tilahun

    2016-10-19

    Timely initiation of breastfeeding within one hour after birth and exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first six months of infant life along with continuation of breastfeeding up to two years. Timely initiation of breastfeeding has the potential to prevent 22 % of neonatal deaths. The objective of this study was to assess timely initiation of breastfeeding and associated factors among mothers who have infants less than six months of age in Motta town, East Gojjam, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Community based quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted from April 7, 2015 to May 7, 2015. Simple random sampling technique was applied after taking all registered mothers who have infants less than 6 months old from local health extension workers of each kebele. A total of 423 mothers with infant less than six month old were included in this study. The data was collected from all four Kebeles using interviewer administered questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to present the data. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with timely initiation breastfeeding. Prevalence of timely initiation of breastfeeding was78.8 % [95 % CL: 74.88 %, 82.72 %]. Mothers who gave birth to their infant in a health institution [AOR = 3.486(1.253, 9.700)], birthed vaginally [AOR = 5.722(3.134, 11.246)] and didn't give prelacteal food [AOR = 4.627(2.095, 10.220)] were more likely to initiate breastfeeding early than their counterparts. Prevalence of timely initiation of breastfeeding in the study area was 78.8 %. Place of delivery, mode of delivery and prelactal feeding were the independent predictors of timely initiation of breastfeeding. Recommendations to increase timely initiation of breastfeeding were: encouraging mothers to deliver their child in a health institution, minimizing caesarean delivery as much as possible and educating mothers and community as a whole

  4. Maternal obesity and breastfeeding intention, initiation, intensity and duration: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcksin, Rivka; Bel, Sarah; Galjaard, Sander; Devlieger, Roland

    2014-04-01

    This systematic review investigates the relationship between maternal obesity and breastfeeding intention, initiation, intensity, duration and milk supply. A comprehensive search was performed through three major databases, including Medline, Cochrane Library and Cumulative Index For Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and by screening reference lists of the relevant publications. Selection criteria were: report of original research, studies on low-risk obese mothers and the comparison with normal weight mothers which met at least two of the following primary outcomes: breastfeeding intention; initiation; intensity; duration and/or milk supply. Furthermore, the included reports had to contain a clear definition of pre-pregnant obesity, use compensation mechanisms for potential confounding factors, have a prospective cohort design and had to have been published between 1997 and 2011 and in English, French or Dutch. Effects of obesity on breastfeeding intention, initiation, intensity, duration and milk supply were analysed, tabulated and summarised in this review. Studies have found that obese women are less likely to intend to breastfeed and that maternal obesity seems to be associated with a decreased initiation of breastfeeding, a shortened duration of breastfeeding, a less adequate milk supply and delayed onset of lactogenesis II, compared with their normal weight counterparts. This systematic review indicates therefore that maternal obesity is an adverse determinant for breastfeeding success. © 2012 JohnWiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. ABFAB. Attachment to the breast and family attitudes to breastfeeding. The effect of breastfeeding education in the middle of pregnancy on the initiation and duration of breastfeeding: a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN21556494

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldenström Ulla

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has proven difficult to reach World Health Organization (WHO recommendations that infants be exclusively breastfed from birth to six months of age 12, yet there is limited knowledge about interventions that are effective in increasing breastfeeding initiation and duration. Particularly lacking is evidence about how to maintain breastfeeding rates in countries which already have a high initiation of breastfeeding. This study aims to determine whether mid-pregnancy breastfeeding education, with a focus on either attitudes to breastfeeding or on technical aspects of breastfeeding, has an effect on rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration. Secondary aims of the study are to: explore what factors might affect the duration of breastfeeding and evaluate the interventions from the participant and childbirth facilitator perspectives. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial (RCT design will be used. Women having their first baby, and planning to give birth as public patients at the Royal Women's Hospital (RWH, Melbourne, will be approached at 18–20 weeks of pregnancy and invited to participate in the study. Participants will be randomly allocated to a control group or one of two group interventions: a previously designed and trialled tool to teach practical aspects of breastfeeding or an exploration of family attitudes to breastfeeding. The latter was developed and piloted by the investigators in conjunction with the group facilitators, prior to trial commencement. The interventions are planned to take place at 20–25 weeks. Data will be collected by questionnaire at recruitment, at interview in hospital after the birth and by telephone interview six months later. Medical/obstetric outcomes will be obtained from the medical record. The sample size (972 was calculated to identify an increase in breastfeeding initiation from 75 to 85% and an increase from 40 to 50% in breastfeeding at six months.

  6. Exclusive Breastfeeding and Malaria in Early Infancy: Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in African children including infants while the roles of exclusive breastfeeding in the prevention of infections and protection against several common childhood morbidities are widely acknowledged. To study the role of exclusive breastfeeding on the incidence of malaria in ...

  7. Effects of baby-friendly hospital initiative on breast-feeding practices in Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Akram, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    To determine changes in the breastfeeding practices of mothers after receiving counseling on Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding as defined by the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative comparing baby friendly hospitals (BFHs) and non-baby-friendly hospitals in Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: The observational study was conducted from June 2007 to June 2009 in randomly selected baby-friendly and non-baby-friendly hospitals of Sindh, Pakistan. Non-probability purposive sampling was employed. The maternity staff was trained on Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The changes in breastfeeding practices were analysed by SPSS version 15. Results: A total of 236 women were included in the study. Of them, 196 (83.05%) were from baby-friendly hospitals and 40 (16.94%) from non-baby-friendly hospitals. Besides, 174 (88.7%) mothers in baby-friendly hospitals and 5 (12.5%) in non-baby-friendly hospitals during antenatal care received counseling by healthcare providers. There was an increase in breastfeeding practice up to 194 (98.97%) in the first category compared to 12 (30%) in the other category. Conclusion: Counseling under the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative improved breastfeeding practices up to 98.97% in baby-friendly compared to non-baby-friendly hospitals. (author)

  8. Evaluation of occupational factors on continuation of breastfeeding and formula initiation in employed mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mahshid; Moosavi, Seyyed Mohammad

    2013-09-25

    During recent decades, women have been increasingly involved in social activities. Despite the fact that mothers prefer to breastfeed, their return to work is associated with a reduction in breastfeeding frequency and duration. The present study evaluates the impact of occupational factors on continuation of breastfeeding and formula initiation in employed mothers with infants aged 6-12 months in Bandar-Abbas, Iran in 2010. This is a descriptive-analytic study on employed mothers with infants aged 6-12 months referring to healthcare centers of Bandar-Abbas in 2010. Data were collected through a questionnaire dealing with work-related factors in mothers' workplace. Out of 212 mothers who responded, 52.38% used formula to feed their children, and 27.36% had discontinued breastfeeding. The rate of formula use was significantly higher in mothers who had less than 6 months of maternity leave, those who did not have a suitable nursery or place to milk themselves and preserve the milk in their workplace, those working more than 6 hours per day, and those who could not take a breastfeeding break. It is essential to identify and support breastfeeding employed women. The employers should provide facilities such as nurseries, a suitable physical space for milking, as well as the equipment necessary for milk preservation. Also, such mothers should be granted breastfeeding breaks to feed their child or milk their breasts.

  9. Modeling the Influence of Early Skin-to-Skin Contact on Exclusive Breastfeeding in a Sample of Hispanic Immigrant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Ana M; Wambach, Karen; Rayens, Mary K; Wiggins, Amanda; Coleman, Elizabeth; Dignan, Mark B

    2017-10-01

    Using data from a longitudinal study of breastfeeding in Hispanics, this study evaluated the influence of early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) on initiation and sustained exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) at 1 month postpartum. Two-thirds of the women in the sample participated in early SSC. At discharge, over half of the women were EBF; this proportion decreased to one-third at 1 month postpartum. Controlling for demographic and clinical variables in the model, participation in early SSC was associated with a greater than sevenfold increase in the odds of EBF at discharge (p = .005) but was not predictive of EBF at 1 month post-discharge (p = .7). Younger maternal age and increased prenatal infant feeding intention were associated with an increased likelihood of EBF across both timepoints. Promoting early SSC may help with initiation of EBF, while further breastfeeding support may be needed to maintain EBF following discharge for this vulnerable population.

  10. Focused breastfeeding counselling improves short- and long-term success in an early-discharge setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid M S; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Knight, Christopher H

    2017-01-01

    Length of postnatal hospitalization has decreased and has been shown to be associated with infant nutritional problems and increase in readmissions. We aimed to evaluate if guidelines for breastfeeding counselling in an early discharge hospital setting had an effect on maternal breastfeeding self...... in the intervention compared to the reference group (adjusted OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.37, −0.81), and 6 months following birth, more infants were exclusively breastfed in the intervention group (adjusted OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.02, −1.81). Moreover, mothers in the intervention compared to the reference group were breastfeeding...

  11. Best Fed Beginnings: A Nationwide Quality Improvement Initiative to Increase Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman-Winter, Lori; Ustianov, Jennifer; Anastasio, Julius; Butts-Dion, Sue; Heinrich, Patricia; Merewood, Anne; Bugg, Kimarie; Donohue-Rolfe, Sarah; Homer, Charles J

    2017-07-01

    In response to a low number of Baby-Friendly-designated hospitals in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded the National Institute for Children's Health Quality to conduct a national quality improvement initiative between 2011 and 2015. The initiative was entitled Best Fed Beginnings and enrolled 90 hospitals in a nationwide initiative to increase breastfeeding and achieve Baby-Friendly designation. The intervention period lasted from July 2012 to August 2014. During that period, data on process indicators aligned with the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding and outcome measures (overall and exclusively related to breastfeeding) were collected. In addition, data on the Baby-Friendly designation were collected after the end of the intervention through April 2016. Hospitals assembled multidisciplinary teams that included parent partners and community representatives. Three in-person learning sessions were interspersed with remote learning and tests of change, and a Web-based platform housed resources and data for widespread sharing. By April 2016, a total of 72 (80%) of the 90 hospitals received the Baby-Friendly designation, nearly doubling the number of designated hospitals in the United States. Participation in the Best Fed Beginnings initiative had significantly high correlation with designation compared with hospital applicants not in the program (Pearson's r [235]: 0.80; P initiative of maternity care hospitals accomplished rapid transformative changes to achieve Baby-Friendly designation. These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in exclusive breastfeeding. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Where and how breastfeeding promotion initiatives should focus its attention? A study from rural Wardha

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    Dongre A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, the practice of breastfeeding is almost universal, but initiation of breastfeeding is generally quite late and colostrum is discarded. Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI strategy recommended systematic assessment of breastfeeding and emphasized counseling of the mother on proper positioning and attachment of infant to the breast. Objective: To assess breastfeeding among mothers of below six months children in rural Wardha. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was undertaken in surrounding 23 villages of Kasturba Rural Health Training Center (KRHTC, Anji. Two Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs trained in IMNCI paid house visits to 99 mothers during the study period and undertook the assessment of breastfeeding using IMNCI assessment form for young infants. Auxiliary Nurse Midwives observed and recorded the positioning and attachment of infant to the breast as per IMNCI guidelines. The data were entered and analyzed using Epi_Info (version 6.04d software package. Results: Most of the deliveries 94 (94.9% took place in the healthcare facilities. Majority 61 (61.6% newborn babies had received breastfeeding within half an hour. About half of the mothers had any of the feeding problems like feeding less than eight times in 24 h, giving any other food or drinks or is low weight for age. Significantly more mothers with feeding problems had problems in positioning and attachment of infant to the breast as compared with those mothers who did not have any feeding problems. Conclusions: In the settings, where practice of institutional delivery is high, the staff of healthcare facility should ensure education of the mothers regarding position and attachment of infant to the breast before discharge from the healthcare facility. At the village level, Village Health Nutrition Day (VHND can be utilized for health education of future mothers and support for the breastfeeding mothers. The IMNCI

  13. A systematic review of structured versus non-structured breastfeeding programmes to support the initiation and duration of exclusive breastfeeding in acute and primary healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beake, Sarah; Pellowe, Carol; Dykes, Fiona; Schmied, Virginia; Bick, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Background: Breastfeeding has many important health benefits for the woman and her baby. Despite evidence of benefit from a large number of well conducted studies, breastfeeding uptake and the duration of exclusive breastfeeding remain low in many countries. In order to improve breastfeeding rates, policy and guidelines at global, individual country level and in local healthcare settings have recommended that structured programmes to support breastfeeding should be introduced. The objective of this review was to consider the evidence of outcomes of structured compared with non-structured breastfeeding programmes in acute maternity care settings to support initiation and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. The definition of structured programme used included a multi-faceted or single intervention approach to support breastfeeding; definition of non-structured included support offered within standard care. The review considered quantitative and qualitative studies which addressed outcomes following the introduction of a structured programme in acute healthcare settings to support breastfeeding compared with no programme. The primary outcomes of interest were uptake of breastfeeding and duration of exclusive breastfeeding (only breast milk, including milk expressed). Studies which only considered community based interventions were not included. A search of the literature published between 1992 and 2010 was conducted, which followed a four step process. After a limited search of MEDLINE and CINAHL to identify key words contained in the title or abstract and index terms to describe relevant interventions, a second extensive search was undertaken using identified key words and index terms. The third step included a search of reference lists and bibliographies of relevant articles and the fourth step included a search of grey and unpublished literature and national databasesMethodological quality: Methodological quality was assessed using checklists developed by the

  14. Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative: evaluation of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding

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    Soraia da Silva Lopes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To asses the performance of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding in an university hospital. METHODS: Descriptive and quantitative research, in which 103 people were interviewed in the outpatient prenatal clinic, in the maternity-ward and in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a university hospital in Vitória, Southeast Brazil. The "Institutional Self-Evaluation Questionnaire" of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative was applied. Using this tool, the outcome was measured by the concordance index (CI proposed by the World Health Organization and by the United Nations Children's Fund. RESULTS: Although the hospital does not have a policy that addresses promotion, protection and support for breastfeeding, 93.3% of the mothers had contact with their babies immediately after birth (step 4, 83.3% of the professionals guided mothers how to breastfeed (step 5, 86.6% of the neonates did not receive any food or drink other than breast milk (step 6, 100% of babies were housed together with their mothers (step 7, 83.3% of the women were encouraged for breastfeeding on demand (step 8 and 100% of the infants did not use bottles or pacifiers (step 9. CONCLUSIONS: 60% of the steps were completed by the hospital. The greatest difficulty was to inform pregnant women about the importance and the management of breastfeeding (step 3. Therefore, visits to pregnant women are recommended, in order to prepare them for breastfeeding and to explain about the infants' healthy feeding habits.

  15. Breastfeeding duration and early parenting behaviour: the importance of an infant-led, responsive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy; Arnott, Bronia

    2014-01-01

    Popular parenting literature promotes different approaches to caring for infants, based around variations in the use of parent-led routines and promoting infant independence. However, there is little empirical evidence of how these early behaviours affect wider parenting choices such as infant feeding. Breastfeeding often requires an infant-led approach, feeding on demand and allowing the infant to regulate intake whilst conversely formula feeding is open to greater caregiver manipulation. The infant-led style associated with breastfeeding may therefore be at odds with philosophies that encourage strict use of routine and independence. The aim of this study was to explore the association between early parenting behaviours and breastfeeding duration. Five hundred and eight mothers with an infant aged 0-12 months completed a questionnaire examining breastfeeding duration, attitudes and behaviours surrounding early parenting (e.g. anxiety, use of routine, involvement, nurturance and discipline). Participants were attendees at baby groups or participants of online parenting forums based in the UK. Formula use at birth or short breastfeeding duration were significantly associated with low levels of nurturance, high levels of reported anxiety and increased maternal use of Parent-led routines. Conversely an infant-led approach characterised by responding to and following infant cues was associated with longer breastfeeding duration. Maternal desire to follow a structured parenting approach which purports use of Parent-led routines and early demands for infant independence may have a negative impact upon breastfeeding duration. Increased maternal anxiety may further influence this relationship. The findings have important implications for Health Professionals supporting new mothers during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

  16. Breastfeeding Duration and Early Parenting Behaviour: The Importance of an Infant-Led, Responsive Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy; Arnott, Bronia

    2014-01-01

    Background Popular parenting literature promotes different approaches to caring for infants, based around variations in the use of parent-led routines and promoting infant independence. However, there is little empirical evidence of how these early behaviours affect wider parenting choices such as infant feeding. Breastfeeding often requires an infant-led approach, feeding on demand and allowing the infant to regulate intake whilst conversely formula feeding is open to greater caregiver manipulation. The infant-led style associated with breastfeeding may therefore be at odds with philosophies that encourage strict use of routine and independence. The aim of this study was to explore the association between early parenting behaviours and breastfeeding duration. Methods Five hundred and eight mothers with an infant aged 0–12 months completed a questionnaire examining breastfeeding duration, attitudes and behaviours surrounding early parenting (e.g. anxiety, use of routine, involvement, nurturance and discipline). Participants were attendees at baby groups or participants of online parenting forums based in the UK. Results Formula use at birth or short breastfeeding duration were significantly associated with low levels of nurturance, high levels of reported anxiety and increased maternal use of Parent-led routines. Conversely an infant-led approach characterised by responding to and following infant cues was associated with longer breastfeeding duration. Discussion Maternal desire to follow a structured parenting approach which purports use of Parent-led routines and early demands for infant independence may have a negative impact upon breastfeeding duration. Increased maternal anxiety may further influence this relationship. The findings have important implications for Health Professionals supporting new mothers during pregnancy and the postpartum period. PMID:24533046

  17. Breastfeeding duration and early parenting behaviour: the importance of an infant-led, responsive style.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Brown

    Full Text Available Popular parenting literature promotes different approaches to caring for infants, based around variations in the use of parent-led routines and promoting infant independence. However, there is little empirical evidence of how these early behaviours affect wider parenting choices such as infant feeding. Breastfeeding often requires an infant-led approach, feeding on demand and allowing the infant to regulate intake whilst conversely formula feeding is open to greater caregiver manipulation. The infant-led style associated with breastfeeding may therefore be at odds with philosophies that encourage strict use of routine and independence. The aim of this study was to explore the association between early parenting behaviours and breastfeeding duration.Five hundred and eight mothers with an infant aged 0-12 months completed a questionnaire examining breastfeeding duration, attitudes and behaviours surrounding early parenting (e.g. anxiety, use of routine, involvement, nurturance and discipline. Participants were attendees at baby groups or participants of online parenting forums based in the UK.Formula use at birth or short breastfeeding duration were significantly associated with low levels of nurturance, high levels of reported anxiety and increased maternal use of Parent-led routines. Conversely an infant-led approach characterised by responding to and following infant cues was associated with longer breastfeeding duration.Maternal desire to follow a structured parenting approach which purports use of Parent-led routines and early demands for infant independence may have a negative impact upon breastfeeding duration. Increased maternal anxiety may further influence this relationship. The findings have important implications for Health Professionals supporting new mothers during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

  18. MATERNAL ACCOUNTS OF THEIR BREASTFEEDING INTENT AND EARLY CHALLENGES AFTER CESAREAN CHILDBIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Kristin P.; Ball, Helen L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding outcomes are often worse after cesarean section compared to vaginal childbirth. Objectives This study characterizes mothers’ breastfeeding intentions and their infant feeding experiences after cesarean childbirth. Methods Data are from 115 mothers on a postnatal unit in Northeast England during February 2006 to March 2009. Interviews were conducted an average of 1.5 days (range 1–6 days) after the women underwent unscheduled or scheduled cesarean. Results Thematic analysis of the data suggested breastfeeding was mostly considered the “right thing to do,” preferable, natural, and “supposedly healthier,” but tiring and painful. Advantages of supplementation involved more satiated infants, feeding ease, and longer sleep bouts. The need for “thinking about yourself” was part of cesarean recovery. Infrequent feeding was concerning but also enabled maternal rest. Other breastfeeding obstacles were maternal mobility limitations, positioning difficulties, and frustration at the need for assistance. Participants were confused about nocturnal infant wakings, leading many to determine that they had insufficient milk. Mothers were surprised that sub-clinically poor infant condition was common following cesarean section. Some breastfeeding difficulty stemmed from “mucus” expulsion that had to occur before the infants could be “interested” in feeding. Women who cited motivations for breastfeeding that included benefit to themselves were more likely to exclusively breastfeed on the postnatal unit after their cesareans than those who reported infant-only motivations. Conclusions For the majority of mothers, breastfeeding after a cesarean is affected by interrelated and compounding difficulties. Provision of more relational breastfeeding information may enable families to better anticipate early feeding experiences after cesarean section childbirth. PMID:24252711

  19. Breastfeeding Duration and Primary Reasons for Breastfeeding Cessation among Women with Postpartum Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascom, Erin McElderry; Napolitano, Melissa A

    2016-05-01

    Although postpartum depression is associated with lower breastfeeding initiation rates and shorter breastfeeding duration, the potential mechanisms through which this relationship functions are not well understood. This study examined the breastfeeding behaviors of women with postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) to identify potential motivations for early breastfeeding cessation. An analysis of quantitative data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II examined the relationship between PDS and breastfeeding behaviors, including breastfeeding duration and primary reasons for early breastfeeding cessation. Of the women in the sample, 30.9% met criteria for mild PDS. Women with PDS had shorter overall (18.4 vs 21.8 weeks, P = .001) and exclusive breastfeeding duration (3.6 vs 4.7 weeks, P = .012) than women without PDS. A larger proportion of women with PDS stopped breastfeeding before 6 months (68.7% vs 57.2%, P household duties" (OR = 1.90, P = .011) as a primary reason for breastfeeding cessation among women who stopped breastfeeding before 6 months. After controlling for these same covariates, women with PDS had, on average, 2.4 weeks shorter breastfeeding duration than women without PDS (P = .025). There is a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among new mothers, and most do not breastfeed for recommended time periods. Increased PDS screening during prenatal and postpartum visits and promotion of lactation support services may better address the high rates of PDS and suboptimal breastfeeding behavior. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. The Correlation Between Breastfeeding Success in the Early Postpartum Period and the Perception of Self-Efficacy in Breastfeeding and Breast Problems in the Late Postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılcı, Hanife; Çoban, Ayden

    2016-05-01

    The research was conducted to determine the correlation between breastfeeding success in the early postpartum period and the perception of self-efficacy in breastfeeding and breast problems in late postpartum. This analytic and cross-sectional research was carried out at Aydın Obstetrics and Gynecology and Children's Diseases Hospital. Three hundred twenty-seven primipara mothers who had delivered a single baby of healthy term at 37 or more gestational weeks with no previous experience with breastfeeding and who agreed to cooperate participated in the research. The mothers' mean gestational week of delivery was 39.25 ± 1.10 weeks, and it was found that 56.0% had delivered by cesarean section and 57.0% had started to breastfeed immediately after the birth. The mothers' LATCH mean score was 6.55 ± 0.86; their postnatal breastfeeding self-efficacy mean score was found to be 59.10 ± 7.21. Mothers who had high success in breastfeeding at early postpartum were found to experience fewer problems with their breasts (Z = -2.65, p postpartum period reduced breast problems and increased the perception of breastfeeding self-efficacy in the late postpartum period.

  1. Association of early-life antibiotic use and protective effects of breastfeeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpela, Katri; Salonen, Anne; Virta, Lauri J.; Kekkonen, Riina A.; Vos, de Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Long duration of breastfeeding is known to reduce the frequency of infections and the risk of overweight, both of which are prevalent health problems among children, but the mechanisms are unclear. Objectives: To test whether early-life antibiotic use in children prevents the

  2. Mental health predictors of breastfeeding initiation and continuation among HIV infected and uninfected women in a South African birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Eileen; Kuo, Caroline; Cohen, Sophie; Hoare, Jacqueline; Koen, Natassja; Barnett, Whitney; Zar, Heather J; Stein, Dan J

    2017-09-01

    Breastfeeding is a cost-effective, yet underutilized strategy to promote maternal and infant health in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Breastfeeding remains challenging for mothers living with HIV in LMICs, yet few studies have examined mental health predictors of breastfeeding initiation and continuation. We investigated breastfeeding among mothers by HIV status in South Africa, evaluating predictors of breastfeeding initiation and continuation to identify intervention-targets. Breastfeeding patterns were investigated in a subsample of 899 breastfeeding mothers from the Drakenstein Child Health Study; a prospective birth cohort of 1225 pregnant women, between March 2012 and March 2015 in a peri-urban area. Breastfeeding was assessed at 5 time-points between 6weeks and 24months' infant age. Cox proportional hazard models evaluated breastfeeding initiation and duration. Logistic regression models with breastfeeding non-initiation as the outcome parameter were performed to determine associations with maternal sociodemographic, psychosocial factors and gestational outcomes. More HIV-uninfected mothers initiated breastfeeding (n=685, 97%) than HIV-infected mothers (n=87, 45%). Median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was short (2months), but HIV-infected mothers engaged in exclusive breastfeeding for longer duration than uninfected mothers (3 vs 2months). Despite concerning high rates, mental disorders were not significant predictors of breastfeeding behaviour. Employment and HIV diagnosis during pregnancy predicted a lower likelihood of breastfeeding initiation among HIV-infected mothers, while employment was associated with earlier breastfeeding-discontinuation in HIV-uninfected mothers. Findings indicate that future interventions should target sub-populations such as HIV-infected women because of distinct needs. Workplace interventions appear particularly key for mothers in our study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Determinants of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Goba Woreda, South East Ethiopia: A cross sectional study

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    Belachew Tefera

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although breastfeeding is universal in Ethiopia, ranges of regional differences in timely initiation of breastfeeding have been documented. Initiation of breastfeeding is highly bound to cultural factors that may either enhance or inhibit the optimal practices. The government of Ethiopia developed National Infant and Young Child Feeding Guideline in 2004 and behavior change communications on breast feeding have been going on since then. However, there is a little information on the practice of timely initiation of breast feeding and factors that predict these practices after the implementation of the national guideline. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and determinant factors of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Bale Goba District, South East Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was carried out from February to March 2010 using both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. A total of 608 mother infant pairs were selected using simple random sampling method and key informants for the in-depth interview were selected conveniently. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with timely initiation of breast feeding. Results The prevalence of timely initiation of breastfeeding was 52.4%. Bivariate analysis showed that attendance of formal education, being urban resident, institutional delivery and postnatal counseling on breast feeding were significantly associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding (P Conclusions The practice of timely initiation of breast feeding is low as nearly half the mothers did not start breastfeeding with one hour after delivery. The results suggest that breast feeding behavior change communication especially during the post natal period is critical in promoting optimal practice in the initiation of breast feeding. Rural mothers

  4. Body Shape and Weight Loss as Motivators for Breastfeeding Initiation and Continuation

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie C. Schalla; Gemma L. Witcomb; Emma Haycraft

    2017-01-01

    Breastfeeding rates in the UK are low. Efforts to promote breastfeeding typically include the known health benefits for mother and child, many of which are not immediate. Gaining immediate benefits can be effective motivators of behaviour. Body-related changes resulting from breastfeeding could be an immediate benefit. This study explored breastfeeding mothers? reports of body-related changes as benefits of breastfeeding. Mothers (N = 182) who currently, or had recently, breastfed an infant c...

  5. Rapid Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation for Women in an HIV-1 Prevention Clinical Trial Experiencing Primary HIV-1 Infection during Pregnancy or Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Susan; John-Stewart, Grace; Egessa, John J; Mubezi, Sezi; Kusemererwa, Sylvia; Bii, Dennis K; Bulya, Nulu; Mugume, Francis; Campbell, James D; Wangisi, Jonathan; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M

    2015-01-01

    During an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial in East Africa, we observed 16 cases of primary HIV-1 infection in women coincident with pregnancy or breastfeeding. Nine of eleven pregnant women initiated rapid combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), despite having CD4 counts exceeding national criteria for ART initiation; breastfeeding women initiated ART or replacement feeding. Rapid ART initiation during primary HIV-1 infection during pregnancy and breastfeeding is feasible in this setting.

  6. Rapid Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation for Women in an HIV-1 Prevention Clinical Trial Experiencing Primary HIV-1 Infection during Pregnancy or Breastfeeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Morrison

    Full Text Available During an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial in East Africa, we observed 16 cases of primary HIV-1 infection in women coincident with pregnancy or breastfeeding. Nine of eleven pregnant women initiated rapid combination antiretroviral therapy (ART, despite having CD4 counts exceeding national criteria for ART initiation; breastfeeding women initiated ART or replacement feeding. Rapid ART initiation during primary HIV-1 infection during pregnancy and breastfeeding is feasible in this setting.

  7. Breastfeeding and early infection in the aetiology of childhood leukaemia in Down syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Lujano, J; Perez-Saldivar, M L; Fuentes-Panan?, E M; Gorodezky, C; Bernaldez-Rios, R; Del Campo-Martinez, M A; Martinez-Avalos, A; Medina-Sanson, A; Paredes-Aguilera, R; De Diego-Flores Chapa, J; Bolea-Murga, V; Rodriguez-Zepeda, M C; Rivera-Luna, R; Palomo-Colli, M A; Romero-Guzman, L

    2009-01-01

    Background: For a child to develop acute leukaemia (AL), environmental exposure may not be sufficient: interaction with a susceptibility factor to the disease, such as Down syndrome (DS), may also be necessary. We assessed whether breastfeeding and early infection were associated with the risk of developing AL in children with DS. Methods: Children with DS in Mexico City, and either with or without AL, were the cases (N=57) and controls (N=218), respectively. Population was divided in childre...

  8. Application of the Breastfeeding Personal Efficacy Beliefs Inventory and Acknowledgment of Barriers for Improving Breastfeeding Initiation Rates in an Urban Population

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    Diwata Bose

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breastfeeding (BF is recognized as the preferred method of infant nutrition by American Academy of Pediatricians, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the World Health Organization. Despite the benefits of BF, in 1998 only 69% of new mothers in the United States initiated BF and 29% continued to breastfeed at 6 months. Objective: To assess perceived breastfeeding confidence (BFC and determine barriers in regards to BF in an urban population. Methods: The Breastfeeding Personal Efficacy Beliefs Inventory (BPEBI was used to determine perceived BFC. The survey was distributed to 271 women during prenatal appointments at an urban Milwaukee medical center. BF initiation rate at discharge was determined by records review. A principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to examine the structure of the BPEBI in this population. Results: Survey response rate was 89%. Overall BFC was 74%. BF initiation rate at discharge was 62%, exclusively BF (EBF at discharge (no bottle-feeding was 55%. In multivariate models, EBF decreased with black race (p=0.02 and with residence in the low socioeconomic status zip codes of the central city of Milwaukee (p=0.01. BFC increased with prior exposure to BF (p=0.03, EBF (p=0.03 and length of BF (p=0.02. Factor analysis identified two constructs: BFC increased with prior exposure to BF (p=0.006 and EBF (p=0.001 within the motivation construct, and BFC increased with EBF (p=0.000 within the technique/environment construct. Conclusions: The main barriers to increased BFC were lack of prior exposure to BF and nonexclusive breastfeeding practices. BF initiation rate at discharge was low compared to self-reported level of confidence. EBF decreased with black race and with closer proximity to the central city of Milwaukee.

  9. "I Just Want to Do Everything Right:" Primiparous Women's Accounts of Early Breastfeeding via an App-Based Diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Jill; Caplan, Erin; Murray, Nora; Cohen, Susan

    Our objective was to describe the early breastfeeding experience of primiparous women. Healthy, primiparous women intending to exclusively breastfeed downloaded a commercial infant feeding mobile application (app) during their postpartum hospitalization. Women free-texted breastfeeding thoughts and experiences through 8 weeks postpartum in the app's diary. Diary content was qualitatively coded. Thirty-five participants completed diaries and were included in analyses. The overarching theme was Seeking sustainability and validation. Mothers felt overwhelmed, anxious, and frustrated with the intensity and unpredictability of breastfeeding and inconsistent professional breastfeeding support. The ability to exclusively breastfeed was seen as a bellwether of maternal competence. Breastfeeding progress was primarily measured through external feedback (e.g., weight checks) and managed through strict adherence to provider feeding plans. As breastfeeding problems and intensity abated, women exhibited optimism and assumed greater independence in feeding decisions. The primiparous breastfeeding experience is fraught with internally imposed and externally reinforced pressure to produce and persevere despite inadequate breastfeeding support infrastructure. Copyright © 2017 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of a Home-Based Lifestyle Intervention on Breastfeeding Initiation Among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged African American Women with Overweight or Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowitz, Adam K; López, Julia D; Stein, Richard I; Rhoades, Janine S; Schulz, Rosa C; Woolfolk, Candice L; Macones, George A; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Cahill, Alison G

    2018-06-18

    Socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED) African American women with overweight or obesity are less likely to breastfeed. To test whether a home-based lifestyle intervention impacts breastfeeding initiation rates in SED African American women with overweight or obesity. This was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial from October 2012 to March 2016 at a university-based hospital within the LIFE-Moms consortium. SED African American women with overweight or obesity and singleton gestations were randomized by 16 weeks to Parents as Teachers (PAT)-a home-based parenting support and child development educational intervention-or PAT+, PAT with additional content on breastfeeding. Participants completed a breastfeeding survey. Outcomes included breastfeeding initiation and reasons for not initiating or not continuing breastfeeding. One hundred eighteen women were included: 59 in PAT+; 59 in PAT. Breastfeeding initiation rates were similar in each group (78.00% in PAT+; 74.58% in PAT). On a one to four scale, with four denoting "very important," women in PAT+ and PAT were equally likely to rate their beliefs that formula was better than breast milk or breastfeeding would be too inconvenient as the most important reasons to not initiate breastfeeding. On the same scale, women similarly rated their difficulty latching or concern for low milk supply as the most important reasons for breastfeeding cessation. SED African American women with overweight or obesity who received a home-based educational intervention had higher breastfeeding rates than is reported nationally for black women (59%). However, the intervention with more breastfeeding content did not further increase breastfeeding rates or impact reasons for breastfeeding cessation. ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT01768793.

  11. Early exclusive breastfeeding and maternal attitudes towards infant feeding in a population of new mothers in San Francisco, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Gugig, Roberto; Tran, Cam; Kathiravan, Suganya; Holbrook, Katherine; Heyman, Melvin B

    2010-02-01

    Positive parental attitudes towards infant feeding are an important component in child nutritional health. Previous studies have found that participants in the Special Supplemental Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program have lower breastfeeding rates and attitudes that do not contribute towards healthy infant feeding in spite of breastfeeding and nutrition education programs targeting WIC participants. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of exclusive breastfeeding in the early postpartum period and maternal attitudes towards breastfeeding in a population of mothers at two San Francisco hospitals and in relation to WIC participation status. We interviewed women who had recently delivered a healthy newborn using a structured interview. A high percentage (79.8%) of our sample was exclusively breastfeeding at 1-4 days postpartum. We did not find any significant differences in rates of formula or mixed feeding by WIC participant status. Independent risk factors for mixed or formula feeding at 1-3 days postpartum included Asian/Pacific Islander ethnicity (odds ratio [OR] 2.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-7.19). Being a college graduate was associated with a decreased risk of formula/mixed feeding (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.10-0.79). We also found that thinking breastfeeding was physically painful and uncomfortable was independently associated with not breastfeeding (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.06-1.89). Future studies should be conducted with Asian-Americans and Pacific Islanders to better understand the lower rates of exclusive breastfeeding in this population and should address negative attitudes towards breastfeeding such as the idea that breastfeeding is painful or uncomfortable.

  12. Epidural analgesia during labor: impact on delivery outcome, neonatal well-being, and early breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Di Gangi, Stefania; Saccardi, Carlo; Patrelli, Tito Silvio; Paccagnella, Gianluca; Sansone, Laura; Barbara, Favaron; D'Antona, Donato; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista

    2012-08-01

    The effect of epidural analgesia on labor and effective breastfeeding is still being debated. The aim of this study is to define its impact on the trend of labor, the newborns' well-being, and early breastfeeding. We considered first-term physiologic pregnant women who delivered by the vaginal route. We divided them into two groups: group A received epidural analgesia during labor, whereas group B received no analgesia. We recorded maternal age, gestational age, modality of delivery, length of labor, and length of active labor. All newborns received skin-to-skin contact; early breastfeeding was encouraged. We recorded data on birth weight and length, Apgar score at minutes 1 and 5, type of crying, neonatal reactivity, and time between birth and exposure to the breast. Statistical significance was considered for panalgesia, and 245 patients agreed to participate in our study. Only 128 patients met inclusion criteria. We randomized them in 64 women in group A and 64 women in group B. Data on maternal age, gestational age, type of delivery, neonatal birth weight and length, and Apgar score showed no significant differences. Total length of labor was 363.58±62.20 minutes in Group A versus 292.30±64.75 minutes in group B (pneonatal parameters we found a statistically significant difference only for length of first breastfeeding, with a mean duration of analgesia has little effect on trend of labor and duration of first breastfeed and none on neonatal outcome. A new protocol of epidural analgesia may solve these side effects.

  13. Maternal employment and breast-feeding initiation: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer S; Griffiths, Lucy J; Dezateux, Carol; Law, Catherine

    2007-05-01

    Maternal employment rates have increased rapidly in recent years and little is known about how this influences whether women start breast feeding. We examined data from the Millennium Cohort Study to determine whether a mother's employment status (full-time, part-time, self-employed, on leave, not employed/student) and employment characteristics are related to breast-feeding initiation. This analysis comprised 14 830 white mothers from Britain and Ireland (6917 employed) with singleton babies, born from 2000 to 2002. Information was obtained on infant feeding history and mother's employment when the cohort child was 9 months old. We found that women employed full-time were less likely to initiate breast feeding than mothers who were not employed/students, after adjustment for confounding factors [adjusted rate ratio (aRR) = 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89, 0.96]; however, there were no differences in breast-feeding initiation between mothers employed part-time, self-employed, or on leave and mothers who were not employed/students. Among employed mothers, those who returned to work within 4 months postpartum were less likely to start breast feeding than women who returned at 5 or 6 months [aRR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92, 0.99], and women who returned within the first 6 weeks were much less likely to start breast feeding [aRR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.77, 0.94]. Mothers returning for financial reasons were also less likely to initiate breast feeding [aRR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.93, 0.99] than those who returned for other reasons. Policies to increase breast feeding should address how both the time and circumstances of a mother's return to employment postpartum influence whether she decides to start breast feeding.

  14. Prevalence and Characteristics Associated with Breastfeeding Initiation Among Canadian Inuit from the 2007-2008 Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Kathryn E; Sellen, Daniel W; Lou, Wendy; Young, Kue

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, breastfeeding initiation in Canadian Inuit. We used data from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, a population-based, cross-sectional survey conducted in the Canadian territory of Nunavut. Inuit children aged 3-5 years in 2007 or 2008 were randomly selected for the survey. Select household, maternal, infant and community characteristics were collected from the child's primary caregiver and entered into logistic regression models as potential predictors of breastfeeding initiation. Analyses were repeated in a subgroup of caregiver reports from biological mothers. The reported prevalence of breastfeeding initiation was 67.6% (95% CI 62.4-72.8) overall and 85.1% (95% CI 80.2-90.1) in a subgroup of caregiver reports from biological mothers. Adjusted prevalence odds ratios (pOR) indicate the primary caregiver was an important determinant of breastfeeding (adopted parent vs. biological mother: pOR = 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.07; other vs. biological mother: pOR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.14-0.74). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and having access to a community birthing facility were also potentially important, but not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In conclusion, data from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey indicate breastfeeding is initiated for more than two-thirds of children, but rates are below the national average and this may be one of several pathways to poor health outcomes documented in many Inuit communities. Considered in the particular context of birthing facilities utilization and postnatal care arrangements in Inuit communities, these results suggest that increasing breastfeeding initiation will require health interventions that effectively engage all types of primary caregivers.

  15. Association between prolonged breast-feeding and early childhood caries: a hierarchical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ana Margarida Melo; Alves, Claudia Maria Coelho; Borba de Araújo, Fernando; Ortiz, Tânia Mara Lopes; Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Ribeiro, Cecília Claudia Costa

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the association between prolonged breastfeeding and early childhood caries(ECC) with adjustment for important confounders, using hieraschical approach. This retrospective cohort study involved 260 low-income children (18-42 months). The number of decayed teeth was used as a measure of caries. Following a theoretical framework, the hierarchical model was built in a forward fashion, by adding the following levels in succession: level 1: age; level 2: social variables; level 3: health variables; level 4: behavioral variables; level 5: oral hygiene-related variables; level 6: oral hygiene quality measured by visible plaque; and level 7: contamination by mutans streptococci. Sequential forward multiple Poisson regression analysis was employed. Breast-feeding was not a risk factor for ECC after adjustment for some confounders (incidence density ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.59, P = 0.363). Prolonged breast-feeding was not a risk factor for ECC while age, high sucrose comption between main meals and the quality of oral higiene were associated with disease in children. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Facilitators for Empowering Women in Breastfeeding: a Qualitative Study

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    Shahnaz Kohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background  Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or more is a desirable approach for infant’s nutrition. A mother's breastfeeding empowerment is considered an important factor in promoting breastfeeding and identifying its facilitating factors can contribute to the development of effective policies and intervention. This study with a qualitative approach carried out aiming to exploring the facilitators for women’s empowerment in breastfeeding. Material and Methods This study conducted by content analysis method. Thirty-four semi-structured individual interviews with 20 mothers having breastfeeding experience, 4 key family members, and 10 personnel involved in breastfeeding services were carried out. Data analysis was simultaneously performed with data collection. Results Three main categories of "Health system factors", "Family and personal factors" and "Social and cultural factors" were extracted from the participants' explanations, indicating the dimensions of facilitators for empowering women in breastfeeding. Conclusion Participants regarded the acquisition of breastfeeding skills in hospitals and breastfeeding counseling in health centers as important factors in facilitating their empowerment to early initiation of breastfeeding and its continuity. Further analysis showed "a mother's decision to breastfeed" along with her understanding of "positive attitude and her husband and family's participation in breastfeeding" boosts the breastfeeding ability and the support of the community through "positive cultural belief in breastfeeding" and" public education and information" provides an appropriate ground for the continuity of breastfeeding. In order to improve breastfeeding, a comprehensive planning with regard to women's empowerment in breastfeeding should be considered.

  17. The Role of Early Maternal Support in Balancing Full-Time Work and Infant Exclusive Breastfeeding: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, Lea; Fisher, Christopher M; Barnes-Josiah, Debora; Coleman, Jason D; Lefebvre, R Craig

    Support of others is a key factor for mothers who choose to breastfeed their infants, including those who balance work outside the home and breastfeeding. However, little research has been done to understand how maternal support during the postpartum period impacts mothers' ability to later balance work and breastfeeding, in particular full-time work and exclusive breastfeeding. The results of this qualitative study indicate that the timing of support plays a key role in mothers' ability to successfully overcome barriers during the early postpartum period, thus building maternal self-efficacy in addressing problems encountered when they return to work. To understand the experience of low-income women who successfully balance full-time work and exclusive breastfeeding for the recommended 6 months, interviews were conducted with women who met study criteria for income level, work status, and exclusive breastfeeding. Breastfeeding peer counselors were also interviewed as key informants. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded for themes. The results of both sets of interviews were triangulated with a focused literature review to assure the soundness of the qualitative analysis. Timing of support included acute support, such as help establishing a successful latch needed during the first 2 weeks after delivery, to deal with breastfeeding problems that mothers perceived as being mentally and emotionally overwhelming and longer-term support needed to overcome problems perceived as being less intense. The research invites further exploration into the relationship between breastfeeding support provided by mothers' support system, including healthcare professionals, during the postpartum period and rates of breastfeeding duration and exclusivity.

  18. Breastfeeding initiation: An in-depth qualitative analysis of the perspectives of women and midwives using Social Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M E; Jepson, R G; McInnes, R J

    2018-02-01

    to explore women's and midwives' expectations, knowledge and experiences of breastfeeding initiation using Social Cognitive Theory. a qualitative study using focus group discussions and individual interviews. Breastfeeding initiation was defined for this study as a process within the first 48hours after birth. Data were analysed using qualitative inductive analysis then further deductive analysis using Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). a purposefully selected sample of primigravid antenatal and postnatal women (n=18) and practising midwives (n=18) from one Health Board area in Scotland. attachment of the baby to the breast at birth was hindered by sleepy babies and the busy unfamiliar hospital environment. These resulted in mothers struggling to maintain their motivation to breastfeed and to develop low self-efficacy. Instinctive attachment was rare. Midwives who considered it was normal for babies to be sleepy and unable to attach or feed at birth did not facilitate instinctive baby behaviour. Midwives sometimes experienced lack of autonomy and environmental circumstances that made women centred care difficult. Furthermore caring for high numbers of women, dependent on their help, resulted in reduced self-efficacy for providing effective breastfeeding support. interviewing both women and midwives specifically about initiation of breastfeeding has allowed for deeper insights into this critical period and enabled a comparison between the data obtained from mothers and midwives. The findings suggest that instinctive attachment is not an expectation of either mothers or midwives and results in a loss of breastfeeding confidence in both. to facilitate initiation there is a need for more research to develop appropriate maternal and midwifery skills, and make changes to the cultural environment in hospitals. Social Cognitive Theory could be used as a framework in both the antenatal and immediate postnatal period to develop strategies and materials to increase women's and

  19. BREASTFEEDING AND EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES (ECC SEVERITY OF CHILDREN UNDER THREE YEARS OLD IN DKI JAKARTA

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    Risqa Rina Darwita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years old are constantly increasing. One of the cause is the increase consumption of cariogenic carbohydrate. Breast milk have buffer capacity that eventually able to prevent caries. The aims of this research are to discover the correlation between breastfeeding with the severity of Early Childhood Caries (ECC in children under three years old, to provide information on prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years, and to explain factors influencing the incidence of ECC. This research designed cross sectionally and conducted upon 565 children aged 12-38 months, selected using multistage cluster random sampling. The ECC prevalence of children under three years in DKI Jakarta is 52.7%, with average score of def-t 2.85. Bivariate analysis showed that, variables which correlate with the level of ECC are; the way to deliver (p=0,012, frequency (p=0,002, duration (p=0,002, salivary buffer capacity (p=0.013, habitual consumption of sugary diet (p=0.005, child’s dental hygiene behavior (p=0.002, and mother’s education (p=0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that ECC can be explained by these variables: age, mother’s education, the way to deliver and frequency of breast milk complements/replacement of consumtions, child’s brushing habit, plaque pH, and salivary buffer capacity. Resulting determination coefficient 32.1%. There is no significant correlation between breastfeeding and the level of Early Childhood Caries (ECC. The role of protective qualities of breastfeeding are not shown because of bias in obtaining data influence the incidence of caries.

  20. Associations of hospital staff training and policies with early breastfeeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan-Ming; Li, Ruowei; Ashley, Cindy G; Smiley, Janice M; Cohen, Jennifer H; Dee, Deborah L

    2014-02-01

    In 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented the Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) survey in all US birth facilities to assess breastfeeding-related maternity practices. Maternity practices and hospital policies are known to influence breastfeeding, and Alabama breastfeeding rates are very low. Our objective was to assess whether staff training and structural-organizational aspects of care, such as policies, were associated with infants' breastfeeding behaviors 24 to 48 hours postpartum. We linked 2009 mPINC data from 48 Alabama hospitals with birth certificate and newborn screening databases. We used data collected 24 to 48 hours postpartum to classify 41 536 healthy, term, singleton infants as breastfed (any breast milk) or completely formula fed and examined associations with hospitals' mPINC scores in comparison with the state mean. We conducted multilevel analyses to assess infants' likelihood of being breastfed if their birth hospital scores were lower versus at least equal to the Alabama mean, accounting for hospital clustering, demographics, payment method, and prenatal care. The odds of breastfeeding were greater in hospitals with a higher-than-state-mean score on the following: new employees' breastfeeding education, nurses' receipt of breastfeeding education in the past year, prenatal breastfeeding classes offered, having a lactation coordinator, and having a written breastfeeding policy. The number of recommended elements included in hospitals' written breastfeeding policies was positively associated with newborn breastfeeding rates. Educating hospital staff to improve breastfeeding-related knowledge, attitudes, and skills; implementing a written hospital breastfeeding policy; and ensuring continuity of prenatal and postnatal breastfeeding education and support may improve newborn breastfeeding rates.

  1. Maternal Education Is Associated with Disparities in Breastfeeding at Time of Discharge but Not at Initiation of Enteral Feeding in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herich, Lena Carolin; Cuttini, Marina; Croci, Ileana; Franco, Francesco; Di Lallo, Domenico; Baronciani, Dante; Fares, Katia; Gargano, Giancarlo; Raponi, Massimiliano; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between maternal education and breastfeeding in very preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units. This prospective, population-based cohort study analyzed the data of all very preterm infants admitted to neonatal care during 1 year in 3 regions in Italy (Lazio, Emilia-Romagna, and Marche). The use of mothers' own milk was recorded at initial enteral feedings and at hospital discharge. We used multilevel logistic analysis to model the association between maternal education and breastfeeding outcomes, adjusting for maternal age and country of birth. Region was included as random effect. There were 1047 very preterm infants who received enteral feeding, and 975 were discharged alive. At discharge, the use of mother's own milk, exclusively or not, and feeding directly at the breast were significantly more likely for mothers with an upper secondary education or higher. We found no relationship between maternal education and type of milk at initial enteral feedings. However, the exclusive early use of the mother's own milk at initial feedings was related significantly with receiving any maternal milk and feeding directly at the breast at discharge from hospital, and the association with feeding at the breast was stronger for the least educated mothers. In this population-based cohort of very preterm infants, we found a significant and positive association between maternal education and the likelihood of receiving their mother's own milk at the time of discharge. In light of the proven benefits of maternal milk, strategies to support breastfeeding should be targeted to mothers with less education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. People's initiative to counteract misinformation and marketing practices: the Pembo, Philippines, breastfeeding experience, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salud, M A Lourdes B; Gallardo, Josephine I; Dineros, Juliana A; Gammad, Alma F; Basilio, Juanita; Borja, Vicenta; Iellamo, Alessandro; Worobec, Lana; Sobel, Howard; Olivé, Jean-Marc

    2009-08-01

    The Philippines is among 42 countries accounting for 90% of under 5-year-old deaths. Only 16% of 4 to 5 month old Filipinos exclusively breastfeed. In 2006, almost $100 million was spent advertising formula in the Philippines. To counter widespread misinformation and improve breastfeeding a peer counseling intervention was developed to target mothers with infants less than 2 months of age who were not exclusively breastfeeding or had difficulty breastfeeding. Participants received 3 peer counseling visits. At baseline and 3 weeks later, 24-hour food recalls for infants were collected. The number of exclusively formula-fed infants decreased seven-fold (P < .001). Mixed-fed infants decreased 37% (P < .001). Overall, of the 148 nonexclusively breastfeeding infants, 69.5% had changed feeding methods after 3 home visits, 76% of whom to exclusive breastfeeding. Community-based peer counseling was associated with a drastic improvement of exclusive breastfeeding practices. This intervention evolved and became sustainable by engaging political figures, cities, and communities throughout the process. In 2 years, the Department of Health, World Health Organization (WHO) program has scaled up to improve health service delivery for 161,612 persons in depressed urban communities in the Philippines.

  3. Associations Between Peer Counseling and Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration: An Analysis of Minnesota Participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Marcia Burton; Geppert, Joni; Dech, Linda; Richardson, Michaela

    2018-01-01

    Background Peer counseling (PC) has been associated with increased breastfeeding initiation and duration, but few analyses have examined the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) model for peer counseling or the continuation of breastfeeding from birth through 12 months postpartum. Objectives Identify associations between Minnesota WIC Peer Breastfeeding Support Program services and breastfeeding initiation and continuation. Methods Retrospective analysis of observational data from the Minnesota WIC program's administrative database of women who gave birth in 2012 and accepted a PC program referral prenatally (n = 2219). Multivariate logistic regression and Cox regression models examined associations between peer services and breastfeeding initiation and continuation of any breastfeeding. Results Among women who accepted referral into a PC program, odds of initiation were significantly higher among those who received peer services (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.66; 95% CI 1.19-2.32), after adjusting for confounders. Women who received peer services had a significantly lower hazard of breastfeeding discontinuation from birth through 12 months postpartum than women who did not receive services. (Hazard Ratio (HR) month one: 0.45; 95% CI 0.33-0.61; months two through twelve: 0.33; 95% CI 0.18-0.60). The effect of peer counseling did not differ significantly by race and ethnicity, taking into account mother's country of origin. Conclusion for practice Receipt of peer services was positively associated with breastfeeding initiation and continued breastfeeding from birth through 12 months postpartum. Making peer services available to more women, especially in communities with low initiation and duration, could improve maternal and child health in Minnesota.

  4. Breastfeeding practices in urban and rural Vietnam

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    Thu Huong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe and compare breastfeeding practices in rural and urban areas of Vietnam and to study associations with possibly influencing person and household factors. This type of study has not been conducted in Vietnam before. Methods Totally 2,690 children, born from 1st March 2008 to 30th June 2010 in one rural and one urban Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, were followed from birth to the age of 12 months. Information about demography, economy and education for persons and households was obtained from household surveys. Standard statistical methods including survival and regression analyses were used. Results Initiation of breastfeeding during the first hour of life was more frequent in the urban area compared to the rural (boys 40% vs. 35%, girls 49% vs. 40%. High birth weight and living in households with large number of assets significantly increased the probability for early initiation of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding at three months of age was more commonly reported in the rural than in the urban area (boys 58% vs. 46%, girls 65% vs. 53%. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding as well as of any breastfeeding was longer in the rural area than in the urban area (medians for boys 97 days vs. 81 days, for girls 102 days vs. 91 days. The percentages of children with exclusive breastfeeding lasting at least 6 months, as recommended by WHO, were low in both areas. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding was significantly shorter for mothers with three or more antenatal care visits or Caesarean section in both areas. High education level of mothers was associated with longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding in the rural area. No significant associations were found between duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother’s age, household economy indicators or household size. Conclusion Intervention programs with the aim to promote breastfeeding are needed. Mothers should

  5. Autogenic Training Relaxation Helping Postpartum Mothers to Achieve Successful Breastfeeding on Early Lactation Period

    OpenAIRE

    Juanita, Farida

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The numbers of breastfeeding failures are mostly caused by mothers` disbelief to themselves. One method that can be done to overcome these problems in accordance with the self-care nursing theory is the autogenic training relaxation. This method teaches mothers to be self-sufficient in building a positive intention and motivation to help the process of breastfeeding. This study aimed to examine the influence of autogenic training relaxation to the effectiveness of breastfeeding ...

  6. Intention to Breastfeed as a Predictor of Initiation of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Ana M; Rayens, Mary K; Gomez, Maria L; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Dignan, Mark B

    2015-08-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is the most efficacious form of infant feeding and nutrition. Hispanic mothers in the US are more likely than mothers of other racial/ethnic groups to supplement with formula in the first 2 days of life. The purpose of this study was to explore infant feeding intentions during the prenatal period as a predictor of EBF at postpartum discharge in a sample of Hispanic women (n = 99). At discharge, 51 % of the women were EBF, 44 % were breastfeeding and supplementing with formula, and 5 % were feeding only formula. Intention to breastfeed was found to be a strong and potentially modifiable predictor of breastfeeding behavior, showing a significant association with EBF upon discharge from the hospital after birth when linked with acceptance of pregnancy and method of delivery. Prenatal care offers a unique opportunity to enhance intentions to breastfeed that may lead to improved EBF in this health vulnerable population.

  7. Breastfeeding and employment: an assessment of employer attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbus, M Kay; Bullock, Linda F C

    2002-08-01

    Both research and anecdotal reports suggest that maternal employment is associated with failure to initiate breastfeeding and early breastfeeding attrition. The objective of this study was to describe the experience with and attitudes toward breastfeeding of a sample of employers in a small Midwestern city in the United States. Based on an analysis of 85 mail-out questionnaires, we found that less than half of the employers had personal experience with breastfeeding. A large percentage of the sample, however, indicated that they would be willing to facilitate women who wished to breastfeed or express milk in the workplace. However, these employers also stated that they saw little value to their business of supporting breastfeeding in the work environment. Thus, enhancement of breastfeeding opportunity in the work environment may come as a result of public and employer education but, more likely, will require some type of directive from official sources.

  8. Enabling women to achieve their breastfeeding goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuebe, Alison M

    2014-03-01

    In mammalian physiology, lactation follows pregnancy, and disruption of this physiology is associated with adverse health outcomes for mother and child. Although lactation is the physiologic norm, cultural norms for infant feeding have changed dramatically over the past century. Breastfeeding initiation fell from 70% in the early 1900s to 22% in 1972. In the past 40 years, rates have risen substantially, to 77% in 2010. Although more mothers are initiating breastfeeding, many report that they do not continue as long as they desire. As reproductive health care experts, obstetricians are uniquely positioned to assist women to make an informed feeding decision, offer anticipatory guidance, support normal lactation physiology, and evaluate and treat breastfeeding complications. Integration of care among the obstetrician, pediatric provider, and lactation consultant may enable more women to achieve their breastfeeding goals, thereby improving health outcomes across two generations.

  9. Factors associated with breastfeeding cessation in nursing mothers in a peer support programme in Eastern Lancashire

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    Verma Arpana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates worldwide and in recent years the Government has made breastfeeding promotion one of its priorities. The UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative is likely to increase breastfeeding initiation but not duration. Other strategies which involve provision of support for breastfeeding mothers in the early weeks after birth are therefore required to encourage UK mothers to breastfeed for the recommended duration. This paper examines the effects of maternal socio-demographic factors, maternal obstetric factors, and in-hospital infant feeding practices on breastfeeding cessation in a peer support setting. Methods Data on mothers from Blackburn with Darwen (BwD and Hyndburn in Eastern Lancashire who gave birth at the Royal Blackburn Hospital and initiated breastfeeding while in hospital were linked to the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD. The data were analysed to describe infant feeding methods up to 6 months and the association between breastfeeding cessation, and maternal factors and in-hospital infant feeding practices. Results The mean breastfeeding duration was 21.6 weeks (95% CI 20.86 to 22.37 weeks and the median duration was 27 weeks (95% CI 25.6 to 28.30 weeks. White mothers were 69% more likely to stop breastfeeding compared with non-White mothers (HR: 0.59; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.67 [White mothers were the reference group]. Breastfeeding cessation was also independently associated with parity and infant feeding practices in hospital. There were no significant associations between breastfeeding cessation and marital status, mode of delivery, timing of breastfeeding initiation and socio-economic deprivation. Conclusion In this study ethnicity, parity and in-hospital infant feeding practices remained independent predictors of breastfeeding cessation in this peer support setting. However other recognised predictors such as marital status, mode of delivery, timing of breastfeeding

  10. Social and institutional factors that affect breastfeeding duration among WIC participants in Los Angeles County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langellier, Brent A; Pia Chaparro, M; Whaley, Shannon E

    2012-12-01

    Hospital practices and early maternal return to work are associated with breastfeeding duration; however, research has not documented the long-term effects of many hospital policies or the effect of early return to work on breastfeeding outcomes of WIC participants. This study investigated the impact of in-hospital breastfeeding, receipt of a formula discharge pack, and maternal return to work on the long-term breastfeeding outcomes of 4,725 WIC participants in Los Angeles County, California. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess determinants of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months and breastfeeding at 6, 12, and 24 months. In-hospital initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding in the hospital, receipt of a formula discharge pack, and maternal return to work before 3 months were all significantly associated with breastfeeding outcomes after controlling for known confounders. Mothers who exclusively breastfed in the hospital were eight times as likely as mothers who did not breastfeed in the hospital to reach the AAP recommendation of breastfeeding for 12 months or longer (P breastfeeding for 6 months or more, and just one-third reported any breastfeeding at 12 months. Nine in ten respondents received a formula discharge pack in the hospital. Mothers who received a discharge pack were half as likely to exclusively breastfeed at 6 months as those who did not receive one (P < .01). Medical providers should educate, encourage, and support WIC mothers to breastfeed in the hospital and refrain from giving formula discharge packs.

  11. Breastfeeding Practices, Demographic Variables, and Their Association with Morbidities in Children

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    Dipen V. Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate feeding practices are the key contributor to reducing morbidities and mortalities in under-five children. A cross-sectional questionnaire based survey of mothers of children aged less than 5years was conducted in 781 mothers. More than half of mothers (57.5% started feeding within an hour of birth, 55.9% gave exclusive breastfeeding for six months, 89.1% of the mothers stopped breastfeeding before two years of age, 18.2% of the mothers bottle-fed the babies, and 15.6% had problems during breastfeeding in first 6 months. Early initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth promoted exclusive breastfeeding, and breastfeeding for longer duration. Exclusive breastfeeding increased frequency of feeds. Multivariable logistic regression showed that initiation of breastfeeding after an hour of birth (p = 0.035, not providing exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (p < 0.0001, unemployed mothers (p = 0.035, having two or more kids (p = 0.001, and complementary feeds given by person other than mother (p = 0.007 increased hospitalization. Starting breastfeeding after an hour of birth (p = 0.045, severe malnutrition (p = 0.018, and breastfeeding for < two years (p = 0.026 increased rates of diarrhea. Breastfeeding practices were not optimum and interventions to improve these practices need to be strengthened.

  12. Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Internal Audit Services conducted an Early Implementation Review of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative in 2006-07. This review is intended to provide assurance to senior management that program delivery has been established appropriately in order to meet its objectives and highlight any areas that require focused management…

  13. Health Facility Staff Training for Improving Breastfeeding Outcome: A Systematic Review for Step 2 of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Olukunmi O; Dagvadorj, Amarjargal; Yourkavitch, Jennifer; da Silva Lopes, Katharina; Suto, Maiko; Takemoto, Yo; Mori, Rintaro; Rayco-Solon, Pura; Ota, Erika

    2017-11-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) implemented through the "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding" has been widely promoted as an intervention that improves breastfeeding rates. Step 2 requires the training of all healthcare staff in skills that are necessary to implement the policy. This systematic review provides evidence about the effect of training healthcare staff in hospitals and birth centers on breastfeeding outcomes. Randomized controlled trials (RCT), quasi-RCT, and controlled before and after (CBA) studies comparing training of healthcare staff on breastfeeding and supportive feeding practices with no training were included in this review. We searched CENTRAL PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and the British Nursing Index for studies. Studies were screened against predetermined criteria, and risk of bias of included studies was assessed using the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Non-Randomized Studies for non-RCT studies and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions for RCT studies. Of the six studies included in this review, three were RCT whereas three were CBA studies. The studies were conducted in 5 countries and involved 390 healthcare staff. Provision of educational interventions aimed at increasing knowledge and practice of BFHI and support was found to improve health worker's knowledge, attitude, and compliance with the BFHI practices. In one study, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding increased at the intervention site but no differences were found for breastfeeding initiation rates. All included studies had methodological limitations, and study designs and methodologies lacked comparability.

  14. AUTOGENIC TRAINING RELAXATION HELPING POSTPARTUM MOTHERS TO ACHIEVE SUCCESSFUL BREASTFEEDING ON EARLY LACTATION PERIOD

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    Farida Juanita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The numbers of breastfeeding failures are mostly caused by mothers` disbelief to themselves. One method that can be done to overcome these problems in accordance with the self-care nursing theory is the autogenic training relaxation. This method teaches mothers to be self-sufficient in building a positive intention and motivation to help the process of breastfeeding. This study aimed to examine the influence of autogenic training relaxation to the effectiveness of breastfeeding and the enhancement of breast milk volume on maternal postpartum. Method: By using an experimental posttest only-non equivalent control group design, 26 samples were taken based on the criteria and divided into two groups by matching technuiqe. autogenic training was given through MP3 Player for 3 weeks. Post-test observation conducted on the third week by home visit. Via Christi Breastfeeding Assessment Tool Jan Riordan modifications used to assess the effectiveness of breastfeeding, and to measure the milk ejection volume, used weighing test using electronic baby scales. Data were analyzed using one-tailed independent t test with α ≤ 0.05. Result: The analysis showed that mothers who did autogenic training relaxation could breastfeed more effectively and had greater average volume of milk ejection than the control group (p = 0.000 and p = 0.001. Discussion: It can be concluded that autogenic relaxation training techniques affect the effectiveness of breastfeeding and breast milk volume. These results can be considered that autogenic training as an intervention in program of support for breastfeeding mothers.

  15. The impact of prenatal employment on breastfeeding intentions and breastfeeding status at 1 week postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Laura; Kozhimannil, Katy B; McGovern, Patricia; Gjerdingen, Dwenda; Johnson, Pamela Jo

    2013-11-01

    Postpartum employment is associated with non-initiation and early cessation of breastfeeding, but less is known about the relationship between prenatal employment and breastfeeding intentions and behaviors. This study aimed to estimate the relationship between prenatal employment status, a strong predictor of postpartum return to work, and breastfeeding intentions and behaviors. Using data from the Listening to Mothers II national survey (N = 1573), we used propensity score matching methods to account for non-random selection into employment patterns and to measure the impact of prenatal employment status on breastfeeding intentions and behaviors. We also examined whether hospital practices consistent with the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), assessed based on maternal perception, were differentially associated with breastfeeding by employment status. Women who were employed (vs unemployed) during pregnancy were older, were more educated, were less likely to have had a previous cesarean delivery, and had fewer children. After matching, these differences were eliminated. Although breastfeeding intention did not differ by employment, full-time employment (vs no employment) during pregnancy was associated with decreased odds of exclusive breastfeeding 1 week postpartum (adjusted odds ratio = 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.92; P = .028). Higher BFHI scores were associated with higher odds of breastfeeding at 1 week but did not differentially impact women by employment status. Women employed full-time during pregnancy were less likely to fulfill their intention to exclusively breastfeed, compared to women who were not employed during pregnancy. Clinicians should be aware that employment circumstances may impact women's breastfeeding decisions; this may help guide discussions during clinical encounters.

  16. Breastfeeding trends and updated national health objectives for exclusive breastfeeding--United States, birth years 2000-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-03

    Breastfeeding is associated with decreased risk for many early-life diseases and conditions, including otitis media, respiratory tract infections, atopic dermatitis, gastroenteritis, type 2 diabetes, sudden infant death syndrome, and obesity. Breastfeeding also is associated with health benefits to women, including decreased risk for type 2 diabetes, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer. Exclusive breastfeeding is defined as an infant receiving only breast milk and no other liquids or solids except for drops or syrups consisting of vitamins, minerals, or medicines. In 2007, Healthy People 2010 (HP2010) objectives for breastfeeding initiation and duration were updated to include two new objectives on exclusive breastfeeding (i.e., to increase the proportion of mothers who exclusively breastfeed their infants through age 3 months to 60% and through age 6 months to 25% [objectives 16-19d and 16-19e]). To monitor progress toward achieving HP2010 breastfeeding objectives, CDC analyzed data from the National Immunization Survey (NIS). This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that rates for breastfeeding initiation and duration increased among infants born during 2000-2004. Rates for exclusive breastfeeding through ages 3 months and 6 months among infants born in 2004 were 30.5% and 11.3%, respectively, below targets set by HP2010. Rates of exclusive breastfeeding were significantly lower among black infants (compared with white infants) and infants born to unmarried mothers (compared with married mothers). Additionally, older age, urban residence, higher education, and higher income of mothers all were positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding. Further research is needed to identify successful programs and policies to support exclusive breastfeeding, especially among subgroups with the lowest rates.

  17. From bioactive substances to research on breast-feeding promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, A L; Guerrero, M L

    2001-01-01

    Despite known health benefits, exclusive breast-feeding for at least 4 months is uncommon in many countries. In Mexico, most mothers initiate breast-feeding but few breast-feed exclusively. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of home visits by lay peer counselors to increase exclusive breast-feeding among mothers in a periurban area of Mexico. An ethnographic assessment conducted in 1994 that identified key maternal beliefs, practices, and needs was used to guide educational strategies. Lay counselors were recruited from the same community and trained by La Leche League. From March 1995 through September 1996, pregnant women were identified by community census and invited to participate. Women were enrolled into a randomized, controlled study of 3 groups: no intervention (control), 3 visits, and 6 visits during pregnancy and early postpartum. Data collection was performed by a social worker apart from the counselors. Exclusive breast-feeding was defined by WHO criteria. The study enrolled 130 women; 52 were in the 3-visit group, 44 in the 6-visit group, and 34 in the control group. Study groups did not differ in the maternal characteristics or initiation of breast-feeding (96%). At 3 months postpartum, exclusive breast-feeding was practiced by only 12% of controls vs. 52% in the 3-visit group and 67% in the 6-visit group (P exclusive breast-feeding and a significant reduction in infant illness in an urban community through well-designed maternal support including early intervention and repeated contact.

  18. Breastfeeding peer support: are there additional benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Deborah; Haining, Shona; Day, Ann

    2009-12-01

    Anecdotal discussion among breastfeeding peer supporters and the infant-feeding co-ordinator suggested that breastfeeding peer support provided by breastfeeding peer supporters may offer benefits to breastfeeding women and their families other than increasing breastfeeding initiation and sustainability. The aim of this research was to determine whether there was evidence to support this. The research team used focus groups to obtain information from 16 local women who had received breastfeeding peer support from breastfeeding peer supporters. The key themes that emerged were--improved mental health, increased self-esteem or confidence, parenting skills, improved family diet, breastfeeding sustainability and poor hospital experience.The findings suggest that breastfeeding peer supporters supporting mothers to breastfeed, with the intention of increasing both breastfeeding rates and sustainability, may have additional benefits in several aspects of families' lives. Breastfeeding peer support may play an important role in helping to attain targets such as reducing obesity and postnatal depression.

  19. Maternal breastfeeding, early introduction of non-breast milk, and excess weight in preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Gabriela Nascimento

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Investigate associations between excess weight in preschool children, breastfeeding duration and age of non-breast milk introduction. Methods: Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 817 preschool children, aged 2-4 years, attending municipal day care centers in the city of Taubaté. The weight and height of children were measured in the day care centers in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The body mass index z-score (BMIz was calculated and children were classified as risk of overweight (BMIz≥1 to<2 or excess weight (BMIz≥2. Data analysis was carried out by comparison of proportions, coefficient of correlation and multivariate linear regression. Results: The prevalence of risk of overweight was 18.9% and of excess weight (overweight or obesity was 9.3%. The median duration of breastfeeding and age of introduction of non-breast milk was 6 months. The child's BMIz showed direct correlation with birth weight (r=0.154; p<0.001 and maternal body mass index (BMI (r=0.113; p=0.002. The correlation was inverse with the total duration of breastfeeding (r=−0.099; p=0.006 and age at non-breast milk introduction (r=−0.112; p=0.002. There was no correlation between the child's BMIz with birth length, duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother's age. Conclusions: The earlier the introduction of non-breast milk, the higher the correlation with excess weight at preschool age.

  20. Pathogenesis and prevention of type 2 diabetes: parental determinants, breastfeeding, and early childhood nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Sarah; Freemark, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Among the factors predisposing to type 2 diabetes in children, adolescents, and young adults, the health and behavior of both the mother and father are critical. Prevention and treatment of parental nutritional disorders (including obesity and malnutrition), promotion of breastfeeding, and avoidance of overfeeding of young children are essential for childhood health and metabolic function. Focusing research and policy on parental influences on childhood health should reduce the risks of obesity and type 2 diabetes in future generations.

  1. Maternal breastfeeding, early introduction of non-breast milk, and excess weight in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Viviane Gabriela; da Silva, Janaína Paula Costa; Ferreira, Patrícia Calesco; Bertoli, Ciro João; Leone, Claudio

    2016-12-01

    Investigate associations between excess weight in preschool children, breastfeeding duration and age of non-breast milk introduction. Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 817 preschool children, aged 2 to 4 years, attending municipal day care centers in the city of Taubaté. The weight and height of children were measured in the day care centers in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The body mass index z-score (BMIz) was calculated and children were classified as risk of overweight (BMIz≥1 tolinear regression. The prevalence of risk of overweight was 18.9% and of excess weight (overweight or obesity) was 9.3%. The median duration of breastfeeding and age of introduction of non-breast milk was 6 months. The child's BMIz showed direct correlation with birth weight (r=0.154; pintroduction (r=-0.112; p=0.002). There was no correlation between the child's BMIz with birth length, duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother's age. The earlier the introduction of non-breast milk, the higher the correlation with excess weight at preschool age. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  2. Predictors of exclusive breast-feeding in early infancy: a survey report from Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yuri; Ali, Moazzam; Kakimoto, Kazuhiro; Saroeun, Ou; Kanal, Koum; Kuroiwa, Chushi

    2010-12-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) is recommended in the first 6 months of an infant's life. This study aims to investigate the present status of infant feeding practices and identify factors that affect EBF practices during the first 6 months following infant birth in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. A cross-sectional survey with a semistructured questionnaire was given to 312 mothers with children aged 6 to 24 months who visited the immunization clinic in the National Maternal and Child Health Centre in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, from December 2005 to February 2006. Eighty-three percent of mothers fed breast milk exclusively in the first month, whereas only 51.3% continued EBF in the first 6 months. Within 30 minutes after delivery, 39% of mothers began breast-feeding. Results from logistic regression analysis indicate that the lack of a maternal antenatal EBF plan (odds ratio [OR] = 10.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.68-27.24, p feeding classes (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.13-3.28, p feed their babies, keeping in mind the benefits it may yield. Paternal involvement in breast-feeding classes may increase their awareness and consequently complement EBF practices. Finally, development of conducive working environments and policies for working mothers should be carefully explored because it could have positive influence in better care and promotion of EBF. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Breastfeeding practices and policies in WHO European Region Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagci Bosi, Ayse Tulay; Eriksen, Kamilla Gehrt; Sobko, Tanja; Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; Breda, João

    2016-03-01

    To provide an update on current practices and policy development status concerning breastfeeding in the WHO European Region. National surveys and studies conducted by national health institutions were prioritized. Sub-national data were included where no national data or studies existed. Information on national breastfeeding policies was collected mainly from the WHO Seventh Meeting of Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative Coordinators and European Union projects. Owing to the different data sources and methods, any comparisons between countries must be made with caution. WHO European Member States. Data from fifty-three WHO European Member States were investigated; however, a large proportion had not reported any data. Rates of early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding and continued breastfeeding to 1 year all varied considerably within the WHO European Region. Exclusive breastfeeding rates declined considerably after 4 months, and were low in infants under 6 months and at 6 months of age. The majority of the countries with existing data reported having a national infant and young child feeding policy and the establishment of a national committee on breastfeeding or infant and young child feeding. The majority of the countries with existing data reported having baby-friendly hospitals, although the proportion of baby-friendly hospitals to the total number of national hospitals with maternity units was low in most countries. Breastfeeding practices within the WHO European Region, especially exclusive breastfeeding rates, are far from complying with the WHO recommendations. There are marked differences between countries in breastfeeding practices, infant and young child feeding policy adoption and proportion of baby-friendly hospitals.

  4. Maternal and Hospital Factors Associated with First-Time Mothers' Breastfeeding Practice: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tzu-I; Huang, Shu-Her; Lee, Shoou-Yih D

    2015-01-01

    Continuity of breastfeeding is infrequent and indeterminate. Evidence is lacking regarding factors associated with breastfeeding at different postpartum time points. This prospective study investigated the change in, and correlates of, breastfeeding practices after delivery at a hospital and at 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum among first-time mothers. We followed a cohort of 300 primiparous mothers of Taiwan who gave birth at two hospitals during 2010-2011. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine factors that were correlated with breastfeeding practices. In the study sample, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding during the hospital stay was 66%; it declined to 37.5% at 1 month and 30.2% at 3 months postpartum. Only 17.1% of women reported continuing breastfeeding at 6 months. Early initiation of breastfeeding, rooming-in practice, and self-efficacy were significantly related to exclusive breastfeeding during the hospital stay. After discharge, health literacy, knowledge, intention, and self-efficacy were positively and significantly associated with breastfeeding exclusivity. Later initiation (hazard ratio=1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.05, 1.97), shorter intention (hazard ratio=1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.13, 1.68), and self-efficacy (hazard ratio=0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.96, 0.99) were important predictors of breastfeeding cessation within 6 months of delivery. Continuous breastfeeding practice for 6 months is challenging and difficult for new mothers. Results showed that factors related to breastfeeding varied over time after delivery. Interventions seeking to sustain breastfeeding should consider new mothers' needs and barriers at different times.

  5. Impact of a Baby-Friendly hospital on breastfeeding indicators in Shaqlawa district in Erbil governorate, Kurdistan region of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, N Z; Hasan, S S; Ismail, Z A

    2016-03-15

    This study aimed to assess the impact of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative on WHO-defined breastfeeding indicators in Shaqlawa district in Kurdistan region of Iraq. A household survey was carried out on a purposive non-probability sample of 200 mothers with a child aged < 30 months. Mothers were interviewed using a structured form to determine demographic data and feeding practices of the most recent child. The rate of early initiation of breastfeeding was 38.1%, exclusive breastfeeding was 15.4% and continued breastfeeding was 61.0% and 39.5% at 1 and 2 years of age respectively. A significant relationship was found between delivery at the Baby- Friendly accredited hospital and early initiation of breastfeeding but not with exclusive or continued breastfeeding. While continued breastfeeding at 1 year and 2 year was good, early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding indicators were not at an acceptable level, which indicates an ineffective role for the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative.

  6. Risk factors for exclusive breastfeeding lasting less than two months-Identifying women in need of targeted breastfeeding support.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Cato

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding rates in Sweden are declining, and it is important to identify women at risk for early cessation of exclusive breastfeeding.The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding lasting less than two months postpartum.A population-based longitudinal study was conducted at Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. Six hundred and seventy-nine women were included in this sub-study. Questionnaires were sent at five days, six weeks and six months postpartum, including questions on breastfeeding initiation and duration as well as several other background variables. The main outcome measure was exclusive breastfeeding lasting less than two months postpartum. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used in order to calculate adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI.Seventy-seven percent of the women reported exclusive breastfeeding at two months postpartum. The following variables in the multivariate regression analysis were independently associated with exclusive breastfeeding lasting less than two months postpartum: being a first time mother (AOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.32-3.49, reporting emotional distress during pregnancy (AOR 2.21, 95% CI 1.35-3.62 and giving birth by cesarean section (AOR 2.63, 95% CI 1.34-5.17.Factors associated with shorter exclusive breastfeeding duration were determined. Identification of women experiencing emotional distress during pregnancy, as well as scrutiny of caregiving routines on cesarean section need to be addressed, in order to give individual targeted breastfeeding support and promote longer breastfeeding duration.

  7. Enhancing Breastfeeding Rates Among African American Women: A Systematic Review of Current Psychosocial Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Angela; Kirk, Rosalind; Rosenblum, Katherine Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The goals of this article are to provide a review of key interventions and strategies that impact initiation and duration of breastfeeding with particular focus on low-income African American mothers' maternal psychological vulnerabilities during the early postpartum period using a social ecological perspective as a guiding framework. Although modest gains have been achieved in breastfeeding initiation rates in the United States, a projected gap remains between infant feeding practices and national Healthy People breastfeeding goals set for 2020, particularly among African Americans. These disparities raise concerns that socially disadvantaged mothers and babies may be at increased risk for poor postnatal outcomes because of poorer mental health and increased vulnerability to chronic health conditions. Breastfeeding can be a protective factor, strengthening the relationship between mother and baby and increasing infant health and resilience. Evidence suggests that no single intervention can sufficiently address the multiple breastfeeding barriers faced by mothers. Effective intervention strategies require a multilevel approach. A social ecological perspective highlights that individual knowledge, behavior, and attitudes are shaped by interactions between the individual woman, her friends and family, and her wider historical, social, political, economic, institutional, and community contexts, and therefore effective breastfeeding interventions must reflect all these aspects. Current breastfeeding interventions are disjointed and inadequately meet all African American women's social and psychological breastfeeding needs. Poor outcomes indicate a need for an integrative approach to address the complexity of interrelated breastfeeding barriers mothers' experience across layers of the social ecological system. PMID:25423601

  8. Breastfeeding and weaning practices among Hong Kong mothers: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Marie; Fong, Daniel Y T; Wu, Kendra M; Lee, Irene L Y; Wong, Emmy M Y; Sham, Alice; Lam, Christine; Dodgson, Joan E

    2010-05-29

    Breastfeeding provides optimal and complete nutrition for newborn babies. Although new mothers in Hong Kong are increasingly choosing to breastfeed their babies, rates of exclusive breastfeeding are low and duration remains short. The purpose of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and weaning practices of Hong Kong mothers over the infant's first year of life to determine the factors associated with early cessation. A cohort of 1417 mother-infant pairs was recruited from the obstetric units of four public hospitals in Hong Kong in the immediate post-partum period and followed prospectively for 12 months or until weaned. We used descriptive statistics to describe breastfeeding and weaning practices and multiple logistic regression to investigate the relationship between maternal characteristics and breastfeeding cessation. At 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months only 63%, 37.3%, 26.9%, and 12.5% of the infants respectively, were still receiving any breast milk; approximately one-half of breastfeeding mothers were exclusively breastfeeding. Younger mothers, those with a longer duration of residence in Hong Kong, and those returning to work postpartum were more likely to wean before 1 month. Mothers with higher education, previous breastfeeding experience, who were breastfed themselves and those who were planning to exclusively breastfeed and whose husbands preferred breastfeeding were more likely to continue breastfeeding beyond 1 month. The introduction of infant formula before 1 month and returning to work postpartum were predictive of weaning before 3 months. Breastfeeding promotion programs have been successful in achieving high rates of breastfeeding initiation but the focus must now shift to helping new mothers exclusively breastfeed and sustain breastfeeding for longer.

  9. Clinician support and psychosocial risk factors associated with breastfeeding discontinuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie M; Capra, Angela M; Braveman, Paula A; Jensvold, Nancy G; Escobar, Gabriel J; Lieu, Tracy A

    2003-07-01

    Breastfeeding rates fall short of goals set in Healthy People 2010 and other national recommendations. The current, national breastfeeding continuation rate of 29% at 6 months lags behind the Healthy People 2010 goal of 50%. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between breastfeeding discontinuation at 2 and 12 weeks postpartum and clinician support, maternal physical and mental health status, workplace issues, and other factors amenable to intervention. A prospective cohort study was conducted of low-risk mothers and infants who were in a health maintenance organization and enrolled in a randomized, controlled trial of home visits. Mothers were interviewed in person at 1 to 2 days postpartum and by telephone at 2 and 12 weeks. Logistic regression modeling was performed to assess the independent effects of the predictors of interest, adjusting for sociodemographic and other confounding variables. Of the 1163 mother-newborn pairs in the cohort, 1007 (87%) initiated breastfeeding, 872 (75%) were breastfeeding at the 2-week interview, and 646 (55%) were breastfeeding at the 12-week interview. In the final multivariate models, breastfeeding discontinuation at 2 weeks was associated with lack of confidence in ability to breastfeed at the 1- to 2-day interview (odds ratio [OR]: 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-7.6), early breastfeeding problems (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-1.97), Asian race/ethnicity (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.1-5.7), and lower maternal education (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.2-1.9). Mothers were much less likely to discontinue breastfeeding at 12 weeks postpartum if they reported (during the 12-week interview) having received encouragement from their clinician to breastfeed (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.8). Breastfeeding discontinuation at 12 weeks was also associated with demographic factors and maternal depressive symptoms (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01-1.37) and returning to work or school by 12 weeks postpartum (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.8-3.3). Our results indicate

  10. Breastfeeding assessment tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizouerne, Cécile; Kerac, Marko; Macgrath, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Breastfeeding plays a major role in reducing the global burden of child mortality and under-nutrition. Whilst many programmes aim to support breastfeeding and prevent feeding problems occurring, interventions are also needed once they have developed. In this situation, accurate assessment of a problem is critical to inform prognosis and enables tailored, appropriate treatment. The presentation will present a review, which aims to identify breastfeeding assessment tools/checklists for use in assessing malnourished infants in poor resource settings. The literature review identified 24 breastfeeding assessment tools, and 41 validation studies. Evidence underpinning most of the tools was mainly low quality, and conducted in high-income countries and hospital settings. The presentation will describe the main findings of the literature review and propose recommendations for improving existing tools in order to appropriately assess malnourished infants and enable early, appropriate intervention and treatment of malnutrition. (author)

  11. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing breastfeeding myths Overcoming challenges Finding support Fitting breastfeeding into your life Partner resources Subscribe To receive Breastfeeding email updates ...

  12. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing breastfeeding myths Overcoming challenges Finding support Fitting breastfeeding into your life Partner resources Subscribe To receive Breastfeeding email updates ...

  13. Integrating health care practices with the promotion of breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Davanzo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although breastfeeding is the normative standards for infant nutrition, exclusive breastfeeding rates at hospital discharge in the general population of newborns are still suboptimal. Besides many other psychological, social, economical, cultural factors, breastfeeding success is also significantly influenced by maternity practices that have the potential to foster or otherwise to hinder breastfeeding physiology during postpartum hospital stay. On their part, health professionals need to improve their knowledge on lactation, to acquire better skills to manage breastfeeding problems and to commit themselves to prepare evidence based clinical protocols that support breastfeeding and the use of human milk. At the Institute for Maternal and Child Health in Trieste (Italy, we have developed two surveillance protocols related to situations that commonly challenge health professionals to give their qualified advice to the breastfeeding dyad. Particularly, we have documented the feasibility of a protocol on the management of skin to skin contact between mother and his/her newborn infant. This protocol is applied in the delivery room in the context of the prevention of sudden unexpected postnatal collapse. The second protocol refers to the management of early neonatal weight loss. Finally, we believe that combining an effective promotion of breastfeeding with good clinical practice is appropriated and safe and we recognize that both the competence and the attitude of staff have an essential role in the success of the initiation of breastfeeding. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  14. Conduct of breastfeeding among young Tunisian Mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniaoui, Rim; Zediri, Manel; Mankai, Amani; Aouidet, Abdallah; Hamoudia, Faouzia

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Breastfeeding is a natural phenomenon that reflects reality and occupies an important space in the life of all human beings. It is the reference for infant feeding since it is the food better tailored to his needs as its capabilities. The decision to make this practice is the responsibility of each parent. However, it is found that although mothers in particular young age properly begin the practice of breastfeeding, they end, for various reasons by early introduction of other foods or even stop breastfeeding few weeks after the delivery. Objectives: We aim from this study to examine the behavior of young mothers in breastfeeding, determine the impact of attitudes of mothers on the nutritional status of infants and encourage policymakers health to establish a line of action to initiate future and young mothers to breastfeed. Methods: This is a prospective study of 50 young mothers coming to consult or to vaccinate their children aged 2 to 23 months at the center of maternal and child of El Zouhour. Results: The analysis of our results showed that 76% of surveyed mothers have a high level of education, half primiparous and 64% are housewives. Concerning the practice of breastfeeding, we found that 42% of surveyed mothers have weaned their children and only 26% of them believe breastfeeding or breast-feed their infants exclusively for the first six months. Moreover, we noted That among children suffering from obesity 2nd degree be 16% of the total population , 87.5% of them were not (or are not) exclusively breastfed for the first six month of life. However, this relationship is not statistically significant. Conclusion: The evolution of knowledge of young mothers has not influenced their practices in breastfeeding. This requires the establishment of a line of action to promote breastfeeding based on the evaluation of implemented national programs in recent years, the update of their content and the improvement of training of personnel of

  15. Interactive Effects of Early Exclusive Breastfeeding and Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Weight Status on Young Children's BMI - A Chinese Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Mei

    Full Text Available To assess if the maternal pre-pregnancy weight status (MPWS alters the association of early infant feeding pattern (at one and third months with infant body mass index (BMI in the first two years of life.A cohort of 2,220 neonates were recruited in a community-based study conducted in China. Body weight and length were measured at birth, at age one and two, with BMI calculated accordingly. The BMI z-scores (BMI-Z were computed according to the World Health Organization Growth Standard (2006. Feeding patterns were classified as exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, mixed feeding (MF, and formula feeding (FF. General linear models (GLM were employed to estimate main and interaction effects of EBF and MPWS on children's BMI-Z.No main effect of MPWS was found on child BMI-Z at ages one and two, nor the feeding patterns. An interaction between MPWS and feeding patterns was detected (p<0.05. For children who were formula fed during the first month, those who were born to overweight/obesity (OW/OB mothers had a significantly greater BMI-Z at ages one and two, compared with those with underweight/normal weight (UW/NW mothers. FF children had greater BMI-Z at ages one and two compared with their EBF and MF counterparts, when they were born to OW/OB mothers.Maternal pre-pregnancy weight control and early initiation of EBF for children are essential for healthy development in children's BMI, hence the prevention of early life obesity.

  16. Advertising and marketing of foods for breastfeeding babies and infants in early childhood: regulation as a responsibility of the Brazilian state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Filla Rosaneli

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study mapped regulatory strategies aimed at the advertising and marketing of foods for breastfeeding babies and infants in early childhood. The discussion was conducted under an intervention bioethics lens, adopting a qualitative methodology, as well as gaining an overview and analyzing Brazilian legislative documents on the matter. The legal framework is recent and broad; considering the low rates of breastfeeding, and indicators related to the early and inadequate introduction of complementary food, it is clear that there is the need for educative and regulatory measures over food production, marketing and advertising in Brazil. This logic is corroborated by the intervention bioethics framework, aimed at reducing the vulnerabilities and improving childhood protection.

  17. Evidence based workplace interventions to promote breastfeeding practices among Pakistani working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali; Karmaliani, Rozina

    2013-03-01

    Breastfeeding is an essential source of nutrition for young babies; however, it is challenging for employed mothers to continue breastfeeding with employment, especially if workplace support is minimal or missing. In Pakistan, from 1983 to 2008, the prevalence of breastfeeding at 6 months has decreased from 96% to 31%. In this region, workplace barriers have been reported as one of the reasons that result in early cessation of breastfeeding among working mothers. This paper aims at reviewing global literature to explore workplace interventions that can promote the breastfeeding practices among working mothers in Pakistan. A literature search of peer reviewed databases, including CINHAL (1980-2009), MEDLINE (1980-2009), Pub Med (1980-2009), Springer Link (1980-2008), and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3rd quarter, 2008), was undertaken. Considering the pre-set inclusion and exclusion criteria, out of more than 500 literature sources, 50 were shortlisted and reviewed. A review of global literature revealed that in order to promote breastfeeding practices among employed mothers, the most powerful workplace interventions include: educating working mothers about management of breastfeeding with employment; enhancing employers' awareness about benefits of breastfeeding accommodation at workplace; arranging physical facilities for lactating mothers (including privacy, childcare facilities, breast pumps, and breast milk storage facilities); providing job-flexibility to working mothers; and initiating mother friendly policies at workplace that support breastfeeding. In Pakistani workplace settings, where little attention is paid to sustain breastfeeding practices among working mothers, there is a need to initiate lactation support programmes. These programmes can be made effective by implementing composite interventions at the level of breastfeeding working mothers, employers, and workplace. Copyright © 2012 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier

  18. A decade of change in breastfeeding in China's far north-west

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    Xiao Cuiqin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been considerable changes in breastfeeding practices in China over the past forty years. However China is a very large country, and breastfeeding rates in different parts of China vary considerably. The objective of this paper is to identify and compare breastfeeding types and rates between 1994–1996 and 2003–2004 in Shihezi, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, PR China. Methods In 1994–1996, a study of breastfeeding (n = 2197 was undertaken in Shihezi, Xinjiang, PR China. A decade later in 2003–2004, a longitudinal study (n = 545 of infant feeding practices was undertaken in the same area. Results The 'any breastfeeding' rates at 1, 4 and 6 months were 94%, 82% and 78% respectively in the early 1990s. A decade later, breastfeeding at 1 month was lower, but rates at 4 and 6 months remained the same. In 2004 the 'full breastfeeding' rate at one month was significantly higher (57% than a decade earlier (38%, but after 3 months there was a rapid decline. This reflected a shift in the way complementary foods are introduced: the initial introduction was later, but by a higher proportion of mothers. Conclusion The rate of breastfeeding at one month is significantly lower in 2003–2004 when compared to 1994–1996. The 'full breastfeeding' rates were initially higher, but after 3 months were then lower. The Chinese national breastfeeding targets were not reached in either period of the study. These studies show the need to further promote full or exclusive breastfeeding and further longitudinal studies are necessary to provide the detailed knowledge about risk factors required for health promotion programs.

  19. [Breastfeeding: the importance of intervening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Hélder; Silva, Ana Isabel

    2011-12-01

    Breast milk is considered by the WHO the ideal food for the first months of life. Although health professionals are aware of recommendations, high rates of drop-outs have been identified in Portugal. A false notion of hypogalactia is the major factor for early termination, which is allied to the technical difficulties of the feeding. Health professionals, often lacking training in the area, may have difficulty in reassuring mothers in these situations. In Portugal, at the 3rd month, most mothers stop breastfeeding by indication of their medical assistant. Gather evidence about the advantages of breast-feeding compared to artificial milk, and establish useful strategies in clinical practice to avoid early withdrawal. A survey was conducted for articles from the last six years in the major sites of evidence-based medicine and reference sites (Pubmed, Cochrane, National Guideline Clearinghouse, Tripdatabase, WHO). Breast-feeding is clearly associated with benefits to the infant, including significant protective effects for gastrointestinal infections (64%), middle ear (23- 50%), severe respiratory infections (73%) and for acute lymphocytic leukemia (19%) and sudden death syndrome in infants (36%). We also found long-term benefits, such as for obesity (7-24%) and other cardiovascular risk factors in adulthood. The mother also benefits from its protective effect for cancers of the breast and ovary, and diabetes mellitus type 2 as also, proportionate to the duration of breastfeeding. Health professionals have an important role in the initiation and continuation of breastfeeding. The notion of its advantages, the communication prior to delivery, accessibility support and training in technical aspects of correct picks are the proven strategies for evidence explored in the article. Breast milk contains several unique and exclusive elements, orchestrators of its health benefits. Postnatal period is critical to the development of neuro--hypothalamic circuits involved in

  20. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... information Breastfeeding Pregnancy Resources Your Guide to Breastfeeding Support for Nursing Moms in the Workplace: Employer Solutions Blog topics Breastfeeding: Natural Doesn’t ...

  1. A literature review of the relationship between breastfeeding and early childhood caries

    OpenAIRE

    Narjes Amiri TehraniZadeh; Nahid Asgarizadeh; Vajihe Kamel

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Improper feeding is one of the most important etiologic factors in early childhood caries (ECC). In some clinical trials, breast feeding (BF) is mentioned as a causing factor in ECC. Results in this topic are different or even controversial. It is vital that all general advices given out are consistent with general health education messages. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the relationship between breast feeding and early childhood caries. Mate...

  2. The role of early life growth development, the FTO gene and exclusive breastfeeding on child BMI trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan Yan; Lye, Stephen; Briollais, Laurent

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies have implicated the FTO gene in child and adult obesity. A longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EXBF) has been shown to reduce body mass index (BMI) and the risk of being overweight in the general population and among FTO gene carriers. However, it remains unclear whether the preventive effect of EXBF could be explained by its impact on early life growth development, e.g. ages at adiposity peak (AP) and adiposity rebound (AR) and BMI velocities in the first years of life, which are major determinants of overweight and obesity later in life. We studied 5590 children from the British Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort and modelled their longitudinal BMI profiles with mixed effects models from birth to 16 years of age, as well as their ages at AP, AR and BMI velocities in relation to the FTO gene variant and EXBF. A longer duration of EXBF (i.e. at least 5 months) has substantial impact on BMI growth trajectories among children carrying the FTO adverse variant by modulating the age at AP, age at AR and BMI velocities. EXBF acts antagonistically to the FTO rs9939609 risk allele and by the age of 15, the predicted reduction in BMI after 5 months of EXBF is 0.56 kg/m2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11-1.01; P = 0.003] and 1.14 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.67-1.62; P < 0.0001) in boys and girls, respectively. EXBF influences early life growth development and thus plays a critical role in preventing the risks of overweight and obesity even when those are exacerbated by genetic factors. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  3. The Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative and Qatar, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad A. Chehab, MBBCh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding instills countless benefits that extend beyond the infant and child to the entire nation. One of the global targets set by the WHO to improve maternal, infant, and young child nutrition is to increase the rate of exclusive breast-feeding “in the first 6 months” up to at least 50% by 2025.3 Thus, as a global endeavor to promote and sustain breastfeeding, the WHO and UNICEF launched the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI 1 year after the Innocenti Declaration of 1990. Regarding the State of Qatar, there was a 34% rate of early initiation of breastfeeding “within the first hour of birth” and a 29% rate of exclusive breastfeeding between 2010 and 2015. In Qatar during 2016, many obstacles in achieving the aforementioned global target remained. In addition, there are still no hospitals with a BFHI accreditation. Keywords: Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative, Breastfeeding, Maternal health, Qatar

  4. Newborn ankyloglossia and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Felc

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tongue-tie (ankyloglossia is a relatively common finding in the newborn population and represents a significant proportion of breastfeeding problems. Ankyloglossia may result in difficulty with suckling and can lead to poor weight gain, sore nipples, low milk supply, maternal fatigue and frustration.Conclusions: By recognizing ankyloglossia early, the health care team is able to treat breastfeeding problems promptly and proactively. The pediatrician, oral-maxillofacial surgeon, and parents should work together as a team from the time of birth to determine a coordinated plan of treatment. Careful assessment of lingual function is important in selecting the correct treatment. Frenulotomy is indicated in newborns with a short and/or thick frenulum and limited lingual mobility. In newborn infants with ankyloglossia this minimal surgical procedure is an effective therapy for breastfeeding difficulties.

  5. A qualitative study of the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding by health professionals in Niamey, Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Abba Aïssata

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of exclusive breastfeeding depends on various factors related to both mothers and their environment, including the services delivered by health professionals. It is known that support and counseling by health professionals can improve rates, early initiation and total duration of breastfeeding, particularly exclusive breastfeeding. Mothers' decisions are influenced by health professionals' advice. However, in Niger the practice of exclusive breastfeeding is almost non-existent. The purpose of this exploratory study, of which some results are presented here, was to document health professionals' attitudes and practices with regard to exclusive breastfeeding promotion in hospital settings in the urban community of Niamey, Niger. Methods Fieldwork was conducted in Niamey, Niger. A qualitative approach was employed. Health professionals' practices were observed in a sample of frontline public healthcare facilities. Results The field observation results presented here indicate that exclusive breastfeeding is not promoted in healthcare facilities because the health professionals do not encourage it and their practices are inappropriate. Some still have limited knowledge or are misinformed about this practice or do not believe in it. They do not systematically discuss exclusive breastfeeding with mothers, or they mention it only briefly and without giving any explanation. Worse still, some encourage the use of breast milk substitutes, which are frequently promoted in healthcare facilities. Thus mothers often receive contradictory messages. Conclusion The results suggest the need to train or retrain health professionals with regard to exclusive breastfeeding, and regularly supervise their activities.

  6. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... you Addressing breastfeeding myths Breastfeeding myths in the African-American community Incredible facts about babies, breastmilk, and ... to get your family on board with breastfeeding African-American celebrity moms who breastfeed Fitting breastfeeding into ...

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding ... and Shareables Browse by health topic Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer ... Pregnancy Reproductive Health Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

  8. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... menu It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing breastfeeding ... in the African-American community Incredible facts about babies, breastmilk, and breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about ...

  9. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... we are What we do Programs and activities Work with us Contact Us Blog Popular topics Vision ... Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing breastfeeding myths Breastfeeding myths in ...

  10. Mothers' Concerns for Personal Safety and Privacy While Breastfeeding: An Unexplored Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen-Carole, Casey; Allen, Katherine; Fagnano, Maria; Dozier, Ann; Halterman, Jill

    2018-04-01

    Preliminary qualitative research in upstate NY shows new mothers are worried about safety while breastfeeding. Little is known regarding prevalence of these concerns and their effect on breastfeeding outcomes. (1) Determine frequency of breastfeeding safety and privacy concerns; (2) Explore their association with breastfeeding outcomes. Mothers were surveyed immediately and 1-month postpartum about breastfeeding goals; both surveys addressed privacy and safety concerns at home, work, and in public. Outcome data included breastfeeding intent, exclusivity, and duration. Breastfeeding/non-breastfeeding mothers were compared using Chi-square and multivariate analyses. A total of 279 women enrolled. Of these 82.8% initiated breastfeeding; at 1-month 72% provided any breast milk, and 44% were exclusively breastfeeding. About 99% felt safe breastfeeding at home; 25% reported privacy concerns; and 5% felt "vulnerable or unsafe" while breastfeeding. At 1-month, 49% agreed there was a safe place to breastfeed/express milk at work (20% unsure). Non-breastfeeding mothers expressed more safety concerns outside home/at work: 18% breastfeeding versus 28% non-breastfeeding outside home; 27% breastfeeding versus 40% non-breastfeeding at work. Nearly 54% who reported feeling vulnerable/unsafe with breastfeeding initiated breastfeeding, compared with 86% not reporting this concern (p = 0.008). Fewer women initiating breastfeeding reported vulnerability/safety (3% breastfeeding versus 14% non-breastfeeding, p = 0.008) or privacy (22% breastfeeding versus 40% non-breastfeeding, p = 0.19) concerns. Associations held after controlling for age, race, parity, insurance, geography, and marital-status. Significant associations between initiation, privacy, and safety concerns did not extend to duration or exclusivity. Many breastfeeding women reported safety and privacy concerns, especially outside the home and at work, which may influence breastfeeding initiation. Further study

  11. A literature review of the relationship between breastfeeding and early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes Amiri TehraniZadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Improper feeding is one of the most important etiologic factors in early childhood caries (ECC. In some clinical trials, breast feeding (BF is mentioned as a causing factor in ECC. Results in this topic are different or even controversial. It is vital that all general advices given out are consistent with general health education messages. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the relationship between breast feeding and early childhood caries. Materials and Methods: Articles, guidelines, related books, and specific databases such as SID, PubMed, Scirus, Elsevier, American Association of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD, American Association of Pediatrics (AAP and American Dental Association (ADA were searched for related topics cited since 1990. Early childhood caries definition, breast feeding and other variables such as sample size, study location and study design were analyzed.Results: According to data analysis, there was a lack of methodological consistency and inconsistent definitions of ECC and BF in the literature making it difficult to draw conclusions. Results about relationship between prolonged BF and ECC were inconclusive. There was a positive relationship between nocturnal BF and ECC. A history of BF did not have any effect on the caries incidence.Conclusion: Because of the role of breast feeding in children's health, it is important to inform the parents about the possibility of dental caries due to nocturnal breast feeding.

  12. It takes a mother to practise breastfeeding : Women's perceptions of breastfeeding during the period of intention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhoff, Alberta; Hutter, Inge; Haisma, Hinke

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, 81% of mothers initiate breastfeeding. After one month the percentage of mothers still breastfeeding drops, despite positive intentions. Little is known about women's perceptions of breastfeeding during the period of intention. Aim: This qualitative study aimed to

  13. Trends in breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in Pakistan, 1990-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif Hafsa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices have profound implications for the maternal and child health status of a society. Feeding practices in Pakistan are suboptimal, leading to adverse outcomes on child health. In Pakistan, the Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health (MNCH Program, in collaboration with several international organizations, including WHO and UNICEF, is working to improve these feeding practices in the country. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. Methods Estimates on the various indicators for infant and young child feeding proposed by WHO were analyzed in light of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (1990-91 and 2006-07 and several other national studies conducted since 1995. Results Nearly half the core and optional indicators have improved over the years, though modestly; the others have demonstrated no statistically significant improvement over the years. Of the five indicators required in the WHO tool for the assessment of infant and young child feeding, introduction of complementary foods, bottle-feeding, and early initiation of breastfeeding, stand in the poor category, while exclusive breastfeeding and duration of breastfeeding fall in the fair category, suggesting an overall poor status. Conclusions There is considerable scope to improve breastfeeding and complementary feeding in Pakistan. Further programs should focus on improving the following indicators that have shown no significant development: early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding under six months, continued breastfeeding at two years, age appropriate feeding, and bottle feeding. Effective implementation of interventions that are known to improve breastfeeding practices is imperative, as is further research to yield data that can lead future endeavors.

  14. A Month of Breastfeeding Associated with Greater Adherence to Pediatric Nutrition Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalessi, Ali; Reich, Stephanie M

    2013-07-01

    Research has shown that both breastfeeding and delaying the introduction of solids or liquids other than breast milk protect against obesity later in early childhood. To compare whether breastfeeding mothers adhere to more of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) feeding recommendations for infants. This longitudinal study compared the breastfeeding knowledge, intentions, and practices as well as complementary feeding choices of 163 ethnically diverse, primiparous women over the first 18 months of motherhood. Although almost all women knew about the health benefits of (98%) breastfeeding and intended to (98%) breastfeed, only 85% initiated and 51% continued beyond 4 weeks. Breastfeeding for longer durations was associated with better feeding choices. Mothers who breastfed for more weeks were more likely to adhere to AAP guidelines on liquids other than breast milk at 4, 6, and 12 months, and introduce solids, liquids other than breast milk, and other complimentary foods at later ages. Furthermore, mothers who breastfed for less than 1 month were more likely to introduce solids by 2 months in comparison to mothers who breastfed for 1 month or more (OR=3.22). Knowledge and intentions do not explain breastfeeding initiation or continuation. However, when women committed to more weeks of breastfeeding, especially more than 4 weeks, they made better nutrition choices for their infants.

  15. Relationship between breastfeeding practices and nutritional status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compliant with the recommended breastfeeding practices. Complementary feeding was introduced too early in life in several cases. Health care workers should emphasise the importance of exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and the dangers of early complementary feeding. Key words: Exclusive Breast feeding, ...

  16. Breastfeeding is Best (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Proper nutrition is critical for the early growth and development of a newborn. The best way to feed a baby is breastfeeding. In this podcast, Dr. Erica Anstey discusses the benefits of breastfeeding.

  17. Fathers' experiences of supporting breastfeeding: challenges for breastfeeding promotion and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy; Davies, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Increasing breastfeeding rates is a strategic priority in the UK and understanding the factors that promote and encourage breastfeeding is critical to achieving this. It is established that women who have strong social support from their partner are more likely to initiate and continue breastfeeding. However, little research has explored the fathers' role in breastfeeding support and more importantly, the information and guidance he may need. In the current study, 117 men whose partner had given birth in the previous 2 years and initiated breastfeeding at birth completed an open-ended questionnaire exploring their experiences of breastfeeding, the information and support they received and their ideas for future breastfeeding education and promotion aimed at fathers and families. Overall, the findings showed that fathers were encouraging of breastfeeding and wanted to be able to support their partner. However, they often felt left out of the breastfeeding relationships and helpless to support their partner at this time. Many reported being excluded from antenatal breastfeeding education or being considered unimportant in post-natal support. Men wanted more information about breastfeeding to be directed towards them alongside ideas about how they could practically support their partner. The importance of support mechanisms for themselves during this time was also raised. The results highlight the need for health professionals to direct support and information towards fathers as well as the mother–infant dyad and to recognise their importance in promoting and enabling breastfeeding. PMID:24720518

  18. Ten steps or climbing a mountain: a study of Australian health professionals' perceptions of implementing the baby friendly health initiative to protect, promote and support breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Virginia; Gribble, Karleen; Sheehan, Athena; Taylor, Christine; Dykes, Fiona C

    2011-08-31

    The Baby Friendly Hospital (Health) Initiative (BFHI) is a global initiative aimed at protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding and is based on the ten steps to successful breastfeeding. Worldwide, over 20,000 health facilities have attained BFHI accreditation but only 77 Australian hospitals (approximately 23%) have received accreditation. Few studies have investigated the factors that facilitate or hinder implementation of BFHI but it is acknowledged this is a major undertaking requiring strategic planning and change management throughout an institution. This paper examines the perceptions of BFHI held by midwives and nurses working in one Area Health Service in NSW, Australia. The study used an interpretive, qualitative approach. A total of 132 health professionals, working across four maternity units, two neonatal intensive care units and related community services, participated in 10 focus groups. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Three main themes were identified: 'Belief and Commitment'; 'Interpreting BFHI' and 'Climbing a Mountain'. Participants considered the BFHI implementation a high priority; an essential set of practices that would have positive benefits for babies and mothers both locally and globally as well as for health professionals. It was considered achievable but would take commitment and hard work to overcome the numerous challenges including a number of organisational constraints. There were, however, differing interpretations of what was required to attain BFHI accreditation with the potential that misinterpretation could hinder implementation. A model described by Greenhalgh and colleagues on adoption of innovation is drawn on to interpret the findings. Despite strong support for BFHI, the principles of this global strategy are interpreted differently by health professionals and further education and accurate information is required. It may be that the current processes used to disseminate and implement BFHI need to be

  19. Ten steps or climbing a mountain: A study of Australian health professionals' perceptions of implementing the baby friendly health initiative to protect, promote and support breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheehan Athena

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Baby Friendly Hospital (Health Initiative (BFHI is a global initiative aimed at protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding and is based on the ten steps to successful breastfeeding. Worldwide, over 20,000 health facilities have attained BFHI accreditation but only 77 Australian hospitals (approximately 23% have received accreditation. Few studies have investigated the factors that facilitate or hinder implementation of BFHI but it is acknowledged this is a major undertaking requiring strategic planning and change management throughout an institution. This paper examines the perceptions of BFHI held by midwives and nurses working in one Area Health Service in NSW, Australia. Methods The study used an interpretive, qualitative approach. A total of 132 health professionals, working across four maternity units, two neonatal intensive care units and related community services, participated in 10 focus groups. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Three main themes were identified: 'Belief and Commitment'; 'Interpreting BFHI' and 'Climbing a Mountain'. Participants considered the BFHI implementation a high priority; an essential set of practices that would have positive benefits for babies and mothers both locally and globally as well as for health professionals. It was considered achievable but would take commitment and hard work to overcome the numerous challenges including a number of organisational constraints. There were, however, differing interpretations of what was required to attain BFHI accreditation with the potential that misinterpretation could hinder implementation. A model described by Greenhalgh and colleagues on adoption of innovation is drawn on to interpret the findings. Conclusion Despite strong support for BFHI, the principles of this global strategy are interpreted differently by health professionals and further education and accurate information is required. It may be that the

  20. Trends in ART Initiation among Men and Non-Pregnant/Non-Breastfeeding Women before and after Option B+ in Southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovel, Kathryn; Yeatman, Sara; van Oosterhout, Joep J; Chan, Adrienne; Mantengeni, Alfred; Landes, Megan; Bedell, Richard; Kawalazira, Gift; Sodhi, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    Option B+ is promoted as a key component to eliminating vertical transmission of HIV; however, little is known about the policy's impact on non-targeted populations, such as men and non-pregnant/non-breastfeeding women. We compare ART uptake among non-targeted populations during pre/post Option B+ periods in Zomba District, Malawi. Individual-level ART registry data from 27 health facilities were digitized and new ART initiates were disaggregated by sex and type of initiate (Option B+ or not). Data were analyzed over the pre- (January 2009-June 2011) and post- (July 2011- December 2013) Option B+ periods. After the implementation of Option B+, the total number of new female initiates increased significantly (quarterly median: 547 vs. 816; P = 0.001) and their median age decreased from 34 to 31 years (P = Option B+ clients. Post-policy, Option B+ clients represented 48% of all new female initiates while the number of females who initiated through CD4 or WHO staging criteria significantly decreased (quarterly median: 547 vs. 419; P = 0.005). The number and age of male initiates remained stable; however, the proportion of men among new initiates decreased (36% vs. 31%; P = Option B+ shifted the profile of first-time initiates towards younger and fertile women. Declines among non-Option B+ women most likely reflect earlier initiation during pregnancies before deteriorations in health. The decreased proportion of men among first-time initiates represents a growing gender disparity in HIV services that deserves immediate attention.

  1. Breastfeeding rates in central and western China in 2010: implications for child and population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sufang; Fu, Xulan; Scherpbier, Robert W; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Xiaoli; Hipgrave, David B

    2013-05-01

    To describe breastfeeding practices in rural China using globally recommended indicators and to compare them with practices in neighbouring countries and large emerging economies. A community-based, cross-sectional survey of 2354 children younger than 2 years in 26 poor, rural counties in 12 central and western provinces was conducted. Associations between indicators of infant and young child feeding and socioeconomic, demographic and health service variables were explored and rates were compared with the most recent data from China and other nations. Overall, 98.3% of infants had been breastfed. However, only 59.4% had initiated breastfeeding early (i.e. within 1 hour of birth); only 55.5% and 9.4% had continued breastfeeding for 1 and 2 years, respectively, and only 28.7% of infants younger than 6 months had been exclusively breastfed. Early initiation of breastfeeding was positively associated with at least five antenatal clinic visits (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 3.48; P wealth. Surveyed rates of exclusive and continued breastfeeding were mostly lower than in other nations. Despite efforts to promote breastfeeding in China, rates are very low. A commitment to improve infant and young child feeding is needed to reduce mortality and morbidity.

  2. Early visual cortex reflects initiation and maintenance of task set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhetali, Abdurahman S.; Vaden, Ryan J.; Pool, Sean M.

    2014-01-01

    The human brain is able to process information flexibly, depending on a person's task. The mechanisms underlying this ability to initiate and maintain a task set are not well understood, but they are important for understanding the flexibility of human behavior and developing therapies for disorders involving attention. Here we investigate the differential roles of early visual cortical areas in initiating and maintaining a task set. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), we characterized three different components of task set-related, but trial-independent activity in retinotopically mapped areas of early visual cortex, while human participants performed attention demanding visual or auditory tasks. These trial-independent effects reflected: (1) maintenance of attention over a long duration, (2) orienting to a cue, and (3) initiation of a task set. Participants performed tasks that differed in the modality of stimulus to be attended (auditory or visual) and in whether there was a simultaneous distractor (auditory only, visual only, or simultaneous auditory and visual). We found that patterns of trial-independent activity in early visual areas (V1, V2, V3, hV4) depend on attended modality, but not on stimuli. Further, different early visual areas play distinct roles in the initiation of a task set. In addition, activity associated with maintaining a task set tracks with a participant's behavior. These results show that trial-independent activity in early visual cortex reflects initiation and maintenance of a person's task set. PMID:25485712

  3. Factors associated with breastfeeding intent among mothers of newborn babies in Da Nang, Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong Thi Kim; Tran, Hoang Thi; Thai, Thuy Thi Thanh; Foster, Kirsty; Roberts, Christine L; Marais, Ben J

    2018-01-01

    Breastfeeding is recognized as the single most cost-effective intervention to reduce child morbidity and mortality. However, few studies have explored perceived barriers to breastfeeding and factors associated with breastfeeding intent among mothers of newborn babies in Viet Nam. We conducted a study to assess breastfeeding initiation rates, intent to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months or more and perceived barriers to breastfeed among mothers of newborn babies in Da Nang, Viet Nam. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of mothers in the postnatal wards of Da Nang Hospital for Women and Children in central Viet Nam from 10 February 2017 to 24 February 2017, following implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) Essential Newborn Care (ENC) package. Of 286 mothers surveyed, 259 (90.6%) initiated breastfeeding; 203/258 (78.7%) within 1 hour (h) of birth. Most (207, 72.4%) mothers indicated intent to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months or more, but this was lower among mothers of preterm babies (82.2% versus 20.0%, p  < 0.001) and those without post-secondary school education (74.8% versus 55.6%, p  = 0.02). Amongst mothers struggling to establish breastfeeding, 18/27 (66.7%) had a Cesarean section. Planned non-exclusive breastfeeding was mostly (39, 60.9%) motivated by mothers' concern that their milk supply would be insufficient for their baby's growth requirements. Most mothers had good knowledge about the benefits of breastfeeding and indicated strong decision autonomy. We documented high rates of early breastfeeding establishment and intent to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months or more. This probably reflects high levels of maternal education and successful implementation of the WHO ENC package. Mothers of premature babies may benefit from additional support.

  4. The effect of an interventional program based on the Theory of Ethology on infant breastfeeding competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aghdas karimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: according to the ethology theory mother infant separation immediately after birth can interfere with the infants innate behaviors for the initiation of breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to the effect of an interventional program based on the Theory of Ethology on infant breast feeding competence Materials and Methods: 114 primiparous, Iranian, healthy, full term mothers between 18-35 years with normal vaginal delivery who intended to breastfeed their babies. They were put in direct skin to skin contact with their infants immediately after birth for two hours. Then, rates of infant breastfeeding competence were compared with a control group receiving routine hospital cares. Results: Rates of infant breastfeeding competence were higher in the skin to skin contact group compared to routine care group (p=0.0001. Conclusion: mother- infant early skin to skin contact promotes infants natural feeding behaviors leading to higher rates of infant breastfeeding competence. These findings confirm the Theory of Ethology.

  5. The effect of an interventional program based on the Theory of Ethology on infant breastfeeding competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aghdas karimi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: according to the ethology theory mother infant separation immediately after birth can interfere with the infants innate behaviors for the initiation of breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to the effect of an interventional program based on the Theory of Ethology on infant breast feeding competence Materials and Methods: 114 primiparous, Iranian, healthy, full term mothers between 18-35 years with normal vaginal delivery who intended to breastfeed their babies. They were put in direct skin to skin contact with their infants immediately after birth for two hours. Then, rates of infant breastfeeding competence were compared with a control group receiving routine hospital cares. Results: Rates of infant breastfeeding competence were higher in the skin to skin contact group compared to routine care group (p=0.0001. Conclusion: mother- infant early skin to skin contact promotes infants natural feeding behaviors leading to higher rates of infant breastfeeding competence. These findings confirm the Theory of Ethology.

  6. First time mothers' experiences of breastfeeding their newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Harder, Ingegerd; Hall, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite efforts to improve continued breastfeeding, the percentages of exclusively breastfeeding remain low. To help the breastfeeding mother and reshape professional practice, we need more knowledge of maternal experiences of breastfeeding in the first months. The objective...... was to explore mothers' early breastfeeding experiences. Method Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse data from 108 Danish first time mothers who had answered an open-ended question 6 months after birth. Results All the mothers started breastfeeding. We identified three overlapping phases presented...... as dominant themes: (1) on shaky ground, characterised by breastfeeding interwoven with mothering, painful breastfeeding, and conflicting advice, (2) searching for a foothold, characterised by reading the baby's cues, concerns about milk production, for or against breastfeeding, and looking for professional...

  7. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental Health Pain Pregnancy Reproductive Health Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections ... breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch ...

  8. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... Moms explain why breastfeeding was such a natural choice. Secrets to breastfeeding success YouTube embed video: breastfeeding. Learn more about the foods you should eat. Previous Page Next Page It's ...

  9. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... and mission Leadership Programs and activities In your community Funding opportunities Internships and jobs View all pages ... breastfeeding myths Breastfeeding myths in the African-American community Incredible facts about babies, breastmilk, and breastfeeding Overcoming ...

  10. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... section About Us Who we are What we do Programs and activities Work with us Contact Us ... Laws that support breastfeeding 10 things moms can do while breastfeeding My breastfeeding story Partner resources Search ...

  11. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing ... decisions. But if you haven’t already thought about breastfeeding, now is a great time. Before your baby is here is the ...

  12. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... Find out what worked for other breastfeeding moms. What breastfeeding means to me YouTube embed video: < ... you strong while breastfeeding. Learn more about the foods you should eat. Previous Page Next Page It's ...

  13. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... Page It's Only Natural resources Related information Breastfeeding Pregnancy Resources Your Guide to Breastfeeding Support for Nursing Moms in the Workplace: Employer Solutions Blog topics Breastfeeding: Natural Doesn’t ...

  14. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... public Laws that support breastfeeding 10 things moms can do while breastfeeding My breastfeeding story Partner resources ... a> Learn the unique ways that breastmilk can improve your child’s health and lower the risk ...

  15. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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  17. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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  19. Human milk and breastfeeding: An intervention to mitigate toxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallowell, Sunny G; Froh, Elizabeth B; Spatz, Diane L

    The American Academy of Nursing has identified toxic stress in childhood as a health policy concern of high priority. Adult diseases (e.g., obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease) should be viewed as developmental disorders that begin early in life that could be reduced with the alleviation of toxic stress in childhood. The provision of human milk/breastfeeding is an evidence-based intervention that may hold the greatest potential to mitigate the effects of toxic stress from the moment of birth. Assisting families to make an informed choice to initiate and continue breastfeeding from birth has the potential to address both the disparity in the quality of nutrition provided infants and the economic stress experienced by families who purchase formula. The Expert Panel on Breastfeeding endorses initiatives to improve the initiation, duration, and exclusivity of breastfeeding to mitigate the effects of toxic stress in this call to action for research to build the evidence to support these critical relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Increasing loyalty to breastfeeding: investigating a product development strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Joy; Russell-Bennett, Rebekah; Previte, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    This article demonstrates how social marketing insights were used to influence women's loyalty to breastfeeding. The article reports on a social marketing campaign undertaken by the Australian Breastfeeding Association and a government health department, which used a product development strategy in order to increase breastfeeding loyalty. Seeking new approaches to support breastfeeding behaviors is critical and timely, because while initiation rates of breastfeeding are high in developed countries such as the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and the United States, duration rates are significantly lower. Results indicate that a product- focused strategy influences pregnant women's loyalty to exclusively breastfeeding.

  1. Early smoking initiation and associated factors among in-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This report examines the prevalence and common correlates of early smoking initiation among male and female school children across seven African countries. Method: The total sample included 17,725 school children aged 13 to 15 years from nationally representative samples in seven African countries.

  2. The effect of maternity leave length and time of return to work on breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuanu, Chinelo; Glover, Saundra; Probst, Janice; Liu, Jihong; Hussey, James

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the effect of maternity leave length and time of first return to work on breastfeeding. Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. Restricting our sample to singletons whose biological mothers were the respondents at the 9-month interview and worked in the 12 months before delivery (N = 6150), we classified the length of total maternity leave (weeks) as 1 to 6, 7 to 12, ≥ 13, and did not take; paid maternity leave (weeks) as 0, 1 to 6, ≥ 7, and did not take; and time of return to work postpartum (weeks) as 1 to 6, 7 to 12, ≥ 13, and not yet returned. Analyses included χ(2) tests and multiple logistic regressions. In our study population, 69.4% initiated breastfeeding with positive variation by both total and paid maternity leave length, and time of return to work. In adjusted analyses, neither total nor paid maternity leave length had any impact on breastfeeding initiation or duration. Compared with those returning to work within 1 to 6 weeks, women who had not yet returned to work had a greater odds of initiating breastfeeding (odds ratio [OR]: 1.46 [1.08-1.97]; risk ratios [RR]: 1.13 [1.03-1.22]), continuing any breastfeeding beyond 6 months (OR: 1.41 [0.87-2.27]; RR: 1.25 [0.91-1.61]), and predominant breastfeeding beyond 3 months (OR: 2.01 [1.06-3.80]; RR: 1.70 [1.05-2.53]). Women who returned to work at or after 13 weeks postpartum had higher odds of predominantly breastfeeding beyond 3 months (OR: 2.54 [1.51-4.27]; RR: 1.99 [1.38-2.69]). If new mothers delay their time of return to work, then duration of breastfeeding among US mothers may lengthen.

  3. Barriers to Exclusive Breastfeeding among Urban Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazina Sharmin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is the unique source of nutrition and it plays an important role in the growth, development and survival of the infants. The initiation of breastfeeding within one hour and continuation of only breast milk up to six months ensure maximum benefits. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Bangladesh is 56% which is low. We designed this study to find out the factors influencing the duration of breastfeeding in Bangladeshi population. Objective: To study the factors influencing noncompliance to exclusive breastfeeding. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Dhaka Shishu Hospital during the period January to June 2011. It includes 125 infant (1–12 months-mother pairs randomly selected from the inpatient and outpatient departments of Dhaka Shishu Hospital. Mother-infant pairs were divided into two groups based on continuation of only breastfeeding up to six months. Outcomes were compared between two groups. Results: In this study exclusive breastfeeding was found in 27.2% and nonexclusive breastfeeding was in 72.8% cases. It was found that in most cases (40% termination of breastfeeding was at 3--4 months. The study revealed that insufficient milk production due to poor position and attachment, social factors such as influence of husband and other family members, joining to service etc act as barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. Mass media and advice from health professionals had a higher influence on lower rate of exclusive breastfeeding. Women who were multiparous, housewives were more likely to maintain optimal breastfeeding. Conclusion: The present study reveals some important factors contributing to low rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Bangladesh.

  4. The theory of agency and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kath; Team, Victoria; Alexander, Jo

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we apply psychological agency theory to women's interviews of their breastfeeding experiences to understand the role of agency in relation to breastfeeding initiation, maintenance and duration. Qualitative, video interviews were collected from 49 women in the UK from a wide range of ethnic, religious, educational and employment backgrounds about their breastfeeding experiences. We undertook secondary analysis of the data focusing on their accounts of vulnerability and agency. Women's agency was impacted by a variety of factors including their own vulnerability, knowledge, expectations and experience, the feeding environment and the support of health professionals in sharing decision-making and dealing with uncertainty. Health professionals as co-agents with women are well positioned to maintain, enhance or restore women's sense of agency. Breastfeeding goals should be included in women's birth plans. Training related to agency, continuity of care, and staffing and workload management supported by national breastfeeding policies could improve breastfeeding rates and experiences.

  5. Prevalence and associated factors for early interruption of exclusive breastfeeding: meta-analysis on Brazilian epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pereira-Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to summarize Brazilian studies that analyzed the risk factors for Exclusive Breastfeeding (EBF interruption before the child's six months of life. Methods: systematic review and meta-analysis indexed articles from Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed databases published in the period of January 2000 to December 2015. Results: 22 articles were included in the meta-analysis. The factors related to newborns were observed, such as birth weight (OR= 1.17; CI 95%: 1.05-1.29, female gender (OR= 1,09; CI 95%: 1.04-1.13 and the use of pacifier (OR= 2.29; CI 95%: 1.68-2.91 were the main factors responsible for the increase in the occurrence of EBF interruption. The factors were related to the mother, maternal age below twenty years old (OR= 1.22; CI 95%: 1.12-1.33 low schooling level (OR=1.28; CI 95%: 1.11-1.45, primiparity (OR= 1.17; CI 95%: 1.02-1.32 maternal employment during the postpartum period (OR= 1.26; CI 95%: 1.11-1.41, and low family income (OR= 1.22; CI 95%: 1.08-1.37 contributed significantly to the EBF interruption . Conclusions: the meta-analysis of Brazilian epidemiological studies demonstrated evidences to conclude that below the age of twenty, low schooling, primiparity, maternal employment in the postpartum period and low family income are associated to the interruption of exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age. Children with low birth weight, female gender and used a pacifier had greater vulnerability to not be exclusively breastfed. In conclusion, most of these factors can be modified through appropriate public policies throughout the adequate prenatal period to promote exclusive breastfeeding.

  6. Imprinting, latchment and displacement: a mini review of early instinctual behaviour in newborn infants influencing breastfeeding success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobbs, Elsie J; Mobbs, George A; Mobbs, Anthony E D

    2016-01-01

    Instinctive behaviours have evolved favouring the mother-infant dyad based on fundamental processes of neurological development, including oral tactile imprinting and latchment. Latchment is the first stage of emotional development based on the successful achievement of biological imprinting. The mechanisms underpinning imprinting are identified and the evolutionary benefits discussed. It is proposed that the oral tactile imprint to the breast is a keystone for optimal latchment and breastfeeding, promoting evolutionary success. ©2015 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  7. Incorporating breastfeeding education into prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Adrienne; Faucher, Mary Ann; Spencer, Rebecca

    2015-03-01

    Prenatal breastfeeding education increases breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity, and duration. Current research regarding antenatal breastfeeding education suggests that recurrent, individual, and technology-based education programs are effective in providing women with evidence-based breastfeeding information and guidance. This project was implemented at an obstetrical practice in the northeast United States. Pregnant women between 32 weeks of gestation and birth, receiving care from certified nurse-midwives, were the targeted population. Three breastfeeding modules were created and offered to women at the 32-, 34-, and 36-week prenatal visit via computer tablets. Women answered questionnaires at the end of each module, serving as a measure for participation and content learning. Women also completed a questionnaire at the 6-week postpartum visit to assess summative perceptions. Twenty-three women participated, and 21 women completed questionnaires at 6 weeks postpartum. All women answered the content questions at the end of the modules correctly. Sixty-seven percent reported prior breastfeeding experience, 95% initiated breastfeeding, 86% were exclusively breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum, and 71% of the women planned to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months. Sixty-seven percent reported the modules promoted or affirmed their decision to breastfeed, whereas 5% would have preferred group-based education. Providers documented breastfeeding education 52% of the time. The results of this project indicate that women successfully learned breastfeeding content via the tablet methodology. The results confirm that prenatal breastfeeding education, in the office setting, is well accepted by women. In order to assess the impact of the program on breastfeeding success, further study is needed.

  8. Sub-optimal breastfeeding and its associated factors in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, not attending formal education, low birth order and lack of knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding were also negatively associated with exclusive breastfeeding practice. Conclusion: In this study, sub-optimal breast feeding was found to be high. Delayed initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding practices were ...

  9. AWARENESS OF THE BENEFITS OF BREASTFEEDING AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

    Breastfeeding is a cultural practice conferring important health and development benefits to. 1,2 children, families, communities and the nation. It is the fundamental component of the child-survival strategy. The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative. (BFHI) was designed to support, protect and promote breastfeeding practices.

  10. A Concept Analysis of Fully Informed: Breastfeeding Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-21

    updated breastfeeding policy statement, the American Academy of Pediatrics 3 ( AAP , 2005) identified the compelling advantages of breastfeeding and urged...healthcare 4 professionals to implement principles to promote breastfeeding . The AAP cited obstacles 5 to the initiation and continuation of...Analysis of Fully Informed 2 14 A Concept Analysis of Fully Informed: Breastfeeding Promotion 15 In February 2005, the American Academy of Pediatrics ( AAP

  11. It takes a mother to practise breastfeeding: women’s perceptioof breastfeeding during the period of intentionns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinke Haisma; Alberta Oosterhoff; Inge Hutter

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, 81% of mothers initiate breastfeeding. After one month the percentage of mothers still breastfeeding drops, despite positive intentions. Little is known about women’s perceptions of breastfeeding during the period of intention. Aim: This qualitative study aimed to

  12. It takes a mother to practise breastfeeding : women’s perceptions of breastfeeding during the period of intention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhoff, Bettie; Haisma, Hinke; Hutter, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, 81% of mothers initiate breastfeeding. After one month the percentage of mothers still breastfeeding drops, despite positive intentions. Little is known about women’s perceptions of breastfeeding during the period of intention. Aim: This qualitative study aimed to

  13. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding was such a natural choice. Secrets to breastfeeding success YouTube embed video: breastfeeding. The benefits of breastfeeding YouTube embed video: Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... celebrity moms who breastfeed Fitting breastfeeding into your life Breastfeeding in daily life: At home and in public Laws that support ... Overcoming challenges Finding support Fitting breastfeeding into your life Partner resources Subscribe To receive Breastfeeding email updates ...

  14. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... activities In your community Funding opportunities Internships and jobs View all pages in this section Back to section menu It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing breastfeeding myths Breastfeeding myths in ...

  15. Early versus late initiation of epidural analgesia for labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sng, Ban Leong; Leong, Wan Ling; Zeng, Yanzhi; Siddiqui, Fahad Javaid; Assam, Pryseley N; Lim, Yvonne; Chan, Edwin S Y; Sia, Alex T

    2014-10-09

    Pain during childbirth is arguably the most severe pain some women may experience in their lifetime. Epidural analgesia is an effective form of pain relief during labour. Many women have concerns regarding its safety. Furthermore, epidural services and anaesthetic support may not be available consistently across all centres. Observational data suggest that early initiation of epidural may be associated with an increased risk of caesarean section, but the same findings were not seen in recent randomised controlled trials. More recent guidelines suggest that in the absence of a medical contraindication, maternal request is a sufficient medical indication for pain relief during labour. The choice of analgesic technique, agent, and dosage is based on many factors, including patient preference, medical status, and contraindications. There is no systematically reviewed evidence on the maternal and foetal outcomes and safety of this practice. This systematic review aimed to summarise the effectiveness and safety of early initiation versus late initiation of epidural analgesia in women. We considered the obstetric and fetal outcomes relevant to women and side effects of the treatments, including risk of caesarean section, instrumental birth and time to birth. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (12 February 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (January 1966 to February 2014), Embase (January 1980 to February 2014) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We included all randomised controlled trials involving women undergoing epidural labour analgesia that compared early initiation versus late initiation of epidural labour analgesia. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted the data and assessed the trial quality. Data were checked for accuracy. We included nine studies with a total of 15,752 women.The overall risk of bias of

  16. Workplace breastfeeding support for hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgson, Joan E; Chee, Yuet-Oi; Yap, Tian Sew

    2004-07-01

    Breastfeeding initiation rates have been steadily rising in Hong Kong, but most employed women wean prior to returning to work. While health care providers promote breastfeeding, women receive little support from employers. A few health care facilities offer some workplace breastfeeding support, but little is known about the specific types and amount of support that are offered. This paper reports a study whose aim was to describe workplace supports available to breastfeeding women employed by hospitals that provide maternity services in Hong Kong, and to determine if differences in workplace supports exist based on the hospitals' numbers of employees or funding source. In late 2001, a cross-sectional survey was completed by nurse managers or lactation consultants most knowledgeable about supports to breastfeeding employees in 19 hospitals. The number of workplace breastfeeding supports or Breastfeeding Support Score (M = 7.47; sd = 3.37) varied considerably. Mean Breastfeeding Support Score for government-funded hospitals was significantly higher (t = 2.31; P = 0.03) than for private hospitals. Of the 14 hospitals that had a designated space for using a breast pump, only five (26.3%) had a private room with a door that locked. Only two hospitals (11.1%) allowed employees to take breaks as needed to use a pump; employees in 10 (55.6%) had to use their meal and regular break times. Hospitals having a hospital-wide committee that addressed workplace breastfeeding issues had a more supportive environment for breastfeeding employees. Although all surveyed hospitals returned the questionnaire, the sample size was small. It was difficult to ensure accuracy and to differentiate subtle variations in the services provided using a self-report survey. Facilitating continued breastfeeding after employees' return to work requires that employers understand the needs of breastfeeding employees. Policy at the level of the employer and government is an essential component of

  17. Breastfeeding infants with phenylketonuria in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta-Wright, Sandra A; Press, Nancy; Knafl, Kathleen A; Steiner, Robert D; Houck, Gail M

    2014-04-01

    This study described the prevalence and duration of mothers' breastfeeding infants with phenylketonuria (PKU) and explored factors related to duration of breastfeeding as a surrogate for breastfeeding success. Descriptive analysis as performed from an international Internet survey of mothers (n=103) who met the inclusion criteria: (1) at least 21 years of age, (2) able to read and write in English, (3) child with PKU, and (4) living in the United States or Canada. Of the 103 mothers, 89 (86%) initiated breastfeeding immediately following delivery, whereas 14 (14%) chose bottle feeding. In comparison to breastfeeding after delivery, significantly fewer mothers breastfed after diagnosis (McNemar's χ(2)=30.33, pmothers' milk was associated with a shorter duration of breastfeeding among infants with PKU: χ(2) (42, n=73)=88.13, pmothers' breastfeeding infants with PKU to guide the development of interventions specific to these mothers to support their efforts to continue breastfeeding after the diagnosis of PKU.

  18. Breastfeeding Reduces Childhood Obesity Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Collins, Candice; Ratliff, Melanie; Xie, Bin; Wang, Youfa

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined the effects of breastfeeding and its duration on the development of childhood obesity from 24 months through grade 6. U.S. longitudinal data collected from 1234 children were analyzed using logistic regression models and generalized estimating equation (GEE). Child height and weight were measured six times at ages of 24 months, 36 months, 54 months, grade 1, grade 3, and grade 6. During the early 1990s, prevalence of breastfeeding was low in the United States, 60% and 48% at 1 and 6 months, respectively. Nonsmoking, white, married mothers with both parents in the household, and with income above the poverty line, were more likely to breastfeed at 1 month of age of their babies. Obesity rate of the children increased with age from 24 months to grade 6. Logistic regression showed that breastfeeding at month 1 was associated with 53% (odds ratio [OR]: 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30-0.73) and 47% (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.36-0.78) decreased risks for childhood obesity at grades 1 and 6, respectively. GEE analysis showed that breastfeeding at 1 month reduced risk for childhood obesity by 36% (95% CI: 0.47-0.88) from ages 24 months through grade 6. Regarding breastfeeding duration, more than 6 months (vs. never) was associated with a decreased risk for childhood obesity by 42% (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.36-0.94). Breastfeeding at 1 month and more than 6 months reduced the risk of childhood obesity. Rate of breastfeeding was low in the United States in the 1990s, which may have had long-term implications on children.

  19. [Breastfeeding: health, prevention, and environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of research in the field of neuroscience and human microbiome indicates the primal period (from preconceptional up to the early years of a child's life) as crucial to the future of the individual, opening new scenarios for the understanding of the processes underlying the human health. In recent decades, the social representation of infant feeding moved in fact from the normality of breastfeeding to the normal use of artificial formulas and bottle-feeding. Even the scientific thinking and the research production have been influenced by this phenomenon. In fact, a clear dominance of studies aimed to show the benefits of breast milk compared to formula milk rather than the risks of the latter compared to the biological norm of breastfeeding. Mother milk affects infant health also through his/her microbiome. Microbial colonisation startes during intrauterine life and continues through the vaginal canal at birth, during skin to skin contact immediately after birth, with colostrum and breastfeeding. The microbial exposure of infants delivered by the mother influences the development of the child microbiota, by programming his/her future health. However, rewriting the biological normality implies also a health professional paradigm shift such as departing from the systematic separation mother-child at birth, sticking at fixed schedules for breastfeeding time and duration, as it still happens in many birth centres. Breastfeeding has economic implications and the increase of its prevalence is associated with significant reduction of avoidable hospital admissions and medical care costs, both for the child and for the mother. Success in breastfeeding is the result of complex social interactions and not simply of an individual choice. However, any successful strategy must be oriented to the mother empowerment. Therefore, health professionals and community stakeholders have to learn and practice the health promotion approach, particularly avoiding

  1. Breast-feeding does not protect against allergic sensitization in early childhood and allergy-associated disease at age 7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelding-Dannemand, Ea; Malby Schoos, Ann-Marie; Bisgaard, Hans

    2015-01-01

    clinic at 7 years of age, strictly adhering to predefined algorithms. Associations between duration of exclusive breast-feeding and outcomes were analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no significant association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding and development of sensitization......% CI, 0.82-1.14]; and OR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.84-1.23], respectively). Adjusting for reverse causation by excluding children with eczema, wheeze, or a positive skin prick test response before ending exclusive breast-feeding did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Exclusive breast-feeding does not affect...

  2. Paid Maternity Leave and Breastfeeding Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Kelsey R; Perrine, Cria G; Scanlon, Kelley S

    2016-09-01

    Despite the benefits of breastfeeding, rates in the United States are low. Shorter maternity leave is associated with lower initiation and shorter durations of breastfeeding; however, little is known about how paid maternity leave may influence breastfeeding rates. We used data from the 2006-2010 U.S. National Survey of Family Growth on the most recent birth to employed women who delivered a child within the previous 5 years. Separate multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe the associations between paid leave duration (0, 1-5, 6-11, ≥ 12 weeks, maternity leave not taken) and three outcomes: 1) breastfeeding initiation, 2) 6-month duration, and 3) 6-month duration among initiators. Twenty-eight percent of prenatally employed women received no paid leave. Women who received 12 or more weeks of paid leave were more likely to initiate breastfeeding compared to women with no paid leave (87.3% vs 66.7%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.83 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.23-6.48]). Similarly, women with 12 or more weeks of paid leave were more likely to breastfeed at 6 months, compared to women with no paid leave (24.9% vs 50.1%, aOR 2.26 [95% CI 1.20-4.26]). Among women who initiated breastfeeding, having received 12 or more weeks' paid leave increased the odds of breastfeeding for 6 or more months; however, the association was not statistically significant in the adjusted model (aOR 1.81 [95% CI 0.93-3.52]). Employed women who received 12 or more weeks of paid maternity leave were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and be breastfeeding their child at 6 months than those without paid leave. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Maternal Nonstandard Work Schedules and Breastfeeding Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilanawala, Afshin

    2017-06-01

    Objectives Although maternal employment rates have increased in the last decade in the UK, there is very little research investigating the linkages between maternal nonstandard work schedules (i.e., work schedules outside of the Monday through Friday, 9-5 schedule) and breastfeeding initiation and duration, especially given the wide literature citing the health advantages of breastfeeding for mothers and children. Methods This paper uses a population-based, UK cohort study, the Millennium Cohort Study (n = 17,397), to investigate the association between types of maternal nonstandard work (evening, night, away from home overnight, and weekends) and breastfeeding behaviors. Results In unadjusted models, exposure to evening shifts was associated with greater odds of breastfeeding initiation (OR 1.71, CI 1.50-1.94) and greater odds of short (OR 1.55, CI 1.32-1.81), intermediate (OR 2.01, CI 1.64-2.47), prolonged partial duration (OR 2.20, CI 1.78-2.72), and prolonged exclusive duration (OR 1.53, CI 1.29-1.82), compared with mothers who were unemployed and those who work other types of nonstandard shifts. Socioeconomic advantage of mothers working evening schedules largely explained the higher odds of breastfeeding initiation and duration. Conclusions Socioeconomic characteristics explain more breastfeeding behaviors among mothers working evening shifts. Policy interventions to increase breastfeeding initiation and duration should consider the timing of maternal work schedules.

  4. Exclusive Breastfeeding Determinants in Breastfeeding Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Mustika

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 month is very important for baby. The proportion of mothers who exclusively breastfeed their babies up to 6 months remains low. Factors influencing the exclusive breastfeeding namely sociodemograph factors , factors pre / post delivery , and psychosocial factors. This aims of this study to identify determinant factors of exclusive breastfeeding on mother. This research method is a systematic review , by analyzing the various studies on exclusive breastfeeding. There are 17 studies. The results obtained occupational factors most studied with significant results ( median OR = 1.265 . Psychosocial factors that have significant relationship is support of her husband (average OR = 4.716 and family support ( average OR = 1.770 . Conclusions : factors influencing the exclusive breastfeeding is occupational factor. Socialization and support from people nearby, health workers, and all parties is needed for exclusive breastfeeding for six months can be achieved.

  5. Integrating Group Counseling, Cell Phone Messaging, and Participant-Generated Songs and Dramas into a Microcredit Program Increases Nigerian Women’s Adherence to International Breastfeeding Recommendations123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L.; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5–7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ≥6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely

  6. Integrating group counseling, cell phone messaging, and participant-generated songs and dramas into a microcredit program increases Nigerian women's adherence to international breastfeeding recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2014-07-01

    In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5-7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ≥6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely

  7. Parental divorce and initiation of alcohol use in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kristina M; Rogers, Michelle L; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2016-06-01

    Parental divorce/separation is among the most commonly endorsed adverse childhood events. It has been shown to increase subsequent risk of alcohol dependence and problems across adolescence and early adulthood, but its influence on early stages of alcohol involvement has only recently been explored. In the present study, we examined whether time to first full drink was accelerated among youth who experienced parental divorce/separation. To determine specificity of risk, models controlled for perceived stress as well as family history of alcoholism, current parental drinking, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Developmental specificity in terms of timing of both parental divorce and first drink was also examined. Participants were 931 middle-school students (488 girls, 443 boys) who were enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (52% female; 23% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Students indicated whether and at what age they had consumed a full drink of alcohol. Parental divorce/separation was coded from a parent-reported life-events inventory and was grouped based on age experienced (ages 0-5, ages 6-9, age 10+). Cox proportional hazard models showed increased risk for onset of drinking as a function of divorce/separation, even controlling for stress, parental alcohol involvement, and psychopathology. There was no evidence for developmental specificity of the divorce/separation effect based on when it occurred nor in timing of first drink. However, the effect of parental divorce/separation on initiation was magnified at higher levels of parental drinking. Given the rates of parental divorce/separation and its association with increased risk of early drinking, investigation of the mechanisms underlying this link is clearly warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. A rapid ethnographic study of breastfeeding in the North and South of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passamonte Raquel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The past ten years have witnessed a rising trend in the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding in Italy, but breastfeeding rates increase in an unequal way; they are higher in the North of Italy than in the South. The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences, expectations and beliefs of a sample of mothers, and to identify differences, if any, between the North and the South of Italy. Methods The study was conducted in two regions of Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia in the Northeast and Basilicata in the South. Two hundred and seventy-nine mothers of infants and children 6 to 23 months of age were interviewed using an 85-item questionnaire including closed and open questions on infant feeding experiences and beliefs, sources of information and support, reasons for intended and actual choices and practices, and some demographic and social variables. Face-to-face interviews were conducted between May 2001 and September 2002. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used for data analysis. Results The distribution of the mothers by age, education, employment and parity did not differ from that of the general population of the two regions. The reported rates of initiation and duration of breastfeeding were also similar: 95% started breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding was 32% at three and 9% at six months, with 64% and 35% of any breastfeeding, respectively. Some differences were reported in the rates of full breastfeeding, reflecting different ages of introduction of non-nutritive fluids. These, as well as nutritive fluids – including infant formula – and complementary foods, were introduced far too early. Advice on infant feeding was generally provided by health professionals and often was not based on up-to-date recommendations. Mothers were generally aware of the advantages of breastfeeding, but at the same time reported problems that they were not able to solve alone or through social and health system

  9. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding of preterm infants. Results from a prospective national cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild Maastrup

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Evidence-based knowledge of how to guide the mothers of preterm infants in breastfeeding establishment is contradictive or sparse. The aim was to investigate the associations between pre-specified clinical practices for facilitating breastfeeding, and exclusive breastfeeding at discharge as well as adequate duration thereof. METHODS: A prospective survey based on questionnaires was conducted with a Danish national cohort, comprised of 1,221 mothers and their 1,488 preterm infants with a gestational age of 24-36 weeks. Adjusted for covariates, the pre-specified clinical practices were analysed by multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: At discharge 68% of the preterm infants were exclusively breastfed and 17% partially. Test-weighing the infant, and minimizing the use of a pacifier, showed a protective effect to exclusive breastfeeding at discharge (OR 0.6 (95% CI 0.4-0.8 and 0.4 (95% CI 0.3-0.6, respectively. The use of nipple shields (OR 2.3 (95% CI 1.6-3.2 and the initiation of breast milk expression later than 48 hours postpartum (OR 4.9 (95% CI 1.9-12.6 were associated with failure of exclusive breastfeeding at discharge. The clinical practices associated with an inadequate breastfeeding duration were the initiation of breast milk expression at 12-24 hours (OR 1.6 (95% CI 1.0-2.4 and 24-48 hours (OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.1 vs. before six hours postpartum, and the use of nipple shields (OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.9. CONCLUSION: Early initiation of breast milk pumping before 12 hours postpartum may increase breastfeeding rates, and it seems that the use of nipple shields should be restricted. The use of test-weighing and minimizing the use of a pacifier may promote the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding, but more research is needed regarding adequate support to the mother when test-weighing is ceased, as more of these mothers ceased exclusive breastfeeding at an early stage after discharge.

  10. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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  11. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... some nursing know-how? These steps and strategies will help soon-to-be-moms make an informed, smooth transition into breastfeeding. The benefits of breastfeeding YouTube embed video:

  12. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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  13. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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  15. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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  18. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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  1. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

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    ... for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding What's ... work with a lactation specialist. All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

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  8. Breastfeeding Self-efficacy: A Critical Review of Available Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Emily L.; McGrath, Jacqueline M.; Graber, Melanie; Cusson, Regina M.; Young, Sera L.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing breastfeeding rates in the United States is a national priority. Yet, initiation and duration of breastfeeding remains below national targets. Breastfeeding self-efficacy has been shown to be a strong predictor of both breastfeeding initiation and duration and is therefore an important characteristic to be able to measure. However, there is currently a myriad of instruments for measuring breastfeeding self-efficacy, which makes selection of an appropriate instrument difficult. Thus, our aim was to identify, compare, and critically review available breastfeeding self-efficacy instruments. In a systematic review, 6 breastfeeding self-efficacy instruments were identified. The instruments’ purposes, theoretical framework, final scale development, and application in 5 most recent settings were analyzed. The 6 breastfeeding self-efficacy instruments apply a number of theoretical and conceptual frameworks in their development, with Bandura’s social cognitive theory being most common. Content, construct, and predictive validity were strong for most scales. Some, but not all, have been successfully adapted to novel settings. In sum, there are several measurements of breastfeeding self-efficacy that can and should be employed to better understand reasons for suboptimal breastfeeding rates and the effects of interventions on breastfeeding self-efficacy. Instrument selection should be based on domains of primary interest, time available, peripartum timing, and assessment of previous adaptations. Failure to apply appropriate measures in research may garner results that are inconclusive, inaccurate, or nonrepresentative of true study effects. PMID:26319113

  9. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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  11. History of pancreaticoduodenectomy: early misconceptions, initial milestones and the pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are, Chandrakanth; Dhir, Mashaal; Ravipati, Lavanya

    2011-06-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy is one of the most challenging surgical procedures which requires the highest level of surgical expertise. This procedure has constantly evolved over the years through the meticulous efforts of a number of surgeons before reaching its current state. This review navigates through some of the early limitations and misconceptions and highlights the initial milestones which laid the foundation of this procedure. The current review also provides a few excerpts from the lives and illuminates on some of the seminal contributions of the three great surgeons: William Stewart Halsted, Walther Carl Eduard Kausch and Allen Oldfather Whipple. These surgeons pioneered the nascent stages of this procedure and paved the way for the modern day pancreaticoduodenectomy. © 2011 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  12. Starting young: sexual initiation and HIV prevention in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Mueller, Ruth

    2009-02-01

    The rising numbers of new HIV infections among young people ages 15-24 in many developing countries, especially among young women, signal an urgent need to identify and respond programmatically to behaviors and situations that contribute to the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in early adolescence. Quantitative and qualitative studies of the sexual knowledge and practices of adolescents age 14 and younger reveal that substantial numbers of boys and girls in many countries engage in unprotected heterosexual vaginal intercourse--by choice or coercion--before their 15th birthdays. Early initiation into male-male or male-female oral and/or anal sex is also documented in some populations. Educational, health, and social programs must reach 10-14-year-olds as well as older adolescents with the information, skills, services, and supplies (condoms, contraceptives) they need to negotiate their own protection from unwanted and/or unsafe sexual practices and to respect the rights of others.

  13. Identifying job characteristics related to employed women's breastfeeding behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzmueller, Christiane; Zhang, Jing; Thomas, Candice L; Wang, Zhuxi; Fisher, Gwenith G; Matthews, Russell A; Strathearn, Lane

    2018-05-14

    For employed mothers of infants, reconciliation of work demands and breastfeeding constitutes a significant challenge. The discontinuation of breastfeeding has the potential to result in negative outcomes for the mother (e.g., higher likelihood of obesity), her employer (e.g., increased absenteeism), and her infant (e.g., increased risk of infection). Given previous research findings identifying return to work as a major risk factor for breastfeeding cessation, we investigate what types of job characteristics relate to women's intentions to breastfeed shortly after giving birth and women's actual breastfeeding initiation and duration. Using job titles and job descriptors contained in a large Australian longitudinal cohort data set (N = 809), we coded job titles using the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL)'s Occupational Information Network (O*NET) database and extracted job characteristics. Hazardous working conditions and job autonomy were identified as significant determinants of women's breastfeeding intentions, their initiation of breastfeeding, and ultimately their breastfeeding continuation. Hence, we recommend that human resource professionals, managers, and public health initiatives provide breastfeeding-supportive resources to women who, based on their job characteristics, are at high risk to prematurely discontinue breastfeeding to ensure these mothers have equal opportunity to reap the benefits of breastfeeding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Breastfeeding Education: Where Are We Going? A Systematic Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Maria Adriana; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Sicilia, Angela; Prosperi Porta, Romana; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Ban Frangež, Helena; DI Venti, Giovanni; Triolo, Onofrio

    2016-08-01

    UNICEF (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund) and WHO estimate that if all babies were breastfed for at least the first six months of their lives, the rate of morbidity and malnutrition would significantly decrease all over the world. In this view, these two organizations promoted a worldwide campaign for breastfeeding, creating the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) that encourages good practices for the promotion of breastfeeding in hospitals. The aim of our study was to review the available evidence regarding the positive effects of breastfeeding, in order to suggest to most appropriate strategy to support it. The main databases including Scopus, PubMed, MEDLINE, Google scholar and Science Direct were researched to obtain the original papers related to breastfeeding education. The main terms used to literature search were "Breastfeeding education", Breastfeeding support", and "Breastfeeding healthcare policy". The timeframe included the obtained articles was from 1980 to 2015. Our analysis confirms that healthcare providers play a pivotal role in education and encouraging mothers to begin and continue breastfeeding. In this view, the adequate training of healthcare providers seems to be mandatory in order to support this practice. Moreover, adequate facilities are needed in order to promote and support breastfeeding. Considering the available evidence, breastfeeding should be supported among all the mothers. Based on the positive data emerging from the public awareness campaign in different Countries of the world, we strongly encourage an accurate training for doctors and midwives and the implementation of adequate facilities in order to support breastfeeding.

  15. Early Initiation of Antenatal Care and Factors Associated with Early Antenatal Care Initiation at Health Facilities in Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengesha Boko Geta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal care (ANC is care given to pregnant mothers to timely identify and mitigate pregnancy related problems that can harm mother or fetus. Most of Ethiopian mothers present late for ANC. The aim of this paper was to assess determinants of early antenatal care initiation among pregnant women. Mothers attending Shebedino District Health Centers for ANC between January 12 and February 18, 2015, were invited to the study. Multistage sampling technique and structured questionnaire were used to collect data by trained data collectors. Univariate and bivariate analysis were conducted to study the association between explanatory and outcome variable. Out of 608 women, 132 [21.71%] had their first ANC within the recommended time [before or at 3 months]. Media access [AOR = 2.11 95% CI 1.00, 3.22], knowledge about the correct time of ANC booking [AOR = 4.49 95% CI 2.47, 6.16], and having been advised to book within 12 weeks [AOR = 4.14 95% CI 3.80, 5.21] were determinants of first-trimester booking. Health professionals and care providers should provide full information, advice, and appropriate care about early ANC for every eligible mother.

  16. Severe maternal morbidity and breastfeeding outcomes in the early post-natal period: a prospective cohort study from one English maternity unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Marie; Sandall, Jane; Cooper, Derek; Bick, Debra

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has identified potential issues of establishing and maintaining breastfeeding among women who experience severe maternal morbidity associated with pregnancy and birth, but evidence in the UK maternity population was scarce. We explored the association between severe maternal morbidity and breastfeeding outcomes (uptake and prevalence of partial and exclusive breastfeeding) at 6 to 8 weeks post-partum in a UK sample. Data on breastfeeding outcomes were obtained from a large cohort study of women who gave birth in one maternity unit in England to assess the impact of women's experiences of severe maternal morbidity (defined as major obstetric haemorrhage, severe hypertensive disorder or high dependency unit/intensive care unit admission) on their post-natal health and other important outcomes including infant feeding. Results indicated that among women who responded (n = 1824, response rate = 53%), there were no statistically significant differences in breastfeeding outcomes between women who did or did not experience severe morbidity, except for women with severe hypertensive disorder who were less likely to breastfeed either partially or exclusively at 6 to 8 weeks post-partum. Rather, breastfeeding outcomes were related to multi-dimensional factors including sociodemographic (age, ethnicity, living arrangement), other pregnancy outcomes (neonatal intensive care unit admission, mode of birth, women's perceived control during birth) and post-natal psychological factors (depressive symptoms). Women who experience severe maternal morbidity can be reassured that establishing successful breastfeeding can be achieved. More studies are required to understand what support is best for women who have complex health/social needs to establish breastfeeding. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Uneven chances of breastfeeding in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Río Isabel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No large scale studies on breastfeeding onset patterns have been carried out in Spain. This work aims to explore the prevalence and the risk factors for not initiating breastfeeding in hospitals from Catalonia (CAT and Valencia (V, two regions accounting approximately for 30% of the annual births in Spain. Methods The prevalence of not initiating breastfeeding was calculated by maternal/neonatal characteristics and type of hospital, and logistic regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted risks of not breastfeeding in each region. Results Prevalence of breastfeeding initiation was 81.7% and 82.5% in Catalonia and Valencia, respectively. We identified conspicuous regional differences in the adjusted-risk of not breastfeeding, especially for multiple [CAT = 3.12 (95% CI: 2.93, 3.31, V = 2.44 (95% CI: 2.23, 2.67] and preterm and low birth weight deliveries [very preterm and very low birth weight: CAT = 7.61 (95% CI: 6.50, 8.92, V = 4.03 (95% CI: 3.13, 5.19; moderate preterm and moderate low birth weight: CAT = 4.28 (95% CI: 4.01, 4.57, V = 2.55 (95% CI:2.34, 2.79]. Conclusions Our results suggest the existence of regional variations in breastfeeding initiation in Spain. Taking into account the known short and long-term benefits of breastfeeding it is recommended that further research should explore these differences in order to prevent potential inequities in neonatal, child and adult health.

  18. INTRODUCTION OF SUCCESSFUL BREASTFEEDING PRINCIPLES TO THE SYSTEM OF MEDICAL CARE DELIVERY TO PREMATURE INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Belyaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal feeding in the early postnatal ontogenesis is especially important for premature infants with overlapping perinatal pathologies. As is known, unique properties of breast milk ensure adequate physical and neuropsychic development of children, as well as balanced development of metabolism; this is especially important for premature infants. The article presents the main stages of securing priority of breastfeeding for healthy infants: the history of development of the commonly known “ten steps” of breastfeeding for obstetric institutions and the objective impediments to implementation of these steps at neonatal resuscitation and intensive care units (NRICUs and neonatal pathology units. A group of experts of the World Health Organization summarized experience of several neonatal inpatient hospitals in the framework of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative and formulated the basic principles of breastfeeding support for implementation at NRICUs. The experts emphasize utmost importance of a long-lasting contact with the mother (skin-to-skin and teaching lactation preservation methods to mothers for the support of breastfeeding of premature infants. An attitude toward withdrawal from other feeding methods, rubber teats and pacifiers, as well as organization of breastfeeding “upon request” from premature infants is restricted due to peculiarities of health status and physiological maturity of such children. The experts state that mothers must remain with premature infants around the clock and the necessity of contact with other family members. They also emphasize the importance of preparation of parents to breastfeeding maintenance after discharge from hospital. Implementation of these modified approaches is expected to contribute to successful prolonged breastfeeding of premature infants. 

  19. Factors affecting breastfeeding practices in working women of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Soomro, Jamil Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background, rationale and aim of the study Breastfeeding is considered to be an important measure to secure child s optimal health and survival. In urban areas of Pakistan most of the women can t afford to live at home longer because they serve as an important contributor of their family income. A woman's return to work has frequently been found to be a main contributor to the early termination of breastfeeding. Most workplaces do not have the supportive environment for breastfeeding...

  20. [Maintenance of exclusive breastfeeding after three months postpartum: An experience in a health department of a Valencian Community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Candel, Rafael; Soriano-Vidal, Francisco J; Murillo-Llorente, Mayte; Pérez-Bermejo, Marcelino; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique

    2018-02-14

    To investigate the prevalence of EBF at 3-months postpartum, and the early factors for discontinuation. Observational, retrospective study. Health department of La Ribera, Valencia, Spain. Newborns between December 2012 to January 2017. Pregnant women were interviewed at postpartum and at 3 months regarding variables associated with breastfeeding initiation and continuation, matched with socio-demographic and obstetric-neonatal information. Prevalence of breastfeeding at discharge and exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months. Reasons for interrupt exclusive breastfeeding. Chi-square determination between qualitative variables. One thousand three hundred and thirty-eighth women were recruited. EBF at discharge was 68.2% (913) and at 3 months 46.7% (625). EBF duration was 68.7±32.7 days (95% CI: 66.9-71.2). We found statistically significant differences between the type of breastfeeding and the variables, year of study, country of origin and parity (P<0.001, P=0.005 and P=0.05 respectively). Hypogalactia (21.8%) and lower than recommended increase in newborn weight gain (14.9%) were most frequent factors for discontinuation. The prevalence of EBF at 3 months is low compared to other similar studies, although we see an upward trend. Belief in hypogalactia influenced the maintenance of exclusive breastfeeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Determinants of Breastfeeding Practices and Success in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Wei Wei; Aris, Izzuddin M; Fok, Doris; Soh, Shu-E; Chua, Mei Chien; Lim, Sok Bee; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; van Dam, Rob M; Kramer, Michael S; Chong, Yap-Seng

    2016-03-01

    Many countries in Asia report low breastfeeding rates and the risk factors for early weaning are not well studied. We assessed the prevalence, duration, and mode of breastfeeding (direct or expressed) among mothers of three Asian ethnic groups. Participants were 1,030 Singaporean women recruited during early pregnancy. Data collected included early breastfeeding experiences, breastfeeding duration, and mode of breastfeeding. Full breastfeeding was defined as the intake of breast milk, with or without water. Cox regression models were used to identify factors associated with discontinuation of any and full breastfeeding. Logistic regression analyses assessed the association of ethnicity with mode of breastfeeding. At 6 months postpartum, the prevalence of any breastfeeding was 46 percent for Chinese mothers, 22 percent for Malay mothers, and 41 percent for Indian mothers; prevalence of full breastfeeding was 11, 2, and 5 percent, respectively. More Chinese mothers fed their infants expressed breast milk, instead of directly breastfeeding them, compared with the other two ethnic groups. Duration of any and full breastfeeding were positively associated with breastfeeding a few hours after birth, higher maternal age and education, and negatively associated with irregular breastfeeding frequency and being shown how to breastfeed. Adjusting for maternal education, breastfeeding duration was similar in the three ethnic groups, but ethnicity remained a significant predictor of mode of breastfeeding. The low rates and duration of breastfeeding in this population may be improved with breastfeeding education and support, especially in mothers with lower education. Further work is needed to understand the cultural differences in mode of feeding and its implications for maternal and infant health. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. [Prevalence of breastfeeding and factors associated with the start and duration of exclusive breastfeeding in the Community of Madrid among participants in the ELOIN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro González, María D; Ortiz Marrón, Honorato; Arana Cañedo-Argüelles, Celina; Esparza Olcina, María Jesús; Cortés Rico, Olga; Terol Claramonte, María; Ordobás Gavín, María

    2017-11-02

    Breastfeeding has important benefits for population health. The aims of this study are: (i)to determine the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding; (ii)analyse the reasons for not starting or abandoning of breastfeeding, and (iii)describe the factors associated with the initiation and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Cross sectional study using the baseline data of the ELOIN cohort, obtained using an epidemiological questionnaire. A sample of 2,627 children born in 2008-2009 from the Community of Madrid was studied. Logistic regression models were used. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and breastfeeding was 77.6% and 88% respectively; prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at 6months 25.4%, and prevalence of breastfeeding at 2years was 7.7%. The most common reasons for abandoning breastfeeding were insufficient milk (36%), and incorporation to work (25.9%). The variables associated with starting or maintaining of exclusive breastfeeding were: mother older than 35years, medium-high economic status, foreigner residing in Spain less than 10 years, and having participated in a breastfeeding workshop. Breastfeeding prevalence in the Community of Madrid did not reach the international recommendations in 2008-2009. It is necessary to intensify strategies for breastfeeding promotion, protection, and support, including their periodic monitoring. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  3. Breastfeeding and postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Julia P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2003-06-01

    Bone loss associated with osteoporosis occurs with high frequency among the elderly and often results in debilitating fractures. A combination of lifestyle behaviors, genetic predisposition, and disease processes contributes to bone metabolism. Therefore, any discussion regarding bone health must address these factors. The impact of menopause on bone turnover has been generally well studied and characterized. Breastfeeding places significant stress on calcium metabolism and, as a consequence, directly influences bone metabolism. The most significant factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism are the duration and frequency of lactation, the return of menses, and pre-pregnancy weight. Although transient, lactation is associated with bone loss. As clinical guidelines and public health policies are being formulated, there is a compelling need for further investigation into the relationship of lactation, BMD, and subsequent risk of osteoporosis. Better understanding of this relationship will provide new opportunities for early intervention and ultimately help in the prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  4. Effects of Cesarean Delivery on Breastfeeding Practices and Duration: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Yan, Yan; Gao, Xiao; Xiang, Shiting; He, Qiong; Zeng, Guangyu; Liu, Shiping; Sha, Tingting; Li, Ling

    2018-01-01

    Mothers are encouraged to exclusively breastfeed for the first 6 months. However, cesarean delivery rates have increased worldwide, which may affect breastfeeding. Research aim: This study aimed to determine the potential effects of cesarean delivery on breastfeeding practices and breastfeeding duration. This was a 6-month cohort study extracted from a 24-month prospective cohort study of mother-infant pairs in three communities in Hunan, China. Data about participants' characteristics, delivery methods, breastfeeding initiation, use of formula in the hospital, exclusive breastfeeding, and any breastfeeding were collected at 1, 3, and 6 months following each infant's birth. The chi-square test, logistic regression model, and Cox proportional hazard regression model were used to examine the relationship between breastfeeding practices and cesarean delivery. The number of women who had a cesarean delivery was 387 (40.6%), and 567 (59.4%) women had a vaginal delivery. The exclusive breastfeeding rates at 1, 3, and 6 months were 80.2%, 67.4%, and 21.5%, respectively. Women who had a cesarean delivery showed a lower rate of exclusive breastfeeding and any breastfeeding than those who had a vaginal delivery ( p cesarean delivery was related with using formula in the hospital and delayed breastfeeding initiation. Cesarean delivery also shortened the breastfeeding duration (hazard ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [1.06, 1.84]). Healthcare professionals should provide more breastfeeding skills to women who have a cesarean delivery and warn mothers about the dangers of elective cesarean section for breastfeeding practices.

  5. Preserving breastfeeding for the rehospitalized infant: a clinical pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Diane L; Goldschmidt, Karen A

    2006-01-01

    The benefits of feeding newborns with human milk are well established. Unfortunately some hospital practices do not support successful breastfeeding; practices such as early hospital discharge after birth, lack of appropriate follow-up primary care providers, and lack of access to breastfeeding support services can contribute to breastfeeding failure, as well as morbidity and mortality in the infant. Infants experiencing breastfeeding difficulties are sometimes admitted to the hospital with diagnoses such as hyperbilirubinemia/jaundice, dehydration/hypernatremia, rule out sepsis, and weight loss/failure to thrive. This article describes a clinical pathway developed with the express purpose of maintaining and enhancing lactation in mother-infant dyads experiencing breastfeeding difficulties. The goal of the pathway is to maintain lactation and breastfeeding while returning the infant to a state of health. A key focus of the pathway is milk transfer, a concept that is missing from much of the research on lactation difficulties. The pathway considers breastfeeding from both a maternal and an infant perspective, with a goal of preserving breastfeeding. It uses technology to support the breastfeeding process and could be useful for all practitioners working with mother-infant dyads experiencing breastfeeding difficulties.

  6. What Do Mothers Think about Concurrent Breastfeeding and Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogen, Debra L.; Davies, Erin D.; Barnhart, Wesley C.; Lucero, Cynthia A.; Moss, Deborah R.

    2008-01-01

    Background According to newer AAP policies, smoking is not contraindicated with breastfeeding, yet smokers initiate and maintain breastfeeding less than non-smokers. Objectives 1) Describe maternal knowledge and 2) attitudes regarding concurrent breastfeeding and smoking or nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and 3) evaluate the association between maternal smoking and infant feeding practices. Methods Mothers bringing children breastfeeding and smoking/NRT. Results Among 204 survey completers, 63% were African American, 52% had never breastfed and 54% had never smoked. Knowledge: Regardless of smoking status, 19% were aware of the recommendation to smoke after breastfeeding; most did not know that nicotine gum (42%) or patch (40%) transfers less or about the same amount of nicotine into breast milk than smoking a pack per day. Attitudes: Most mothers (80%) believe that women should not smoke any cigarettes if breastfeeding; current smokers (25%) were more likely than former (10%) or never smokers (11%) to find it acceptable to smoke one or more cigarettes per day (p=.03). Only 2% found it acceptable to use NRT while breastfeeding. Practice: Among ever breastfeeders, 10% stopped breastfeeding because of smoking. Over half of recent or current smokers reported that smoking impacted their infant feeding decision. Conclusions Mothers in this sample believe that women who smoke or take NRT should not breastfeed. Smoking status impacted women’s infant feeding practices. Correction of misinformation could increase breastfeeding rates. PMID:18501868

  7. Factors associated with duration of breastfeeding in ireland: potential areas for improvement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2011-08-01

    There is a need to comprehensively examine why mothers in Ireland discontinue breastfeeding early and to explore the factors influencing duration of breastfeeding during the first 6 months postpartum. Findings from this study provide valuable direction for future strategies and interventions aimed at increasing breastfeeding duration rates in Ireland.

  8. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental Health Pain Pregnancy Reproductive Health Sexual Health Sexually ...

  9. Breastfeeding is Best (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-13

    Proper nutrition is critical for the early growth and development of a newborn. The best way to feed a baby is breastfeeding. In this podcast, Dr. Erica Anstey discusses the benefits of breastfeeding.  Created: 7/13/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 7/13/2017.

  10. Why are breastfeeding rates low in Lebanon? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabulsi, Mona

    2011-08-30

    Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health intervention that reduces infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Lebanon, breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates are disappointingly low. This qualitative study aims at identifying barriers and promoters of breastfeeding in the Lebanese context by exploring mothers' perceptions and experiences in breastfeeding over a one year period. We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and followed up 36 breastfeeding mothers with serial in-depth interviews for one year post-partum or until breastfeeding discontinuation. Themes generated from baseline interviews revealed several positive and negative perceptions of breastfeeding. Longitudinal follow up identified insufficient milk, fear of weight gain or breast sagging, pain, sleep deprivation, exhaustion, or maternal employment, as reasons for early breastfeeding discontinuation. Women who continued breastfeeding for one year were more determined to succeed and overcome any barrier, relying mostly on family support and proper time management. Increasing awareness of future mothers about breast feeding difficulties, its benefits to children, mothers, and society at large may further promote breastfeeding, and improve exclusivity and continuation rates in Lebanon. A national strategy for early intervention during school years to increase young women's awareness may improve their self-confidence and determination to succeed in breastfeeding later. Moreover, prolonging maternity leave, having day-care facilities at work, creation of lactation peer support groups and hotlines, and training of doctors and nurses in proper lactation support may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed interventions in the Lebanese context.

  11. Why are breastfeeding rates low in Lebanon? a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabulsi Mona

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health intervention that reduces infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Lebanon, breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates are disappointingly low. This qualitative study aims at identifying barriers and promoters of breastfeeding in the Lebanese context by exploring mothers' perceptions and experiences in breastfeeding over a one year period. Methods We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and followed up 36 breastfeeding mothers with serial in-depth interviews for one year post-partum or until breastfeeding discontinuation. Results Themes generated from baseline interviews revealed several positive and negative perceptions of breastfeeding. Longitudinal follow up identified insufficient milk, fear of weight gain or breast sagging, pain, sleep deprivation, exhaustion, or maternal employment, as reasons for early breastfeeding discontinuation. Women who continued breastfeeding for one year were more determined to succeed and overcome any barrier, relying mostly on family support and proper time management. Conclusions Increasing awareness of future mothers about breast feeding difficulties, its benefits to children, mothers, and society at large may further promote breastfeeding, and improve exclusivity and continuation rates in Lebanon. A national strategy for early intervention during school years to increase young women's awareness may improve their self-confidence and determination to succeed in breastfeeding later. Moreover, prolonging maternity leave, having day-care facilities at work, creation of lactation peer support groups and hotlines, and training of doctors and nurses in proper lactation support may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed interventions in the Lebanese context.

  12. Breastfeeding Initiation and Maintenance Among African Americans and Blacks Enrolled in a Nurse Home Visitation Program: An Outcomes Focused Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    Spull:er Kathi 8arber, ru; FOWtder AfricanAmerDll ~Aliilna! trtmdrcDan by Nia ~~ MS»Eda,. MPH, ANU>S.M.LL£ Nlll2 Recoi:;nm- ilnd Appreciation...HNttwr Ross, AAHP P’nlgrillm Manag’l!lr Morqomery Cowrty [)e.piwb’i IEf1t of Health and Human ServicM Rafltll! D.,_inc Nia Wllliims-Myle, RN, MSN-Edu...Journal of the California Perinatal Association 28: 505 -10 54. Colin WB, Scott JA. 2002. Breastfeeding: reasons for starting, reasons for stopping

  13. Breastfeeding Duration and the Theory of Planned Behavior and Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Framework: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Christine Y K; Lok, Kris Y W; Tarrant, Marie

    2018-03-01

    Introduction Numerous studies have shown that the constructs of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy (BSE) Framework can effectively identify relationships between maternal psychosocial factors and breastfeeding initiation. However, the ability of these theories to predict breastfeeding duration has not been adequately analyzed. The aim of the review was to examine the utility of the constructs of TRA/TPB and BSE to predict breastfeeding duration. Methods We conducted a literature search using Pubmed (1980-May 2015), Medline (1966-May 2015), CINAHL (1980-May 2015), EMBASE (1980-May 2015) and PsycINFO (1980-May 2015). We selected studies that were observational studies without randomization or blinding, using TRA, TPB or BSE as the framework for analysis. Only studies reporting on breastfeeding duration were included. Results Thirty studies were selected, which include four using TRA, 10 using TPB, 15 using BSE and one using a combination of TPB and BSE. Maternal intention and breastfeeding self-efficacy were found to be important predictors of breastfeeding duration. Inconsistent findings were found in assessing the relationship between maternal attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavior control and breastfeeding duration. Discussion The inadequacy of these constructs in explaining breastfeeding duration indicates a need to further explore the role of maternal self-determination in breastfeeding behavior.

  14. Breastfeeding Is Associated with Decreased Childhood Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kristen P; Kremer, Theodore R

    Child maltreatment has serious implications for youth outcomes, yet its associations with early parenting practices are not fully understood. This study investigated whether breastfeeding practices are correlated with childhood maltreatment. Data were utilized from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a nationally representative and longitudinal study of adolescents. The analytic sample comprised 4,159 adolescents. The outcome variables included four subtypes of childhood maltreatment (neglect, inadequate supervision, physical abuse, and sexual abuse). The primary independent variable was breastfeeding duration. Covariates of the child, mother, and household were included in analyses. Logistic regression models were employed to predict odds of maltreatment subtypes from breastfeeding duration and covariates. Compared with adolescents never breastfed, adolescents breastfed 9 months or longer had a reduced odds of having experienced neglect (odds ratio [OR] = 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35-0.83) and sexual abuse (OR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.24-0.93) after controlling for covariates. Breastfeeding duration is significantly associated with decreased childhood neglect and sexual abuse. Breastfeeding practices should be explored as a consideration among clinicians when assessing maltreatment risk. Further research should examine whether a causal relationship exists between breastfeeding and decreased maltreatment.

  15. Breastfeeding, Parenting, and Infant Attachment Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Benjamin G; Forste, Renata; Lybbert, Emily

    2018-04-01

    Objectives Infants and toddlers need secure attachments in order to develop the social competence required to successfully navigate later peer and adult relationships. Breastfeeding is a parenting factor that has been associated with child emotional development-specifically the attachment between children and their mothers. Yet, this link may simply be the result of other parenting behaviors that are associated with breastfeeding. Thus, our objective is to examine whether the link between infant attachment behaviors and breastfeeding endures when accounting for a broad array of in-depth measures of parenting. Methods We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of children from 9 months to 2 years of age collected by the National Center for Education Statistics. Using Ordinary Least Squares regression, data analyses examine the association between the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 (TAS-45) measures of toddler-parent attachment (infant attachment security and temperamental dependency) and breastfeeding practices. We also examine individual items of the TAS-45 to isolate specific attachment behaviors that have the strongest associations with breastfeeding. Results We find an enduring link between children who are predominantly breastfed for six or more months and infant attachment security. However, we find no evidence that breastfeeding is linked to a child's temperamental dependency. Of the nine items used to examine infant attachment behaviors, we find that breastfed children are rated as having slightly higher scores on two measures ("warm and cuddly," "cooperative") and lower scores on one measure ("demanding/angry"). Conclusions for Practice Breastfeeding has an important link to the child's use of their caregiver as a secure base for exploration and a place of comfort when distressed (infant attachment security). Yet, breastfeeding does not appear to reduce a child's temperamental dependency or level of clinginess as measured by how demanding, fussy or

  16. Impact of birth complications on breastfeeding duration: an internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy; Jordan, Sue

    2013-04-01

    To explore reasons underlying cessation of breastfeeding in mothers with uncomplicated vaginal deliveries and those experiencing complications during childbirth. Interventions during labour and childbirth can have a negative impact on breastfeeding. Explanations include adverse reactions to medication, delayed breastfeeding initiation, and disruption of the normal endocrinology of childbirth. However, reasons for breastfeeding cessation linked to birth experience have not been fully examined. Increasing breastfeeding duration and, consequently, improving infant and maternal health in the UK depend on understanding why women stop breastfeeding. An exploratory cross-sectional survey. Between January-May 2009, 284 mothers attending community groups in Swansea, Wales, and mothers participating in online parenting forums, who initiated breastfeeding but discontinued before 6 months postpartum, reported their birth experience, including complications and reasons for breastfeeding cessation in an internet survey. Mothers who experienced birth complications breastfed for a significantly shorter duration than those who did not. Specifically, caesarean deliveries, foetal distress, failure to progress, and postpartum haemorrhage were each associated with a shorter breastfeeding duration. Mothers who experienced complications were more likely to discontinue breastfeeding for reasons of pain and difficulty than mothers who did not experience complications, yet no difference was seen between groups for social reasons such as embarrassment or a lack of support. Certain complications during labour may increase risk of specific physical difficulties with breastfeeding, possibly due to their association with medications received. Maternity health professionals should be alert to this possibility to offer enhanced attention and care to overcome these issues and prolong breastfeeding duration. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Fatores associados ao início da amamentação em uma cidade do sul do Brasil Factors associated with the initiation of breastfeeding in a city in the south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Bosenbecker da Silveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar as características - maternas, dos bebês e das maternidades - associadas com o início da amamentação na primeira hora após o parto. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal aninhado em coorte que acompanhou bebês de mães residentes em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. As mães responderam a questionário padronizado, com dados referentes a fatores demográficos e socioeconômicos, pré-natal, características maternas do bebê, da maternidade, condições de nascimento e início da amamentação. As entrevistas foram realizadas através de visitas diárias às maternidades, respeitando um período mínimo de quatro horas após o parto. Foram realizadas análise univariada, bivariada e regressão logística. RESULTADOS: foram entrevistadas 2741 mães, sendo que 35,5% amamentaram na primeira hora pós-parto. As que mais precocemente iniciaram a amamentação foram as de menor idade, menor escolaridade e menor renda. Mães cujo parto foi cesárea tiveram um risco cerca de duas vezes maior de não amamentar na primeira hora de vida. CONCLUSÕES: é importante a indicação adequada do tipo de parto, pois a cesárea aumenta o tempo de separação mãe-bebê. É relevante estimular a expansão da Iniciativa Hospital Amigo da Criança, pela capacidade de promover e proteger o aleitamento.OBJECTIVES: to identify characteristics of mothers, babies and nursing associated with the initiation of breastfeeding in the first hour of birth. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of newborns whose mothers were residents in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The mothers answered a questionnaire, which provided data referring to demographic and socioeconomic factors, prenatal period, maternal, neonatal and nursery characteristics, birth conditions, and initiation of breastfeeding. The interviews were carried out by way of daily visits to all nurseries, allowing for a minimum period of four hours after delivery

  18. Breastfeeding performance in Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridvand, Fatemeh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Malakouti, Jamileh

    2018-04-20

    Studies have shown that breastfeeding has both short-term and long-term useful effects on mother's and newborn's health. This study was conducted with the aim of determining predictors of breastfeeding performance in women who were referred to health centres in Tabriz City, Iran, in 2014 to 2015. This cross-sectional study cluster-sampled 220 breastfeeding women with infants aged 4 to 6 months. The Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale, the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale, the personal resource questionnaire-85, and a researcher-developed knowledge questionnaire were used to collect data. Multivariate linear regression model was used to determine predictors of breastfeeding performance. The results showed that participants' breastfeeding performance mean (SD) value was 3.6 (1.2) of 6. There were significant relationships between breastfeeding performance and breastfeeding self-efficacy (P = .033) but not between social support, knowledge, attitudes, and breastfeeding performance (P > .05). Breastfeeding self-efficacy, occupation, family income sufficiency, and living with the family were identified as predictors of breastfeeding performance. Given the relationship between breastfeeding self-efficacy and breastfeeding performance, strengthening mothers' self-efficacy should be considered, especially when compiling programs to promote breastfeeding. Increasing breastfeeding self-efficacy in women improves their breastfeeding performance: In developing programs to promote breastfeeding culture, women's self-efficacy should be considered. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. A Functional Assessment of the Impact of Advantages and Disadvantages on Breastfeeding Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Frederik; Bakker, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Although health and other benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child have been repeatedly shown, there is still a large proportion of women who do not initiate or continue breastfeeding. The aim of the current study is to analyze the contribution of the presentation of advantages and disadvantages of breastfeeding in developing an attitude…

  20. Women's perceptions, knowledge and breastfeeding decision-making : Linking theory to qualitative empirical data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhoff, Alberta Tonnise

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, many women who start breastfeeding stop doing so in the first month after birth. Campaigns aiming to increase breastfeeding rates, focus on initiation as well as on continuation of breastfeeding, preferably until six months after birth. Little is known about women’s underlying

  1. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Breastfeeding Among Working Mothers in South Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamimi, Eyad; Al Nsour, Reem; Al Dalaen, Duaa; Almajali, Neyaf

    2017-05-01

    Breast milk is the ideal food for human infants, with benefits to mothers and babies. However, working mothers are more likely to choose not to breastfeed or to interrupt breastfeeding prematurely. This study assessed breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes among working mothers in South Jordan. Four hundred cross-sectional, self-administered Arabic surveys were distributed to working mothers at their workplaces. In addition to measuring mothers' knowledge of and attitudes toward breastfeeding, barriers that prevented continuing breastfeeding beyond 6 months were also explored. Three hundred forty-four (80%) completed questionnaires were returned. The breastfeeding initiation rate was 72.4%, but only 20.9% were exclusively breastfeeding by 6 months. The participants showed satisfactory knowledge about breastfeeding and had positive attitudes toward breastfeeding. Most of the women who initiated breastfeeding reported ending breastfeeding prematurely. Approximately 30% of the mothers attributed premature cessation of breastfeeding to work. The results of this study could be useful for health care providers and policy makers when planning effective breastfeeding promotion programs and creating breastfeeding-friendly workplaces.

  2. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding (BF) is well recognised as the best food for infants. The impact of antenatal BF education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education for increasing BF initiation and duration. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (21 April 2010), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2010) and SCOPUS (January 1985 to April 2010). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. We updated the search of the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register on 28 September 2011 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on duration of BF. We excluded RCTs that also included intrapartum or postpartum BF education. Data collection and analysis We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. Main results We included 17 studies with 7131 women in the review and 14 studies involving 6932 women contributed data to the analyses. We did not do any meta-analysis because there was only one study for each comparison. Five studies compared a single method of BF education with routine care. Peer counselling significantly increased BF initiation. Three studies compared one form of BF education versus another. No intervention was significantly more effective than another intervention in increasing initiation or duration of BF. Seven studies compared multiple methods versus a single method of BF education. Combined BF educational interventions were not

  3. Pilot Study: Mother's Attitude and Practices toward Antenatal Care, Micronutrient Supplementation and Breastfeeding in Salmaniya Medical Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Good nutrition in the first 1000 days provides a stable long term foundation for society, as it ensures a child's growth to his/her potential (1). Pregnant women who suffer from multiple micronutrient deficiencies have been associated with poor pregnancy outcomes including Low Birth weight-LBW (4). Iron deficiency anemia is linked to an increased risk of infections (4), and is still a health problem in the kingdom of Bahrain with the prevalence of 22.7% to 54% (5). The World Health Organization (WHO), United Nation Children's fund (UNICEF) and American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations are to initiate breastfeeding within the first hour of life and to and sustain exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (6). Several studies have shown a downward trend of breastfeeding in developing countries such as Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (7,8). Studies in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Kingdom of Bahrain have shown partial breastfeeding at early months<6month age (8,9) Aim: To provide a preliminary evaluation of the mother's attitude/practices toward antenatal care, micronutrient supplementation and breastfeeding in Salmaniya Medical Complex (SMC), Kingdom of Bahrain. Methods: A sample of 62 Bahraini mothers - inpatients and outpatients- within the age group of 20 years to 35 years old at SMC were asked by dietitians and diet technicians to answer 7 closed ended questions about importance of antenatal care, compliance to nutritional recommendations during pregnancy and breastfeeding practices. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used in analyzing data collected. Fisher Exact test and Chi-Square test were used to correlate the determinants (age and education level) with mother's attitude/practices. Statistical significance was assumed at p<0.05 Results: Scores showed no significant correlation between education level mother's attitude/practices toward antenatal care, micronutrient supplementation and breastfeeding. As for age, we found more mothers above 25

  4. Development and evaluation of a self care program on breastfeeding in Japan: A quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awano Masayo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the importance of breastfeeding is well known in Japan, in recent years less than 50% of mothers were fully breastfeeding at one month after birth. The purpose of this study was to develop a self-care program for breastfeeding aimed at increasing mothers' breastfeeding confidence and to evaluate its effectiveness. Methods A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was conducted in Japan. The intervention, a breastfeeding self-care program, was created to improve mothers' self-efficacy for breastfeeding. This Breastfeeding Self-Care Program included: information on the advantages and basics of breastfeeding, a breastfeeding checklist to evaluate breastfeeding by mothers and midwives, and a pamphlet and audiovisual materials on breastfeeding. Mothers received this program during their postpartum hospital stay. A convenience sample of 117 primiparous women was recruited at two clinical sites from October 2007 to March 2008. The intervention group (n = 55, who gave birth in three odd-numbered months, received standard care and the Breastfeeding Self-Care Program while the control group (n = 62 gave birth in three even numbered months and received standard breastfeeding care. To evaluate the effectiveness of the Breastfeeding Self-Care Program, breastfeeding self-efficacy and breastfeeding rate were measured early postpartum, before the intervention, and after the intervention at one month postpartum. The study used the Japanese version of The Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale Short Form (BSES-SF to measure self-efficacy. Results The BSES-SF score of the intervention group rose significantly from 34.8 at early postpartum to 49.9 at one month after birth (p Conclusion Results indicate that the Breastfeeding Self-Care Program increased mothers' self-efficacy for breastfeeding and had a positive effect on the continuation of breastfeeding. Trial Registration Number UMIN000003517

  5. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of-a-kind bond that breastfeeding brings. Staying healthy and eating well YouTube embed video: https://www.youtube-nocookie. ... https://www.youtube-nocookie.com/embed/kYQhoQ4umgg Healthy eating can keep you strong while breastfeeding. Learn more ...

  6. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... content U.S. Department of Health & Human Services En Español Search Call the OWH HELPLINE: 1-800-994- ... breastfeeding My breastfeeding story Partner resources Search En Español Call the OWH HELPLINE: 1-800-994-9662 ...

  7. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health topics Printables and Shareables Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental ... Shareables Browse by health topic Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental ...

  8. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is the best time to learn about the benefits of breastfeeding and make plans to give your baby a healthy start in life. Expand the sections below to watch videos about breastfeeding and ... href="https://www.youtube-nocookie.com/embed/ge-2Cn-LRAE">https://www.youtube- ...

  9. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a.m. — 6 p.m. ET, Monday — Friday Search Menu En Español Search Menu CHANGE Top Menu Health and Wellness Getting ... do while breastfeeding My breastfeeding story Partner resources Search En Español Call the OWH HELPLINE: 800-994- ...

  10. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find out what worked for other breastfeeding moms. What breastfeeding means to me YouTube embed video: < ... EMOCGmf3UVk</a> Moms share what’s behind the one-of-a-kind bond that ...

  11. Common Breastfeeding Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or duplicated without permission of the Office on Women’s Health in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Citation of the source is appreciated. Page last updated: March 02, 2018. Common breastfeeding challenges Breastfeeding can be ...

  12. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Popular Topics Autoimmune diseases Breastfeeding Carpal tunnel syndrome Depression HIV and AIDS Menstruation Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) Pregnancy Thyroid disease All A-Z health topics Find Help Get breastfeeding help Get health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning ...

  13. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kind bond that breastfeeding brings. Staying healthy and eating well YouTube embed video: https://www.youtube-nocookie. ... www.youtube-nocookie.com/embed/kYQhoQ4umgg Healthy eating can keep you strong while breastfeeding. Learn more ...

  14. Buddhism and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segawa, Masashi

    2008-06-01

    Buddhism is an ancient religion that began in India and spread throughout Asia. It is prevalent in modern Japan. Breastfeeding has been a strong practice for centuries with the custom being to continue until the child is 6 or 7 years of age. The Edo period was very influential in establishing breastfeeding customs that continue today.

  15. Barriers to breastfeeding in Lebanon: A policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akik, Chaza; Ghattas, Hala; Filteau, Suzanne; Knai, Cecile

    2017-08-01

    Although the issue of breastfeeding in Lebanon has risen on the political agenda, the country does not meet international recommendations for early breastfeeding practices. This study analysed barriers to dissemination, implementation, and enforcement of key policies to improve early breastfeeding practices. We conducted interviews with stakeholders in breastfeeding policy in Lebanon and used a framework approach for analysing data. We found a disconnect between policy endorsement and translation on the ground, weak engagement of professional associations and governmental institutions, undue influence by the breast milk substitute industry, and competing priorities-most notably the current refugee crisis. This study highlights the potential policy opportunities to counter these barriers and points to the role of international organisations and grassroots advocacy in pushing, monitoring, and implementing policies that protect breastfeeding, where government capacity is limited, and the private sector is strong.

  16. Good breastfeeding policies -- good breastfeeding rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In Norway, where breast-feeding policies protecting breast-feeding women's needs have been in place since the 1970s, approximately 97% of women breast feed when leaving the hospital, 80% are breast feeding at 3 months, and 20% beyond 12 months. Government family policies play an important role in enabling women to achieve good breast-feeding rates. In Norway: maternity leave is 42 weeks with full pay or 52 weeks with 80% of salary; flexible part-time is available for women from 2 months after giving birth with income supplemented from maternity benefits; after returning to work, women are entitled to 1- to 1.5-hour breaks to return home to breast feed, or to have the child brought to work. "Breast feeding is so normal," writes Hege Jacobson Lepri, "it's more embarrassing to bring out the feeding bottle in public." full text

  17. Early Sex Work Initiation and Violence against Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcesepe, Angela M; L'Engle, Kelly L; Martin, Sandra L; Green, Sherri; Suchindran, Chirayath; Mwarogo, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Between 20 and 40 % of female sex workers (FSWs) began sex work before age 18. Little is known concerning whether early initiation of sex work impacts later experiences in adulthood, including violence victimization. This paper examines the relationship between early initiation of sex work and violence victimization during adulthood. The sample included 816 FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya, recruited from HIV prevention drop-in centers who were 18 years or older and moderate-risk drinkers. Early initiation was defined as beginning sex work at 17 or younger. Logistic regression modeled recent violence as a function of early initiation, adjusting for drop-in center, age, education, HIV status, supporting others, and childhood abuse. Twenty percent of the sample reported early initiation of sex work. Although both early initiators and other FSWs reported commonly experiencing recent violence, early initiators were significantly more likely to experience recent physical and sexual violence and verbal abuse from paying partners. Early initiation was not associated with physical or sexual violence from non-paying partners. Many FSWs begin sex work before age 18. Effective interventions focused on preventing this are needed. In addition, interventions are needed to prevent violence against all FSWs, in particular, those who initiated sex work during childhood or adolescence.

  18. Breastfeeding: a natural defence against obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella D'Angelo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Today, obesity represents one of the most serious health problems facing both children and adults. Childhood obesity has several causes, including genetic factors, dietary habits, personal behaviours, and interaction of all of these. It often leads to adult obesity, which causes health problems including heart disease, diabetes, and even early death. Thus, many studies have investigated possible measures to prevent childhood obesity, and breastfeeding is considered an important early preventive intervention. Despite the fact that several milk formulas have been demonstrated to be safe and effective for feeding both term and premature infants, for its immunological and nutritional qualitative advantages, human milk is nowadays universally recognized as the optimal feeding choice for healthy, sick and preterm infants. To date, it is however still unclear whether breastfeeding can prevent childhood obesity. In fact, literature data provide controversial results, probably due to several confounding factors, including maternal habits, age, level of education, lifestyle, race, parity, pregnancy complications, types of delivery, and infant health factors. Thus, whether breastfeeding protects against obesity is still unclear. Further researches, by reducing the influence of confounding factors and improving the accuracy of the effect estimate, are needed to confirm the validity of the role of breastfeeding in reducing the risk of developing childhood overweight. This review briefly summarizes what is known on the possible relationship between breastfeeding and prevention of obesity development.

  19. Let's Talk About Breastfeeding: The Importance of Delivering a Message in a Home Visiting Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Sandra; Lee, Eunju; Kirkland, Kristen; Miranda-Julian, Claudia; Greene, Rose

    2018-05-01

    To examine the potential impact of paraprofessional home visitors in promoting breastfeeding initiation and continuation among a high-risk population. A secondary analysis of program data from a statewide home visitation program. Thirty-six Healthy Families New York sites across New York State. A total of 3521 pregnant mothers at risk of poor child health and developmental outcomes. Home visitors deliver a multifaceted intervention that includes educating high-risk mothers on benefits of breastfeeding, encouraging them to breastfeed and supporting their efforts during prenatal and postnatal periods. Home visitor-reported content and frequency of home visits, participant-reported breastfeeding initiation and duration, and covariates (Kempe Family Stress Index, race and ethnicity, region, nativity, marital status, age, and education). Logistic regression. Breastfeeding initiation increased by 1.5% for each 1-point increase in the percentage of prenatal home visits that included breastfeeding discussions. Breastfeeding continuation during the first 6 months also increased with the percentage of earlier home visits that included breastfeeding discussions. Additionally, if a participant receives 1 more home visit during the third month, her likelihood of breastfeeding at 6 months increases by 11%. Effect sizes varied by months postpartum. Delivering a breastfeeding message consistently during regular home visits is important for increasing breastfeeding rates. Given that home visiting programs target new mothers least likely to breastfeed, a more consistent focus on breastfeeding in this supportive context may reduce breastfeeding disparities.

  20. Breastfeeding Infants with Phenylketonuria in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Nancy; Knafl, Kathleen A.; Steiner, Robert D.; Houck, Gail M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study described the prevalence and duration of mothers' breastfeeding infants with phenylketonuria (PKU) and explored factors related to duration of breastfeeding as a surrogate for breastfeeding success. Subjects and Methods: Descriptive analysis as performed from an international Internet survey of mothers (n=103) who met the inclusion criteria: (1) at least 21 years of age, (2) able to read and write in English, (3) child with PKU, and (4) living in the United States or Canada. Results: Of the 103 mothers, 89 (86%) initiated breastfeeding immediately following delivery, whereas 14 (14%) chose bottle feeding. In comparison to breastfeeding after delivery, significantly fewer mothers breastfed after diagnosis (McNemar's χ2=30.33, p<0.001; n=72 vs. n=89). Breastfeeding duration ranged from less than 1 month to 24 months with one modal duration category (n=20, 22%) at less than 1 month. The timing of the addition of commercial infant formula to supplement breastfeeding or expressed mothers' milk was associated with a shorter duration of breastfeeding among infants with PKU: χ2 (42, n=73)=88.13, p<0.001. Conclusions: PKU is treated with phenylalanine (Phe) restriction. Breastfeeding infants with PKU is challenging in part because Phe intake is difficult to determine precisely. We studied breastfeeding duration in infants with PKU and factors associated with success. Further research should identify the unique needs of mothers' breastfeeding infants with PKU to guide the development of interventions specific to these mothers to support their efforts to continue breastfeeding after the diagnosis of PKU. PMID:24350704

  1. The Early College High School Initiative: An Overview of Five Evaluation Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Andrea; Adelman, Nancy; Cole, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation started the Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI). Through this initiative, more than 200 Early College Schools (ECSs) opened by fall 2009. All of the schools aim to provide underserved students access to college classes while in high school. This article will provide an overview of the first 6…

  2. Outcomes in a cohort of women who discontinued maternal triple-antiretroviral regimens initially used to prevent mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy and breastfeeding--Kenya, 2003-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D Minniear

    Full Text Available In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO amended their 2010 guidelines for women receiving limited duration, triple-antiretroviral drug regimens during pregnancy and breastfeeding for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (tARV-PMTCT (Option B to include the option to continue lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy (cART (Option B+. We evaluated clinical and CD4 outcomes in women who had received antiretrovirals for prevention of mother-to-child transmission and then discontinued antiretrovirals 6-months postpartum.The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study, 2003-2009, was a prospective, non-randomized, open-label clinical trial of tARV-PMTCT in ARV-naïve, Kenyan women. Women received tARV-PMTCT from 34 weeks' gestation until 6-months postpartum when women were instructed to discontinue breastfeeding. Women with CD4 count (CD4 <250cells/mm3 or WHO stage III/IV prior to 6-months postpartum continued cART indefinitely. We estimated the change in CD4 after discontinuing tARV-PMTCT and the adjusted relative risk [aRR] for factors associated with declines in maternal CD4. We compared maternal and infant outcomes following weaning-when tARV-PMTCT discontinued-by maternal ARV status through 24-months postpartum. Compared with women who continued cART, discontinuing antiretrovirals was associated with infant HIV transmission and death (10.1% vs. 2.4%; P = 0.03. Among women who discontinued antiretrovirals, CD4<500 cells/mm3 at either initiation (21.8% vs. 1.5%; P = 0.002; aRR: 9.8; 95%-confidence interval [CI]: 2.4-40.6 or discontinuation (36.9% vs. 8.3%; P<0.0001; aRR: 4.4; 95%-CI: 1.9-5.0 were each associated with increased risk of women requiring cART for their own health within 6 months after discontinuing.Considering the serious health risks to the woman's infant and the brief reprieve from cART gained by stopping, every country should evaluate the need for and feasibility to implement WHO Option B+ for PMTCT. Evaluating CD4 at

  3. Breastfeeding: an emotional instinct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Meneses, Gonzalo

    2013-04-01

    The proposed objective of this research is twofold: (1) it examines the significance of emotions to the breastfeeding experience in relation to cognition, and (2) it analyzes the extent to which emotions and cognition are connected to breastfeeding. An empirical research work has been carried out based on a questionnaire that was administered in a maternity hospital in the autumn of 2008, in order to gather information regarding cognitive and emotional aspects of breastfeeding behavior. The final sample comprised 311 breastfeeding mothers, and the sampling error was 5.55%. The research shows that breastfeeding is not only more of an emotional reaction than a rational decision, but also demonstrates that the emotional development of breastfeeding is independent from the cognitive process. A new approach in the literature of breastfeeding is put forward in which the predominant cognitive techniques and theories are complemented by highlighting the importance of understanding the target group and implementing suitable and affective actions. Specific practical implications are provided for social marketing campaigns as well as future lines of research.

  4. Early Development of Entrepreneurial Qualities: the Role of Initial Education

    OpenAIRE

    Isobel van der Kuip; Ingrid Verheul

    2003-01-01

    This study attempts to create a better understanding of the role of entrepreneurship education in developing entrepreneurial qualities. Theory and practice are confronted. The paper discusses the extent to which entrepreneurship can be taught, and the way in which it should be taught. The focus is on the phase of initial education.

  5. Breastfeeding progression in preterm infants is influenced by factors in infants, mothers and clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Kronborg, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    . Infants that were small for gestational age were associated with 5.6 days (95% CI 4.1-7.0) later establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: Breastfeeding competence is not developed at a fixed PMA, but is influenced by multiple factors in infants, mothers and clinical practice. Admitting......BACKGROUND AND AIM: Many preterm infants are not capable of exclusive breastfeeding from birth. To guide mothers in breastfeeding, it is important to know when preterm infants can initiate breastfeeding and progress. The aim was to analyse postmenstrual age (PMA) at breastfeeding milestones...... in different preterm gestational age (GA) groups, to describe rates of breastfeeding duration at pre-defined times, as well as analyse factors associated with PMA at the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: The study was part of a prospective survey of a national Danish cohort of preterm infants...

  6. Breastfeeding practices of ethnic Indian immigrant women in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Natasha; Bandyopadhyay, Mridula

    2013-12-18

    The health benefits of breastfeeding are well documented in public health and medical literature worldwide. Despite this, global rates of breastfeeding steadily decline during the first couple of months postpartum. Although immigrant women have higher initiation rates and a longer duration of breastfeeding overall, breastfeeding practices are compromised because of a myriad of socioeconomic and cultural factors, including the acculturation process. The objective of this study was to show how acculturation and cultural identity influenced breastfeeding practices among Indian immigrants in Melbourne, Australia. Twelve case studies were employed to gather narratives of women's lived experiences. Ethnographic field research methods were used to collect data, including participant observation, semi-structured interviews, case studies, and life histories. This provided in-depth information from women on various aspects of the immigrant experience of motherhood, including infant care and feeding. Participants were opportunistically recruited from Indian obstetricians and gynaecologists. Women identifying as ethnic Indian and in their third trimester of pregnancy were recruited. Interviews were conducted in women's homes in metropolitan Melbourne over a 12 month period between 2004 and 2005. Data were coded and analysed thematically. All women identified as ethnic Indian and initiated breastfeeding in accordance with their cultural identity. Social support and cultural connectivity impacted positively on duration of breastfeeding. However, acculturation (adopting Australian cultural values and gender norms, including returning to paid employment) negatively influenced breastfeeding duration. In addition, the high reliance of recent immigrants on the advice of healthcare professionals who gave inconsistent advice negatively affected exclusive breastfeeding. For ethnic Indian immigrant women breastfeeding practice is closely linked to acculturation and identity construction

  7. Breastfeeding social marketing: lessons learned from USDA's "Loving Support" campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2012-10-01

    Social marketing involves the application of commercial marketing principles to advance the public good. Social marketing calls for much more than health communications campaigns. It involves four interrelated tasks: audience benefit, target behavior, essence (brand, relevance, positioning), and developing the "4Ps" (product, price, place, promotion) marketing mix. The ongoing U.S. Department of Agriculture "Loving Support Makes Breastfeeding Work" campaign was launched in 1997 based on social marketing principles to increase breastfeeding initiation rates and breastfeeding duration among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants. Since then there have been improvements in breastfeeding duration in the country, and the majority of WIC women now initiate breastfeeding. Breastfeeding in public places is still not well accepted by society at large, and any and exclusive breastfeeding durations remain exceedingly low. Lessons learned from "Loving Support" and other campaigns indicate that it is important to design social marketing campaigns to target the influential societal forces (e.g., family and friends, healthcare providers, employers, formula industry, legislators) that affect women's decision and ability to breastfeed for the recommended amount of time. This will require formative research that applies the social-ecological model to different population segments, taking and identifying the right incentives to nudge more women to breastfeed for longer. Any new breastfeeding campaign needs to understand and take into account the information acquisition preferences of the target audiences. The vast majority of WIC women have mobile devices and are accessing social media. The Brazilian experience indicates that making breastfeeding the social norm can be done with a solid social marketing strategy. This is consistent with the recently released "Six Steps to Achieve Breastfeeding Goals for WIC Clinics," which identifies

  8. Breastfeeding and risk of schizophrenia in the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, J M

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study whether early weaning from breastfeeding may be associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. METHOD: The current sample comprises 6841 individuals from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort of whom 1671 (24%) had been breastfed for 2 weeks or less (early weaning...... odds ratio 1.73 with 95% CI: 1.13-2.67). CONCLUSION: No or breastfeeding was associated with elevated risk of schizophrenia. The hypothesis of some protective effect of breastfeeding against the risk of later schizophrenia is supported by our data....

  9. Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Asymptomatic HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens D; Babiker, Abdel G; Gordin, Fred

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data from randomized trials are lacking on the benefits and risks of initiating antiretroviral therapy in patients with asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who have a CD4+ count of more than 350 cells per cubic millimeter. METHODS: We randomly assigned HIV...... entry, the median HIV viral load was 12,759 copies per milliliter, and the median CD4+ count was 651 cells per cubic millimeter. On May 15, 2015, on the basis of an interim analysis, the data and safety monitoring board determined that the study question had been answered and recommended that patients...... in patients with a CD4+ count of more than 500 cells per cubic millimeter. The risks of a grade 4 event were similar in the two groups, as were the risks of unscheduled hospital admissions. CONCLUSIONS: The initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive adults with a CD4+ count of more than 500 cells...

  10. Effect of restricted pacifier use in breastfeeding term infants for increasing duration of breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Sharifah Halimah; Ho, Jacqueline J; Jahanfar, Shayesteh; Angolkar, Mubashir

    2016-08-30

    To successfully initiate and maintain breastfeeding for a longer duration, the World Health Organization's Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding recommends total avoidance of artificial teats or pacifiers for breastfeeding infants. Concerns have been raised that offering the pacifier instead of the breast to calm the infant may lead to less frequent episodes of breastfeeding and as a consequence may reduce breast-milk production and shorten duration of breastfeeding. To assess the effect of restricted versus unrestricted pacifier use in healthy full-term newborns whose mothers have initiated breastfeeding and intend to exclusively breastfeed, on the duration of breastfeeding, other breastfeeding outcomes and infant health. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 June 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing restricted versus unrestricted pacifier use in healthy full-term newborns who have initiated breastfeeding. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. We found three trials (involving 1915 babies) for inclusion in the review, but have included only two trials (involving 1302 healthy full-term breastfeeding infants) in the analysis. Meta-analysis of the two combined studies showed that pacifier use in healthy breastfeeding infants had no significant effect on the proportion of infants exclusively breastfed at three months (risk ratio (RR) 1.01; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96 to 1.07, two studies, 1228 infants), and at four months of age (RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.09, one study, 970 infants, moderate-quality evidence), and also had no effect on the proportion of infants partially breastfed at three months (RR 1.00; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.02, two studies, 1228 infants), and at four months of age (RR 0.99; 95% CI 0

  11. Breastfeeding, Childhood Asthma, and Allergic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddy, Wendy H

    2017-01-01

    an increased risk of eczema and asthma. Favorable gut colonization through continued breastfeeding may promote tolerance as well as protection when complementary feeding is initiated. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Health Education to Strengthen Breastfeeding Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Rodrigues Cipriano Sousa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is, without a doubt, the food that provides all the nutrients essential for the healthy growth and development of children. Through effective breastfeeding practices, it is possible to prevent several chronic noncommunicable diseases in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Objective: To investigate the relevance of using an educational strategy in breastfeeding promotion. Methods: It was a descriptive study with uncontrolled analytical approach conducted with 36 mothers of children under 2 years of age about breastfeeding, through an educational intervention using the booklet “Breastfeeding: an act of love”. Data collection took place in two moments (pre-test and post-test. Ethics Committee approved the project under protocol No. 058657. Results: Data analysis revealed that 41.6% of the interviewees stated that they did not receive guidance about breast problems from any professional during prenatal care, and 22% reported having presented nipple fissures. Regarding the initiation of breastfeeding, 11.1% of the women interviewed did not knowthe importance of colostrum, and 30.6% did not know its benefits. Assessment of the mothers’ knowledge before and after the intervention obtained a percentage of correctness of 50.7% and 70%, respectively. Conclusion: The educational activity to encourage breastfeeding was able to increase the mothers’ knowledge about breastfeeding and its health benefits for women and children. It is imperative to carry out activities such as the one proposed in this study, which enables the prevention of several problems that directly affect the health of families, acting effectively to promote a solid knowledge for the population. Keywords: Breast Feeding. Child Health. Health Education. Infant Nutrition. Food and Nutrition Education.

  13. [Breastfeeding among children of women workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasileiro, Aline Alves; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Marba, Sérgio Tadeu Martins; Possobon, Rosana de Fátima

    2012-08-01

    To analyze employment benefits and factors associated with the maintenance of breastfeeding indexes among working mothers. The sample was constituted by 200 formal women workers who returned to work before the child had reached six months of life, in the city of Piracicaba (Southeastern Brazil). Among the participants, 100 mother-infant dyads received guidance and support for the practice of breastfeeding within an oral health prevention program, and the other 100 dyads were addressed in a child vaccination campaign. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify variables related to weaning in the fourth month of life. The majority of the participants were primiparous women who underwent cesarean section, initiated breastfeeding within four hours after birth and stayed with their child in the room. The following women had higher odds of stopping breastfeeding: mothers not participating in the incentive program (OR = 3.04 [95%CI: 1.35;6.85]), mothers who did not have a 30-minute break during the working hours (OR = 4.10 [95%CI: 1.81;9.26]), and mothers whose children used pacifiers (OR = 2.68 [95%CI: 1.23;5.83]) or bottles (OR = 14.47 [95%CI: 1.85;113.24]. The mothers who participated in the breastfeeding incentive group, who did not offer pacifiers and bottles to their babies and who had a break during the working hours stopped breastfeeding after the fourth month. Support and information on lactation management and on their rights guaranteed by law, together with the increase in the length of maternity leave, may play an important role in maintaining breastfeeding.

  14. Relationship of maternal perceptions of workplace breastfeeding support and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Whitney M; Christakis, Dimitri

    2015-05-01

    Decades of research supports the health benefits of breastfeeding. Prior research has shown that unsupportive work environments are frequently cited as reasons women abandon breastfeeding early. The objective of this study is to determine if mothers' perceptions of workplace lactation support are associated with job satisfaction. Female employees of Seattle Children's Hospital (SCH) and a large corporation were e-mailed a survey to measure perceptions of workplace lactation support. Women were eligible to participate if they had a child born within the last 5 years. Questions were asked about lactation support across five domains; organization, manager, coworker, time, and physical environment. The main outcome was job satisfaction. Linear regression models were run to evaluate the association between workplace support scores and the outcome of interest. The survey was completed by 420 women at SCH and 131 women at the large corporation (response rate, 47%). Ninety-eight percent of study participants initiated breastfeeding, and most sustained breastfeeding for at least 6 months. Increased total workplace support score was associated with increased job satisfaction at both companies (pjob satisfaction (p valuesjob satisfaction, which could be beneficial to businesses.

  15. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  16. Benefits of breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast cancer or other cancer Breast infection or breast abscess Poor milk supply (uncommon) Previous surgery or radiation treatment Breastfeeding is not recommended for mothers who have: Active ... tuberculosis Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection ...

  17. Overcoming breastfeeding problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MF, eds. Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 9. Newton ER. Lactation and breastfeeding. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl ...

  18. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MF, eds. Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 9. Newton ER. Lactation and breastfeeding. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl ...

  19. Breastfeeding - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Health Information Translations Pumping and Storing Breast Milk - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (bosanski) Expand Section Breastfeeding Basics - ...

  20. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the unique ways that breastmilk can improve your child’s health and lower the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), asthma, obesity, and other health problems. Breastfeeding 411 YouTube embed ...

  1. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the unique ways that breastmilk can improve your child’s health and lower the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), asthma, obesity, and other health problems. Breastfeeding ...

  2. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... health topics Reproductive Health Breastfeeding Menopause Menstrual Cycle Pregnancy Popular topics Bacterial vaginosis Birth control methods Human ... and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental Health Pain Pregnancy Reproductive Health Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections Other ...

  3. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... www.youtube-nocookie.com/embed/kYQhoQ4umgg Healthy eating can keep you strong while breastfeeding. Learn more about the foods you should eat. Previous Page Next Page It's ...

  4. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental Health Pain Pregnancy Reproductive Health Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections Other A-Z Health ...

  5. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... in daily life: At home and in public Laws that support breastfeeding 10 things moms can do ... material contained on these pages are free of copyright restrictions and may be copied, reproduced, or duplicated ...

  6. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... syndrome Depression Irritable bowel syndrome Migraine Thyroid disease Urinary tract infections All A-Z health topics Reproductive Health Breastfeeding Menopause Menstrual Cycle Pregnancy Popular topics Bacterial vaginosis Birth control methods Human ...

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    Full Text Available ... and Shareables Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental Health Pain Pregnancy Reproductive Health Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections Other ...

  8. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... Need some nursing know-how? These steps and strategies will help soon-to-be-moms make an ... gt; There are many great resources, people, and places to turn to for breastfeeding support and information. ...

  9. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Thyroid disease All A-Z health topics Find Help Get breastfeeding help Get health care Get ... with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' health information Stay Connected Blog Contact us ...

  10. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... foods you should eat. Previous Page Next Page It's Only Natural resources Related information Breastfeeding Pregnancy Resources ... and mission Programs and Activities Health Information Gateway It's Only Natural Make the Call, Don't Miss ...

  11. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... To receive Breastfeeding email updates Enter email Submit Planning ahead From choosing the crib to finding a ... care Get health insurance Get help with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' health ...

  12. Breastfeeding practices and growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-10

    Aug 10, 2015 ... Federal Medical Centre Asaba. Nigeria. ( ) ... selling and health promotion. Conclusion: ... among children in West African sub region could be averted if ... breastfeeding within one hour of life are more likely to have longer ...

  13. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

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    Full Text Available ... All A-Z health topics Diseases and Conditions Cancer Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Lupus ... health topics Printables and Shareables Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV ...

  14. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the unique ways that breastmilk can improve your child’s health and lower the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), asthma, obesity, and other health problems. Breastfeeding 411 YouTube ...

  15. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A-Z health topics Diseases and Conditions Cancer Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Lupus Popular topics ... Shareables Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental Health Pain ...

  16. Antibiotics and Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá Del Fiol, Fernando; Barberato-Filho, Silvio; de Cássia Bergamaschi, Cristiane; Lopes, Luciane Cruz; Gauthier, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    During the breastfeeding period, bacterial infections can occur in the nursing mother, requiring the use of antibiotics. A lack of accurate information may lead health care professionals and mothers to suspend breastfeeding, which may be unnecessary. This article provides information on the main antibiotics that are appropriate for clinical use and the interference of these antibiotics with the infant to support medical decisions regarding the discontinuation of breastfeeding. We aim to provide information on the pharmacokinetic factors that interfere with the passage of antibiotics into breast milk and the toxicological implications of absorption by the infant. Publications related to the 20 most frequently employed antibiotics and their transfer into breast milk were evaluated. The results demonstrate that most antibiotics in clinical use are considered suitable during breastfeeding; however, the pharmacokinetic profile of each drug must be observed to ensure the resolution of the maternal infection and the safety of the infant. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding support It takes a village: Building ... Mental Health Relationships and Safety Popular topics Caregiver stress Folic acid Heart-healthy eating Iron-deficiency anemia ...

  18. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... t already thought about breastfeeding, now is a great time. Before your baby is here is the ... embed/qHVNTBLZnYo There are many great resources, people, and places to turn to for ...

  19. Syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis as initial presentation of early neurosyphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Sócola, F E; López-Herrero, F; Medina-Tapia, A; Rueda-Rueda, T; Contreras-Díaz, M; Sánchez-Vicente, J L

    2017-10-01

    A 36 year-old male with a recent HIV diagnosis, presented with loss of vision of his left eye. Ophthalmoscopy revealed a unilateral yellowish placoid lesion in the macula. After fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, optical coherence tomography angiography, syphilis serology, and cerebrospinal fluid results, he was diagnosed with neurosyphilis and syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis. Acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis is a rare ocular manifestation of syphilis. All patients with characteristic clinical and angiographic findings of acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis should be tested for a neurosyphilis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. Early treatment with intravenous penicillin is usually effective with good visual results. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Breastfeeding in China: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binns Colin W

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review aims to describe changes in breastfeeding and summarise the breastfeeding rates, duration and reasons of discontinuing 'any breastfeeding' or 'exclusive breastfeeding' in P.R. China. Breastfeeding rates in China fell during the 1970s when the use of breast milk substitutes became widespread, and reached the lowest point in the 1980s. As a result many efforts were introduced to promote breastfeeding. The breastfeeding rate in China started to increase in the 1990s, and since the mid-1990s 'any breastfeeding' rates in the majority of cities and provinces, including minority areas, have been above 80% at four months. But most cities and provinces did not reach the national target of 'exclusive breastfeeding' of 80%. The 'exclusive breastfeeding' rates in minority areas were relatively lower than comparable inland provinces. The mean duration of 'any breastfeeding' in the majority of cities or provinces was between seven and nine months. The common reasons for ceasing breastfeeding, or introducing water or other infant food before four months, were perceived breast milk insufficiency, mother going to work, maternal and child illness and breast problems. Incorrect traditional perceptions have a strong adverse influence on 'exclusive breastfeeding' in less developed areas or rural areas. China is a huge country, geographically and in population size, and there is considerable ethnic diversity. Therefore breastfeeding rates in different parts of China can vary considerably.

  1. AWARENESS OF THE BENEFITS OF BREASTFEEDING AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

    The aim of this study therefore was to determine awareness of breastfeeding benefits ... benefits of breastfeeding are important factors for breastfeeding practices. Awareness .... practicing Exclusive Breastfeeding in the first six months of ...

  2. Breast-feeding and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodwin, D W; Gabrielli, W F; Penick, E C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to determine whether early termination of breast-feeding contributes to later alcohol dependence, as proposed more than 200 years ago by the British physician Thomas Trotter. METHOD: In 1959-1961, a multiple-specialty group of physicians studied 9, 182 consecutive...... deliveries in a Danish hospital, obtaining data about prepartum and postpartum variables. The present study concentrates on perinatal variables obtained from 200 of the original babies who participated in a 30-year high-risk follow-up study of the antecedents of alcoholism. RESULTS: Of the 27 men who were...... diagnosed as alcohol dependent at age 30, 13 (48%) came from the group weaned from the breast before the age of 3 weeks; only 33 (19%) of the 173 non-alcohol-dependent subjects came from the early weaning group. When challenged by other perinatal variables in a multiple regression analysis, early weaning...

  3. Legislation, women, and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, G

    1987-01-01

    Governmental policies and legislation aimed at validating the dual role of women as mothers and wage earners can significantly strengthen breastfeeding promotion efforts. Examples of such laws and policies are maternity leave, breastfeeding breaks at the workplace, allowances for pregnant women and new mothers, rooming-in at hospitals, child care at the worksite, flexible work schedules for new mothers, and a national marketing code for breastmilk substitutes. The International labor Organization (ILO) has played an important role in setting international standards to protect working mothers. The ILO defines minimal maternity protection as encompassing: a compulsory period of 6 weeks' leave after delivery; entitlement to a further 6 weeks of leave; the provision during maternity leave of benefits sufficient for the full and healthy maintenance of the child; medical care by a qualified midwife or physician; authorization to interrupt work for the purpose of breastfeeding; and protection from dismissal during maternity leave. In many countries there is a lack of public awareness of existing laws or policies; i.e., working women may not know they are entitled to maternity leave, or pediatricians may not know that the government has developed a marketing code for breastmilk substitutes. Overall, the enactment and enforcement of legislation can ensure the longterm effectiveness of breastfeeding promotion by raising the consciousness of individuals and institutions, putting breastfeeding activities in the wider context of support for women's rights, recognizing the dual roles of women, and institutionalizing and legitimating support for breastfeeding.

  4. Factors affecting breastfeeding practices among working women in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, J A; Shaikh, Z N; Bijarani, S A; Saheer, T B

    2017-02-01

    In urban areas of Pakistan, women's return to work after giving birth has frequently been found to be a main contributor to the early termination of breastfeeding. This study aimed to assess workplace breastfeeding support provided to working mothers in Pakistan. In a cross-sectional survey in 2014, mothers and employers from a representative sample of 297 workplaces were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire. Mothers from 36 (12.1%) sites reported receiving breastfeeding breaks, and 86% of the mothers had received 3 months paid maternity leave. Provision of a lighter job and information about breastfeeding options on return to work were reported from 15% and 5% of the workplaces, respectively. Only two sites had designated breastfeeding corners. Significantly different results were found between types of employer (government or private) and type of organization (national or multinational) with regard to breastfeeding breaks, breastfeeding corners, lighter jobs and paid maternity leave. Public and multinational companies were slightly better than private and national ones in providing breastfeeding facilities.

  5. Breastfeeding Support in Neonatal Intensive Care: A National Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Bojesen, Susanne Nordby; Kronborg, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Background: The incidence of breastfeeding of preterm infants is affected by the support provided at the hospital and in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). However, policies and guidelines promoting breastfeeding vary both nationally and internationally. Objectives: The aim of this survey...... was to describe breastfeeding support in Danish NICUs, where approximately 98% of mothers initiate lactation. Methods: A national survey of all 19 Danish NICUs was conducted in 2009. Four NICUs were at designated Baby-Friendly hospitals, and 5 had a lactation consultant. In all NICUs, it was possible for some...... parents to stay overnight; 2 units had short restrictions on parents' presence. Five NICUs had integrated postpartum care for mothers. Breastfeeding policies, written guidelines, and systematic breastfeeding training for the staff were common in most NICUs. Seventeen NICUs recommended starting breast milk...

  6. Development of the breastfeeding quality improvement in hospitals learning collaborative in New York state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Eileen; Dennison, Barbara A; Welge, Sara Bonam; Hisgen, Stephanie; Boyce, Patricia Simino; Waniewski, Patricia A

    2013-06-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is a public health priority. A strong body of evidence links maternity care practices, based on the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, to increased breastfeeding initiation, duration and exclusivity. Despite having written breastfeeding policies, New York (NY) hospitals vary widely in reported maternity care practices and in prevalence rates of breastfeeding, especially exclusive breastfeeding, during the birth hospitalization. To improve hospital maternity care practices, breastfeeding support, and the percentage of infants exclusively breastfeeding, the NY State Department of Health developed the Breastfeeding Quality Improvement in Hospitals (BQIH) Learning Collaborative. The BQIH Learning Collaborative was the first to use the Institute for Health Care Improvement's Breakthrough Series methodology to specifically focus on increasing hospital breastfeeding support. The evidence-based maternity care practices from the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding provided the basis for the Change Package and Data Measurement Plan. The present article describes the development of the BQIH Learning Collaborative. The engagement of breastfeeding experts, partners, and stakeholders in refining the Learning Collaborative design and content, in defining the strategies and interventions (Change Package) that drive hospital systems change, and in developing the Data Measurement Plan to assess progress in meeting the Learning Collaborative goals and hospital aims is illustrated. The BQIH Learning Collaborative is a model program that was implemented in a group of NY hospitals with plans to spread to additional hospitals in NY and across the country.

  7. The Impact of the Professional Qualifications of the Prenatal Care Provider on Breastfeeding Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenborn, Jordyn T; Lu, Juan; Perera, Robert A; Wheeler, David C; Masho, Saba W

    2018-03-01

    A prenatal commitment to breastfeed is a strong predictor for breastfeeding success. Prenatal care providers have the opportunity to educate and promote breastfeeding. However, differences in education and training between healthcare providers such as physicians and midwives may result in differing breastfeeding outcomes. This study explores whether breastfeeding initiation and duration differ by prenatal care provider. Longitudinal data from the Infant Feeding Practices Survey II were analyzed (N = 2,832 women). Prenatal care providers were categorized as obstetrician, family/other physician, and midwife/nurse-midwife. Breastfeeding initiation was dichotomized (yes; no). Breastfeeding duration and exclusive breastfeeding duration were reported in weeks. Logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between prenatal care provider and breastfeeding initiation. Cox proportional hazard models provided crude and adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence limits to determine the relationship between type of prenatal care provider and breastfeeding duration. After adjusting for confounders, women who received care from a midwife were 68% less likely to never breastfed than women whose prenatal care was provided by an obstetrician. Women whose prenatal care was provided by a midwife had 14% lower risk of discontinuing breastfeeding and 23% lower risk of discontinuing exclusive breastfeeding. No significant association was found between women whose prenatal care was provided by a family physician or other type of physician and breastfeeding initiation and duration. Findings highlight the importance of prenatal care providers on breastfeeding duration. Future studies should examine factors (i.e., training, patient-provider interaction) that contribute to differences in breastfeeding outcomes by type of prenatal care provider.

  8. HIV testing uptake and retention in care of HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women initiated on 'Option B+' in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzangare, Janet; Takarinda, Kudakwashe C; Harries, Anthony D; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Mhangara, Mutsa; Apollo, Tsitsi Mutasa; Mushavi, Angela; Chimwaza, Anesu; Sithole, Ngwarai; Magure, Tapiwa; Mpofu, Amon; Dube, Freeman; Mugurungi, Owen

    2016-02-01

    Zimbabwe has started to scale up Option B+ for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, but there is little published information about uptake or retention in care. This study determined the number and proportion of pregnant and lactating women in rural districts diagnosed with HIV infection and started on Option B+ along with six-month antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcomes. This was a retrospective record review of women presenting to antenatal care or maternal and child health services at 34 health facilities in Chikomba and Gutu rural districts, Zimbabwe, between January and March 2014. A total of 2728 women presented to care of whom 2598 were eligible for HIV testing: 76% presented to antenatal care, 20% during labour and delivery and 4% while breastfeeding. Of 2097 (81%) HIV-tested women, 7% were HIV positive. Lower HIV testing uptake was found with increasing parity, late presentation to antenatal care, health centre attendance and in women tested during labour. Ninety-one per cent of the HIV-positive women were started on Option B+. Six-month ART retention in care, including transfers, was 83%. Loss to follow-up was the main cause of attrition. Increasing age and gravida status ≥2 were associated with higher six-month attrition. The uptake of HIV testing and Option B+ is high in women attending antenatal and post-natal clinics in rural Zimbabwe, suggesting that the strategy is feasible for national scale-up in the country. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Breastfeeding and allergic disease: a multidisciplinary review of the literature (1966-2001) on the mode of early feeding in infancy and its impact on later atopic manifestations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odijk, J.; Kull, I.; Borres, M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Strategies to prevent children from developing allergy have been elaborated on the basis of state-of-the-art reviews of the scientific literature regarding pets and allergies, building dampness and health, and building ventilation and health. A similar multidisciplinary review of infant...... concluded that breastfeeding seems to protect from the development of atopic disease. The effect appears even stronger in children with atopic heredity. If breast milk is unavailable or insufficient, extensively hydrolysed formulas are preferable to unhydrolysed or partially hydrolysed formulas in terms...

  10. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2016-12-06

    Breast milk is well recognised as the best food source for infants. The impact of antenatal breastfeeding (BF) education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. To assess the effectiveness of antenatal breastfeeding (BF) education for increasing BF initiation and duration. We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register on 1 March 2016, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1966 to 1 March 2016) and Scopus (January 1985 to 1 March 2016). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on the duration of BF. We included RCTs that only included antenatal interventions and excluded those that combined antenatal and intrapartum or postpartum BF education components. Cluster-randomised trials were included in this review. Quasi-randomised trials were not eligible for inclusion. We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. This review update includes 24 studies (10,056 women). Twenty studies (9789 women) contribute data to analyses. Most studies took place in high-income countries such as the USA, UK, Canada and Australia. In the first five comparisons, we display the included trials according to type of intervention without pooling data. For the 'Summary of findings' we pooled data for a summary effect.Five included studies were cluster-randomised trials: all of these adjusted data and reported adjustments as odds ratios (OR). We have analysed the data using the generic inverse variance method and presented results as odds ratios, because we were

  11. A randomised controlled trial of early initiation of oral feeding after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A randomised controlled trial of early initiation of oral feeding after Caesarean ... The outcome measures were rate of ileus symptoms, post operative presence of ... more rapid recovery and expressed their interest in earlier hospital discharge.

  12. Reason for termination of breastfeeding and the length of breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M S; Sodemann, Morten; Mølbak, Kare

    1996-01-01

    In third world countries the length of breastfeeding often has a major influence on child mortality, morbidity and nutritional status. When evaluating the impact of length of breastfeeding the reason why a mother terminates breastfeeding is usually not taken into consideration....

  13. The bonding circle of breastfeeding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murch, Ken

    1991-01-01

    This is a promotional video made to encourage breastfeeding among Native people. Breastfeeding is presented as a positive experience which includes not only the mother and child, but also the whole family...

  14. Reasons given by mothers for discontinuing breastfeeding in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olang Beheshteh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that in Iran, only 28% of infants were exclusively breastfed at six months, despite a high prevalence of breastfeeding at two years of age. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the reasons women discontinued exclusive breastfeeding. Method This retrospective study was based on questionnaires and interviews with 63,071 mothers of infants up to 24 months of age, divided into two populations: infants younger than six months and six months or older. The data were collected in 2005–2006 from all 30 provinces of Iran. Results Only 5.3% of infants less than six months of age stopped breastfeeding (mean age of 3.2 months; more commonly in urban than rural areas. The most frequently cited reasons mothers gave for discontinuing exclusive breastfeeding were physicians’ recommendation (54% and insufficient breast milk (self-perceived or true, 28%. Breastfeeding was common after six months of age: only 11% of infants discontinued breastfeeding, at a mean of 13.8 months. The most common reason for discontinuation at this age was insufficient breast milk (self-perceived or true, 45%. Maternal illness or medication (10%, infant illness (6%, and return to work (3% were uncommon causes. Use of a pacifier was correlated with breastfeeding discontinuation. Maternal age and education was not associated with duration of breastfeeding. Multivariate analysis showed that using a pacifier and formula or other bottle feeding increased the risk of early cessation of breastfeeding. Conclusions Physicians and other health professionals have an important role to play in encouraging and supporting mothers to maintain breastfeeding.

  15. Early smoking initiation, sexual behavior and reproductive health - a large population-based study of Nordic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bo Terning; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk

    2010-01-01

    To investigate associations between early smoking initiation, risk-taking behavior and reproductive health.......To investigate associations between early smoking initiation, risk-taking behavior and reproductive health....

  16. Outcome of Early Initiation of Peritoneal Dialysis in Patients with End-Stage Renal Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kook-Hwan; Hwang, Young-Hwan; Cho, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Mira; Ju, Kyung Don; Joo, Kwon Wook; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Yon Su; Ahn, Curie

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies reported that early initiation of hemodialysis may increase mortality. However, studies that assessed the influence of early initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD) yielded controversial results. In the present study, we evaluated the prognosis of early initiation of PD on the various outcomes of end stage renal failure patients by using propensity-score matching methods. Incident PD patients (n = 491) who started PD at SNU Hospital were enrolled. The patients were divided into 'early starters (n = 244)' and 'late starters (n = 247)' on the basis of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the start of dialysis. The calculated propensity-score was used for one-to-one matching. After propensity-score-based matching (n = 136, for each group), no significant differences were observed in terms of all-cause mortality (P = 0.17), technique failure (P = 0.62), cardiovascular event (P = 0.96) and composite event (P = 0.86) between the early and late starters. Stratification analysis in the propensity-score quartiles (n = 491) exhibited no trend toward better or poorer survival in terms of all-cause mortality. In conclusion, early commencement of PD does not reduce the mortality risk and other outcomes. Although the recent guidelines suggest that initiation of dialysis at higher eGFR, physicians should not determine the time to initiate PD therapy simply rely on the eGFR alone. PMID:22323864

  17. Cannabis and Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélia Garry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 TetraHydroCannabinol (THC. Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breastfeeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breastfeeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  18. Assessment of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative Implementation in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jawaldeh, Ayoub; Abul-Fadl, Azza

    2018-03-11

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a global program for promoting support and protection for breastfeeding. However, its impact on malnutrition, especially in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) that are facing the turmoil of conflict and emergencies, deserves further investigation. Having said that, this paper aims to discuss the status and challenges to BFHI implementation in the EMR countries. Data on BFHI implementation, breastfeeding practices, and nutritional status were collected from countries through structured questionnaires, personal interviews, and databases. The 22 countries of the EMR were categorized as follows: 8 countries in advanced nutrition transition stage (group I), 5 countries in early nutrition transition stage (group II), 4 countries with significant undernutrition (group III), and 5 countries in complex emergency (group IV). The challenges to BFHI implementation were discussed in relation to malnutrition. BFHI was not implemented in 22.7% of EMR countries. Designated Baby-Friendly hospitals totaled 829 (group I: 78.4%, group II: 9.05%; group III: 7.36%; group: IV5.19%). Countries with advanced nutrition transition had the highest implementation of BFHI but the lowest breastfeeding continuity rates. On the other hand, poor nutritional status and emergency states were linked with low BFHI implementation and low exclusive breastfeeding rates but high continuity rates. Early initiation and longer duration of breastfeeding correlated negatively with overweight and obesity ( p < 0.001). In countries with emergency states, breastfeeding continues to be the main source of nourishment. However, suboptimal breastfeeding practices prevail because of poor BFHI implementation which consequently leads to malnutrition. Political willpower and community-based initiatives are needed to promote breastfeeding and strengthen BFHI in the region.

  19. Assessment of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative Implementation in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoub Al-Jawaldeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI is a global program for promoting support and protection for breastfeeding. However, its impact on malnutrition, especially in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR that are facing the turmoil of conflict and emergencies, deserves further investigation. Having said that, this paper aims to discuss the status and challenges to BFHI implementation in the EMR countries. Data on BFHI implementation, breastfeeding practices, and nutritional status were collected from countries through structured questionnaires, personal interviews, and databases. The 22 countries of the EMR were categorized as follows: 8 countries in advanced nutrition transition stage (group I, 5 countries in early nutrition transition stage (group II, 4 countries with significant undernutrition (group III, and 5 countries in complex emergency (group IV. The challenges to BFHI implementation were discussed in relation to malnutrition. BFHI was not implemented in 22.7% of EMR countries. Designated Baby-Friendly hospitals totaled 829 (group I: 78.4%, group II: 9.05%; group III: 7.36%; group: IV5.19%. Countries with advanced nutrition transition had the highest implementation of BFHI but the lowest breastfeeding continuity rates. On the other hand, poor nutritional status and emergency states were linked with low BFHI implementation and low exclusive breastfeeding rates but high continuity rates. Early initiation and longer duration of breastfeeding correlated negatively with overweight and obesity (p < 0.001. In countries with emergency states, breastfeeding continues to be the main source of nourishment. However, suboptimal breastfeeding practices prevail because of poor BFHI implementation which consequently leads to malnutrition. Political willpower and community-based initiatives are needed to promote breastfeeding and strengthen BFHI in the region.

  20. Assessment of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative Implementation in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jawaldeh, Ayoub; Abul-Fadl, Azza

    2018-01-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a global program for promoting support and protection for breastfeeding. However, its impact on malnutrition, especially in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) that are facing the turmoil of conflict and emergencies, deserves further investigation. Having said that, this paper aims to discuss the status and challenges to BFHI implementation in the EMR countries. Data on BFHI implementation, breastfeeding practices, and nutritional status were collected from countries through structured questionnaires, personal interviews, and databases. The 22 countries of the EMR were categorized as follows: 8 countries in advanced nutrition transition stage (group I), 5 countries in early nutrition transition stage (group II), 4 countries with significant undernutrition (group III), and 5 countries in complex emergency (group IV). The challenges to BFHI implementation were discussed in relation to malnutrition. BFHI was not implemented in 22.7% of EMR countries. Designated Baby-Friendly hospitals totaled 829 (group I: 78.4%, group II: 9.05%; group III: 7.36%; group: IV5.19%). Countries with advanced nutrition transition had the highest implementation of BFHI but the lowest breastfeeding continuity rates. On the other hand, poor nutritional status and emergency states were linked with low BFHI implementation and low exclusive breastfeeding rates but high continuity rates. Early initiation and longer duration of breastfeeding correlated negatively with overweight and obesity (p < 0.001). In countries with emergency states, breastfeeding continues to be the main source of nourishment. However, suboptimal breastfeeding practices prevail because of poor BFHI implementation which consequently leads to malnutrition. Political willpower and community-based initiatives are needed to promote breastfeeding and strengthen BFHI in the region. PMID:29534482

  1. Effect of maternal country of birth on breastfeeding practices: results from Portuguese GXXI birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Musa Abubakar; Rodrigues, Carina; Fonseca, Maria João; Santos, Ana Cristina; Barros, Henrique

    2018-01-01

    Maternal country of birth has been associated with perinatal health outcomes but less is known regarding breastfeeding practices in contemporary European settings. This study investigated effect of maternal country of birth on breastfeeding initiation and duration by comparing native Portuguese and migrant mothers. We analyzed data of 7065 children of the Generation XXI (GXXI) birth cohort recruited at birth (2005-06) and followed-up 4 years later. Logistic regression was used to assess the effect of maternal country of birth on breastfeeding initiation. Kaplan-Meier estimate was used to compare breastfeeding duration by maternal country of birth and length of residence by migrant mothers in Portugal. Breastfeeding initiation and the type of breastfeeding practice were similar for native Portuguese and migrant mothers. The migrants had significantly higher median duration in months of any breastfeeding (Odds Ratio [OR] 6.0, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 5.4,6.6) and exclusive breastfeeding (OR 4.0, 95% CI 3.8,4.2) than native Portuguese mothers (OR 4.0, 95% CI 3.8,4.2 and OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.9,3.0). Migrant mothers who resided in Portugal for either ≤5 years (OR 5.0, 95% CI 3.9,6.1 and OR 4.0, 95% CI 3.8,4.2) or >  5 years (OR 6.0, 95% CI 5.5,6.5 and OR 4.0, 95% CI 3.7,4.3) years had similar duration of any breastfeeding or exclusive breastfeeding, in both cases higher than the native Portuguese mothers. No significant differences were found when world regions were compared. Maternal country of birth does not influence breastfeeding initiation and type of feeding practice. However, migrant mothers have longer breastfeeding duration of either exclusive or any breastfeeding, which was not changed by length of residence in Portugal.

  2. Predictors of exclusive breastfeeding: observations from the Alberta pregnancy outcomes and nutrition (APrON) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite growing evidence that supports the importance of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding, few Canadian mothers adhere to this, and early weaning onto solids is a common practice. This study assessed infant feeding transitions during the first 6 months postpartum and factors that predicted exclusive breastfeeding to 3 and 6 months. Methods This prospective cohort study was part of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition study (APrON). From an initial sample of 600 pregnant women recruited from Edmonton and Calgary, 402 mothers provided complete details at 3 months postpartum; 300 stayed on to provide information at 6 months postpartum. During pregnancy and at 3 and 6 months postpartum, data on maternal and infant socio-demographic, behavior, and feeding were collected. Results Even though there was a high rate of “ever having breastfed” (98.6%), exclusive breastfeeding rates for 3 and 6 months were 54.0% and 15.3%, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, the study showed that mothers who held post-graduate university degrees were 3.76 times more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months than those without a university degree (95% CI: 1.30-10.92; p = 0.015). In addition, mother of previous children were more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.08-4.52; p = 0.031). Mothers who were in the highest quartile of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Score were 4.29 and 5.40 times more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 3 months (95% CI: 1.31-14.08; p-trend breastfeeding rate in Alberta is considerably below national and international breastfeeding recommendations. Professional advice that focuses on prenatal maternal knowledge, attitudes, and misperceptions may promote adherence to World Health Organization breastfeeding guidelines. Knowing that exclusive breastfeeding is less likely to take place among lower-educated, primiparous women may help health practitioners focus their

  3. Predictors of exclusive breastfeeding: observations from the Alberta pregnancy outcomes and nutrition (APrON) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessri, Mahsa; Farmer, Anna P; Maximova, Katerina; Willows, Noreen D; Bell, Rhonda C

    2013-05-16

    Despite growing evidence that supports the importance of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding, few Canadian mothers adhere to this, and early weaning onto solids is a common practice. This study assessed infant feeding transitions during the first 6 months postpartum and factors that predicted exclusive breastfeeding to 3 and 6 months. This prospective cohort study was part of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition study (APrON). From an initial sample of 600 pregnant women recruited from Edmonton and Calgary, 402 mothers provided complete details at 3 months postpartum; 300 stayed on to provide information at 6 months postpartum. During pregnancy and at 3 and 6 months postpartum, data on maternal and infant socio-demographic, behavior, and feeding were collected. Even though there was a high rate of "ever having breastfed" (98.6%), exclusive breastfeeding rates for 3 and 6 months were 54.0% and 15.3%, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, the study showed that mothers who held post-graduate university degrees were 3.76 times more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months than those without a university degree (95% CI: 1.30-10.92; p = 0.015). In addition, mother of previous children were more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.08-4.52; p = 0.031). Mothers who were in the highest quartile of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Score were 4.29 and 5.40 times more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 3 months (95% CI: 1.31-14.08; p-trend < 0.001) and 6 months (95% CI: 2.75-10.60; P-trend < 0.001), respectively. The 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rate in Alberta is considerably below national and international breastfeeding recommendations. Professional advice that focuses on prenatal maternal knowledge, attitudes, and misperceptions may promote adherence to World Health Organization breastfeeding guidelines. Knowing that exclusive breastfeeding is less likely to take place among lower

  4. A Social Media Campaign to Promote Breastfeeding among Saudi Women: A Web-based Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahkali, Salwa; Alkharjy, Nora; Alowairdy, Maryam; Househ, Mowafa; Da'ar, Omar; Alsurimi, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged breastfeeding can prevent or limit the severity of a variety of diseases and conditions. Although evidence clearly shows that there are health benefits for breastfeeding, adherence to breastfeeding remains a key challenge facing maternal health providers in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impacts of a social media platform (Twitter) to promote breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia. Between February 10 and March 25, 2015, a web-based questionnaire was administered to evaluate the impacts of a Twitter based educational campaign on the awareness, knowledge, and adherence to breastfeeding behavior for women in Saudi Arabia. The overall response rate among mothers with a newborn child was 83% (n=484). The results showed an increase in the knowledge and awareness of breastfeeding practices and adherence among Twitter followers. The initiation rate of breastfeeding had slightly increased among women who never had previously breastfed. More women reported their willingness to continue exclusive breastfeeding and to stop bottle-feeding. Results also show that an integration of professional breastfeeding support, public health education programs through social media could be an effective tool in promoting breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on designing and implementing a social media based educational outreach program to increase women's awareness, knowledge, and adherence to breastfeeding behavior in Saudi Arabia.

  5. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in the healthy newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazo-Tomé, Pedro Luis Del; Suárez-Rodríguez, Marta

    2018-01-01

    The best nourishment for infants during the first 6 months of life is exclusive breastfeeding. It is recommended along with other food to complement the diet until the child is 2 years old, as long as the mother and the child are willing to continue with it. The objectives of this study were to determine he exclusive breastfeeding rate in full term newborns at hospital discharge and 15 days later and to analyze the factors that positively affect the exclusive breastfeeding. A prospective study was conducted in which a sample of postpartum women with full term newborns was recruited during hospital admission. Different variables were compiled and two interviews were made to determine the kind of feeding they were giving their children and if it was maintained at 15 days of birth. Exclusive breastfeeding rate at hospital discharge is much lower than recommended. It significantly decreases at 15 days of birth, increasing artificial feeding. It seems that having a vaginal birth, no complications giving birth, providing early breastfeeding and skin-to-skin contact in the delivery room are predisposing factors necessary to establish a good breastfeeding at hospital discharge. Despite the efforts of professionals, the percentage of newborns with exclusive breastfeeding at birth is not enough for the current recommendations. Copyright: © 2018 Permanyer.

  6. The Role of Breastfeeding in the Prevention of Childhood Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, Veronika; Srour, M Leila

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding has an important role in the prevention of different forms of childhood malnutrition, including wasting, stunting, over- and underweight and micronutrient deficiencies. This chapter reviews research that demonstrates how improved breastfeeding rates have the potential to improve childhood nutrition, with associated impacts on infectious and noninfectious disease prevention. The unique composition of breastmilk, the importance of breastfeeding in infectious disease prevention, the iron status of breastfed infants, and breastfeeding's protective effect on overweight and obesity are discussed based on currently available research. Early and tailored dietary counseling is needed to improve maternal diets, which can affect the nutritional status of breastmilk. Promotion and support of breastfeeding are important to prevent childhood morbidity and mortality. A review of the literature reveals key factors shown to be effective in improving breastfeeding rates, especially including legislation to control the marketing of breastmilk substitutes. In conclusion, breastfeeding is shown to be the best natural resource to improve childhood nutrition throughout the world. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Breastfeeding practices that support women with diabetes to breastfeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Anne; Dunne, Fidelma

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this literature review was to identify breastfeeding practices that support women with diabetes to breastfeed. A search was undertaken of CINAHL and Medline databases to identify studies that inform breastfeeding practice for women with diabetes. This resulted in 14 studies (19 records). Most studies focused on women with GDM and T1D with some consideration of T2D. The review has been organised using Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, to enable a clear focus on the needs of women while identifying supportive practices. The key findings of this review are that breastfeeding as the first feed and exclusive breastfeeding are beneficial to meeting physiological needs. Preparations such as having food nearby and having someone to call on can help meet the woman's safety and security needs. A sense of love and belonging is supported by the practice of an early first breastfeed, but antenatal breast milk expression is currently not recommended. The woman's self-esteem can be enhanced through informed multidisciplinary support. Finally, self-actualisation or success with breastfeeding has been achieved by women with diabetes. Common breastfeeding concerns rather than diabetes have been identified as reasons for cessation of breastfeeding. Practices that support women deal with these concerns are recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relation between household food insecurity and breastfeeding in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Sarah K; Dachner, Naomi; Frank, Lesley; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2018-03-19

    Qualitative studies have suggested that food insecurity adversely affects infant feeding practices. We aimed to determine how household food insecurity relates to breastfeeding initiation, duration of exclusive breastfeeding and vitamin D supplementation of breastfed infants in Canada. We studied 10 450 women who had completed the Maternal Experiences - Breastfeeding Module and the Household Food Security Survey Module of the Canadian Community Health Survey (2005-2014) and who had given birth in the year of or year before their interview. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression to examine the relation between food insecurity and infant feeding practices, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, maternal mood disorders and diabetes mellitus. Overall, 17% of the women reported household food insecurity, of whom 8.6% had moderate food insecurity and 2.9% had severe food insecurity (weighted percentages). After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, women with food insecurity were no less likely than others to initiate breastfeeding or provide vitamin D supplementation to their infants. Half of the women with food insecurity ceased exclusive breastfeeding by 2 months, whereas most of those with food security persisted with breastfeeding for 4 months or more. Relative to women with food security, those with marginal, moderate and severe food insecurity had significantly lower odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 4 months, but only women with moderate food insecurity had lower odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months, independent of sociodemographic characteristics (odds ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.92). Adjustment for maternal mood disorder or diabetes slightly attenuated these relationships. Mothers caring for infants in food-insecure households attempted to follow infant feeding recommendations, but were less able than women with food security to sustain exclusive breastfeeding. Our findings highlight the

  9. Early childhood predictors of age of initiation to use of cannabis: a birth prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Williams, Gail M; Bor, William; Najman, Jake M

    2013-05-01

    Early age of cannabis use predicts subsequent illicit drug abuse and other psychosocial problems. Identification of factors associated with early cannabis use may contribute to the development of preventive interventions. This study aimed to examine the early life predictors of age of initiation to cannabis. Data were from Mater Hospital and University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a population-based prospective birth cohort study. Participants were a cohort of 3488 young adults who self-reported frequency and age of onset of cannabis use at the 21 year follow up. Of 3488 young adults, 48.9% (51.8% men and 46.4% women) reported having ever used cannabis. For those who had ever used cannabis, age of onset had mean and median of 15.8 and 16.0 years, respectively. In multivariate analysis child's gender, change in maternal marital status, quality of marital relationship, maternal cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and maternal depression when the child was 5 years statistically significantly predicted age of initiation to cannabis use. The present study explores the impact of early childhood factors associated with age of onset of cannabis use. It is suggested that the family environment within which children are reared, including factors such as parents' marital circumstances, has a major influence on initiation to cannabis use in adolescence. Research is needed to disentangle the pathways of association between these early life factors and early initiation to use of cannabis. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. The Early Identity Exploration Scale-a measure of initial exploration in breadth during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłym, Maria; Cieciuch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The existing models and measurement instruments concerning identity appear to primarily focus on adolescence and early adulthood, and studies extending identity research to younger stages of life are scarce. There has been a particular lack of instruments measuring the early stages of identity formation, especially the process of exploration, which has been portrayed as a central process during this particular period of life. Our aim is to help fill the gap in the literature and facilitate further studies of the exploration process by providing an appropriate instrument to measure exploration in breadth during early adolescence. As a coherent and mature sense of identity is closely associated with psychosocial well-being, an effective identity exploration scale will enable researchers to assess the predictors of young adolescents' well-being. We propose a model of identity exploration domains based on the literature and considering 12 exploration domains: physical appearance, free time, family, work, boyfriend-girlfriend relationships, own opinion formation, perception of own place in the life cycle, self-reflection, future, future family, outlook on life, and attitude toward rules. The study was conducted on a group of N = 454 adolescents (50% males, M age = 13.04, SD = 0.98). Both reliability and structural validity, as verified by confirmatory factor analysis were satisfactory. The instrument is invariant across gender groups at the scalar level of measurement invariance.

  11. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  12. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding story Partner resources Search En Español Call the OWH HELPLINE: 1-800-994-9662 9 a.m. — 6 p.m. ET, Monday — Friday Health and Wellness Getting Active Healthy Eating Healthy Weight Mental Health Relationships and Safety Popular topics Caregiver stress Folic acid Heart-healthy ...

  13. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... embed/DpVp07lgDsI Learn the unique ways that breastmilk can improve your child’s health and ... a> Moms share what’s behind the one-of-a-kind bond that breastfeeding brings. Staying ...

  14. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... embed/ge-2Cn-LRAE YouTube embed video: breastfeeding success YouTube embed video: Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Breastfeeding Support for Nursing Moms in the Workplace: Employer Solutions ... restrictions and may be copied, reproduced, or duplicated without permission of the Office on Women’s Health in the U.S. Department of Health and ...

  15. Dad's Role in Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Dad's Role in Breastfeeding Page Content Article Body Let’s say you and mom have talked about it and ... is the medical term for the way the body makes room for incoming food by ... that your baby poops every time she nurses. Step in to handle this ...

  16. Breastfeeding and allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Odijk, J; Kull, I; Borres, M P

    2003-01-01

    concluded that breastfeeding seems to protect from the development of atopic disease. The effect appears even stronger in children with atopic heredity. If breast milk is unavailable or insufficient, extensively hydrolysed formulas are preferable to unhydrolysed or partially hydrolysed formulas in terms...

  17. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Support for Nursing Moms in the Workplace: Employer Solutions Blog topics Breastfeeding: Natural Doesn’t Mean Easy ... Ayisyen Français Polski Português Italiano Deutsch 日本語 فارسی English A federal government website managed by the Office ...

  18. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you strong while breastfeeding. Learn more about the foods you should eat. Previous Page ... of the Office on Women’s Health in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Citation of the source is appreciated. Page last ...

  19. Preparing beginning reading teachers: An experimental comparison of initial early literacy field experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Lake, Vickie E.; Greulich, Luana; Folsom, Jessica S.; Guidry, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This randomized-control trial examined the learning of preservice teachers taking an initial Early Literacy course in an early childhood education program and of the kindergarten or first grade students they tutored in their field experience. Preservice teachers were randomly assigned to one of two tutoring programs: Book Buddies and Tutor Assisted Intensive Learning Strategies (TAILS), which provided identical meaning-focused instruction (shared book reading), but differed ...

  1. When Breast Milk Alone Is Not Enough: Barriers to Breastfeeding Continuation among Overweight and Obese Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kair, Laura R; Colaizy, Tarah T

    2016-05-01

    Maternal overweight and obesity are associated with decreased breastfeeding duration. This study aimed to identify barriers to breastfeeding continuation among overweight and obese mothers. A retrospective cohort study examining breastfeeding continuation barriers was conducted using results of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey from Illinois, Maine, and Vermont from 2004 to 2008. SAS Complex Survey version 9.3 was used for analysis. Of 19,145 mothers surveyed, 3717 (19%) were obese and 4367 (23%) were overweight. Overall, 14,731 women initiated breastfeeding, and 6467 discontinued breastfeeding prior to survey completion, around 4 months postpartum. The most common reasons that mothers reported for discontinuing breastfeeding were insufficient milk supply, infant not satisfied with breast milk alone, and breastfeeding difficulty. Overweight and obese women, compared with women of normal weight, had higher odds of discontinuing breastfeeding because their babies were not satisfied by breast milk alone (overweight: odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.68; obese: OR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.03-1.54). Obese mothers, compared with normal weight mothers, had lower odds of discontinuing breastfeeding because it felt like the right time (OR = 0.64, 95% CI, 0.47-0.88) and higher odds of discontinuing due to breastfeeding difficulties (OR = 1.29, 95% CI, 1.05-1.58) and infant jaundice (OR = 1.81, 95% CI, 1.26-2.60). Obese and overweight mothers were significantly more likely to discontinue breastfeeding due to infant dissatisfaction with breast milk alone. Obese mothers had higher odds than normal weight mothers of discontinuing breastfeeding due to breastfeeding difficulties and infant jaundice. Breastfeeding education and support should be enhanced for this at-risk population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Breastfeeding in Tigray and Gonder, Ethiopia, with special reference to exclusive/almost exclusive breastfeeding beyond six months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, Zewditu; Scherbaum, Veronika; Taffese, Yonas; Teshome, Beka; Biesalski, Hans Konrad

    2004-11-01

    This study assesses the initiation and duration of exclusive/almost exclusive breastfeeding (Ex/AEx-BF) versus partial breastfeeding (P-BF) and its relationship to infant growth and maternal body mass index (BMI) in Ethiopian infants up to 12 months of age (Tigray n = 471; Gonder n =596). Initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hr after birth was 1.7 times more common in Tigray. In Gonder 19% of the mothers started breastfeeding on the third day of delivery and consequently, a significant higher proportion of newborns were offered prelacteal feeds (Phigher in both regions compared to the Ex/AEx-BF group (in Gonder 25% vs 5.9%; in Tigray 42.9% vs 33.3%). Nutrition education to raise awareness of mothers regarding initiation of exclusive breastfeeding directly after birth, the value of colostrum and avoidance of pre-postlacteal feeds, needs to be implemented. A new health package to be implemented could be a proper vehicle to reach the rural population, which doesn't have access to health services. The relationship between infant growth, mode of feeding and mothers nutritional status should be further investigated, particularly in populations with a high prevalence of maternal and infant nutrition and where long term breastfeeding is practiced.

  3. Online Continuing Education for Expanding Clinicians' Roles in Breastfeeding Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Roger A; Colchamiro, Rachel; Tolan, Ellen; Browne, Susan; Foley, Mary; Jenkins, Lucia; Mainello, Kristen; Vallu, Rohith; Hanley, Lauren E; Boisvert, Mary Ellen; Forgit, Julie; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Nordstrom, Christina

    2015-11-01

    Lack of health professional support is an important variable affecting mothers' achievement of breastfeeding goals. Online continuing education is a recognized pathway for disseminating content for improving clinicians' knowledge and supporting efforts to change practices. At the time we developed our project, free, accredited continuing education for physicians related to breastfeeding management that could be easily accessed using portable devices (via tablets/smartphones) was not available. Such resources were in demand, especially for facilities pursuing designation through the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. We assembled a government, academic, health care provider, and professional society partnership to create such a tutorial that would address the diverse content needed for supporting breastfeeding mothers postdischarge in the United States. Our 1.5-hour-long continuing medical and nursing education was completed by 1606 clinicians (1172 nurses [73%] and 434 physicians [27%]) within 1 year. More than 90% of nurses and over 98% of physicians said the tutorial achieved its 7 learning objectives related to breastfeeding physiology, broader factors in infant feeding decisions and practices, the American Academy of Pediatrics' policy statement, and breastfeeding management/troubleshooting. Feedback received from the tutorial led to the creation of a second tutorial consisting of another 1.5 hours of continuing medical and nursing education related to breast examination and assessment prior to delivery, provision of anticipatory guidance to pregnant women interested in breastfeeding, maternity care practices that influence breastfeeding outcomes, breastfeeding preterm infants, breastfeeding's role in helping address disparities, and dispelling common myths. The tutorials contribute to achievement of 8 Healthy People 2020 Maternal, Infant and Child Health objectives. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. [Development And Validation Of A Breastfeeding Knowledge And Skills Questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Fernández-Vegue, M; Menéndez Orenga, M

    2015-12-01

    Pediatricians play a key role in the onset and duration of breastfeeding. Although it is known that they lack formal education on this subject, there are currently no validated tools available to assess pediatrician knowledge regarding breastfeeding. To develop and validate a Breastfeeding Knowledge and Skills Questionnaire for Pediatricians. Once the knowledge areas were defined, a representative sample of pediatricians was chosen to carry out the survey. After pilot testing, non-discriminating questions were removed. Content validity was assessed by 14 breastfeeding experts, who examined the test, yielding 22 scorable items (maximum score: 26 points). To approach criterion validity, it was hypothesized that a group of pediatricians with a special interest in breastfeeding (1) would obtain better results than pediatricians from a hospital without a maternity ward (2), and the latter would obtain a higher score than the medical residents of Pediatrics training in the same hospital (3). The questionnaire was also evaluated before and after a basic course in breastfeeding. Breastfeeding experts have an index of agreement of >.90 for each item. The 3 groups (n=82) were compared, finding significant differences between group (1) and the rest. Moreover, an improvement was observed in the participants who attended the breastfeeding course (n=31), especially among those with less initial knowledge. Regarding reliability, internal consistency (KR-20=.87), interobserver agreement, and temporal stability were examined, with satisfactory results. A practical and self-administered tool is presented to assess pediatrician knowledge regarding breastfeeding, with a documented validity and reliability. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Personality Characteristics, Early Maladaptive Schema and Family Function in Couples Initiating for Divorce Versus Non-Initiating Ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محسن دهقانی

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Decision for divorce depends on various personal and interpersonal variables. Personality characteristics and early maladaptive schema as two individual, and family function, as an interpersonal variable would play crucial role in helping people to cope with problems in life. A sample of 285 couples (147 initiator, and 138 noninitiator were recruited in the family courts, and residential districts in Tehran. They completed a battery of questionnaire including NEO (five factor personality questionnaire, short form of early maladaptive schema questionnaire (YSR, and McMaster family assessment device (FAD. Groups were matched based on age, education level, social economic status, and years of marriage. Results indicated statistical significant differences between two groups in personality characteristics (neuroticism, openness to new experiences, agreeableness and consciousness early maladaptive schemas (emotional deprivation, rejection, distrust, pessimism and emotional inhibition, and family function (problem solving, roles, and behavioral control. The result of regression logistic analysis showed that 34 to 45 percent of dependent variable predicted by these 12 independent variable. As such, it seems that there is a need to attend the factors would play a role both at primary prevention level and secondary level that psychologists and counselors could consider when providing mental health services.

  6. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants under six months of age in peninsular malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Kok

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is accepted as the natural form of infant feeding. For mothers to be able to breastfeed exclusively to the recommended six months, it is important to understand the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 682 mother-infant pairs with infants up to six months attending maternal and child health section of the government health clinics in Klang, Malaysia. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a pre-tested structured questionnaire over 4 months in 2006. Data on breastfeeding were based on practice in the previous one month period. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between the independent variables and exclusive breastfeeding adjusting for infant age. Results The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers with infants aged between one and six months was 43.1% (95% CI: 39.4, 46.8. In the multivariate model exclusive breastfeeding was positively associated with rural residence, Malay mothers, non-working and non-smoking mothers, multiparous mothers, term infants, mothers with husbands who support breastfeeding and mothers who practice bed-sharing. Conclusions Interventions that seek to increase exclusive breastfeeding should focus on women who are at risk of early discontinuation of breastfeeding.

  7. Clinical practice breastfeeding recommendations for primary care: applying a tri-core breastfeeding conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Deborah W; Logan, Kathleen; Wilkinson, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Promotional practice efforts are needed in primary care to support and foster breastfeeding as the first and natural choice of nutrition for all infants regardless of race, ethnicity, educational, or income demographics in the United States. Societal awareness is increasing with regard to the significant protective qualities that human milk bestows upon public health. An estimated 75% of American mothers attempt to breastfeed, but according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, just 13% are able to exclusively breastfeed by 6 months. Early identification of lactation issues is crucial to establishing and sustaining breastfeeding for the first 6 to 12 months of the child's life and beyond. We propose a set of primary care guidelines, applying a Tri-Core Model approach, to promote and foster breastfeeding efforts in the postpartum period. Breastfeeding promotion is a fundamental public health endeavor, and pediatric nurse practitioners and other advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) are uniquely qualified to become specialists and experts in lactation care and management. Lactation support, which should be an integral facet of an APRN's practice and education, will aid in improving national breastfeeding rates and patient care outcomes. Application of the Tri-Core Model approach will help APRNs develop and implement evidence-based practice efforts that incorporate the mother-baby dyad and other multiprofessionals who are vested in successful breastfeeding outcomes. The goal of pediatric health care is provide safe and effective health care to all infants, children, and adolescents, and lactation care is an integral and crucial component of this effort. Copyright © 2014 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cortisol regulation in 12-month-old human infants: Associations with the infants' early history of breastfeeding and co-sleeping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, R.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Weerth, C. de

    2013-01-01

    Experiences during early life are suggested to affect the physiological systems underlying stress responses, including the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis). While stressful early experiences have been associated with dysregulated HPA-axis functioning, positive early experiences, i.e.

  9. Frameworks for Change: Four Recurrent Themes for Quality in Early Childhood Curriculum Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Jennifer; Fleet, Alma

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the first phase of a case study that investigated how early childhood teachers experience organisational change. As one of three levels of quality improvement, State government-funded curriculum initiatives were developed with an aim to promote change. Three curriculum documents, one each focusing on literacy, pedagogy and…

  10. Improving early detection initiatives: a qualitative study exploring perspectives of older people and professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lette, Manon; Stoop, Annerieke; Lemmens, Lidwien C; Buist, Yvette; Baan, Caroline A; de Bruin, Simone R

    2017-06-23

    A wide range of initiatives on early detection and intervention have been developed to proactively identify problems related to health and wellbeing in (frail) older people, with the aim of supporting them to live independently for as long as possible. Nevertheless, it remains unclear what the best way is to design such initiatives and how older people's needs and preferences can be best addressed. This study aimed to address this gap in the literature by exploring: 1) older people's perspectives on health and living environment in relation to living independently at home; 2) older people's needs and preferences in relation to initiating and receiving care and support; and 3) professionals' views on what would be necessary to enable the alignment of early detection initiatives with older people's own needs and preferences. In this qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 36 older people and 19 professionals in proactive elderly care. Data were analysed using the framework analysis method. From the interviews with older people important themes in relation to health and living environment emerged, such as maintaining independence, appropriate housing, social relationships, a supporting network and a sense of purpose and autonomy. Older people preferred to remain self-sufficient, and they would rather not ask for help for psychological or social problems. However, the interviews also highlighted that they were not always able or willing to anticipate future needs, which can hinder early detection or early intervention. At the same time, professionals indicated that older people tend to over-estimate their self-reliance and therefore advocated for early detection and intervention, including social and psychological issues. Older people have a broad range of needs in different domains of life. Discrepancies exist between older people and professionals with regard to their views on timing and scope of early detection initiatives. This study aimed

  11. Initiation of an early-stage plasma during picosecond laser ablation of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Samuel S.; Mao, Xianglei; Greif, Ralph; Russo, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    Picosecond time-resolved images of plasma initiation were recorded during pulsed-laser ablation of metal targets in an air atmosphere. An early-stage plasma was observed to form before the release of a material vapor plume. Close to the target surface, interferometry measurements indicate that the early-stage plasma has an electron number density on the order of 10 20 cm -3 . The longitudinal expansion of the ionization front for this plasma has a velocity 10 9 cm/s, during the laser pulse. In contrast, a material--vapor plume forms approximately 200 ps after the laser pulse, and it moves away from the target at 10 6 cm/s. The experimental observations of the early-stage plasma were simulated by using a theoretical model based on a two-fluids description of laser plasmas. The results indicate that the initiation of the plasma is due to air breakdown assisted by electron emission from the target

  12. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  13. In practice, the theory is different: a processual analysis of breastfeeding in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavenius, Michael; van Hulsel, Lonneke; Meijer, Julia; Wendte, Hans; Gurgel, Ricardo

    2007-02-01

    'Na prática, a teoria è outra' (in practice, the theory is different) is an old Brazilian saying. This phrase summarizes well the general practice of breastfeeding in Brazil: 'Breast is best' is central in the pregnant women's future oriented 'theory' of how their infant should be fed. In the subsequent weeks after delivery, however, in the daily practicalities of feeding their infant, this theory is, to a large extent, abandoned. The present study is based on a sample of 300 mothers in the city of Aracaju in the Northeast of Brazil. Through interviews, the differences and similarities between knowledge and practice with respect to infant feeding were established. An explanation of these differences is developed on the basis of a processual analysis of the qualitative and quantitative results of the interview data. Nearly all mothers were knowledgeable of the need to breastfeed, and nearly all mothers had initiated breastfeeding. However, only a minority was exclusively breastfeeding at the time of the interview. A distinction is made between a breastfeeding process and a de-breastfeeding process. The data suggest that mothers, in general, start the de-breastfeeding process with the positive intention of ameliorating the infant's situation without realizing the negative processual consequences that most likely ends in a cessation of breastfeeding. The study supports the view that health policy should underline the processual character of both breastfeeding and de-breastfeeding when promoting the importance of exclusive breastfeeding.

  14. Cannabis and Breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Garry, Aurélia; Rigourd, Virginie; Amirouche, Ammar; Fauroux, Valérie; Aubry, Sylvie; Serreau, Raphaël

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 TetraHydroCannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at ...

  15. Why does the need for medication become a barrier to breastfeeding? A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchey, Alyson K; Shield, Alison; Cheong, Lynn H; Ferguson, Sally L; Cooper, Gabrielle M; Kyle, Gregory J

    2017-12-16

    The need for medication during lactation can contribute to the early cessation of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding women may require medication for acute or chronic health conditions. For some women this need for medication can become a barrier to breastfeeding; this is despite the fact that the majority of medications are considered to be compatible with lactation. This narrative review aims to investigate factors relating to medicines safety that could contribute to medication unnecessarily becoming a barrier to breastfeeding. A selective literature search using PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar was conducted over a 6-month period using the search terms "breastfeeding", "lactation", "medication" and "information". Articles were assessed to identify whether they addressed the impact of medication use on the decision to breastfeed. Fifty six articles were identified as having appropriate discussion about decision making for the safe use of medication during lactation. Themes identified included variable and conflicting safety advice for medicines; difficulty interpreting risks associated with medicine use; societal pressures faced by the breastfeeding woman; and the varied knowledge and training of health professionals involved in the care of breastfeeding women. Poor quality of information about medicine safety during lactation can contribute to confusion in giving recommendations. This confusion can result in early cessation of breastfeeding or insufficient health care for the breastfeeding woman. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Timing of First Antenatal Care (ANC) and Inequalities in Early Initiation of ANC in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Yuba Raj; Jha, Trishna; Mehata, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    The provision and uptake of quality and timely antenatal care (ANC) is an essential element of efforts to improve health outcomes for women and newborn babies. Antenatal consultations assist in early identification and treatment of complications during pregnancy. This study aimed to provide an information on distribution and inequalities in early initiation of ANC in Nepal. The distribution and inequalities in the early initiation of ANC were examined using Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys 2011. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess inequalities. Overall, 70% of the women had started their first ANC at 4 month or earlier. Among participants who had never attended school, just more than half (52%) received first ANC at 4 months or earlier, while majority of participants (97%) who had received higher education received first ANC at recommended time. Similarly, 89% of those from richest quintile and 48% of those from poorest quintile received first ANC at recommended time. In adjusted analysis, women from richest wealth quintile were significantly more likely to initiate ANC early (AOR: 3.74, 95% CI: 2.31-6.05) compared to the poorest. Similarly, women with higher level education were significantly more likely (AOR: 11.40, 95% CI: 5.05-25.73) to initiate ANC early compared to women who had never attended school. A significantly lower odds of early ANC take up was observed among madhesi other caste (AOR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35-0.90) compared to brahmin/chhetri women. Women whose pregnancy was unwanted were significantly less likely to attend first ANC at 4 months or early (AOR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.58-0.93) in comparison to women whose pregnancy was wanted. The differences in the recommended timing of initiation of ANC were evident among women with different educational, economic levels, and caste/ethnic groups. Rural women were less likely to have checkups as per guidelines. The findings suggest to a need of interventions to raise female

  17. Timing of First Antenatal Care (ANC and Inequalities in Early Initiation of ANC in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuba Raj Paudel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe provision and uptake of quality and timely antenatal care (ANC is an essential element of efforts to improve health outcomes for women and newborn babies. Antenatal consultations assist in early identification and treatment of complications during pregnancy. This study aimed to provide an information on distribution and inequalities in early initiation of ANC in Nepal.MethodsThe distribution and inequalities in the early initiation of ANC were examined using Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys 2011. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess inequalities.FindingsOverall, 70% of the women had started their first ANC at 4 month or earlier. Among participants who had never attended school, just more than half (52% received first ANC at 4 months or earlier, while majority of participants (97% who had received higher education received first ANC at recommended time. Similarly, 89% of those from richest quintile and 48% of those from poorest quintile received first ANC at recommended time. In adjusted analysis, women from richest wealth quintile were significantly more likely to initiate ANC early (AOR: 3.74, 95% CI: 2.31–6.05 compared to the poorest. Similarly, women with higher level education were significantly more likely (AOR: 11.40, 95% CI: 5.05–25.73 to initiate ANC early compared to women who had never attended school. A significantly lower odds of early ANC take up was observed among madhesi other caste (AOR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35–0.90 compared to brahmin/chhetri women. Women whose pregnancy was unwanted were significantly less likely to attend first ANC at 4 months or early (AOR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.58–0.93 in comparison to women whose pregnancy was wanted.ConclusionThe differences in the recommended timing of initiation of ANC were evident among women with different educational, economic levels, and caste/ethnic groups. Rural women were less likely to have checkups as per guidelines. The findings

  18. What happens after the cutting of the umbilical cord? Breastfeeding as a central symbol of the early mother-child relationship and its social implications in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsbeth Kneuper

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Les nouvelles techniques biomédicales ont un impact profond, voire révolutionnaire, sur nos conceptions de la parenté, de la famille ou de nos rapports sociaux de sexe, constat qui a reçu une attention croissante de la part des sciences sociales au cours de la dernière décennie. Les progrès technologiques dans le domaine de la technique et de l’analyse médicales, par exemple, ont une influence directe sur ce qu’on peut globalement appeler le « discours sur l’allaitement », et indirecte sur la représentation du rôle de la femme dans une société particulière. Dans cet article, nous cherchons à montrer que ce discours traduit plutôt des effets conservateurs de la pratique et de la théorie actuelles dans le domaine biomédical et que la nourriture, la science et la technologie contribuent ensemble à restaurer ou renforcer les conceptions traditionnellement perçues au sein de la société allemande.The fact that new biomedical technologies have a profound and sometimes revolutionary impact on our concepts of kinship, family or gender roles has attracted increasing attention from social scientists over the past decade. Technological advances in medical techniques and analysis, for instance, have had a direct influence on what could broadly be called the “breastfeeding discourse” and an indirect effect on the notion of the woman’s role in a given society. The present article will show that what this discourse actually reflects are the conservative effects of today’s biomedical practice and theory and that food, science and technology combine together to restore or reinforce traditionally held representations in German society.

  19. Support for healthy breastfeeding mothers with healthy term babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfrew, Mary J; McCormick, Felicia M; Wade, Angela; Quinn, Beverley; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background There is extensive evidence of important health risks for infants and mothers related to not breastfeeding. In 2003, the World Health Organization recommended infants be exclusively breastfed until six months of age, with breastfeeding continuing as an important part of the infant’s diet till at least two years of age. However, breastfeeding rates in many countries currently do not reflect this recommendation. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of support for breastfeeding mothers. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (3 October 2011). Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing extra support for healthy breastfeeding mothers of healthy term babies with usual maternity care. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results Of the 67 studies that we assessed as eligible for inclusion, 52 contributed outcome data to the review (56,451 mother-infant pairs) from 21 countries. All forms of extra support analysed together showed an increase in duration of ‘any breastfeeding’ (includes partial and exclusive breastfeeding) (risk ratio (RR) for stopping any breastfeeding before six months 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 to 0.96). All forms of extra support together also had a positive effect on duration of exclusive breastfeeding (RR at six months 0.86, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.91; RR at four to six weeks 0.74, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.89). Extra support by both lay and professionals had a positive impact on breastfeeding outcomes. Maternal satisfaction was poorly reported. Authors’ conclusions All women should be offered support to breastfeed their babies to increase the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding. Support is likely to be more effective in settings with high initiation rates, so efforts to increase the uptake of breastfeeding should be in place. Support may be offered either by

  20. Breastfeeding knowledge among health workers in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sonal; Rollins, Nigel C; Bland, Ruth

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a rapid assessment of breastfeeding knowledge amongst health workers in an area of high HIV prevalence. A cross-sectional survey using semi-structured questionnaires and problem-based scenarios was carried out. Responses were compared to those recommended in the World Health Organization (WHO) Breastfeeding Counselling Course. The setting was a rural area of KwaZulu Natal, with a population of 220 000 people. At the time of the study approximately 36 per cent of pregnant women were HIV-infected and no programme to prevent mother-to-child transmission was in place. A convenient sample of 71 healthcare workers (14 doctors, 25 professional nurses, 16 staff nurses, and 16 community health workers) were included in the study. Over 50% of respondents had given breastfeeding advice to clients over the previous month. However, there were significant discrepancies in breastfeeding knowledge compared to WHO recommendations. Ninety-three per cent (n = 13) of doctors knew that breastfeeding should be initiated within 30 min of delivery, but 71 per cent (n = 10) would recommend water, and 50 per cent (n = 7) solids to breastfed infants under 6 months of age. Fifty-seven per cent (n = 8) considered glucose water necessary for neonatal jaundice, constipation, and for infants immediately after delivery. Only 44 per cent (n = 7) of staff nurses and 56 per cent (n = 14) of professional nurses knew that breastfeeding should be on demand. The majority would recommend water, formula milk, and solids to breastfed infants under 6 months of age, and glucose water for neonatal jaundice and immediately after delivery. Knowledge of community health workers differed most from WHO recommendations: only 37 per cent (n = 6) knew that breastfeeding should be initiated within 30 min of delivery, 68 per cent (n = 11) thought breastfeeding should be on schedule and not on demand, and the majority would recommend supplements to infants under 6 months of age. Few

  1. [Malama project in the Region of Murcia (Spain): environment and breastfeeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega García, J A; Pastor Torres, E; Martínez Lorente, I; Bosch Giménez, V; Quesada López, J J; Hernández Ramón, F; Alcaráz Quiñonero, M; Llamas del Castillo, M M; Torres Cantero, A M; García de León González, R; Sánchez Solís de Querol, M

    2008-05-01

    To identify protective factors and risk factors for the initiation and length of breastfeeding and full breastfeeding, in the Region of Murcia (Spain). The Malama study (Medio Ambiente y Lactancia Materna) is a follow up study from birth up to years of 1,000 mother-child pairs. A description of breastfeeding practices are presented here, the survival curve of breastfeeding and a Cox regression model of the pilot study that includes 101 mother-child pairs and 6 months of follow-up. After six months the prevalence of breastfeeding was 35 %. The mean duration of full breastfeeding was 63 days (median 45 days) with six months prevalence of 8 %. Hazard ratios (HR) for full breastfeeding were, to be a smoker (1.89; 95 % CI: 1.18-3.02), older than 35 years of age (2.04; 95 % CI: 1.22-3.42), caesarean birth (1.63; 95 % CI: 1.00-2.66). As well as those previously mentioned risks for breastfeeding, there were also hazard ratios for primary school education or less (1.63; 95 % CI: 0.98-2.82); to have breastfed an earlier child for at least 16 weeks (0.33; 95 % CI: 0.13-0.79), and to be the first birth (0.50; 95 % CI: 0.27-0.95). The length of both breastfeeding and full breastfeeding increased with the length of the maternal leave (0.96; 95 % CI: 0.94-0.99). Pregestational occupational exposure to endocrine disruptors did not seem to interfere with the duration of breastfeeding. In order to improve quality and duration of breastfeeding programmes, paediatric research and training on breastfeeding practice should be encouraged, to reduce unnecessary caesarean sections, promote tobacco cessation, focus human and economic resources to women with less education, and include legal mechanisms to ensure longer maternal leave.

  2. Breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes, and practices among providers in a medical home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Kinga A; Miracle, Donna J; Rosenman, Marc B

    2009-03-01

    Breastfeeding offers numerous health advantages to children, mothers, and society. From obstetrics to pediatrics, breastfeeding dyads come in contact with a wide range of healthcare providers. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) calls for pediatricians to support breastfeeding enthusiastically and for all children to have a medical home. We studied an inner-city healthcare system with a Dyson Community Pediatrics Training Initiative Model Medical Home clinic, to explore how a breastfeeding/baby-friendly medical home might be built upon this framework. We describe breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes, and practices among a full range of providers and healthcare system-level barriers to effective and coordinated breastfeeding services. We conducted eight focus groups using semistructured interviews: (1) pediatricians; (2) obstetricians; (3) pediatric nurses and allied health professionals; (4) obstetric nurses and allied health professionals; (5) 24-hour telephone triage answering service nurses; (6) public health nurses; (7) Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) personnel; and (8) lactation consultants and peer counselors. We identified gaps in providers' breastfeeding knowledge, counseling skills, and professional education and training. Providers' cultures and attitudes affect breastfeeding promotion and support. Providers used their own breastfeeding experiences to replace evidence-based knowledge and AAP policy statement recommendations for breastfeeding dyads. There were communication disconnects between provider groups. Providers underestimated their own, and overestimated others', influence on breastfeeding. The system lacked a coordinated breastfeeding mission. This study illuminated key disconnectedness challenges (and, hence, opportunities) for a model medical home in fostering continuous, comprehensive, coordinated, culturally effective, and evidence-based breastfeeding promotion and support.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of early initiation of first-line combination antiretroviral therapy in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sempa Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ugandan national guidelines recommend initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART at CD4+ T cell (CD4 count below 350 cell/μl, but the implementation of this is limited due to availability of medication. However, cART initiation at higher CD4 count increases survival, albeit at higher lifetime treatment cost. This analysis evaluates the cost-effectiveness of initiating cART at a CD4 count between 250–350 cell/μl (early versus Methods Life expectancy of cART-treated patients, conditional on baseline CD4 count, was modeled based on published literature. First-line cART costs $192 annually, with an additional $113 for patient monitoring. Delaying initiation of cART until the CD4 count falls below 250 cells/μl would incur the cost of the bi-annual CD4 count tests and routine maintenance care at $85 annually. We compared lifetime treatment costs and disability adjusted life-expectancy between early vs. delayed cART for ten baseline CD4 count ranges from 250-350 cell/μl. All costs and benefits were discounted at 3% annually. Results Treatment delay varied from 6–18 months. Early cART initiation increased life expectancy from 1.5-3.5 years and averted 1.33–3.10 disability adjusted life years (DALY’s per patient. Lifetime treatment costs were $4,300–$5,248 for early initiation and $3,940–$4,435 for delayed initiation. The cost/DALY averted of the early versus delayed start ranged from $260–$270. Conclusions In HIV-positive patients presenting with CD4 count between 250-350 cells/μl, immediate initiation of cART is a highly cost-effective strategy using the recommended one-time per capita GDP threshold of $490 reported for Uganda. This would constitute an efficient use of scarce health care funds.

  4. Does body image influence the relationship between body weight and breastfeeding maintenance in new mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Vivien; Keely, Alice; Denison, Fiona C

    2017-09-01

    Obese women have lower breastfeeding initiation and maintenance rates than healthy weight women. Research generally focuses on biomedical explanations for this. Psychosocial factors including body image and well-being after childbirth are less well understood as predictors of breastfeeding. In obese and healthy weight women, we investigated changes in body image between 72 hrs post-delivery and 6-8 weeks post-natal, studying how women's body image related to breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. We also investigated how psychological distress was related to body image. Longitudinal semi-structured questionnaire survey. Body image and psychological distress were assessed within 72 hrs of birth and by postal questionnaire at 6-8 weeks, for 70 obese and 70 healthy weight women initiating exclusive (breastmilk only) breastfeeding or mixed feeding (with formula milk) in hospital. Breastfeeding was re-assessed at 6-8 weeks. Obese women were less likely to exclusively breastfeed in hospital and maintain breastfeeding to 6-8 weeks. Better body image was related to maintaining breastfeeding and to lower post-natal psychological distress for all women, but education level was the most significant predictor of maintenance in multivariate regression including body image and weight status. Body image mediated, but did not moderate the relationship between weight and breastfeeding maintenance. Body image was lower overall in obese women, but all women had low body image satisfaction around childbirth, reducing further at 6-8 weeks. Health professionals should consider women's body image when discussing breastfeeding. A focus on breast function over form may support breastfeeding for all women. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Obesity can negatively affect breastfeeding initiation and maintenance, but there is little information about how psychosocial factors affect this relationship. Body image may be an important factor, but has not

  5. Improvement of Early Antenatal Care Initiation: The Effects of Training Local Health Volunteers in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Oumudee, Nurlisa; Armeeroh, Masuenah; Nima, Niamina; Duerahing, Nurosanah

    2018-01-01

    Although antenatal care (ANC) coverage has been increasing in low- and middle-income countries, the adherence to the ANC initiation standards at gestational age ANC initiation by training the existing local health volunteers (LHVs) in 3 southernmost provinces of Thailand. A clustered nonrandomized intervention study was conducted from November 2012 to February 2014. One district of each province was selected to be the study intervention districts for that province. A total of 124 LHVs in the intervention districts participated in the knowledge-counseling intervention. It was organized as half-day workshop using 2 training modules each comprising a 30-minute lecture followed by counseling practice in pairs for 1 hour. Outcome was the rate of early ANC initiation among women giving birth, and its association with intervention, meeting an LHV, and months after training was analyzed. Of 6677 women, 3178 and 3499 women were in the control and intervention groups, respectively. Rates of early ANC were significantly improved after the intervention (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-1.43, P ANC. Training LHVs in communities by knowledge-counseling intervention significantly improved early ANC initiation, but the magnitude of change was still limited.

  6. Statewide Quality Improvement Initiative to Reduce Early Elective Deliveries and Improve Birth Registry Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Heather C; King, Eileen; White, Beth E; Ford, Susan E; Fuller, Sandra; Krew, Michael A; Marcotte, Michael P; Iams, Jay D; Bailit, Jennifer L; Bouchard, Jo M; Friar, Kelly; Lannon, Carole M

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the success of a quality improvement initiative to reduce early elective deliveries at less than 39 weeks of gestation and improve birth registry data accuracy rapidly and at scale in Ohio. Between February 2013 and March 2014, participating hospitals were involved in a quality improvement initiative to reduce early elective deliveries at less than 39 weeks of gestation and improve birth registry data. This initiative was designed as a learning collaborative model (group webinars and a single face-to-face meeting) and included individual quality improvement coaching. It was implemented using a stepped wedge design with hospitals divided into three balanced groups (waves) participating in the initiative sequentially. Birth registry data were used to assess hospital rates of nonmedically indicated inductions at less than 39 weeks of gestation. Comparisons were made between groups participating and those not participating in the initiative at two time points. To measure birth registry accuracy, hospitals conducted monthly audits comparing birth registry data with the medical record. Associations were assessed using generalized linear repeated measures models accounting for time effects. Seventy of 72 (97%) eligible hospitals participated. Based on birth registry data, nonmedically indicated inductions at less than 39 weeks of gestation declined in all groups with implementation (wave 1: 6.2-3.2%, Pinitiative, they saw significant decreases in rates of early elective deliveries as compared with wave 3 (control; P=.018). All waves had significant improvement in birth registry accuracy (wave 1: 80-90%, P=.017; wave 2: 80-100%, P=.002; wave 3: 75-100%, Pinitiative enabled statewide spread of change strategies to decrease early elective deliveries and improve birth registry accuracy over 14 months and could be used for rapid dissemination of other evidence-based obstetric care practices across states or hospital systems.

  7. [Results of a health education intervention in the continuity of breastfeeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinero Diaz, Patricia; Burgos Rodríguez, María José; Mejía Ramírez de Arellano, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    evaluate the efficacy of a nursing intervention based on active observation and resolution of the problems of breastfeeding in the period 24-48h post-partum as regards stopping breastfeeding in mothers who gave birth in Hospital General Universitario, Ciudad Real. A clinical trial was conducted on 100 healthy women who had given birth to a healthy baby in the maternity unit of the Hospital General Universitario Ciudad Real. The results showed that 39.8% of women have problems, and 72% need help to initiate the breastfeeding. Approximately 79.9% continue with breastfeeding after hospital discharge as a result of our intervention. Breastfeeding was stopped by 31.1% of the control group, and by 10.9% in the experimental group (nursing intervention), with significant differences being observed in both groups, with RR 1.29 and 95% CI; 1.04-1.61. Hypogalactia (low milk production) was the most frequent reason for stopping, with no differences in both groups. At 3 months, 16.9% had stopped breastfeeding in the control group, and 9% in the experimental group. At 6 months, 19.3% of the control group did not continue with breastfeeding versus 15.9% in the experimental group. Action, and not only intervention, protocols in the period 48h pospartum when there were problems with breastfeeding were effective for initiation breastfeeding at hospital discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Vulnerability to Peer Influence: A Moderated Mediation Study of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Wieczorek, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Affiliation with deviant peers is a correlate of adolescent alcohol use; however, the mechanism accounting for this association remains unclear, particularly with respect to initiation of alcohol use in early adolescence. This prospective study examines perceived peer attitudes and use as a mediator between peer delinquency and initiation of alcohol use, and how parenting may moderate vulnerability to this risk pathway. Participants included 371 11–13 year-old adolescents (55.5% female, 83.0% Caucasian). Results suggested that high levels of peer delinquency prospectively predicted perceived peer approval and use of alcohol and that peer approval and use of alcohol prospectively predicted initiation of alcohol use. Thus, reinforcement and modeling alcohol use appear to be important mechanisms by which delinquent peers influence the initiation of drinking. There was no support for parental warmth or control as moderators of peer influence. PMID:21420241

  9. A Qualitative Study of the Context of Child and Adolescent Substance Use Initiation and Patterns of Use in the First Year for Early and Later Initiators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Kingston

    Full Text Available Individuals who initiate substance use before high school are at higher risk of negative outcomes. Eighty-six young adults between the ages of 18 and 28 participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews focused on the circumstances surrounding participants' first use of substances and their pattern of use in the year following initiation in order to investigate similarities and differences between early versus later initiators. Initiation and use among early initiators were more likely to be encouraged by poor parental monitoring or active facilitation of use by parents. Early initiators were more likely to report risky patterns of use such as daily use and using alone. The data suggest that interventions targeting this population should focus on improving parental monitoring and decreasing positive parental attitudes toward adolescent substance use and efforts to increase identification and intervention by middle school staff to reach youth from high-risk families.

  10. Session 1: Public health nutrition. Breast-feeding practices in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2008-11-01

    Breast-feeding is the superior infant feeding method from birth, with research consistently demonstrating its numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both mother and infant. As a global recommendation the WHO advises that mothers should exclusively breast-feed for the first 6-months of life, thus delaying the introduction of solids during this time. Historically, Irish breast-feeding initiation rates have remained strikingly low in comparison with international data and there has been little improvement in breast-feeding duration rates. There is wide geographical variation in terms of breast-feeding initiation both internationally and in Ireland. Some of these differences in breast-feeding rates may be associated with differing socio-economic characteristics. A recent cross-sectional prospective study of 561 pregnant women attending a Dublin hospital and followed from the antenatal period to 6 months post partum has found that 47% of the Irish-national mothers initiated breast-feeding, while only 24% were still offering \\'any\\' breast milk to their infants at 6 weeks. Mothers\\' positive antenatal feeding intention to breast-feed is indicated as one of the most important independent determinants of initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks, suggesting that the antenatal period should be targeted as an effective time to influence and affect mothers\\' attitudes and beliefs pertaining to breast-feeding. These results suggest that the \\'cultural\\' barrier towards breast-feeding appears to still prevail in Ireland and consequently an environment that enables women to breast-feed is far from being achieved. Undoubtedly, a shift towards a more positive and accepting breast-feeding culture is required if national breast-feeding rates are to improve.

  11. Breastfeeding attitudes of Finnish parents during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanterä, Sari; Pölkki, Tarja; Ekström, Anette; Pietilä, Anna-Maija

    2010-12-02

    Breastfeeding attitudes are known to influence infant feeding but little information exists on the prenatal breastfeeding attitudes of parents. The purpose of this study was to describe Finnish parents' prenatal breastfeeding attitudes and their relationships with demographic characteristics. The electronic Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitude and Confidence scale was developed and 172 people (123 mothers, 49 fathers) completed the study. The data were analysed using factor analysis and nonparametric methods. Breastfeeding was regarded as important, but 54% of the respondents wanted both parents to feed the newborn. The mean rank values of breastfeeding attitudes differed significantly when parity, gender, education, age, breastfeeding history and level of breastfeeding knowledge were considered. The respondents who were expecting their first child, were 18-26 years old or had vocational qualifications or moderate breastfeeding knowledge had more negative feelings and were more worried about breastfeeding than respondents who had at least one child, had a higher vocational diploma or academic degree or had high levels of breastfeeding knowledge. Respondents with high levels of breastfeeding knowledge did not appear concerned about equality in feeding. Both mothers and fathers found breastfeeding important. A father's eagerness to participate in their newborn's life should be included in prenatal breastfeeding counselling and ways in which to support breastfeeding discussed. Relevant information about breastfeeding should focus on the parents who are expecting their first child, those who are young, those with low levels of education or those who have gaps in breastfeeding knowledge, so that fears and negative views can be resolved.

  12. Selected abstracts from the Breastfeeding and Feminism International Conference 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa H. Amir

    2016-10-01

    . Stuebe, Amy G. Bryant, Anne Drapkin Lyerly A31. A hard day’s night: juggling nighttime breastfeeding, sleep, and work Cecilia Tomori A32. Empowering change in Indian country through breastfeeding education Amanda L. Watkins, Joan E. Dodgson A33. Servants and “Little Mothers” take charge: work, class, and breastfeeding rates in the early 20th-century U.S. Jacqueline H. Wolf

  13. Intimate partner violence and breastfeeding practices: a systematic review of observational studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel de Souza Mezzavilla

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the association between intimate partner violence and breastfeeding practices in the literature. Data sources: The search was carried out in five databases, including MEDLINE, LILACS, SCOPUS, PsycoINFO, and Science Direct. The search strategy was carried out in February 2017. The authors included original studies with observational design, which investigated forms of intimate partner violence (including emotional, physical, and/or sexual and breastfeeding practices. The quality of the studies was assessed based on the bias susceptibility through criteria specifically developed for this review. Summary of data: The study included 12 original articles (10 cross-sectional, one case-control, and one cohort study carried out in different countries. The forms of intimate partner violence observed were emotional, physical, and/or sexual. Breastfeeding was investigated by different tools and only assessed children between 2 days and 6 months of life. Of the 12 studies included in this review, eight found a lower breastfeeding intention, breastfeeding initiation, and exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of the child's life, and a higher likelihood of early termination of exclusive breastfeeding among women living at home where violence was present. The quality varied between the studies and six were classified as having low bias susceptibility based on the assessed items. Conclusions: Intimate partner violence is associated with inadequate breastfeeding practices of children aged 2 days to 6 months of life. Resumo: Objetivo: Revisar na literatura a associação da violência entre parceiros íntimos e as práticas de aleitamento materno. Fontes dos dados: Foram utilizadas para as buscas cinco bases de dados, incluindo o MEDLINE, LILACS, SCOPUS, PsycoINFO e Science Direct. A estratégia de busca foi realizada em fevereiro de 2017. Foram incluídos estudos originais com desenho observacional, os quais investigaram formas

  14. Intimate partner violence and breastfeeding practices: a systematic review of observational studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel de Souza Mezzavilla

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the association between intimate partner violence and breastfeeding practices in the literature. Data sources: The search was carried out in five databases, including MEDLINE, LILACS, SCOPUS, PsycoINFO, and Science Direct. The search strategy was carried out in February 2017. The authors included original studies with observational design, which investigated forms of intimate partner violence (including emotional, physical, and/or sexual and breastfeeding practices. The quality of the studies was assessed based on the bias susceptibility through criteria specifically developed for this review. Summary of data: The study included 12 original articles (10 cross‐sectional, one case‐control, and one cohort study carried out in different countries. The forms of intimate partner violence observed were emotional, physical, and/or sexual. Breastfeeding was investigated by different tools and only assessed children between 2 days and 6 months of life. Of the 12 studies included in this review, eight found a lower breastfeeding intention, breastfeeding initiation, and exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of the child's life, and a higher likelihood of early termination of exclusive breastfeeding among women living at home where violence was present. The quality varied between the studies and six were classified as having low bias susceptibility based on the assessed items. Conclusions: Intimate partner violence is associated with inadequate breastfeeding practices of children aged 2 days to 6 months of life. Resumo: Objetivo: Revisar na literatura a associação da violência entre parceiros íntimos e as práticas de aleitamento materno. Fontes dos dados: Foram utilizadas para as buscas cinco bases de dados, incluindo o MEDLINE, LILACS, SCOPUS, PsycoINFO e Science Direct. A estratégia de busca foi realizada em fevereiro de 2017. Foram incluídos estudos originais com desenho observacional, os quais investigaram

  15. Early detection of multiple sclerosis: MR findings during the initial manifestations of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoerner, W.; Baum, K.; Henkes, H.; Girke, W.; Felix, R.; Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Berlin

    1988-01-01

    The MR results in 21 patients showing the initial manifestations of multiple sclerosis (MS) were compared with those in 45 patients with a long history of MS. As in the old cases, MR proved a very sensitive technique during the early manifestations, with abnormal findings in 20 out of 21 patients. The relatively characteristic MR findings in long-standing MS (predominant peri-ventricular involvement with a relatively typical pattern) was seen in the early stages is only rare cases. The value of MR during the initial manifestations of MS is in cases where the clinical findings are not conclusive and laboratory diagnosis (evoked potentials, CSF findings) are indefinite. In these patients the finding of multiple lesions in the brain can confirm the suspected diagnosis of MS. (orig.) [de

  16. Paediatric early warning scores on a children's ward: a quality improvement initiative.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ennis, Linda

    2014-09-09

    The aim of this quality improvement initiative was to incorporate a paediatric early warning score (PEWS) and track and trigger system in the routine care of children in an acute general children\\'s ward at a regional hospital in the Republic of Ireland. In the absence of a nationally recommended specific PEWS strategy, a local plan was developed. The experience of structuring and implementing the PEWS and track and trigger system is presented in this article. Data from the first year of use were collected to evaluate the clinical utility and effectiveness of this system. In the busy acute children\\'s service, the PEWS initiative was found to benefit processes of early detection, prompt referral and timely, appropriate management of children at potential risk of clinical deterioration. Nursing staff were empowered and supported to communicate concerns immediately and to seek rapid medical review, according to an agreed PEWS escalation plan. Outcomes were significantly improved.

  17. Early efficacy of the ketogenic diet is not affected by initial body mass index percentile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Shastin; Diaz-Medina, Gloria; Wong-Kisiel, Lily; Nickels, Katherine; Eckert, Susan; Wirrell, Elaine

    2014-05-01

    Predictors of the ketogenic diet's success in treating pediatric intractable epilepsy are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether initial body mass index and weight percentile impact early efficacy of the traditional ketogenic diet in children initiating therapy for intractable epilepsy. This retrospective study included all children initiating the ketogenic diet at Mayo Clinic, Rochester from January 2001 to December 2010 who had body mass index (children ≥2 years of age) or weight percentile (those diet initiation and seizure frequency recorded at diet initiation and one month. Responders were defined as achieving a >50% seizure reduction from baseline. Our cohort consisted of 48 patients (20 male) with a median age of 3.1 years. There was no significant correlation between initial body mass index or weight percentile and seizure frequency reduction at one month (P = 0.72, r = 0.26 and P = 0.91, r = 0.03). There was no significant association between body mass index or weight percentile quartile and responder rates (P = 0.21 and P = 0.57). Children considered overweight or obese at diet initiation (body mass index or weight percentile ≥85) did not have lower responder rates than those with body mass index or weight percentiles ketogenic diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Breast-feeding reduces the risk for childhood eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, Inger; Böhme, Maria; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Nordvall, Lennart; Pershagen, Göran; Wickman, Magnus

    2005-09-01

    The evidence for a preventive effect of breast-feeding on the development of eczema in childhood remains controversial. To investigate the effect of breast-feeding in various phenotypes of eczema to 4 years. A birth cohort of 4089 children made up the study base. Data on breast-feeding, allergic symptoms, and potential confounders were obtained from questionnaires when the children were 2 months and 1, 2, and 4 years old. At 4 years, blood specific IgE was analyzed. Children with symptoms of eczema and asthma during the period of breast-feeding were excluded in most analyses on risk assessment of eczema and asthma, respectively, to avoid disease-related modification of exposure. Exclusive breast-feeding for >or=4 months reduced the risk for eczema at the age of 4 years (odds ratio [OR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.63--0.96) irrespective of combination with asthma, sensitization to common allergens, or parental allergic disease. This decreased risk was most evident for children with onset of eczema during the first 2 years persisting to 4 years (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.45--0.77). Among children with early-onset eczema, irrespective of persistency, followed by late onset of asthma or early-onset asthma irrespective of persistency, followed by late-onset eczema to 4 years, a protective effect of breast-feeding was also seen (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.30--0.76). Breast-feeding 4 months or more reduces the risk for eczema and onset of the allergy march to age 4.

  19. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Campos Martins Machado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90, 47.6% (n = 80, and 69.6% (n = 117, respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process.

  20. [The impact of breastfeeding promotion in women with formal employment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasileiro, Aline Alves; Possobon, Rosana de Fátima; Carrascoza, Karina Camilo; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Moraes, Antônio Bento Alves de

    2010-09-01

    This study focused on programs to promote breastfeeding in order to prevent early weaning of working mothers' infant children. A non-randomized intervention study was conducted using a survey of mothers who had returned to work after childbirth, including both participants and non-participants in a program to promote breastfeeding. The sample consisted of 200 mothers of infants ranging from 6 to 10 months of age. Factors associated with early weaning were analyzed with the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests and multiple logistic regression (α = 0.05). The results showed statistical differences between the groups in relation to exclusive breastfeeding (p work. There was no difference between the end of maternity leave and weaning time. Mothers that were unable to nurse their infants during the work shift showed 4.98 times higher odds (95%CI: 1.27-19.61) of weaning them before the fourth month of age.

  1. The analysis of initial cranial CT of early hematoma enlargement in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    BEI Yu-zhang; CHEN Ben-yang; QI Hao-bo; ZHOU Zheng-ping; LI Yu-bo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the predictive effect of initial cranial CT on early hematoma enlargement in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods Three hundred patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage within 6 hours after onset were studied. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to detect the related factors which may indicate hematoma enlargement. Results Sixty-one (20.33% ) patients presented hematoma enlargement on cranial CT. Single factor and multivariate...

  2. Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding...... duration is long. DESIGN: We selected women from the Danish National Birth Cohort who ever breastfed (>98%), and we conducted the interviews at 6 (n = 36 030) and 18 (n = 26 846) mo postpartum. We used regression analyses to investigate whether breastfeeding (scored to account for duration and intensity......) reduced PPWR at 6 and 18 mo after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). RESULTS: GWG was positively (P postpartum. Breastfeeding was negatively associated with PPWR in all women but those...

  3. The Interactions between Breastfeeding Mothers and Their Babies during the Breastfeeding Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Videotaped 12 breastfeeding mothers and their babies during breastfeeding sessions to investigate maternal-infant interactions occurring during breastfeeding sessions. Presents four case studies to examine differences in breastfeeding interactions, as well as benefits and disadvantages that breastfeeding provided different mother-child pairs. (MM)

  4. Associations Between Postpartum Depression, Breastfeeding, and Oxytocin Levels in Latina Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz; McKenney, Kathryn; Di Florio, Arianna; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

    2017-09-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD), often comorbid with anxiety, is the leading medical complication among new mothers. Latinas have elevated risk of PPD, which has been associated with early breastfeeding cessation. Lower plasma oxytocin (OT) levels have also been associated with PPD in non-Latinas. This pilot study explores associations between PPD, anxiety, breastfeeding, and OT in Latinas. Thirty-four Latinas were enrolled during their third trimester of pregnancy and followed through 8 weeks postpartum. Demographic data were collected at enrollment. Depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at each time point (third trimester of pregnancy, 4 and 8 weeks postpartum). The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was administered postpartum and EPDS anxiety subscale was used to assess anxiety at each time point. Breastfeeding status was assessed at 4 and 8 weeks postpartum. At 8 weeks, OT was collected before, during, and after a 10-minute breast/bottle feeding session from 28 women who completed the procedures. Descriptive statistics are provided and comparisons by mood and breastfeeding status were conducted. Analyses of variance were used to explore associations between PPD, anxiety, breastfeeding status, and OT. Just under one-third of women were depressed at enrollment. Prenatal depression, PPD, and anxiety were significantly associated with early breastfeeding cessation (i.e., stopped breastfeeding before 2 months) (p < 0.05). There was a significant interaction between early breastfeeding cessation and depression status on OT at 8 weeks postpartum (p < 0.05). Lower levels of OT were observed in women who had PPD at 8 weeks and who had stopped breastfeeding their infant by 8 weeks postpartum. Future studies should investigate the short- and long-term effects of lower OT levels and early breastfeeding cessation on maternal and child well-being.

  5. Early adolescent adversity inflates threat estimation in females and promotes alcohol use initiation in both sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rachel A; Andreansky, Christopher; Ray, Madelyn H; McDannald, Michael A

    2018-06-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with exaggerated threat processing and earlier alcohol use initiation. Conclusive links remain elusive, as childhood adversity typically co-occurs with detrimental socioeconomic factors, and its impact is likely moderated by biological sex. To unravel the complex relationships among childhood adversity, sex, threat estimation, and alcohol use initiation, we exposed female and male Long-Evans rats to early adolescent adversity (EAA). In adulthood, >50 days following the last adverse experience, threat estimation was assessed using a novel fear discrimination procedure in which cues predict a unique probability of footshock: danger (p = 1.00), uncertainty (p = .25), and safety (p = .00). Alcohol use initiation was assessed using voluntary access to 20% ethanol, >90 days following the last adverse experience. During development, EAA slowed body weight gain in both females and males. In adulthood, EAA selectively inflated female threat estimation, exaggerating fear to uncertainty and safety, but promoted alcohol use initiation across sexes. Meaningful relationships between threat estimation and alcohol use initiation were not observed, underscoring the independent effects of EAA. Results isolate the contribution of EAA to adult threat estimation, alcohol use initiation, and reveal moderation by biological sex. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Breastfeeding support in neonatal intensive care: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Bojesen, Susanne Norby; Kronborg, Hanne; Hallström, Inger

    2012-08-01

    The incidence of breastfeeding of preterm infants is affected by the support provided at the hospital and in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). However, policies and guidelines promoting breastfeeding vary both nationally and internationally. The aim of this survey was to describe breastfeeding support in Danish NICUs, where approximately 98% of mothers initiate lactation. A national survey of all 19 Danish NICUs was conducted in 2009. Four NICUs were at designated Baby-Friendly hospitals, and 5 had a lactation consultant. In all NICUs, it was possible for some parents to stay overnight; 2 units had short restrictions on parents' presence. Five NICUs had integrated postpartum care for mothers. Breastfeeding policies, written guidelines, and systematic breastfeeding training for the staff were common in most NICUs. Seventeen NICUs recommended starting breast milk expression within 6 hours after birth, and mothers were encouraged to double pump. Most NICUs aimed to initiate skin-to-skin contact the first time the parents were in the NICU, and daily skin-to-skin contact was estimated to last for 2-4 hours in 63% and 4-8 hours in 37% of the units. The use of bottle-feeding was restricted. The Danish NICUs described the support of breastfeeding as a high priority, which was reflected in the recommended policies for breast milk pumping, skin-to-skin contact, and the parents' presence in the NICU, as well as in the restricted use of bottle-feeding. However, support varied between units, and not all units supported optimal breastfeeding.

  7. Breastfeeding in Samoa: A Study to Explore Women's Knowledge and the Factors which Influence Infant Feeding Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Lucy E; Dunne, Thomas F; Lock, Lauren J; Price, Lucy A; Ahmed, Zubair

    2017-01-01

    A decline in breastfeeding rates in Samoa has been reported over the last century. To assess the length of time women breastfeed, their knowledge of both the advantages of and recommendations for breastfeeding, and the factors that influence their decisions to continue or discontinue breastfeeding, a questionnaire was distributed at Tupua Tamasese Meaole Hospital. One hundred and twenty-one eligible participants were included aged 18-50 years (mean age 28.2). Ninety percent of participants initiated breastfeeding, and the majority (78%) of babies were exclusively breastfed for at least the recommended 6 months. Many mothers introduced complementary (solid) foods later than World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nation's International Children's Fund (UNICEF) recommendations of 6 months. Awareness of the advantages of breastfeeding was mixed. The most widely known advantage was "the development of an emotional bond between mother and baby" (67%). Other advantages were less widely known. Only a small minority were aware that breastfeeding reduces risk of maternal diabetes and aids weight loss post partum. Doctors and healthcare workers were listed as the top factors encouraging breastfeeding. Participants' comments revealed a generally positive attitude towards breastfeeding, a very encouraging finding. Participants identified that the number of breastfeeding breaks available at work and the length of their maternity leave were factors discouraging breastfeeding. Future studies are necessary to determine if problems identified in this study are applicable on a national level. These could be important to determine measures to improve breastfeeding practices in Samoa.

  8. First-time mothers' breast-feeding maintenance: role of experiences and changes in maternal perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Ellen J; Campo, Shelly; Colaizy, Tarah T; Mulder, Pamela J; Breheny, Patrick; Ashida, Sato

    2017-12-01

    Breast-feeding initiation rates have increased in the USA; however, maintenance of breast-feeding for recommended durations is low. The objective of the present study was to identify factors that may facilitate breast-feeding for longer durations among first-time mothers, including physiological and social experiences and changes in maternal perceptions. Survival analysis and linear regression methods were used to explore the relationship between experiences and breast-feeding duration, and the possible mediating effect of changes in maternal perceptions. Secondary data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, conducted in the USA between 2005 and 2007. Data from 762 first-time mothers who ever breast-fed were analysed. Experiencing trouble with baby's latch, problems with milk flow/supply and painful breast-feeding were significantly associated with breast-feeding duration (64, 26 and 36 % shorter duration, respectively). Meanwhile, positive changes in perception with respect to breast-feeding self-efficacy, opinion about infant feeding and belief about breast milk were associated with 16-27 % longer duration. Furthermore, changes in perception were observed to partially mediate the impact of physiological experiences on breast-feeding duration. Perceptions of breast-feeding self-efficacy, beliefs and opinions can change over time and are influenced by breast-feeding experiences. The combined effect of experience and perception plays a key role in influencing breast-feeding duration. Future research should explore interventions to maintain or improve these perceptions while accounting for physiological experiences to support breast-feeding for recommended durations among first-time mothers.

  9. Peer-led prenatal breast-feeding education: a viable alternative to nurse-led education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Lynn A; Moore, Katrina C J

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate a prenatal breast-feeding class developed and facilitated by peer Breast-feeding Buddies. Non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental study comparing participants of the peer-led class (PLC) to those attending an established hospital-based breast-feeding nurse-led class (NLC). A brief questionnaire was completed immediately prior to the class, and telephone interviews were conducted approximately one week following the class, and one and six months post partum. 54 expectant mothers who registered for the community PLC and 55 expectant mothers who registered for the NLC. Breast-feeding intentions were measured at all time-points. Class evaluations, breast-feeding experiences, and breast-feeding support were measured at all post-class interviews. Both classes were considered worthwhile, but the PLC class was rated as more helpful and participants appreciated learning from the peers' personal experiences. Mothers taught by peers were more likely to access peer breast-feeding support. PLC participants initially decreased their prenatal breast-feeding duration intentions but had significantly stronger intentions to continue breast feeding at six months than did NLC mothers. A peer-led prenatal breast-feeding class is as effective as a traditional model of breast-feeding education and is a valuable tool to promote and support successful breast feeding. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Peer-led breast-feeding classes should be provided to enhance the accessibility of breast-feeding education and support for expectant mothers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Breastfeeding : Gender and Socio-Economic Dimensions

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    Yogi Pasca Pratama

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine breastfeeding behavior from a gender perspective and socio-economic dimension. The legal basis and internal and external factors of breastfeeding behavior are the main issues. Breastfeeding views are also studied in terms of working women, in response to the increasingly expensive economic needs of women to help the family economy by entering the labor market, while women also have an obligation to engage in breastfeeding activities. This study uses literature method, by collecting all the literature related to the breastfeeding process, the legal basis that supports, and the factors that can inhibit and the way to succeed exclusive breastfeeding issues. This study found the fact that there is a misconception of society about breastfeeding that the breastfeeding process is not optimal, the modernization also makes women who should breastfeed to make new choices instead of breastfeeding obligations for their children.   Keywords: breastfeeding, gender, socio-economic JEL Classification: I15, Z10

  11. Predictors of Cigarette Smoking Initiation in Early, Middle, and Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Wellman, Robert J; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Dugas, Erika N; Chagnon, Miguel; Dutczak, Hartley; Laguë, Johanne; McGrath, Jennifer J

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about age-related differences in risk factors for cigarette smoking initiation. We identified predictors of initiation in early, middle, and late adolescence from among sociodemographic factors, indicators of smoking in the social environment, psychological characteristics, lifestyle indicators, and perceived need for cigarettes. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of 1,801 children recruited at age 10-11 years from 29 elementary schools in Montreal, Canada. Multivariable logistic regression within a generalized estimating equations framework was used to identify predictors among never smokers across three 2-year windows: age 11-13 years (n = 1,221); age 13-15 years (n = 737); and age 15-17 years (n = 690). Among the 18 risk factors investigated, two differed across age. Friends' smoking, a strong risk factor in early adolescence (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 5.78 [3.90-8.58]), lost potency in late adolescence (1.83 [1.31-2.57]). Depressive symptoms, a risk factor in early and middle adolescence (1.60 [1.26-2.02] and 1.92 [1.45-2.54], respectively), were inversely associated in late adolescence (.76 [.58-1.00]). Sex, TV viewing, and weight-related goals were not associated with initiation at any age. All other factors were significant in two or three age groups. Most risk factors for smoking initiation were stable across age. Tobacco control interventions may be robust for risk factors across age groups and may not need adjustment. At all ages, interventions should focus on eliminating smoking in the social environment and on reducing the availability of tobacco products. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The impact on breastfeeding of labour market policy and practice in Ireland, Sweden, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtry, Judith

    2003-07-01

    In recent decades there has been a marked rise in the labour market participation of women with infants in many countries. Partly in response to this trend, there are calls for greater emphasis on infant and child health in research and policy development on parental leave and other work-family balancing measures. Yet achieving high rates of breastfeeding as a health objective has thus far received relatively little attention in this context. Biomedical literature outlines the important health benefits conferred by breastfeeding, including upon infants and young children among middle class populations in developed countries. International recommendations now advise exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. However, research indicates that the timing of the mother's resumption of employment is a key factor influencing the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. There would thus appear to be considerable potential for labour policy and practice, particularly maternity/parental leave provisions, to positively influence breastfeeding practice. Taking the case studies of Ireland, Sweden, and the United States, this paper explores the implications of labour market and early childhood policy for breastfeeding practice. The equity tensions posed by the breastfeeding-maternal employment intersection are also examined. The paper concludes that both socio-cultural support and labour market/health/early childhood policy are important if high rates of both breastfeeding and women's employment are to be achieved in industrialised countries.

  13. Deaf Mothers and Breastfeeding: Do Unique Features of Deaf Culture and Language Support Breastfeeding Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Nancy P.; Cuculick, Jess; Starr, Matthew; Panko, Tiffany; Widanka, Holly; Dozier, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Background Deaf mothers who use American Sign Language (ASL) consider themselves a linguistic minority group, with specific cultural practices. Rarely has this group been engaged in infant-feeding research. Objectives To understand how ASL-using Deaf mothers learn about infant feeding and to identify their breastfeeding challenges. Methods Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach we conducted four focus groups with Deaf mothers who had at least one child 0–5 years. A script was developed using a social ecological model (SEM) to capture multiple levels of influence. All groups were conducted in ASL, filmed, and transcribed into English. Deaf and hearing researchers analyzed data by coding themes within each SEM level. Results Fifteen mothers participated. All had initiated breastfeeding with their most recent child. Breastfeeding duration for eight of the mothers was three weeks to 12 months. Seven of the mothers were still breastfeeding, the longest for 19 months. Those mothers who breastfed longer described a supportive social environment and the ability to surmount challenges. Participants described characteristics of Deaf culture such as direct communication, sharing information, use of technologies, language access through interpreters and ASL-using providers, and strong self-advocacy skills. Finally, mothers used the sign ‘struggle’ to describe their breastfeeding experience. The sign implies a sustained effort over time which leads to success. Conclusions In a setting with a large population of Deaf women and ASL-using providers, we identified several aspects of Deaf culture and language which support BF mothers across institutional, community, and interpersonal levels of the SEM. PMID:23492762

  14. A complex breastfeeding promotion and support intervention in a developing country: study protocol for a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabulsi, Mona; Hamadeh, Haya; Tamim, Hani; Kabakian, Tamar; Charafeddine, Lama; Yehya, Nadine; Sinno, Durriyah; Sidani, Saadieh

    2014-01-15

    Breastfeeding has countless benefits to mothers, children and community at large, especially in developing countries. Studies from Lebanon report disappointingly low breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Evidence reveals that antenatal breastfeeding education, professional lactation support, and peer lay support are individually effective at increasing breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, particularly in low-income settings. Given the complex nature of the breastfeeding ecosystem and its barriers in Lebanon, we hypothesize that a complex breastfeeding support intervention, which is centered on the three components mentioned above, would significantly increase breastfeeding rates. A multi-center randomized controlled trial. 443 healthy pregnant women in their first trimester will be randomized to control or intervention group. A "prenatal/postnatal" professional and peer breastfeeding support package continuing till 6 months postpartum, guided by the Social Network and Social Support Theory. Control group will receive standard prenatal and postnatal care. Mothers will be followed up from early pregnancy till five years after delivery. Total and exclusive breastfeeding rates, quality of life at 1, 3 and 6 months postpartum, maternal breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes at 6 months postpartum, maternal exclusive breastfeeding rates of future infants up to five years from baseline, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses of the intervention. Descriptive and regression analysis will be conducted under the intention to treat basis using the most recent version of SPSS. Exclusive breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health measure that has a significant impact on infant morbidity and mortality. In a country with limited healthcare resources like Lebanon, developing an effective breastfeeding promotion and support intervention that is easily replicated across various settings becomes a priority. If positive, the results of this study would provide

  15. Access to Workplace Accommodations to Support Breastfeeding after Passage of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Jou, Judy; Gjerdingen, Dwenda K; McGovern, Patricia M

    2016-01-01

    This study examines access to workplace accommodations for breastfeeding, as mandated by the Affordable Care Act, and its associations with breastfeeding initiation and duration. We hypothesize that women with access to reasonable break time and private space to express breast milk would be more likely to breastfeed exclusively at 6 months and to continue breastfeeding for a longer duration. Data are from Listening to Mothers III, a national survey of women ages 18 to 45 who gave birth in 2011 and 2012. The study population included women who were employed full or part time at the time of survey. Using two-way tabulation, logistic regression, and survival analysis, we characterized women with access to breastfeeding accommodations and assessed the associations between these accommodations and breastfeeding outcomes. Only 40% of women had access to both break time and private space. Women with both adequate break time and private space were 2.3 times (95% CI, 1.03-4.95) as likely to be breastfeeding exclusively at 6 months and 1.5 times (95% CI, 1.08-2.06) as likely to continue breastfeeding exclusively with each passing month compared with women without access to these accommodations. Employed women face unique barriers to breastfeeding and have lower rates of breastfeeding initiation and shorter durations, despite compelling evidence of associated health benefits. Expanded access to workplace accommodations for breastfeeding will likely entail collaborative efforts between public health agencies, employers, insurers, and clinicians to ensure effective workplace policies and improved breastfeeding outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure and early initiation of multiple substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Cornelius, Marie D; Day, Nancy L

    2012-06-01

    Earlier studies have shown a relation between prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) and offspring initiation of tobacco use. No prior study has examined the association between PCSE and early initiation of multiple substances (EIMS) including marijuana and alcohol in addition to tobacco. We investigated the association between PCSE and multiple substance use during adolescence. Pregnant women attending an urban prenatal clinic were selected to participate in the prospective longitudinal study based on their substance use. This study is based on the 16-year follow-up phase and consists of 579 mother-offspring dyads. The women were of lower socioeconomic status, 54% were Black, and 53% reported smoking cigarettes. 52% of the offspring were female. EIMS is a measure of the number of substances initiated prior to age 16 by the adolescents; it ranged from 0 (no initiation, N = 166) to 3 (all, N = 162). Adolescents exposed to tobacco during first trimester of gestation were 1.4 times more likely to initiate multiple substances by age 16 than the nonexposed group. PCSE was a significant predictor of EIMS after controlling for other prenatal exposures, home environment, and demographic characteristics, using ordinal polytomous logistic regression. Other risk factors of EIMS were maternal and adolescent depression, less strict and less involved parenting, offspring attention problems, and lack of participation in a youth club. There is a significant relation between PCSE and adolescent's EIMS.

  17. Early initiation of alcohol consumption by adolescents in reconstructed families may be explained by parenting style

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    Iakunchykova, Olena

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Literature about risk factors of alcohol use points at the association between alcohol use and parenting style. This study investigates the relationship between family structure of adolescents in Ukraine and their initiation of alcohol use with parenting style as a mediating variable.METHODS: Pooled data from the repeated cross-sectional nationally representative survey of classes in Ukrainian secondary schools with target group of all 15-16 year old students, held in 1999, 2003, and 2007, were used for this analysis. Complete data were available for 11019 participants. Main exposures were family structure (full, single parent and reconstructed and perceptions of the relationships with mother and father, rule-setting, control, and support provided by parents. Outcome measure was age when students started consuming alcohol.RESULTS: In bivariate analysis, children in reconstructed families had higher risk for initiating alcohol use at age of 13 or younger (odds ratio 1.37, confidence interval 1,15-1,63 compared to full families. In reconstructed families, adolescents were more likely to be dissatisfied with their relationships with mother compared to intact family structure (8.7% vs. 4.7% and dissatisfied with their relationships with father compared to intact family structure (19,8% vs. 9,1%. Parental support was lacking in higher proportion of reconstructed families, compared to intact family structure (20.7% vs. 15.1%. In the multivariate analysis, controlling for relationship with mother and father, support received from parents, and socio-demographic characteristics, the association between family structure and alcohol drinking initiation was attenuated.CONCLUSIONS: Children in reconstructed families have higher risk of early drinking initiation. This study also supports the hypothesis that dissatisfaction with relationships with parents and lack of support received from parents may mediate the association between family structure

  18. The role of exclusive breastfeeding in prevention of childhood epilepsy

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    Alexander Kurniadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Epilepsy affects 1% of children worldwide. The highest incidence is in the first year of life, and perinatal factors, such as hypoxic-ischemic injury, infection, and cortical malformation may play etiologic roles. Breast milk contains optimal nutrients for human brain in early life. Breastfeeding has been associated with lower risk of infections, better cognitive and psychomotor development. However, the role of breastfeeding in preventing childhood epilepsy remains unclear. Objective To evaluate an association between exclusive breastfeeding and childhood epilepsy. Methods A case-control study conducted from 1 May to 3 July 2013 involving children with epilepsy aged 6 months to 18 years who were attending pediatric outpatient clinic of Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta. Neurologically normal children, individually matched by age and sex, visiting the same clinic were considered as controls. Exclusion criteria were children with structural brain abnormality, history of epilepsy in family, and who had history of neonatal seizure, intracranial infection, febrile seizure, and head trauma before onset of epilepsy. History of breastfeeding was obtained by interviewing the parents. The difference of exclusively breastfeeding proportion between cases and controls was analyzed by McNemar test. Results The total number of participants was 68 cases and controls each. Subjects with epilepsy had lower proportion of exclusively breastfed (48.5% compared with controls (54.4%, but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.541. Exclusively breastfeeding showed no statistical significance in decreasing risk of epilepsy (OR=0.71; 95%CI 0.32 to 1.61. Conclusions Exclusive breastfeeding for 4-6 months has no effect against childhood epilepsy.

  19. The Sharjah Baby-Friendly Campaign: A Community-Based Model for Breastfeeding Promotion, Protection, and Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghazal, Hessa; Rashid, Shehnaz; Ruf, Evelyne

    2015-11-01

    Breastfeeding promotion, protection, and support are one of the most cost-effective public health interventions to advance maternal and child health. The World Health Organization, the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, and numerous health organizations have recommended exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, which is a key indicator of breastfeeding promotion programs worldwide. Despite the recommendations and various initiatives to promote breastfeeding, most women do not reach the exclusive breastfeeding target in both developed and developing countries. Such has been the case in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Therefore, based on the decree for breastfeeding promotion, protection, and support by the ruler of the Emirate of Sharjah, UAE, H.H. Sheikh Doctor Sultan Al Qasimi, a multisectorial, multidirectional breastfeeding campaign--the Sharjah Baby-Friendly Campaign--was launched in March 2012 by H.E. Sheikha Bodour Al Qasimi, under her patronage. It consisted of four initiatives-namely, Baby-Friendly Health Facility, Mother-Friendly Workplace, Breastfeeding-Friendly Nursery, and Mother-Baby Friendly Public Place. Once an organization met the criteria for any of these initiatives, it was awarded the designation or accreditation of that initiative. The campaign initiatives worked through capacity building of healthcare workers, provided professional support and facilitation for the accreditation process, developed breastfeeding education content and resources, and organized and conducted breastfeeding promotion seminars in health facilities and community, as well as community outreach through social media and an innovative mobile mother' room. The positive impact of the campaign on breastfeeding promotion, protection, and support is evident by the increased exclusive breastfeeding rate at 6 months and decreased bottle feeding rates at both 4 and 6 months.

  20. Breastfeeding Patterns in the Rural Community of Hilo, Hawai‘i: An Exploration of Existing Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Before any breastfeeding promotion effort, an understanding of the existing breastfeeding patterns is essential. Hawai‘i County is a rural, ethnically diverse, medically underserved community. The purpose of this study was to describe the breastfeeding patterns of women living in Hilo, Hawai‘i. Data from several existing national, state, and local data sets were accessed to identify and describe the breastfeeding patterns of women in this community. Available breastfeeding data about women in Hilo was obtained from the Hawai‘i WIC program and includes initiation, duration, exclusivity of breastfeeding, and reasons for not breastfeeding. These data were compared to data from published reports available at the county, state, and national level. The State of Hawai‘i and Hilo exceed national targets for breastfeeding initiation; however, rates soon drop following delivery, and mixed feedings of infants is common. The highest percentage of mothers weaned their infants within the first four weeks postpartum. The reasons the majority of the mothers gave for weaning were tied to breastfeeding situations that are amenable to skilled lactation support (eg, milk supply issues and latch or sucking problems). While available data sets offer valuable information on the breastfeeding patterns in this rural community, there are limitations to their usefulness, primarily due to the inconsistent operational definitions of infant feeding variables used in the surveys, and the lack of availability of community level data. PMID:23520565

  1. Breastfeeding patterns in the rural community of Hilo, Hawai'i: an exploration of existing data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Jeanie L

    2013-03-01

    Before any breastfeeding promotion effort, an understanding of the existing breastfeeding patterns is essential. Hawai'i County is a rural, ethnically diverse, medically underserved community. The purpose of this study was to describe the breastfeeding patterns of women living in Hilo, Hawai'i. Data from several existing national, state, and local data sets were accessed to identify and describe the breastfeeding patterns of women in this community. Available breastfeeding data about women in Hilo was obtained from the Hawai'i WIC program and includes initiation, duration, exclusivity of breastfeeding, and reasons for not breastfeeding. These data were compared to data from published reports available at the county, state, and national level. The State of Hawai'i and Hilo exceed national targets for breastfeeding initiation; however, rates soon drop following delivery, and mixed feedings of infants is common. The highest percentage of mothers weaned their infants within the first four weeks postpartum. The reasons the majority of the mothers gave for weaning were tied to breastfeeding situations that are amenable to skilled lactation support (eg, milk supply issues and latch or sucking problems). While available data sets offer valuable information on the breastfeeding patterns in this rural community, there are limitations to their usefulness, primarily due to the inconsistent operational definitions of infant feeding variables used in the surveys, and the lack of availability of community level data.

  2. Initial Treatment for Nonsyndromic Early-Life Epilepsy: An Unexpected Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellhaas, Renée A; Berg, Anne T; Grinspan, Zachary M; Wusthoff, Courtney J; Millichap, John J; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Coryell, Jason; Saneto, Russell P; Chu, Catherine J; Joshi, Sucheta M; Sullivan, Joseph E; Knupp, Kelly G; Kossoff, Eric H; Keator, Cynthia; Wirrell, Elaine C; Mytinger, John R; Valencia, Ignacio; Massey, Shavonne; Gaillard, William D

    2017-10-01

    There are no evidence-based guidelines on the preferred approach to treating early-life epilepsy. We examined initial therapy selection in a contemporary US cohort of children with newly diagnosed, nonsyndromic, early-life epilepsy (onset before age three years). Seventeen pediatric epilepsy centers participated in a prospective cohort study of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy with onset under 36 months of age. Details regarding demographics, seizure types, and initial medication selections were obtained from medical records. About half of the 495 enrolled children with new-onset, nonsyndromic epilepsy were less than 12 months old at the time of diagnosis (n = 263, 53%) and about half (n = 260, 52%) had epilepsy with focal features. Of 464 who were treated with monotherapy, 95% received one of five drugs: levetiracetam (n = 291, 63%), oxcarbazepine (n = 67, 14%), phenobarbital (n = 57, 12%), topiramate (n = 16, 3.4%), and zonisamide (n = 13, 2.8%). Phenobarbital was prescribed first for 50 of 163 (31%) infants less than six months old versus seven of 300 (2.3%) of children six months or older (P epilepsy presentation (focal, generalized, mixed/uncertain). Between the first and second treatment choices, 367 (74%) of children received levetiracetam within the first year after diagnosis. Without any specific effort, the pediatric epilepsy community has developed an unexpectedly consistent approach to initial treatment selection for early-life epilepsy. This suggests that a standard practice is emerging and could be utilized as a widely acceptable basis of comparison in future drug studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Breastfeeding among Latino Families in an Urban Pediatric Office Setting

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    Elizabeth Sloand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the breastfeeding rate of Latino infants at an urban pediatric clinic in the first six months of life and to identify factors associated with breastfeeding. Methods. Investigators conducted a retrospective chart review of infants seen at the clinic in 2014 as part of a mixed methods study. Topics reviewed included demographics, infant health data, and feeding methods at 5 points in time. Bivariate correlations and cross-tabulations explored associations between variables. Results. Most of the mothers (75% fed their newborns with both breastfeeding and formula (las dos. At 6 months, a majority were formula-fed only (55.9%. Approximately 10% of mothers exclusively breastfed their newborns, and the trend of exclusive breastfeeding remained steady through the 6-month visit. Over time, the number of mothers who exclusively bottle-feed their infants steadily rises. There were no statistical differences among the feeding method groups with regard to birth order of child, number of adults or children in the household, vaccination rate, number of sick visits, or infants’ growth. Conclusions. More targeted attention to this population and other immigrant populations with culturally tailored interventions spanning the prenatal to early infancy periods could increase exclusive breastfeeding and ultimately improve child health.

  4. Direct vs. Expressed Breast Milk Feeding: Relation to Duration of Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Wei Wei; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Thavamani, Geetha; Chan, Yiong Huak; Fok, Doris; Soh, Shu-E; Chua, Mei Chien; Lim, Sok Bee; Shek, Lynette P; Yap, Fabian; Tan, Kok Hian; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; van Dam, Rob M; Kramer, Michael S; Chong, Yap-Seng

    2017-05-27

    Studies examining direct vs. expressed breast milk feeding are scarce. We explored the predictors of mode of breastfeeding and its association with breastfeeding duration in a multi-ethnic Asian population. We included 541 breastfeeding mother-infant pairs from the Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes cohort. Mode of breastfeeding (feeding directly at the breast, expressed breast milk (EBM) feeding only, or mixed feeding (a combination of the former 2 modes)) was ascertained at three months postpartum. Ordinal logistic regression analyses identified predictors of breast milk expression. Cox regression models examined the association between mode of breastfeeding and duration of any and of full breastfeeding. Maternal factors independently associated with a greater likelihood of breast milk expression instead of direct breastfeeding were Chinese (vs. Indian) ethnicity, (adjusted odds ratio, 95% CI; 3.41, 1.97-5.91), tertiary education (vs. secondary education or lower) (2.22, 1.22-4.04), primiparity (1.54, 1.04-2.26) and employment during pregnancy (2.53, 1.60-4.02). Relative to those who fed their infants directly at the breast, mothers who fed their infants EBM only had a higher likelihood of early weaning among all mothers who were breastfeeding (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% CI; 2.20, 1.61-3.02), and among those who were fully breastfeeding (2.39, 1.05-5.41). Mothers who practiced mixed feeding, however, were not at higher risk of earlier termination of any or of full breastfeeding. Mothers who fed their infants EBM exclusively, but not those who practiced mixed feeding, were at a higher risk of terminating breastfeeding earlier than those who fed their infants directly at the breast. More education and support are required for women who feed their infants EBM only.

  5. Direct vs. Expressed Breast Milk Feeding: Relation to Duration of Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei Pang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies examining direct vs. expressed breast milk feeding are scarce. We explored the predictors of mode of breastfeeding and its association with breastfeeding duration in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Methods: We included 541 breastfeeding mother—infant pairs from the Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes cohort. Mode of breastfeeding (feeding directly at the breast, expressed breast milk (EBM feeding only, or mixed feeding (a combination of the former 2 modes was ascertained at three months postpartum. Ordinal logistic regression analyses identified predictors of breast milk expression. Cox regression models examined the association between mode of breastfeeding and duration of any and of full breastfeeding. Results: Maternal factors independently associated with a greater likelihood of breast milk expression instead of direct breastfeeding were Chinese (vs. Indian ethnicity, (adjusted odds ratio, 95% CI; 3.41, 1.97–5.91, tertiary education (vs. secondary education or lower (2.22, 1.22–4.04, primiparity (1.54, 1.04–2.26 and employment during pregnancy (2.53, 1.60–4.02. Relative to those who fed their infants directly at the breast, mothers who fed their infants EBM only had a higher likelihood of early weaning among all mothers who were breastfeeding (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% CI; 2.20, 1.61–3.02, and among those who were fully breastfeeding (2.39, 1.05–5.41. Mothers who practiced mixed feeding, however, were not at higher risk of earlier termination of any or of full breastfeeding. Conclusions: Mothers who fed their infants EBM exclusively, but not those who practiced mixed feeding, were at a higher risk of terminating breastfeeding earlier than those who fed their infants directly at the breast. More education and support are required for women who feed their infants EBM only.

  6. Early initiation of new oral anticoagulants in acute stroke and TIA patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibazaki, Kensaku; Kimura, Kazumi; Aoki, Junya; Saji, Naoki; Sakai, Kenichiro

    2013-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether early initiation of new oral anticoagulants (NOAC) for acute stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) are safe. Between March 2011 and September 2012, stroke or TIA patients with NVAF who started NOAC within 2 weeks were enrolled retrospectively. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), hemorrhagic transformation (HT) on T2*-weighted MRI, recurrence of stroke or TIA, systemic embolism and any bleeding complications after initiation of NOAC were evaluated. 41 patients (25 males; mean age 76.2 years) started NOAC; of which, 39 (95%) patients had stroke, and 2 (5%) had TIA. The median (interquartile range) interval from onset to treatment with NOAC was 2 (1-6) days. Symptomatic ICH was not observed. HT on initial T2* and new HT on follow-up T2* were 5 (12%) and 11 (31%), but it was asymptomatic. Of 5 patients who had HT on the initial T2*, enlargement of hemorrhage on follow-up T2* (hemorrhagic infarction (HI) Type 1→HI Type 2) was observed in 1 patient, but it was asymptomatic. None of the patients had recurrent stroke or TIA, systemic embolism, and any bleeding complications. The NOAC may be safe in acute stroke or TIA patients with NVAF. A large, prospective study is needed to confirm this. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Misalignments of purpose and power in an early Canadian interprofessional education initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Sarah; Paradis, Elise; Cartmill, Carrie; Kuper, Ayelet; Boon, Heather; Hart, Corinne; Razack, Saleem; Pipher, Mandy; Whitehead, Cynthia R

    2017-12-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) has been widely incorporated into health professional curricula and accreditation standards despite an arguably thin base of evidence regarding its clinical effects, theoretical underpinnings, and social implications. To better understand how and why IPE first took root, but failed to grow, this study examines one of the earliest documented IPE initiatives, which took place at the University of British Columbia between 1960 and 1975. We examined a subset of 110 texts (academic literature, grey literature, and unpublished records) from a larger study that uses Critical Discourse Analysis to trace the emergence of IPE in Canada. We asked how IPE was promoted and received, by whom, for what purposes, and to what effects. Our analysis demonstrates that IPE was promoted as a response to local challenges for the Faculty of Medicine as well as national challenges for Canada's emerging public healthcare system. These dual exigencies enabled the IPE initiative, but they shaped it in somewhat divergent ways: the former gave rise to its core component (a health sciences centre) and the latter its ultimate purpose (increasing the role of non-medical professions in primary care). Reception of the initiative was complicated by a further tension: nurses and allied health professionals were sometimes represented as independent experts with unique knowledge and skills, and sometimes as assistants or substitutes for medical doctors. We relate the successes and frustrations of this early initiative to particular (mis)alignments of purpose and relationships of power, some of which continue to enable and constrain IPE today.

  8. Breastfeeding children with Down syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Može, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Even if nutrition is a common need of all children, there are some specifics related to this area for children with Down syndrome. Breastfeeding is an ideal natural way of feeding the baby, and it fulfills all of the baby’s requirements needed for growth and development (Vistoropski, 2013). It includes several advantages, both for the baby and for the mother (Skale, 2010). Children with Down syndrome are born with many health specialties, which can present a barrier to breastfeeding. Nonet...

  9. Breastfeeding practices of mothers of young children in Lagos, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the breastfeeding practices (prevalence, initiation and exclusivity) of mothers of young children in Lagos. Methods: This was a communitybased, cross-sectional study carried out in 2010 in two Local Government Areas of Lagos State. Structured, intervieweradministered questionnaires were ...

  10. Psychosocial predictors of sexual initiation and high-risk sexual behaviors in early adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwab-Stone Mary

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This longitudinal study examined psychosocial factors associated with risky sexual behavior in early adolescence. Methods Data were collected through a self-report survey, the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA, which was administered in three waves between 2001 and 2003 to a cohort of incoming sixth grade students in the public school system (149 classes at 17 middle and high schools, N = 1,175 of a small northeastern city in the United States. We first examined whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of sexual initiation two years later, when most of the sample was in eighth grade. We then assessed whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of engaging in high risk sexual behavior over the subsequent two years. Results Externalizing factors are more predictive of sexual risk in early adolescence than are internalizing factors. Specifically, substance use and violent delinquency over the course of middle school were associated with higher, while anxiety with lower, sexual initiation rates during middle school. Additionally, increased substance use over the course of middle school was associated with greater likelihood of engaging in high risk sexual behavior. Conclusion By identifying particular psychosocial risk factors among young adolescents, the findings of this study have implications for designing multi-dimensional programs aimed at preventing health-compromising sexual behavior among young teens.

  11. FDG PET/CT in initial staging and early response to chemotherapy assessment of paediatric rhabdomyosarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eugene, T.; Ansquer, C.; Oudoux, A.; Carlier, T.; Kraeber-Bodere, T.; Bodet-Milin, C.; Corradini, N.; Thomas, C.; Dupas, B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the impact of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) using fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), in comparison with conventional imaging modalities (CIM), for initial staging and early therapy assessment in paediatric rhabdomyosarcoma. Patients and methods: Prior to treatment, 18 patients (age range, 9 months to 18 years) with histologically proven rhabdomyosarcoma underwent FDG PET/CT in addition to CIM (magnetic resonance imaging of primary site, whole body CT and bone scintigraphy). After three courses of chemotherapy, 12 patients underwent FDG PET/CT in addition to CIM. RECIST criteria and visual analysis of FDG uptake were used for assessment of response. The standard of reference was determined by an interdisciplinary tumor board based on imaging material, histopathology and follow-up data (median = 5 years). Results: PET/CT sensitivity was superior to CIM's concerning lymph node involvement (100% versus 83%, respectively) and metastases detection (100% versus 50%, respectively). PET/CT results changed therapeutic management in 11% of cases. After three courses of chemotherapy, the rate of complete response was 66% with PET/CT versus 8% with CIM. Five percent of patients relapsed during follow-up (median = 5 years). Conclusion: This study confirms that PET/CT depicts important additional information in initial staging of paediatric rhabdomyosarcomas and suggests a superior prognostic value of PET/CT in early response to chemotherapy assessment. (authors)

  12. Breastfeeding support - the importance of self-efficacy for low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Francesca; Kendall, Sally; Mead, Marianne

    2010-07-01

    Breastfeeding is a key determinant in promoting public health and reducing health inequality. Low-income women have a significantly lower level of breastfeeding. Midwives in the UK have been encouraged to implement the World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund's Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, but to date, there has been no evaluation of the impact of the training initiative on the breastfeeding behaviours of low-income women. As part of a wider study, this qualitative component was designed to answer the question - what are the views and experiences of low-income women (defined by Jarman scores) in relation to their breastfeeding support received in the post-natal period? A sample of seven women was interviewed. The in-depth interviews were analysed using a qualitative, thematic approach based on the self-efficacy theory. The four themes that emerged from the data were the following: breastfeeding related to the woman's self-confidence, the social environment in which the woman lived, knowledge of breastfeeding and the influence of maternity services on breastfeeding outcomes. These themes were interpreted in relation to the self-efficacy theory. The findings suggest that the components that inform self-efficacy are consistent with the themes from the data, suggesting that midwives and other health professionals should take the psychosocial aspects of breastfeeding support into account. As this important feature of breastfeeding support is not explicitly part of the current Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, we suggest that further research and debate could inform expansion of these minimum standards to include the psychosocial aspects.

  13. Promotion of breastfeeding in Poland: the current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Królak-Olejnik, Barbara; Błasiak, Ilona; Szczygieł, Anna

    2017-12-01

    Objective Exclusive breastfeeding is safe and beneficial for healthy infants; it is the optimal feeding method during the first 6 months of life. Infants should be complementary fed in conjunction with breastfeeding until 12 months of age or longer. The aim of the present study was to analyse the duration of breastfeeding through 12 months of age. Methods Participants were 1679 women from 42 randomly selected hospitals in Poland. The data were obtained from surveys, including a paper and pencil interview that was conducted after mothers delivered in the hospital and before discharge. Computer aided telephone interviews were administered at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months. Results There was a high rate of initiating breastfeeding after birth (97%), a rapid abandonment of exclusive breastfeeding (43.5% at 2 months, 28.9% at 4 months and 4% at 6 months) and an onset of formula feeding during the first days of life, which is contrary to current recommendations. Conclusions It is necessary re-educate mothers, medical staff who care for mothers and children during the perinatal period, and other specialists.

  14. Improving Exclusive Breastfeeding in an Urban Academic Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Laura P; Williamson, Susan; Burke, Stephanie; Crawford-Hemphill, Ruby; Thompson, Amy M

    2017-02-01

    Breastfeeding has many well-established health benefits for infants and mothers. There is greater risk reduction in health outcomes with exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Our urban academic facility has had long-standing low EBF rates, serving a population with breastfeeding disparities. We sought to improve EBF rates through a Learning Collaborative model by participating in the Best Fed Beginnings project. Formal improvement science methods were used, including the development of a key driver diagram and plan-do-study-act cycles. Improvement activities followed the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. We demonstrated significant improvement in the median adherence to 2 process measures, rooming in and skin-to-skin after delivery. Subsequently, the proportion of infants exclusively breastfed at hospital discharge in our facility increased from 37% to 59%. We demonstrated an increase in sustained breastfeeding in a subset of patients at a postpartum follow-up visit. These improvements led to Baby-Friendly designation at our facility. This quality improvement initiative resulted in a higher number of infants exclusively breastfed in our patient population at "high risk not to breastfeed." Other hospitals can use these described methods and techniques to improve their EBF rates. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the Legal Amazon and Northeast regions, Brazil, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Cristina Medeiros das Neves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in children aged less than six months from the Brazilian Legal Amazon and Northeast regions. METHODS: The study used data from a survey that assessed prenatal and infant (<1 year care in 2010. Sociodemographic, prenatal, delivery, and puerperium care factors with p<0.05 in multivariate analysis were associated with exclusive breastfeeding. RESULTS: For both regions, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding decreased with age, which was the main variable associated with early weaning. In the Legal Amazon, exclusive breastfeeding prevailed among: mothers aged 35 years or more; mothers living in state capitals; and mothers who breastfed on the first hour of life. In the Northeast, the probability of exclusive breastfeeding was greater for mothers aged 35 years or more. CONCLUSION: The factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding were child's and mother's age in both regions; and residence location and breastfeeding in the first hour of life in the Legal Amazon, suggesting the need of differentiated strategies for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding.

  16. Family instability and early initiation of sexual activity in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Rachel E

    2013-04-01

    Epidemiological, economic, and social forces have produced high levels of volatility in family and household structure for young people growing up in sub-Saharan Africa in recent decades. However, scholarship on the family to date has not examined the influence of this family instability on young people's well-being. The current study employs unique life history calendar data from Western Kenya to investigate the relationship between instability in caregiving and early initiation of sexual activity. It draws on a body of work on parental union instability in the United States, and examines new dimensions of family change. Analyses reveal a positive association between transitions in primary caregiver and the likelihood of early sexual debut that is rapidly manifested following caregiver change and persists for a short period. The association is strongest at early ages, and there is a cumulative effect of multiple caregiver changes. The results highlight the importance of studying family stability in sub-Saharan Africa, as distinct from family structure, and for attention to dimensions such as age and recency.

  17. Paid maternity leave and breastfeeding practice before and after California's implementation of the nation's first paid family leave program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Yang, Muzhe

    2015-01-01

    California was the first state in the United States to implement a paid family leave (PFL) program in 2004. We use data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study to examine the changes in breastfeeding practices in California relative to other states before and after the implementation of PFL. We find an increase of 3-5 percentage points for exclusive breastfeeding and an increase of 10-20 percentage points for breastfeeding at several important markers of early infancy. Our study supports the recommendation of the Surgeon General to establish paid leave policies as a strategy for promoting breastfeeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Reasons for delaying or engaging in early sexual initiation among adolescents in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankomah A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Augustine Ankomah1, Fatima Mamman-Daura2, Godpower Omoregie1, Jennifer Anyanti11Society for Family Health, Abuja; 2Pathfinder International/Nigeria, Kaduna Field Office, Kaduna, NigeriaBackground: Annually, over 1 million births in Nigeria are to teenage mothers. Many of these pregnancies are unwanted and these mothers are also exposed to the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Sexual abstinence is a critical preventative health strategy. Several quantitative studies in Nigeria have identified the correlates and determinants of early sex, yet few have explored in depth the underlying reasons for early sex. This paper explores both the key factors that motivate some unmarried young people to engage in early sex and reasons why some delay.Methods: This qualitative study was based on data from 30 focus group discussions held with unmarried 14- to 19-year-olds in four geographically and culturally dispersed Nigerian states. Focus groups were stratified by sexual experience to capture variations among different subgroups.Results: Several reasons for early premarital sex were identified. The “push” factors included situations where parents exposed young female adolescents to street trading. “Pull” factors, particularly for males, included the pervasive viewing of locally produced movies, peer pressure and, for females, transactional sex (where adolescent girls exchange sex for gifts, cash, or other favors. Also noted were overtly coercive factors, including rape. There were also myths and misconceptions that “justified” early sexual initiation. Reasons cited for delay included religious injunction against premarital sex; disease prevention (especially HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; fear of pregnancy, and linked to this, the fear of dropping out of school; and, for females, the fear of bringing shame to the family, which could lead to their inability to get a "good" husband in the future.Conclusion: The differences

  19. Early canine plaque biofilms: characterization of key bacterial interactions involved in initial colonization of enamel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy J Holcombe

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease (PD is a significant problem in dogs affecting between 44% and 63.6% of the population. The main etiological agent for PD is plaque, a microbial biofilm that colonizes teeth and causes inflammation of the gingiva. Understanding how this biofilm initiates on the tooth surface is of central importance in developing interventions against PD. Although the stages of plaque development on human teeth have been well characterized little is known about how canine plaque develops. Recent studies of the canine oral microbiome have revealed distinct differences between the canine and human oral environments and the bacterial communities they support, particularly with respect to healthy plaque. These differences mean knowledge about the nature of plaque formation in humans may not be directly translatable to dogs. The aim of this study was to identify the bacterial species important in the early stages of canine plaque formation in vivo and then use isolates of these species in a laboratory biofilm model to develop an understanding of the sequential processes which take place during the initial colonization of enamel. Supra-gingival plaque samples were collected from 12 dogs at 24 and 48 hour time points following a full mouth descale and polish. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA identified 134 operational taxonomic units after statistical analysis. The species with the highest relative abundance were Bergeyella zoohelcum, Neisseria shayeganii and a Moraxella species. Streptococcal species, which tend to dominate early human plaque biofilms, had very low relative abundance. In vitro testing of biofilm formation identified five primary colonizer species, three of which belonged to the genus Neisseria. Using these pioneer bacteria as a starting point, viable two and three species communities were developed. Combining in vivo and in vitro data has led us to construct novel models of how the early canine plaque biofilm develops.

  20. The Impact of Sex of Child on Breastfeeding in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons; Hawkins, Summer Sherburne

    2017-11-01

    Background Sex of child has been shown to impact breastfeeding duration in India, Australia, Scandinavia, Latin America, and, within the US, in a sample in Eastern Connecticut and in a separate sample of Indian and Chinese immigrants. Objectives The objective of this study is to examine differences in breastfeeding initiation and duration by sex of child across racial/ethnic groups in the US. Methods We used the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System 2009-2010 and logistic regression to examine whether sex of child impacts breastfeeding initiation and duration for at least 8 weeks by women's racial/ethnic group. Results Among the 66,107 women in our sample representing 12 different race/ethnic groups, Hispanic women (n = 9049) had lower odds of breastfeeding initiation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.81, 95% CI 0.71-0.93) and breastfeeding duration (AOR = .87, 95% CI 0.80-0.96) if they have sons compared to Hispanic women who have daughters. Sex of child did not impact the odds of breastfeeding initiation or duration among any other race/ethnic group. Conclusion We have shown that, for Hispanics in the US, sex of child may have an impact on breastfeeding, a health behavior that has a variety of positive impacts on infants throughout their lives. Boys, relative to girls, were at a disadvantage in breastfeeding initiation and duration. Future work is necessary to unpack the mechanisms behind these findings. In particular, how sex of child impacts how mothers and fathers view the nutritional needs of their children and breastfeeding more broadly.

  1. Marketing breastfeeding--reversing corporate influence on infant feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Deborah L; Graff, Kristina M

    2008-07-01

    Breast milk is the gold standard for infant nutrition and the only necessary food for the first 6 months of an infant's life. Infant formula is deficient and inferior to breast milk in meeting infants' nutritional needs. The infant formula industry has contributed to low rates of breastfeeding through various methods of marketing and advertising infant formula. Today, in New York City, although the majority of mothers initiate breastfeeding (approximately 85%), a minority of infants is breastfed exclusively at 8 weeks postpartum (approximately 25%). The article reviews the practices of the formula industry and the impact of these practices. It then presents the strategic approach taken by the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and its partners to change hospital practices and educate health care providers and the public on the benefits of breast milk, and provides lessons learned from these efforts to make breastfeeding the normative and usual method of infant feeding in New York City.

  2. Factors Associated with Exclusive Breastfeeding of Preterm Infants. Results from a Prospective National Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Kronborg, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Evidence-based knowledge of how to guide the mothers of preterm infants in breastfeeding establishment is contradictive or sparse. The aim was to investigate the associations between pre-specified clinical practices for facilitating breastfeeding, and exclusive breastfeeding...... were analysed by multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: At discharge 68% of the preterm infants were exclusively breastfed and 17% partially. Test-weighing the infant, and minimizing the use of a pacifier, showed a protective effect to exclusive breastfeeding at discharge (OR 0.6 (95% CI 0.......4-0.8) and 0.4 (95% CI 0.3-0.6), respectively). The use of nipple shields (OR 2.3 (95% CI 1.6-3.2)) and the initiation of breast milk expression later than 48 hours postpartum (OR 4.9 (95% CI 1.9-12.6)) were associated with failure of exclusive breastfeeding at discharge. The clinical practices associated...

  3. Analysis of early initiating event(s) in radiation-induced thymic lymphomagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Masahiro; Ying Chen; Kubo, Eiko; Mita, Kazuei

    1996-01-01

    Since the T cell receptor rearrangement is a sequential process and unique to the progeny of each clone, we investigated the early initiating events in radiation-induced thymic lymphomagenesis by comparing the oncogenic alterations with the pattern of γ T cell receptor (TCR) rearrangements. We reported previously that after leukemogenic irradiation, preneoplastic cells developed, albeit infrequently, from thymic leukemia antigen-2 + (TL-2 + ) thymocytes. Limited numbers of TL-2 + cells from individual irradiated B10.Thy-1.1 mice were injected into B10.Thy-1.2 mice intrathymically, and the common genetic changes among the donor-type T cell lymphomas were investigated with regard to p53 gene and chromosome aberrations. The results indicated that some mutations in the p53 gene had taken place in these lymphomas, but there was no common mutation among the donor-type lymphomas from individual irradiated mice, suggesting that these mutations were late-occurring events in the process of oncogenesis. On the other hand, there were common chromosome aberrations or translocations such as trisomy 15, t(7F; 10C), t(1A; 13D) or t(6A; XB) among the donor-type lymphomas derived from half of the individual irradiated mice. This indicated that the aberrations/translocations, which occurred in single progenitor cells at the early T cell differentiation either just before or after γ T cell receptor rearrangements, might be important candidates for initiating events. In the donor-type lymphomas from the other half of the individual irradiated mice, microgenetic changes were suggested to be initial events and also might take place in single progenitor cells just before or right after γ TCR rearrangements. (author)

  4. Verbal Semantics Drives Early Anticipatory Eye Movements during the Comprehension of Verb-Initial Sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauppe, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Studies on anticipatory processes during sentence comprehension often focus on the prediction of postverbal direct objects. In subject-initial languages (the target of most studies so far), however, the position in the sentence, the syntactic function, and the semantic role of arguments are often conflated. For example, in the sentence "The frog will eat the fly" the syntactic object ("fly") is at the same time also the last word and the patient argument of the verb. It is therefore not apparent which kind of information listeners orient to for predictive processing during sentence comprehension. A visual world eye tracking study on the verb-initial language Tagalog (Austronesian) tested what kind of information listeners use to anticipate upcoming postverbal linguistic input. The grammatical structure of Tagalog allows to test whether listeners' anticipatory gaze behavior is guided by predictions of the linear order of words, by syntactic functions (e.g., subject/object), or by semantic roles (agent/patient). Participants heard sentences of the type "Eat frog fly" or "Eat fly frog" (both meaning "The frog will eat the fly") while looking at displays containing an agent referent ("frog"), a patient referent ("fly") and a distractor. The verb carried morphological marking that allowed the order and syntactic function of agent and patient to be inferred. After having heard the verb, listeners fixated on the agent irrespective of its syntactic function or position in the sentence. While hearing the first-mentioned argument, listeners fixated on the corresponding referent in the display accordingly and then initiated saccades to the last-mentioned referent before it was encountered. The results indicate that listeners used verbal semantics to identify referents and their semantic roles early; information about word order or syntactic functions did not influence anticipatory gaze behavior directly after the verb was heard. In this verb-initial language, event semantics

  5. Verbal semantics drives early anticipatory eye movements during the comprehension of verb-initial sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eSauppe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on anticipatory processes during sentence comprehension often focus on the prediction of postverbal direct objects. In subject-initial languages (the target of most studies so far, however, the position in the sentence, the syntactic function, and the semantic role of arguments are often conflated. For example, in the sentence The frog will eat the fly the syntactic object (fly is at the same time also the last word and the patient argument of the verb. It is therefore not apparent which kind of information listeners orient to for predictive processing during sentence comprehension. A visual world eye tracking study on the verb-initial language Tagalog (Austronesian tested what kind of information listeners use to anticipate upcoming postverbal linguistic input. The grammatical structure of Tagalog allows to test whether listeners' anticipatory gaze behavior is guided by predictions of the linear order of words, by syntactic functions (e.g., subject/object, or by semantic roles (agent/patient. Participants heard sentences of the type Eat frog fly or Eat fly frog (both meaning The frog will eat the fly while looking at displays containing an agent referent (frog, a patient referent (fly and a distractor. The verb carried morphological marking that allowed the order and syntactic function of agent and patient to be inferred. After having heard the verb, listeners fixated on the agent irrespective of its syntactic function or position in the sentence. While hearing the first-mentioned argument, listeners fixated on the corresponding referent in the display accordingly and then initiated saccades to the last-mentioned referent before it was encountered. The results indicate that listeners used verbal semantics to identify referents and their semantic roles early; information about word order or syntactic functions did not influence anticipatory gaze behavior directly after the verb was heard. In this verb-initial language, event semantics

  6. Effects of Companies’ Initiatives to Reduce Early Retirement Among Older Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Midtsundstad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Although active ageing policy and practice vary between countries, we believe that knowledge about the effects of Norwegian companies’ initiatives to delay early retirement is of interest for all countries striving to increase the employment rates of older workers. Since the agreement on a more inclusive working life (IW agreement was signed in 2001, the Norwegian government and social partners have encouraged companies to develop a more senior-friendly policy and implement special measures to retain older workers. In this article, we evaluate the effects of such measures. Our research question is, have preventive measures offered by companies to employees aged 62 years and older contributed to reduced rates of early retirement? We use a ‘difference-in-differences’ approach and examine whether measures at the company level to counteract early retirement actually affect older employees’ retirement decisions, controlling for different individual and enterprise factors. This is done by comparing changes and differences in the individual likelihood of early retirement on the contractual pension (AFP scheme and disability pension in the period 2002–2007 among employees 62 years of age in businesses with and without the corresponding preventive measures/instruments. The analyses show that the likelihood that a 62-year-old worker will retire on the AFP scheme has increased from 2002 to 2007. This applies equally to 62-year-old employees in enterprises that have enacted special measures to retain older workers as well as 62-year-olds in enterprises that have not enacted any such measures. On the other hand, the likelihood that a 62-year-old worker will retire because of disability decreased from 2002 to 2007, among employees in both the intervention enterprises and the control enterprises. However, when controlling for other relevant characteristics of individuals and enterprises, the analysis indicates that the measures as such have had no

  7. Maternity Leave Length and Workplace Policies' Impact on the Sustainment of Breastfeeding: Global Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurer, Lisa M

    2017-05-01

    Breastfeeding is a global initiative of the World Health Organization and the U.S. domestic health agenda, Healthy People 2020; both recommend exclusive breastfeeding, defined as providing breast milk only via breast or bottle, through the first 6 months of an infant's life. Previous literature has shown the correlation between socioeconomic status and breastfeeding, with higher maternal education and income as predictors of sustained breastfeeding. This same population of women is more likely to be employed outside the home. PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched using inclusion and exclusion criteria to identify the effect of maternity leave length and workplace policies on the sustainment of breastfeeding for employed mothers. Common facilitators to sustainment of breastfeeding included longer length of maternity leave as well as adequate time and space for the pumping of breast milk once the mother returned to the workplace. Barriers included inconsistency in policy and the lack of enforcement of policies in different countries. There is a lack of consistency globally on maternity leave length and workplace policy as determinants of sustained breastfeeding for employed mothers. A consistent approach is needed to achieve the goal of exclusive breastfeeding for infants. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Maternity Nurses' Perceptions of Implementation of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Emilie M; Doyle, Eva I; Bowden, Rodney G

    The purpose of this study was to determine maternity nurses' perceptions of implementing the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. An online survey and a focus group were used to evaluate perceptions of maternity nurses of implementing the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding in an urban Texas hospital at the onset of the project initiation. Responses were transcribed and coded using Nvivo software. Thematic analysis was conducted and consensus was reached among the research team to validate themes. Twenty-eight maternity nurses participated. Nurses perceived a number of barriers to implementing the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding including nurse staffing shortages, variations in practice among nurses, different levels of nurse education and knowledge about breastfeeding, lack of parental awareness and knowledge about breastfeeding, culture, and postpartum issues such as maternal fatigue, visitors, and routine required procedures during recovery care that interfered with skin-to-skin positioning. Maternity nurses desired more education about breastfeeding; specifically, a hands-on approach, rather than formal classroom instruction, to be able to promote successful implementation of the Ten Steps. More education on breastfeeding for new mothers, their families, and healthcare providers was recommended. Nurse staffing should be adequate to support nurses in their efforts to promote breastfeeding. Skin-to-skin positioning should be integrated into the recovery period. Hospital leadership support for full implementation and policy adherence is essential. Challenges in implementing the Ten Steps were identified along with potential solutions.

  9. Breastfeeding attitudes of Finnish parents during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietilä Anna-Maija

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding attitudes are known to influence infant feeding but little information exists on the prenatal breastfeeding attitudes of parents. The purpose of this study was to describe Finnish parents' prenatal breastfeeding attitudes and their relationships with demographic characteristics. Methods The electronic Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitude and Confidence scale was developed and 172 people (123 mothers, 49 fathers completed the study. The data were analysed using factor analysis and nonparametric methods. Results Breastfeeding was regarded as important, but 54% of the respondents wanted both parents to feed the newborn. The mean rank values of breastfeeding attitudes differed significantly when parity, gender, education, age, breastfeeding history and level of breastfeeding knowledge were considered. The respondents who were expecting their first child, were 18-26 years old or had vocational qualifications or moderate breastfeeding knowledge had more negative feelings and were more worried about breastfeeding than respondents who had at least one child, had a higher vocational diploma or academic degree or had high levels of breastfeeding knowledge. Respondents with high levels of breastfeeding knowledge did not appear concerned about equality in feeding. Conclusions Both mothers and fathers found breastfeeding important. A father's eagerness to participate in their newborn's life should be included in prenatal breastfeeding counselling and ways in which to support breastfeeding discussed. Relevant information about breastfeeding should focus on the parents who are expecting their first child, those who are young, those with low levels of education or those who have gaps in breastfeeding knowledge, so that fears and negative views can be resolved.

  10. Sustainable Professional Learning for Early Childhood Educators: Lessons from an Australia-Wide Mental Health Promotion Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askell-Williams, Helen; Murray-Harvey, Rosalind

    2016-01-01

    New policy initiatives, such as those concerned with promoting young children's positive mental health, highlight the need for good quality professional education in the early childhood education and care sector. However, although a wealth of literature exists from the school sector, little is known about professional education in early childhood…

  11. An historical document analysis of the introduction of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative into the Australian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchan, Marjorie; Davis, Deborah; Foureur, Maralyn

    2017-02-01

    Breastfeeding has many known benefits yet its support across Australian health systems was suboptimal throughout the 20th Century. The World Health Organization launched a global health promotion strategy to help create a 'breastfeeding culture'. Research on the programme has revealed multiple barriers since implementation. To analyse the sociopolitical challenges associated with implementing a global programme into a national setting via an examination of the influences on the early period of implementation of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative in Australia. A focused historical document analysis was attended as part of an instrumental case study. A purposeful sampling strategy obtained a comprehensive sample of public and private documents related to the introduction of the BFHI in Australia. Analysis was informed by a 'documents as commentary' approach to gain insight into individual and collective social practices not otherwise observable. Four major themes were identified: "a breastfeeding culture"; "resource implications"; "ambivalent support for breastfeeding and the BFHI" and "business versus advocacy". "A breastfeeding culture" included several subthemes. No tangible support for breastfeeding generally, or the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative specifically, was identified. Australian policy did not follow international recommendations. There were no financial or policy incentives for BFHI implementation. Key stakeholders' decisions negatively impacted on the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative at a crucial time in its implementation in Australia. The potential impact of the programme was not realised, representing a missed opportunity to establish and provide sustainable standardised breastfeeding support to Australian women and their families. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Communication Ambassadors-an Australian Social Media Initiative to Develop Communication Skills in Early Career Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jack T H; Power, Cheryl J; Kahler, Charlene M; Lyras, Dena; Young, Paul R; Iredell, Jonathan; Robins-Browne, Roy

    2018-01-01

    Science communication is a skill set to be developed through ongoing interactions with different stakeholders across a variety of platforms. Opportunities to engage the general public are typically reserved for senior scientists, but the use of social media in science communication allows all scientists to instantaneously disseminate their findings and interact with online users. The Communication Ambassador program is a social media initiative launched by the Australian Society for Microbiology to expand the online presence and science communication portfolios of early-career scientists. Through their participation in the program, a rotating roster of Australian microbiologists have broadened the online reach of the Society's social media channels as well as their own professional networks by attending and live-tweeting microbiology events throughout the year. We present the Communication Ambassador program as a case study of coordinated social media activity in science communication to the general public, and describe the potential for its applications in science education and training.

  13. Longitudinal Associations Among Religiousness, Delay Discounting, and Substance Use Initiation in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; McCullough, Michael E; Bickel, W K; Farley, Julee P; Longo, Gregory S

    2015-03-01

    Prior research indicates that religiousness is related negatively to adolescent health risk behaviors, yet how such protective effects operate is not well understood. This study examined the longitudinal associations among organizational and personal religiousness, delay discounting, and substance use initiation (alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use). The sample comprised 106 early adolescents (10-13 years of age, 52% female) who were not using substances at Time 1. Path analyses suggested that high levels of personal religiousness at Time 1 were related to low levels of substance use at Time 2 (2.4 years later), mediated by low levels of delay discounting. Delay discounting appears to be an important contributor to the protective effect of religiousness on the development of substance use among adolescents.

  14. Feasibility of Early-Initiated Progressive Resistance Training after Total Hip Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Mechlenburg, Inger; Petersen, Annemette Krintel

    during the exercises were measured at each training session. Isometric muscle strength was measured before and 4 weeks after the THR. Findings / Results: Pain during exercises and resting pain before and after each training session was unchanged or decreased during the 4 weeks of training. Averaged...... across exercises pain during training decreased from 3.6 (sd: 2.8) at the first session to 1.52 (sd: 1.8) VAS-mm at the last session, ptraining load increased progressively for all 4 exercises during the 4 weeks of training. For example: 2nd, 5th and 8th training session. Hip......Background: Muscle atrophy, reduced hip muscle strength and function are documented within the first weeks after Total Hip Replacement (THR). Purpose / Aim of Study: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of early-initiated progressive resistance training (PRT) after THR...

  15. Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast ... may have. How do I store my breast milk? You can freeze and/or refrigerate your pumped ( ...

  16. Breastfeeding - good for both of us

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    This poster promotes breastfeeding and highlights the fact that it has health benefits for both mother and baby. It also provides contact details of local organisations that can offer help and advice on breastfeeding.

  17. Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms Page Content Article Body A growing number ...

  18. Gestalt Breastfeeding: Helping Mothers and Infants Optimize Positional Stability and Intraoral Breast Tissue Volume for Effective, Pain-Free Milk Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Pamela; Keogh, Renee

    2017-08-01

    In the past decade, biological nurturing and activation of maternal and infant instincts after birth have constituted a major advance in clinical breastfeeding support. Yet, physiologic breastfeeding initiation is not enough to ensure ongoing pain-free and effective breastfeeding for many pairs. Current interventions, including "hands-off" mammalian approaches, do not improve breastfeeding outcomes, including in randomized controlled trials. Back-arching, difficulty latching or staying on the breast, and fussing at the breast are common signs of infant positional instability during breastfeeding. These cues are, however, often misdiagnosed as signs of medical conditions or oral connective tissue abnormalities, and underlying positional instability is not addressed. New clinical approaches are urgently required. This article offers a clinical approach to fit and hold (or latch and positioning)- gestalt breastfeeding, which aims to optimize positional stability and intraoral breast tissue volumes for pain-free effective breastfeeding. The word gestalt (pronounced "ger-shtolt") means a whole that is more than the sum of its parts. Gestalt breastfeeding builds on the theoretical foundations of complexity science, physiologic breastfeeding initiation, and new understandings of the biomechanics of infant suck elucidated in ultrasound studies. It also integrates simple psychological strategies from applied functional contextualism, popularly known as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, empowering women to attend mindfully to breast sensations and their infant's cues. Gestalt breastfeeding can be reproduced for research purposes, including in comparison studies with oral surgery, and has the potential to improve breastfeeding outcomes.

  19. Military milk: breastfeeding rates among Australian Defence Force women who return to military service following maternity leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kelley

    2015-02-01

    The breastfeeding behaviors among Australian Defence Force women have not previously been examined. Studies have shown that breastfeeding prevalence and duration are affected by maternity leave entitlements and returning to work. This study aimed to benchmark breastfeeding initiation, prevalence, and duration among a cohort of Australian Defence Force women and to compare these findings against Australian population norms. A cross-sectional survey was conducted via email in 2008 for Australian Defence Force women who had taken maternity leave in the Australian financial year of 2006/2007. Analysis of breastfeeding indicators was undertaken. Ninety-eight percent of Australian Defence Force women in this cohort initiated breastfeeding and breastfed for a median duration of 8 months, returning to work when the mean age of the child was 8.4 months. Breastfeeding prevalence did not meet 2003 Australian National Health and Medical Research Council targets by 6 months postpartum but compared favorably to the Australian population norms. Sixty-six percent of the respondents returned to work full-time, with a median breastfeeding duration of 7 months. Women who returned to work part-time had a longer median duration of 10 months. Breastfeeding rates among this cohort of Australian Defence Force women compare favorably with the general Australian population until 9 months, coinciding with returning to work after a period of maternity leave. The results support recent Australian population studies on breastfeeding and employment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Initiation to scientific literacy in early years of elementary school: contributions of a didactic sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pinto Viecheneski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research professional, which was developed in the context of the early years of elementary school, from the application of a didactic sequence, with a view to initiation of scientific literacy of students in the literacy process of language. The methodological approach was qualitative, interpretative nature. The subjects were the students of 1st year 1st Cycle of Basic Education in a public school in Ponta Grossa - PR. The data were collected through observation, application of diagnostic testing, audio recordings, photographs, written records, illustrations and posttest. The theory History Cultural Development made the analysis of pedagogical actions and reflections on them. The main results indicate that the activities of the instructional sequence, contributed to the progressive advancement of the students' knowledge in relation to the area of science and basic scientific literacy, and also contributed to make learning the language more contextualized and interdisciplinary. It is noted that this work requires a teacher to assume the role of mediator between the scientific and the children, as well as requires the understanding that, as the subject entered the technological means, students in the early years have a right to access scientific culture. In this perspective, respecting the level of development of the children, the teacher can provide challenges and mediations necessary for the gradual construction of scientific knowledge, the first years of elementary school.

  1. Preparing beginning reading teachers: An experimental comparison of initial early literacy field experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Lake, Vickie E; Greulich, Luana; Folsom, Jessica S; Guidry, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This randomized-control trial examined the learning of preservice teachers taking an initial Early Literacy course in an early childhood education program and of the kindergarten or first grade students they tutored in their field experience. Preservice teachers were randomly assigned to one of two tutoring programs: Book Buddies and Tutor Assisted Intensive Learning Strategies (TAILS), which provided identical meaning-focused instruction (shared book reading), but differed in the presentation of code-focused skills. TAILS used explicit, scripted lessons, and the Book Buddies required that code-focused instruction take place during shared book reading. Our research goal was to understand which tutoring program would be most effective in improving knowledge about reading, lead to broad and deep language and preparedness of the novice preservice teachers, and yield the most successful student reading outcomes. Findings indicate that all pre-service teachers demonstrated similar gains in knowledge, but preservice teachers in the TAILS program demonstrated broader and deeper application of knowledge and higher self-ratings of preparedness to teach reading. Students in both conditions made similar comprehension gains, but students tutored with TAILS showed significantly stronger decoding gains.

  2. Breastfeeding and IQ Growth from Toddlerhood through Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stumm, Sophie; Plomin, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of breastfeeding for cognitive development continue to be hotly debated but are yet to be supported by conclusive empirical evidence. We used here a latent growth curve modeling approach to test the association of breastfeeding with IQ growth trajectories, which allows differentiating the variance in the IQ starting point in early life from variance in IQ gains that occur later in childhood through adolescence. Breastfeeding (yes/ no) was modeled as a direct predictor of three IQ latent growth factors (i.e. intercept, slope and quadratic term) and adjusted for the covariates socioeconomic status, mother's age at birth and gestational stage. Data came from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS), a prospective cohort study of twins born between 1996 and 1994 in the United Kingdom, who were assessed 9 times on IQ between age 2 and 16 years (N = 11,582). Having been breastfed was associated with a small yet significant advantage in IQ at age 2 in girls (β = .07, CI 95% from 0.64 to 3.01; N = 3,035) but not in boys (β = .04, CI 95% from -0.14 to 2.41). Having been breastfeeding was neither associated with the other IQ growth factors in girls (slope: β = .02, CI 95% from -0.25 to 0.43; quadratic: β = .01, CI 95% from -0.02 to 0.02) nor in boys (slope: β = .02, CI 95% from -0.30 to 0.47; quadratic: β = -.01, CI 95% from -0.01 to 0.01). Breastfeeding has little benefit for early life intelligence and cognitive growth from toddlerhood through adolescence.

  3. Breastfeeding and IQ Growth from Toddlerhood through Adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie von Stumm

    Full Text Available The benefits of breastfeeding for cognitive development continue to be hotly debated but are yet to be supported by conclusive empirical evidence.We used here a latent growth curve modeling approach to test the association of breastfeeding with IQ growth trajectories, which allows differentiating the variance in the IQ starting point in early life from variance in IQ gains that occur later in childhood through adolescence. Breastfeeding (yes/ no was modeled as a direct predictor of three IQ latent growth factors (i.e. intercept, slope and quadratic term and adjusted for the covariates socioeconomic status, mother's age at birth and gestational stage. Data came from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS, a prospective cohort study of twins born between 1996 and 1994 in the United Kingdom, who were assessed 9 times on IQ between age 2 and 16 years (N = 11,582.Having been breastfed was associated with a small yet significant advantage in IQ at age 2 in girls (β = .07, CI 95% from 0.64 to 3.01; N = 3,035 but not in boys (β = .04, CI 95% from -0.14 to 2.41. Having been breastfeeding was neither associated with the other IQ growth factors in girls (slope: β = .02, CI 95% from -0.25 to 0.43; quadratic: β = .01, CI 95% from -0.02 to 0.02 nor in boys (slope: β = .02, CI 95% from -0.30 to 0.47; quadratic: β = -.01, CI 95% from -0.01 to 0.01.Breastfeeding has little benefit for early life intelligence and cognitive growth from toddlerhood through adolescence.

  4. Maternal knowledge, outcome expectancies and normative beliefs as determinants of cessation of exclusive breastfeeding: a cross-sectional study in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewa, Constance A; Chepkemboi, Joan

    2016-03-09

    Despite the importance of multiple psychosocial factors on nutrition-related behavior, very few studies have explored beyond the role of mothers' knowledge and perception of child-focused outcomes on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding in Africa. Our objective was to determine the relationships among mothers' knowledge, outcome expectancies, normative beliefs, and cessation of exclusive breastfeeding in rural Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 400 mothers of children, 0-24 months old, in rural Kenya. Early child-feeding practices, knowledge of breastfeeding recommendations, beliefs associated with impact of exclusive breastfeeding on child- and mother-focused outcomes and perception of acceptability of exclusive breastfeeding by important others were examined. Cox regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between independent variables of interest and cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. Being knowledgeable of breastfeeding-related recommendations, positive beliefs on the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on child- focused outcomes, having a more positive perception of the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on mother-focused outcomes and a more positive perception of acceptability of exclusive breastfeeding by important others were associated with significantly lower risks of premature cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. In addition to knowledge levels, mothers' beliefs play an important role in mothers' decisions to practice exclusive breastfeeding. Mother's beliefs on the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on the mother's health, physical appearance and ability to engage in other activities were shown to have the strongest relationship with premature cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. Addressing these beliefs has the potential to contribute to more effective exclusive breastfeeding promotion efforts in rural Kenya.

  5. Maternal knowledge, outcome expectancies and normative beliefs as determinants of cessation of exclusive breastfeeding: a cross-sectional study in rural Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance A. Gewa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of multiple psychosocial factors on nutrition-related behavior, very few studies have explored beyond the role of mothers’ knowledge and perception of child-focused outcomes on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding in Africa. Our objective was to determine the relationships among mothers’ knowledge, outcome expectancies, normative beliefs, and cessation of exclusive breastfeeding in rural Kenya. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 400 mothers of children, 0-24 months old, in rural Kenya. Early child-feeding practices, knowledge of breastfeeding recommendations, beliefs associated with impact of exclusive breastfeeding on child- and mother-focused outcomes and perception of acceptability of exclusive breastfeeding by important others were examined. Cox regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between independent variables of interest and cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. Results Being knowledgeable of breastfeeding-related recommendations, positive beliefs on the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on child- focused outcomes, having a more positive perception of the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on mother-focused outcomes and a more positive perception of acceptability of exclusive breastfeeding by important others were associated with significantly lower risks of premature cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusion In addition to knowledge levels, mothers’ beliefs play an important role in mothers’ decisions to practice exclusive breastfeeding. Mother’s beliefs on the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on the mother’s health, physical appearance and ability to engage in other activities were shown to have the strongest relationship with premature cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. Addressing these beliefs has the potential to contribute to more effective exclusive breastfeeding promotion efforts in rural Kenya.

  6. Breastfeeding cessation and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ystrom Eivind

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal anxiety and depression and breastfeeding cessation are significant public health problems. There is an association between maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression and early breastfeeding cessation. In earlier studies, the causality of this association was interpreted both ways; symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum significantly impacts breastfeeding, and breastfeeding cessation significantly impacts symptoms of anxiety and depression. First, we aimed to investigate whether breastfeeding cessation is related to an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression from pregnancy to six months postpartum. Second, we also investigated whether the proposed symptom increase after breastfeeding cessation was disproportionately high for those women already suffering from high levels of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. Methods To answer these objectives, we examined data from 42 225 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Subjects were recruited in relation to a routine ultra-sound examination, and all pregnant women in Norway were eligible. We used data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and questionnaires both pre and post partum. Symptoms of anxiety and depression at six months postpartum were predicted in a linear regression analysis by WHO-categories of breastfeeding, symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum (standardized score, and interaction terms between breastfeeding categories and prepartum symptoms of anxiety and depression. The results were adjusted for cesarean sections, primiparity, plural births, preterm births, and maternal smoking. Results First, prepartum levels of anxiety and depression were related to breastfeeding cessation (β 0.24; 95% CI 0.21-0.28, and breastfeeding cessation was predictive of an increase in postpartum anxiety and depression ( β 0.11; 95%CI 0.09-0.14. Second, prepartum anxiety and depression interacted with the relation between

  7. Entropy Growth in the Early Universe and Confirmation of Initial Big Bang Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Andrew

    2009-09-01

    This paper shows how increased entropy values from an initially low big bang level can be measured experimentally by counting relic gravitons. Furthermore the physical mechanism of this entropy increase is explained via analogies with early-universe phase transitions. The role of Jack Ng's (2007, 2008a, 2008b) revised infinite quantum statistics in the physics of gravitational wave detection is acknowledged. Ng's infinite quantum statistics can be used to show that ΔS~ΔNgravitons is a startmg point to the increasing net universe cosmological entropy. Finally, in a nod to similarities AS ZPE analysis, it is important to note that the resulting ΔS~ΔNgravitons ≠ 1088, that in fact it is much lower, allowing for evaluating initial graviton production as an emergent field phenomena, which may be similar to how ZPE states can be used to extract energy from a vacuum if entropy is not maximized. The rapid increase in entropy so alluded to without near sudden increases to 1088 may be enough to allow successful modeling of relic graviton production for entropy in a manner similar to ZPE energy extraction from a vacuum state.

  8. START to Get Ready for Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breastfeeding is a great way to give your baby the nutrients he or she needs to grow and develop. Breastfeeding also can help you and your baby form a special bond. Breastfeeding can be good for both of you if you know where to S-T-A-R-T.

  9. Working & breastfeeding: a contemporary workplace dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J

    1999-12-01

    The benefits of breastfeeding are well known and widely documented. What we are only beginning to understand is the significant impact of returning to work on the experience of breastfeeding. This article describes workplace issues, discusses current literature and examines the range of influences that impact on women's decisions about working and breastfeeding.

  10. Regulatory T cells predict the time to initial treatment in early stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Lukas; Melchardt, Thomas; Egle, Alexander; Grabmer, Christoph; Greil, Richard; Tinhofer, Inge

    2011-05-15

    Early stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia is characterized by a highly variable course of disease. Because it is believed that regulatory T cells (T(regs) ) are potent suppressors of antitumor immunity, the authors hypothesized that increased T(regs) may favor disease progression. T(reg) levels (cluster of differentiation 3 [CD3]-positive, [CD4]-positive, CD25-positive, and CD127-negative) in peripheral blood from 102 patients were analyzed by flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate correlations with clinical data. The relative T(reg) numbers in CD4-positive T cells were significantly greater in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia compared with the numbers in a control group of 170 healthy individuals (P = .001). Patients were divided into 2 groups using a median T(reg) value of 9.7% (the percentage of CD4-positive T cells). Patients with higher T(reg) levels had a significantly shorter time to initial treatment (median, 5.9 years) compared with patients who had lower T(reg) levels (median, 11.7 years; log-rank P = .019). Furthermore, T(reg) levels (the percentage of CD4-positive T cells) had significant prognostic power to predict the time to initial treatment in univariate analysis (P = .023) and in multivariate Cox regression analysis that included the variables Rai stage, immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene mutational status, chromosomal aberrations, and CD38 expression (P = .028). Higher T(reg) levels had significant and independent prognostic power for predicting the time to initial treatment in patients with low to intermediate stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia. 2010 American Cancer Society.

  11. The EGU Seismology Division Early Career Scientist Representative team and its initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Laura; Ermert, Laura; Gualtieri, Lucia; Spieker, Kathrin; Van Noten, Koen; Agius, Matthew R.; Mai, P. Martin

    2017-04-01

    Since 2014, the Seismology Division (SM) of the European Geosciences Union (EGU) has its Early Career Scientist (ECS) representative to reach out to its numerous 'younger' members. In April 2016, a new team of representatives joined the Division. We are a vivid team of early career scientists, representing both (either) PhD students and post-doctoral researchers working in different seismological disciplines and different countries. The initiatives of the SM ECS-rep team have various aims: (1) to motivate the ECSs to get involved in activities and initiatives of the EGU and the Seismology Division, (2) to promote the research of ECSs, (3) to discuss issues concerning seismologists during this particular stage of their career, (4) to share ideas on how to promote equality between scientists and (5) to improve on the public dissemination of scientific knowledge. In an effort to reach out to experienced and ECS seismologists more effectively and to continuously encourage to voice their ideas by contributing and following our initiatives, a blog and social media pages dedicated to seismology and earthquake trivia are run by the team. Weekly posts are published on the blog and shared on the social media regarding scientific and social aspects of seismology. One of the major contributions recently introduced to the blog is the "Paper of the Month" series where experienced seismologists write about recent or classical - must read - seismology articles. We also aim to organise and promote social and scientific events. During the EGU General Assembly 2016 a social event was held in Vienna allowing ECS to network with peers in an informal environment. Given the success of this event, a similar event will be organized during the General Assembly 2017. Also, similar to previous years, a short course on basic seismology for non seismologists will be requested and offered to all ECSs attending the General Assembly. Finally, a workshop dedicated entirely to ECSs seismologists

  12. An Assessment of the Breastfeeding Practices and Infant Feeding Pattern among Mothers in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashmika Motee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper breastfeeding practices are effective ways for reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. While many mothers understand the importance of breastfeeding, others are less knowledgeable on the benefits of breastfeeding and weaning. The aim in here is to assess breastfeeding pattern, infant formula feeding pattern, and weaning introduction in Mauritius and to investigate the factors that influence infant nutrition. 500 mothers were interviewed using a questionnaire which was designed to elicit information on infant feeding practices. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS (version 13.0, whereby chi-square tests were used to evaluate relationships between different selected variables. The prevalence of breastfeeding practice in Mauritius has risen from 72% in 1991 to 93.4% as found in this study, while only 17.9% breastfed their children exclusively for the first 6 months, and the mean duration of EBF (exclusive breastfeeding is 2.10 months. Complementary feeding was more commonly initiated around 4–6 months (75.2%. Despite the fact that 60.6% of mothers initiate breastfeeding and 26.1% of mothers are found to breastfeed up to 2 years, the practice of EBF for the first 6 months is low (17.9%. Factors found to influence infant feeding practices are type of delivery, parity, alcohol consumption, occupation, education, and breast problems.

  13. Intersectionality family, generation and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Araújo Moreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding, sociocultural complex and multifaceted process, allows women of the same or of different generations within a group, parental experience and/or develop multiple meanings that can be modified or not depending on the social time in which they lived. Therefore, breastfeeding contributes to the interaction between family members, especially grandmothers, daughters and granddaughters when new generations appreciate lessons learned from the wisdom of a more experienced group. Therefore, it is a qualitative study, descriptive, exploratory-type literature review that had timeless selection for books, dissertations and theses, as series of articles from 1998 to 2008. The objective was to discuss the interface between family, generation and breastfeeding, underscoring the importance of aging and experience of older generations in the process of teaching and learning about breastfeeding to new generations. The literature review was done in the databases SciELO, LILACS and MEDLINE plus books, dissertations and theses, with the keywords: breastfeeding, family and generation. We identified 20 articles, 14 books, dissertations 4, 6 and 2 academic papers theses that were submitted to content analysis. In the analysis, it was noticed that the generations have a close relationship with each other, revealing that aging and maturity of the first generations contribute to greater acquisition of knowledge to be transmitted to younger generations of mothers who breastfeed. We conclude, believing that this study will look amplified, not only of health and related fields, but for those who want to analyze the possibilities of breastfeeding from intergenerational understanding it from the perspective of policymaker’s agents.

  14. 'This little piranha': a qualitative analysis of the language used by health professionals and mothers to describe infant behaviour during breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Elaine; Fenwick, Jenny; Sheehan, Athena; Schmied, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life offers the recommended best start in the life for a newborn baby. Yet, in Australia only a small number of babies receive breast milk exclusively for the first 6 months. Reasons for the introduction of formula milk are multi-factorial including access to appropriate support and the woman's experience of breastfeeding. The language and practices of health professionals can impact upon how a woman feels about breastfeeding and her breastfeeding body. One aspect of breastfeeding support that has had scarce attention in the literature is the language used by health professionals to describe the behaviour of the breastfeeding infant during the early establishment phase of breastfeeding. This paper reveals some of the ways in which midwives, lactation consultants and breastfeeding women describe the newborn baby during the first week after birth. The study was conducted at two maternity units in New South Wales. Interactions between midwives and breastfeeding women were observed and audio recorded on the post-natal ward and in women's homes, in the first week after birth. The transcribed data were analysed using discourse analysis searching for recurring words, themes and metaphors used in descriptions of the breastfeeding baby. Repeated negative references to infant personality and unfavourable interpretations of infant behaviour influenced how women perceived their infant. The findings revealed that positive language and interpretations of infant breastfeeding behaviour emerged from more relationship-based communication. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The experiences of urban, professional women when combining breastfeeding with paid employment in Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali; Karmaliani, Rozina

    2013-06-01

    Pakistan has the second highest child mortality rate in South Asia. Breastfeeding can promote infant health, prevent infection and possibly mortality. However, a gradual decline in breastfeeding is reported for Pakistan; especially among urban, educated, employed women. Little research exists regarding the experiences of professional women in Pakistan who are breastfeeding and employed. To describe the experiences of urban, professional women who breastfeed and are employed, as related to facilitators and barriers of breastfeeding. Using a qualitative descriptive design, nine full-time employed women were recruited through purposive sampling from a private tertiary care health setting in Karachi, Pakistan. A pre-tested, semi-structured interview guide was used for an in-depth interview of 40-45min with each participant. Most women spoke about the challenges of combining breastfeeding with employment, which resulted in early cessation of breastfeeding. The study indicated that positive maternal attributes such as knowledge about breastfeeding, planning, self-commitment, and open communication, as well as availability of social and workplace support is essential to enable urban, professional women in Pakistan to continue breastfeeding while employed. Pakistan has high infant and child mortality rate and decreasing prevalence of breastfeeding, especially among employed professional women. Our findings indicate an urgent need for lactation support programs that include integrated interventions for lactating women that offer informational support, social support, and formal workplace support. Copyright © 2012 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlates of Early versus Later Initiation into Sex Work in Two Mexico–U.S. Border Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, Oralia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Staines, Hugo; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Martínez, Gustavo A.; Amaro, Hortensia; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To examine correlates of early initiation into sex work in two Mexico–U.S. border cities. Methods Female sex workers (FSWs) ≥18 years without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez who had recent unprotected sex with clients underwent baseline interviews. Correlates of initiation into sex work before age 18 were identified with logistic regression. Results Of 920 FSWs interviewed in Tijuana (N=474) and Ciudad Juarez (N=446), 9.8% (N=90) were early initiators (<18 years) into sex work. Median age of entry into sex work was 26 years (range: 6–58). After adjusting for age, compared to older initiators, early initiators were more likely to use inhalants (21.1% vs 9.6%, p=0.002), initiate sex work to pay for alcohol (36.7% vs 18.4%, p<.001), report abuse as a child (42.2% vs 18.7%, p<.0001), and they were less likely to be migrants (47.8% vs 62.3%, p=0.02). Factors independently associated with early initiation included inhalant use (adjOR=2.39), initiating sex work to pay for alcohol (adjOR=1.88) and history of child abuse (adjOR=2.92). Factors associated with later initiation included less education (adjOR=0.43 per 5-year increase), migration (adjOR=0.47), and initiating sex work for better pay (adjOR=0.44) or to support children (adjOR=0.03). Conclusions Different pathways for entering sex work are apparent among younger versus older females in the Mexico–U.S. border region. Among girls, interventions are needed to prevent inhalant use and child abuse and to offer coping skills; among older initiators, income-generating strategies, childcare, and services for migrants may help to delay or prevent entry into sex work. PMID:20123256

  17. Workshop initial report: Expanding the geoscience pipeline by connecting educators with early career IODP scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. C.; Cooper, S. K.; Hovan, S. A.; Leckie, R. M.; White, L. D.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. is facing challenges in attracting, retaining and diversifying the workforce in the geosciences. A likely contributing factor is the homogeneity of the pool of mentors/role models available both within the workforce and in the U.S. professoriate. Another probable factor is "exposure gaps" among U.S. student populations; i.e., differing access to engaging facets of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). In response, we organized an 18-day School of Rock workshop onboard the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) drilling vessel JOIDES Resolution during a July 2017 transit in the western Pacific. Our objectives were diversity driven, focusing on measures to broaden participation at all levels (i.e., K-12, undergraduate and beyond) in innovative ways (e.g., from place-base curriculum to longitudinal peer mentoring through extracurricular STEM communities). To accomplish this, we designed a recruiting scheme to attract pairs of participants, specifically a teacher from a diverse community and a nearby early-career scientist with an interest in IODP science. By partnering in this way we sought to foster connections that might not naturally emerge, and therein to establish new mechanisms for increased engagement, broader recruitment, enhanced support, and improved retention of students from underrepresented communities in STEM education. We report on initial workshop outcomes that include new curriculum proposals, nascent funding proposals, and innovative connections among secondary educators and early-career scientists. Survey results of our participants gauge the expected impacts of the workshop on perceptions and on plans for future actions aimed at broadening participation.

  18. The influence of galaxy environment on the stellar initial mass function of early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosani, Giulio; Pasquali, Anna; La Barbera, Francesco; Ferreras, Ignacio; Vazdekis, Alexandre

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether the stellar initial mass function (IMF) of early-type galaxies depends on their host environment. To this purpose, we have selected a sample of early-type galaxies from the SPIDER catalogue, characterized their environment through the group catalogue of Wang et al., and used their optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra to constrain the IMF slope, through the analysis of IMF-sensitive spectral indices. To reach a high enough signal-to-noise ratio, we have stacked spectra in velocity dispersion (σ0) bins, on top of separating the sample by galaxy hierarchy and host halo mass, as proxies for galaxy environment. In order to constrain the IMF, we have compared observed line strengths and predictions of MIUSCAT/EMILES synthetic stellar population models, with varying age, metallicity, and `bimodal' (low-mass tapered) IMF slope (Γ _b). Consistent with previous studies, we find that Γ _b increases with σ0, becoming bottom-heavy (i.e. an excess of low-mass stars with respect to the Milky Way like IMF) at high σ0. We find that this result is robust against the set of isochrones used in the stellar population models, as well as the way the effect of elemental abundance ratios is taken into account. We thus conclude that it is possible to use currently state-of-the-art stellar population models and intermediate resolution spectra to consistently probe IMF variations. For the first time, we show that there is no dependence of Γb on environment or galaxy hierarchy, as measured within the 3 arcsec SDSS fibre, thus leaving the IMF as an intrinsic galaxy property, possibly set already at high redshift.

  19. Breastfeeding practices and determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in a cross-sectional study at a child welfare clinic in Tema Manhean, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Bernard Yeboah-Asiamah; Preko, Joyce Veronica; Baafi, Diana; Dwumfour-Asare, Bismark

    2018-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is important for child health and growth, but its practice is low in many developing countries. This study aimed at determining the breastfeeding practices and examining the sociodemographic characteristics that influence exclusive breastfeeding among mothers attending child welfare clinic at Manhean, in the Tema East Sub-Meteropolitan area of Greater Accra region of Ghana. This was a cross-sectional study that employed a structured questionnaire to collect data among 355 mothers of children aged 0-24 months selected through simple random sampling, attending a child welfare clinic from May to June, 2016. Breastfeeding practices were assessed based on the practices in the last 24 h prior to the study as defined by the World Health Organization. There was a universal awareness and high knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding among mothers, but prevalence among infants less than 6 months was 66.0% ( n  = 138/209). Mothers currently breastfeeding were 263 (74.0%); 225 (63.4%) initiated breastfeeding within the first hour after delivery and 289 (81.0%) of the mothers offered colostrum to babies after delivery. Continued breastfeeding rate at 1 year was 77.3% ( n  = 17/22). Only 33.7% ( n  = 31/92) of infants aged 6-8 months had started receiving complementary foods. For infants aged less than 24 months, 30.1% ( n  = 98/326) were bottle feeding. Mothers aged 20-24 (Adjusted odd ratio [AOR] 9.80; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.11, 45.46), 25-29 (AOR 9.49; 95% CI 2.07, 43.47) and 30-34 (AOR 6.02; 95% CI 1.41, 25.65) were more likely to practice exclusive breastfeeding. Mothers who had tertiary education were less likely to practice EBF than those with no education (AOR 0.18; 95% CI 0.36, 0.85). Mothers from ethnic groups in northern Ghana were less likely to exclusively breastfeed their infants compared to those of Ghanaian (Ga) ethnicity (AOR 0.29; 95% CI 0.09, 0.96). Exclusive breastfeeding and timely complementary feeding

  20. Reasons for Stopping Exclusive Breastfeeding Between Three and Six Months: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alianmoghaddam, Narges; Phibbs, Suzanne; Benn, Cheryl

    Scant published qualitative literature exists focusing on why exclusive breastfeeding rates decline between three and six months. This study aims to develop an understanding of why exclusive breastfeeding tails off so dramatically between three and six months after birth in New Zealand. A generic qualitative methodology was employed in this study and social constructionism selected as the main epistemological framework underpinning the research. This study was carried out between September 2013 and July 2014, involving face-to-face interviews with 30 women who were characterised as highly motivated to complete six months exclusive breastfeeding prior to the birth of their child. In order to gain an in-depth understanding of the research material, thematic analysis of the interview transcripts was completed using manual coding techniques. After thematic analysis of the data four key themes were identified: 1) The good employee/good mother dilemma. 2) Breastfeeding is lovely, but six months exclusively is demanding. 3) Exclusive breastfeeding recommendations should be individualised. 4) Introducing solids early as a cultural practice. Most studies have linked barriers to six months exclusive breastfeeding to difficulties within the mother-infant dyad, as well as negative maternal socioeconomic and socio-demographic characteristics. However, this study has shown that the maintenance of six months exclusive breastfeeding is also challenging for this group of mothers who were socially advantaged, well-educated and highly motivated to breastfeed their babies exclusively for six months. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of Postpartum Depression and its Correlation with Breastfeeding: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Wedad Saad Al-Muhaish

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum depression is bidirectional. Breastfeeding improves the maternal and neonatal health. There is now growing evidence that it might play a role in the prevention of postpartum depression. Objective: This study explores the relationship between breastfeeding and maternal postpartum depression. It also estimates the prevalence rate of postpartum depression among Saudi women. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Three-hundred postpartum women were recruited for this study from various hospitals in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Likelihood of depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS. Socio-demographic data were collected as well as data regarding breastfeeding duration and intention to breastfeed. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21, using parametric tests; independent t-test and One-Way ANOVA. Results: Postpartum mothers who intended to breast-feed their babies had a lower EPDS scores compared with those who did not intend to breast-feed. No correlation was found between the duration of breastfeeding and EPDS scores. Prevalence rate of postpartum depression in our sample was 14%. Greater age, having previous babies, intention to breastfeed and vaginal delivery were significantly associated with actual breastfeeding. Conclusion: Screening for mothers in the early postpartum period is essential to detect those who are at risk for postpartum depression. Breastfeeding may help to reduce and prevent the appearance of symptoms of depression. Prevalence rate of postpartum depression in Saudi Arabia, 14%, is similar to the worldwide rate.

  2. Breastfeeding Trends Among Very Low Birth Weight, Low Birth Weight, and Normal Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Angela G; Miranda, Patricia Y

    2018-05-18

    To examine the change in breastfeeding behaviors over time, among low birth weight (LBW), very low birth weight (VLBW), and normal birth weight (NBW) infants using nationally representative US data. Univariate statistics and bivariate logistic models were examined using the Early Child Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001) and National Study of Children's Health (2007 and 2011/2012). Breastfeeding behaviors improved for infants of all birth weights from 2007 to 2011/2012. In 2011/2012, a higher percentage of VLBW infants were ever breastfed compared with LBW and NBW infants. In 2011/2012, LBW infants had a 28% lower odds (95% CI, 0.57-0.92) of ever breastfeeding and a 52% lower odds (95% CI, 0.38-0.61) of breastfeeding for ≥6 months compared with NBW infants. Among black infants, a larger percentage of VLBW infants were breastfed for ≥6 months (26.2%) compared with LBW infants (14.9%). Breastfeeding rates for VLBW and NBW infants have improved over time. Both VLBW and NBW infants are close to meeting the Healthy People 2020 ever breastfeeding goal of 81.9%. LBW infants are farther from this goal than VLBW infants. The results suggest a need for policies that encourage breastfeeding specifically among LBW infants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The longitudinal role of breastfeeding in mothers' and fathers' relationship quality trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Lauren M

    2012-08-01

    Guided by a family systems perspective, this study investigated whether breastfeeding plays a role in the quality of the mother-father intimate relationship over the course of child development. Using a prospective, longitudinal design, and data drawn from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n=986 couples), the present study examined the predictive role of breastfeeding in the first 3 years of life (for up to 4 months and for 5 months or longer, relative to never breastfeeding) in maternal and paternal trajectories of intimate relationship quality. The outcome variable of interest was emotional intimacy, rated by mothers and fathers when children were 54 months of age, in grades 1, 3, 5, and 6, and 15 years of age. Multivariate hierarchical linear modeling, which appropriately handled dyadic data and accounted for effects of demographic covariates and earlier relationship quality, indicated that breastfeeding uniquely predicted increases in mothers' (but not fathers') marital quality levels over time. There was no difference in the strength of the positive associations for shorter versus longer breastfeeding duration. The findings suggest that improved intimate relationship quality may be another psychosocial benefit experienced by breastfeeding mothers. The findings underscore the importance of considering breastfeeding in the context of intimate relationships and may be of interest to women weighing the decision to breastfeed, their partners, and healthcare providers.

  4. The Ability of Posters to Enhance the Comfort Level with Breastfeeding in a Public Venue in Rural Newfoundland and Labrador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieth, Alissa; Woodrow, Janine; Murphy-Goodridge, Janet; O'Neil, Courtney; Roebothan, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    The acceptance and support of breastfeeding in public venues can influence breastfeeding practices and, ultimately, the health of the population. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether posters targeted at the general public could improve acceptability of breastfeeding in public places. A convenience sample of 255 participants was surveyed at shopping centers in 2 rural communities of Newfoundland and Labrador. Experimentally, questions were posed to 117 participants pre- and post-exposure to 2 specific posters designed to promote public acceptance of breastfeeding in public. Initially, we surveyed that only 51.9% of participants indicated that they were comfortable with a woman breastfeeding anywhere in public. However, context played a role, whereby a doctor's office (84.5%) or park (81.4%) were the most acceptable public places for breastfeeding, but least acceptable was a business office environment (66.7%). Of participants, 35.4% indicated previously viewing specific posters. We used a visual analog scale to test poster viewing on the acceptability of public breastfeeding in the context of a doctor's office and a restaurant. Results of pre- versus post-viewing of the promotional posters indicated significant improvements in both scenarios: in a doctor's office (P = .035) and in a restaurant (P = .021). Nearly 50% of the surveyed population indicated discomfort with a mother breastfeeding in public. Both cross-sectional and interventional evidence showed that posters significantly improved the reported level of comfort toward seeing breastfeeding in public. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Breastfeeding practices in a public health field practice area in Sri Lanka: a survival analysis

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    Agampodi Thilini C

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breastfeeding up to the completion of the sixth month of age is the national infant feeding recommendation for Sri Lanka. The objective of the present study was to collect data on exclusive breastfeeding up to six months and to describe the association between exclusive breastfeeding and selected socio-demographic factors. Methods A clinic based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Medical Officer of Health area, Beruwala, Sri Lanka in June 2006. Mothers with infants aged 4 to 12 months, attending the 19 child welfare clinics in the area were included in the study. Infants with specific feeding problems (cleft lip and palate and primary lactose intolerance were excluded. Cluster sampling technique was used and consecutive infants fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled. A total of 219 mothers participated in the study. The statistical tests used were survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional Hazard model. Results All 219 mothers had initiated breastfeeding. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was four months (95% CI 3.75, 4.25. The rates of exclusive breastfeeding at 4 and 6 months were 61.6% (135/219 and 15.5% (24/155 respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that the Muslim ethnicity (p = 0.004, lower levels of parental education (p Conclusion The rate of breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding up to the fourth month is very high in Medical Officer of Health area, Beruwala, Sri Lanka. However exclusive breastfeeding up to six months is still low and the prevalence of inappropriate feeding practices is high.

  6. Breastfeeding reduces the risk of obesity in childhood and adolescence

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    Eleni-Maria Papatesta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has increased dramatically over the last decades, representing one of the most serious public health hazards of the 21st century. Efforts must be made by healthcare professionals to prevent it, as it is associated with short- and long-term risks for physical and mental health and because of the increased possibility to persist during adulthood. From antiquity human breast milk was considered the ideal nourishment for the newborn. Breastfeeding is beneficial for the mother-child dyad. Among others, existing data suggest that it reduces the risk for childhood and adolescence obesity. The mechanisms for this are numerous and include the feeding behavior breastfeeding infants acquire, their growth rate, the ‘early protein hypothesis’, the role of leptin that is found in increased levels in human milk, the dietary choices the breastfed infants make during childhood and adolescence and finally the differences in their bowel flora. Meta-analyses provide sufficient evidence for this protective effect, with a dose-response effect as to the duration of breastfeeding. Healthcare professionals involved in the care of the mother-infant dyad must encourage and support mothers to breastfeed their infants for a long period of time, if obesity were to be prevented. Aim of this review is to provide an account of existing data on the association of breastfeeding and the reduced risk of obesity in childhood and adulthood.

  7. Gender difference in early initiation of methamphetamine use among current methamphetamine users in Muse, Northern Shan State, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Yu Mon; Saw, Thu Nandar; Yasuoka, Junko; Chan, Nyein; Kham, Nang Pann Ei; Khine, Wint; Cho, Su Myat; Jimba, Masamine

    2017-05-08

    Globally, methamphetamine (MA) use is a significant public health concern due to unprecedented health effects of its use. However, gender similarities and differences in early age of MA initiation and its risk factors among current MA users have been understudied in a developing country setting. A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted using a computer assisted self-interviewing program from January to March 2013 in Muse, Northern Shan State, Myanmar. A total of 1362 (775 male and 587 female) self-reported current MA users aged between 18 and 35 years were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Two gender-stratified multiple logistic regression models (models I and II) were done for analysis. For similarities, 73.0% of males and 60.5% of females initiated MA before their 18th birthday. The early age of MA initiation was positively associated with the reasons and places of the first time MA use among both genders. For differences, males [hazard ratio 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.54] had a significantly higher risk than females to initiate MA at earlier age. Among male users, participants who had bisexual/homosexual preferences were more likely to initiate MA use earlier. In contrast, female users who exchanged sex for money and/or drugs were more likely to initiate MA in earlier age. More than 60.0% of male and female participants initiated MA use early; however, males initiated use earlier than females. Although similarities were found among both genders, differences found in key risk factors for early age MA initiation suggest that gender-specific, MA prevention programs are urgently needed in Myanmar.

  8. Breastfeeding. COTALMA: training health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanovas, M C

    1994-01-01

    The Comite Tecnico de Apoyo a la Lactancia Materna (COTALMA), the Technical Breastfeeding Support Committee, was founded in Bolivia in 1989. It is financed by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). It is administered in coordination with the Ministry of Health (MOH). MOH and UNICEF choose the hospitals, who send teams that include a pediatrician, a gynecologist, a nurse, and a nutritionist. The first phase of the course (5.5 days) covers the scientific background of breastfeeding. A baseline study is then planned and conducted at each hospital. 2 to 3 months later, the second phase takes place during which data is presented and breast feeding programs are developed for each hospital. Communication, training, counseling, and planning and evaluation are covered. Practicums are conducted at hospitals. Trainers are usually members of COTALMA. The person in charge of maternal and child health services at MOH lectures on national health policies concerning mothers and children. Training includes use of the national health card, breastfeeding and child survival, and breastfeeding as a family planning method. Culturally appropriate course materials, which are in Spanish, are adapted from those developed by Wellstart International. Articles by COTALMA members and others are added. Participants are encouraged to train all staff at their institutions.

  9. Breastfeeding Education: disagreement of meanings

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    Nydia Stella Caicedo Martínez

    Full Text Available Objective.This work sought to analyze how educational processes have been developed for breastfeeding in a health institution, starting from the meanings mothers, families, and health staff construct thereon. Methods. This was qualitative research of ethnographic approach, which included observations during the group educational activities of the programs, focal groups, and interviews of mothers, their families, and the health staff of a hospital unit in the city of Medellín, Colombia. The analysis was guided by the constant comparison method. Results. The categories emerging from the data were: 1 breast milk is an ideal food. 2 The mothers' experiences influence upon the breastfeeding practice. 3 Family beliefs sometimes operate as cultural barriers. 4 Disagreements are revealed in the educational process. Conclusion. The way educational processes have taken place for breastfeeding reveals a break expressed by the scarce interaction between the meanings professionals have constructed on the topic and those the mothers and their families give to the experience of breastfeeding.

  10. Shared breastfeeding in central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramharter, Michael; Chai, Sanders K.; Adegnika, Ayola A.; Klöpfer, Anna; Längin, Matthias; Agnandji, Selidji T.; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Schwarz, Norbert G.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Issifou, Saadon; Kremsner, Peter G.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, shared breastfeeding is described asa novel risk factor for vertical HIV transmission. This cross-sectional survey conducted in the central African country Gabon found that 40% of lactating mothers also breastfed other children than their own, and as many children were additionally

  11. Epilepsy and recommendations for breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiby, Gyri; Bjørk, Marte; Engelsen, Bernt A; Gilhus, Nils Erik

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a synopsis of benefits and potential harmful effects of exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) via breastmilk, and present recommendations for breastfeeding in women with epilepsy. The article is based on a discretionary selection of English language articles retrieved by a literature search in the PubMed database, the LactMed database, and the authors' clinical experience. Breastfeeding is associated with benefits for the infant, including nutrition, protection against infectious and immunological disease, and promotion of development and psychological attachment. Exposure to AEDs via breastmilk could potentially produce side effects or negatively affect development. Most studies on AED transfer through breastmilk report infant serum levels well below the limit of an expected pharmacological effect. Some drugs have the potential to reach significant serum levels in breastfed infants, such as barbiturates, benzodiazepines, lamotrigine, and ethosuximide. Thus, breastfed infants should be monitored for side effects. Still, adverse symptoms are rarely reported in breastfed infants of mothers taking AEDs, and prospective studies have failed to demonstrate any negative developmental effects in children that have been exposed to AEDs via breastmilk. The nursing infant's degree of drug exposure can be minimized by breastfeeding when drug concentrations in the milk are low, reducing maternal AED dosage to prepregnancy levels, and administering mixed nutrition. Most AEDs are considered safe or moderately safe during breastfeeding. Mothers with epilepsy should be encouraged to breastfeed, provided careful monitoring of the infant. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Human milk benefits and breastfeeding

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    Fani Anatolitou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is uniquely superior for infant feeding and represents the perfect example of individualization in Pediatrics. Human milk is not a uniform body fluid but a secretion of the mammary gland of changing composition. Foremilk differs from hindmilk, and colostrum is strikingly different from transitional and mature milk. Milk changes with time of day and during the course of lactation. Extensive research has demonstrated health, nutritional, immunologic, developmental, psychological, social, economic and environmental benefits of human milk. Breastfeeding results in improved infant and maternal health outcomes in both the industrialized and developing world. Some specific topics will be discussed such as the preventive effect of human milk on infections, overweight, obesity and diabetes, malignant disease, neurodevelopmental outcomes, reduction of necrotizing enterocolitis. Important health benefits of breastfeeding and lactation are also described for mothers. Finally, contraindications to breastfeeding and supplementation of breastfed infants are presented. Interventions to promote breastfeeding are relatively simple and inexpensive. Infant feeding should not be regarded as a lifestyle choice but rather as a basic health issue.

  13. EFFECT OF BEHAVIOUR CHANGE COMMUNICATION ON BREASTFEEDING PRACTICES IN PERIURBAN AREA OF ALIGARH

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    Mohd. Haroon Khan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1.To assess the behavior of pregnant women regarding breastfeeding practices. 2. Assessing impact of Behavior Change Communication Package among pregnant women regarding breastfeeding practices. Study design: A community based intervention study Setting: Field practice areas of Urban Health Training Center, Department of Community Medicine, JNMCH, AMU, Aligarh. Participants: 200 pregnant women (100 pregnant women from each intervention and non-intervention group Sampling: Purposive sampling method. Statistical Analysis: Data analysed with Epi Info version 3.5.1. Percentages, Relative Risk and Chi Square Test used. Results: Due to implementation of BCC Package in intervention, good practices like giving colostrum were increased two times. Initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour was increased 4.7 times, exclusive breastfeeding was gone up 3.8 times for first seven days of delivery. There was significant difference (P–value <0.05 between the two groups regarding breastfeeding on 7th day of delivery. The differences were significant (P–value-<0.05 on 7th and 28th days of delivery. Conclusion: Good practices of breastfeeding within one hour, using colostrum, exclusive breastfeeding were improved significantly after implementation of behavior change communication package.

  14. Patient satisfaction and barriers to initiating real-time continuous glucose monitoring in early pregnancy in women with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, A L; Madsen, A B; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm

    2012-01-01

    of initial monitoring). Ten women (15%) did not wish to use continuous glucose monitoring again in pregnancy. Main causes behind early removal of continuous glucose monitoring were self-reported skin irritation, technical problems and continuous glucose monitoring inaccuracy. No differences were found......Aim: To evaluate self-reported satisfaction and barriers to initiating real-time continuous glucose monitoring in early pregnancy among women with pregestational diabetes. Methods: Fifty-four women with Type 1 diabetes and 14 women with Type 2 diabetes were offered continuous glucose monitoring...

  15. Investigation of the Effect of Training on Promoting Breast-feeding at Baby-Friendly Hospital Case Study; Tohid Hospital in Jam, Bushehr

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    Azam Nickkhaha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative was launched in 1989 by World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund for the promotion of breastfeeding. This program was implemented in many departments of gynecology and obstetrics and resulted in reduced malnutrition, infection, morbidity and mortality in children. This program has introduced 10 specific steps to support successful breastfeeding. For instance, in the fourth step, skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding are promoted since the time of birth, and in the fifth step, mothers are instructed on how to breastfeed or persist in breastfeeding. In these ten steps, mothers are trained in various fields. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a standardized questionnaire was used to collect data at baby-friendly hospitals. To assess the difference between multiple nominal variables, variance analysis was performed, using SPSS version 17. Results: Based on the analysis, mothers' awareness of the benefits of breast milk and breastfeeding was 83% in a baby-friendly hospital. Also, their awareness of proper breastfeeding was estimated at 78.5%. In addition, mothers' knowledge about the frequency of